WorldWideScience

Sample records for sub-micron sized particles

  1. Deformation Behavior of Sub-micron and Micron Sized Alumina Particles in Compression.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay; Mook, William; Boyce, Brad; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Hall, Aaron Christopher.

    2014-09-01

    The ability to integrate ceramics with other materials has been limited due to high temperature (>800degC) ceramic processing. Recently, researchers demonstrated a novel process , aerosol deposition (AD), to fabricate ceramic films at room temperature (RT). In this process, sub - micro n sized ceramic particles are accelerated by pressurized gas, impacted on the substrate, plastically deformed, and form a dense film under vacuum. This AD process eliminates high temperature processing thereby enabling new coatings and device integration, in which ceramics can be deposited on metals, plastics, and glass. However, k nowledge in fundamental mechanisms for ceramic particle s to deform and form a dense ceramic film is still needed and is essential in advancing this novel RT technology. In this wo rk, a combination of experimentation and atomistic simulation was used to determine the deformation behavior of sub - micron sized ceramic particle s ; this is the first fundamental step needed to explain coating formation in the AD process . High purity, singl e crystal, alpha alumina particles with nominal size s of 0.3 um and 3.0 um were examined. Particle characterization, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM ), showed that the 0.3 u m particles were relatively defect - free single crystals whereas 3.0 u m p articles were highly defective single crystals or particles contained low angle grain boundaries. Sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited ductile failure in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 0.3um particles deformed plastically, fractured, and became polycrystalline. Moreover, dislocation activit y was observed within the se particles during compression . These sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited large accum ulated strain (2 - 3 times those of micron - sized particles) before first fracture. I n agreement with the findings from experimentation , a tomistic simulation s of nano - Al 2 O 3 particles showed dislocation slip and

  2. Sub-micron particle number size distribution characteristics at two urban locations in Leicester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Sarkawt M. L.; Cordell, Rebecca L.; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, E. P.; Monks, Paul S.

    2017-09-01

    The particle number size distribution (PNSD) of atmospheric particles not only provides information about sources and atmospheric processing of particles, but also plays an important role in determining regional lung dose. Owing to the importance of PNSD in understanding particulate pollution two short-term campaigns (March-June 2014) measurements of sub-micron PNSD were conducted at two urban background locations in Leicester, UK. At the first site, Leicester Automatic Urban Rural Network (AURN), the mean number concentrations of nucleation, Aitken, accumulation modes, the total particles, equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were 2002, 3258, 1576, 6837 # cm-3, 1.7 μg m-3, respectively, and at the second site, Brookfield (BF), were 1455, 2407, 874, 4737 # cm-3, 0.77 μg m-3, respectively. The total particle number was dominated by the nucleation and Aitken modes, with both consisting of 77%, and 81% of total number concentrations at AURN and BF sites, respectively. This behaviour could be attributed to primary emissions (traffic) of ultrafine particles and the temporal evolution of mixing layer. The size distribution at the AURN site shows bimodal distribution at 22 nm with a minor peak at 70 nm. The size distribution at BF site, however, exhibits unimodal distribution at 35 nm. This study has for the first time investigated the effect of Easter holiday on PNSD in UK. The temporal variation of PNSD demonstrated a good degree of correlation with traffic-related pollutants (NOX, and eBC at both sites). The meteorological conditions, also had an impact on the PNSD and eBC at both sites. During the measurement period, the frequency of NPF events was calculated to be 13.3%, and 22.2% at AURN and BF sites, respectively. The average value of formation and growth rates of nucleation mode particles were 1.3, and 1.17 cm-3 s-1 and 7.42, and 5.3 nm h-1 at AURN, and BF sites, respectively. It can suggested that aerosol particles in Leicester originate mainly

  3. Dynamics of Dissolved Organic Matter and Microbes in Seawater through Sub-Micron Particle Size Analyses

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goes, J.I.; Balch, W.M.; Vaughn, J.M.; Gomes, H.R.

    processes responsible for the dynamics of DOM rely on monitoring the consumption and breakdown of specific compounds of phytoplankton origin, generally, through the use of labeled precursors and substrates (Kirchman et al., 1991; Fry et al., 1996; Rich et al... attempts to determine the molecular weight or size spectrum of DOM using size exclusion chromatography, but these have generally proven unsatisfactory (Beckett et al., 1987). One reason is that DOM is exposed to high shear stresses during separation...

  4. Short range investigation of sub-micron zirconia particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caracoche, M C; Martinez, J A [Departamento de Fisica, IFLP, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, CICPBA, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Rivas, P C [IFLP-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina); Bondioli, F; Cannillo, V [Dipartimento di Ingegniria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia (Italy); Ferrari, A M, E-mail: cristina@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Dipartimento di Scienza a Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2009-05-01

    The Perturbed Angular Correlations technique was used to determine the configurations around Zirconium ions and their thermal behavior in non-aggregated sub-micron zirconia spherical particles. Three residues containing- Zr surroundings were determined for the non-crystalline starting particles, which were identified under the assumption of a certain chemical reactions sequence during synthesis. While the one made up mainly by hydroxyl groups was common to both samples, the two involving mainly organic residues were particle size dependent. Upon crystallization, both samples stabilized in the t'- and t- tetragonal forms and the Xc-cubic form but their amounts and temperatures of appearance were different. On heating, the structure of the smaller particles became gradually monoclinic achieving total degradation upon the subsequent cooling to RT.

  5. Discovering sub-micron ice particles across Dione' surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, Francesca; Schenk, Pual; Tosi, Federico; Clark, Roger; Dalle Ore, Cristina; Combe, Jean-Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Water ice is the most abundant component of Saturn’s mid-sized moons. However, these moons show an albedo asymmetry - their leading sides are bright while their trailing side exhibits dark terrains. Such differences arise from two surface alteration processes: (i) the bombardment of charged particles from the interplanetary medium and driven by Saturn’s magnetosphere on the trailing side, and (ii) the impact of E-ring water ice particles on the satellites’ leading side. As a result, the trailing hemisphere appears to be darker than the leading side. This effect is particularly evident on Dione's surface. A consequence of these surface alteration processes is the formation or the implantation of sub-micron sized ice particles.The presence of such particles influences and modifies the surfaces' spectrum because of Rayleigh scattering by the particles. In the near infrared range of the spectrum, the main sub-micron ice grains spectral indicators are: (i) asymmetry and (ii) long ward minimum shift of the absorption band at 2.02 μm (iii) a decrease in the ratio between the band depths at 1.50 and 2.02 μm (iv) a decrease in the height of the spectral peak at 2.6 μm (v) the suppression of the Fresnel reflection peak at 3.1 μm and (vi) the decrease of the reflection peak at 5 μm relative to those at 3.6 μm.We present results from our ongoing work mapping the variation of sub-micron ice grains spectral indicators across Dione' surface using Cassini-VIMS cubes acquired in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). To characterize the global variations of spectral indicators across Dione' surface, we divided it into a 1°x1° grid and then averaged the band depths and peak values inside each square cell.We will investigate if there exist a correspondence with water ice abundance variations by producing water ice' absorption band depths at 1.25, 1.52 and 2.02 μm, and with surface morphology by comparing the results with ISS color maps in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared

  6. Hygroscopicity of Chemically Aged, sub-micron Squalane Particles: On the Role of Size and Composition towards the Hygroscopicity Parameter κ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, C. W.; Smith, J. D.; Che, D. L.; Leone, S. R.; Wilson, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements presented herein explore cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of sub-micron squalane particles chemically aged by hydroxyl radicals as a function of size and OH exposure. As squalane particles are exposed to OH radicals, size-selected 100, 150, and 200 nm particles monotically decrease in size with increasing OH exposure. Concurrently, their CCN derived hygroscopicity parameter values, κ, increase with OH exposure until saturating at 0.165 in the 100 nm data set, 0.140 in the 150 nm data set, and reach a maximum value of 0.075 in the 200 nm data set at the highest level of OH exposure. The critical super-saturation relative humidity (RH) at which CCN activity is achieved decreases initially with increasing OH exposure and then increases with OH exposure, most notably for the 100 nm data set and weakly with the 150 nm data set. Chemically aged squalane particles from the 200 nm data set show a monotonic decrease in critical super-saturation RH with all values of increasing OH exposure between 0.1-2.5 × 10^13 s molec./cc. The measured O:C ratios of 160 nm chemically aged squalane particles, which were reported previously, are compared to κ values by the CCN derived relationship reported in literature: κ = 0.30*O:C and reasonable agreement is attained in the size-selected 150 nm data set. These values are also compared with the hygroscopic growth factor derived relationship in literature: κ = 0.49*(O:C -0.25) and reasonable agreement is attained at O:C > 0.35.

  7. Deciphering sub-micron ice particles on Enceladus surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, F.; Schenk, P.; Tosi, F.; D'Aversa, E.; Clark, R.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Ore, C. M. Dalle

    2017-07-01

    The surface of Saturn's moon Enceladus is composed primarily by pure water ice. The Cassini spacecraft has observed present-day geologic activity at the moon's South Polar Region, related with the formation and feeding of Saturn's E-ring. Plumes of micron-sized particles, composed of water ice and other non-ice contaminants (e.g., CO2, NH3, CH4), erupt from four terrain's fractures named Tiger Stripes. Some of this material falls back on Enceladus' surface to form deposits that extend to the North at ∼40°W and ∼220°W, with the highest concentration found at the South Pole. In this work we analyzed VIMS-IR data to identify plumes deposits across Enceladus' surface through the variation in band depth of the main water ice spectral features. To characterize the global variation of water ice band depths across Enceladus, the entire surface was sampled with an angular resolution of 1° in both latitude and longitude, and for each angular bin we averaged the value of all spectral indices as retrieved by VIMS. The position of the plumes' deposits predicted by theoretical models display a good match with water ice band depths' maps on the trailing hemisphere, whereas they diverge significantly on the leading side. Space weathering processes acting on Enceladus' surface ionize and break up water ice molecules, resulting in the formation of particles smaller than one micron. We also mapped the spectral indices for sub-micron particles and we compared the results with the plumes deposits models. Again, a satisfactory match is observed on the trailing hemisphere only. Finally, we investigated the variation of the depth of the water ice absorption bands as a function of the phase angle. In the visible range, some terrains surrounding the Tiger Stripes show a decrease in albedo when the phase angle is smaller than 10°. This unusual effect cannot be confirmed by near infrared data, since observations with a phase angle lower than 10° are not available. For phase angle

  8. Penetration of sub-micron particles into dentinal tubules using ultrasonic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N; Sammons, R L; Pikramenou, Z; Palin, W M; Dehghani, H; Walmsley, A D

    2017-01-01

    Functionalised silica sub-micron particles are being investigated as a method of delivering antimicrobials and remineralisation agents into dentinal tubules. However, their methods of application are not optimised, resulting in shallow penetration and aggregation. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of cavitation occurring around ultrasonic scalers for enhancing particle penetration into dentinal tubules. Dentine slices were prepared from premolar teeth. Silica sub-micron particles were prepared in water or acetone. Cavitation from an ultrasonic scaler (Satelec P5 Newtron, Acteon, France) was applied to dentine slices immersed inside the sub-micron particle solutions. Samples were imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess tubule occlusion and particle penetration. Qualitative observations of SEM images showed some tubule occlusion. The particles could penetrate inside the tubules up to 60μm when there was no cavitation and up to ∼180μm when there was cavitation. The cavitation bubbles produced from an ultrasonic scaler may be used to deliver sub-micron particles into dentine. This method has the potential to deliver such particles deeper into the dentinal tubules. Cavitation from a clinical ultrasonic scaler may enhance penetration of sub-micron particles into dentinal tubules. This can aid in the development of novel methods for delivering therapeutic clinical materials for hypersensitivity relief and treatment of dentinal caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nano-ring arrays for sub-micron particle trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Truong, Viet Giang; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2017-04-01

    Plasmonic tweezers based on nano-ring arrays on gold thin film are demonstrated. A cylindrical surface plasmon resonance is generated in the aperture of a nano-ring and a transmission peak results. When nano-slits are included to connect the nano-rings, the transmission peak becomes narrower. When the size of the aperture of the nano-ring is reduced, this peak is red-shifted. Both 0.5 μm and 1 μm polystyrene particles are trapped successfully by nano-ring arrays. A self-induced back-action effect is observed when a red-shifted laser beam is used. With multiple trapping sites provided by the nano-ring array, this type of plasmonic tweezers has huge potential to be integrated in lab-on-a-chip systems for life sciences research.

  10. Physics of sub-micron cosmic dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory tests with simulated micrometeoroids to measure the heat transfer coefficient are discussed. Equations for ablation path length for electrically accelerated micrometeoroids entering a gas target are developed which yield guidelines for the laboratory measurement of the heat transfer coefficient. Test results are presented for lanthanum hexaboride (LaB sub 6) microparticles in air, argon, and oxygen targets. The tests indicate the heat transfer coefficient has a value of approximately 0.9 at 30 km/sec, and that it increases to approximately unity at 50 km/sec and above. Test results extend to over 100 km/sec. Results are also given for two types of small particle detectors. A solid state capacitor type detector was tested from 0.61 km/sec to 50 km/sec. An impact ionization type detector was tested from 1.0 to 150 km/sec using LaB sub 6 microparticles.

  11. Sub-micron-sized delafossite CuCrO2 with different morphologies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    40, No. 1, February 2017, pp. 195–199. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12034-016-1340-6. Sub-micron-sized delafossite CuCrO2 with different morphologies synthesized by nitrate–citric acid sol–gel route. SATISH BOLLOJU1 and RADHAKRISHNAN SRINIVASAN1,2,∗. 1Department of Chemistry, BITS Pilani ...

  12. Water ice and sub-micron ice particles on Tethys and Mimas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, Francesca; Nordheim, Tom; Clark, Roger Nelson; D'Aversa, Emiliano; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Tosi, Federico; Schenk, Paul M.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.

    2017-10-01

    IntroductionWe present our ongoing work, mapping the variation of the main water ice absorption bands, and the distribution of the sub-micron particles, across Mimas and Tethys’ surfaces using Cassini-VIMS cubes acquired in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). We present our results in the form of maps of variation of selected spectral indicators (depth of absorption bands, reflectance peak height, spectral slopes).Data analysisVIMS acquires hyperspectral data in the 0.3-5.1 μm spectral range. We selected VIMS cubes of Tethys and Mimas in the IR range (0.8-5.1 μm). For all pixels in the selected cubes, we measured the band depths for water-ice absorptions at 1.25, 1.5 and 2.02 μm and the height of the 3.6 μm reflection peak. Moreover, we considered the spectral indictors for particles smaller than 1 µm [1]: (i) the 2 µm absorption band is asymmetric and (ii) it has the minimum shifted to longer λ (iii) the band depth ratio 1.5/2.0 µm decreases; (iv) the reflection peak at 2.6 µm decreases; (v) the Fresnel reflection peak is suppressed; (vi) the 5 µm reflectance is decreased relative to the 3.6 µm peak. To characterize the global variation of water-ice band depths, and of sub-micron particles spectral indicators, across Mimas and Tethys, we sampled the two satellites’ surfacees with a 1°x1° fixed-resolution grid and then averaged the band depths and peak values inside each square cell.3. ResultsFor both moons we find that large geologic features, such as the Odysseus and Herschel impact basins, do not correlate with water ice’s abundance variation. For Tethys, we found a quite uniform surface on both hemispheres. The only deviation from this pattern shows up on the trailing hemisphere, where we notice two north-oriented, dark areas around 225° and 315°. For Mimas, the leading and trailing hemispheres appear to be quite similar in water ice abundance, the trailing portion having water ice absorption bands lightly more suppressed than the leading side

  13. Cathepsin K-targeted sub-micron particles for regenerative repair of vascular elastic matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennewine, Brenton; Fox, Jonathan; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2017-04-01

    regenerative elastic matrix repair in the AAA wall. Proactive screening of high risk elderly patients now enables early detection of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs). Current management of small, growing AAAs is limited to passive, imaging based growth monitoring. There are also no established drug-based therapeutic alternatives to surgery for AAAs, which is unsuitable for many elderly patients, and none which can achieve restore disrupted and lost elastic matrix in the AAA wall, which is essential to achieve growth arrest or regression. We seek to test the feasibility of a regenerative therapy based on localized, one time delivery of drug-releasing Sub-Micron-sized drug delivery polymer Particles (SMPs) that are also uniquely chemically functionalized on their surface to also provide them pro-elastin-regenerative & anti-matrix degradative properties, and also conjugated with antibodies targeting cathepsin K, an elastolytic enzyme that is highly overexpressed in AAA tissues; the latter serves as a modality to enable targeted binding of the SMPs to the AAA wall following intravenous infusion, or intraoartal, catheter-based delivery. Such SMPs can potentially stimulate structural repair in the AAA wall following one time infusion to delay or prevent AAA growth to rupture. The therapy can provide a non-surgical treatment option for high risk AAA patients. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of chitosan-TPP sub-micron particles: Critical evaluation and derived recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rázga, Filip; Vnuková, Dominika; Némethová, Veronika; Mazancová, Petra; Lacík, Igor

    2016-10-20

    The controlled preparation of chitosan particles is far from being trivial due to a considerable number of experimental parameters. For chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) particles we evaluate the impact of chemical (type of chitosan, concentration, chitosan to TPP ratio, pH, ionic strength) and process factors (dialysis, stirring rate, rate of TPP addition, temperature, needle diameter) on the size and colloidal stability. The particles were prepared at pH=6.0 at which chitosan adopts the coiled conformation that is discussed as the dominant factor in controlling the stoichiometry of crosslinking reaction shifted towards TPP. These conditions result in identical particle size around 400nm and zeta potential around 22mV. The colloidal stability evaluated 24 hours after preparation depends on the amount of TPP during crosslinking. Under the same conditions, the colloidal stability up to 1 month is demonstrated. Several recommendations are provided to increase the control over formation of chitosan-TPP particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of Sub-Micron Particles by Exploiting Charge Differences with Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Romero-Creel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis, separation, and enrichment of submicron particles are critical steps in many applications, ranging from bio-sensing to disease diagnostics. Microfluidic electrokinetic techniques, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP have proved to be excellent platforms for assessment of submicron particles. DEP is the motion of polarizable particles under the presence of a non-uniform electric field. In this work, the polarization and dielectrophoretic behavior of polystyrene particles with diameters ranging for 100 nm to 1 μm were studied employing microchannels for insulator based DEP (iDEP and low frequency (<1000 Hz AC and DC electric potentials. In particular, the effects of particle surface charge, in terms of magnitude and type of functionalization, were examined. It was found that the magnitude of particle surface charge has a significant impact on the polarization and dielectrophoretic response of the particles, allowing for successful particle assessment. Traditionally, charge differences are exploited employing electrophoretic techniques and particle separation is achieved by differential migration. The present study demonstrates that differences in the particle’s surface charge can also be exploited by means of iDEP; and that distinct types of nanoparticles can be identified by their polarization and dielectrophoretic behavior. These findings open the possibility for iDEP to be employed as a technique for the analysis of submicron biological particles, where subtle differences in surface charge could allow for rapid particle identification and separation.

  16. A solvent-shrinkage method for producing polymeric microsieves with sub-micron size pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriezekolk, Erik; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Girones nogue, Miriam; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a thorough investigation of a simple method to decrease the dimensions of polymeric microsieves. Pore sizes of microsieves are usually in the micrometer scale, but need to be reduced to below 1 µm to make the microsieves attractive for aqueous filtration applications. In this

  17. Bragg diffraction from sub-micron particles isolated by optical tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yuan, E-mail: ygao0709@anl.gov; Harder, Ross; Southworth, Stephen; Guest, Jeffrey; Ocola, Leonidas; Young, Linda [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Scherer, Norbert; Yan, Zijie [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pelton, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD 21250 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    We describe an apparatus using dynamic holographic optical tweezers which is capable of trapping and aligning a single micron scale anisotropic ZnO particle for x-ray Bragg diffraction experiments. The optical tweezers demonstrate enough stability to perform coherent x-ray diffraction imaging.

  18. Transglutaminase-induced or citric acid-mediated cross-linking of whey proteins to tune the characteristics of subsequently desolvated sub-micron and nano-scaled particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Leila; Yarmand, Mohammadsaeed; Madadlou, Ashkan; Mousavi, Mohammad E

    2014-01-01

    Whey proteins were inter-connected either by the enzyme transglutaminase or citric acid and then desolvated with ethanol to generate particles. Both samples comprised of sub-micron (>300 nm) and nano-scaled (~100 nm) particles based on the hydrodynamic size measurements. Enzyme-induced cross-linking of proteins yielded more monodisperse particles and decreased the mean size of the major (nano-scaled) fraction of particles. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed a spherical morphology for all samples with mean sizes of particles from enzymatically cross-linked proteins. The mediating role of citric acid in bridging the proteins was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that pre-heating of protein solution before cross-linking and desolvation denatured the proteins entirely. In vitro degradation of whey protein particles in a simulated gastric fluid demonstrated that cross-linking of whey proteins before desolvation stage enhanced significantly the digestion stability of particles.

  19. On the sub-micron aerosol size distribution in a coastal-rural site at El Arenosillo Station (SW – Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sorribas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the analysis of the sub-micron aerosol characteristics at El Arenosillo Station, a rural and coastal environment in South-western Spain between 1 August 2004 and 31 July 2006 (594 days. The mean total concentration (NT was 8660 cm−3 and the mean concentrations in the nucleation (NNUC, Aitken (NAIT and accumulation (NACC particle size ranges were 2830 cm−3, 4110 cm−3 and 1720 cm−3, respectively. Median size distribution was characterised by a single-modal fit, with a geometric diameter, median number concentration and geometric standard deviation of 60 nm, 5390 cm−3 and 2.31, respectively. Characterisation of primary emissions, secondary particle formation, changes to meteorology and long-term transport has been necessary to understand the seasonal and annual variability of the total and modal particle concentration. Number concentrations exhibited a diurnal pattern with maximum concentrations around noon. This was governed by the concentrations of the nucleation and Aitken modes during the warm seasons and only by the nucleation mode during the cold seasons. Similar monthly mean total concentrations were observed throughout the year due to a clear inverse variation between the monthly mean NNUC and NACC. It was related to the impact of desert dust and continental air masses on the monthly mean particle levels. These air masses were associated with high values of NACC which suppressed the new particle formation (decreasing NNUC. Each day was classified according to a land breeze flow or a synoptic pattern influence. The median size distribution for desert dust and continental aerosol was dominated by the Aitken and accumulation modes, and marine air masses were dominated by the nucleation and Aitken modes. Particles

  20. Source apportionment of fine PM and sub-micron particle number concentrations at a regional background site in the western Mediterranean: a 2.5 year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cusack

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM1 over a period of 2.5 years for a regional background site in the western Mediterranean are presented in this work. Furthermore, sub-micron particle number concentrations and the sources of these particles are also presented. The mean PM1 concentration for the measurement period was 8.9 μg m−3, with organic matter (OM and sulphate comprising most of the mass (3.2 and 1.5 μg m−3 respectively. Six sources were identified in PM1 by Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF: secondary organic aerosol, secondary nitrate, industrial, traffic + biomass burning, fuel oil combustion and secondary sulphate. Typically anthropogenic sources displayed elevated concentrations during the week with reductions at weekends. Nitrate levels were elevated in winter and negligible in summer, whereas secondary sulphate levels underwent a contrasting seasonal evolution with highest concentrations in summer, similar to the fuel oil combustion source. The SOA source was influenced by episodes of sustained pollution as a result of anticyclonic conditions occurring during winter, giving rise to thermal inversions and the accumulation of pollutants in the mixing layer. Increased levels in summer were owing to higher biogenic emissions and regional recirculation of air masses. The industrial source decreased in August due to decreased emissions during the vacation period. Increases in the traffic + biomass burning source were recorded in January, April and October, which were attributed to the occurrence of the aforementioned pollution episodes and local biomass burning emission sources, which include agriculture and domestic heating systems. Average particle number concentrations (N9-825 nm from 5/11/2010 to 01/06/2011 and from 15/10/2011 to 18/12/2011 reached 3097 cm−3. Five emission sources of particle of sub-micron particles were determined by Principal Component Analysis (PCA; industrial

  1. The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals with sub-micron squalane particles: a model system for understanding the oxidative aging of ambient aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. D.; Kroll, J. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Che, D. L.; Liu, C. L.; Ahmed, M.; Leone, S. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Wilson, K. R.

    2009-05-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of OH radicals with sub-micron squalane particles, in the presence of O2, is used as a model system to explore the fundamental chemical mechanisms that control the oxidative aging of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Detailed kinetic measurements combined with elemental mass spectrometric analysis reveal that the reaction proceeds sequentially by adding an average of one oxygenated functional group per reactive loss of squalane. The reactive uptake coefficient of OH with squalane particles is determined to be 0.3±0.07 at an average OH concentration of ~1×1010 molecules cm-3. Based on a comparison between the measured particle mass and model predictions it appears that significant volatilization of a reduced organic particle would be extremely slow in the real atmosphere. However, as the aerosols become more oxygenated, volatilization becomes a significant loss channel for organic material in the particle-phase. Together these results provide a chemical framework in which to understand how heterogeneous chemistry transforms the physiochemical properties of particle-phase organic matter in the troposphere.

  2. The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals with sub-micron squalane particles: a model system for understanding the oxidative aging of ambient aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Smith

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous reaction of OH radicals with sub-micron squalane particles, in the presence of O2, is used as a model system to explore the fundamental chemical mechanisms that control the oxidative aging of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Detailed kinetic measurements combined with elemental mass spectrometric analysis reveal that the reaction proceeds sequentially by adding an average of one oxygenated functional group per reactive loss of squalane. The reactive uptake coefficient of OH with squalane particles is determined to be 0.3±0.07 at an average OH concentration of ~1×1010 molecules cm−3. Based on a comparison between the measured particle mass and model predictions it appears that significant volatilization of a reduced organic particle would be extremely slow in the real atmosphere. However, as the aerosols become more oxygenated, volatilization becomes a significant loss channel for organic material in the particle-phase. Together these results provide a chemical framework in which to understand how heterogeneous chemistry transforms the physiochemical properties of particle-phase organic matter in the troposphere.

  3. The surface characterisation and comparison of two potential sub-micron, sugar bulking excipients for use in low-dose, suspension formulations in metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jeff; Crean, Barry; Davies, Martyn; Toon, Richard; Jinks, Phil; Roberts, Clive J

    2008-09-01

    This study compares the surface characteristics and surface energetics of two potential bulking excipients, anhydrous sub-micron alpha-lactose and sub-micron sucrose, for use with low-dose, suspension formulations in pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). Both sub-micron bulking excipients are processed from parent materials (alpha-lactose monohydrate/alpha-lactose monohydrate and silk grade sucrose, respectively) so the surface characteristics of each material were determined and compared. Additionally, the surface energetics and adhesive interactions between each sub-micron bulking excipient and some chosen active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) used in pMDI formulations were also determined. From this data, it was possible to predict the potential degree of interaction between the APIs and each sub-micron bulking excipient, thus determining suitable API-excipient combinations for pMDI formulation optimisation. Salmon calcitonin was also investigated as a potential API due to the current interest in, and the potential low-dose requirements for, the pulmonary delivery of proteins. The size and morphology of each sub-micron excipient (and parent materials) were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the crystalline nature of each sub-micron excipient and parent material was assessed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface chemistry of each sub-micron excipient was analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface energies of each sub-micron excipient, along with their respective parent materials and any intermediates, were determined using two techniques. The surface energies of these materials were determined via (a) single particle adhesive interactions using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and (b) 'bulk' material surface interactions using contact angle measurements (CA). From the CA data, it was possible to calculate the theoretical work of adhesion values for each API-excipient interaction using the surface component

  4. Comparative Mineralogy, Microstructure and Compositional Trends in the Sub-Micron Size Fractions of Mare and Highland Lunar Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. S.; Christoffersen, R.; Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology, mineralogy, chemical composition and optical properties of lunar soils show distinct correlations as a function of grain size and origin [1,2,3]. In the mineralogy type, microstructure and major element compositions of grains in this important size range in lunar soils.

  5. Sub-micron particle behaviour and capture at an immuno-sensor surface in an ultrasonic standing wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Larisa A; Martin, Stacey P; Coakley, W Terence

    2005-12-15

    The capture of 200 nm biotinylated latex beads from suspensions of concentration 10(7) to 2.5 x 10(8) particle/ml on an immuno-coated surface of the acoustic reflector in an ultrasound standing wave (USW) resonator has been studied while the acoustic pathlength was less than one half wavelength (lambda/2). The particles were delivered to the reflector's surface by acoustically induced flow. The capture dependencies on suspension concentration, duration of experiments and acoustic pressure have been established at 1.09, 1.46 and 1.75 MHz. Five-fold capture increase has been obtained at 1.75 MHz in comparison to the control (no ultrasound) situation. The contrasting behaviours of 1, 0.5 and 0.2 mum fluorescent latex beads in a lambda/4 USW resonator at 1.46 MHz have been characterized. The particle movements were observed with an epi-fluorescent microscope and the velocities of the particles were measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV). The experiments showed that whereas the trajectories of 1 mum particles were mainly affected by the direct radiation force, 0.5 mum particles were influenced both by the radiation force and acoustic streaming. The 0.2 mum latex beads followed acoustic streaming in the chamber and were not detectably affected by the radiation force. The streaming-associated behaviour of the 200 nm particles has implications for enhanced immunocapture of viruses and macromolecules (both of which are also too small to experience significant acoustic radiation force).

  6. Influence of biomass burning on mixing state of sub-micron aerosol particles in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecorius, Simonas; Ma, Nan; Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Zhang, Shenglan; Gröβ, Johannes; Spindler, Gerald; Müller, Konrad; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Hu, Min; Herrmann, Hartmut; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2017-09-01

    Particulate emissions from crop residue burning decrease the air quality as well as influence aerosol radiative properties on a regional scale. The North China Plain (NCP) is known for the large scale biomass burning (BB) of field residues, which often results in heavy haze pollution episodes across the region. We have been able to capture a unique BB episode during the international CAREBeijing-NCP intensive field campaign in Wangdu in the NCP (38.6°N, 115.2°E) from June to July 2014. It was found that aerosol particles originating from this BB event showed a significantly different mixing state compared with clean and non-BB pollution episodes. BB originated particles showed a narrower probability density function (PDF) of shrink factor (SF). And the maximum was found at shrink factor of 0.6, which is higher than in other episodes. The non-volatile particle number fraction during the BB episode decreased to 3% and was the lowest measured value compared to all other predefined episodes. To evaluate the influence of particle mixing state on aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA), SSA at different RHs was simulated using the measured aerosol physical-chemical properties. The differences between the calculated SSA for biomass burning, clean and pollution episodes are significant, meaning that the variation of SSA in different pollution conditions needs to be considered in the evaluation of aerosol direct radiative effects in the NCP. And the calculated SSA was found to be quite sensitive on the mixing state of BC, especially at low-RH condition. The simulated SSA was also compared with the measured values. For all the three predefined episodes, the measured SSA are very close to the calculated ones with assumed mixing states of homogeneously internal and core-shell internal mixing, indicating that both of the conception models are appropriate for the calculation of ambient SSA in the NCP.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical characterization of lead selenide sub-micron particles capped with a benzoate ligand and prepared at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Weyshla A.; Colón, Jadiel; Guzmán, Roger; Rivera, Harry; Santiago-Berríos, Mitk'El B.

    2014-09-01

    Semiconductor materials offer several potential benefits as active elements in the development of harvesting-energy conversion technologies. In particular, lead selenide (PbSe) semiconductors have been used and proposed to design solar energy harvesting devices, IR sensors, FET devices, etc. Lead salts have drawn particular attention from the applied and fundamental research communities due to their exceptionally strong quantum confinement effects. Several syntheses of PbSe have been proposed using long chain surfactants to allow the formation of particles and nanoparticles. Here we present a synthesis using benzoic acid as the capping ligand in ambient atmosphere. Although the particles are not in nanometric size, we compare the crystal structure (using x-ray powder diffraction data), the near infrared and mid-infrared absorption properties of PbSe using oleic acid as the capping ligand with PbSe using benzoic acid as the capping ligand. The new synthetized particles were shown to have similar crystal structure and absorb light in the near infrared region at 1410 nm. We also performed cyclic voltammetry of these particles drop-casted in the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The particles showed electrochemical behavior with an oxidation peak near (-402 ± 5 mV) versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The particles seem to form a polymeric film at the surface of a glassy carbon electrode.

  8. Separating the signal from the noise: Expanding flow cytometry into the sub-micron range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytometry Part A Special Section: Separating the signal from the noise: Expanding flow cytometry into the sub-micron range. The current Cytometry Part A Special Section presents three studies that utilize cytometers to study sub-micron particles. The three studies involve the 1...

  9. Sub-micron Cu/SSZ-13: Synthesis and application as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodinger, Sebastian; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Wang, Yilin; Washton, Nancy M.; Walter, Eric D.; Szanyi, János; Gao, Feng; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles H. F.

    2017-02-01

    For the first time, sub-micron Cu/SSZ-13, obtained by modifying an existing synthesis procedure, was shown to be an effective and stable catalyst for selective catalytic reduction reactions, such as NO reduction. Characterization of the materials with X-ray diffraction, N2-physisorption and 27Al MAS NMR shows that hydrothermal aging, simulating SCR reaction conditions, is more destructive in respect to dealumination for smaller particles prior to Cu-exchange. However, the catalytic performance and hydrothermal stability for Cu/SSZ-13 is independent of the particle size. In particular, the stability of tetrahedral framework Al is improved in the sub-micron Cu/SSZ-13 catalysts of comparable Cu loading. This indicates that variations in the Al distribution for different SSZ-13 synthesis procedures have a more critical influence on stabilizing isolated Cu-ions during harsh hydrothermal aging than the particle size. This study is of high interest for applications in vehicular DeNOx technologies where high loadings of active species on wash coats can be achieved by using sub-micron Cu/SSZ-13. The authors would like to thank B. W. Arey and J. J. Ditto for performing electron microscope imaging. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. S. P and M. A. D also acknowledge support by the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3 Initiative) conducted under the Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program at PNNL. The research described in this paper was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.

  10. Scanning SQUID susceptometers with sub-micron spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirtley, John R., E-mail: jkirtley@stanford.edu; Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Holland, Connor M.; Moler, Kathryn A. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4045 (United States); Paulius, Lisa [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States); Spanton, Eric M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4045 (United States); Schiessl, Daniel [Attocube Systems AG, Königinstraße 11A, 80539 Munich (Germany); Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Fung, Y.-K.K.; Gibson, Gerald W. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Huber, Martin E. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado 80217-3364 (United States); Ralph, Daniel C. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Ketchen, Mark B. [OcteVue, Hadley, Massachusetts 01035 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopy has excellent magnetic field sensitivity, but suffers from modest spatial resolution when compared with other scanning probes. This spatial resolution is determined by both the size of the field sensitive area and the spacing between this area and the sample surface. In this paper we describe scanning SQUID susceptometers that achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while retaining a white noise floor flux sensitivity of ≈2μΦ{sub 0}/Hz{sup 1/2}. This high spatial resolution is accomplished by deep sub-micron feature sizes, well shielded pickup loops fabricated using a planarized process, and a deep etch step that minimizes the spacing between the sample surface and the SQUID pickup loop. We describe the design, modeling, fabrication, and testing of these sensors. Although sub-micron spatial resolution has been achieved previously in scanning SQUID sensors, our sensors not only achieve high spatial resolution but also have integrated modulation coils for flux feedback, integrated field coils for susceptibility measurements, and batch processing. They are therefore a generally applicable tool for imaging sample magnetization, currents, and susceptibilities with higher spatial resolution than previous susceptometers.

  11. Impact of smoking on guided tissue regeneration using a biocomposite poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid/sub-micron size hydroxyapatite with a rubber dam as an alternative barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramazzotti, D; Coiana, C; Zizzi, A; Spazzafumo, L; Sauro, S; D'Angelo, A B; Rubini, C; Aspriello, S D

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of our study was to critically evaluate the results obtained from a guided tissue regeneration technique after 12 months using a bocomposite poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid/sub-micron size hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA) with a rubber dam as a barrier in smoking and non-smoking patients. We selected 36 patients (18 current smokers and 18 non-smokers) diagnosed with chronic advanced periodontitis with a periodontal site (probing depth [PD] >5) amenable to regenerative surgery. Twelve months after surgery, the periodontal parameters were found to have statistically improved, when non-smokers were compared with smokers, in: PD reduction (6.3 ± 2.1 mm vs. 3.6 ± 1.9 mm); CAL gain (4.4 ± 1.1 vs. 2.8 ± 2.2 mm); recession (1.8 ± 1.4 mm vs. 0.8 ± 0.9 mm); and hard tissue fill (4.7 ± 0.8 mm vs. 2.8 ± 2.1 mm). Furthermore, since we found PD baseline differences between groups, smoking seemed not to influence the outcomes achieved (CAL gain and ΔREC) 12 months post surgery with respect to PD baseline. The use of PLGA/HA with a rubber dam significantly improved the periodontal parameters in both smoking and non-smoking subjects. This improvement was nevertheless lower in smokers than the non-smokers, confirming the negative impact of smoking on periodontal regeneration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Spectroscopic and magnetic properties of neodymium doped in GdPO{sub 4} sub-micron-stars prepared by solvothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, G.A., E-mail: ajith@gakumar.net [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 78249 (United States); Balli, Nicolas R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 78249 (United States); Kailasnath, M. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, 682022 (India); Mimun, L. Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 78249 (United States); Dannangoda, Chamath; Martirosyan, Karen S. [University of Texas at Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, TX, 78520 (United States); Santhosh, C. [Department of Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Manipal University, Manipal, 576104 (India); Sardar, Dhiraj K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, 78249 (United States)

    2016-07-05

    Neodymium-doped gadolinium orthophosphate (GdPO{sub 4}:Nd{sup 3+}) luminomagnetic sub-micron-stars were prepared by solvothermal method using metal nitrates and phosphoric acid. Monoclinic star shaped in six lobed sub-micron-stars with 600 nm length is obtained with uniform particle size distribution. After heat-treatment at 800 °C for 1 h in air, the stars separate into isolated petal shaped particles and show characteristic emission bands of Nd{sup 3+} with the strongest emission at 1064 nm. The emission intensities and fluorescence decay times are dependent on the Nd{sup 3+} concentration with the highest emission intensity and longest fluorescence decay time of 311 μs at 1064 nm with 0.5 mol% Nd{sup 3+}. Under 808 nm excitation with 12 W/cm{sup 2} power density a quantum yield of 9% was obtained for the 1.0 mol% Nd{sup 3+}. The presence of paramagnetic Gd{sup 3+} gives magnetic properties to the phosphor with a calculated magnetic moment of 1510 and 107,965 Bohr magneton at 300 and 5 K, respectively. - Highlights: • Star shaped Nd doped GdPO{sub 4} sub-micron phosphor particles are prepared for the first time. • Particles show both optical and magnetic properties. • Under 808 nm excitation near infrared emission was observed at 1064 nm with 9% quantum yield. • Magnetic moment of the particle was 1510 and 107,965 Bohr magneton at 300 and 5 K, respectively.

  13. Directed assembly of conducting polymers on sub-micron templates by electrical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jia; Wei, Ming [National Science Foundation (NSF) Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Busnaina, Ahmed [National Science Foundation (NSF) Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Barry, Carol [National Science Foundation (NSF) Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Mead, Joey, E-mail: Joey_Mead@uml.edu [National Science Foundation (NSF) Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscale patterns with dimensions of assembled PANi down to 100 nm were fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic assembly to deposit PANi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic assembly of PANi finished in less than 1 min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of process parameters on assembly of PANi onto nanoscale pattern was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assembled PANi can be transferred to other flexible substrates. - Abstract: Patterning of conducting polymer into sub-micron patterns over large areas at high rate and low cost is significant for commercial manufacturing of novel devices. Electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic assembly provide an easily scaled approach with high fabrication rates. In this work, electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic assembly were used to assemble polyaniline (PANi) into multiscale sub-micron size patterns in less than 1 min. The process was controlled by assembly time, amplitude, and frequency of the electric field. Dielectrophoretic assembly is preferable for manufacturing as it reduces damage to the templates used to control the assembly. Using this method, sub-micron patterns with dimensions of the assembled PANi down to 100 nm were fabricated over large areas in short times. The assembled PANi was further transferred to other flexible polymer substrates by a thermoforming process, providing a fast, easily controlled and promising approach for fabrication of nanoscale devices.

  14. The effect of particle size on the dehydration/rehydration behaviour of lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, J L; Dann, S E; Edgar, M; Blatchford, C G

    2010-05-31

    Ethanolic suspensions of spray dried and micronized alpha lactose monohydrate (L(alpha)xH(2)O) with average particle size between 3 and 200 microm, have been prepared and their dehydration behaviour was investigated by (13)C CP-MASNMR spectroscopy. Sub-micron lactose suspension prepared by a novel high pressure homogenisation method has been compared with the standard ethanolic suspensions of (L(alpha).H(2)O prepared by reflux or static room temperature methods. In all cases, suspensions were shown to contain the stable anhydrous form of lactose ((L(alpha)(S)). Several approaches were employed to remove ethanol from these suspensions and the resulting dry lactose powders were then analysed by FT-IR, PXRD and SEM to evaluate the effect of drying procedure on type and distribution of lactose polymorphs and particle size. For samples with mean particle size greater than 1 microm, the stable anhydrous polymorphic form of lactose was retained on removal of the ethanol, although differences in the morphology and particle size of the crystals were apparent depending on method of suspension formation. Sub-micron (L(alpha)(S), while stable in dry conditions, has been shown to be less stable to atmospheric water vapour than (L(alpha)(S) with particle size between 3 and 200 microm. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Particle sizes from sectional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlas, Zbynek; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new statistical method for obtaining information about particle size distributions from sectional data without specific assumptions about particle shape. The method utilizes recent advances in local stereology. We show how to estimate separately from sectional data the variance due...... to the local stereological estimation procedure and the variance due to the variability of particle sizes in the population. Methods for judging the difference between the distribution of estimated particle sizes and the distribution of true particle sizes are also provided....

  16. Laser smoothing of sub-micron grooves in hydroxyl-rich fused silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Nan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-491, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States); Matthews, Manyalibo J., E-mail: ibo@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-491, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States); Fair, James E.; Britten, Jerald A.; Nguyen, Hoang T.; Cooke, Diane; Elhadj, Selim; Yang, Steven T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-491, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Nano- to micrometer-sized surface defects on UV-grade fused silica surfaces are known to be effectively smoothed through the use of high-temperature localized CO{sub 2} laser heating, thereby enhancing optical properties. However, the details of the mass transport and the effect of hydroxyl content on the laser smoothing of defective silica at sub-micron length scales are still not completely understood. In this study, we examine the morphological evolution of sub-micron, dry-etched periodic surface structures on type II and type III SiO{sub 2} substrates under 10.6 {mu}m CO{sub 2} laser irradiation using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In situ thermal imaging was used to map the transient temperature field across the heated region, allowing assessment of the T-dependent mass transport mechanisms under different laser-heating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics simulations correlated well with experimental results, and showed that for large effective capillary numbers (N{sub c} > 2), surface diffusion is negligible and smoothing is dictated by capillary action, despite the relatively small spatial scales studied here. Extracted viscosity values over 1700-2000 K were higher than the predicted bulk values, but were consistent with the surface depletion of OH groups, which was confirmed using confocal Raman microscopy.

  17. Impact-disrupted gunshot residue: A sub-micron analysis using a novel collection protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Spathis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of gunshot residue (GSR has played an integral role within the legal system in relation to shooting cases. With a characteristic elemental composition of lead, antimony, barium, and a typically discriminative spheroidal morphology, the presence and distribution of GSR can aid in firearm investigations. In this experiment, three shots of low velocity rim-fire ammunition were fired over polished silicon collection substrates placed at six intervals over a 100 cm range. The samples were analysed using a Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG-SEM in conjunction with an X-flash Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX detector, allowing for GSR particle analyses of composition and structure at the sub-micron level. The results of this experiment indicate that although classic spheroidal particles are present consistently throughout the entire range of samples their sizes vary significantly, and at certain distances from the firearm particles with an irregular morphology were discerned, forming “impact-disrupted” GSR particles, henceforth colloquially referred to as “splats”. Upon further analysis, trends with regards to the formation of these splat particles were distinguished. An increase in splat frequency was observed starting at 10 cm from the firearm, with 147 mm−2 splat density, reaching a maximal flux at 40 cm (451 mm−2, followed by a gradual decrease to the maximum range sampled. Moreover, the structural morphology of the splats changes throughout the sampling range. At the distances closest to the firearm, molten-looking particles were formed, demonstrating the metallic residues were in a liquid state when their flight path was disrupted. However, at increased distances-primarily where the discharge plume was at maximum dispersion and moving away from the firearm, the residues have had time to cool in-fight resulting in semi-congealed and solid particles that subsequently disrupted upon impact, forming more

  18. Size-Resolved Characterization of Particles and Fibers Released during Abrasion of Fiber-Reinforced Composite in a Workplace Influenced by Ambient Background Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Kirsten I.; Levin, Marcus; Jensen, Alexander C. O.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of high-to low-resolution microscopy and particle chemical analysis during normal vacuum and cryo-conditions to identify the nature and relative abundances of process-generated particles and fibers from sanding of a glass and carbon fiber epoxy layer-composite in a workplace...... of ambient particles to the background in the production facility was observed in the sub-micron size range. Fibers are posing a dominant exposure risk in the micron size range, with carbon fibers dominating in count....

  19. A comparative study of submicron particle sizing platforms: accuracy, precision and resolution analysis of polydisperse particle size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Will; Kozak, Darby; Coleman, Victoria A; Jämting, Åsa K; Trau, Matt

    2013-09-01

    The particle size distribution (PSD) of a polydisperse or multimodal system can often be difficult to obtain due to the inherent limitations in established measurement techniques. For this reason, the resolution, accuracy and precision of three new and one established, commercially available and fundamentally different particle size analysis platforms were compared by measuring both individual and a mixed sample of monodisperse, sub-micron (220, 330, and 410 nm - nominal modal size) polystyrene particles. The platforms compared were the qNano Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensor, Nanosight LM10 Particle Tracking Analysis System, the CPS Instruments's UHR24000 Disc Centrifuge, and the routinely used Malvern Zetasizer Nano ZS Dynamic Light Scattering system. All measurements were subjected to a peak detection algorithm so that the detected particle populations could be compared to 'reference' Transmission Electron Microscope measurements of the individual particle samples. Only the Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensor and Disc Centrifuge platforms provided the resolution required to resolve all three particle populations present in the mixed 'multimodal' particle sample. In contrast, the light scattering based Particle Tracking Analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering platforms were only able to detect a single population of particles corresponding to either the largest (410 nm) or smallest (220 nm) particles in the multimodal sample, respectively. When the particle sets were measured separately (monomodal) each platform was able to resolve and accurately obtain a mean particle size within 10% of the Transmission Electron Microscope reference values. However, the broadness of the PSD measured in the monomodal samples deviated greatly, with coefficients of variation being ~2-6-fold larger than the TEM measurements across all four platforms. The large variation in the PSDs obtained from these four, fundamentally different platforms, indicates that great care must still be taken in

  20. Laser smoothing of sub-micron grooves in hydroxyl-rich fused silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, N; Matthews, M J; Fair, J E; Britten, J A; Nguyen, H T; Cooke, D; Elhadj, S; Yang, S T

    2009-10-30

    Nano- to micrometer-sized surface defects on UV-grade fused silica surfaces are known to be effectively smoothed through the use of high-temperature localized CO{sub 2} laser heating, thereby enhancing optical properties. However, the details of the mass transport and the effect of hydroxyl content on the laser smoothing of defective silica at submicron length scales is still not completely understood. In this study, we examine the morphological evolution of sub-micron, dry-etched periodic surface structures on type II and type III SiO{sub 2} substrates under 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser irradiation using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In-situ thermal imaging was used to map the transient temperature field across the heated region, allowing assessment of the T-dependent mass transport mechanisms under different laser-heating conditions. Computational fluid dynamics simulations correlated well with experimental results, and showed that for large effective capillary numbers (N{sub c} > 2), surface diffusion is negligible and smoothing is dictated by capillary action, despite the relatively small spatial scales studied here. Extracted viscosity values over 1700-2000K were higher than the predicted bulk values, but were consistent with the surface depletion of OH groups, which was confirmed using confocal Raman microscopy.

  1. Optically and acoustically triggerable sub-micron phase-change contrast agents for enhanced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengtao Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a versatile phase-change sub-micron contrast agent providing three modes of contrast enhancement: 1 photoacoustic imaging contrast, 2 ultrasound contrast with optical activation, and 3 ultrasound contrast with acoustic activation. This agent, which we name ‘Cy-droplet’, has the following novel features. It comprises a highly volatile perfluorocarbon for easy versatile activation, and a near-infrared optically absorbing dye chosen to absorb light at a wavelength with good tissue penetration. It is manufactured via a ‘microbubble condensation’ method. The phase-transition of Cy-droplets can be optically triggered by pulsed-laser illumination, inducing photoacoustic signal and forming stable gas bubbles that are visible with echo-ultrasound in situ. Alternatively, Cy-droplets can be converted to microbubble contrast agents upon acoustic activation with clinical ultrasound. Potentially all modes offer extravascular contrast enhancement because of the sub-micron initial size. Such versatility of acoustic and optical ‘triggerability’ can potentially improve multi-modality imaging, molecularly targeted imaging and controlled drug release.

  2. Optically and acoustically triggerable sub-micron phase-change contrast agents for enhanced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengtao; Shah, Anant; Hernández-Gil, Javier; Stanziola, Antonio; Harriss, Bethany I; Matsunaga, Terry O; Long, Nicholas; Bamber, Jeffrey; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a versatile phase-change sub-micron contrast agent providing three modes of contrast enhancement: 1) photoacoustic imaging contrast, 2) ultrasound contrast with optical activation, and 3) ultrasound contrast with acoustic activation. This agent, which we name 'Cy-droplet', has the following novel features. It comprises a highly volatile perfluorocarbon for easy versatile activation, and a near-infrared optically absorbing dye chosen to absorb light at a wavelength with good tissue penetration. It is manufactured via a 'microbubble condensation' method. The phase-transition of Cy-droplets can be optically triggered by pulsed-laser illumination, inducing photoacoustic signal and forming stable gas bubbles that are visible with echo-ultrasound in situ . Alternatively, Cy-droplets can be converted to microbubble contrast agents upon acoustic activation with clinical ultrasound. Potentially all modes offer extravascular contrast enhancement because of the sub-micron initial size. Such versatility of acoustic and optical 'triggerability' can potentially improve multi-modality imaging, molecularly targeted imaging and controlled drug release.

  3. X-ray imaging with sub-micron resolution using large-area photon counting detectors Timepix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudak, J.; Karch, J.; Holcova, K.; Zemlicka, J.

    2017-12-01

    As X-ray micro-CT became a popular tool for scientific purposes a number of commercially available CT systems have emerged on the market. Micro-CT systems have, therefore, become widely accessible and the number of research laboratories using them constantly increases. However, even when CT scans with spatial resolution of several micrometers can be performed routinely, data acquisition with sub-micron precision remains a complicated task. Issues come mostly from prolongation of the scan time inevitably connected with the use of nano-focus X-ray sources. Long exposure time increases the noise level in the CT projections. Furthermore, considering the sub-micron resolution even effects like source-spot drift, rotation stage wobble or thermal expansion become significant and can negatively affect the data. The use of dark-current free photon counting detectors as X-ray cameras for such applications can limit the issue of increased image noise in the data, however the mechanical stability of the whole system still remains a problem and has to be considered. In this work we evaluate the performance of a micro-CT system equipped with nano-focus X-ray tube and a large area photon counting detector Timepix for scans with effective pixel size bellow one micrometer.

  4. Analysis and Design of Monolithic Inductors in Sub-micron CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Carsten; Jørgensen, Allan

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the CMOS processes have gone into deep sub-micron channel lengths. This means that it is now possible to make GHz applications in CMOS. In analog GHz applications it is often necessary to have access to inductors. This report describes the development of a physical model of ...

  5. Submicron particles of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 24; Issue 5 ... Magnetic Materials Volume 24 Issue 5 October 2001 pp 515-521 ... Magnetic sub-micron sized particles (with diameters in the range 100–600 nm) of Co, Ni and Co–Ni alloys, protected with polyvinylpyrrolidone have been prepared in gram quantities ...

  6. Particle size distribution predicts particulate phosphorus removal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    River, Mark; Richardson, Curtis J

    2018-01-01

    ... particles, based on a continuous particle size distribution. This information can help improve the design of stormwater Best management practices to reduce PP loading in both urban and agricultural watersheds.

  7. Method for producing size selected particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumdick, Gregory K.; Shin, Young Ho; Takeya, Kaname

    2016-09-20

    The invention provides a system for preparing specific sized particles, the system comprising a continuous stir tank reactor adapted to receive reactants; a centrifugal dispenser positioned downstream from the reactor and in fluid communication with the reactor; a particle separator positioned downstream of the dispenser; and a solution stream return conduit positioned between the separator and the reactor. Also provided is a method for preparing specific sized particles, the method comprising introducing reagent into a continuous stir reaction tank and allowing the reagents to react to produce product liquor containing particles; contacting the liquor particles with a centrifugal force for a time sufficient to generate particles of a predetermined size and morphology; and returning unused reagents and particles of a non-predetermined size to the tank.

  8. New Technique for High Resolution DNA Sizing in Epi-Illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schins, J.M.; Agronskaia, A.; Agronskaia, Alexandra; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1998-01-01

    We present a high-resolution DNA-sizing technique based on the principles of flow cytometry, using a high numerical aperture objective and epi-illumination. The new technique, designed for small fluorescing samples/particles (sub-micron diameter) suspended in a weakly fluorescent medium, makes use

  9. Particle size distribution instrument. Topical report 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okhuysen, W.; Gassaway, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The development of an instrument to measure the concentration of particles in gas is described in this report. An in situ instrument was designed and constructed which sizes individual particles and counts the number of occurrences for several size classes. Although this instrument was designed to detect the size distribution of slag and seed particles generated at an experimental coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power facility, it can be used as a nonintrusive diagnostic tool for other hostile industrial processes involving the formation and growth of particulates. Two of the techniques developed are extensions of the widely used crossed beam velocimeter, providing simultaneous measurement of the size distribution and velocity of articles.

  10. Particle size distribution predicts particulate phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    River, Mark; Richardson, Curtis J

    2018-01-01

    Particulate phosphorus (PP) is often the largest component of the total phosphorus (P) load in stormwater. Fine-resolution measurement of particle sizes allows us to investigate the mechanisms behind the removal of PP in stormwater wetlands, since the diameter of particles influences the settling velocity and the amount of sorbed P on a particle. In this paper, we present a novel method to estimate PP, where we measure and count individual particles in stormwater and use the total surface area as a proxy for PP. Our results show a strong relationship between total particle surface area and PP, which we use to put forth a simple mechanistic model of PP removal via gravitational settling of individual mineral particles, based on a continuous particle size distribution. This information can help improve the design of stormwater Best management practices to reduce PP loading in both urban and agricultural watersheds.

  11. Time-specific measurements of energy deposition from radiation fields in simulated sub-micron tissue volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Famiano, M.A.

    1997-07-07

    A tissue-equivalent spherical proportional counter is used with a modified amplifier system to measure specific energy deposited from a uniform radiation field for short periods of time ({approximately}1 {micro}s to seconds) in order to extrapolate to dose in sub-micron tissue volumes. The energy deposited during these time intervals is compared to biological repair processes occurring within the same intervals after the initial energy deposition. The signal is integrated over a variable collection time which is adjusted with a square-wave pulse. Charge from particle passages is collected on the anode during the period in which the integrator is triggered, and the signal decays quickly to zero after the integrator feedback switch resets; the process repeats for every triggering pulse. Measurements of energy deposited from x rays, {sup 137}Cs gamma rays, and electrons from a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source for various time intervals are taken. Spectral characteristics as a function of charge collection time are observed and frequency plots of specific energy and collection time-interval are presented. In addition, a threshold energy flux is selected for each radiation type at which the formation of radicals (based on current measurements) in mammalian cells equals the rate at which radicals are repaired.

  12. Particle size distribution in ground biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koglin, D; Backhaus, F; Schladot, J D

    1997-05-01

    Modern trace and retrospective analysis of Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) samples require surplus material prepared and characterized as reference materials. Before the biological samples could be analyzed and stored for long periods at cryogenic temperatures, the materials have to be pre-crushed. As a second step, a milling and homogenization procedure has to follow. For this preparation, a grinding device is cooled with liquid nitrogen to a temperature of -190 degrees C. It is a significant condition for homogeneous samples that at least 90% of the particles should be smaller than 200 microns. In the German ESB the particle size distribution of the processed material is determined by means of a laser particle sizer. The decrease of particle sizes of deer liver and bream muscles after different grinding procedures as well as the consequences of ultrasonic treatment of the sample before particle size measurements have been investigated.

  13. Particle size effects in colloidal gelatin particle suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van L.E.; Snoeren, J.P.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Hamer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of simple shear flow on the formation and properties of colloidal gelatin particle suspensions. Microscopy and light scattering show that simple shear flow of a phase-separating gelatin–dextran mixture gave smaller particles with a narrower size distribution. Upon

  14. Particle shape effects on subvisible particle sizing measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Richard E; Carrier, Michael J; Cohen, Joshua B; Boger, Shir; Montgomery, Christopher B; Hu, Zhishang; Ripple, Dean C

    2015-03-01

    Particle analysis tools for the subvisible (shape in comparison studies, we have used the methods of photolithography to create rods and disks. Although the rods are highly monodisperse, the instruments produce broadened peaks and report mean size parameters that are different for different instruments. We have fabricated a microfluidic device that simultaneously performs ESZ and FI measurements on each particle to elucidate the causes of discrepancies and broadening. Alignment of the rods with flow causes an oversizing by FI and undersizing by ESZ. FI also oversizes rods because of the incorrect edge definition that results from diffraction and imperfect focus. We present an improved correction algorithm for this effect that reduces discrepancies for rod-shaped particles. Tumbling of particles is observed in the microfluidic ESZ/FI and results in particle oversizing and breadth of size distribution for the monodisperse rods. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. The fabrication of integrated carbon pipes with sub-micron diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. M.; Murray, T.; Bau, H. H.

    2005-08-01

    A method for fabricating integrated carbon pipes (nanopipettes) of sub-micron diameters and tens of microns in length is demonstrated. The carbon pipes are formed from a template consisting of the tip of a pulled alumino-silicate glass capillary coated with carbon deposited from a vapour phase. This method renders carbon nanopipettes without the need for ex situ assembly and facilitates parallel production of multiple carbon-pipe devices. An electric-field-driven transfer of ions in a KCl solution through the integrated carbon pipes exhibits nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) curves, markedly different from the Ohmic I-V curves observed in glass pipettes under similar conditions. The filling of the nanopipette with fluorescent suspension is also demonstrated.

  16. Sub-micron-sized delafossite CuCrO2 with different morphologies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Currently, copper chromium oxide crystallizing in delafossite structure attracts huge research interest due to its versatile applications arising from its layered structure. In this work, delafossite CuCrO 2 was synthesized by sol–gel method from their respective hydrated nitrate salts with citric acid as a chelating agent.

  17. MICRON-SIZED POLYMER PARTICLES FROM TANZANIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micron sized polymeric particles were prepared from cashew nut shell liquid and subsequently functionalized to produce micron-sized carboxylated cation exchange resin (MCCER). By titrimetry and analytical procedures employing atomic absorption spectrometry, an assessment of the cation exchange capability of the ...

  18. Sub-micron resolution surface plasmon resonance imaging enabled by nanohole arrays with surrounding Bragg mirrors for enhanced sensitivity and isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Nathan C; Lesuffleur, Antoine; Im, Hyungsoon; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2009-02-07

    We present nanohole arrays in thin gold films as sub-micron resolution surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging pixels in a microarray format. With SPR imaging, the resolution is not limited by diffraction, but by the propagation of surface plasmon waves to adjacent sensing areas, or nanohole arrays, causing unwanted interference. For ultimate scalability, several issues need to be addressed, including: (1) as several nanohole arrays are brought close to each other, surface plasmon interference introduces large sources of error; and (2) as the size of the nanohole array is reduced, i.e. fewer holes, detection sensitivity suffers. To address these scalability issues, we surround each biosensing pixel (a 3-by-3 nanohole array) with plasmonic Bragg mirrors, blocking interference between adjacent SPR sensing pixels for high-density packing, while maintaining the sensitivity of a 50 x larger footprint pixel (a 16-by-16 nanohole array). We measure real-time, label-free streptavidin-biotin binding kinetics with a microarray of 600 sub-micron biosensing pixels at a packing density of more than 10(7) per cm(2).

  19. Chemical characteristics and source of size-fractionated atmospheric particle in haze episode in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jihua; Duan, Jingchun; Zhen, Naijia; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    The abundance, behavior, and source of chemical species in size-fractionated atmospheric particle were studied with a 13-stage low pressure impactor (ELPI) during high polluted winter episode in Beijing. Thirty three elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) and eight water soluble ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +) were determined by ICP/MS and IC, respectively. The size distribution of TC (OC + EC) was reconstructed. Averagely, 51.5 ± 5.3% and 74.1 ± 3.7% of the total aerosol mass was distributed in the sub-micron (PM1) and fine particle (PM2.5), respectively. A significant shift to larger fractions during heavy pollution episode was observed for aerosol mass, NH4+, SO42 -, NO3-, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. The mass size distributions of NH4+, SO42 -, NO3-, and K were dominated by accumulation mode. Size distributions of elements were classified into four main types: (I) elements were enriched within the accumulation mode (< 1 μm, Ge, Se, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Hg, Ti, and Pb); (II) those mass (K, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, and Cd) was resided mainly within the accumulation mode, ranged from 1 to 2 μm; (III) Na, V, Co, Ni, and Ga were distributed among fine, intermediate, and coarse modes; and (IV) those which were mainly found within particles larger than 2.7 μm (Al, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Tl, Fe, Sr, Zr, and Ba). [H+]cor showed an accumulation mode at 600-700 nm and the role of Ca2 + should be fully considered in the estimation of acidity. The acidity in accumulation mode particles suggested that generally gaseous NH3 was not enough to neutralize sulfate completely. PMF method was applied for source apportionment of elements combined with water soluble ions. Dust, vehicle, aged coal combustion, and sea salt were identified, and the size resolved source apportionments were discussed. Aged coal combustion was the important source of fine particles and

  20. Guest Editorial Particle Sizing And Spray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigier, Norman; Stewart, Gerald

    1984-10-01

    The measurement of particle size and velocity in particle laden flows is a subject of interest in a variety of industrial applications. In combustion systems for electricity generation, industrial processes and heating, and transportation, where liquid and solid fuels are injected into air streams for burning in furnaces, boilers, and gas turbine and diesel engines, the initial size and velocity distributions of particles are determining factors in the overall combustion efficiency and the emission of pollutants and particulates. In the design of injectors and burners for the atomization of liquid fuels, a great deal of attention is being focused on developing instrumentation for the accurate measurement of size and velocity distributions in sprays as a function of space and time. Most recent advances in optical engineering techniques using lasers for particle measurement have focused on detailed spray characterization, where there is a major concern with spherical liquid droplets within the size range of 1 to 500 μm in diameter, with droplet velocities within the range of 1 to 100 m/s, and the requirement for making in situ measurements of moving particles by nonintrusive optical probes. The instruments being developed for spray analysis have much wider applications. These include measurement in particle laden flows encountered in a variety of industrial processes with solid particles in gas and liquid streams and liquid particles in gas streams. Sprays used in agriculture, drying, food processing, coating of materials, chemical processing, clean rooms, pharmaceuticals, plasma spraying, and icing wind tunnels are examples of systems for which information is being sought on particle and fluid dynamic interactions in which there is heat, mass, and momentum transfer in turbulent reacting flows.

  1. Calibration of optical particle-size analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechin, William H.; Thacker, Louis H.; Turner, Lloyd J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for the calibration of an optical particle-size analyzer of the light-intercepting type for spherical particles, wherein a rotary wheel or disc is provided with radially-extending wires of differing diameters, each wire corresponding to a particular equivalent spherical particle diameter. These wires are passed at an appropriate frequency between the light source and the light detector of the analyzer. The reduction of light as received at the detector is a measure of the size of the wire, and the electronic signal may then be adjusted to provide the desired signal for corresponding spherical particles. This calibrator may be operated at any time without interrupting other processing.

  2. Particle Size Distributions in Atmospheric Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Roberto; Shariff, Karim

    2003-01-01

    In this note, we derive a transport equation for a spatially integrated distribution function of particles size that is suitable for sparse particle systems, such as in atmospheric clouds. This is done by integrating a Boltzmann equation for a (local) distribution function over an arbitrary but finite volume. A methodology for evolving the moments of the integrated distribution is presented. These moments can be either tracked for a finite number of discrete populations ('clusters') or treated as continuum variables.

  3. Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrethsen, Bradley J; Cole, Stephen K; Alderman, Steven L

    2012-12-01

    The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. The undiluted e-cigarette aerosols were found to have particle diameters of average mass in the 250-450 nm range and particle number concentrations in the 10(9) particles/cm(3) range. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure. Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. In contrast, average particle diameters determined for e-cigarettes by the electrical mobility method are in the 50 nm range and total particulate masses calculated based on the suggested diameters are orders of magnitude smaller than those determined gravimetrically. This latter discrepancy, and the very small particle diameters observed, are believed to result from almost complete e-cigarette aerosol particle evaporation at the dilution levels and conditions of the electrical mobility analysis. A much smaller degree, ~20% by mass, of apparent particle evaporation was observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke. The spectral transmission method is validated in the current study against measurements on tobacco burning cigarette smoke, which has been well characterized in prior studies, and is supported as yielding an accurate characterization of the e-cigarette aerosol particle size distribution.

  4. Particle Size Distribution in Aluminum Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sa; Noth, Elizabeth M; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Eisen, Ellen A; Cullen, Mark R; Hammond, S Katharine

    2014-10-01

    As part of exposure assessment for an ongoing epidemiologic study of heart disease and fine particle exposures in aluminum industry, area particle samples were collected in production facilities to assess instrument reliability and particle size distribution at different process areas. Personal modular impactors (PMI) and Minimicro-orifice uniform deposition impactors (MiniMOUDI) were used. The coefficient of variation (CV) of co-located samples was used to evaluate the reproducibility of the samplers. PM2.5 measured by PMI was compared to PM2.5 calculated from MiniMOUDI data. Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and concentrations of sub-micrometer (PM1.0) and quasi-ultrafine (PM0.56) particles were evaluated to characterize particle size distribution. Most of CVs were less than 30%. The slope of the linear regression of PMI_PM2.5 versus MiniMOUDI_PM2.5 was 1.03 mg/m3 per mg/m3 (± 0.05), with correlation coefficient of 0.97 (± 0.01). Particle size distribution varied substantively in smelters, whereas it was less variable in fabrication units with significantly smaller MMADs (arithmetic mean of MMADs: 2.59 μm in smelters vs. 1.31 μm in fabrication units, p = 0.001). Although the total particle concentration was more than two times higher in the smelters than in the fabrication units, the fraction of PM10 which was PM1.0 or PM0.56 was significantly lower in the smelters than in the fabrication units (p particles were similar in these two types of facilities. It would appear, studies evaluating ultrafine particle exposure in aluminum industry should focus on not only the smelters, but also the fabrication facilities.

  5. Particle Size Distribution in Aluminum Manufacturing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sa; Noth, Elizabeth M.; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Eisen, Ellen A.; Cullen, Mark R.; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2015-01-01

    As part of exposure assessment for an ongoing epidemiologic study of heart disease and fine particle exposures in aluminum industry, area particle samples were collected in production facilities to assess instrument reliability and particle size distribution at different process areas. Personal modular impactors (PMI) and Minimicro-orifice uniform deposition impactors (MiniMOUDI) were used. The coefficient of variation (CV) of co-located samples was used to evaluate the reproducibility of the samplers. PM2.5 measured by PMI was compared to PM2.5 calculated from MiniMOUDI data. Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and concentrations of sub-micrometer (PM1.0) and quasi-ultrafine (PM0.56) particles were evaluated to characterize particle size distribution. Most of CVs were less than 30%. The slope of the linear regression of PMI_PM2.5 versus MiniMOUDI_PM2.5 was 1.03 mg/m3 per mg/m3 (± 0.05), with correlation coefficient of 0.97 (± 0.01). Particle size distribution varied substantively in smelters, whereas it was less variable in fabrication units with significantly smaller MMADs (arithmetic mean of MMADs: 2.59 μm in smelters vs. 1.31 μm in fabrication units, p = 0.001). Although the total particle concentration was more than two times higher in the smelters than in the fabrication units, the fraction of PM10 which was PM1.0 or PM0.56 was significantly lower in the smelters than in the fabrication units (p < 0.001). Consequently, the concentrations of sub-micrometer and quasi-ultrafine particles were similar in these two types of facilities. It would appear, studies evaluating ultrafine particle exposure in aluminum industry should focus on not only the smelters, but also the fabrication facilities. PMID:26478760

  6. Particle size reduction of propellants by cryocycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Lipkin, J. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Repeated exposure of a propellant to liquid nitrogen causes thermal stress gradients within the material resulting in cracking and particle size reduction. This process is termed cryocycling. The authors conducted a feasibility study, combining experiments on both inert and live propellants with three modeling approaches. These models provided optimized cycle times, predicted ultimate particle size, and allowed crack behavior to be explored. Process safety evaluations conducted separately indicated that cryocycling does not increase the sensitivity of the propellants examined. The results of this study suggest that cryocycling is a promising technology for the demilitarization of tactical rocket motors.

  7. A Nordic project on high speed low power design in sub-micron CMOS technology for mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ole

    This paper is a survey paper presenting the Nordic CONFRONT project and reporting some results from the group at CIE/DTU, Denmark. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of sub-micron CMOS for the realisation of RF front-end circuits operating at frequencies in the 1...

  8. Acoustic Emission Patterns and the Transition to Ductility in Sub-Micron Scale Laboratory Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, H.; Xia, K.; Young, R.

    2013-12-01

    We report observation of a transition from the brittle to ductile regime in precursor events from different rock materials (Granite, Sandstone, Basalt, and Gypsum) and Polymers (PMMA, PTFE and CR-39). Acoustic emission patterns associated with sub-micron scale laboratory earthquakes are mapped into network parameter spaces (functional damage networks). The sub-classes hold nearly constant timescales, indicating dependency of the sub-phases on the mechanism governing the previous evolutionary phase, i.e., deformation and failure of asperities. Based on our findings, we propose that the signature of the non-linear elastic zone around a crack tip is mapped into the details of the evolutionary phases, supporting the formation of a strongly weak zone in the vicinity of crack tips. Moreover, we recognize sub-micron to micron ruptures with signatures of 'stiffening' in the deformation phase of acoustic-waveforms. We propose that the latter rupture fronts carry critical rupture extensions, including possible dislocations faster than the shear wave speed. Using 'template super-shear waveforms' and their network characteristics, we show that the acoustic emission signals are possible super-shear or intersonic events. Ref. [1] Ghaffari, H. O., and R. P. Young. "Acoustic-Friction Networks and the Evolution of Precursor Rupture Fronts in Laboratory Earthquakes." Nature Scientific reports 3 (2013). [2] Xia, Kaiwen, Ares J. Rosakis, and Hiroo Kanamori. "Laboratory earthquakes: The sub-Rayleigh-to-supershear rupture transition." Science 303.5665 (2004): 1859-1861. [3] Mello, M., et al. "Identifying the unique ground motion signatures of supershear earthquakes: Theory and experiments." Tectonophysics 493.3 (2010): 297-326. [4] Gumbsch, Peter, and Huajian Gao. "Dislocations faster than the speed of sound." Science 283.5404 (1999): 965-968. [5] Livne, Ariel, et al. "The near-tip fields of fast cracks." Science 327.5971 (2010): 1359-1363. [6] Rycroft, Chris H., and Eran Bouchbinder

  9. Size Distribution and First Flush Effects of Mercury Containing Particles in Highway Runoff Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, K.; Green, P.

    2007-12-01

    Human and environmental health concerns have recently prompted many California water quality control boards to lower the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) of Mercury into their water systems. A size distribution study of mercury containing particles was conducted in order to begin to understand the possible sources of the contamination in highway storm water runoff. Four storms were studied from a monitoring site in the Los Angeles area near the crossing of highways 605 and 91. Storm water ran through an extended detention basin made of earthen material with a maximum water depth of 1.17m. Grab samples were collected manually starting at the beginning of the runoff, continuing at every fifteen minutes for the first hour, followed by a collection every hour after that for the duration of the storm. The particle sizes were separated into five size ranges (larger than 100um, 20-100um, 8-20um, 0.45-8um, and 0-0.45um) by sequential filtration. The samples were then acid digested for further analysis. Five standard Mercury solutions ranging from 5 to 100 parts per trillion were prepared in nitric acid immediately before analysis. Samples were analyzed for both the Hg-199 and the Hg-202 isotopes using an Agilent 7500i Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Substantial sub-micron concentrations of mercury were detected from all four storms, and in all five particle size ranges studied. The total amount of Mercury detected from each of the storms ranged from 8.5 to 35.5 pptr. Bursts of rain correlate well with increases of influent Hg concentration. Although a First Flush effect can be seen in the first storm, it is not as strong and/or not shown at all in the remaining three. The detention basin used at the site was shown to be an efficient BMP, reducing the amount of Hg in the effluent runoff as much as 30 pptr and down to as little as 2 pptr. The majority of Hg was found in either the 8-20um or the 0-0.45um particle size ranges. Mitigation of either portion will be

  10. Permeability of different size waste particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Gavelytė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The world and life style is changing, but the most popular disposal route for waste is landfill globally until now. We have to think about waste prevention and preparing for re-use or recycling firstly, according to the waste disposal hierarchy. Disposed waste to the landfill must be the last opportunity. In a landfill, during waste degradation processes leachate is formed that can potentially cause clogging of bottom drainage layers. To ensure stability of a landfill construction, the physical properties of its components have to be controlled. The hydrology of precipitation, evaporation, runoff and the hydraulic performance of the capping and liner materials are important controls of the moisture content. The water balance depends also on the waste characteristics and waste particle size distribution. The aim of this paper is to determine the hydraulic permeability in a landfill depending on the particle size distribution of municipal solid waste disposed. The lab experiment results were compared with the results calculated with DEGAS model. Samples were taken from a landfill operated for five years. The samples particle sizes are: >100 mm, 80 mm, 60 mm, 40 mm, 20 mm, 0.01 mm and <0.01 mm. The permeability test was conducted using the column test. The paper presents the results of experiment and DEGAS model water permeability with waste particle size.

  11. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... particle size distribution (PSD) were correlated with HMC by using bivariate and multivariate regression models. Proposed models were then selected based on statistical criteria. The results showed high correlation between dissolved and particulate chromium content with efficiency coefficients beyond 77% ( > 0.001).

  12. [Particle size reduction using acoustic cavitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Csilla; Ambrus, Rita; Szabóné, Révész Piroska

    2014-01-01

    Different pharmaceutical technological processes have been used for modification of the physico-chemical and biopharmaceutical properties of drugs. Changes of crystal size, distribution and morphology can open up new, alternative administration routes, e.g. intranasally and the pulmonary route, where the particle size is a determining factor. A wet grinding method based on acoustic cavitation (the collapse of bubbles or voids formed by sound waves) is a novel possibility for modification of the properties of particles. During our work this wet grinding technique was studied. The effect of this method was investigated on particle size reduction. The samples were treated with extreme sonication parameters. The effect of the concentration of the polymer was examined on the particle size reduction. Meloxicam was chosen as a model crystalline drug because of its poor aqueous solubility. The structural characterization and the morphological analysis of the dried products were carried out by DSC, XRPD and SEM. It was found that the acoustic cavitation resulted in crystalline micronized product.

  13. Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2001-03-01

    In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  14. Large area sub-micron chemical imaging of magnesium in sea urchin teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Admir; Weaver, James C

    2015-03-01

    The heterogeneous and site-specific incorporation of inorganic ions can profoundly influence the local mechanical properties of damage tolerant biological composites. Using the sea urchin tooth as a research model, we describe a multi-technique approach to spatially map the distribution of magnesium in this complex multiphase system. Through the combined use of 16-bit backscattered scanning electron microscopy, multi-channel energy dispersive spectroscopy elemental mapping, and diffraction-limited confocal Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate a new set of high throughput, multi-spectral, high resolution methods for the large scale characterization of mineralized biological materials. In addition, instrument hardware and data collection protocols can be modified such that several of these measurements can be performed on irregularly shaped samples with complex surface geometries and without the need for extensive sample preparation. Using these approaches, in conjunction with whole animal micro-computed tomography studies, we have been able to spatially resolve micron and sub-micron structural features across macroscopic length scales on entire urchin tooth cross-sections and correlate these complex morphological features with local variability in elemental composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical Mapping of Proterozoic Organic Matter at Sub-Micron Spatial Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Robert, Francois; Mostefaoui, Smail; Meibom, Anders; Selo, Madeleine; McKay, David S.

    2006-01-01

    We have used a NanoSIMS ion microprobe to map sub-micron-scale distributions of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, silicon, and oxygen in organic microfossils and laminae from the approximately 0.85 Ga Bitter Springs Formation of Australia. The data provide clues about the original chemistry of the microfossils, the silicification process, and biosignatures of specific microorganisms and microbial communities. Chemical maps of fossil unicells and filaments reveal distinct wall-and sheath-like structures enriched in C, N and S, consistent with their accepted biological origin. Surprisingly, organic laminae, previously considered to be amorphous, also exhibit filamentous and apparently compressed spheroidal structures defined by strong enrichments in C, N and S. By analogy to data from the well-preserved microfossils, these structures are interpreted as being of biological origin, most likely representing densely packed remnants of microbial mats. Because the preponderance of organic matter in Precambrian sediments is similarly "amorphous," our findings open a large body of generally neglected material to in situ structural, chemical, and isotopic study. Our results also offer new criteria for assessing biogenicity of problematic kerogenous materials and thus can be applied to assessments of poorly preserved or fragmentary organic residues in early Archean sediments and any that might occur in meteorites or other extraterrestrial samples.

  16. Sub-micron Hard X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Synthetic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Aryal, Baikuntha P.; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SXFM) using hard X-rays focused into sub-micron spots is a powerful technique for elemental quantification and mapping, as well as microspectroscopic measurement such as μ-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure). We have used SXFM to image and simultaneously quantify the transuranic element plutonium at the L3 or L2 edge as well as lighter biologically essential elements in individual rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to the long-lived plutonium isotope 242Pu. Elemental maps reveal that plutonium localizes principally in the cytoplasm of the cells and avoids the cell nucleus, which is marked by the highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc, under the conditions of our experiments. The minimum detection limit under typical acquisition conditions for an average 202 μm2 cell is 1.4 fg Pu/cell or 2.9 × 10−20 moles Pu/μm2, which is similar to the detection limit of K-edge SXFM of transition metals at 10 keV. Copper electron microscopy grids were used to avoid interference from gold X-ray emissions, but traces of strontium present in naturally occurring calcium can still interfere with plutonium detection using its Lα X-ray emission. PMID:22444530

  17. Scalable Sub-micron Patterning of Organic Materials Toward High Density Soft Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Myung-Gil; Kim, Jaehyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong-Wan; Lee, Woobin; Hwang, Chahwan; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Noh, Yong-Young; Jaung, Jae Yun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2015-09-28

    The success of silicon based high density integrated circuits ignited explosive expansion of microelectronics. Although the inorganic semiconductors have shown superior carrier mobilities for conventional high speed switching devices, the emergence of unconventional applications, such as flexible electronics, highly sensitive photosensors, large area sensor array, and tailored optoelectronics, brought intensive research on next generation electronic materials. The rationally designed multifunctional soft electronic materials, organic and carbon-based semiconductors, are demonstrated with low-cost solution process, exceptional mechanical stability, and on-demand optoelectronic properties. Unfortunately, the industrial implementation of the soft electronic materials has been hindered due to lack of scalable fine-patterning methods. In this report, we demonstrated facile general route for high throughput sub-micron patterning of soft materials, using spatially selective deep-ultraviolet irradiation. For organic and carbon-based materials, the highly energetic photons (e.g. deep-ultraviolet rays) enable direct photo-conversion from conducting/semiconducting to insulating state through molecular dissociation and disordering with spatial resolution down to a sub-μm-scale. The successful demonstration of organic semiconductor circuitry promise our result proliferate industrial adoption of soft materials for next generation electronics.

  18. Ultrathin oxides for the SCM analysis of sub-micron doping profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampolini, Lorenzo; Bertin, F.; Hartmann, J.M.; Rochat, N.; Holliger, Ph.; Laugier, F.; Chabli, A

    2003-09-15

    Attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) have been used to characterize oxides used for the scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) technique. SCM has been used to study boron and phosphorous doped Si test structures epitaxially grown on (100) Si substrates. SCM samples have one-dimensional (1D) doping profiles with sub-micron features, with staircase-like steps in the unipolar sample and a smoother profile in the bipolar sample, as obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) profiling. Cross-sectional SCM results obtained on samples oxidized by the standard low-temperature UV-ozone method are presented, discussed and compared to results obtained on cleaved samples oxidized by a simple exposure to air. The results show that the native oxide covering a (110) cleaved section may yield SCM images of sufficient quality, with no contrast reversal on a wide range of doping levels, as well as observed on sections prepared with the UV-ozone technique. However, the long-term stability of the SCM signal on native oxides is poor, and UV-ozone oxidation can be used to recover a valid SCM signal. Realistic ultrathin oxide thickness data obtained by SE on (110) substrates are presented together with ATR results, which confirm the superior quality of UV-ozone oxides with respect to other kinds of oxides.

  19. Particle size and shape of calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komabayashi, Takashi; D'souza, Rena N; Dechow, Paul C; Safavi, Kamran E; Spångberg, Larz S W

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the particle length, width, perimeter, and aspect ratio of calcium hydroxide powder using a flow particle image analyzer (FPIA). Five sample groups each with 10 mg of calcium hydroxide were mixed with 15 mL of alcohol and sonicated. Digital images of the particle samples were taken using the FPIA and analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance. The overall averages +/- standard deviation among the five groups for particle length (microm), width (microm), perimeter (microm), and aspect ratio were 2.255 +/- 1.994, 1.620 +/- 1.464, 6.699 +/- 5.598, and 0.737 +/- 0.149, respectively. No statistical significance was observed among the groups for all parameters. When the total of 46,818 particles from all five groups were classified into the five length categories of 0.5-microm increments, there were significant differences in width, perimeter, and aspect ratio (all p values particles have a size and shape that may allow direct penetration into open dentin tubules.

  20. Single-particle optical sizing of microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinover, Scott J; Dove, Jacob D; Borden, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Single-particle optical sizing techniques are being used to determine the size distributions of microbubble ultrasound contrast agents and to study the dynamics of individual microbubbles during ultrasound stimulation. The goal of this study was to compare experimental light obscuration and scattering measurements of microbubble size distributions with predictions from generalized Lorenz-Mie scattering theory (GLMT). First, we illustrate that a mono-modal size distribution can be misrepresented by single-particle light obscuration measurements as multi-modal peaks because of non-linearities in the extinction cross section-versus-diameter curve. Next, polymer bead standards are measured to provide conversion factors between GLMT calculations and experimental flow cytometry scatter plots. GLMT calculations with these conversion factors accurately predict the characteristic Lissajous-like serpentine scattering plot measured by flow cytometry for microbubbles. We conclude that GLMT calculations can be combined with optical forward and side scatter measurements to accurately determine microbubble size. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Particle Size on Shear Stress of Magnetorheological Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Chiranjit Sarkar; Harish Hirani

    2015-01-01

    Magnetorheological fluids (MRF), known for their variable shear stress contain magnetisable micrometer-sized particles (few micrometer to 200 micrometers) in a nonmagnetic carrier liquid. To avoid settling of particles, smaller sized (3-10 micrometers) particles are preferred, while larger sized particles can be used in MR brakes, MR clutches, etc. as mechanical stirring action in those mechanisms does not allow particles to settle down. Ideally larger sized particles provide higher shear str...

  2. Image Analysis for Particle Size Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Shanthi, C; R. Kingsley Porpatham; Pappa, N.

    2014-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) affects properties of particulate materials and is used for denoting their quality and performance. Among many techniques available to measure PSD, many are quite often offline methods and are time consuming. Also methods like sieving involve, handling of the material physically and electromagnetically, which is healthy, if avoided for certain materials. Thus the need for an online PSD analyzer and the advent of digital image processing has rendered the drift ...

  3. Modelling complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates of particle-size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Sam; Weltje, Gert Jan

    2014-05-01

    Estimates of particle-size made by operators in the field and laboratory represent a vast and relatively untapped data archive. The wide spatial distribution of particle-size estimates makes them ideal for constructing geological models and soil maps. This study uses a large data set from the Netherlands (n = 4837) containing both operator estimates of particle size and complete particle-size distributions measured by laser granulometry. This study introduces a logit-based constrained-cubic-spline (CCS) algorithm to interpolate complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates. The CCS model is compared to four other models: (i) a linear interpolation; (ii) a log-hyperbolic interpolation; (iii) an empirical logistic function; and (iv) an empirical arctan function. Operator estimates were found to be both inaccurate and imprecise; only 14% of samples were successfully classified using the Dutch classification scheme for fine sediment. Operator estimates of sediment particle-size encompass the same range of values as particle-size distributions measured by laser analysis. However, the distributions measured by laser analysis show that most of the sand percentage values lie between zero and one, so the majority of the variability in the data is lost because operator estimates are made to the nearest 1% at best, and more frequently to the nearest 5%. A method for constructing complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates of sediment texture using a logit constrained cubit spline (CCS) interpolation algorithm is presented. This model and four other previously published methods are compared to establish the best approach to modelling particle-size distributions. The logit-CCS model is the most accurate method, although both logit-linear and log-linear interpolation models provide reasonable alternatives. Models based on empirical distribution functions are less accurate than interpolation algorithms for modelling particle-size distributions in

  4. Influence of particle size in silo discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gella Diego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently Janda et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 248001 (2012] reported an experimental study where it was measured the velocity and volume fraction fields of 1 mm diameter stainless steel beads in the exit of a two-dimensional silo. In that work, they proposed a new expression to predict the flow of granular media in silos which does not explicitly include the particle size as a parameter. Here, we study if effectively, there is not such influence of the particle size in the flux equations as well as investigate any possible effect in the velocity and volume fraction fields. To this end, we have performed high speed motion measurements of these magnitudes in a two-dimensional silo filled with 4 mm diameter beads of stainless steel, the same material than the previous works. A developed tracking program has been implemented to obtain at the same time both, the velocity and volume fraction. The final objective of this work has been to extend and generalize the theoretical framework of Janda et al. for all sizes of particles. We have found that the obtained functionalities are the same than in the 1 mm case, but the exponents and other fitting parameters are different.

  5. Sub-micron opto-chemical probes for studying living neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, M.; Delgado, J.; Schweizer, F.; Lieberman, R.

    2017-02-01

    We have fabricated sub-micron opto-chemical probes for pH, oxygen and calcium monitoring and demonstrated their application in intracellular and extracellular monitoring of neurons (cortical neuronal cultures and acute hippocampal slices). Using these probes, we have measured extracellular pH in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 region of mouse hippocampus upon stimulation of presynaptic Schaffer collateral axons. Synaptic transmission was monitored using standard electrophysiological techniques. We find that the local pH transiently changes in response to synaptic stimulation. In addition, the geometry of the functionalized region on the probe combined with high sensitivity imaging enables simultaneous monitoring of spatially adjacent but distinct compartments. As proof of concept we impaled cultured neurons with the probe measured calcium and pH inside as well as directly outside of neurons as we changed the pH and calcium concentration in the physiological solution in the perfusion chamber. As such these probes can be used to study the impact of the environment on both cellular and extra-cellular space. Additionally as the chemical properties of the surrounding medium can be controlled and monitored with high precision, these probes enable differential measurement of the target parameter referenced to a stable bath. This approach eliminates the uncertainties associated with non-chemical fluctuations in the fluorescent emission and result in a self-calibrated opto-chemical probe. We have also demonstrated multifunctional probes that are capable of measuring up to three parameters in the extracellular space in brain slices.

  6. Simulation of monolithic active pixels in deep sub-micron technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulos, S; Turchetta, R

    2002-01-01

    The use of monolithic active pixels (MAPS) has quickly spread in a number of scientific fields ranging from imaging to high-energy particle physics applications. The success of MAPS is due to a number of reasons, for example their low power consumption, fast readout, high spatial resolution and low cost. The latter reflects the use of standard CMOS processes for fabrication. In this paper, the performance of MAPS designed in 0.25 mu m technology will be modelled by means of TCAD device simulation software. The dependence of the device performance on parameters that affect the detection of minimum ionising particles (MIP) will be studied aiming at the optimisation of the detector performance. More specifically, the simulations will focus on the influence of the epitaxial layer thickness on the amount of collected charge, that defines the signal and the cluster size, that affects the spatial resolution.

  7. Sub-micron resolution high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography in quality inspection for printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, J.; Lauri, J.; Sliz, R.; Fält, P.; Fabritius, T.; Myllylä, R.; Cense, B.

    2012-04-01

    We present the use of sub-micron resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) in quality inspection for printed electronics. The device used in the study is based on a supercontinuum light source, Michelson interferometer and high-speed spectrometer. The spectrometer in the presented spectral-domain optical coherence tomography setup (SD-OCT) is centered at 600 nm and covers a 400 nm wide spectral region ranging from 400 nm to 800 nm. Spectra were acquired at a continuous rate of 140,000 per second. The full width at half maximum of the point spread function obtained from a Parylene C sample was 0:98 m. In addition to Parylene C layers, the applicability of sub-micron SD-OCT in printed electronics was studied using PET and epoxy covered solar cell, a printed RFID antenna and a screen-printed battery electrode. A commercial SD-OCT system was used for reference measurements.

  8. Estimate of the particle size in nanoparticles of magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paresque, M.C.; Castro, J.A.; Campos, M.F.; Oliveira, E.M.; Liuzzi, M.A.S.C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full Text: Nanocrystalline particles of Fe3O4 were produced by co-precipitation in aquous mean. The particle size of magnetite is a very important parameter, because for particle size around 30 nm there is a transition superparamagnetic for ferromagnetic. This transition profoundly affects the properties of the nanofluid. The Langevin model allows an estimate of the particle size, directly from measured hysteresis curves. In this study, the particle size was also determined by x-ray diffraction with Rietveld analysis and by a Laser Particle Size Analyzer equipment. These two methods pointed out particle size around 20 nm. (author)

  9. Effective Use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) in Investigating Fundamental Mechanical Properties of Metals at the Sub-Micron Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in the 2-beam focused ion beams technology (FIB) have enabled researchers to not only perform high-precision nanolithography and micro-machining, but also to apply these novel fabrication techniques to investigating a broad range of materials' properties at the submicron and nano-scales. In our work, the FIB is utilized in manufacturing of sub-micron cylinders, or nano-pillars, as well as of TEM cross-sections to directly investigate plasticity of metals at thes...

  10. Trends and sources of ozone and sub-micron aerosols at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory during 2004-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Jaffe, D. A.; Hee, J.

    2016-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) and airborne particles have significant impacts on human health and the environment. The Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO, 2.8 km a.s.l.) in Central Oregon, USA, now has one of the longest continuous free tropospheric records of O3, CO and aerosols in North America. In this study, we report on sources and trends of O3 and sub-micron aerosol scattering at MBO for 2004-2015. For O3, the seasonal cycle shows a bimodal pattern with peaks in April and July, while aerosol scattering (σsp) is lognormally distributed with a very high average in August and a smaller maximum in May. Mean O3 concentrations show a positive and significant trend in all seasons except winter, with an increase of approximately 0.6 ppb/year. This trend appears to be driven by Asian pollution in spring and regional wildfires in summer. For aerosol scattering, we see a significant increase only in summer, driven by recent increases in wildfire activity in the western US. Monthly criteria for isolating free troposphere (FT) and boundary layer (BL) air masses at MBO were obtained based on comparison of MBO water vapor (WV) distributions to those of Salem (SLE) and Medford (MFR), Oregon at equivalent pressure level. In all seasons, FT O3 is, on average, higher than BL O3, but the seasonal patterns are rather similar. For σsp the mean in summer is significantly higher than the FT, indicating the importance of regional wildfire smoke. We have identified four types of air masses that impact O3, CO and aerosols: Asian long range transport (ALRT), regional wildfires, regional industrial pollution, and upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) intrusions. Over the 12 years of observations, we have identified 204 individual plume events based on the criteria of 8 consecutive polluted hours with elevated σsp, O3 or CO. Multi-pollutant correlations and backward trajectories were used to differentiate background source categories. A series of enhancement ratios (ERs) including

  11. Prescribed 3-D Direct Writing of Suspended Micron/Sub-micron Scale Fiber Structures via a Robotic Dispensing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hanwen; Cambron, Scott D; Keynton, Robert S

    2015-06-12

    A 3-axis dispensing system is utilized to control the initiating and terminating fiber positions and trajectory via the dispensing software. The polymer fiber length and orientation is defined by the spatial positioning of the dispensing system 3-axis stages. The fiber diameter is defined by the prescribed dispense time of the dispensing system valve, the feed rate (the speed at which the stage traverses from an initiating to a terminating position), the gauge diameter of the dispensing tip, the viscosity and surface tension of the polymer solution, and the programmed drawing length. The stage feed rate affects the polymer solution's evaporation rate and capillary breakup of the filaments. The dispensing system consists of a pneumatic valve controller, a droplet-dispensing valve and a dispensing tip. Characterization of the direct write process to determine the optimum combination of factors leads to repeatedly acquiring the desired range of fiber diameters. The advantage of this robotic dispensing system is the ease of obtaining a precise range of micron/sub-micron fibers onto a desired, programmed location via automated process control. Here, the discussed self-assembled micron/sub-micron scale 3D structures have been employed to fabricate suspended structures to create micron/sub-micron fluidic devices and bioengineered scaffolds.

  12. Particle size distribution control of Pt particles used for particle gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiji, M.; Akiba, H.; Nagao, H.; Hirasawa, I.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is particle size distribution (PSD) control of submicron sized Pt particles used for particle gun. In this report, simple reaction crystallization is conducted by mixing H2PtCl6 and ascorbic acid. Without the additive, obtained Pt particles have broad PSD and reproducibility of experiment is low. With seeding, Pt particles have narrow PSD and reproducibility improved. Additionally, mean particle diameter of 100-700 nm is controlled by changing seeding amount. Obtained particles are successfully characterized as Pt by XRD results. Moreover, XRD spectra indicate that obtained particles are polycrystals. These experimental results suggest that seeding consumed nucleation, as most nuclei attached on the seed surface. This mechanism virtually restricted nucleation to have narrow PSD can be obtained.

  13. Micron-sized polymeric particles from cashew nut shell liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of emulsifier concentration, sodium hydroxide concentration and stirring rate on average particle size and size distribution was studied for the given geometry of the reactor and the stirrer. It was found that these variables have a significant effect on the particle size and particle size distribution and that average ...

  14. Systematic Sub-Micron Na/Ca Banding in Orbulina universa and bilobata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, E. A.; Zhu, Z.; Spero, H. J.; Hoenisch, B.; Russell, A. D.; Fehrenbacher, J. S.; Gagnon, A. C.

    2016-02-01

    Mg/Ca ratios in planktic foraminifera are used widely as a proxy for past sea-surface temperatures. However, over the last decade, it has become clear that these ratios are not constant throughout the shell. Instead these ratios vary systematically by several fold between day and night independent of temperature, a phenomenon that has yet to be explained mechanistically. Determining whether elements other than Mg also exhibit sub-micron banding is essential to properly interpret Me/Ca-based paleoproxies and could help constrain the mechanisms causing Me/Ca variability. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), an isotope mapping technique with a spatial resolution of roughly 200 nm, we discovered systematic Na/Ca banding in individuals of the symbiont-bearing planktic foraminifer Orbulina universa that had been cultured at constant temperature. Using stable-isotope time stamps, we show that this Na/Ca banding varies inversely with Mg/Ca, with high Na/Ca during the day and low Na/Ca at night for most individuals. Using a combination of analytical models and complementary instrumental techniques, we test whether these patterns can be explained by various ion transport processes. In addition to this Na/Ca banding pattern, there is a distinct region of both high Mg/Ca and high Na/Ca at the location of the primary organic membrane. This POM signature may be a useful way to map organic layers in foraminifera, a method we tested in bilobata, a rare morphotype of O. universa that develops a secondary sphere. Mapping Na/Ca and Mg/Ca in bilobata, we show that an additional organic layer is required during secondary sphere growth and that mineralization occurs over both spheres when this additional quasi-chamber forms. Applying ToF-SIMS and our new understanding of Na/Ca heterogeneity to bilobata is a first step towards connecting the extensive geochemical knowledge developed in O. universa to the multi-chambered species used in paleoceanography.

  15. The Particle-Size Toolbox: 3D modelling of particle-size distributions in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Sam; Weltje, Gert Jan

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a Matlab toolbox for creating three-dimensional models of complete particle-size distributions in the subsurface. Three modules comprise the toolbox: (i) integration; (ii) optimization, and (iii) interpolation. The integration module accepts a wide variety of input data from boreholes and surface samples. These are converted into a common format. Particle-size data are integrated using a combination of interpolation or Gaussian simulation techniques. Data can be calibrated to minimise the influence of different analytical techniques. Data optimisation relies on subdividing the integrated data into geological units and gridding borehole data to a regular cell size. The optimization step applies principal component analysis to quantify and exclude noise from the data based on individual geological unit volumes. Typically two to three principal components are then used for interpolation. The interpolation module involves standard semi-variogram modelling, cross-validation and interpolation procedures. These can run in Matlab using mGstat, or in Geovariances Isatis via batch processing. Interpolated principal component scores are back-transformed into complete particle-size distributions. Uncertainty in the modelled distributions is quantified by back-transforming the error variance to derive an upper and lower distribution envelope. These data can be used to derive a single measure of uncertainty for each particle-size distribution: the simplicial distance metric.

  16. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...... but a slightly smaller size was indicated by all methods for Lipidem. Sub-micron resolution was best in the Coulter LS but the fraction of larger particles in the upper nm-range was presumably underestimated. The emulsions could be analyzed in a highly reproducible manner by asymmetrical flow field...

  17. Size Effect on Specific Energy Distribution in Particle Comminution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfu; Wang, Yidong

    A theoretical study is made to derive an energy distribution equation for the size reduction process from the fractal model for the particle comminution. Fractal model is employed as a valid measure of the self-similar size distribution of comminution daughter products. The tensile strength of particles varies with particle size in the manner of a power function law. The energy consumption for comminuting single particle is found to be proportional to the 5(D-3)/3rd order of the particle size, D being the fractal dimension of particle comminution daughter. The Weibull statistics is applied to describe the relationship between the breakage probability and specific energy of particle comminution. A simple equation is derived for the breakage probability of particles in view of the dependence of fracture energy on particle size. The calculated exponents and Weibull coefficients are generally in conformity with published data for fracture of particles.

  18. Enhanced computational performance of the lattice Boltzmann model for simulating micron- and submicron-size particle flows and non-Newtonian fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başağaoğlu, Hakan; Harwell, John R.; Nguyen, Hoa; Succi, Sauro

    2017-04-01

    Significant improvements in the computational performance of the lattice-Boltzmann (LB) model, coded in FORTRAN90, were achieved through application of enhancement techniques. Applied techniques include optimization of array memory layouts, data structure simplification, random number generation outside the simulation thread(s), code parallelization via OpenMP, and intra- and inter-timestep task pipelining. Effectiveness of these optimization techniques was measured on three benchmark problems: (i) transient flow of multiple particles in a Newtonian fluid in a heterogeneous fractured porous domain, (ii) thermal fluctuation of the fluid at the sub-micron scale and the resultant Brownian motion of a particle, and (iii) non-Newtonian fluid flow in a smooth-walled channel. Application of the aforementioned optimization techniques resulted in an average 21 × performance improvement, which could significantly enhance practical uses of the LB models in diverse applications, focusing on the fate and transport of nano-size or micron-size particles in non-Newtonian fluids.

  19. An alternative method for determining particle-size distribution of forest road aggregate and soil with large-sized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakjun Rhee; Randy B. Foltz; James L. Fridley; Finn Krogstad; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of particle-size distribution (PSD) of soil with large-sized particles (e.g., 25.4 mm diameter) requires a large sample and numerous particle-size analyses (PSAs). A new method is needed that would reduce time, effort, and cost for PSAs of the soil and aggregate material with large-sized particles. We evaluated a nested method for sampling and PSA by...

  20. High Proportions of Sub-micron Particulate Matter in Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur; Magnusdottir, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    in situ measurements at the dust source in 2013 revealed extremely high number concentrations of submicron particles, specifically in the size range 0.3-0.337 μm. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios of mass concentrations seem to be lower at the dust sources that in some distance from the sources as measured in 2015. Common dust storms in Iceland are of several hundred thousand tons of magnitude from relatively well defined main dust sources. Numerical simulations were used calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 - 280,000 tons in this study. The mean PM1 (PM10) concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from 97 to 241 µg m-3 (PM10 = 158 to 583 µg m-3). The extent of moderate dust events was calculated as 2.450 km2 to 4.220 km2 of the land area suggesting the regional scale of the events. Dust plumes reported here passed the most densely inhabited areas of Iceland, health risk warnings for the general public were, however, not issued. The data provided stresses the need for such warning system and is an important step towards its development.

  1. A Nordic project on high speed low power design in sub-micron CMOS technology for mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ole

    This paper is a survey paper presenting the Nordic CONFRONT project and reporting some results from the group at CIE/DTU, Denmark. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of sub-micron CMOS for the realisation of RF front-end circuits operating at frequencies in the 1.......8-2.0 GHz range. The ultimate goal is a single-chip transceiver, requiring only an external band-pass filter between the chip and the antenna. DECT has been chosen as a comparative standard to compare the new approaches developed in the work as well as to facilitate good knowledge transfer to industry. All...

  2. A simple and wide-range refractive index measuring approach by using a sub-micron grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Chun-Che; Lin, Shih-Chieh [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-13

    This paper presents the design and simulation results of a high-precision low-cost refractometer that demonstrates the main advantage of a wide measurement range (1 ≤ n ≤ 2). The proposed design is based on the diffractive properties of sub-micron gratings and Snell's Law. The precision and uncertainty factors of the proposed system were tested and analyzed, revealing that the proposed refractometer demonstrates a wide measurement range with sensitivity of 10{sup −4}.

  3. Concentration and size distribution of particles in abstracted groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, C G E M; de Zwart, A H; Balemans, M; Kooiman, J W; van Rosmalen, C; Timmer, H; Vandersluys, J; Stuyfzand, P J

    2010-02-01

    Particle number concentrations have been counted and particle size distributions calculated in groundwater derived by abstraction wells. Both concentration and size distribution are governed by the discharge rate: the higher this rate the higher the concentration and the higher the proportion of larger particles. However, the particle concentration in groundwater derived from abstraction wells, with high groundwater flow velocities, is much lower than in groundwater from monitor wells, with minimal flow velocities. This inconsistency points to exhaustion of the particle supply in the aquifer around wells due to groundwater abstraction for many years. The particle size distribution can be described with the help of a power law or Pareto distribution. Comparing the measured particle size distribution with the Pareto distribution shows that particles with a diameter >7 microm are under-represented. As the particle size distribution is dependent on the flow velocity, so is the value of the "Pareto" slope beta. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling of Recent Changes In The Urban Particle Size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, J.; Heyder, J.; Kreyling, W. G.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, H. E.

    Measurements of the particle size distribution in the environment of the East German city of Erfurt over the last decade showed a constant or slight increase in the number of particles smaller than 0.1 µm (ultrafine particles) and a decrease in the number of larger particles (fine particles) confirmed by a 3-4 fold decrease in PM2 . This effect .5 may be attributed to a possible increase in ultrafine particle emission, a decrease in fine particle emission and consequently by less scavenging of ultrafine by fine parti- cles. Numerical protocols were developed to examine this conjecture supporting their validity. The measurement protocol, the implications of the increase in ultrafine par- ticles along with a decrease in micron size particles, and the development of a nu- merical code (mathematical model?) to examine this phenomenon are discussed. The codes were developed to simulate coagulation with broad distributions. The simula- tions quantitatively examine the effect of the reduction of micron sized particles on ul- trafine particle persistence. They indicate the necessity of a continual source of micron sized particles, since sedimentation would eliminate such particles without continual renewal. The code is described in detail, with particular attention paid to the effect of the coagulation kernel used in the particle balance equations. These simulations sug- gest that it is important to use coagulation kernels appropriate for the transition regime. Otherwise the collision of similarly sized ultrafine particles are underestimated. Sev- eral protocols accounting for different continual source terms are studied.

  5. Particle size effects on compositional analyses of Nigerian Tarsands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsola, Olayinka I.; Williams, Paul C.

    Nigeria is endowed with huge reserves of tarsands from which about 31 billion barrels of heavy oil, a suitable feedstock for the production of lubricating oil, greases, bitumen and asphalt, can be produced. Before utilization of conversion, carbonaceous and or mineral materials are usually ground and sieved to smaller particle sizes. The main objective of this study was to investigate the chemical compositional variations of Nigerian tarsands with variations in particle size. Results of the study show that the chemical properties vary with particle size. For example, the moisture and organic contents decrease with decrease in particle size. The carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents of the organic matter of the tarsands also decreased with decrease in particle size. The practical implication of the results obtained from this study is that particle size below 0.85mm should not be recommended for the conversion or processing of the tarsands to liquid and or gas products.

  6. Image-Guided Ultrasound Characterization of Volatile Sub-Micron Phase-Shift Droplets in the 20-40 MHz Frequency Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Daghighi, Yasaman; Yoo, Kimoon; Williams, Ross; Cherin, Emmanuel; Foster, F Stuart; Burns, Peter N

    2016-03-01

    Phase-shift perfluorocarbon droplets are designed to convert from the liquid to the gas state by the external application of acoustic or optical energy. Although droplet vaporization has been investigated extensively at ultrasonic frequencies between 1 and 10 MHz, few studies have characterized performance at the higher frequencies commonly used in small animal imaging. In this study, we use standard B-mode imaging sequences on a pre-clinical ultrasound platform to both image and activate sub-micron decafluorobutane droplet populations in vitro and in vivo at center frequencies in the range of 20-40 MHz. Results show that droplets remain stable against vaporization at low imaging pressures but are vaporized at peak negative pressures near 3.5 MPa at the three frequencies tested. This study also found that a small number of size outliers present in the distribution can greatly influence droplet performance. Removal of these outliers results in a more accurate assessment of the vaporization threshold and produces free-flowing microbubbles upon vaporization in the mouse kidney. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Fast, Versatile Nanoprobe for Complex Materials: The Sub-micron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy Beamline at NSLS-II (491st Brookhaven Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Juergen [BNL Photon Sciences Directorate

    2014-02-06

    Time is money and for scientists who need to collect data at research facilities like Brookhaven Lab’s National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), “beamtime” can be a precious commodity. While scanning a complex material with a specific technique and standard equipment today would take days to complete, researchers preparing to use brighter x-rays and the new sub-micron-resolution x-ray spectroscopy (SRX) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) could scan the same sample in greater detail with just a few hours of beamtime. Talk about savings and new opportunities for researchers! Users will rely on these tools for locating trace elements in contaminated soils, developing processes for nanoparticles to deliver medical treatments, and much more. Dr. Thieme explains benefits for next-generation research with spectroscopy and more intense x-rays at NSLS-II. He discusses the instrumentation, features, and uses for the new SRX beamline, highlighting its speed, adjustability, and versatility for probing samples ranging in size from millimeters down to the nanoscale. He will talk about complementary beamlines being developed for additional capabilities at NSLS-II as well.

  8. Critical size effect of particles reinforcing foamed composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Khidas, Yacine; Haffner, Benjamin; PITOIS, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We investigate the shear elastic modulus of soft polymer foams loaded with hardspherical particles and we show that, for constant bubble size and gas volume fraction,strengthening is strongly dependent on the size of those inclusions. Through anaccurate control of the ratio λ that compares the particle size to the thickness of thestruts in the foam structure, we evidence a transition in the mechanical behavior atλ ≈ 1. For λ < 1, every particle loading leads to a stren...

  9. Particle size distribution effects on gas-particle mass transfer within electrostatic precipitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2006-06-15

    Varying degrees of mercury capture and transformation have been reported across electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Previous analyses have shown that the dominant mass transfer mechanism responsible for mercury capture within ESPs is gas-particle mass transfer during particulate collection. Whereas previous analyses assumed dispersions of uniform size, the present analysis reveals the effects of polydispersity on both gas-particle mass transfer and particle collection within an ESP. The analysis reveals that the idealized monodisperse particle size distribution provides the highest gas-particle mass transfer but results in the lowest particle collection efficiency (% mass). As the particle size distribution broadens, gas-particle mass transfer decreases and particle collection efficiency increases. The results suggest that more than just reporting mean particle diameter provided by the sorbent manufacturer, pilot- and field-tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control need to experimentally measure the particle size distribution of the sorbent as it is injected in order to facilitate interpretation of their results.

  10. Effect of silica particle size on macrophage inflammatory responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimasa Kusaka

    Full Text Available Amorphous silica particles, such as nanoparticles (<100 nm diameter particles, are used in a wide variety of products, including pharmaceuticals, paints, cosmetics, and food. Nevertheless, the immunotoxicity of these particles and the relationship between silica particle size and pro-inflammatory activity are not fully understood. In this study, we addressed the relationship between the size of amorphous silica (particle dose, diameter, number, and surface area and the inflammatory activity (macrophage phagocytosis, inflammasome activation, IL-1β secretion, cell death and lung inflammation. Irrespective of diameter size, silica particles were efficiently internalized by mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages via an actin cytoskeleton-dependent pathway, and induced caspase-1, but not caspase-11, activation. Of note, 30 nm-1000 nm diameter silica particles induced lysosomal destabilization, cell death, and IL-1β secretion at markedly higher levels than did 3000 nm-10000 nm silica particles. Consistent with in vitro results, intra-tracheal administration of 30 nm silica particles into mice caused more severe lung inflammation than that of 3000 nm silica particles, as assessed by measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice, and by the micro-computed tomography analysis. Taken together, these results suggest that silica particle size impacts immune responses, with submicron amorphous silica particles inducing higher inflammatory responses than silica particles over 1000 nm in size, which is ascribed not only to their ability to induce caspase-1 activation but also to their cytotoxicity.

  11. Imaging Flow Cytometry Assays for Quantifying Pigment Grade Titanium Dioxide Particle Internalisation and Interactions with Immune Cells in Whole Blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Rachel Elaine; Vis, B.; Pele, LC; Rodrigues Faria, Nuno Jorge; Powell, Jonathan Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Pigment grade titanium dioxide is composed of sub-micron sized particles, including a nano fraction, and is widely utilised in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and biomedical industries. Oral exposure to pigment grade titanium dioxide results in at least some material entering the circulation in humans, although subsequent interactions with blood immune cells are unknown. Pigment grade titanium dioxide is employed for its strong light scattering properties and this work exploited that attribut...

  12. Magnetic Properties of Nanometer-sized Crystalline and Amorphous Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Bødker, Franz; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    1997-01-01

    are superparamagnetic at finite temperatures. The temperature dependence of the superparamagnetic relaxation time and the influence of inter-particle interactions is discussed. Finally, some examples of studies of surface magnetization of alpha-Fe particles are presented.......Amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloy particles can be prepared by chemical preparation techniques. We discuss the preparation of transition metal-boron and iron-carbon particles and their magnetic properties. Nanometer-sized particles of both crystalline and amorphous magnetic materials...

  13. Online sizing of pneumatically conveyed particles by acoustic emission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghui; Qian, Xiangchen; Huang, Xiaobin; Gao, Lingjun; Yan, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Accurate determination of particle size distribution is critical to achieving optimal combustion efficiency and minimum pollutant emissions in both biomass and biomass/coal fired power plants. This paper presents an instrumentation system for online continuous measurement of particle size distribution based on acoustic emission (AE) method. Impulsive AE signals arising from impacts of particles with a metallic waveguide protruding into the flow carry information about the particle size. With detailed information about the generation, propagation and detection of impact AE signals, the particle size can be quantitatively characterized. Experimental results obtained with glass beads demonstrate the capability of the system to discriminate particles of different sizes from the recorded AE signals. The system has several appealing features such as online measurement, high sensitivity, simple structure, minimum invasiveness and low cost, which make it well suited for industrial applications.

  14. Artificial neural network based particle size prediction of polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youshia, John; Ali, Mohamed Ehab; Lamprecht, Alf

    2017-10-01

    Particle size of nanoparticles and the respective polydispersity are key factors influencing their biopharmaceutical behavior in a large variety of therapeutic applications. Predicting these attributes would skip many preliminary studies usually required to optimize formulations. The aim was to build a mathematical model capable of predicting the particle size of polymeric nanoparticles produced by a pharmaceutical polymer of choice. Polymer properties controlling the particle size were identified as molecular weight, hydrophobicity and surface activity, and were quantified by measuring polymer viscosity, contact angle and interfacial tension, respectively. A model was built using artificial neural network including these properties as input with particle size and polydispersity index as output. The established model successfully predicted particle size of nanoparticles covering a range of 70-400nm prepared from other polymers. The percentage bias for particle prediction was 2%, 4% and 6%, for the training, validation and testing data, respectively. Polymer surface activity was found to have the highest impact on the particle size followed by viscosity and finally hydrophobicity. Results of this study successfully highlighted polymer properties affecting particle size and confirmed the usefulness of artificial neural networks in predicting the particle size and polydispersity of polymeric nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Nordic Project Project on High Speed Low Power Design in Sub-micron CMOS Technology for Mobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a survey paper presenting the Nordic CONFRONT project and reporting some results from the group at CIE/DTU, Denmark. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of sub-micron CMOS for the realisation of RF front-end circuits operating at frequencies in the 1.......8-2.0 GHz range. The ultimate goal is a single-chip transceiver, requiring only an external band-pass filter between the chip and the antenna. DECT has been chosen as a comparative standard to compare the new approaches developed in the work as well as to facilitate good knowledge transfer to industry. All...... of including good off-chip components in the design by use of innovative, inexpensive package technology.To achieve a higher level of integration, the project will use a novel codesign approach to the design strategy. Rather than making specifications based on a purely architectural approach, the work uses...

  16. Methods for determining particle size distribution and growth rates between 1 and 3 nm using the Particle Size Magnifier

    CERN Document Server

    Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Kontkanen, Jenni; Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Wimmer, Daniela; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Junninen, Heikki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Sipilä, Mikko; Mikkilä, Jyri; Vanhanen, Joonas; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-01-01

    The most important parameters describing the atmospheric new particle formation process are the particle formation and growth rates. These together determine the amount of cloud condensation nuclei attributed to secondary particle formation. Due to difficulties in detecting small neutral particles, it has previously not been possible to derive these directly from measurements in the size range below about 3 nm. The Airmodus Particle Size Magnifier has been used at the SMEAR II station in Hyytiälä, southern Finland, and during nucleation experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN for measuring particles as small as about 1 nm in mobility diameter. We developed several methods to determine the particle size distribution and growth rates in the size range of 1–3 nm from these data sets. Here we introduce the appearance-time method for calculating initial growth rates. The validity of the method was tested by simulations with the Ion-UHMA aerosol dynamic model.

  17. Particle size distribution in ferrofluid macro-clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wah-Keat, E-mail: wklee@bnl.gov [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ilavsky, Jan [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Under an applied magnetic field, many commercial and concentrated ferrofluids agglomerate and form large micron-sized structures. Although large diameter particles have been implicated in the formation of these macro-clusters, the question of whether the particle size distribution of the macro-clusters are the same as the original fluid remains open. Some studies suggest that these macro-clusters consist of larger particles, while others have shown that there is no difference in the particle size distribution between the macro-clusters and the original fluid. In this study, we use X-ray imaging to aid in a sample (diluted EFH-1 from Ferrotec) separation process and conclusively show that the average particle size in the macro-clusters is significantly larger than those in the original sample. The average particle size in the macro-clusters is 19.6 nm while the average particle size of the original fluid is 11.6 nm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray imaging was used to isolate ferrofluid macro-clusters under an applied field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small angle X-ray scattering was used to determine particle size distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results show that macro-clusters consist of particles that are larger than average.

  18. Particle size analysis of amalgam powder and handpiece generated specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J L; Hathorn, R M; Cailas, M D; Karuhn, R

    2001-07-01

    The increasing interest in the elimination of amalgam particles from the dental waste (DW) stream, requires efficient devices to remove these particles. The major objective of this project was to perform a comparative evaluation of five basic methods of particle size analysis in terms of the instrument's ability to quantify the size distribution of the various components within the DW stream. The analytical techniques chosen were image analysis via scanning electron microscopy, standard wire mesh sieves, X-ray sedigraphy, laser diffraction, and electrozone analysis. The DW particle stream components were represented by amalgam powders and handpiece/diamond bur generated specimens of enamel; dentin, whole tooth, and condensed amalgam. Each analytical method quantified the examined DW particle stream components. However, X-ray sedigraphy, electrozone, and laser diffraction particle analyses provided similar results for determining particle distributions of DW samples. These three methods were able to more clearly quantify the properties of the examined powder and condensed amalgam samples. Furthermore, these methods indicated that a significant fraction of the DW stream contains particles less than 20 microm. The findings of this study indicated that the electrozone method is likely to be the most effective technique for quantifying the particle size distribution in the DW particle stream. This method required a relative small volume of sample, was not affected by density, shape factors or optical properties, and measured a sufficient number of particles to provide a reliable representation of the particle size distribution curve.

  19. Improved mathematical models for particle-size distribution data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior studies have suggested that particle-size distribution data of soils is central and helpful in this regard. This study proposes two improved mathematical models to describe and represent the varied particle-size distribution (PSD) data for tropically weathered residual (TWR) soils. The theoretical analysis and the ...

  20. Concentration and size distribution of particles in abstracted groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beek, C.G.E.M.; de Zwart, A.H.; Balemans, M.; Kooiman, J.W.; van Rosmalen, C.; Timmer, H.; Vandersluys, J.; Stuijfzand, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Particle number concentrations have been counted and particle size distributions calculated in groundwater derived by abstraction wells. Both concentration and size distribution are governed by the discharge rate: the higher this rate the higher the concentration and the higher the proportion of

  1. Numerical methods for integrating particle-size frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltje, Gert Jan; Roberson, Sam

    2012-07-01

    This article presents a suite of numerical methods contained within a Matlab toolbox for constructing complete particle-size distributions from diverse particle-size data. These centre around the application of a constrained cubic-spline interpolation to logit-transformed cumulative percentage frequency data. This approach allows for the robust prediction of frequency values for a set of common particle-size categories. The scheme also calculates realistic, smoothly tapering tails for open-ended distributions using a non-linear extrapolation algorithm. An inversion of established graphic measures to calculate graphic cumulative percentiles is also presented. The robustness of the interpolation-extrapolation model is assessed using particle-size data from 4885 sediment samples from The Netherlands. The influence of the number, size and position of particle-size categories on the accuracy of modeled particle-size distributions was investigated by running a series of simulations using the empirical data set. Goodness-of-fit statistics between modeled distributions and input data are calculated by measuring the Euclidean distance between log-ratio transformed particle-size distributions. Technique accuracy, estimated as the mean goodness-of-fit between repeat sample measurements, was used to identify optimum model parameters. Simulations demonstrate that the data can be accurately characterized by 22 equal-width particle-size categories and 63 equiprobable particle-size categories. Optimal interpolation parameters are highly dependent on the density and position of particle-size categories in the original data set and on the overall level of technique accuracy.

  2. Particle size and particle-particle interactions on tensile properties and reinforcement of corn flour particles in natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable corn flour has a significant reinforcement effect in natural rubber. The corn flour was hydrolyzed and microfluidized to reduce its particle size. Greater than 90% of the hydrolyzed corn flour had an average size of ~300 nm, a reduction of 33 times compared to unhydrolyzed corn flour. Comp...

  3. Identification of Retroviral Late Domains as Determinants of Particle Size

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier, Laurence; Parent, Leslie J.; Rovinski, Benjamin; Cao, Shi-Xian; Wills, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Retroviral Gag proteins, in the absence of any other viral products, induce budding and release of spherical, virus-like particles from the plasma membrane. Gag-produced particles, like those of authentic retrovirions, are not uniform in diameter but nevertheless fall within a fairly narrow distribution of sizes. For the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein, we recently reported that elements important for controlling particle size are contained within the C-terminal region...

  4. Stability of MC Carbide Particles Size in Creep Resisting Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodopivec, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis of the dependence microstructure creep rate. Discussion on the effects of carbide particles size and their distribution on the base of accelerated creep tests on a steel X20CrMoV121 tempered at 800 °C. Analysis of the stability of carbide particles size in terms of free energy of formation of the compound. Explanation of the different effect of VC and NbC particles on accelerated creep rate.

  5. Direct determination of highly size-resolved turbulent particle fluxes with the disjunct eddy covariance method and a 12 – stage electrical low pressure impactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schmidt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During summer 2007, turbulent vertical particle mass and number fluxes were measured for a period of 98 days near the city centre of Münster in north-west Germany. For this purpose, a valve controlled disjunct eddy covariance system was mounted at 65 m a.g.l. on a military radio tower. The concentration values for 11 size bins with aerodynamic diameters (D50 from 0.03 to 10 μm were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. After comparison with other fluxes obtained from 10 Hz measurements with the classical eddy covariance method, the loss of information concerning high frequent parts of the flux could be stated as negligible. The results offer an extended insight in the turbulent atmospheric exchange of aerosol particles by highly size-resolved particle fluxes covering 11 size bins and show that the city of Münster acts as a relevant source for aerosol particles.

    Significant differences occur between the fluxes of the various particle size classes. While the total particle number flux shows a pattern which is strictly correlated to the diurnal course of the turbulence regime and the traffic intensity, the total mass flux exhibits a single minimum in the evening hours when coarse particles start to deposit.

    As a result, a mean mass deposition of about 10 mg m−2 per day was found above the urban test site, covering the aerosol size range from 40 nm to 2.0 μm. By contrast, the half-hourly total number fluxes accumulated over the lower ELPI stages range from −4.29×107 to +1.44×108 particles m−2 s−1 and are clearly dominated by the sub-micron particle fraction of the impactor stages with diameters between 40 nm and 320 nm. The averaged number fluxes of particles with diameters between 2.0 and 6.4 μm show lower turbulent dynamics during daytime and partially remarkably high negative fluxes with mean deposition velocities of 2×10−3 m

  6. Direct determination of highly size-resolved turbulent particle fluxes with the disjunct eddy covariance method and a 12 - stage electrical low pressure impactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Klemm, O.

    2008-12-01

    During summer 2007, turbulent vertical particle mass and number fluxes were measured for a period of 98 days near the city centre of Münster in north-west Germany. For this purpose, a valve controlled disjunct eddy covariance system was mounted at 65 m a.g.l. on a military radio tower. The concentration values for 11 size bins with aerodynamic diameters (D50) from 0.03 to 10 μm were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. After comparison with other fluxes obtained from 10 Hz measurements with the classical eddy covariance method, the loss of information concerning high frequent parts of the flux could be stated as negligible. The results offer an extended insight in the turbulent atmospheric exchange of aerosol particles by highly size-resolved particle fluxes covering 11 size bins and show that the city of Münster acts as a relevant source for aerosol particles. Significant differences occur between the fluxes of the various particle size classes. While the total particle number flux shows a pattern which is strictly correlated to the diurnal course of the turbulence regime and the traffic intensity, the total mass flux exhibits a single minimum in the evening hours when coarse particles start to deposit. As a result, a mean mass deposition of about 10 mg m-2 per day was found above the urban test site, covering the aerosol size range from 40 nm to 2.0 μm. By contrast, the half-hourly total number fluxes accumulated over the lower ELPI stages range from -4.29×107 to +1.44×108 particles m-2 s-1 and are clearly dominated by the sub-micron particle fraction of the impactor stages with diameters between 40 nm and 320 nm. The averaged number fluxes of particles with diameters between 2.0 and 6.4 μm show lower turbulent dynamics during daytime and partially remarkably high negative fluxes with mean deposition velocities of 2×10-3 m s-1 that appear temporary during noontime and in the evening hours.

  7. Sonochemical synthesis of silica particles and their size control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwa-Min [Advanced Materials and Chemical Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 38430 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hyun [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 38430 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bonghwan, E-mail: bhkim@cu.ac.kr [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 38430 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silica particles were easily prepared by an ultrasound-assisted sol–gel method. • The particle size was controlled by the ammonium hydroxide/water molar ratio. • The size-controlled diameter of silica particles ranged from 40 to 400 nm. • The particles were formed in a relatively short reaction time. - Abstract: Using an ultrasound-assisted sol–gel method, we successfully synthesized very uniformly shaped, monodisperse, and size-controlled spherical silica particles from a mixture of ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate in the presence of ammonia as catalyst, at room temperature. The diameters of the silica particles were distributed in the range from 40 to 400 nm; their morphology was well characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The silica particle size could be adjusted by choosing suitable concentrations of ammonium hydroxide and water, which in turn determined the nucleation and growth rates of the particles during the reaction. This sonochemical-based silica synthesis offers an alternative way to produce spherical silica particles in a relatively short reaction time. Thus, we suggest that this simple, low-cost, and efficient method of preparing uniform silica particles of various sizes will have practical and wide-ranging industrial applicability.

  8. Deviation from threshold model in ultrafast laser ablation of graphene at sub-micron scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Villalba, A.; Xie, C.; Salut, R.; Furfaro, L.; Giust, R.; Jacquot, M.; Lacourt, P. A.; Dudley, J. M.; Courvoisier, F., E-mail: francois.courvoisier@femto-st.fr [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne Franche-Comte, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France)

    2015-08-10

    We investigate a method to measure ultrafast laser ablation threshold with respect to spot size. We use structured complex beams to generate a pattern of craters in CVD graphene with a single laser pulse. A direct comparison between beam profile and SEM characterization allows us to determine the dependence of ablation probability on spot-size, for crater diameters ranging between 700 nm and 2.5 μm. We report a drastic decrease of ablation probability when the crater diameter is below 1 μm which we interpret in terms of free-carrier diffusion.

  9. Reduction of glycine particle size by impinging jet crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, Tímea; Fekete, Zoltán; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Aigner, Zoltán

    2015-01-15

    The parameters of crystallization processes determine the habit and particle size distribution of the products. A narrow particle size distribution and a small average particle size are crucial for the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble pharmacons. Thus, particle size reduction is often required during crystallization processes. Impinging jet crystallization is a method that results in a product with a reduced particle size due to the homogeneous and high degree of supersaturation at the impingement point. In this work, the applicability of the impinging jet technique as a new approach in crystallization was investigated for the antisolvent crystallization of glycine. A factorial design was applied to choose the relevant crystallization factors. The results were analysed by means of a statistical program. The particle size distribution of the crystallized products was investigated with a laser diffraction particle size analyser. The roundness and morphology were determined with the use of a light microscopic image analysis system and a scanning electron microscope. Polymorphism was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Headspace gas chromatography was utilized to determine the residual solvent content. Impinging jet crystallization proved to reduce the particle size of glycine. The particle size distribution was appropriate, and the average particle size was an order of magnitude smaller (d(0.5)=8-35 μm) than that achieved with conventional crystallization (d(0.5)=82-680 μm). The polymorphic forms of the products were influenced by the solvent ratio. The quantity of residual solvent in the crystallized products was in compliance with the requirements of the International Conference on Harmonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and characterization of sub-micron dispersions of sand in ethylene glycol-water mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Manikandan,S.; Karthikeyan, N.; M Silambarasan; K. S. Suganthi; Rajan, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on the preparation and characterization of dispersions of sand in ethylene glycol-water (50-50%) mixture. The dispersions were prepared by stirred bead milling of 20-30 µm sand (in water) followed by dilution with water and ethylene glycol. The influence of temperature (31-45 ºC), particle concentration (< 2 vol %) and ultrasonication on the viscosity of sand-ethylene glycol-water dispersions was studied. The thermal conductivity of dispersions as a function of pa...

  11. Effects of particle size distribution in thick film conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of particle size distribution in thick film conductors are discussed. The distribution of particle sizes does have an effect on fired film density but the effect is not always positive. A proper distribution of sizes is necessary, and while the theoretical models can serve as guides to selecting this proper distribution, improved densities can be achieved by empirical variations from the predictions of the models.

  12. Particle dispersion and segregation in suspension flows with bidispersed particle sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Amanda; Maxey, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Suspensions of neutrally buoyant, non-Brownian particles with monodispersed size in a low Reynolds number pressure driven flow display an irreversible net flux of particles towards the center of the channel, leading to tightly packed particles at the core of the channel and a low concentration of particles near the walls. When the particles have bidispersed sizes, the large particles on average migrate to the center of the channel faster than the smaller particles, which can lead to separation of the particles by size. We will present a series of numerical simulations for dense suspensions of bidispersed particles in a planar channel with a range of size ratios. The particles segregate by size across the channel when both the size ratio of large to small particles and the initial volume fraction of large particles are sufficiently large. We will discuss the dynamics behind this segregation and the role of particle contact pressure and compare the volume fraction and stress profiles to those of monodispersed suspensions and suspension balance models.

  13. Chemical Composition and Particle Size Analysis of Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehu Yahaya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mineral and elemental composition, crystal structure and particle size distribution of kaolin clays have been determined to ascertain its industrial significance. The mineral composition is evaluated by X- Ray Fluorescence (XRF, crystalline structure by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and particle size distribution using low angle laser light scattering (LALLS technique. The results shows the presence of eight elements expressed in percentages in form of their oxides as: SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, K2O, TiO2 and P2O5. Five crystalline structures are revealed by XRD result. The particle size distribution shows that kaolin particles are mainly in the range of 25–35 µm, while few particles have size distribution varied between 0.4–0.75 μm. The report is found to be in agreement with other researchers.

  14. Image processing applied to measurement of particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fabio; Lasso, Willian; Torres, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Five different types of aggregates have been analyzed, and the size of particles on samples immersed in distilled water as silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide, styrenes and crushed silica particles is made; an attempt at applying the digital image processing (DIP) technique to analyze the particle size, we developed a system of measures microparticles using a microscope, a CCD camera and acquisition software and video processing developed in MATLAB. These studies are combined with laser light using measurements by diffractometry and obtain calibration in the system implemented, in this work we achievement measurement particle size on the order of 4 to 6 micrometers. The study demonstrates that DIP is a fast, convenient, versatile, and accurate technique for particle size analysis; the limitations of implemented setup too will be discussed.

  15. Particle size distributions of several commonly used seeding aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosswy, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    During the course of experimentation, no solid particle powder could be found which produced an aerosol with a narrow particle size distribution when fluidization was the only flow process used in producing the aerosol. The complication of adding particle size fractionation processes to the aerosol generation effort appears to be avoidable. In this regard, a simple sonic orifice is found to be effective in reducing the percentage of agglomerates in the several metal oxide powders tested. Marginally beneficial results are obtained for a 0.5/99.5 percent by weight mixture of the flow agent and metal oxide powder. However, agglomeration is observed to be enhanced when the flow agent percentage is increased to 5 percent. Liquid atomization using the Collison nebulizer as well as a version of the Laskin nozzle resulted in polydispersed aerosols with particle size distributions heavily weighted by the small particle end of the size spectrum. The aerosol particle size distributions produced by the vaporization/condensation seeder are closer to the ideal monodispersed aerosol than any of the other aerosols tested. In addition, this seeding approach affords a measure of control over particle size and particle production rate.

  16. Nanometer Sized Silver Particles Embedded Silica Particles—Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunagaran B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spherical shaped, nanometer to micro meter sized silica particles were prepared in a homogeneous nature by spray technique. Silver nanoparticles were produced over the surface of the silica grains in a harmonized manner. The size of silver and silica particles was effectively controlled by the precursors and catalysts. The electrostatic repulsion among the silica spheres and the electro static attraction between silica spheres and silver particles make the synchronized structure of the synthesized particles and the morphological images are revealed by transmission electron microscope. The silver ions are reduced by sodium borohydride. Infra red spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirm the formation of silver–silica composite particles. Thermal stability of the prepared particles obtained from thermal analysis ensures its higher temperature applications. The resultant silver embedded silica particles can be easily suspended in diverse solvents and would be useful for variety of applications.

  17. Determination of reactivity rates of silicate particle-size fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cristina Fernandes Deus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of sources used for soil acidity correction depends on reactivity rate (RR and neutralization power (NP, indicated by effective calcium carbonate (ECC. Few studies establish relative efficiency of reactivity (RER for silicate particle-size fractions, therefore, the RER applied for lime are used. This study aimed to evaluate the reactivity of silicate materials affected by particle size throughout incubation periods in comparison to lime, and to calculate the RER for silicate particle-size fractions. Six correction sources were evaluated: three slags from distinct origins, dolomitic and calcitic lime separated into four particle-size fractions (2, 0.84, 0.30 and <0.30-mm sieves, and wollastonite, as an additional treatment. The treatments were applied to three soils with different texture classes. The dose of neutralizing material (calcium and magnesium oxides was applied at equal quantities, and the only variation was the particle-size material. After a 90-day incubation period, the RER was calculated for each particle-size fraction, as well as the RR and ECC of each source. The neutralization of soil acidity of the same particle-size fraction for different sources showed distinct solubility and a distinct reaction between silicates and lime. The RER for slag were higher than the limits established by Brazilian legislation, indicating that the method used for limes should not be used for the slags studied here.

  18. Saturn's rings - Particle size distributions for thin layer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebker, H. A.; Marouf, E. A.; Tyler, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    A model incorporating limited interaction between the incident energy and particles in the ring is considered which appears to be consistent with the multiple scattering process in Saturn's rings. The model allows for the small physical thickness of the rings and can be used to relate Voyager 1 observations of 3.6- and 13-cm wavelength microwave scatter from the rings to the ring particle size distribution function for particles with radii ranging from 0.001 to 20 m. This limited-scatter model yields solutions for particle size distribution functions for eight regions in the rings, which exhibit approximately inverse-cubic power-law behavior.

  19. Space Shuttle exhausted aluminum oxide - A measured particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Purgold, G. C.; Edahl, R. A.; Winstead, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    Aluminum oxide (A2O3) particles were collected from the Space Shuttle exhaust plume immediately following the launch of STS-34 on October 18, 1989. A2O3 samples were obtained at 2.4, 3.0, 3.2, and 7.4 km in altitude. The samples were analyzed using SEM to develope particle size distributions. There were no indications that the particle size distribution changed as a function of altitude. The particle number concentrations per cubic meter of air sampled for the four collections was found to fit an exponential expression.

  20. Effect of biochar particle size on hydrophobic organic compound sorption kinetics: Applicability of using representative size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seju; Jung, Jihyeun; Choe, Jong Kwon; Ok, Yong Sik; Choi, Yongju

    2017-11-16

    Particle size of biochar may strongly affect the kinetics of hydrophobic organic compound (HOC) sorption. However, challenges exist in characterizing the effect of biochar particle size on the sorption kinetics because of the wide size range of biochar. The present study suggests a novel method to determine a representative value that can be used to show the dependence of HOC sorption kinetics to biochar particle size on the basis of an intra-particle diffusion model. Biochars derived from three different feedstocks are ground and sieved to obtain three daughter products each having different size distributions. Phenanthrene sorption kinetics to the biochars are well described by the intra-particle diffusion model with significantly greater sorption rates observed for finer grained biochars. The time to reach 95% of equilibrium for phenanthrene sorption to biochar is reduced from 4.6-17.9days for the original biochars to biochars with biochar particle radius obtained using particle size distribution analysis and the apparent phenanthrene sorption rates determined by the sorption kinetics experiments and normalized to account for the variation of the sorption rate-determining factors other than the biochar particle radius. The results suggest that the representative biochar particle radius reasonably describes the dependence of HOC sorption rates on biochar particle size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Implant debris particle size affects serum protein adsorption which may contribute to particle size-based bioreactivity differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Anand; Caicedo, Marco; Samelko, Lauryn; Jacobs, Joshua J; Hallab, Nadim James

    2014-01-01

    Biologic reactivity to orthopedic implant debris mediates long-term clinical performance of total joint arthroplasty implants. However, why some facets of implant debris are more pro-inflammatory remains controversial such as particle size, shape, base material etc. This precludes accurate prediction and optimal design of modern total joint replacements. We hypothesized that debris particle size can influence adsorbed protein film composition and affect subsequent bioreactivity. We measured size-dependent protein film-adsorption, and adsorbed protein film-dependent cytokine release using equal surface areas of different sized cobalt-chromium-alloy (CoCr-alloy) particle and in vitro challenge of human macrophages (THP-1 and human primary). Smaller 5μm vs 70μm sized particles preferentially adsorbed more serum protein in general (p<0.03), where higher molecular weight serum proteins consistent with IgG were identified. Additionally, 5μm CoCr-alloy particles pre-coated with different protein biofilms (IgG vs albumin) resulted in differential cytokine expression where albumin-coated particles induced more TNF-α and IgG-coated particles induced more IL-1β release from human monocyte/macrophages. In these preliminary in vitro studies we demonstrated the capability of equal surface areas of different particle sizes to influence adsorbed protein composition and that adsorbed protein differences on identical particles can translate into complex differences in bioreactivity. Together this suggests adsorbed protein differences on different sized particles of the same material may be a contributing mechanism by which different sized particles induce differences in reactivity. PMID:24941408

  2. Particle size distribution: A key factor in estimating powder dustiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Lilao, Ana; Sanfélix Forner, Vicenta; Mallol Gasch, Gustavo; Monfort Gimeno, Eliseo

    2017-12-01

    A wide variety of raw materials, involving more than 20 samples of quartzes, feldspars, nephelines, carbonates, dolomites, sands, zircons, and alumina, were selected and characterised. Dustiness, i.e., a materials' tendency to generate dust on handling, was determined using the continuous drop method. These raw materials were selected to encompass a wide range of particle sizes (1.6-294 µm) and true densities (2650-4680 kg/m 3 ). The dustiness of the raw materials, i.e., their tendency to generate dust on handling, was determined using the continuous drop method. The influence of some key material parameters (particle size distribution, flowability, and specific surface area) on dustiness was assessed. In this regard, dustiness was found to be significantly affected by particle size distribution. Data analysis enabled development of a model for predicting the dustiness of the studied materials, assuming that dustiness depended on the particle fraction susceptible to emission and on the bulk material's susceptibility to release these particles. On the one hand, the developed model allows the dustiness mechanisms to be better understood. In this regard, it may be noted that relative emission increased with mean particle size. However, this did not necessarily imply that dustiness did, because dustiness also depended on the fraction of particles susceptible to be emitted. On the other hand, the developed model enables dustiness to be estimated using just the particle size distribution data. The quality of the fits was quite good and the fact that only particle size distribution data are needed facilitates industrial application, since these data are usually known by raw materials managers, thus making additional tests unnecessary. This model may therefore be deemed a key tool in drawing up efficient preventive and/or corrective measures to reduce dust emissions during bulk powder processing, both inside and outside industrial facilities. It is recommended, however

  3. Electrodeposited Magnesium Nanoparticles Linking Particle Size to Activation Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqi Shen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of hydrogen absorption/desorption can be improved by decreasing particle size down to a few nanometres. However, the associated evolution of activation energy remains unclear. In an attempt to clarify such an evolution with respect to particle size, we electrochemically deposited Mg nanoparticles on a catalytic nickel and noncatalytic titanium substrate. At a short deposition time of 1 h, magnesium particles with a size of 68 ± 11 nm could be formed on the nickel substrate, whereas longer deposition times led to much larger particles of 421 ± 70 nm. Evaluation of the hydrogen desorption properties of the deposited magnesium nanoparticles confirmed the effectiveness of the nickel substrate in facilitating the recombination of hydrogen, but also a significant decrease in activation energy from 56.1 to 37.8 kJ·mol−1 H2 as particle size decreased from 421 ± 70 to 68 ± 11 nm. Hence, the activation energy was found to be intrinsically linked to magnesium particle size. Such a reduction in activation energy was associated with the decrease of path lengths for hydrogen diffusion at the desorbing MgH2/Mg interface. Further reduction in particle size to a few nanometres to remove any barrier for hydrogen diffusion would then leave the single nucleation and growth of the magnesium phase as the only remaining rate-limiting step, assuming that the magnesium surface can effectively catalyse the dissociation/recombination of hydrogen.

  4. Inversion of spheroid particle size distribution in wider size range and aspect ratio range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-spherical particle sizing is very important in the aerosol science, and it can be determined by the light extinction measurement. This paper studies the effect of relationship of the size range and aspect ratio range on the inversion of spheroid particle size distribution by the dependent mode algorithm. The T matrix method and the geometric optics approximation method are used to calculate the extinction efficiency of the spheroids with different size range and aspect ratio range, and the inversion of spheroid particle size distribution in these different ranges is conducted. Numerical simulation indicates that a fairly reasonable representation of the spheroid particle size distribution can be obtained when the size range and aspect ratio range are suitably chosen.

  5. OpenStage: a low-cost motorized microscope stage with sub-micron positioning accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A A Campbell

    Full Text Available Recent progress in intracellular calcium sensors and other fluorophores has promoted the widespread adoption of functional optical imaging in the life sciences. Home-built multiphoton microscopes are easy to build, highly customizable, and cost effective. For many imaging applications a 3-axis motorized stage is critical, but commercially available motorization hardware (motorized translators, controller boxes, etc are often very expensive. Furthermore, the firmware on commercial motor controllers cannot easily be altered and is not usually designed with a microscope stage in mind. Here we describe an open-source motorization solution that is simple to construct, yet far cheaper and more customizable than commercial offerings. The cost of the controller and motorization hardware are under $1000. Hardware costs are kept low by replacing linear actuators with high quality stepper motors. Electronics are assembled from commonly available hobby components, which are easy to work with. Here we describe assembly of the system and quantify the positioning accuracy of all three axes. We obtain positioning repeatability of the order of 1 μm in X/Y and 0.1 μm in Z. A hand-held control-pad allows the user to direct stage motion precisely over a wide range of speeds (10(-1 to 10(2 μm·s(-1, rapidly store and return to different locations, and execute "jumps" of a fixed size. In addition, the system can be controlled from a PC serial port. Our "OpenStage" controller is sufficiently flexible that it could be used to drive other devices, such as micro-manipulators, with minimal modifications.

  6. OpenStage: a low-cost motorized microscope stage with sub-micron positioning accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert A A; Eifert, Robert W; Turner, Glenn C

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in intracellular calcium sensors and other fluorophores has promoted the widespread adoption of functional optical imaging in the life sciences. Home-built multiphoton microscopes are easy to build, highly customizable, and cost effective. For many imaging applications a 3-axis motorized stage is critical, but commercially available motorization hardware (motorized translators, controller boxes, etc) are often very expensive. Furthermore, the firmware on commercial motor controllers cannot easily be altered and is not usually designed with a microscope stage in mind. Here we describe an open-source motorization solution that is simple to construct, yet far cheaper and more customizable than commercial offerings. The cost of the controller and motorization hardware are under $1000. Hardware costs are kept low by replacing linear actuators with high quality stepper motors. Electronics are assembled from commonly available hobby components, which are easy to work with. Here we describe assembly of the system and quantify the positioning accuracy of all three axes. We obtain positioning repeatability of the order of 1 μm in X/Y and 0.1 μm in Z. A hand-held control-pad allows the user to direct stage motion precisely over a wide range of speeds (10(-1) to 10(2) μm·s(-1)), rapidly store and return to different locations, and execute "jumps" of a fixed size. In addition, the system can be controlled from a PC serial port. Our "OpenStage" controller is sufficiently flexible that it could be used to drive other devices, such as micro-manipulators, with minimal modifications.

  7. Effect of Cobalt Particle Size on Acetone Steam Reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junming; Zhang, He; Yu, Ning; Davidson, Stephen; Wang, Yong

    2015-06-11

    Carbon-supported cobalt nanoparticles with different particle sizes were synthesized and characterized by complementary characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, N-2 sorption, acetone temperature-programmed desorption, transmission electron microscopy, and CO chemisorption. Using acetone steam reforming reaction as a probe reaction, we revealed a volcano-shape curve of the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency of acetone) and the CO2 selectivity as a function of the cobalt particle size with the highest activity and selectivity observed at a particle size of approximately 12.8nm. Our results indicate that the overall performance of acetone steam reforming is related to a combination of particle-size-dependent acetone decomposition, water dissociation, and the oxidation state of the cobalt nanoparticles.

  8. Appendix B: Summary of TEM Particle Size Distribution Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    As discussed in the main text (see Section 5.3.2), calculation of the concentration of asbestos fibers in each of the bins of potential interest requires particle size distribution data derived using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  9. Karna Particle Size Dataset for Tables and Figures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains 1) table of bulk Pb-XAS LCF results, 2) table of bulk As-XAS LCF results, 3) figure data of particle size distribution, and 4) figure data for...

  10. Cellular detonations in nano-sized aluminum particle gas suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmel, TA

    2017-10-01

    Formation of cellular detonation structures in monodisperse nano-sized aluminum particle – oxygen suspensions is studied by methods of numerical simulations of two-dimensional detonation flows. The detonation combustion are described within the semi-empirical model developed earlier which takes into account transition of the regime of aluminum particle combustion from diffusion to kinetic for micro-sized and nano-sized particles. The free-molecular effects are considered in the processes of heat and velocity relaxation of the phases. The specific features of the cellular detonation of nanoparticle suspensions comparing with micron-sized suspensions are irregular cellular structures, much higher pick pressure values, and relatively larger detonation cells. This is due to high value of activation energy of reduced chemical reaction of aluminum particle combustion in kinetic regime.

  11. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed...

  12. Adequacy of laser diffraction for soil particle size analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Peter; Aumann, Colin; Chia, Kohleth; O'Halloran, Nick; Chandra, Subhash

    2017-01-01

    Sedimentation has been a standard methodology for particle size analysis since the early 1900s. In recent years laser diffraction is beginning to replace sedimentation as the prefered technique in some industries, such as marine sediment analysis. However, for the particle size analysis of soils, which have a diverse range of both particle size and shape, laser diffraction still requires evaluation of its reliability. In this study, the sedimentation based sieve plummet balance method and the laser diffraction method were used to measure the particle size distribution of 22 soil samples representing four contrasting Australian Soil Orders. Initially, a precise wet riffling methodology was developed capable of obtaining representative samples within the recommended obscuration range for laser diffraction. It was found that repeatable results were obtained even if measurements were made at the extreme ends of the manufacturer's recommended obscuration range. Results from statistical analysis suggested that the use of sample pretreatment to remove soil organic carbon (and possible traces of calcium-carbonate content) made minor differences to the laser diffraction particle size distributions compared to no pretreatment. These differences were found to be marginally statistically significant in the Podosol topsoil and Vertosol subsoil. There are well known reasons why sedimentation methods may be considered to 'overestimate' plate-like clay particles, while laser diffraction will 'underestimate' the proportion of clay particles. In this study we used Lin's concordance correlation coefficient to determine the equivalence of laser diffraction and sieve plummet balance results. The results suggested that the laser diffraction equivalent thresholds corresponding to the sieve plummet balance cumulative particle sizes of soil particle size analysis, and the empirical results of this study, suggest that deployment of laser diffraction as a standard test procedure can provide

  13. Dust generation in powders: Effect of particle size distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarty Somik; Le Bihan Olivier; Fischer Marc; Morgeneyer Martin

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the bulk and grain-scale properties of powders and dust generation. A vortex shaker dustiness tester was used to evaluate 8 calcium carbonate test powders with median particle sizes ranging from 2μm to 136μm. Respirable aerosols released from the powder samples were characterised by their particle number and mass concentrations. All the powder samples were found to release respirable fractions of dust particles which end up decreasing with time. Th...

  14. Synthesis of size-controlled Bi particles by electrochemical deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    ... X-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction technique. The particles, as deposited, are highly crystalline in nature and the particle size and shape get tuned depending on the conditions of deposition. Keywords. Bismuth nanoparticles; electrodeposition; SEM; TEM; XPS.

  15. Particle size- and concentration-dependent separation of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Kerstin, E-mail: witte@micromod.de [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 23, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Friedrich-Barnewitz-Str. 4, 18119 Rostock (Germany); Müller, Knut; Grüttner, Cordula; Westphal, Fritz [Micromod Partikeltechnologie GmbH, Friedrich-Barnewitz-Str. 4, 18119 Rostock (Germany); Johansson, Christer [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, 40014 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Small magnetic nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution are of great interest for several biomedical applications. When the size of the particles decreases, the magnetic moment of the particles decreases. This leads to a significant increase in the separation time by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, in the present study the separation processes of bionized nanoferrites (BNF) with different sizes and concentrations were investigated with the commercial Sepmag Q system. It was found that an increasing initial particle concentration leads to a reduction of the separation time for large nanoparticles due to the higher probability of building chains. Small nanoparticles showed exactly the opposite behavior with rising particle concentration up to 0.1 mg(Fe)/ml. For higher iron concentrations the separation time remains constant and the measured Z-average decreases in the supernatant at same time intervals. At half separation time a high yield with decreasing hydrodynamic diameter of particles can be obtained using higher initial particle concentrations. - Highlights: • Size dependent separation processes of multicore nanoparticles. • Concentration dependent separation processes of multicore nanoparticles. • Increasing separation time with rising concentrations for small particles. • Large particles show typical cooperative magnetophoresis behavior.

  16. Environmental DNA particle size distribution from Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor M. Wilcox; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Winsor H. Lowe; Michael K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has become a widespread approach for detecting aquatic animals with high potential for improving conservation biology. However, little research has been done to determine the size of particles targeted by eDNA surveys. In this study, we conduct particle distribution analysis of eDNA from a captive Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in...

  17. Effect of limestone particle size on bone quality characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of different limestone particle sizes in layer diets on bone quality characteristics at end-of-lay hens. Calcitic limestone (360 g Ca/kg DM) that is extensively used in commercial poultry diets was obtained from a specific South African source. Limestone particles were graded as ...

  18. effect of limestone particle size on bone quality of layers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFS

    Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the effect of different limestone particle sizes in layer diets on bone quality characteristics at end-of-lay hens. Calcitic limestone (360 g Ca/kg DM) that is extensively used in commercial poultry diets was obtained from a specific South African source. Limestone particles were.

  19. Flow regimes of inertial suspensions of finite size particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lashgari, I.; Picano, F.; Breugem, W.P.; Brandt, L.

    2015-01-01

    Inertial regimes in a channel flow of suspension of finite-size neutrally buoyant particles are studied for a wide range of Reynolds numbers: 500 Re 5000, and particle volume fractions: 0 0:3. The flow is classified in three different regimes according to the phase-averaged stress budget across the

  20. An overview of aerosol particle sensors for size distribution measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panich Intra

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Fine aerosols are generally referred to airborne particles of diameter in submicron or nanometer size range. Measurement capabilities are required to gain understanding of these particle dynamics. One of the most important physical and chemical parameters is the particle size distribution. The aim of this article is to give an overview of recent development of already existing sensors for particle size distribution measurement based on electrical mobility determination. Available instruments for particle size measurement include a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, an electrical aerosol spectrometer (EAS, an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS, a bipolar charge aerosol classifier (BCAC, a fast aerosol spectrometer (FAS a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS, and a CMU electrical mobility spectrometer (EMS. The operating principles, as well as detailed physical characteristics of these instruments and their main components consisting of a particle charger, a mobility classifier, and a signal detector, are described. Typical measurements of aerosol from various sources by these instruments compared with an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI are also presented.

  1. micron-sized polymeric particles from cashew nut shell liquid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micron-sized polymeric particles from cashew nut shell liquid … 38 to 0.21 µm. When the concentration of. NaOH was increased further to 1.2 g/dm3 while keeping constant the values of the other variables, the extent of coagulation in the latex was found to have intensified; this gave rise to the increase in particle size to.

  2. TASEP of interacting particles of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, S. L.; Baumgaertner, A.

    2017-10-01

    A mean-field description of the stationary state behaviour of interacting k-mers performing totally asymmetric exclusion processes (TASEP) on an open lattice segment is presented employing the discrete Takahashi formalism. It is shown how the maximal current and the phase diagram, including triple-points, depend on the strength of repulsive and attractive interactions. We compare the mean-field results with Monte Carlo simulation of three types interacting k-mers: monomers, dimers and trimers. (a) We find that the Takahashi estimates of the maximal current agree quantitatively with those of the Monte Carlo simulation in the absence of interaction as well as in both the the attractive and the strongly repulsive regimes. However, theory and Monte Carlo results disagree in the range of weak repulsion, where the Takahashi estimates of the maximal current show a monotonic behaviour, whereas the Monte Carlo data show a peaking behaviour. It is argued that the peaking of the maximal current is due to a correlated motion of the particles. In the limit of very strong repulsion the theory predicts a universal behavior: th maximal currents of k-mers correspond to that of non-interacting (k+1) -mers; (b) Monte Carlo estimates of the triple-points for monomers, dimers and trimers show an interesting general behaviour : (i) the phase boundaries α * and β* for entry and exit current, respectively, as function of interaction strengths show maxima for α* whereas β * exhibit minima at the same strength; (ii) in the attractive regime, however, the trend is reversed (β * > α * ). The Takahashi estimates of the triple-point for monomers show a similar trend as the Monte Carlo data except for the peaking of α * ; for dimers and trimers, however, the Takahashi estimates show an opposite trend as compared to the Monte Carlo data.

  3. Modeling particle size distributions by the Weibull distribution function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhigang (Rogers Tool Works, Rogers, AR (United States)); Patterson, B.R.; Turner, M.E. Jr (Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States))

    1993-10-01

    A method is proposed for modeling two- and three-dimensional particle size distributions using the Weibull distribution function. Experimental results show that, for tungsten particles in liquid phase sintered W-14Ni-6Fe, the experimental cumulative section size distributions were well fit by the Weibull probability function, which can also be used to compute the corresponding relative frequency distributions. Modeling the two-dimensional section size distributions facilitates the use of the Saltykov or other methods for unfolding three-dimensional (3-D) size distributions with minimal irregularities. Fitting the unfolded cumulative 3-D particle size distribution with the Weibull function enables computation of the statistical distribution parameters from the parameters of the fit Weibull function.

  4. Saturn's Rings II. Particle Sizes Inferred from Stellar Occultation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Richard G.; Nicholson, Philip D.

    2000-06-01

    We derive power-law particle size distributions for each of Saturn's main ring regions, using observations of the 3 July 1989 stellar occultation of 28 Sgr from Palomar, McDonald, and Lick observatories. We use the Voyager PPS δ Sco optical depth profile to estimate and then remove the directly transmitted signal from the 28 Sgr observations, leaving high SNR scattered light profiles at wavelengths of 3.9, 2.1, and 0.9 μm. The angular distribution of this diffracted signal depends on the ring particle size distribution: the sharpness of the forward lobe is set by the largest particles, while the overall breadth and amplitude of the scattered signal reflect the abundance of smaller, cm-sized particles. From a simple one-dimensional scattering model, we estimate characteristic particle sizes in the A, B, and C rings, and obtain a good match to the detailed structure of the observed scattered light profiles. To accommodate more realistic particle size distributions and to take proper account of the geometry of the occultation, we then develop a two-dimensional forward-scattering model. We assume for simplicity a single power law particle size distribution for each major ring region, and we determine the index q and lower and upper size cutoffs amin and amax that provide the best match to all three data sets in each region. Our results in the A and C rings are fairly consistent with values of q and amax derived from Voyager radio occultation (RSS) measurements (Zebker et al. 1985). We extend their results by determining lower limits to the particle size distributions and by probing the B Ring. We find a rather flat ( q=2.75) and narrow size distribution for both the inner A Ring and the B Ring, with a surprisingly large amin=30 cm. From the detailed shape of the scattered signal in the A and B rings, we find amax=20 m, a factor of two larger than the RSS result. The fraction of cm-sized particles increases between the inner and outer A Ring and is greatest in the C

  5. Sizes of particles formed during municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Smoczynski; Marta, Kosobucka; Michal, Smoczynski; Harsha, Ratnaweera; Krystyna, Pieczulis-Smoczynska

    2017-02-01

    Volumetric diameters Dv and specific surface area SpS of sludge particles formed during chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation of sewage were determined. The obtained aggregate-flocs differed substantially in both Dv and SpS values. The differences in Dv and SpS values of the analyzed particles were interpreted based on theoretical models for expanding aggregates. The most uniform particles were formed under exposure to: (a) optimal and maximal doses of PIX, (b) optimal doses of PAX, (c) maximal doses of the Al electro-coagulant. The lowest PIX dose produced the least uniform particles. Sludge aggregates-particles produced under exposure to minimal doses of PIX and the Al electro-coagulant were characterized by the lowest SpS values. Sludge particles coagulated by PAX and the particles formed at higher doses of PIX and the Al electro-coagulant had higher SpS values. The particles formed at all doses of the applied coagulants and electro-coagulants were generally classified into two size ranges: the main range and the secondary range. Most particles belonged to the main size range. An increase in the percentage of colloidal hydroxide particles in sewage sludge increased SpS.

  6. Factors affecting liposomes particle size prepared by ethanol injection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Sherif; Gardouh, Ahmed Rifaat; Ghorab, Mamdouh Mostafa

    2017-10-01

    Ethanol injection is one of the techniques frequently used to produce liposomes which favors both simplicity and safety. In this process, an ethanolic solution of lipids is rapidly injected into an aqueous medium through a needle, dispersing the phospholipids throughout the medium and promoting the vesicle formation. Being a critical parameter that determines the fate of liposome and its distribution, we studied different factors affecting the particle size of liposomes including different phospholipid (Phosal® 53 MCT) and cholesterol concentrations and the use of different types of non-ionic surfactants at fixed Phosal® 53 MCT concentration of 50 mg per formulation. Both Phosal® 53 MCT and cholesterol concentration had direct effect on liposomes particle size. Non-ionic surfactants produced liposomes of smaller particle size when compared to conventional liposomes formed using Phosal® 53 MCT 300 mg per formulation only, whereas this effect was diminished when higher Phosal® 53 MCT to cholesterol ratios were used that obviously increased liposomes size. Smaller liposomes sizes were obtained upon using non-ionic surfactants of lower hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance (HLB) as both Tween 80 and Cremophor RH 40 produced liposomes of smaller particle size compared to Poloxamer 407. The smallest liposomes particle size was successfully obtained in the formulation comprising 300 mg Phosal® MCT, 150 mg cholesterol and 50 mg Tween 80.

  7. Influences of Substrate Adhesion and Particle Size on the Shape Memory Effect of Polystyrene Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lewis M; Killgore, Jason P; Li, Zhengwei; Long, Rong; Sanders, Aric W; Xiao, Jianliang; Ding, Yifu

    2016-04-19

    Formulations and applications of micro- and nanoscale polymer particles have proliferated rapidly in recent years, yet knowledge of their mechanical behavior has not grown accordingly. In this study, we examine the ways that compressive strain, substrate surface energy, and particle size influence the shape memory cycle of polystyrene particles. Using nanoimprint lithography, differently sized particles are programmed into highly deformed, temporary shapes in contact with substrates of differing surface energies. Atomic force microscopy is used to obtain in situ measurements of particle shape recovery kinetics, and scanning electron microscopy is employed to assess differences in the profiles of particles at the conclusion of the shape memory cycle. Finally, finite element models are used to investigate the growing impact of surface energies at smaller length scales. Results reveal that the influence of substrate adhesion on particle recovery is size-dependent and can become dominating at submicron length scales.

  8. Effect of particle size in composite materials on radiative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siu-Chun; White, Susan; Grzesik, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model for the radiative properties of a composite material composed of ceramic oxide fibers and particles was developed and used to determine the effect of the size parameters of the two components. Results include the computed phase functions for the zirconia and silica composite materials, showing the location and strength of the strong forward-scattering peak. The phase function and the optical properties of the composite are strongly influenced by the particle size parameter through the fiber or particle diameter and the wavelength, the material, and the mixture fraction.

  9. Effect of particle size in composite materials on radiative properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Siuchun; White, S.; Grzesik, J. (Applied Sciences Lab., Inc., City of Industry, CA (United States) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model for the radiative properties of a composite material composed of ceramic oxide fibers and particles was developed and used to determine the effect of the size parameters of the two components. Results include the computed phase functions for the zirconia and silica composite materials, showing the location and strength of the strong forward-scattering peak. The phase function and the optical properties of the composite are strongly influenced by the particle size parameter through the fiber or particle diameter and the wavelength, the material, and the mixture fraction. 16 refs.

  10. Effect of particle size on iron nanoparticle oxidation state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Lysaght, Andrew C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, 97 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Goberman, Daniel G. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3136 (United States); Chiu, Wilson K.S., E-mail: wchiu@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Road, 97 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Selecting catalyst particles is a very important part of carbon nanotube growth, although the properties of these nanoscale particles are unclear. In this article iron nanoparticles are analyzed through the use of atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to understand how the size affects the chemical composition of nanoparticles and thus their physical structure. Initially, atomic force microscopy was used to confirm the presence of iron particles, and to determine the average size of the particles. Next an analytical model was developed to estimate particle size as a function of deposition time using inputs from atomic force microscopy measurement. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was then performed with a focus on the spectra relating to the 2p Fe electrons to study the chemical state of the particles as a function of time. It was shown that as the size of nanoparticles decreased, the oxidation state of the particles changed due to a high proportion of atoms on the surface.

  11. The effect of particle shape and size on cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Particle shape and size have been well-recognized to exhibit important effect on drug delivery and as an excellent candidate for drug delivery applications. The recent advances in the "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches make it possible to develop different shaped and sized polymeric nanostructures, which provide a chance to tailor the shape of the nanostructures as a drug carrier. Presently, a large amount of cellular uptake data is available for particle shape and size effect on drug delivery. However, the effect has not been well formulated or described quantitatively. In the present paper, the dynamic process of the effects of particle shape and size on cellular uptake is analyzed, quantitative expression for the influence of particle shape and size on cellular uptake is proposed on the basis of local geometric feature of particle shape and diffusion approach of a particle in a medium rationally, and the relevant parameters in the formulation are determined by the available test data. The results indicate the validity of the present formulations.

  12. On the particle-size distribution function of cometary dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of the particle size distribution in cometary tails is considered. The particle-size related distribution function of the acceleration exerted on the cometary particle by solar radiation pressure used by Finson and Probstein (1968) is introduced, and distribution functions observed for the comets Arend-Roland 1957 III, Bennett 1970 II and Seki-Lines 1962 III are illustrated. It is pointed out that although the distribution functions have features in common, the rate of decrease of the distribution towards zero acceleration (large particles) is not well determined. An approximation for the size distribution in this range obtained from a photometric study of anomalous cometary tails is presented, and used to formulate an a priori distribution law which can be used to approximate all types of expected distributions by varying three key parameters.

  13. Particle size and metal distributions in anaerobically digested pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, Claire E; Pinelli, Eric; Pouech, Philippe; Winterton, Peter; Guiresse, Maritxu

    2008-05-01

    Particle size distribution and trace element patterns were studied in a full-scale anaerobic digestion plant treating pig slurry. Mass balance was established for major (N, P, K, Ca, Fe, Mg and S) and minor (Al, Cu, Mn and Zn) elements. Most of the elements were conserved through the process but part of the P, Ca, Mg and Mn was deposited as crystals lining the digester. In the dry matter of the slurry, Cu and Zn occurred at between 170 and 2600 mg kg(-1) due to pig diet supplements. Analyses of particle size distributions in raw and digested slurries showed a general shift in distribution towards larger sizes due to degradation of small and easily degradable particles as well as formation of large microbial filaments. Graded sieving of digested slurry showed metals to be mainly present on 3-25 microm particles. Less than 2% Cu and Zn was removed by passage through a 250 microm rotary screen.

  14. Particle size determines foam stability of casein micelle dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Min; Bleeker, R.; Sala, G.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Linden, van der E.

    2016-01-01

    The role of interfacial properties and size of casein micelles aggregates on foam stability of casein micelle dispersions (CMDs) was examined. CMDs were prepared by redispersing casein micelles pellets obtained by ultracentrifugation. The size of colloidal particles could be controlled by

  15. Micron-sized polymer particles from tanzanian cashew nut shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micron-sized polymer particles (MSPP) were prepared by formaldehyde condensation polymerization of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) previously emulsified with sodium lauryl sulphate. The sizes of the MSPP were found to range from 0.1 to 4.4 mm. Increasing the emulsifier concentration had the effect of increasing the ...

  16. Micron-sized polymer particles from Tanzanian cashew nut shell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. Micron-sized polymer particles (MSPP) were prepared by formaldehyde condensation polymerization of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) previously emulsified with sodium lauryl sulphate. The sizes of the MSPP were found to range from 0.1 to 4.4 μm. Increasing the emulsifier concentration had the effect of ...

  17. Observations of particles at their formation sizes in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Rohan; Pushpawela, Buddhi; He, Congrong; Li, Hui; Gao, Jian; Chai, Fahe; Morawska, Lidia

    2017-07-01

    New particle formation (NPF) has been observed in many highly polluted environments of South East Asia, including Beijing, where the extent of its contribution to intense haze events is still an open question. Estimated characteristics of NPF events, such as their starting times and formation and growth rates of particles, are more accurate when the detection range of particles extends to smaller sizes. In order to understand the very first steps of particle formation, we used a neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS) to investigate particle characteristics at sizes exactly at which atmospheric nucleation and cluster activity occurs. Observations over a continuous 3-month period in Beijing showed 26 NPF events. These events generally coincided with periods with relatively clean air when the wind direction was from the less industrialised north. No NPF events were observed when the daily mean PM2. 5 concentration exceeded 43 µg m-3, which was the upper threshold for particle formation in Beijing. The fraction of particles that are charged in the size range 2-42 nm was normally about 15 %. However, this fraction increased to 20-30 % during haze events and decreased to below 10 % during NPF events. With the NAIS, we very precisely determined the starting times of NPF to a greater accuracy than has been possible in Beijing before and provided a temporal distribution of NPF events with a maximum at about 08:30 LT. Particle formation rates varied between 12 and 38 cm-3 s-1. Particle growth rates were estimated to be in the range of 0.5-9.0 nm h-1. These results are more reliable than previous studies in Beijing as the measurements were conducted for the first time at the exact sizes at which clusters form into particles and provide useful insight into the formation of haze events.

  18. Particle size changes in unsealed mineral trioxide aggregate powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, William N; Kahler, Bill; Walsh, Laurence James

    2014-03-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is commonly supplied in 1-g packages of powder that are used by some clinicians across several treatments against the manufacturer's instructions. ProRoot MTA cannot be resealed after opening, whereas MTA Angelus has a resealable lid. This study assessed changes in particle size distribution once the packaging had been opened. Fresh ProRoot MTA and MTA Angelus powder were analyzed by using laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and compared with powder from packages that had been opened once and kept in storage for 2 years. The ProRoot packet was folded over, whereas the MTA Angelus jar had the lid twisted back to its original position. After 2 years, ProRoot MTA powder showed a 6-fold increase in particle size (lower 10% from 1.13 to 4.37 μm, median particle size from 1.99 to 12.87 μm, and upper 10% from 4.30 to 34.67 μm), with an accompanying 50-fold change in particle surface area. MTA Angelus showed only a 2-fold increase in particle size (4.15 to 8.32 μm, 12.72 to 23.79 μm, and 42.66 to 47.91 μm, respectively) and a 2-fold change in particle size surface area. MTA reacts with atmospheric moisture, causing an increase in particle size that may adversely affect the properties and shelf life of the material. Smaller particles have a greater predisposition to absorb moisture. Single-use systems are advised. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Continuous Size-Based Particle Separation in a Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaparenko, Barukyah; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Hu, Howard; Bau, Haim; Worthen, George

    2010-11-01

    Pinched flow fractionation is a continuous particle sorting technique in which two streams (one with particles, the other without particles) are manipulated to meet and then flow collinearly through a pinched microchannel. Due to geometric constraints, the particles align at different positions relative to the channel wall, with smaller particles closer to the wall than larger particles. Following the pinched segment, the channel broadens significantly, and the differences in particle positions are amplified as the particles follow the diverging fluid streamlines and are separated into different outlet channels based on their sizes. We analyze the separation of 2 and 10 μm rigid spherical particles with a pinched segment of 40 μm width, comparing 2D computational results and experimental results. We control the separation by specifying an inlet flow rate ratio and one outlet flow rate. We optimize the channel geometry and determine the operating parameters necessary to achieve effective particle separation. Multiple stages of such separation components can be integrated for finer separations. Other separation mechanisms, like dielectrophoresis, can also be integrated into the device using field flow fractionation, in which an external field is applied perpendicular to the direction of flow, causing the particles to cross fluid streamlines.

  20. RNA Control of HIV-1 Particle Size Polydispersity

    CERN Document Server

    Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Thomas, Audrey; Tartour, Kevin; Beck, Yvonne; Iazykov, Maksym; Danial, John; Lourdin, Morgane; Muriaux, Delphine; Castelnovo, Martin

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1, an enveloped RNA virus, produces viral particles that are known to be much more heterogeneous in size than is typical of non-enveloped viruses. We present here a novel strategy to study HIV-1 Viral Like Particles (VLP) assembly by measuring the size distribution of these purified VLPs and subsequent viral cores thanks to Atomic Force Microscopy imaging and statistical analysis. This strategy allowed us to identify whether the presence of viral RNA acts as a modulator for VLPs and cores size heterogeneity in a large population of particles. These results are analyzed in the light of a recently proposed statistical physics model for the self-assembly process. In particular, our results reveal that the modulation of size distribution by the presence of viral RNA is qualitatively reproduced, suggesting therefore an entropic origin for the modulation of RNA uptake by the nascent VLP.

  1. Biofilter media gas pressure loss as related to media particle size and particle shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Røjgaard Andreasen, Rune

    2013-01-01

    and shape on the V - ΔP relationship. V - ΔP measurements were performed using three commercially available materials with different particle shapes: crushed granite (very angular particles), gravel (particles of intermediate roundness) and Leca® (almost spherical particles). A total of 21 different...... containing smaller particles. A new model concept for estimating V - ΔP across different particle size fractions and shapes was proposed. This model yielded improved prediction accuracy in comparison with existing prediction approaches.......Pressure loss (ΔP) is a key parameter for estimating biofilter energy consumption. Accurate predictions of ΔP as a function of air velocity (V) are therefore essential, to assess energy consumption and minimize operation costs. This paper investigates the combined impact of medium particle size...

  2. Indetermination of particle sizing by laser diffraction in the anomalous size ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Linchao; Ge, Baozhen; Zhang, Fugen

    2017-09-01

    The laser diffraction method is widely used to measure particle size distributions. It is generally accepted that the scattering angle becomes smaller and the angles to the location of the main peak of scattered energy distributions in laser diffraction instruments shift to smaller values with increasing particle size. This specific principle forms the foundation of the laser diffraction method. However, this principle is not entirely correct for non-absorbing particles in certain size ranges and these particle size ranges are called anomalous size ranges. Here, we derive the analytical formulae for the bounds of the anomalous size ranges and discuss the influence of the width of the size segments on the signature of the Mie scattering kernel. This anomalous signature of the Mie scattering kernel will result in an indetermination of the particle size distribution when measured by laser diffraction instruments in the anomalous size ranges. By using the singular-value decomposition method we interpret the mechanism of occurrence of this indetermination in detail and then validate its existence by using inversion simulations.

  3. Fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio sub-micron tool using a cathode coated with stretched-out insulating layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yongbin; Wang, Yufeng; Qu, Ningsong; Zhu, Di

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method for preparing a high-aspect-ratio sub-micron tool using a cathode coated with stretched-out insulating layers and a straight reciprocating motion applied at the anode via the liquid membrane electrochemical machining (ECM). Simulation results indicate that the application of a cathode coated with stretched-out insulating layers is beneficial for the localization of ECM. Moreover, a mathematical model was derived to estimate the final average diameter of the fabricated tools. Experiments were conducted to verify the versatility and feasibility of the proposed method and its mathematical model. It was observed that the calculated and the experimental results are in good agreement with each other. A sub-micron tool with an average diameter 140.8 nm and an aspect ratio up to 50 was fabricated using the proposed method.

  4. Effect of limestone particle size on egg production and eggshell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of different particle size limestone in layer diets on egg production and eggshell quality during the later stages of egg production (>54 weeks of age). Calcitic limestone (360 g Ca/kg), consisting of small (<1.0 mm), medium (1.0 - 2.0 mm) and large (2.0 - 3.8 mm) particles ...

  5. Advanced analysis of polymer emulsions: Particle size and particle size distribution by field-flow fractionation and dynamic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makan, Ashwell C; Spallek, Markus J; du Toit, Madeleine; Klein, Thorsten; Pasch, Harald

    2016-04-15

    Field flow fractionation (FFF) is an advanced fractionation technique for the analyses of very sensitive particles. In this study, different FFF techniques were used for the fractionation and analysis of polymer emulsions/latexes. As model systems, a pure acrylic emulsion and emulsions containing titanium dioxide were prepared and analyzed. An acrylic emulsion polymerization was conducted, continuously sampled from the reactor and subsequently analyzed to determine the particle size, radius of gyration in specific, of the latex particles throughout the polymerization reaction. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF), coupled to a multidetector system, multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), ultraviolet (UV) and refractive index (RI), respectively, were used to investigate the evolution of particle sizes and particle size distributions (PSDs) as the polymerization progressed. The obtained particle sizes were compared against batch-mode dynamic light scattering (DLS). Results indicated differences between AF4 and DLS results due to DLS taking hydration layers into account, whereas both AF4 and SdFFF were coupled to MALLS detection, hence not taking the hydration layer into account for size determination. SdFFF has additional separation capabilities with a much higher resolution compared to AF4. The calculated radii values were 5 nm larger for SdFFF measurements for each analyzed sample against the corresponding AF4 values. Additionally a low particle size shoulder was observed for SdFFF indicating bimodality in the reactor very early during the polymerization reaction. Furthermore, different emulsions were mixed with inorganic species used as additives in cosmetics and coatings such as TiO2. These complex mixtures of species were analyzed to investigate the retention and particle interaction behavior under different AF4 experimental conditions, such as the mobile phase. The AF4 system was coupled online

  6. Size-Dependent Particle Dynamics in Entangled Polymer Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Narayanan, Suresh; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-01-19

    Polymer-grafted nanoparticles with diameter d homogeneously dispersed in entangled polymer melts with varying random coil radius R0, but fixed entanglement mesh size ae, are used to study particle motions in entangled polymers. We focus on materials in the transition region between the continuum regime (d > R0), where the classical Stokes-Einstein (S-E) equation is known to describe polymer drag on particles, and the non-continuum regime (d < ae), in which several recent studies report faster diffusion of particles than expected from continuum S-E analysis, based on the bulk polymer viscosity. Specifically, we consider dynamics of particles with sizes d ≥ ae in entangled polymers with varying molecular weight Mw in order to investigate how the transition from non-continuum to continuum dynamics occur. We take advantage of favorable enthalpic interactions between SiO2 nanoparticles tethered with PEO molecules and entangled PMMA host polymers to create model nanoparticle-polymer composites, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in entangled polymers. Investigation of the particle dynamics via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy measurements reveal a transition from fast to slow particle motion as the PMMA molecular weight is increased beyond the entanglement threshold, with a much weaker Mw dependence for Mw>Me than expected from S-E analysis based on bulk viscosity of entangled PMMA melts. We rationalize these observations using a simple force balance analysis around particles and find that nanoparticle motion in entangled melts can be described using a variant of the S-E analysis in which motion of particles is assumed to only disturb sub-chain entangled host segments with sizes comparable to the particle diameter.

  7. Imaging of vaporised sub-micron phase change contrast agents with high frame rate ultrasound and optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengtao; Zhang, Ge; Jamburidze, Akaki; Chee, Melisse; Leow, Chee Hau; Garbin, Valeria; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2018-01-31

    Phase-change ultrasound contrast agent (PCCA), or nanodroplet shows promises as an alternative to conventional microbubble agent over a wide range of diagnostic applications. In the meantime, high-frame-rate (HFR) ultrasound imaging with microbubbles enables unprecedentedly temporal resolution compared to traditional contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. The combination of HFR ultrasound imaging and PCCAs can offer opportunities to observe and better understand PCCA behaviour after vaporisation capturing the fast phenomenon at a high temporal resolution. In this study, we utilised HFR ultrasound at frame rates in the kilohertz range (5-20 kHz) to image the native and size-selected PCCA populations immediately after vaporisation in vitro with clinical acoustic parameters. The size-selected PCCAs through filtration are shown to preserve submicron-sized (mean diameter < 200 nm) population without micron-sized outliers (> 1 µm) that are originally from the native PCCA emulsion. The results demonstrate imaging signals with different amplitude and temporal features compared to that of microbubbles. Compared with microbubbles, both B-mode and Pulse-Inversion (PI) signals from vaporised PCCA populations were reduced significantly in the first tens of milliseconds, while only B-mode signals from the PCCAs recovered during the next 400 ms, suggesting significant changes to the size distribution of PCCAs after vaporisation. It is also shown that such recovery in signal over time is not evident when using size-selective PCCAs. Furthermore, it was found that signals from the vaporised PCCA populations are affected by the amplitude and frame rate of the HFR ultrasound imaging. Using high-speed optical camera observation (30 kHz), we observed the particle size change in the vaporised PCCA populations exposed to the HFR ultrasound imaging pulses. These findings can benefit the understandings of PCCA behaviour under HFR ultrasound imaging. © 2018 Institute of Physics and

  8. Decontamination of Uranium-Contaminated Soil in Various Particle Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Kim, I. G.; Jeong, J. W.; Choi, J. W. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The decontamination of soil by washing alone without the electrokinetic treatment is preferable if it is possible. In the treatment of heavy metals-contaminated soil, fine soil particles were separated from coarse particles through a 100 mesh sieve because the high concentration of copper, lead, arsenic, etc. is generally existed in the fine particles. Therefore the separation of fine particles after washing was performed in this work, and the radioactivity of remained coarse soil was measured. When U-contaminated soil was washed twice by a sulfuric acid solution with NaClO{sub 3} at 65 .deg. and the fine particles such as silt and clay were removed, the radioactivity for the remained coarse soil with size of larger than 0.1 mm can reach to below clearance level for the self-disposal.

  9. Diffusion of Finite-Size Particles in Confined Geometries

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria

    2013-05-10

    The diffusion of finite-size hard-core interacting particles in two- or three-dimensional confined domains is considered in the limit that the confinement dimensions become comparable to the particle\\'s dimensions. The result is a nonlinear diffusion equation for the one-particle probability density function, with an overall collective diffusion that depends on both the excluded-volume and the narrow confinement. By including both these effects, the equation is able to interpolate between severe confinement (for example, single-file diffusion) and unconfined diffusion. Numerical solutions of both the effective nonlinear diffusion equation and the stochastic particle system are presented and compared. As an application, the case of diffusion under a ratchet potential is considered, and the change in transport properties due to excluded-volume and confinement effects is examined. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  10. SiO2/ZnO Composite Hollow Sub-Micron Fibers: Fabrication from Facile Single Capillary Electrospinning and Their Photoluminescence Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guanying; Li, Zhenjiang; Li, Kaihua; Zhang, Lina; Meng, Alan

    2017-02-24

    In this work, SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers were fabricated by a facile single capillary electrospinning technique followed by calcination, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ZnO nanoparticles as raw materials. The characterization results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra indicated that the asprepared composite hollow fibers consisted of amorphous SiO2 and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO. The products revealed uniform tubular structure with outer diameters of 400-500 nm and wall thickness of 50-60 nm. The gases generated and the directional escaped mechanism was proposed to illustrate the formation of SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers. Furthermore, a broad blue emission band was observed in the photoluminescence (PL) of SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers, exhibiting great potential applications as blue light-emitting candidate materials.

  11. SiO2/ZnO Composite Hollow Sub-Micron Fibers: Fabrication from Facile Single Capillary Electrospinning and Their Photoluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanying Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers were fabricated by a facile single capillary electrospinning technique followed by calcination, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and ZnO nanoparticles as raw materials. The characterization results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectra indicated that the asprepared composite hollow fibers consisted of amorphous SiO2 and hexagonal wurtzite ZnO. The products revealed uniform tubular structure with outer diameters of 400–500 nm and wall thickness of 50–60 nm. The gases generated and the directional escaped mechanism was proposed to illustrate the formation of SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers. Furthermore, a broad blue emission band was observed in the photoluminescence (PL of SiO2/ZnO composite hollow sub-micron fibers, exhibiting great potential applications as blue light-emitting candidate materials.

  12. High throughput inclusion body sizing: Nano particle tracking analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Wieland N; Kaineder, Andreas; Brillmann, Markus; Neutsch, Lukas; Taschauer, Alexander; Lohninger, Hans; Herwig, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    The expression of pharmaceutical relevant proteins in Escherichia coli frequently triggers inclusion body (IB) formation caused by protein aggregation. In the scientific literature, substantial effort has been devoted to the quantification of IB size. However, particle-based methods used up to this point to analyze the physical properties of representative numbers of IBs lack sensitivity and/or orthogonal verification. Using high pressure freezing and automated freeze substitution for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the cytosolic inclusion body structure was preserved within the cells. TEM imaging in combination with manual grey scale image segmentation allowed the quantification of relative areas covered by the inclusion body within the cytosol. As a high throughput method nano particle tracking analysis (NTA) enables one to derive the diameter of inclusion bodies in cell homogenate based on a measurement of the Brownian motion. The NTA analysis of fixated (glutaraldehyde) and non-fixated IBs suggests that high pressure homogenization annihilates the native physiological shape of IBs. Nevertheless, the ratio of particle counts of non-fixated and fixated samples could potentially serve as factor for particle stickiness. In this contribution, we establish image segmentation of TEM pictures as an orthogonal method to size biologic particles in the cytosol of cells. More importantly, NTA has been established as a particle-based, fast and high throughput method (1000-3000 particles), thus constituting a much more accurate and representative analysis than currently available methods. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Particle-Size-Induced Valence Changes in Samarium Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, M. G.; Lee, S. -T.; Apai, G.; Davis, R. F.; Shirley, D. A.; Franciosi, A.; Weaver, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    Samarium clusters exhibit mixed-valence behavior which is sensitive to particle size. XPS and UPS data show samarium to be primarily divalent (4f{sup 6} ) at small particle size. The trivalent state (4f{sup 5} ) becomes progressively more abundant with increasing s1ze, becoming the dominant state for the bulk metal. These results are interpreted using a model in which band narrowing, due to reduced surface coordination, is more dominant than surface tension effects in establishing the valence of small samarium clusters.

  14. Particle size of a new endodontic cement compared to Root MTA and calcium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Soheilipour, Elham; Kheirieh, Sanam; Madani, Majid; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Asgary, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Particle size and distribution can influence the properties of materials. This study analyzed and compared the particle size of Root MTA, calcium hydroxide (CH), and a new endodontic cement called calcium enriched material (CEM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The particle size of each material was analyzed three times using 0.05 mg of test material with a particle size analyzer. The particle size distribution ranges, the cumulative percentage and the mean of particle sizes were calcula...

  15. Metrological assessment of a portable analyzer for monitoring the particle size distribution of ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Luca; Cauda, Emanuele; Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    Adverse health effects caused by worker exposure to ultrafine particles have been detected in recent years. The scientific community focuses on the assessment of ultrafine aerosols in different microenvironments in order to determine the related worker exposure/dose levels. To this end, particle size distribution measurements have to be taken along with total particle number concentrations. The latter are obtainable through hand-held monitors. A portable particle size distribution analyzer (Nanoscan SMPS 3910, TSI Inc.) was recently commercialized, but so far no metrological assessment has been performed to characterize its performance with respect to well-established laboratory-based instruments such as the scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) spectrometer. The present paper compares the aerosol monitoring capability of the Nanoscan SMPS to the laboratory SMPS in order to evaluate whether the Nanoscan SMPS is suitable for field experiments designed to characterize particle exposure in different microenvironments. Tests were performed both in a Marple calm air chamber, where fresh diesel particulate matter and atomized dioctyl phthalate particles were monitored, and in microenvironments, where outdoor, urban, indoor aged, and indoor fresh aerosols were measured. Results show that the Nanoscan SMPS is able to properly measure the particle size distribution for each type of aerosol investigated, but it overestimates the total particle number concentration in the case of fresh aerosols. In particular, the test performed in the Marple chamber showed total concentrations up to twice those measured by the laboratory SMPS-likely because of the inability of the Nanoscan SMPS unipolar charger to properly charge aerosols made up of aggregated particles. Based on these findings, when field test exposure studies are conducted, the Nanoscan SMPS should be used in tandem with a condensation particle counter in order to verify and correct the particle size distribution data

  16. Particle size distribution and physico-chemical composition of clay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loss on Ignition (LOI) was by gravimetry. The data obtained on the alkaline metals, alkali metals, silica, sesquioxides/titanium, pH and Loss on ignition (LOI) reveal a general reduction in composition as particles sizes reduces. However, Mg (MgO) increased (16.09% - 30.86%) through <300μm to <44μm as sieved sizes ...

  17. Ozone reaction with clothing and its initiated particle generation in an environmental chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aakash C.; Guo, Bing; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Zhang, Jianshun; Pei, Jingjing; Chen, Qingyan

    2013-10-01

    Ozone-initiated chemistry in indoor air can produce sub-micron particles, which are potentially harmful for human health. Occupants in indoor spaces constitute potential sites for particle generation through ozone reactions with human skin and clothing. This investigation conducted chamber experiments to examine particle generation from ozone reactions with clothing (a T-shirt) under different indoor conditions. We studied the effect of various factors such as ozone concentration, relative humidity, soiling levels of T-shirt with human skin oils, and air change rate on particle generation. The results showed that ozone reactions with the T-shirt generated sub-micron particles, which were enhanced by the soiling of the T-shirt with human skin oils. In these reactions, a burst of ultrafine particles was observed about one hour after ozone injection, and then the particles grew to larger sizes. The particle generation from the ozone reactions with the soiled T-shirt was significantly affected by the different factors studied and these reactions were identified as another potential source for indoor ultrafine particles.

  18. Determination of the lateral size and thickness of solution-processed graphene flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Shang; Bin-Tay, Wei; Aslam, Zabeada; Westwood, A. V. K.; Brydson, R.

    2017-09-01

    We present a method to determine the lateral size distribution of solution…processed graphene via direct image analysis techniques. Initially transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were correlated and used to provide a reliable benchmark. A rapid, automated OM method was then developed to obtain the distribution from thousands of flakes, avoiding statistical uncertainties and providing high accuracy. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was further employed to develop an in-situ method to derive the number particle size distribution (PSD) for a dispersion, with a deviation lower than 22% in the sub-micron regime. Methods for determining flake thickness are also discussed.

  19. Experimental Effects on IR Reflectance Spectra: Particle Size and Morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswenger, Toya N.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Smith, Milton; Lanker, Cory

    2016-05-23

    For geologic and extraterrestrial samples it is known that both particle size and morphology can have strong effects on the species’ infrared reflectance spectra. Due to such effects, the reflectance spectra cannot be predicted from the absorption coefficients alone. This is because reflectance is both a surface as well as a bulk phenomenon, incorporating both dispersion as well as absorption effects. The same spectral features can even be observed as either a maximum or minimum. The complex effects depend on particle size and preparation, as well as the relative amplitudes of the optical constants n and k, i.e. the real and imaginary components of the complex refractive index. While somewhat oversimplified, upward-going amplitude in the reflectance spectrum usually result from surface scattering, i.e. rays that have been reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. While the effects are well known, we report seminal measurements of reflectance along with quantified particle size of the samples, the sizing obtained from optical microscopy measurements. The size measurements are correlated with the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. We report results for both sodium sulfate Na2SO4 as well as ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4; the optical constants have been measured for (NH4)2SO4. To go a step further from the field to the laboratory we explore our understanding of particle size effects on reflectance spectra in the field using standoff detection. This has helped identify weaknesses and strengths in detection using standoff distances of up 160 meters away from the Target. The studies have

  20. Trends and sources of ozone and sub-micron aerosols at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) during 2004-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Jaffe, Daniel A.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we report the climatology of tropospheric ozone (O3) and sub-micron aerosol scattering at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO, 2.8 km asl) in central Oregon, USA, during 2004-2015. The seasonal cycle for O3 showed a bimodal pattern with peaks in April and July, while aerosol scattering (σsp) was lognormally distributed with a very high peak in August and a smaller peak in May. The mean O3 concentrations showed positive and significant trends in all seasons except winter, with a slope of 0.6-0.8 ppbv yr-1. Monthly criteria for isolating free tropospheric (FT) and boundary layer influenced (BLI) air masses at MBO were obtained based on comparison of MBO water vapor (WV) distributions to those of Salem (SLE) and Medford (MFR), Oregon, at equivalent pressure level. In all seasons, FT O3 was, on average, higher than BLI O3, but the seasonal patterns were rather similar. For σsp the FT mean in spring was higher, but the BLI mean in summer was significantly higher, indicating the importance of regional wildfire smoke. To better understand the causes for the seasonal and interannual trends at MBO, we identified four major categories of air masses that impact O3, carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosols: upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) O3 intrusion, Asian long-range transport (ALRT), Arctic air pollution (AAP) and plumes from the Pacific Northwest region (PNW). ALRT and PNW plumes can be further divided into wildfires (WF), industrial pollution (IP) and mineral dust (MD). Over the 12 years of observations, 177 individual plume events have been identified. Enhancement ratios (ERs) and Ångström exponents (AEs) of aerosols were calculated for all events. The lowest slope of Δσsp/ΔO3 is a unique feature of UTLS events. PNW-WF events have the highest averages for Δσsp/ΔCO, Δσsp/ΔO3 and Δσsp/ΔNOy compared to other events. These ERs decrease during long-range transport due to the shorter residence time of aerosols compared to the other

  1. Effective particle size from molecular dynamics simulations in fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jianwei; Welch, Paul M.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø.; Redondo, Antonio; Vorobieff, Peter; Kober, Edward M.

    2017-12-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations designed to investigate the effective size of colloidal particles suspended in a fluid in the vicinity of a rigid wall where all interactions are defined by smooth atomic potential functions. These simulations are used to assess how the behavior of this system at the atomistic length scale compares to continuum mechanics models. In order to determine the effective size of the particles, we calculate the solvent forces on spherical particles of different radii as a function of different positions near and overlapping with the atomistically defined wall and compare them to continuum models. This procedure also then determines the effective position of the wall. Our analysis is based solely on forces that the particles sense, ensuring self-consistency of the method. The simulations were carried out using both Weeks-Chandler-Andersen and modified Lennard-Jones (LJ) potentials to identify the different contributions of simple repulsion and van der Waals attractive forces. Upon correction for behavior arising the discreteness of the atomic system, the underlying continuum physics analysis appeared to be correct down to much less than the particle radius. For both particle types, the effective radius was found to be ˜ 0.75σ , where σ defines the length scale of the force interaction (the LJ diameter). The effective "hydrodynamic" radii determined by this means are distinct from commonly assumed values of 0.5σ and 1.0σ , but agree with a value developed from the atomistic analysis of the viscosity of such systems.

  2. Control of Distributions and Sizes of Nanocomposite Carbon Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, P. X.

    Microscale to nanoscale carbon and carbon nitride particles and films were synthesized by using plasma discharge sputtering deposition techniques. Experimental results indicated that sizes and distributions of the particles were directly determined by both discharge voltage and bias voltage. Sputtering deposition at high discharge voltages yielded large sizes (micrometer order) of particles with a high disorder of distribution. Whereas sputtering deposition at low discharge voltages yielded nanoscale of particles that uniformly distributed on the surface of the substrate. Ar laser beam in combination with an optical microscope has been used, enabling one to remove these particles and to achieve preferred distributions of the particles. Low growth rate of the films was found at the low voltage discharge sputtering deposition. Bias voltage was employed during the experiments in order to speed up the growth rate and increase nitrogen content inside the carbon nitride film. With an increase of the bias voltage up to 5 kV, nanoparticles appeared in two-dimensional, sunflower type of cluster distributions. Typical G, D, and C=N bands in the Raman spectra of the samples were identified.

  3. particle size distribution and control on bitumen saturation of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vicadmin

    The bitumen saturation analysis was carried out with the use of toluene. The result of sedimentological and particle size distribution studies showed that the sands are medium grained, moderately sorted and mesokurtic. The grain morphology can be described as having low to high sphericity, with shapes generally ...

  4. Tracing Particle Size Distribution Curves Using an Analogue Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschop, F. De; Segaert, O.

    1986-01-01

    Proposes an analog circuit for use in sedimentation analysis of finely divided solid materials. Discusses a method of particle size distribution analysis and provides schematics of the circuit with list of components as well as a discussion about the operation of the circuit. (JM)

  5. Online submicron particle sizing by dynamic light scattering using autodilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, David F.; Elings, V. B.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient production of a wide range of commercial products based on submicron colloidal dispersions would benefit from instrumentation for online particle sizing, permitting real time monitoring and control of the particle size distribution. Recent advances in the technology of dynamic light scattering (DLS), especially improvements in algorithms for inversion of the intensity autocorrelation function, have made it ideally suited to the measurement of simple particle size distributions in the difficult submicron region. Crucial to the success of an online DSL based instrument is a simple mechanism for automatically sampling and diluting the starting concentrated sample suspension, yielding a final concentration which is optimal for the light scattering measurement. A proprietary method and apparatus was developed for performing this function, designed to be used with a DLS based particle sizing instrument. A PC/AT computer is used as a smart controller for the valves in the sampler diluter, as well as an input-output communicator, video display and data storage device. Quantitative results are presented for a latex suspension and an oil-in-water emulsion.

  6. Improved Mathematical Models for Particle-Size Distribution Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BirukEdimon

    1. IMPROVED MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR PARTICLE-SIZE. DISTRIBUTION DATA REPRESENTATION OF TROPICAL. WEATHERED RESIDUAL SOILS. Addiszemen Teklay1, Messele Haile2, Alemayehu Teferra2, andE. J. Murray3. 1. School of Civil & Water Resources Engineering, Bahirdar Institute of Technology,. 2.

  7. influence of limestone particle size on egg production and eggshell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFS

    age, were randomly allocated to the three treatments (n = 23) for the determination of various egg production ... Keywords: Lohmann-Silver, feed efficiency, egg weight, eggshell thickness, calcification ... regarding the ideal limestone particle size for layers are under continued investigation and ranged generally between ...

  8. Particle size distribution of selected electronic nicotine delivery system products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Michael J; Zhang, Jingjie; Rusyniak, Mark J; Kane, David B; Gardner, William P

    2018-01-31

    Dosimetry models can be used to predict the dose of inhaled material, but they require several parameters including particle size distribution. The reported particle size distributions for aerosols from electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) products vary widely and don't always identify a specific product. A low-flow cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution [mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD); geometric standard deviation (GSD)] from 20 different cartridge based ENDS products. To assess losses and vapor phase amount, collection efficiency of the system was measured by comparing the collected mass in the impactor to the difference in ENDS product mass. The levels of nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, water, and menthol in the formulations of each product were also measured. Regardless of the ENDS product formulation, the MMAD of all tested products was similar and ranged from 0.9 to 1.2 μm with a GSD ranging from 1.7 to 2.2. There was no consistent pattern of change in the MMAD and GSD as a function of number of puffs (cartridge life). The collection efficiency indicated that 9%-26% of the generated mass was deposited in the collection system or was in the vapor phase. The particle size distribution data are suitable for use in aerosol dosimetry programs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Particle Size Distribution on Bioremediation of Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... microbial characteristics for a period of 42days. The parameters examined were: moisture content, particle size distribution, total hydrocarbon content, soil pH, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, total heterotrophic bacteria and fungi count. The analysis of the soil characteristics throughout the remediation period ...

  10. Ham particle size influences saltiness perception in flans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emorine, M; Septier, C; Thomas-Danguin, T; Salles, C

    2014-04-01

    One major issue of the food industry is reducing sodium content while maintaining food acceptability and liking. Despite extensive research in this field, little has been published on real complex food products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the size of particles, a parameter easily adjusted in food processing, could influence the salty taste of low-salt food product. We thus evaluated the effect of ham particle sizes (4 levels, including a zero level) on salt perception and the consumer liking of flans varying in their overall salt concentrations (low- and high-salt content). Two consumer panels, composed of 107 and 77 subjects, rated, respectively, the saltiness of and liking for the developed flans (8 samples). The outcomes of this study indicated first, that the addition of ham to flans increased the salty taste perception and second, that a decrease in ham particle size (ground ham) increased the perceived saltiness. Moreover, low- and high-salt flans were equally liked, demonstrating that food manufacturers could reduce the salt contents (here, by over 15%) while maintaining consumer acceptability through the manipulation of the size of the salt-providing particles. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Size distribution of airborne particles in animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.L.H.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Cambra-Lopez, M.; Huynh, T.T.T.; Parmentier, H.K.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine concentration and size distribution of airborne particles inside and outside animal houses for broilers, broiler breeder (with bedding); layers (floor or aviary housing system); turkeys (with bedding), pigs: fatteners (traditional house, low emission

  12. Size distribution of airborne particles in animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.L.H.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Cambra-López, M.; Huynh, T.T.T.; Parmentier, H.K.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    The concentration and size distribution of airborne particles were measured inside and outside typical animal houses such as broilers, broiler breeders (both floor housing with litter); layers (floor housing system and aviary housing system); turkeys (floor housing with litter), pigs: fattening pigs

  13. Medical Modeling of Particle Size Effects for CB Inhalation Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Albuquerque, New Mexico . Roy, C.J., Hale, M., Hartings, J.M., and Pitt, L., (2002). Impact of Inhalation Exposure Modality and Particle Size on the...Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy Texas A&M University, College Station, TX Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Paraná, Brazil Universitt

  14. A simultaneous charge and size measurement method for individual airborne particles using digital holographic particle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Adam; Dou, Zhongwang; Liang, Zach; Meng, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Recently, significant inquiry to understand the effects of particle charge on particle laden flow have been made, particularly in the study of Lagrangian particle-pair statistics. Quantification of individual particle charge allows relation of inter-particle electric forces and turbulence-induced forces. Here we offer a simultaneous, individual particle charge and size measurement technique utilizing in-line digital holographic Particle Tracking Velocimetry (hPTV). The method measures particle electric mobility through its velocity response within a uniform electric field using a sequence of holograms, next the particle diameter is measured with the same holograms using a matched-filter developed by Lu et al. (2012) as an input for calculation of charge. Consequently, a benefit of this method is that particle charge is calculated on the individual level, versus a mean charge calculated from a group of particles, offering improved estimations of charge distributions for studies of particle laden flow. This work was supported by NSF CBET-0967407 and CBET-0967349.

  15. Particle Sizes and Self Gravity Wakes in Saturn's A Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerousek, R. G.; Colwell, J. E.; Esposito, L. W.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) have measured normal optical depths throughout Saturn's rings by stellar occultations covering a wide range of viewing geometries. The UVIS photometer has an effective wavelength of 0.15 µm and a relatively wide (6.0 mrad × 6.4 mrad) field-of-view. VIMS, in occultation mode, measures at an effective wavelength of 2.9 µm and over a single pixel of angular dimensions 0.25 mrad × 0.5 mrad. Occultations measured by VIMS at the same viewing geometry as UVIS occultations overstate the optical depth if particles smaller than 1.22λVIMS/2θ ~ 8.36 mm are present because light diffracted out of the VIMS pixel by those particles is not replaced by neighboring particles. By measuring differential optical depths one can probe the parameters of the ring particle size distribution (i.e. Zebker et al. 1985, Icarus, 64, 531-548). The technique is complicated, however, by the geometric dependence of the optical depth imposed by the non-axisymmetric self-gravity wakes, which are ephemeral elongated aggregates, deformed by Keplerian shear. Beginning with the granola bar wake model of Colwell et al. (2006, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L07201), we introduce a free parameter τsmall which represents the excess normal optical depth measured by VIMS due to sub-cm particles between the opaque wakes and combine VIMS and UVIS occultations for particle size analysis while simultaneously determining the properties of the wakes. We find that throughout the A Ring the wake properties generally agree with previously published results (Colwell et al. 2006, Hedman et al. 2007, Astron. J., 133, 2624-2629). We find a significant fraction of sub-cm particles in the inner and outer A Ring and in the troughs of density waves near strong Lindblad resonances. While wake properties vary in the halo regions surrounding these resonances, the abundance of sub-cm particles varies little from 124

  16. Factors controlling particle number concentration and size at metro stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, C.; Moreno, T.; Martins, V.; Minguillón, M. C.; Jones, T.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.; Centelles, S.; Querol, X.

    2017-05-01

    An extensive air quality campaign was performed at differently designed station platforms in the Barcelona metro system, aiming to investigate the factors governing airborne particle number (N) concentrations and their size distributions. The study of the daily trends of N concentrations by different size ranges shows that concentrations of N0.3-10 are closely related with the schedule of the metro service. Conversely, the hourly variation of N0.007-10 (mainly composed of ultrafine particles) could be partly governed by the entrance of particles from outdoor emissions through mechanical ventilation. Measurements under different ventilation settings at three metro platforms reveal that the effect on air quality linked to changes in the tunnel ventilation depends on the station design. Night-time maintenance works in tunnels are frequent activities in the metro system; and after intense prolonged works, these can result in higher N concentrations at platforms during the following metro operating hours (by up to 30%), this being especially evident for N1-10. Due to the complex mixture of factors controlling N, together with the differences in trends recorded for particles within different size ranges, developing an air quality strategy at metro systems is a great challenge. When compared to street-level urban particles concentrations, the priority in metro air quality should be dealing with particles coarser than 0.3 μm. In fact, the results suggest that at narrow platforms served by single-track tunnels the current forced tunnel ventilation during operating hours is less efficient in reducing coarse particles compared to fine.

  17. Totally asymmetric exclusion processes with particles of arbitrary size

    CERN Document Server

    Lakatos, G

    2003-01-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean-field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEPs featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modelling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low-density, high-density, and maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d = 1) TASEP. A simple mean-field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or ...

  18. Calibration of aerosol instruments in a wide particle size range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yli-Ojanpera, J.

    2012-07-01

    Aerosol particles have an important role in many scientific and technological issues. Aerosol particle measurements are widely applied for example in clean room technology, in atmospheric measurements and in studying the Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from traffic and industry. This thesis concentrates on developing new aerosol instrumentation both for measurement and calibration purposes. On the measurement side, the driving force has been the urgent need for instruments that have a fast time response and are able to measure nanoparticles with reasonable accuracy. In this respect, the nanoparticle resolution of the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI, Dekati Ltd.) was improved by designing, manufacturing and implementing a new impactor stage (cutpoint 16.7 nm) to the ELPI cascade impactor. The new impactor stage divides the particle size range measured by the filter stage (7-30 nm) between the new stage and the filter stage. As a result, the nanoparticle resolution of the ELPI was improved. This made the device more suitable, for example, for vehicle engine emission measurements. The new stage is currently being sold as a part of the new ELPI+ instrument, which is an improved version of the original ELPI. On the calibration side, the main driving force behind aerosol instrument development has been the lack of calibration standards available for calibrating the number concentration responses of the instruments in the sub-micrometer size range. In this size range, the most common method to calibrate an instrument is to use a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), for obtaining monodisperse particles for the calibration, and a Faraday cup aerosol electrometer (FCAE), for measuring the reference number concentration. Even though, in principle, the DMA allows size selection up to 1 {mu}m in diameter, the calibrations are usually limited to particles below 100 nm because of the multiple charging of particles. To solve this problem, a new concept for realizing a

  19. Current Development Status of a Particle Size Analyzer for Coated Particle Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Andrew T [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL

    2007-08-01

    Work was performed to develop a prototype Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) for application to coated particle fuel characterization. This system was based on a light obscuration method and targeted towards high throughput analysis. Although never matured to the point of replacing existing lower throughput optical microscopy shadowgraph methods, the system was successfully applied to automating the counting of large particle samples for increased accuracy in calculating mean particle properties based on measurements of multiparticle samples. The measurement of particle size with the PSA was compared to current shadowgraph techniques and found to result in considerably greater throughput at the cost of larger measurement uncertainty. The current algorithm used by the PSA is more sensitive to particle shape and this is a likely cause of the greater uncertainty when attempting to measure average particle diameter. The use of the PSA to measure particle shape will require further development. Particle transport through the PSA and stability of the light source/detector are key elements in the successful application of this technique. A number of system pitfalls were studied and addressed.

  20. Recovering 3D Particle Size Distributions from 2D Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Olson, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss different ways to convert observed, apparent particle size distributions from 2D sections (thin sections, SEM maps on planar surfaces, etc.) into true 3D particle size distributions. We give a simple, flexible and practical method to do this, show which of these techniques gives the most faithful conversions, and provide (online) short computer codes to calculate both 2D- 3D recoveries and simulations of 2D observations by random sectioning. The most important systematic bias of 2D sectioning, from the standpoint of most chondrite studies, is an overestimate of the abundance of the larger particles. We show that fairly good recoveries can be achieved from observed size distributions containing 100-300 individual measurements of apparent particle diameter. Proper determination of particle size distributions in chondrites - for chondrules, CAIs, and metalgrains - is of basic importance for assessing the processes of formation and/or of accretion of theseparticles into their parent bodies. To date, most information of this sort is gathered from 2D samplescut from a rock such as in microscopic analysis of thin sections, or SEM maps of planar surfaces(Dodd 1976, Hughes 1978a,b; Rubin and Keil 1984, Rubin and Grossman 1987, Grossman et al1988, Rubin 1989, Metzler et al 1992, Kuebler et al 1999, Nelson and Rubin 2002, Schneider et al 2003, Hezel et al 2008; Fisher et al 2014; for an exhaustive review with numerous references seeFriedrich et al 2014). While qualitative discrimination between chondrite types can readily be doneusing data of this sort, any deeper exploration of the processes by which chondrite constituents werecreated or emplaced into their parent requires a more quantitative approach.

  1. Aerosol Sampling Bias from Differential Electrostatic Charge and Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayjock, Michael Anthony

    Lack of reliable epidemiological data on long term health effects of aerosols is due in part to inadequacy of sampling procedures and the attendant doubt regarding the validity of the concentrations measured. Differential particle size has been widely accepted and studied as a major potential biasing effect in the sampling of such aerosols. However, relatively little has been done to study the effect of electrostatic particle charge on aerosol sampling. The objective of this research was to investigate the possible biasing effects of differential electrostatic charge, particle size and their interaction on the sampling accuracy of standard aerosol measuring methodologies. Field studies were first conducted to determine the levels and variability of aerosol particle size and charge at two manufacturing facilities making acrylic powder. The field work showed that the particle mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) varied by almost an order of magnitude (4-34 microns) while the aerosol surface charge was relatively stable (0.6-0.9 micro coulombs/m('2)). The second part of this work was a series of laboratory experiments in which aerosol charge and MMAD were manipulated in a 2('n) factorial design with the percentage of sampling bias for various standard methodologies as the dependent variable. The experiments used the same friable acrylic powder studied in the field work plus two size populations of ground quartz as a nonfriable control. Despite some ill conditioning of the independent variables due to experimental difficulties, statistical analysis has shown aerosol charge (at levels comparable to those measured in workroom air) is capable of having a significant biasing effect. Physical models consistent with the sampling data indicate that the level and bipolarity of the aerosol charge are determining factors in the extent and direction of the bias.

  2. Nano sized clay detected on chalk particle surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Lone; Hassenkam, Tue; Makovicky, Emil

    2012-01-01

    adsorption takes place, are largely unknown. In this study, we have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to show that the grain surfaces in offshore and onshore chalk are more heterogeneous than previously assumed. The particles are not simply calcite surfaces but are partially covered by clay that is only 1...... that in calcite saturated water, both the polar and the nonpolar functional groups adhere to the nano sized clay particles but not to calcite. This is fundamentally important information for the development of conceptual and chemical models to explain wettability alterations in chalk reservoirs...

  3. Particle size and concentration effects in laboratory debris flow mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz de Oliveira, Gustavo; Baselt, Ivo; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2017-04-01

    Large scale chute experiments, as considered here, are essential for the proper understanding of the complex dynamic behavior of debris flow mixtures consisting of solid particles and viscous fluid. Main flow features that are measured on a laboratory scale are the debris flow front velocity, flow depth and mass evolution. We estimate the debris front position by image analysis technique, which in turn allows to evaluate the respective front velocity. Flow depths are determined by ultrasonic pulse reflections, and the masses are estimated with sensors measuring the normal forces. We investigate the influence of the two phase mixture material composition, including different fluid fractions. The laboratory set up consists of a large rectangular channel, 1.3 m wide and 7 m long. These dimensions allow also a lateral expansion of the debris flow when it moves down the inclined channel. Experiments on debris mixtures with different particle sizes and solid concentrations but same total mass are performed to evaluate the difference in spatial evolution of the debris flow dynamics with the same initial potential energy. The experiments reveal that the debris front with large particle size is faster than with the small ones for all solid volume concentrations. The increase of solid volume fraction shows a decrease of flow velocity, which was observed only in the experiments with the small particle. The flow depth and mass measurements at multiple locations along the downslope direction of the chute indicate different dynamical behavior for different particles sizes. The debris flow depth and mass showed no significant differences for large particles with varying initial solid volume concentrations. In contrast, low solid volume concentration resulted in low debris flow depth and mass in the experiments with small particles. This indicates that the particle size plays an important role in the debris flow transport in different solid volume concentration. So, the initial

  4. Infrared reflectance spectra: Effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-09-22

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  5. Particle sizing of pharmaceutical aerosols via direct imaging of particle settling velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishler, Rami; Verhoeven, Frank; de Kruijf, Wilbur; Sznitman, Josué

    2018-02-15

    We present a novel method for characterizing in near real-time the aerodynamic particle size distributions from pharmaceutical inhalers. The proposed method is based on direct imaging of airborne particles followed by a particle-by-particle measurement of settling velocities using image analysis and particle tracking algorithms. Due to the simplicity of the principle of operation, this method has the potential of circumventing potential biases of current real-time particle analyzers (e.g. Time of Flight analysis), while offering a cost effective solution. The simple device can also be constructed in laboratory settings from off-the-shelf materials for research purposes. To demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the measurement technique, we have conducted benchmark experiments whereby aerodynamic particle size distributions are obtained from several commercially-available dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Our measurements yield size distributions (i.e. MMAD and GSD) that are closely in line with those obtained from Time of Flight analysis and cascade impactors suggesting that our imaging-based method may embody an attractive methodology for rapid inhaler testing and characterization. In a final step, we discuss some of the ongoing limitations of the current prototype and conceivable routes for improving the technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gas-solute dispersivity ratio in granular porous media as related to particle size distribution and particle shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Straface, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    different, granular porous materials were used: (1) crushed granite (very angular particles), (2) gravel (particles of intermediate roundness) and (3) Leca® (almost spherical particles). For each material, 21 different particle size fractions were used. Gas and solute dispersion coefficients were determined...... by fitting the advection-dispersion equation to the measured breakthrough curves and in turn used to calculate gas and solute dispersivities as a function of mean particle size (Dm) and particle size range (R) for the 63 particle size fractions considered. The results show that solute and gas dispersivities...

  7. Prediction of bulk powder flow performance using comprehensive particle size and particle shape distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weili; Muteki, Koji; Zhang, Lin; Kim, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a modeling approach that can be used to predict bulk powder flowability of pharmaceutical materials from their particle size and shape distributions. To build and validate the model, 23 commonly used pharmaceutical excipients and 38 binary blends were fully characterized for their particle size and shape distributions. The particle size and shape of each sample was characterized by multiple descriptors to fully reflect their morphological characteristics. The flow properties of these materials were analyzed using the Schulze Ring Shear Tester at a fixed humidity condition. A partial least squares (PLS) approach was used to build the mathematical model. Several different modeling approaches were attempted and the best method was identified as using a combination of formulation composition and particle size and shape distributions of single-component powder systems. The PLS model was shown to provide excellent predictions of powder flow function coefficient (FFC) of up to approximately 20. The results also revealed that both particle size and shape play an important role in determining the powder flow behavior. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  8. Aerosol spectral optical depths and size characteristics at a coastal industriallocation in India - effect of synoptic and mesoscale weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Niranjan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol spectral optical depths at ten discrete channels in the visible and near IR bands, obtained from a ground-based passive multi-wavelength solar radiometer at a coastal industrial location, Visakhapatnam, on the east coast of India, are used to study the response of the aerosol optical properties and size distributions to the changes in atmospheric humidity, wind speed and direction. It is observed that during high humidity conditions, the spectral optical depths show about 30% higher growth factors, and the size distributions show the generation of a typical new mode around 0.4 microns. The surface wind speed and direction also indicate the formation of new particles when the humid marine air mass interacts with the industrial air mass. This is interpreted in terms of new particle formation and subsequent particle growth by condensation and self-coagulation. The results obtained on the surface-size segregated aerosol mass distribution from a co-located Quartz Crystal Microbalance during different humidity conditions also show a large mass increase in the sub-micron size range with an increase in atmospheric humidity, indicating new particle formation at the sub-micron size range.

  9. Size-dependent nonlocal effects in plasmonic semiconductor particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Localized surface plasmons (LSP) in semiconductor particles are expected to exhibit spatial nonlocal response effects as the geometry enters the nanometer scale. To investigate these nonlocal effects, we apply the hydrodynamic model to nanospheres of two different semiconductor materials: intrinsic...... InSb and n-doped GaAs. Our results show that the semiconductors indeed display nonlocal effects, and that these effects are even more pronounced than in metals. In a 150 nm InSb particle at 300 K, the LSP frequency is blueshifted 35%, which is orders of magnitude larger than the blueshift in a metal...... particle of the same size. This property, together with their tunability, makes semiconductors a promising platform for experiments in nonlocal effects. Copyright (C)EPLA, 2017...

  10. Impact of varying analytical methodologies on grain particle size determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivoda, J R; Jones, C K; Stark, C R

    2017-01-01

    The determination of particle size is an important quality control measurement for feed manufacturers, nutritionists, and producers. The current approved method for determining the geometric mean diameter by weight (d) and geometric standard deviation (S) of grains is standard ANSI/ASAE S319.4. This method controls many variables, including the suggested quantity of initial material and the type, number, and size of sieves. However, the method allows for variations in sieving time, sieve agitators, and the use of a dispersion agent. The objective of this experiment was to determine which method of particle size analysis best estimated the particle size of various cereal grain types. Eighteen samples of either corn, sorghum, or wheat were ground and analyzed using different variations of the approved method. Treatments were arranged in a 5 × 3 factorial arrangement with 5 sieving methods: 1) 10-min sieving time with sieve agitators and no dispersion agent, 2) 10-min sieving time with sieve agitators and dispersion agent, 3) 15-min sieving time with no sieve agitators or dispersion agent, 4) 15-min sieving time with sieve agitators and no dispersion agent, and 5) 15-min sieving time with sieve agitators and dispersion agent conducted in 3 grain types (ground corn, sorghum, and wheat) with 4 replicates per treatment. The analytical method that resulted in the lowest d and greatest S was considered desirable because it was presumably representative of increased movement of particles to their appropriate sieve. Analytical method affected d and S ( ≤ 0.05) measured by both standards. Inclusion of sieve agitators and dispersion agent in the sieve stack resulted in the lowest d, regardless of sieving time. Inclusion of dispersion agent reduced d ( ≤ 0.05) by 32 and 36 µm when shaken for 10 and 15 min, respectively, compared to the same sample analyzed without dispersion agent. The addition of the dispersion agent also increased S. The dispersion agent increased the

  11. Comparison of the activities of fine-particle size catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    The objectives of Sandia`s fine-particle size catalyst testing project are to evaluate and compare the activities of the fine-particle size catalysts being developed in DOE/PETCs Advanced Research Coal Liquefaction Program by using standard coal liquefaction test procedures. The standard procedures use Blind Canyon coal, phenanthrene as the reaction solvent, and a factorial experimental design with temperatures from 350{degrees}C to 400{degrees}C, reaction times from 20 to 60 minutes, and catalyst loadings up to 1 wt%. Catalytic activity is measured in terms of tetrahydrofuran conversion, heptane conversion, the amount of 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene in the product, and the gas yield. Several catalysts have been evaluated including a commercially available pyrite, a sulfated iron oxide from the University of Pittsburgh, and several preparations of 6-line ferrihydrites from Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Results have demonstrated that significant differences in activity can be detected among these catalysts.

  12. Light scattering by lunar-like particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Jay D.

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental input to models of light scattering from planetary regoliths is the mean phase function of the regolith particles. Using the known size distribution for typical lunar soils, the mean phase function and mean linear polarization for a regolith volume element of spherical particles of any composition were calculated from Mie theory. The two contour plots given here summarize the changes in the mean phase function and linear polarization with changes in the real part of the complex index of refraction, n - ik, for k equals 0.01, the visible wavelength 0.55 micrometers, and the particle size distribution of the typical mature lunar soil 72141. A second figure is a similar index-phase surface, except with k equals 0.1. The index-phase surfaces from this survey are a first order description of scattering by lunar-like regoliths of spherical particles of arbitrary composition. They form the basis of functions that span a large range of parameter-space.

  13. EFFECT OF PARTICLE DIAMETER ON EXCLUSION-ZONE SIZE

    OpenAIRE

    NHAN, D.T.; Pollack, G.H.

    2011-01-01

    Particles and solutes are excluded from the vicinity of hydrophilic surfaces, leaving large microsphere-free regions known as exclusion zones (EZs). Prior work had indicated that EZs could extend to distances of up to several hundred micrometers from the nucleating surface. These observations were made on large, extended surfaces, leaving open the question whether EZ size might depend on the characteristic dimension of the excluding surface. We placed one or few ion-exchange-resin beads whose...

  14. Biologically optimized nanosized molecules and particles: more than just size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, Michelle R; Ogawa, Mikako; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2011-06-15

    The expanded biological and medical applications of nanomaterials place a premium on better understanding of the chemical and physical determinants of in vivo particles. Nanotechnology allows us to design a vast array of molecules with distinct chemical and biological characteristics, each with a specific size, charge, hydrophilicity, shape, and flexibility. To date, much research has focused on the role of particle size as a determinant of biodistribution and clearance. Additionally, much of what we know about the relationship between nanoparticle traits and pharmacokinetics has involved research limited to the gross average hydrodynamic size. Yet, other features such as particle shape and flexibility affect in vivo behavior and become increasingly important for designing and synthesizing nanosized molecules. Herein, we discuss determinants of in vivo behavior of nanosized molecules used as imaging agents with a focus on dendrimer-based contrast agents. We aim to discuss often overlooked or, yet to be considered, factors that affect in vivo behavior of synthetic nanosized molecules, as well as aim to highlight important gaps in current understanding.

  15. Effect of particle size on Bioglass {sup trademark} dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda, P.; Jones, J.R.; Hench, L.L. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    2001-07-01

    The dissolution behaviour of melt-derived 45S5 and sol-gel derived 58S Bioglass {sup trademark} powders produced with various particle size ranges was evaluated in this work. The powders were characterized for particle size distribution, specific surface area, porosity and textural features. Dissolution studies were carried out in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in {alpha}-MEM based culture medium, at 37 C under dynamic conditions (1 Hz) for periods of 30 min, 1, 2, 4, 8, 17 and 22 hours. The concentrations of elements dissolved from the glasses were evaluated using induced coupled plasma analysis (ICP). The reacted powders were analysed using FTIR to observe the formation of a hydroxycarbonate layer on the surface, which gives indication of the material bioactivity. The results show that the varying the particle size distribution of bioactive glasses provides a means to control dissolution rates and rate of HCA layer formation. Thereby, it can be conveniently used as a tool to obtain controlled delivery of the bioactive glass components that stimulate osteogenesis. (orig.)

  16. Size distribution analysis of influenza virus particles using size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Judith; Weber, Dennis; Brekel, Dominik; Hundt, Boris; Müller, Egbert

    2016-09-23

    Size exclusion chromatography is a standard method in quality control of biopharmaceutical proteins. In contrast, vaccine analysis is often based on activity assays. The hemagglutination assay is a widely accepted influenza quantification method, providing no insight in the size distribution of virus particles. Capabilities of size exclusion chromatography to complement the hemagglutination assay are investigated. The presented method is comparatively robust regarding different buffer systems, ionic strength and additive concentrations. Addition of 200mM arginine or sodium chloride is necessary to obtain complete virus particle recovery. 0.5 and 1.0M arginine increase the hydrodynamic radius of the whole virus particles by 5nm. Sodium citrate induces virus particle aggregation. Results are confirmed by dynamic light scattering. Retention of a H1N1v strain correlates with DNA contents between 5ng/mL and 670ng/mL. Quantitative elution of the virus preparations is verified on basis of hemagglutination activity. Elution of hemagglutination inducing compounds starts at a flow channel diameter of 7000nm. The universal applicability is demonstrated with three different influenza virus samples, including an industrially produced, pandemic vaccine strain. Size distribution of the pandemic H1N1v 5258, H1N1 PR/8/34, and H3N2 Aichi/2/68 preparations spreads across inter- and intra-particle volume and extends to the secondary interaction dominated range. Thus, virus particle debris seems to induce hemagglutination. Fragments generated by 0.5% Triton™ X-100 treatment increase overall hemagglutination activity. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Decrease of calorific value and particle size in coal stockpiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2008-07-01

    During storage of excess amount of coal, they lose both their economical value and cause environmental problems. In this work, two industrial-sized stockpiles were constituted at a coal stockyard of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC) in Tuncbilek, Turkey. The size of the stockpiles, formed as triangle prisms, was about 10 m x 5 m wide with a height of 3 m; each mass being approximately 120 tons of coal in total. Some of the parameters that were effective on the stockpiles were measured in a continuous manner during this experimental work. The calorific losses and the decreases that occurred in particle size due to atmospheric conditions were also examined and detailed as the result of this work.

  18. Nano to micro particle size distribution measurement in the fluid by interactive force apparatus for fine particle processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toyohisa; Dodbiba, Gjergj; Okaya, Katsunori; Matsuo, Seiji; Wang, Li Pang; Onda, Kana; Otsuki, Akira

    2013-12-01

    The direct measurement of fine particles size distribution of dispersions or coagulations in liquid is important for water purification, fine particles separation for recycling and mineral processing, as well as the new material production. The nano to micro particle size is usually measured by light scattering method; however, it is difficult to measure at high concentration of suspension. Here, a novel dynamical method by using the interactive force measurement between particles in liquid under electric field is used for measuring distribution of fine particle. Three types of nano to submicron particles, that is well-dispersed nano particles, coagulated nano particles and settled submicron particles, have been measured by interactive force measurement method. The particle size distributions are compered with the size distributions of dried particles measured by TEM or SEM. The well-dispersed nano particle size distribution by interactive force measurement is influenced by the nano size surfactant micelles. The size distribution of coagulated nano particles in water is larger than the result by TEM. On the other hand, the submicron nickel particle size distribution is similar with the one analyzed by SEM.

  19. Urban sediment particle size and pollutants in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poleto, Cristiano; Merten, Gustavo H. [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (BR). Hydraulic Research Inst. (IPH); Bortoluzzi, Edson C. [Univ. of Passo Fundo - UPF, RS (Brazil); Charlesworth, Susanne M. [Coventry Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography, Environment and Disaster Management

    2009-08-15

    Background, aim and scope: Studies of particulate-associated pollutants, or PAPs, in urban areas have become necessary due to their potentially deleterious effects on the environment. However, it is not just the sediments themselves which are problematic but also their particle size composition, which has a great influence on their capacity to adsorb and transport pollutants. This paper presents the particle size distributions and concentrations of five metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) of urban sediments collected from paved streets and gully pots from 20 cities in southern Brazil. The cities have different characteristics and hence sources of PAPs associated with differing geologies, soil types and type of urbanisation. Studies of this nature enable elucidation of the relationship between diffuse sources such as streets and gully pots and the likelihood of PAPs to subsequently pollute the urban aquatic environment. Materials and methods: Sediment samples were taken at random from paved streets and gully pots in 20 cities in Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil by means of a portable vacuum cleaner to avoid loss of finer particles. The particle sizes of the samples were measured using a Cilas {sup registered} 1180 laser particle analyzer, and the concentrations of five metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by wet acid digestion (HCl-HF-HClO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3}) followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy on the <63-{mu}m fraction. Results: It was found that in comparison to sediments collected from the streets, gully pot sediments were more heterogeneous in terms of particle size and also that sediment samples from the gully pots were predominantly coarser than those originating on the streets. From the gully pot results, analysis of the modal particle diameter enabled the cities to be divided into three categories. The concentrations of metals in the street sediments were similar across all 20 cities, with all concentrations above

  20. Composition and Particle Size Retrievals for Homogeneous Binary Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Argon, P.; Bejcek, L.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric aerosols have widely varying compositions, shapes, and sizes. The ability to measure these physical characteristics, coupled with knowledge about their optical properties, can provide insight as to how these particles might participate in atmospheric processes, including their interaction with light. Over the past several years, our laboratory has been involved in developing methods to determine basic physical properties of laboratory-generated particles based on the analysis of infrared extinction spectra of multi-component aerosols. Here we report the results of a complete study on the applicability of well-known refractive index mixing rules to homogeneous binary liquid organic aerosols in an effort to yield in situ measurements of particle size and composition. In particular, we present results for terpenoid (carvone/nopinone) and long-chain hydrocarbon (squalane/squalene) mixtures. The included image shows model carvone/nopinone extinction spectra that were computed using the Lorentz-Lorenz mixing rule on complex refractive index data for the pure components.

  1. Characteristics of dust particles abraded from pesticide treated seeds: 1. Size distribution using different measuring techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Zwertvaegher, Ingrid Ka; Devarrewaere, Wouter; Verboven, Pieter; Nuyttens, David

    2017-07-01

    Particle size is one of the most important properties affecting the driftability and behaviour of dust particles abraded from pesticide dressed seeds during sowing. Three particle sizing techniques were used determine the particle size distribution of dust abraded from seeds from six different species. Important differences in dust particle size distribution between species were observed with the finest dust for rapeseed and the coarsest dust for barley. Wet laser diffraction and sonic sieving particle size results correlated well while micro-CT is able to deliver three-dimensional information and additional physical particle properties (shape, porosity). All particle sizing techniques have their (dis)advantages and none of them is able to perfectly describe the real size distribution of non-spherical particles. The particle size information gathered can be used in dust drift prediction models, risk assessment tools and will help to better understand the dust drift phenomenon. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Characterization of particle number size distribution and new particle formation in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Chuan; Peng, Jianfei; He, Lingyan; Cao, Liming; Zhu, Qiao; Cui, Jie; Wu, Zhijun; Hu, Min

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of particle number size distribution (PND) and new particle formation (NPF) events in Southern China is essential for mitigation strategies related to submicron particles and their effects on regional air quality, haze, and human health. In this study, seven field measurement campaigns were conducted from December 2013 to May 2015 using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) at four sites in Southern China, including three urban sites and one background site. Particles were measured in the size range of 15-615nm, and the median particle number concentrations (PNCs) were found to vary in the range of 0.3×104-2.2×104cm-3 at the urban sites and were approximately 0.2×104cm-3 at the background site. The peak diameters at the different sites varied largely from 22 to 102nm. The PNCs in the Aitken mode (25-100nm) at the urban sites were up to 10 times higher than they were at the background site, indicating large primary emissions from traffic at the urban sites. The diurnal variations of PNCs were significantly influenced by both rush hour traffic at the urban sites and NPF events. The frequencies of NPF events at the different sites were 0%-30%, with the highest frequency occurring at an urban site during autumn. With higher SO2 concentrations and higher ambient temperatures being necessary, NPF at the urban site was found to be more influenced by atmospheric oxidizing capability, while NPF at the background site was limited by the condensation sink. This study provides a unique dataset of particle number and size information in various environments in Southern China, which can help understand the sources, formation, and the climate forcing of aerosols in this quickly developing region, as well as help constrain and validate NPF modeling. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Hydrothermal Synthesis Au-Bi2Te3 Nanocomposite Thermoelectric Film with a Hierarchical Sub-Micron Antireflection Quasi-Periodic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlong Tian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film with a hierarchical sub-micron antireflection quasi-periodic structure was synthesized via a low-temperature chemical route using Troides helena (Linnaeus forewing (T_FW as the biomimetic template. This method combines chemosynthesis with biomimetic techniques, without the requirement of expensive equipment and energy intensive processes. The microstructure and the morphology of the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning-electron microscopy (FESEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Coupled the plasmon resonances of the Au nanoparticles with the hierarchical sub-micron antireflection quasi-periodic structure, the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film possesses an effective infrared absorption and infrared photothermal conversion performance. Based on the finite difference time domain method and the Joule effect, the heat generation and the heat source density distribution of the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film were studied. The heterogeneity of heat source density distribution of the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film opens up a novel promising technique for generating thermoelectric power under illumination.

  4. A Novel Step-Doping Fully-Depleted Silicon-on-Insulator Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor for Reliable Deep Sub-micron Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Hossein; Orouji, Ali A.

    2009-11-01

    For first time, we report a novel deep sub-micron fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (FD SOI MOSFET) where the channel layer consists of two sections with a step doping (SD) region in order to increase performance and reliability of the device. This new structure that called SD FD SOI structure (SDFD-SOI MOSFET), were used for reaching suitable threshold voltage upon device scaling and reliability improvement. We demonstrate that the electric field was modified in the channel and common peak near the source junction have been reduced in the SDFD-SOI structure. The device demonstrates large enhancements in performance areas such as current drive capability, output resistance, hot-carrier reliability and threshold voltage roll-off. It was found that the device performance is very much dependent upon the SD region parameters. Simulation results show that the proposed structure improved on/off current ratio, and saturated output characteristics compared with conventional SOI structure (C-SOI MOSFET). Also, it was shown that substrate current of SDFD-SOI MOSFET is much lower than the C-SOI MOSFET which presented the lower hot-carrier degradation in proposed MOSFET. Results show that the most short-channel problems in very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI) could be solved and the proposed SDFD-SOI MOSFETs can work very well in deep sub-micron and nanoscale regime.

  5. Building predictive models of soil particle-size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to build predictive models (PMs of soil particle-size distribution (psd in a region with complex geology and a young and unstable land-surface? The main objective of this study was to answer this question. A set of 339 soil samples from a small slope catchment in Southern Brazil was used to build PMs of psd in the surface soil layer. Multiple linear regression models were constructed using terrain attributes (elevation, slope, catchment area, convergence index, and topographic wetness index. The PMs explained more than half of the data variance. This performance is similar to (or even better than that of the conventional soil mapping approach. For some size fractions, the PM performance can reach 70 %. Largest uncertainties were observed in geologically more complex areas. Therefore, significant improvements in the predictions can only be achieved if accurate geological data is made available. Meanwhile, PMs built on terrain attributes are efficient in predicting the particle-size distribution (psd of soils in regions of complex geology.

  6. Shape, size, and distribution of magnetic particles in Bjurbole chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, David F.

    1994-01-01

    Chondrules from the Bjurbole chondritic meteorite (L4) exhibit saturation remanence magnetization (SIRM) values which vary over three orders of magnitude. REM values (Natural Remanence Magnetization/SIRM) for Allende (C3V) and Chainpur (LL3) are less than 0.01 but in Bjurbole some chondrules were found to have REM values greater than 0.1 with several greater than 0.2. REM values greater than 0.1 are abnormal and cannot be acquired during weak field cooling. If exposure to a strong field (whatever the source) during the chondrules' history is responsible for the high REM values, was such history associated with a different processing which might have resulted in different shape, size, and distribution of metal particles compared to chondrules having REM values of less than 0.01? Furthermore, magnetic hysteresis results show a broad range of magnetic hardness and other intrinsic magnetic properties. These features must be related to (1) size and amount of metal; and (2) properties of, and amount of, tetrataenite in the chondrules (all chondrules thus far subjected to thermomagnetic analysis show the presence of tetrataenite). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study is underway to determine the relationship between the shape, size, and distribution of metal particles within individual chondrules and the magnetic properties of these chondrules. Results from the SEM study in conjunction with magnetic property data may also help to discern effects from possible lightning strikes in the nebula prior to incorporation of the chondrules into the parent body.

  7. Analysis of filler particle levels and sizes in dental alginates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Lemes Carlo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the inorganic filler fractions and sizes of commercially alginates. The inorganic particles volumetric fractions of five alginates - Jeltrate(J, Jeltrate Plus(JP, Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho(JC, Hydrogum(H and Ezact Krom(E were accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 450 °C for 3 hours. Unsettled materials were soaked in acetone and chloroform and sputter-coated with gold for SEM evaluation of fillers' morphology and size. The results for the volumetric inorganic particle content were (%: J - 48.33, JP - 48.33, JC - 33.79, H - 37.55 and E - 40.55. The fillers presented a circular appearance with helical form and various perforations. Hydrogum fillers looked like cylindrical, perforated sticks. The mean values for fillers size were (μm: J - 12.91, JP - 13.67, JC - 13.44, E - 14.59 and H - 9 (diameter, 8.81 (length. The results of this study revealed differences in filler characteristics that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  8. WANG TILE SIZE IN TERMS OF CIRCULAR PARTICLE DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Šedlbauer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of the Wang tiling concept for material engineering is ability to create large material domains with a relatively small set of tiles. Such idea allows both a reduction of computational demands and preserving heterogeneity of a reconstructed media in comparison with traditional cell concepts. This work is dealing with a random heterogeneous material composed of monodisperse circular hard particles within a matrix. The Wang tile sets are generated via algorithm with molecular dynamics and adaptive boundaries approach. Even though previous works proved usefulness of the Wang tiling for material reconstruction, still plenty of questions remain unanswered. In here we would like to provide simulations with emphasis on the overall particle distribution and the ratio of hard disc number to tile size. The results and discussion should followers help with settings of both tile generations and the tiling algorithms when creating samples of various degree of heterogeneity.

  9. Influence of Particle Size on Properties of Expanded Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurajica, S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Expanded graphite has been applied widely in thermal insulation, adsorption, vibration damping, gasketing, electromagnetic interference shielding etc. It is made by intercalation of natural flake graphite followed by thermal expansion. Intercalation is a process whereby an intercalant material is inserted between the graphene layers of a graphite crystal. Exfoliation, a huge unidirectional expansion of the starting intercalated flakes, occurs when the graphene layers are forced apart by the sudden decomposition and vaporization of the intercalated species by thermal shock. Along with production methodologies, such as the intercalation process and heat treatment, the raw material characteristics, especially particle size, strongly influence the properties of the final product.This report evaluates the influence of the particle size of the raw material on the intercalation and expansion processes and consequently the properties of the exfoliated graphite. Natural crystalline flake graphite with wide particle diameter distribution (between dp = 80 and 425 µm was divided into four size-range portions by sieving. Graphite was intercalated via perchloric acid, glacial acetic acid and potassium dichromate oxidation and intercalation procedure. 5.0 g of graphite, 7.0 g of perchloric acid, 4.0 g of glacial acetic acid and 2.0 g of potassium dichromate were placed in glass reactor. The mixture was stirred with n = 200 min–1 at temperature of 45 °C during 60 min. Then it was filtered and washed with distilled water until pH~6 and dried at 60 °C during 24 h. Expansion was accomplished by thermal shock at 1000 °C for 1 min. The prepared samples were characterized by means of exfoliation volume measurements, simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermo-gravimetry (DTA/TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, BET measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.X-ray diffraction indicated a change of distance

  10. Experimental investigation of suspended particles transport through porous media: particle and grain size effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quansheng; Cui, Xianze; Zhang, Chengyuan; Huang, Shibing

    2016-01-01

    Particle and grain size may influence the transportation and deposition characteristics of particles within pollutant transport and within granular filters that are typically used in wastewater treatment. We conducted two-dimensional sandbox experiments using quartz powder as the particles and quartz sand as the porous medium to study the response of transportation and deposition formation to changes in particle diameter (ds, with median diameter 18, 41, and 82 μm) and grain diameter (dp, with median diameter 0.36, 1.25, and 2.82 mm) considering a wide range of diameter ratios (ds/dp) from 0.0064 to 0.228. Particles were suspended in deionized water, and quartz sand was used as the porous medium, which was meticulously cleaned to minimize any physicochemical and impurities effects that could result in indeterminate results. After the experiments, the particle concentration of the effluent and particle mass per gram of dry sands were measured to explore changes in transportation and deposition characteristics under different conditions. In addition, a micro-analysis was conducted to better analyse the results on a mesoscopic scale. The experimental observation analyses indicate that different diameter ratios (ds/dp) may lead to different deposit formations. As ds/dp increased, the deposit formation changed from 'Random Deposition Type' to 'Gradient Deposition Type', and eventually became 'Inlet Deposition Type'.

  11. Determining particle size distributions in the inhalable size range for wood dust collected by air samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Muller, Brian S; Bartolucci, Al

    2002-10-01

    In the absence of methods for determining particle size distributions in the inhalable size range with good discrimination, the samples collected by personal air sampling devices can only be characterized by their total mass. This parameter gives no information regarding the size distribution of the aerosol or the size-selection characteristics of different samplers in field use conditions. A method is described where the particles collected by a sampler are removed, suspended, and re-deposited on a mixed cellulose-ester filter, and examined by optical microscopy to determine particle aerodynamic diameters. This method is particularly appropriate to wood dust particles which are generally large and close to rectangular prisms in shape. Over 200 wood dust samples have been collected in three different wood-products industries, using the traditional closed-face polystyrene/acrylonitrile cassette, the Institute of Occupational Medicine inhalable sampler, and the Button sampler developed by the University of Cincinnati. A portion of these samples has been analyzed to determine the limitations of this method. Extensive quality control measures are being developed to improve the robustness of the procedure, and preliminary results suggest the method has an accuracy similar to that required of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods. The results should provide valuable insights into the collection characteristics of the samplers and the impact of these characteristics on comparison of sampler results to present and potential future limit values. The NIOSH Deep South Education and Research Center has a focus on research into hazards of the forestry and associated wood-products industry, and it is hoped to expand this activity in the future.

  12. Comparing and contrasting size-based particle segregation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak R.; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony R.

    2017-10-01

    Over the last 12 years, numerous new theoretical continuum models have been formulated to predict particle segregation in the size-based bidisperse granular flows over inclined channels. Despite their presence, to our knowledge, no attempts have been made to compare and contrast the fundamental basis upon which these continuum models have been formulated. In this paper, firstly, we aim to illustrate the difference in these models including the incompatible nomenclature which impedes direct comparison. Secondly, we utilise (i) our robust and efficient in-house particle solver MercuryDPM, and (ii) our accurate micro-macro (discrete to continuum) mapping tool called coarse-graining, to compare several proposed models. Through our investigation involving size-bidisperse mixtures, we find that (i) the proposed total partial stress fraction expressions do not match the results obtained from our simulation, and (ii) the kinetic partial stress fraction dominates over the total partial stress fraction and the contact partial stress fraction. However, the proposed theoretical total stress fraction expressions do capture the kinetic partial stress fraction profile, obtained from simulations, very well, thus possibly highlighting the reason why mixture theory segregation models work for inclined channel flows. However, further investigation is required to strengthen the basis upon which the existing mixture theory segregation models are built upon.

  13. Particle size effect on velocity of gold particle embedded laser driven plastic targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhareshwar L.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A scheme to enhance the target foil velocity has been investigated for a direct drive inertial fusion target. Polymer PVA (polyvinyl alcohol or (C2H4On target foils of thickness 15–20 μm were used in plain form and also embedded with gold in the nano-particle (Au-np or micro-particle (Au-mp form. Nano-particles were of 20–50 nm and micro-particles of 2–3 μm in size. 17% higher target velocity was measured for foils embedded with nano-particle gold (Au-np as compared to targets embedded with micro-particles gold (Au-mp. The weight of gold in both cases was in the range 40–55% of the full target weight (atomic percentage of about 22%. Experiments were performed with the single beam of the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS at 0.43 μm wavelength (3ω of the fundamental wavelength, 120 Joule energy and 300 psec pulse duration. Laser intensity on the target was about 1015 W/cm2. A simple model has been proposed to explain the experimental results.

  14. Optical trapping, driving, and arrangement of particles using a tapered fibre probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hongbao; Xu, Rui; Li, Baojun

    2012-01-01

    The ability of manipulating mesoscopic objects with high precision and flexibility is extremely important for a wide variety of fields from physics, biochemistry, to biomedicine. Particularly, the ability of arranging particles/cells into desired patterns precisely is a challenge for numerous physical and biological applications. Here, we report a strategy of realizing highly flexible trapping, driving, and precise arrangement of particles using a tapered fibre probe. Using randomly distributed 3-µm-diameter silica particles as an example, we demonstrate that the strategy is able to stably trap the particles and drive them to targeted regions, subsequently arrange the particles into desired patterns. To further demonstrate the ability of this strategy, experiments were done using sub-micron sized particles and biological samples (bacteria and cells). This strategy provides a new approach to manipulate mesoscopic objects precisely and flexibly, and hopefully can be used in future fundamental and applied researches of interdiscipline.

  15. Optical trapping, driving, and arrangement of particles using a tapered fibre probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hongbao; Xu, Rui; Li, Baojun

    2012-11-01

    The ability of manipulating mesoscopic objects with high precision and flexibility is extremely important for a wide variety of fields from physics, biochemistry, to biomedicine. Particularly, the ability of arranging particles/cells into desired patterns precisely is a challenge for numerous physical and biological applications. Here, we report a strategy of realizing highly flexible trapping, driving, and precise arrangement of particles using a tapered fibre probe. Using randomly distributed 3-µm-diameter silica particles as an example, we demonstrate that the strategy is able to stably trap the particles and drive them to targeted regions, subsequently arrange the particles into desired patterns. To further demonstrate the ability of this strategy, experiments were done using sub-micron sized particles and biological samples (bacteria and cells). This strategy provides a new approach to manipulate mesoscopic objects precisely and flexibly, and hopefully can be used in future fundamental and applied researches of interdiscipline.

  16. Particle size distribution of major inorganic species in atmospheric aerosols from Majorca (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, J.; Forteza, R.; Cerdà, V.; Colom-Altés, M.

    1995-09-01

    Atmospheric aerosols collected by means of a cascade impaction system at the campus of the University of the Balearic Islands (Majorca, Spain) from November 1993 to February 1994 were analysed for chloride, nitrate, sulphate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. Based on particle size distribution, the species studied were classified into three groups: (a) concentration decrease with particle size (sulphate and ammonium), (b) concentration increase with particle size (chloride, calcium, magnesium and sodium), and ( c) independent of particle size (nitrate and potassium). A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a clear relationship between particle size and analyte origin. Also, the origin of sulphate and potassium fine and coarse particles was found to be different.

  17. The influence of initial atomized droplet size on residual particle size from pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Poonam; Stein, Stephen W; Myrdal, Paul B

    2013-10-15

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are widely used for the treatment of diseases of the lung, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The mass median aerodynamic diameter of the residual particles (MMADR) delivered from a pMDI plays a key role in determining the amount and location of drug deposition in the lung and thereby the efficacy of the inhaler. The mass median diameter of the initial droplets (MMDI), upon atomization of a formulation, is a significant factor influencing the final particle size. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent that MMDI and initial droplet geometric standard deviation (GSD) influence the residual aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSDR) of solution and suspension formulations. From 48 solution pMDI configurations with varying ethanol concentrations, valve sizes and actuator orifice diameters, it was experimentally found that the effective MMDI ranged from 7.8 to 13.3 μm. Subsequently, computational methods were utilized to determine the influence of MMDI on MMADR, by modulating the MMDI for solution and suspension pMDIs. For solution HFA-134a formulations of 0.5% drug in 10% ethanol, varying the MMDI from 7.5 to 13.5 μm increased the MMADR from 1.4 to 2.5 μm. For a suspension formulation with a representative particle size distribution of micronized drug (MMAD=2.5 μm, GSD=1.8), the same increase in MMDI resulted in an increase in the MMADR from 2.7 to only 3.3 μm. Hence, the same increase in MMDI resulted in a 79% increase in MMADR for the solution formulation compared to only a 22% increase for the suspension formulation. Similar trends were obtained for a range of drug concentrations and input micronized drug sizes. Thus, APSDR is more sensitive to changes in MMDI for solution formulations than suspension formulations; however, there are situations in which hypothetically small micronized drug in suspension (e.g. 500 nm MMAD) could resemble trends observed for solution formulations

  18. Effect of particle size of granules on some mechanical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... granules were classified into different size fractions (212 - 1700 µm) by sieve analysis and samples of granules from the various size ... Key words: Particle size, paracetamol granule, tensile strength, friability, tablet characteristics. ... particles in a powder bed vary widely in shape, size and size distribution.

  19. Compaction processes in granular beds composed of different particle sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, C. A.; Greenaway, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    A piston impacting a granular bed will cause the material to compact; the strength of a granular bed is significant during weak impact relating to piston speeds of 100m/s. The strength associated with the granular structure is described as the intergranular stress; this is the resistance of a granular bed to compaction which can be measured by carefully constructing experiments. The compaction process may then be modeled by solving a hyperbolic system of equations that utilizes these data to close the system. The compaction behavior of a porous material is particle-size dependent; to accurately describe the response of two granular beds that may be of different particle sizes and distributions, it is essential that the intergranular stress is derived for each particle bed. This work uses recent compaction experiments to derive intergranular stress curves for prepressed conventional HMX material that is of nonuniform distribution with a mean diameter of 40μm and a microfine HMX of more uniform distribution of mean diameter speed and extent of compaction can be simply determined through the solution of a quadratic equation. Following this, the assumption is relaxed allowing changes in solid-phase density; a complicated equation of state makes the use of numerical methods mandatory. The speed of steady-state waves in HMX due to low impact compaction can be determined within 2% accuracy using the simple closed solution based on solid incompressibility, which is a function of the initial material porosity and density, piston speed, and the intergranular stress of the granular bed. This analysis reveals the difference between the weak impact response of a coarse nonuniform bed and a fine almost uniform granular bed that are initially loaded to 75% of the theoretical maximum density. The fine particle beds have increased resistance to compaction meaning that the extent of compaction is reduced and the speed of compaction waves are faster. The long-term objective of this

  20. Retrieval of spherical particle size distribution with an improved Tikhonov iteration method

    OpenAIRE

    Tang Hong

    2012-01-01

    The problem of retrieval for spherical particle size distribution in the independent mode is studied, and an improved Tikhonov iteration method is proposed. In this method, the particle size distribution is retrieved from the light extinction data through the Phillips-Twomey method firstly in the independent mode, and then the obtained inversion results of the particle size distribution is used as the initial distribution and the final retrieved particle size distribution is obtained. S...

  1. Particle size of a new endodontic cement compared to Root MTA and calcium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheilipour, Elham; Kheirieh, Sanam; Madani, Majid; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Asgary, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Particle size and distribution can influence the properties of materials. This study analyzed and compared the particle size of Root MTA, calcium hydroxide (CH), and a new endodontic cement called calcium enriched material (CEM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The particle size of each material was analyzed three times using 0.05 mg of test material with a particle size analyzer. The particle size distribution ranges, the cumulative percentage and the mean of particle sizes were calculated. One-way ANOVA, Tukey, and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Results demonstrated that the distribution of particles was dissimilar. Particle mean size in the three different materials was not significantly different. However, the cumulative percentage of CH and CEM cement particles size demonstrated significant difference (P<0.05). Among the various particle size distributions, the particle distribution in the size range of ≤30 μm showed significant difference between materials (P<0.05). Interestingly, the smallest range of particle size belonged to CEM cement. CONCLUSION: The high percentage of small particles found in CEM cement provides desirable properties such as effective seal, good setting time and film thickness in addition to favorable flow and adaptability. PMID:24003332

  2. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles prepared by microfluidics and conventional methods. Modulated particle size and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Aurora; Hernández, Rebeca; Velasco, Diego; Voicu, Dan; Mijangos, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Microfluidic techniques are expected to provide narrower particle size distribution than conventional methods for the preparation of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles. Besides, it is hypothesized that the particle size distribution of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles influences the settling behavior and rheological properties of its aqueous dispersions. For the preparation of PLGA particles, two different methods, microfluidic and conventional oil-in-water emulsification methods were employed. The particle size and particle size distribution of PLGA particles prepared by microfluidics were studied as a function of the flow rate of the organic phase while particles prepared by conventional methods were studied as a function of stirring rate. In order to study the stability and structural organization of colloidal dispersions, settling experiments and oscillatory rheological measurements were carried out on aqueous dispersions of PLGA particles with different particle size distributions. Microfluidics technique allowed the control of size and size distribution of the droplets formed in the process of emulsification. This resulted in a narrower particle size distribution for samples prepared by MF with respect to samples prepared by conventional methods. Polydisperse samples showed a larger tendency to aggregate, thus confirming the advantages of microfluidics over conventional methods, especially if biomedical applications are envisaged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Particle size distributions from laboratory-scale biomass fires using fast response instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Hosseini; L. Qi; D. Cocker; D. Weise; A. Miller; M. Shrivastava; J.W. Miller; S. Mahalingam; M. Princevac; H. Jung

    2010-01-01

    Particle size distribution from biomass combustion is an important parameter as it affects air quality, climate modelling and health effects. To date, particle size distributions reported from prior studies vary not only due to difference in fuels but also difference in experimental conditions. This study aims to report characteristics of particle size distributions in...

  4. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Raymundo Morales-Maldonado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to review the mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion, and their response in plant. In Mexico, agricultural waste is considered as a pollutant reservoir; however, from another perspective, this represents an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. An option that minimizes the risk of contamination and improves its quality is the production of compost and vermicompost. Both processes are an alternative to organic production. A material by itself does not meet the optimum conditions. Reducing the volume of an organic material increases compaction and compression of roots, affecting the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization, so it is necessary to make mixtures with inorganic materials, that is used in the development of a new material for better growing conditions of the plant.

  5. Note: Evaluation of slurry particle size analyzers for chemical mechanical planarization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sunjae; Kulkarni, Atul [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Qin, Hongyi [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taesung, E-mail: tkim@skku.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process, slurry particle size is important because large particles can cause defects. Hence, selection of an appropriate particle measuring system is necessary in the CMP process. In this study, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were compared for particle size distribution (PSD) measurements. In addition, the actual particle size and shape were confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) results. SMPS classifies the particle size according to the electrical mobility, and measures the particle concentration (single particle measurement). On the other hand, the DLS measures the particle size distribution by analyzing scattered light from multiple particles (multiple particle measurement). For the slurry particles selected for evaluation, it is observed that SMPS shows bi-modal particle sizes 30 nm and 80 nm, which closely matches with the TEM measurements, whereas DLS shows only single mode distribution in the range of 90 nm to 100 nm and showing incapability of measuring small particles. Hence, SMPS can be a better choice for the evaluation of CMP slurry particle size and concentration measurements.

  6. Discrete element method modeling of the triboelectric charging of polyethylene particles: Can particle size distribution and segregation reduce the charging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Ladislav; Kosek, Juraj

    2015-10-01

    Polyethylene particles of various sizes are present in industrial gas-dispersion reactors and downstream processing units. The contact of the particles with a device wall as well as the mutual particle collisions cause electrons on the particle surface to redistribute in the system. The undesirable triboelectric charging results in several operational problems and safety risks in industrial systems, for example in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor. We studied the charging of polyethylene particles caused by the particle-particle interactions in gas. Our model employs the Discrete Element Method (DEM) describing the particle dynamics and incorporates the ‘Trapped Electron Approach’ as the physical basis for the considered charging mechanism. The model predicts the particle charge distribution for systems with various particle size distributions and various level of segregation. Simulation results are in a qualitative agreement with experimental observations of similar particulate systems specifically in two aspects: 1) Big particles tend to gain positive charge and small particles the negative one. 2) The wider the particle size distribution is, the more pronounced is the charging process. Our results suggest that not only the size distribution, but also the effect of the spatial segregation of the polyethylene particles significantly influence the resulting charge distribution ‘generated’ in the system. The level of particle segregation as well as the particle size distribution of polyethylene particles can be in practice adjusted by the choice of supported catalysts, by the conditions in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor and by the fluid dynamics. We also attempt to predict how the reactor temperature affects the triboelectric charging of particles.

  7. Effect of Finite Particle Size on Convergence of Point Particle Models in Euler-Lagrange Multiphase Dispersed Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nili, Samaun; Park, Chanyoung; Haftka, Raphael T.; Kim, Nam H.; Balachandar, S.

    2017-11-01

    Point particle methods are extensively used in simulating Euler-Lagrange multiphase dispersed flow. When particles are much smaller than the Eulerian grid the point particle model is on firm theoretical ground. However, this standard approach of evaluating the gas-particle coupling at the particle center fails to converge as the Eulerian grid is reduced below particle size. We present an approach to model the interaction between particles and fluid for finite size particles that permits convergence. We use the generalized Faxen form to compute the force on a particle and compare the results against traditional point particle method. We apportion the different force components on the particle to fluid cells based on the fraction of particle volume or surface in the cell. The application is to a one-dimensional model of shock propagation through a particle-laden field at moderate volume fraction, where the convergence is achieved for a well-formulated force model and back coupling for finite size particles. Comparison with 3D direct fully resolved numerical simulations will be used to check if the approach also improves accuracy compared to the point particle model. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  8. Control over Particle Size Distribution by Autoclaving Poloxamer-Stabilized Trimyristin Nanodispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göke, Katrin; Roese, Elin; Arnold, Andreas; Kuntsche, Judith; Bunjes, Heike

    2016-09-06

    Lipid nanoparticles are under investigation as delivery systems for poorly water-soluble drugs. The particle size in these dispersions strongly influences important pharmaceutical properties like biodistribution and drug loading capacity; it should be below 500 nm for direct injection into the bloodstream. Consequently, small particles with a narrow particle size distribution are desired. Hitherto, there are, however, only limited possibilities for the preparation of monodisperse, pharmaceutically relevant dispersions. In this work, the effect of autoclaving at 121 °C on the particle size distribution of lipid nanoemulsions and -suspensions consisting of the pharmaceutically relevant components trimyristin and poloxamer 188 was studied. Additionally, the amount of emulsifier needed to stabilize both untreated and autoclaved particles was assessed. In our study, four dispersions of mean particle sizes from 45 to 150 nm were prepared by high-pressure melt homogenization. The particle size distribution before and after autoclaving was characterized using static and dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation was used for particle size distribution analyses and for the determination of free poloxamer 188. Upon autoclaving, the mean particle size increased to up to 200 nm, but not proportionally to the initial size. At the same time, the particle size distribution width decreased remarkably. Heat treatment thus seems to be a promising approach to achieve the desired narrow particle size distribution of such dispersions. Related to the lipid content, suspension particles needed more emulsifier for stabilization than emulsion droplets, and smaller particles more than larger ones.

  9. Particle size effects on protein and virus-like particle adsorption on perfusion chromatography media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yige; Abraham, Dicky; Carta, Giorgio

    2015-01-02

    The resin structure, chromatographic behavior, and adsorption kinetics of proteins and virus-like-particles (VLPs) are studied for POROS HS 20 and POROS HS 50 (23 and 52 μm mean diameter, respectively) to determine the effects of particle size on perfusion chromatography and to determine the predictive ability of available models. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inverse size-exclusion chromatography (iSEC) show similar structures for the two resins, both containing 200-1000 nm pores that transect a network of much smaller pores. For non-binding conditions, trends of the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) as a function of reduced velocity are consistent with perfusion. The estimated intraparticle flow fractions for these conditions are 0.0018 and 0.00063 for POROS HS 20 and HS 50, respectively. For strong binding conditions, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) shows asymmetrical intraparticle concentrations profiles and enhanced rates of IgG adsorption on POROS HS 20 at 1000 cm/h. The corresponding effective diffusivity under flow is 2-3 times larger than for non-flow conditions and much larger than observed for POROS HS 50, consistent with available models. For VLPs, however, adsorption is confined to a thin layer near the particle surface for both resins, suggesting that the bound VLPs block the pores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The permeability of poly-disperse porous media and effective particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markicevic, B. I.; Preston, C.; Osterroth, S.; Iliev, O.; Hurwitz, M.

    2015-11-01

    The interactions between the fluid and solid phases in porous media account for the openness and length of the flow path that the fluid needs to travel within. The same reasoning applies for both mono- and poly-disperse media, and is reflected in the adoption of the same permeability models. The only difference is that an effective particle size diameter has to be used for the poly-disperse samples. A filtration experiment is used to form a particle layer, filter cake, consisting of particles of different sizes. Both inflow and outflow particle size distribution are measured by particle counting method, and from their difference, the particle size distribution in the cake is determined. In a set of experiments, the filtration history is altered by changing (i) filtration medium; (ii) suspension flow rate; and (iii) particle concentration, where in all cases investigated the cake permeability remains constant. In order to predict the permeability of poly-disperse cake from the analytical models, the particle size distribution moments are calculated, and the permeability is found for each moment. Comparing the experimental to the analytical permeability values the effective particle size is found, where the permeability calculated by using the harmonic mean of the particle size distribution reproduces the permeability experimental value best. Finally, in the parametric study, reducing the cake porosity and/or lowering the particle retention shifts effective particle size used in the permeability model toward higher moments of the particle size distribution function.

  11. The effects of particle shape and size on T2 relaxation in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Joseph N; Albanese, Christopher; Rodriguez, Olga; Le, Yi-Chien; Ackun-Farmmer, Marian; Van Keuren, Edward

    2014-11-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have recently been developed as T2 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Here we report the dependence of the phase relaxivity, r2, on the particle shape. We show that the size dependence of the relaxivity for spherical particles can be generalized to spheroidal particles. In addition, we show that the saturation of relaxivity above a certain size observed in spherical particles does not occur in the spheroidal particles investigated.

  12. [Research on particle size and size distribution of nanocrystals in urines by laser light scattering method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mu-Hua; Zhao, Mei-Xia; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper laser light scattering method was used to investigate the particle size and size distribution of nanoparticles simultaneously in urines of lithogenic patients and healthy persons. This method is economic, rapid, accurate and easy to operate. The results showed that healthy urines are more stable than lithogenic urines. In urines of healthy human, the ultrafine crystals were well scattered and not aggregated with a smaller size. However, the ultrafine crystals in lithogenic urine have a broad size distribution, which increases the aggregation trend of nanocrystals. Based on the intensity-autocorrelation curve, the stability of urine samples of both healthy human and lithogenic patients was comparatively investigated. The relationship between the measurement results and the methods of handling sample was studied. The results show that a stable urine sample can be obtained by diluting the urine with a ratio of 20%, then centrifuging it at 4,000 round per minute for 15 minutes or filtrating it with 1.2 microm cellulose acetate filter. The results of laser light scattering method are consistent with that obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reasons for the stability of urines are explained from the points of Van der Waals force, urine viscosity, pH value, ionic strength, surface charge and zeta potential of the ultrafine crystals, and so on. The results in this paper provide a new thought for preventing formation and recurrence of urinary stones.

  13. ESTIMATING SOIL PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION FOR SICILIAN SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bagarello

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The soil particle-size distribution (PSD is commonly used for soil classification and for estimating soil behavior. An accurate mathematical representation of the PSD is required to estimate soil hydraulic properties and to compare texture measurements from different classification systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Haverkamp and Parlange (HP and Fredlund et al. (F PSD models to fit 243 measured PSDs from a wide range of 38 005_Bagarello(547_33 18-11-2009 11:55 Pagina 38 soil textures in Sicily and to test the effect of the number of measured particle diameters on the fitting of the theoretical PSD. For each soil textural class, the best fitting performance, established using three statistical indices (MXE, ME, RMSE, was obtained for the F model with three fitting parameters. In particular, this model performed better in the fine-textured soils than the coarse-textured ones but a good performance (i.e., RMSE < 0.03 was detected for the majority of the investigated soil textural classes, i.e. clay, silty-clay, silty-clay-loam, silt-loam, clay-loam, loamy-sand, and loam classes. Decreasing the number of measured data pairs from 14 to eight determined a worse fitting of the theoretical distribution to the measured one. It was concluded that the F model with three fitting parameters has a wide applicability for Sicilian soils and that the comparison of different PSD investigations can be affected by the number of measured data pairs.

  14. Effect of four different size reduction methods on the particle size, solubility enhancement and physical stability of nicergoline nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martena, Valentina; Shegokar, Ranjita; Di Martino, Piera; Müller, Rainer H

    2014-09-01

    Nicergoline, a poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredient, possesses vaso-active properties which causes peripheral and central vasodilatation. In this study, nanocrystals of nicergoline were prepared in an aqueous solution of polysorbate 80 (nanosuspension) by using four different laboratory scale size reduction techniques: high pressure homogenization (HPH), bead milling (BM) and combination techniques (high pressure homogenization followed by bead milling HPH + BM, and bead milling followed by high pressure homogenization BM + HPH). Nanocrystals were investigated regarding to their mean particles size, zeta potential and particle dissolution. A short term physical stability study on nanocrystals stored at three different temperatures (4, 20 and 40 °C) was performed to evaluate the tendency to change in particle size, aggregation and zeta potential. The size reduction technique and the process parameters like milling time, number of homogenization cycles and pressure greatly affected the size of nanocrystals. Among the techniques used, the combination techniques showed superior and consistent particle size reduction compared to the other two methods, HPH + BM and BM + HPH giving nanocrystals of a mean particle size of 260 and 353 nm, respectively. The particle dissolution was increased for any nanocrystals samples, but it was particularly increased by HPH and combination techniques. Independently to the production method, nicergoline nanocrystals showed slight increase in particle size over the time, but remained below 500 nm at 20 °C and refrigeration conditions.

  15. Effect of particle size on kinetics crystallization of an iron-rich glass

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Maximina; Kovacova, Milota; Rincón López, Jesús María

    2008-01-01

    The effect of glass particle size on the crystallization kinetics of an iron-rich glass from a nickel leaching waste has been investigated by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results show that the crystallization of a pyroxene phase occurs by bulk nucleation from a constant number of nuclei. The crystallization mode and the dimensionality of crystals are strongly dependent of the glass particle size, being 100µm the critical size. Glass fractions with particle size >100µm sho...

  16. Saturated Particle Transport in Porous Media: An Investigation into the Influence of Flow Direction and Particle Size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-28

    military and industrial operations. Contaminants can include PCBs, fuels, solvents, herbicides/pesticides, heavy metals, munitions materials, and...interpretation of laboratory or field experiments, and have led to the generation of a range of particle filtration and transport models that are thought...of flow direction and particle size distribution on particle filtration . To meet this objective, particle transport experiments were conducted in the

  17. Event-based total suspended sediment particle size distribution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer; Sattar, Ahmed M. A.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Warner, Richard C.

    2016-05-01

    One of the most challenging modelling tasks in hydrology is prediction of the total suspended sediment particle size distribution (TSS-PSD) in stormwater runoff generated from exposed soil surfaces at active construction sites and surface mining operations. The main objective of this study is to employ gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) to develop a new model with the ability to more accurately predict the TSS-PSD by taking advantage of both event-specific and site-specific factors in the model. To compile the data for this study, laboratory scale experiments using rainfall simulators were conducted on fourteen different soils to obtain TSS-PSD. This data is supplemented with field data from three construction sites in Ontario over a period of two years to capture the effect of transport and deposition within the site. The combined data sets provide a wide range of key overlooked site-specific and storm event-specific factors. Both parent soil and TSS-PSD in runoff are quantified by fitting each to a lognormal distribution. Compared to existing regression models, the developed model more accurately predicted the TSS-PSD using a more comprehensive list of key model input parameters. Employment of the new model will increase the efficiency of deployment of required best management practices, designed based on TSS-PSD, to minimize potential adverse effects of construction site runoff on aquatic life in the receiving watercourses.

  18. Effects of Kaolin particle size and annealing temperature on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... large contact area presented by the insulating kaolin particles resulting in reduction of the number of zinc particle-particle contact. The results from this study will help in the development of conducting ceramics which could find use in chemical industries as electrodes in environments not conducive for metallic electrodes.

  19. Effect of Particle Size and Impact Velocity on Collision Behaviors Between Nano-Scale TiN Particles: MD Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hai-Long; Hu, Xiao-Zhen; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Inter-particle bonding formation which determines qualities of nano-scale ceramic coatings is influenced by particle collision behaviors during high velocity collision processes. In this study, collision behaviors between nano-scale TiN particles with different diameters were illuminated by using Molecular Dynamics simulation through controlling impact velocities. Results show that nano-scale TiN particles exhibit three states depending on particle sizes and impact velocities, i.e., bonding, bonding with localized fracturing, and rebounding. These TiN particles states are summarized into a parameter selection map providing an overview of the conditions in terms of particle sizes and velocities. Microstructure results show that localized atoms displacement and partial fracture around the impact region are main reasons for bonding formation of nano-scale ceramic particles, which shows differences from conventional particles refining and amorphization. A relationship between the adhesion energy and the rebound energy is established to understand bonding formation mechanism for nano-scale TiN particle collision. Results show that the energy relationship is depended on the particle sizes and impact velocities, and nano-scale ceramic particles can be bonded together as the adhesion energy being higher than the rebound energy.

  20. Superselective Particle Embolization Enhances Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation: Effects of Particle Size and Sequence of Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihir@bf6.so-net.ne.jp [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Isfort, Peter, E-mail: isfort@hia.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz-Institute Aachen (Germany); Braunschweig, Till, E-mail: tbraunschweig@ukaachen.de; Westphal, Saskia, E-mail: swestphal@ukaachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Pathology, Aachen University Hospital (Germany); Woitok, Anna, E-mail: awoitok@ukaachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Laboratory Animal Science (Germany); Penzkofer, Tobias, E-mail: penzkofer@rad.rwth-aachen.de; Bruners, Philipp, E-mail: bruners@rad.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz-Institute Aachen (Germany); Kichikawa, Kimihiko, E-mail: kkichika@naramed-u.ac.jp [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Schmitz-Rode, Thomas, E-mail: smiro@hia.rwth-aachen.de; Mahnken, Andreas H., E-mail: mahnken@rad.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Applied Medical Engineering, Helmholtz-Institute Aachen (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of particle size and course of action of superselective bland transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) on the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods. Twenty pigs were divided into five groups: group 1a, 40-{mu}m bland TAE before RFA; group 1b, 40-{mu}m bland TAE after RFA; group 2a, 250-{mu}m bland TAE before RFA; group 2b, 250-{mu}m bland TAE after RFA and group 3, RFA alone. A total of 40 treatments were performed with a combined CT and angiography system. The sizes of the treated zones were measured from contrast-enhanced CTs on days 1 and 28. Animals were humanely killed, and the treated zones were examined pathologically. Results. There were no complications during procedures and follow-up. The short-axis diameter of the ablation zone in group 1a (mean {+-} standard deviation, 3.19 {+-} 0.39 cm) was significantly larger than in group 1b (2.44 {+-} 0.52 cm; P = 0.021), group 2a (2.51 {+-} 0.32 cm; P = 0.048), group 2b (2.19 {+-} 0.44 cm; P = 0.02), and group 3 (1.91 {+-} 0.55 cm; P < 0.001). The greatest volume of ablation was achieved by performing embolization with 40-{mu}m particles before RFA (group 1a; 20.97 {+-} 9.65 cm{sup 3}). At histology, 40-{mu}m microspheres were observed to occlude smaller and more distal arteries than 250-{mu}m microspheres. Conclusion. Bland TAE is more effective before RFA than postablation embolization. The use of very small 40-{mu}m microspheres enhances the efficacy of RFA more than the use of larger particles.

  1. High performance imaging of relativistic soft X-ray harmonics by sub-micron resolution LiF film detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikuz, Tatiana; Faenov, Anatoly [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Pirozhkov, Alexander; Esirkepov, Timur; Koga, James; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Bulanov, Sergei; Fukuda, Yuji; Hayashi, Yukio; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Astapov, Artem; Pikuz, Sergey Jr. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Klushin, Georgy [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); International Laser Center of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nagorskiy, Nikolai; Magnitskiy, Sergei [International Laser Center of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kato, Yoshiaki [The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    The spectrum variation and the coherent properties of the high-order harmonics (HOH) generated by an oscillating electron spikes formed at the joint of the boundaries of a cavity and a bow wave, which are created by a relativistically self-focusing laser in underdense gas jet plasma, are investigated. This new mechanism for HOH generation efficiently produces emission from ultraviolet up to the XUV ''water window'' spectral range. To characterize such source in the wide spectral range a diffraction imaging technique is applied. High spatial resolution EUV and soft X-ray LiF film detector have been used for precise measurements of diffraction patterns. The measurements under observation angle of 8 to the axis of laser beam propagation have been performed. The diffraction patterns were observed on the detector clearly, when the square mesh was placed at the distance of 500 mm from the output of plasma and at the distance of 27.2 mm in front of the detector. It is shown that observed experimental patterns are well consistent with modeled ones for theoretical HOH spectrum, provided by particle-in-cell simulations of a relativistic-irradiance laser pulse interaction with underdense plasma (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Preparation of gold nanoparticles and determination of their particles size via different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Usanase, Gisele [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Oulmi, Kafia; Aberkane, Fairouz; Bendaikha, Tahar [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry(LCCE), Faculty of Science, Material Science Department, University of Batna, 05000 (Algeria); Fessi, Hatem [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Zine, Nadia [Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), Université Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, UMR-5180, 5 rue de la Doua, F-69100 Villeurbanne (France); Agusti, Géraldine [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Errachid, El-Salhi [Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), Université Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, UMR-5180, 5 rue de la Doua, F-69100 Villeurbanne (France); Elaissari, Abdelhamid, E-mail: elaissari@lagep.univ-lyon1.fr [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Preparation of gold nanoparticles via NaBH{sub 4} reduction method, and determination of their particle size, size distribution and morphology by using different techniques. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by NaBH{sub 4} reduction method. • Excess of reducing agent leads to tendency of aggregation. • The particle size, size distribution and morphology were investigated. • Particle size was determined both experimentally as well as theoretically. - Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been used in various applications covering both electronics, biosensors, in vivo biomedical imaging and in vitro biomedical diagnosis. As a general requirement, gold nanoparticles should be prepared in large scale, easy to be functionalized by chemical compound of by specific ligands or biomolecules. In this study, gold nanoparticles were prepared by using different concentrations of reducing agent (NaBH{sub 4}) in various formulations and their effect on the particle size, size distribution and morphology was investigated. Moreover, special attention has been dedicated to comparison of particles size measured by various techniques, such as, light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, UV spectrum using standard curve and particles size calculated by using Mie theory and UV spectrum of gold nanoparticles dispersion. Particle size determined by various techniques can be correlated for monodispersed particles and excess of reducing agent leads to increase in the particle size.

  3. Correcting for a density distribution: particle size analysis of core-shell nanocomposite particles using disk centrifuge photosedimentometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Lee A; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Armes, Steven P; Fowler, Patrick W; Mittal, Vikas; Fitzpatrick, Stephen

    2012-02-07

    Many types of colloidal particles possess a core-shell morphology. In this Article, we show that, if the core and shell densities differ, this morphology leads to an inherent density distribution for particles of finite polydispersity. If the shell is denser than the core, this density distribution implies an artificial narrowing of the particle size distribution as determined by disk centrifuge photosedimentometry (DCP). In the specific case of polystyrene/silica nanocomposite particles, which consist of a polystyrene core coated with a monolayer shell of silica nanoparticles, we demonstrate that the particle density distribution can be determined by analytical ultracentrifugation and introduce a mathematical method to account for this density distribution by reanalyzing the raw DCP data. Using the mean silica packing density calculated from small-angle X-ray scattering, the real particle density can be calculated for each data point. The corrected DCP particle size distribution is both broader and more consistent with particle size distributions reported for the same polystyrene/silica nanocomposite sample using other sizing techniques, such as electron microscopy, laser light diffraction, and dynamic light scattering. Artifactual narrowing of the size distribution is also likely to occur for many other polymer/inorganic nanocomposite particles comprising a low-density core of variable dimensions coated with a high-density shell of constant thickness, or for core-shell latexes where the shell is continuous rather than particulate in nature.

  4. Comparison of particle size of cracking catalyst determined by laser light scattering and dry sieve methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dishman, K.L.; Doolin, P.K.; Hoffman, J.F. (Ashland Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (United States))

    1993-07-01

    A method of interconversion of dry sieve and laser light scattering particle size values has been developed for cracking catalysts. Values obtained by light scattering techniques were consistently larger than those obtained by dry sieve analysis. The differences were primarily due to lack of sphericity of the particles. The particle size distribution determined by light scattering techniques was based on an average particle diameter. Conversely, the sieve measured the smallest diameter of the particle which can pass through the opening. Microscopic examination of commercial cracking catalysts confirmed their nonuniformity. The sphericity of the catalyst particles decreased as particle size increased. Therefore, the divergence between the laser light scattering and dry sieving value became greater as the catalyst particle size increased.

  5. Improved cholesterol phenotype analysis by a model relating lipoprotein life cycle processes to particle size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Ommen, B. van; Bochove, K. van; Rensen, P.C.N.; Havekes, L.M.; Pas, N.C.A. van de; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Greef, J. van der; Freidig, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein particles transport both cholesterol and triglycerides through the blood. It is thought that the size distribution of these particles codetermines cardiovascular disease risk. New types of measurements can

  6. Collocated observations of cloud condensation nuclei, particle size distributions, and chemical composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmale, J.; Henning, S.; Henzing, B.; Keskinen, H.; Sellegri, K.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Bougiatioti, A.; Kalivitis, N.; Stavroulas, I.; Jefferson, A.; Park, M.; Schlag, P.; Kristensson, A.; Iwamoto, Y.; Pringle, K.; Reddington, C.; Aalto, P.; Äijälä, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Bialek, J.; Birmili, W.; Bukowiecki, N.; Ehn, M.; Fjæraa, A.M.; Fiebig, M.; Frank, G.; Fröhlich, R.; Frumau, A.; Furuya, M.; Hammer, E.; Heikkinen, L.; Herrmann, E.; Holzinger, R.; Hyono, H.; Kanakidou, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kinouchi, K.; Kos, G.; Kulmala, M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Motos, G.; Nenes, A.; O'Dowd, C.; Paramonov, M.; Petäjä, T.; Picard, D.; Poulain, L.; Prévôt, A.S.H.; Slowik, J.; Sonntag, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, B.; Tsurumaru, H.; Wiedensohler, A.; Wittbom, C.; Ogren, J.A.; Matsuki, A.; Yum, S.S.; Myhre, C.L.; Carslaw, K.; Stratmann, F.; Gysel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations alongside with submicrometer particle number size distributions and particle chemical composition have been measured at atmospheric observatories of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure (ACTRIS) as well as other

  7. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmora, Adilson C. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Studies (IDÆA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ramos, Claudete G.; Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Teixeira, Elba C. [Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M.; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500. Bairro Agronomia. CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during “stonemeal” soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle

  8. Influence of particle size on physical and sensory attributes of mango pulp powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Kadam, D. M.; Chadha, S.; Wilson, R. A.; Gupta, R. K.

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation was aimed to observe the effect of particle size on physical, sensory and thermal properties of foam-mat dried mango pulp powder. Mango pulp of Dussehri variety was foam-mat dried using 3% egg white at 65ºC. Dried foam-mats were pulverized and passed through a sieve shaker for obtaining three grades of powder with 50, 60, and 85 mesh size sieves. The particle size of these samples measured using laser diffraction particle size analyzer ranged from 191.26 to 296.19 μm. The data was analysed statistically using ANOVA of SAS. There was a linear increase in lightness (`L' value) with a decrease in particle size, however, `a' value decreased with a decrease in particle size, indicating the decrease in redness. An increase in bulk density and decrease in water solubility index and water absorption index % were observed with a decrease in particle size. Particle size had a significant effect on sensory parameters. Particle size in the range of 258.01 to 264.60μmwas found most acceptable with respect to sensory characteristics. This finding can be exploited for various commercial applicationswhere powder quality is dependent on the particle size and has foremost priority for end users.

  9. Ragweed Subpollen Particles of Respirable Size Activate Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmandi, Kitti; Kumar, Brahma V.; Szabo, Krisztina; Boldogh, Istvan; Szoor, Arpad; Vereb, Gyorgy; Veres, Agota; Lanyi, Arpad; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Bacsi, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen grains, which are generally considered too large to reach the lower respiratory tract, release subpollen particles (SPPs) of respirable size upon hydration. These SPPs contain allergenic proteins and functional NAD(P)H oxidases. In this study, we examined whether exposure to SPPs initiates the activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We found that treatment with freshly isolated ragweed SPPs increased the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in moDCs. Phagocytosis of SPPs by moDCs, as demonstrated by confocal laser-scanning microscopy, led to an up-regulation of the cell surface expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and HLA-DQ and an increase in the production of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10. Furthermore, SPP-treated moDCs had an increased capacity to stimulate the proliferation of naïve T cells. Co-culture of SPP-treated moDCs with allogeneic CD3+ pan-T cells resulted in increased secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17 by T cells of both allergic and non-allergic subjects, but induced the production of IL-4 exclusively from the T cells of allergic individuals. Addition of exogenous NADPH further increased, while heat-inactivation or pre-treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases, strongly diminished, the ability of SPPs to induce phenotypic and functional changes in moDCs, indicating that these processes were mediated, at least partly, by the intrinsic NAD(P)H oxidase activity of SPPs. Collectively, our data suggest that inhaled ragweed SPPs are fully capable of activating dendritic cells (DCs) in the airways and SPPs' NAD(P)H oxidase activity is involved in initiation of adaptive immune responses against innocuous pollen proteins. PMID:23251688

  10. Ragweed subpollen particles of respirable size activate human dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitti Pazmandi

    Full Text Available Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen grains, which are generally considered too large to reach the lower respiratory tract, release subpollen particles (SPPs of respirable size upon hydration. These SPPs contain allergenic proteins and functional NAD(PH oxidases. In this study, we examined whether exposure to SPPs initiates the activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs. We found that treatment with freshly isolated ragweed SPPs increased the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS in moDCs. Phagocytosis of SPPs by moDCs, as demonstrated by confocal laser-scanning microscopy, led to an up-regulation of the cell surface expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and HLA-DQ and an increase in the production of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10. Furthermore, SPP-treated moDCs had an increased capacity to stimulate the proliferation of naïve T cells. Co-culture of SPP-treated moDCs with allogeneic CD3(+ pan-T cells resulted in increased secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17 by T cells of both allergic and non-allergic subjects, but induced the production of IL-4 exclusively from the T cells of allergic individuals. Addition of exogenous NADPH further increased, while heat-inactivation or pre-treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases, strongly diminished, the ability of SPPs to induce phenotypic and functional changes in moDCs, indicating that these processes were mediated, at least partly, by the intrinsic NAD(PH oxidase activity of SPPs. Collectively, our data suggest that inhaled ragweed SPPs are fully capable of activating dendritic cells (DCs in the airways and SPPs' NAD(PH oxidase activity is involved in initiation of adaptive immune responses against innocuous pollen proteins.

  11. Size matters in the water uptake and hygroscopic growth of atmospherically relevant multicomponent aerosol particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskina, Olga; Morris, Holly S; Grandquist, Joshua R; Qin, Zhen; Stone, Elizabeth A; Tivanski, Alexei V; Grassian, Vicki H

    2015-05-14

    Understanding the interactions of water with atmospheric aerosols is crucial for determining the size, physical state, reactivity, and climate impacts of this important component of the Earth's atmosphere. Here we show that water uptake and hygroscopic growth of multicomponent, atmospherically relevant particles can be size dependent when comparing 100 nm versus ca. 6 μm sized particles. It was determined that particles composed of ammonium sulfate with succinic acid and of a mixture of chlorides typical of the marine environment show size-dependent hygroscopic behavior. Microscopic analysis of the distribution of components within the aerosol particles show that the size dependence is due to differences in the mixing state, that is, whether particles are homogeneously mixed or phase separated, for different sized particles. This morphology-dependent hygroscopicity has consequences for heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry as well as aerosol interactions with electromagnetic radiation and clouds.

  12. Shape effects and size distributions of astrophysical dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Rakesh K.; Botet, Robert

    2017-05-01

    In the infrared and visible wavelength ranges, the extinction cross-sections of small irregular particles are essentially proportional to the corresponding cross-sections for spheres of the same volume, which confirms a previous statement by Mathis. The situation differs for large disordered particles because of the contribution of large surface areas. The differences between irregular particles and homogeneous spheres of the same mass might depend on the material. For example, graphite particles are less sensitive to surface shapes than silicate particles. As a consequence, the successful fit of the average galactic extinction curve by an ensemble of graphite + silicate spherical particles, can also be replaced by a fit using an ensemble of irregular particles, including a smaller amount of silicate. Because the interstellar dust particles are expected to be generally of irregular shapes, the former fit with spherical particles could have overestimated the relative amount of silicate in the interstellar medium (ISM). In the same spirit, we discuss various interpretations of the remarkable stability of the 217.5-nm peak in the ISM extinction.

  13. Dynamics of finite size neutrally buoyant particles in isotropic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhimer, M; Jean, A; Praud, O; Bazile, R; Marchal, M; Couteau, G, E-mail: elhimer@imft.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT - Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2011-12-22

    The dynamics of neutrally buoyant particles suspended in a turbulent flow is investigated experimentally, with particles having diameters larger than the Kolmogorov length scale. To that purpose, a turbulence generator have been constructed and the resulting flow characterized. The fluid was then seeded with polystyrene particles of diameter about 1 mm and their velocity measured separately and simultaneously with the surrounding fluid. Comparison of the velocities statistics between the two phases shows no appreciable discrepancy. However, simultaneous velocity measurement shows that particles may move in different direction from the underlying flow.

  14. Deconvolution of the particle size distribution of ProRoot MTA and MTA Angelus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, William Nguyen; Shakibaie, Fardad; Kahler, Bill; Walsh, Laurence James

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cements contain two types of particles, namely Portland cement (PC) (nominally 80% w/w) and bismuth oxide (BO) (20%). This study aims to determine the particle size distribution (PSD) of PC and BO found in MTA. Materials and methods The PSDs of ProRoot MTA (MTA-P) and MTA Angelus (MTA-A) powder were determined using laser diffraction, and compared to samples of PC (at three different particle sizes) and BO. The non-linear least squares method was used to deconvolute the PSDs into the constituents. MTA-P and MTA-A powders were also assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Results BO showed a near Gaussian distribution for particle size, with a mode distribution peak at 10.48 μm. PC samples milled to differing degrees of fineness had mode distribution peaks from 19.31 down to 4.88 μm. MTA-P had a complex PSD composed of both fine and large PC particles, with BO at an intermediate size, whereas MTA-A had only small BO particles and large PC particles. Conclusions The PSD of MTA cement products is bimodal or more complex, which has implications for understanding how particle size influences the overall properties of the material. Smaller particles may be reactive PC or unreactive radiopaque agent. Manufacturers should disclose particle size information for PC and radiopaque agents to prevent simplistic conclusions being drawn from statements of average particle size for MTA materials.

  15. Improving Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture by Controlling Tahini Particle Size Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Mureşan; Lucian Cuibus; Anna Olari; Emil Racolţa; Carmen Socaciu; Sabine Danthine; Sevastița Muste; Christophe Blecker

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower halva is an appreciated product, but shows currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers, having a hard texture and oil exuded on the surface (low stability). The aim of this work was to assess the influence of tahini particle size on sunflower halva texture and stability. Eight different particle size sunflower tahini samples were produced at pilot plant scale, the higher the number of passes through the colloidal mill, the smaller the particle size ...

  16. Lattice Constant Dependence on Particle Size for Ceria prepared from a Citrate Sol-Gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, V N [Analog Devices, Raheen Business Park, Raheen, Limerick (Ireland); Dimensional Solids Group, Chemistry Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Farrell, R A [Dimensional Solids Group, Chemistry Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Sexton, A M [Dimensional Solids Group, Chemistry Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Morris, M A [Dimensional Solids Group, Chemistry Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Centre for Research into Advanced Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2006-02-22

    High surface area ceria nanoparticles have been prepared using a citrate solgel precipitation method. Changes to the particle size have been made by calcining the ceria powders at different temperatures, and X-ray methods used to determine their lattice parameters. The particle sizes have been assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the lattice parameter found to fall with decreasing particle size. The results are discussed in the light of the role played by surface tension effects.

  17. Effect of particle-size dynamics on properties of dense spongy-particle systems: Approach towards equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Monica E. A.; Anderson, Patrick D.; Hütter, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Open-porous deformable particles, often envisaged as sponges, are ubiquitous in biological and industrial systems (e.g., casein micelles in dairy products and microgels in cosmetics). The rich behavior of these suspensions is owing to the elasticity of the supporting network of the particle, and the viscosity of permeating solvent. Therefore, the rate-dependent size change of these particles depends on their structure, i.e., the permeability. This work aims at investigating the effect of the particle-size dynamics and the underlying particle structure, i.e., the particle permeability, on the transient and long-time behavior of suspensions of spongy particles in the absence of applied deformation, using the dynamic two-scale model developed by Hütter et al. [Farad. Discuss. 158, 407 (2012), 10.1039/c2fd20025b]. In the high-density limit, the transient behavior is found to be accelerated by the particle-size dynamics, even at average size changes as small as 1 % . The accelerated dynamics is evidenced by (i) the higher short-time diffusion coefficient as compared to elastic-particle systems and (ii) the accelerated formation of the stable fcc crystal structure. Furthermore, after long times, the particle-size dynamics of spongy particles is shown to result in lower stationary values of the energy and normal stresses as compared to elastic-particle systems. This dependence of the long-time behavior of these systems on the permeability, that essentially is a transport coefficient and hence must not affect the equilibrium properties, confirms that full equilibration has not been reached.

  18. Taille des particules et catalyse Particle Size and Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitiaux J. P.

    2006-11-01

    hydrogène pouvaient tout à fait rendre compte des phénomènes observés. En plus de cela un métal déposé sur silice et un métal déposé sur alumine peuvent se comporter de façon tout à fait différente. Tout ceci montre que certaines interprétations sont trop simplistes et que faire varier la taille des particules par n'importe quel moyen et étudier les conséquences sur l'acte catalytique n'est pas suffisant. Les deux approches complémentaires, celle du cristallographe qui tente de décrire les petites particules à partir des paramètres du métal massique et celle du chimiste qui tente de déduire la structure du comportement du catalyseur observé dans la réaction étudiée, n'arrivent pas vraiment à se rejoindre pour aboutir à une description en tout point acceptable de la structure de la particule. D'un côté le physico-chimiste utilise des simplifications outrancières lorsqu'il tente de décrire ses structures grâce à l'usage de fonctions d'état qui n'ont pas toujours des solutions évidentes. D'un autre le chimiste manipule des objets réels mais arrive difficilement à isoler le paramètre qu'il veut étudier. Ses conclusions ne sont jamais à l'abri des artefacts apportés par les conditions opératoires ou les effets de support. Ce dilemme existe aussi pour le physicien qui tente de synthétiser des agrégats bien définis dans un flux gazeux mais loin de la réalité de la catalyse. De même pour le chimiste qui veut ramener les effets de structure à de simples comparaisons entre les faces exposées par les monocristaux. Néanmoins l'apport des deux est indispensable car ils donnent des idées directrices indispensables pour l'homme de catalyse qui tente de maîtriser l'ensemble des paramètres. While heterogeneous catalysis, and especially catalysis by metals, is concerned with the size of the particles and hence with the developed surface area, this is not only to prepare an effective product at minimum cost. The study of the

  19. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2011-07-05

    Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

  20. Particle number size distribution and new particle formation: new characteristics during the special pollution control period in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shulan; Wang, Wenxing

    2012-01-01

    New particle formation is a key process in shaping the size distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere. We present here the measurement results of number and size distribution of aerosol particles (10-10000 nm in diameter) obtained in the summer of 2008, at a suburban site in Beijing, China. We firstly reported the pollution level, particle number size distribution, diurnal variation of the particle number size distribution and then introduced the characteristics of the particle formation processes. The results showed that the number concentration of ultrafine particles was much lower than the values measured in other urban or suburban areas in previous studies. Sharp increases of ultrafine particle count were frequently observed at noon. An examination of the diurnal pattern suggested that the burst of ultrafine particles was mainly due to new particle formation promoted by photochemical processes. In addition, high relative humidity was a key factor driving the growth of the particles in the afternoon. During the 2-month observations, new particle formation from homogeneous nucleation was observed for 42.7% of the study period. The average growth rate of newly formed particles was 3.2 nm/hr, and varied from 1.2 to 8.0 nm/hr. The required concentration of condensable vapor was 4.4 x 10(7) cm(-3), and its source rate was 1.2 x 106 cm(-3) sec(-1). Further calculation on the source rate of sulphuric acid vapor indicated that the average participation of sulphuric acid to particle growth rates was 28.7%.

  1. Performance of diethylene glycol-based particle counters in the sub-3 nm size range

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, D; Franchin, A; Kangasluoma, J; Kreissl, F; Kürten, A; Kupc, A; Metzger, A; Mikkilä, J; Petäjä, J; Riccobono, F; Vanhanen, J; Kulmala, M; Curtius, J

    2013-01-01

    When studying new particle formation, the uncertainty in determining the "true" nucleation rate is considerably reduced when using condensation particle counters (CPCs) capable of measuring concentrations of aerosol particles at sizes close to or even at the critical cluster size (1–2 nm). Recently, CPCs able to reliably detect particles below 2 nm in size and even close to 1 nm became available. Using these instruments, the corrections needed for calculating nucleation rates are substantially reduced compared to scaling the observed formation rate to the nucleation rate at the critical cluster size. However, this improved instrumentation requires a careful characterization of their cut-off size and the shape of the detection efficiency curve because relatively small shifts in the cut-off size can translate into larger relative errors when measuring particles close to the cut-off size. Here we describe the development of two continuous-flow CPCs using diethylene glycol (DEG) as the working fluid. The desig...

  2. Size distributions of particles and their generating mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler

    Summary of a lecture presented at the IAHR Workshop on Particle Motion and Sediment Transport: Measurement Techniques and Experimental Results, Schweiz, 5-8 April 1981......Summary of a lecture presented at the IAHR Workshop on Particle Motion and Sediment Transport: Measurement Techniques and Experimental Results, Schweiz, 5-8 April 1981...

  3. Synthesis and self-assembly of dumbbell shaped ZnO sub-micron structures using low temperature chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borade, P. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Joshi, K.U. [Anton-Paar India Pvt. Ltd., Thane (W), 400607 (India); Gokarna, A.; Lerondel, G. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et D' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS UMR 6281, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Walke, P. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Late, D. [National Chemical Laboratory (NCL), Pune 400027 (India); Jejurikar, S.M., E-mail: jejusuhas@gmail.com [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2016-02-01

    We report well dispersed horizontal growth of ZnO sub-micron structures using simplest technique ever known i.e. chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples were prepared under two different cases A) dumbbell shaped ZnO grown in CBD bath and B) tubular ZnO structures evolved from dumbbell shaped structures by dissolution mechanism. Single phase wurtzite ZnO formation is confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique in both cases. From the morphological investigations performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), sample prepared under case A indicate formation of hex bit tool (HBT) shaped ZnO crystals, which observed to self-organize to form dumbbell structures. Further these microstructures are then converted into tubular structures as a fragment of post CBD process. The possible mechanism responsible for the self-assembly of HBT units to form dumbbell structures is discussed. Observed free excitonic peak located at 370 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra recorded at 18 K indicate that the micro/nanostructures synthesized using CBD are of high optical quality. - Highlights: • Controlled growth of Dumbbell shaped ZnO using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD). • Growth mechanism of dumbbell shaped ZnO by self-assembling was discussed. • Quick Transformation of ZnO dumbbell structures in to tubular structures by dissolution. • Sharp UV Emission at 370 nm from both dumbbell and tubular structures.

  4. Scaling down the two-dimensional electron gas spin resonance (ESR) phenomena in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures to sub-micron samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaru, Prabhakar; Yablonovitch, Eli; Jiang, Hong-Wen

    2002-03-01

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) has been proposed as a technique for achieving single electron and subsequently single spin control, important for the emerging fields of spintronics and quantum computing. In this paper, we report on ESR in the quantum Hall regime, of sub-micron structures containing a few hundred electrons. These phenomena are contrasted with ESR phenomena in structures containing 10^7 - 10^9 electrons, which have been performed so far (Reference 1). There are several novel features observed in the ESR of small structures, such as a very large decrease of resistance and shift in the quantum Hall minima to lower magnetic fields after the resonance. These imply a reduction in the number of electrons and could result from the greater influence of the surface and impurity potential fluctuations intrinsic to a small sample. The ESR peak intensity is hypothesized to result from the transfer of electrons from the localized states to the extended states. References: 1.H.W.Jiang and E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev.B., 64, R041307, (2001) 2.M.Dobers, K.v. Klitzing and G. Weimann,Phys. Rev. B, 38, 5453, (1988).

  5. Sub-micron and nanoscale feature depth modulates alignment of stromal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells in serum-rich and serum-free media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah A; Ting, Yuk-Hong; Mallon, Kelly S; Wendt, Amy E; Murphy, Christopher J; Nealey, Paul F

    2008-09-01

    Topographic features are generally accepted as being capable of modulating cell alignment. Of particular interest is the potential that topographic feature geometry induces cell alignment indirectly through impacting adsorbed proteins from the cell culture medium on the surface of the substrate. However, it has also been reported that micron-scale feature depth significantly impacts the level of alignment of cellular populations on topography, despite being orders of magnitude larger than the average adsorbed protein layer (nm). In order to better determine the impact of biomimetic length scale topography and adsorbed protein interaction on cellular morphology we have systematically investigated the effect of combinations of sub-micron to nanoscale feature depth and lateral pitch on corneal epithelial cell alignment. In addition we have used the unique properties of a serum-free media alternative in direct comparison to serum-rich medium to investigate the role of culture medium protein composition on cellular alignment to topographically patterned surfaces. Our observation that increasing groove depth elicited larger populations of corneal epithelial cells to align regardless of culture medium composition and of cell orientation with respect to the topography, suggests that these cells can sense changes in topographic feature depths independent of adsorbed proteins localized along ridge edges and tops. However, our data also suggests a strong combinatory effect of topography with culture medium composition, and also a cell type dependency in determining the level of cell elongation and alignment to nanoscale topographic features.

  6. Sub-micron and nanoscale feature depth modulates alignment of stromal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells in serum-rich and serum-free media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah A.; Ting, Yuk-Hong; Mallon, Kelly S.; Wendt, Amy E.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Topographic features are generally accepted as being capable of modulating cell alignment. Of particular interest is the potential that topographic feature geometry induces cell alignment indirectly through impacting adsorbed proteins from the cell culture medium on the surface of the substrate. However, it has also been reported that micron-scale feature depth significantly impacts the level of alignment of cellular populations on topography, despite being orders of magnitude larger than the average adsorbed protein layer (nm). In order to better determine the impact of biomimetic length scale topography and adsorbed protein interaction on cellular morphology we have systematically investigated the effect of combinations of sub-micron to nanoscale feature depth and lateral pitch on corneal epithelial cell alignment. In addition we have used the unique properties of a serum-free media alternative in direct comparison to serum-rich medium to investigate the role of culture medium protein composition on cellular alignment to topographically patterned surfaces. Our observation that increasing groove depth elicited larger populations of corneal epithelial cells to align regardless of culture medium composition and of cell orientation with respect to the topography, suggests that these cells can sense changes in topographic feature depths independent of adsorbed proteins localized along ridge edges and tops. However, our data also suggests a strong combinatory effect of topography with culture medium composition, and also a cell type dependency in determining the level of cell elongation and alignment to nanoscale topographic features. PMID:18041718

  7. Sub-micron Polymer–Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Layered Hybrids via Controlled Chemical Transformation of Naked ZnO Nanocrystal Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckler, Stephen M.; Li, Changyi; Queen, Wendy L.; Williams, Teresa E.; Long, Jeffrey R.; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Milliron, Delia J.; Helms, Brett A.

    2015-11-24

    Here we show that sub-micron coatings of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) and even ZIF–ZIF bilayers can be grown directly on polymers of intrinsic microporosity from zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystal precursor films, yielding a new class of all-microporous layered hybrids. The ZnO-to-ZIF chemical transformation proceeded in less than 30 min under microwave conditions using a solution of the imidazole ligand in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), water, or mixtures thereof. By varying the ratio of DMF to water, it was possible to control the morphology of the ZIF-on-polymer from isolated crystallites to continuous films. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the presence of crystalline ZIF in the thin films, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify film purity, revealing films with little to no residual ZnO. The role solvent plays in the transformation mechanism is discussed in light of these findings, which suggest the ZnO nanocrystals may be necessary to localize heterogeneous nucleation of the ZIF to the polymer surface.

  8. Sub-micron Polymer–Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Layered Hybrids via Controlled Chemical Transformation of Naked ZnO Nanocrystal Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckler, Stephen M.; Li, Changyi; Queen, Wendy L. [Department; Williams, Teresa E.; Long, Jeffrey R.; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Milliron, Delia J. [McKetta; Helms, Brett A.

    2015-11-02

    Here we show that sub-micron coatings of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) and even ZIF–ZIF bilayers can be grown directly on polymers of intrinsic microporosity from zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystal precursor films, yielding a new class of all-microporous layered hybrids. The ZnO-to-ZIF chemical transformation proceeded in less than 30 min under microwave conditions using a solution of the imidazole ligand in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), water, or mixtures thereof. By varying the ratio of DMF to water, it was possible to control the morphology of the ZIF-on-polymer from isolated crystallites to continuous films. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the presence of crystalline ZIF in the thin films, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify film purity, revealing films with little to no residual ZnO. The role solvent plays in the transformation mechanism is discussed in light of these findings, which suggest the ZnO nanocrystals may be necessary to localize heterogeneous nucleation of the ZIF to the polymer surface.

  9. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmora, Adilson C; Ramos, Claudete G; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Taffarel, Silvio R; de Brum, Irineu A S; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during "stonemeal" soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical composition in

  10. Testosterone sorption and desorption: Effects of soil particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yong, E-mail: yqi01@unomaha.edu [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Zhang, Tian C. [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Ren, Yongzheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Smaller soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates. • The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand. • Small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. • Colloids (clays) have high potential to facilitate the transport of hormones in soil–water environments. - Abstract: Soils contain a wide range of particles of different diameters with different mobility during rainfall events. Effects of soil particles on sorption and desorption behaviors of steroid hormones have not been investigated. In this study, wet sieve washing and repeated sedimentation methods were used to fractionate the soils into five ranges. The sorption and desorption properties and related mechanisms of testosterone in batch reactors filled with fractionated soil particles were evaluated. Results of sorption and desorption kinetics indicate that small soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates than that of big ones. Thermodynamic results show the sorption processes are spontaneous and exothermal. The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand, depending mainly on specific surface area and surface functional groups. The urea control test shows that hydrogen bonding contributes to testosterone sorption onto clay and silt but not on sand. Desorption tests indicate sorption is 36–65% irreversible from clay to sand. Clays have highest desorption hysteresis among these five soil fractions, indicating small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. The results provide indirect evidence on the colloid (clay)-facilitated transport of hormones (micro-pollutants) in soil environments.

  11. Effect of particle size on fracture toughness of SiC/Al composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Y.; Arsenault, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Discontinuous SiC/Al composites with SiC particles of different sizes were fabricated in order to study the role of particle size on the fracture process. The fracture process is confined to a very narrow band and takes place within the matrix in composites containing small SiC particle sizes. In the composite reinforced with SiC particles of 20 microns and above fracture of SiC begins to dominate. The matrix is influenced by the high density of dislocations generated at SiC/Al interfaces due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between SiC and the Al matrix. Crack initiation fracture toughness does not depend on SiC particle size. Crack growth fracture toughness increases as the size of the SiC particle increase.

  12. Morphologically and size uniform monodisperse particles and their shape-directed self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Joshua E.; Bell, Howard Y.; Ye, Xingchen; Murray, Christopher Bruce

    2017-09-12

    Monodisperse particles having: a single pure crystalline phase of a rare earth-containing lattice, a uniform three-dimensional size, and a uniform polyhedral morphology are disclosed. Due to their uniform size and shape, the monodisperse particles self assemble into superlattices. The particles may be luminescent particles such as down-converting phosphor particles and up-converting phosphors. The monodisperse particles of the invention have a rare earth-containing lattice which in one embodiment may be an yttrium-containing lattice or in another may be a lanthanide-containing lattice. The monodisperse particles may have different optical properties based on their composition, their size, and/or their morphology (or shape). Also disclosed is a combination of at least two types of monodisperse particles, where each type is a plurality of monodisperse particles having a single pure crystalline phase of a rare earth-containing lattice, a uniform three-dimensional size, and a uniform polyhedral morphology; and where the types of monodisperse particles differ from one another by composition, by size, or by morphology. In a preferred embodiment, the types of monodisperse particles have the same composition but different morphologies. Methods of making and methods of using the monodisperse particles are disclosed.

  13. Laboratory study of the particle-size distribution of Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Peng-hao; Hou, Chun-yan; Sun, Dan; Feng, Dao-lun; Halldorson, Thor; Ding, Yong-sheng; Li, Yi-fan; Tomy, Gregg T

    2016-02-01

    Laboratory measurements for particle-size distribution of Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) were performed in a 0.5 m(3) sealed room at 25 °C. BDE-209 was manually bounded to ambient particles. An electrostatic field-sampler was employed to collect particles. The number of collected particles (n(i,j), i and j was the class of particle diameter and applied voltage on electrostatic field-sampler sampler, respectively) and the corresponding mass of BDE-209 in collected particles (m(∑i,j)) were determined in a series of 6 experiments. The particle-size distribution coefficient (ki) was calculated through equations related to n(i,j) and m(∑i,j), and the particle-size distribution of BDE-209 was determined by ki·n(i,j). Results revealed that BDE-209 distributed in particles of all size and were not affiliated with fine particles as in field measurements. The particle size-fraction should be taken into account when discussing the particle-size distribution of BDE-209 in ambient air due to the normalized coefficients (normalized to k1) and were approximately in the same order of magnitude for each diameter class. The method described in the present study was deemed feasible in determining the particle-size distribution of BDE-209 from vaporization sources and helpful to understanding the instinct rule of particle-size distribution of BDE-209, and potentially feasible for other SVOCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Particle-size distribution and gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban areas of Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Besis, Athanasios [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion-Voutes (Greece); Stephanou, Euripides G. [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion-Voutes (Greece)], E-mail: stephanou@chemistry.uoc.gr

    2009-04-15

    Ambient concentrations, gas/particle partitioning and particle-size distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in two urban areas (Athens and Heraklion) of Greece. Atmospheric (gas + particle) concentrations of {sigma}PBDE varied from 21 to 30 pg m{sup -3} in the center of Athens and from 4 to 44 pg m{sup -3} in the suburbs of Heraklion. A predominance of particulate PBDEs was observed in Athens (71-76% in particles), whereas the opposite was evident in Heraklion (69-92% in gas phase). In both urban areas, PBDE particle-size distribution featured a distinct enrichment in smaller particles. A similar trend was also observed in aerosols of a background marine site. For all sampling sites, more than 46% of {sigma}PBDE was associated with particles of <0.57 {mu}m in diameter. Our results imply that particulate PBDEs may have long atmospheric residence time and they may be capable of reaching the deeper parts of the human respiratory system. - Analysis of size-segregated aerosol samples indicates a predominance of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the small particle-size fraction.

  15. Thoughening of SAN with acryliv core-shell rubber particles: particle size effect or cross-link density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbrink, A.C.; Steenbrink, A.C.; Litvinov, V.M.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of rubber particle size on fracture toughness and tensile properties have been investigated using styrene-acrylonitrile as a matrix. Pre-formed particles with poly(butyl-acrylate) core and a poly(methylmethacrylate) shell, ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 μm in diameter, were used as a toughening

  16. Ion sound and dust acoustic waves at finite size of plasma particles

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Pavel A

    2014-01-01

    We consider influence of finite size of ions on properties of classic plasmas. We focus our attention on the ion sound for electron-ion plasmas. We also consider dusty plasmas, where we account finite size of ions and particles of dust and consider the dispersion of dust acoustic waves. Finite size of particles affects classical plasma properties. Finite size of particles gives considerable contribution for small wave lengths, which is area of appearing of quantum effects. Consequently, it is very important to consider finite size of ions in quantum plasmas as well.

  17. Particle Size Reduction in Geophysical Granular Flows: The Role of Rock Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G.; Sklar, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Particle size reduction in geophysical granular flows is caused by abrasion and fragmentation, and can affect transport dynamics by altering the particle size distribution. While the Sternberg equation is commonly used to predict the mean abrasion rate in the fluvial environment, and can also be applied to geophysical granular flows, predicting the evolution of the particle size distribution requires a better understanding the controls on the rate of fragmentation and the size distribution of resulting particle fragments. To address this knowledge gap we are using single-particle free-fall experiments to test for the influence of particle size, impact velocity, and rock properties on fragmentation and abrasion rates. Rock types tested include granodiorite, basalt, and serpentinite. Initial particle masses and drop heights range from 20 to 1000 grams and 0.1 to 3.0 meters respectively. Preliminary results of free-fall experiments suggest that the probability of fragmentation varies as a power function of kinetic energy on impact. The resulting size distributions of rock fragments can be collapsed by normalizing by initial particle mass, and can be fit with a generalized Pareto distribution. We apply the free-fall results to understand the evolution of granodiorite particle-size distributions in granular flow experiments using rotating drums ranging in diameter from 0.2 to 4.0 meters. In the drums, we find that the rates of silt production by abrasion and gravel production by fragmentation scale with drum size. To compare these rates with free-fall results we estimate the particle impact frequency and velocity. We then use population balance equations to model the evolution of particle size distributions due to the combined effects of abrasion and fragmentation. Finally, we use the free-fall and drum experimental results to model particle size evolution in Inyo Creek, a steep, debris-flow dominated catchment, and compare model results to field measurements.

  18. Optical sensor technology for simultaneous measurement of particle speed and concentration of micro sized particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper; Han, Anpan; Kristensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Experimental characterization of a sensor technology that can measure particle speed and concentration simultaneously in liquids and gases is presented here. The basic sensor principle is based on an optical element that shapes a light beam into well-defined fringes. The technology can be described...... as a hybrid between Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Laser Particle Counters. The experimental characterization of a lab-scale setup has been performed with polystyrene particles in the range from 750 nm to 20 μm, with various particle speeds. It is shown that particle concentrations can be determined...... independently from particle speeds and is a key advantage compared to normal Laser Particle Counters....

  19. Hydrodynamics of multi-sized particles in stable regime of a swirling bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miin, Chin Swee; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay Raj; Heikal, Morgan Raymond; Naz, Muhammad Yasin [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-11-15

    Using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), we observed particle motion within the stable operating regime of a swirling fluidized bed with an annular blade distributor. This paper presents velocity profiles of particle flow in an effort to determine effects from blade angle, particle size and shape and bed weight on characteristics of a swirling fluidized bed. Generally, particle velocity increased with airflow rate and shallow bed height, but decreased with bed weight. A 3 .deg. increase in blade angle reduced particle velocity by approximately 18%. In addition, particle shape, size and bed weight affected various characteristics of the swirling regime. Swirling began soon after incipience in the form of a supra-linear curve, which is the characteristic of a swirling regime. The relationship between particle and gas velocities enabled us to predict heat and mass transfer rates between gas and particles.

  20. Using portable particle sizing instrumentation to rapidly measure the penetration of fine and ultrafine particles in unoccupied residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Stephens, B

    2017-01-01

    Much of human exposure to particulate matter of outdoor origin occurs inside buildings, particularly in residences. The particle penetration factor through leaks in a building's exterior enclosure assembly is a key parameter that governs the infiltration of outdoor particles. However, experimental data for size-resolved particle penetration factors in real buildings, as well as penetration factors for fine particles less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) and ultrafine particles less than 100 nm (UFPs), remain limited, in part because of previous limitations in instrumentation and experimental methods. Here, we report on the development and application of a modified test method that utilizes portable particle sizing instrumentation to measure size-resolved infiltration factors and envelope penetration factors for 0.01-2.5 μm particles, which are then used to estimate penetration factors for integral measures of UFPs and PM2.5 . Eleven replicate measurements were made in an unoccupied apartment unit in Chicago, IL to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of the test procedure and solution methods. Mean estimates of size-resolved penetration factors ranged from 0.41 ± 0.14 to 0.73 ± 0.05 across the range of measured particle sizes, while mean estimates of penetration factors for integral measures of UFPs and PM2.5 were 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.73 ± 0.05, respectively. Average relative uncertainties for all particle sizes/classes were less than 20%. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of dielectrophoretic particle trapping in arrays of insulating structures: Effect of particle size and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo-Espinosa, Mario A; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H

    2015-05-01

    Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) employs insulating structures embedded in a microchannel to produce electric field gradients. This contribution presents a detailed analysis of the regions within an iDEP system where particles are likely to be retained due to dielectrophoretic trapping in a microchannel with an array of cylindrical insulating structures. The effects of particle size and shape on dielectrophoretic trapping were analyzed by employing 1 and 2 μm polystyrene particles and Escherichia coli cells. This research aims to study the mechanism behind dielectrophoretic trapping and develop a deeper understanding of iDEP systems. Mathematical modeling with COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to assess electrokinetic and dielectrophoretic particle velocities. Experiments were carried out to determine the location of dielectrophoretic barriers that block particle motion within an iDEP microchannel; this supported the estimation of a correction factor to match experiments and simulations. Particle velocities were predicted with the model, demonstrating how the different forces acting on the particles are in equilibrium when particle trapping occurs. The results showed that particle size and shape have a significant effect on the magnitude, location, and shape of the regions of dielectrophoretic trapping of particles, which are defined by DEP isovelocity lines and EK isovelocity lines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Viscous properties of ferrofluids containing both micrometer-size magnetic particles and fine needle-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ido, Yasushi, E-mail: ido.yasushi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Electric and Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Nishida, Hitoshi [Department of Electrical and Control Systems Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Toyama College, 13 Hongo-cho, Toyama (Japan); Iwamoto, Yuhiro [Department of Electric and Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Yokoyama, Hiroki [KYB Corporation, 2-4-1 Hamamatsu-cho, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    Ferrofluids containing both micrometer-size spherical magnetic particles and nanometer-size needle-like nonmagnetic hematite particles were newly produced. Average length of long axis of the needle-like nonmagnetic particles was 194 nm and the aspect ratio was 8.3. Shear stress and viscosity were measured using the rheometer with the additional equipment for viscosity measurements in the presence of magnetic field. When the total volume fraction of particles in the fluid is constant (0.30), there is the specific mixing ratio of the particles to increase viscosity of the fluid drastically in the absence of magnetic field due to the percolation phenomenon. The fluid of the specific mixing ratio shows solid-like behavior even in the absence of magnetic field. Mixing the needle-like nonmagnetic particles causes strong yield stress and strong viscous force in the presence of magnetic field. - Highlights: • Viscous properties of new magnetic functional fluids were studied experimentally. • The new fluids contain spherical magnetic particles and needle-like particles. • Percolation occurs in the fluid of specific mixing ratio of particles without field. • The fluid of the specific mixing ratio behaves like solid without field. • Mixing needle-like particles causes strong yield stress of the fluid in the field.

  3. Effect of Particle Size and Grinding Time on Gold Dissolution in Cyanide Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Egan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of gold by ore leaching is influenced by the size of the particles and the chemical environment. The effect of particle size on the dissolution of gold is usually studied using mono-size particles as the gold in solution comes from the ore of a unique leached particle size. This paper proposes a method to estimate the gold dissolution as a function of particle size using a bulk ore sample, i.e., with the dissolved gold coming from the various sizes of particles carried by the ore. The results are consistent with the fact that gold dissolution increases with the decreasing particle size but results also indicate that gold dissolution of the ore within a size interval is not significantly affected by the grinding time used for the ore size reduction. Results also show a good dissolution of the gold contained in the fine-size fractions without oxidation and lead nitrate pre-treatment for an ore that is known to require such pre-treatment.

  4. A new apparatus for real-time assessment of the particle size distribution of disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is the introduction of a novel apparatus that is capable of continuously measuring the particle size reduction of disintegrating tablets and analysis of the obtained results. The apparatus is constructed such that no particles pass directly through the pumping system. Thereby, the overall energy input into the particle suspension is reduced, and continuous measurement is possible without rapid destruction of the generated particles. The detected particle sizes at the beginning and at the end of the measurement differ greatly, depending on the applied disintegrant. The median particle sizes at the end of the measurement vary between 621.5 and 178.0 μm for different disintegrants. It is demonstrated that the particle size reduction follows an exponential function and that the fit parameters can be used to describe the disintegration behavior. A strong correlation between the median particle size of crospovidone disintegrants and generated particle size of the tablets is observed. This could be due to a more homogeneous distribution of the disintegrant particles in the tablets. Similar trends are observed for sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. The new apparatus provides an innovative method to describe disintegrant effectiveness and efficiency. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Effect of particle size on microstructure and mechanical properties of composites produced by ARB process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaati, Roohollah, E-mail: r.jamaatikenari@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Niroumand, Behzad [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Microstructure of MMC with larger particles becomes completely uniform, sooner. {yields} When the number of cycles increased, tensile strength for both samples improved. {yields} Up to the seventh cycle, tensile strength of MMC with larger particles was bigger. {yields} First, the tensile elongation of MMCs was decreased, and then it was improved. - Abstract: In the present work, Al/10 vol.% SiC metal matrix composite (MMC) was manufactured by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process. The silicon carbide particles with two various particle sizes of 40 and 2 {mu}m were used. Effect of particle size on microstructure (by scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) at various ARB cycles was investigated. It was found that the microstructural evolution in MMC with 40 {mu}m particle size was more salient compared to the MMCs with 2 {mu}m particle size. Also, the composite strip with 40 {mu}m particle size became uniform with high bonding quality and without any porosity sooner than the strip of 2 {mu}m particle size. Moreover, when the number of cycles was increased, the tensile strength for both samples was improved. The tensile strength of the composite strip with 40 {mu}m particle size was more than the composite strip with 2 {mu}m up to the seventh cycle. By increasing the number of cycles after the seventh cycle, the value of tensile strength of MMC with 40 {mu}m particle size became saturated and then decreased, and its tensile strength became less than that of the composite with 2 {mu}m particle size for the ninth and eleventh cycles. Up to the seventh cycle, when the number of ARB cycles was increased, the elongation of composite strips was decreased, but after the ninth cycle, the tensile elongation for both samples was improved.

  6. Porous media grain size distribution and hydrodynamic forces effects on transport and deposition of suspended particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahfir, Nasre-Dine; Hammadi, Ahmed; Alem, Abdellah; Wang, HuaQing; Le Bras, Gilbert; Ouahbi, Tariq

    2017-03-01

    The effects of porous media grain size distribution on the transport and deposition of polydisperse suspended particles under different flow velocities were investigated. Selected Kaolinite particles (2-30μm) and Fluorescein (dissolved tracer) were injected in the porous media by step input injection technique. Three sands filled columns were used: Fine sand, Coarse sand, and a third sand (Mixture) obtained by mixing the two last sands in equal weight proportion. The porous media performance on the particle removal was evaluated by analysing particles breakthrough curves, hydro-dispersive parameters determined using the analytical solution of convection-dispersion equation with a first order deposition kinetics, particles deposition profiles, and particle-size distribution of the recovered and the deposited particles. The deposition kinetics and the longitudinal hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients are controlled by the porous media grain size distribution. Mixture sand is more dispersive than Fine and Coarse sands. More the uniformity coefficient of the porous medium is large, higher is the filtration efficiency. At low velocities, porous media capture all sizes of suspended particles injected with larger ones mainly captured at the entrance. A high flow velocity carries the particles deeper into the porous media, producing more gradual changes in the deposition profile. The median diameter of the deposited particles at different depth increases with flow velocity. The large grain size distribution leads to build narrow pores enhancing the deposition of the particles by straining. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Study on effective particle diameters and coolability of particulate beds packed with irregular multi-size particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, S.; Ma, W.; Kudinov, P.; Bechta, S. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH. Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    One of the key questions in severe accident research is the coolability of the debris bed, i.e., whether decay heat can be completely removed by the coolant flow into the debris bed. Extensive experimental and analytical work has been done to substantiate the coolability research. Most of the available experimental data is related to the beds packed with single size (mostly spherical) particles, and less data is available for multi-size/irregular-shape particles. There are several analytical models available, which rely on the mean particle diameter and porosity of the bed in their predictions. Two different types of particles were used to investigate coolability of particulate beds at VTT, Finland. The first type is irregular-shape Aluminum Oxide gravel particles whose sizes vary from 0.25 mm to 10 mm, which were employed in the STYX experiment programme (2001-2008). The second type is spherical beads of Zirconium silicate whose sizes vary between 0.8 mm to 1 mm, which were used in the COOLOCE tests (Takasuo et al., 2012) to study the effect of multi-dimensional flooding on coolability. In the present work, the two types of particles are used in the POMECO-FL and POMECO-HT test facility to obtain their effective particle diameters and dryout heat flux of the beds, respectively. The main idea is to check how the heaters' orientations (vertical in COOLOCE vs. horizontal in POMECO-HT) and diameters (6 mm in COOLOCE vs. 3 mm in POMECO-HT) affect the coolability (dryout heat flux) of the test beds. The tests carried out on the POMECO-FL facility using a bed packed with aluminum oxide gravel particles show the effective particle diameter of the gravel particles is 0.65 mm, by which the frictional pressure gradient can be predicted by the Ergun equation. After the water superficial velocity is higher than 0.0025 m/s, the pressure gradient is underestimated. The effective particle diameter of the zirconium particles is found as 0.8 mm. The dryout heat flux is measured on

  8. A new strategy on utilizing nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} in nanostructured solar cells: Embedded multifunctional N-TiO{sub 2} scattering particles in mesoporous photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shogh, Shiva [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadpour, Raheleh [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 14588-89694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iraji zad, Azam, E-mail: Iraji@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 14588-89694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghavinia, Nima [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 14588-89694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • N-doped TiO{sub 2} scattering particles were synthesized for embedding into commercial photoanode of dye sensitized solar cells. • Embedded scatterers improved optical and electrical features of the cells. • These multifunctional scatterers increased cell performance up to 17%. - Abstract: Aggregated sub-micron size nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} (N-TiO{sub 2}) particles with superior optical and electrical features were successfully synthesized for embedding into commercial mesoporous TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as the light scattering particles compared to undoped one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and absorption spectra confirmed that the titanium dioxide is sufficiently doped by nitrogen in N-TiO{sub 2} sample. Employing these high-surface N-TiO{sub 2} in mesoporous photoelectrode of solar cells, the power conversion efficiency of 8% has been achieved which shows 17% improvement for the optimum embedded level of doping (30 wt%) compared to commercial photoelectrode without additive; while enhanced efficiency is only 3% embedding undoped sub-micron size TiO{sub 2} particles. These results can introduce the novel multifunctional photoelectrode for nanostructured solar cells with enhanced values of scattering efficiency and improved electrical features including trap states density reduction in comparison to commercial mesoporous photoelectrodes.

  9. The effect of microscopic friction and size distributions on conditional probability distributions in soft particle packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saitoh, K.; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Employing two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of soft particles, we study their non-affine responses to quasi-static isotropic compression where the effects of microscopic friction between the particles in contact and particle size distributions are examined. To quantify complicated

  10. Particle-size distribution and void fraction of geometric random packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the geometric random packing and void fraction of polydisperse particles. It is demonstrated that the bimodal packing can be transformed into a continuous particle-size distribution of the power law type. It follows that a maximum packing fraction of particles is obtained when

  11. Number size distribution of fine and ultrafine fume particles from various welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Peter; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Studies in the field of environmental epidemiology indicate that for the adverse effect of inhaled particles not only particle mass is crucial but also particle size is. Ultrafine particles with diameters below 100 nm are of special interest since these particles have high surface area to mass ratio and have properties which differ from those of larger particles. In this paper, particle size distributions of various welding and joining techniques were measured close to the welding process using a fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). It turned out that welding processes with high mass emission rates (manual metal arc welding, metal active gas welding, metal inert gas welding, metal inert gas soldering, and laser welding) show mainly agglomerated particles with diameters above 100 nm and only few particles in the size range below 50 nm (10 to 15%). Welding processes with low mass emission rates (tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding) emit predominantly ultrafine particles with diameters well below 100 nm. This finding can be explained by considerably faster agglomeration processes in welding processes with high mass emission rates. Although mass emission is low for tungsten inert gas welding and resistance spot welding, due to the low particle size of the fume, these processes cannot be labeled as toxicologically irrelevant and should be further investigated.

  12. The effect of particle size distributions on the microstructural evolution during sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Tikare, V.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural evolution and sintering behavior of powder compacts composed of spherical particles with different particle size distributions (PSDs) were simulated using a kinetic Monte Carlo model of solid state sintering. Compacts of monosized particles, normal PSDs with fixed mean particle...... PSDs, but the final grain sizes were smaller. These behaviors are explained by the smallest grains in the broader PSDs being consumed very quickly by larger neighboring grains. The elimination of the small grains reduces both the total number of necks and the neck area between particles, which in turn...

  13. Role of particle size in visible light photocatalysis of Congo Red ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    SAIF, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India. MS received 16 September 2008 ... the reduced particle size of the composites, which implies that photosensitization is the process primarily involved. Although, doping of ... can produce materials with larger effective surface area,. i.e. particles with reduced size, ...

  14. Brittle-tough transition in nylon-rubber blends: effect of rubber concentration and particle size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borggreve, R.J.M.; Gaymans, R.J.; Schuijer, J.; Ingen Housz, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Blends of nylon-6 and EPDM-rubber were prepared with various rubber contents (0–20 wt%) and particle sizes (0.3–1.6 μm). The effects of rubber concentration and particle size on the tensile modulus, torsion modulus, yield stress and notched impact strength of the blends were studied. Blend

  15. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ neutral detergent fiber incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Nørgaard, Peder; Lund, P.

    2013-01-01

    Particle size alterations during neutral detergent fiber (NDF) determination and in situ rumen incubation were analyzed by dry sieving and image analysis to evaluate the in situ procedure for estimation of NDF degradation parameters and indigestible NDF concentration in terms of particle size...

  16. A query for effective mean particle size of dry and high moisture corns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighteen dry and high moisture corns submitted to the University of Wisconsin Soil and Forage Analysis Laboratory (Marshfield, WI) for routine analysis were retained for mean particle size (MPS) and chemistry determinations. Mean particle size of corns was determined by the methods of the American S...

  17. Effects of Particle Size, Applied Pressure and Pressing Time on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Particle Size, Applied Pressure and Pressing Time on the Yield of Oil Expressed from Almond Seed. ... The results obtained can be used in the design of a suitable process and machine for the expression of oil from almond seed. Keywords: Almond oil, almond seed, applied pressure, particle size, pressing time.

  18. Effect of particle size of granules on some mechanical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid dosage forms are invariably multiparticulate systems of heterogenous particle size distribution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of particle size distribution of paracetamol granules on some tablet mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets. Granules were formed by wet massing paracetamol ...

  19. Single particle optical sizing : aggregation of polystyrene latices by salt and polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelssers, E.G.M.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the development of a Single Particle Optical Sizer (SPOS) which is capable of measuring in detail discrete particle size distributions in the colloidal size range. With this instrument we studied the aggregation of latices induced by polymer and salt, and found

  20. Role of particle size in visible light photocatalysis of Congo Red ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Their visible light photocatalytic activity was tested for the degradation of Congo Red dye. Maximum photodegradation was observed for the NC with = 0.1 synthesized by CPH (particle size, 71 nm). Similar composition prepared by SSR method (particle size, 6.19 m) showed lower photoactivity in comparison even with ...

  1. Optical properties of fractal aggregates of nanoparticles: Effects of particle size polydispersity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Zahra; Miri, Mirfaez

    2009-12-01

    We study the effects of particle size dispersion on the absorption spectrum of nonfractal random gas of particles and fractal cluster-cluster aggregates. We use the coupled-dipole equations to describe the interaction of particles with the external electromagnetic wave. We express the absorption in terms of the spectral variable introduced by Bergman [Phys. Rev. B 19, 2359 (1979)]. In the case of nonfractal clusters, the particle size dispersion has no influence on the overall shape of the spectrum. In the case of fractal clusters, the bandwidth of the spectrum decreases as the particle size dispersion increases. Moreover, the maxima and minima of the spectrum vary, shift, and even disappear, as the particle size dispersion increases.

  2. Finite-size Lagrangian coherent particle structures in thermocapillary liquid bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Francesco; Kuhlmann, Hendrik

    2017-11-01

    A surprisingly rapid accumulation of small but finite-size particles taking curious shapes is observed in travelling hydrothermal waves in liquid bridges. The phenomenon has been termed particle accumulation structure (PAS) and belongs to the wider class of Lagrangian coherent structures. In PAS, particles are transferred from chaotic to regular regions of the flow by way of collision with the boundaries. Lubrication forces cause a dissipation of kinetic energy of the particle and give rise to particle motion attractors in the incompressible flow. Since the mechanism relies solely on the particle size, PAS is nothing but a finite-size Lagrangian coherent structure. Different theoretical models are investigated to find a minimum model for the simulation of Lagrangian finite-size coherent structures. Corresponding numerical simulations compare very well with experiments on SL-I and SL-II PAS.

  3. Saturn's rings: Particle composition and size distribution as constrained by microwave observations. I - Radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Pollack, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    The radar backscattering characteristics of compositional and structural models of Saturn's rings are calculated and compared with observations of the absolute value, wavelength dependence, and degree of depolarization of the rings' radar cross section (reflectivity). The doubling method is used to calculate reflectivities for systems that are many particles thick using optical depths derived from observations at visible wavelengths. If the rings are many particles thick, irregular centimeter- to meter-sized particles composed primarily of water ice attain sufficiently high albedos and scattering efficiencies to explain the radar observations. In that case, the wavelength independence of radar reflectivity implies the existence of a broad particle size distribution; a narrower size distribution is also a possibility. Particles of primarily silicate composition are ruled out by the radar observations. Purely metallic particles may not be ruled out on the basis of existing radar observations. A monolayer of very large ice 'particles' that exhibit multiple internal scattering may not yet be ruled out.

  4. Modelling and validation of particle size distributions of supported nanoparticles using the pair distribution function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamez-Mendoza, Liliana; Terban, Maxwell W.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Martinez-Inesta, Maria

    2017-04-13

    The particle size of supported catalysts is a key characteristic for determining structure–property relationships. It is a challenge to obtain this information accurately andin situusing crystallographic methods owing to the small size of such particles (<5 nm) and the fact that they are supported. In this work, the pair distribution function (PDF) technique was used to obtain the particle size distribution of supported Pt catalysts as they grow under typical synthesis conditions. The PDF of Pt nanoparticles grown on zeolite X was isolated and refined using two models: a monodisperse spherical model (single particle size) and a lognormal size distribution. The results were compared and validated using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) results. Both models describe the same trends in average particle size with temperature, but the results of the number-weighted lognormal size distributions can also accurately describe the mean size and the width of the size distributions obtained from STEM. Since the PDF yields crystallite sizes, these results suggest that the grown Pt nanoparticles are monocrystalline. This work shows that refinement of the PDF of small supported monocrystalline nanoparticles can yield accurate mean particle sizes and distributions.

  5. Using Image Attributes to Assure Accurate Particle Size and Count Using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defante, Adrian P; Vreeland, Wyatt N; Benkstein, Kurt D; Ripple, Dean C

    2017-12-23

    Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) obtains particle size by analysis of particle diffusion through a time series of micrographs and particle count by a count of imaged particles. The number of observed particles imaged is controlled by the scattering cross-section of the particles and by camera settings such as sensitivity and shutter speed. Appropriate camera settings are defined as those that image, track, and analyze a sufficient number of particles for statistical repeatability. Here, we test if image attributes, features captured within the image itself, can provide measurable guidelines to assess the accuracy for particle size and count measurements using NTA. The results show that particle sizing is a robust process independent of image attributes for model systems. However, particle count is sensitive to camera settings. Using open-source software analysis, it was found that a median pixel area, 4 pixels 2 , results in a particle concentration within 20% of the expected value. The distribution of these illuminated pixel areas can also provide clues about the polydispersity of particle solutions prior to using a particle tracking analysis. Using the median pixel area serves as an operator-independent means to assess the quality of the NTA measurement for count. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Particle size effect for cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts based on in situ CO chemisorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Frøseth, Vidar; Chen, De; Holmen, Anders

    2016-06-01

    The cobalt particle size effect on activity and selectivity for CO hydrogenation was revisited on cobalt catalysts supported on a large variety of supports at 483 K, 1.85 bar, and H2/CO/Ar = 15/1.5/33.5 Nml/min. The size dependence of the activity and selectivity was analyzed in terms of site coverage and rate constants based on SSITKA experimental results. It was found that the Co particle size index estimated by the conventional method, namely, ex situ hydrogen chemisorption, could not correlate well the activity and selectivity as a function of the particle size index. The same holds for the site coverage of CO and intermediates leading to methane formation. However, the cobalt particle size index based on in situ CO chemisorption measured at 373 K provides a good correlation for turnover frequencies (TOFs) at reaction conditions. It was observed that TOF for CO conversion (TOFCO) increased with increasing particle size index of cobalt and SSITKA experiments showed that this was possibly due to increased site coverage of CO. The TOF for methane formation (TOFCH4) increased with particle size and remained constant at higher particle sizes possibly due to combined effect from the site coverage of intermediates leading to methane (θCHx) and the pseudo-first-order rate constant (kt). The results suggest that the support can play an important role for the size dependence of the activity and selectivity of CO hydrogenation on Co catalysts.

  7. Ultrafast microwave hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Bi1-xLaxFeO3sub> micronized particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponzoni, C.; Cannio, M.; Boccaccini, Dino

    2015-01-01

    In this work a microwave assisted hydrothermal method is applied to successfully synthesize lanthanum doped bismuth ferrites (BLFO, Bi1-xLaxFeO3 where x = 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45). The growth mechanism of the Bi1-xLaxFeO3 crystallites is discussed in detail. The existence of the single-phase perov...... temperature for pure BiFeO3 and Bi0,83La0.15FeO3. The results indicate that the materials are both weakly ferromagnetic, with no significant hysteresis in the curves. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Fabrication, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Avermectin Nano-delivery Systems with Different Particle Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Yan; Sun, Changjiao; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Yao, Junwei; Yang, Dongsheng; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2018-01-01

    Nano-delivery systems for the active ingredients of pesticides can improve the utilization rates of pesticides and prolong their control effects. This is due to the nanocarrier envelope and controlled release function. However, particles containing active ingredients in controlled release pesticide formulations are generally large and have wide size distributions. There have been limited studies about the effect of particle size on the controlled release properties and biological activities of pesticide delivery systems. In the current study, avermectin (Av) nano-delivery systems were constructed with different particle sizes and their performances were evaluated. The Av release rate in the nano-delivery system could be effectively controlled by changing the particle size. The biological activity increased with decreasing particle size. These results suggest that Av nano-delivery systems can significantly improve the controllable release, photostability, and biological activity, which will improve efficiency and reduce pesticide residues.

  9. Simulations of the effect of particle size on texture and force transmission in bidisperse granular composites

    OpenAIRE

    Preechawuttipong Itthichai; Jongchansitto Pawarut

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the particle size ratio on texture and force transmission in two-dimensional cohesionless binary granular composties by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Four numerical composite samples, which differ in terms of the particle size ratios, are used in this study. The samples are composed of two constitutive materials with a stiffness ratio of four between the higher one termed as stiff particle and another termed as soft p...

  10. Phase Separation of Binary Charged Particle Systems with Small Size Disparities using a Dusty Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killer, Carsten; Bockwoldt, Tim; Schütt, Stefan; Himpel, Michael; Melzer, André; Piel, Alexander

    2016-03-18

    The phase separation in binary mixtures of charged particles has been investigated in a dusty plasma under microgravity on parabolic flights. A method based on the use of fluorescent dust particles was developed that allows us to distinguish between particles of slightly different size. A clear trend towards phase separation even for smallest size (charge) disparities is observed. The diffusion flux is directly measured from the experiment and uphill diffusion coefficients have been determined.

  11. Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-07-07

    Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

  12. The effect of particle shape and size distribution on the acoustical properties of mixtures of hemp particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glé, Philippe; Gourdon, Emmanuel; Arnaud, Laurent; Horoshenkov, Kirill-V; Khan, Amir

    2013-12-01

    Hemp concrete is an attractive alternative to traditional materials used in building construction. It has a very low environmental impact, and it is characterized by high thermal insulation. Hemp aggregate particles are parallelepiped in shape and can be organized in a plurality of ways to create a considerable proportion of open pores with a complex connectivity pattern, the acoustical properties of which have never been examined systematically. Therefore this paper is focused on the fundamental understanding of the relations between the particle shape and size distribution, pore size distribution, and the acoustical properties of the resultant porous material mixture. The sound absorption and the transmission loss of various hemp aggregates is characterized using laboratory experiments and three theoretical models. These models are used to relate the particle size distribution to the pore size distribution. It is shown that the shape of particles and particle size control the pore size distribution and tortuosity in shiv. These properties in turn relate directly to the observed acoustical behavior.

  13. The Effect of Particle Size on the Erosion of Lunar Regolith from a Spacecraft Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kyle; Brown, Brendan; Metzger, Philip; Hrenya, Christine

    2014-11-01

    The ejection of regolith from a spacecraft landing on an extraterrestrial body (Moon, Mars, etc.) can be extremely hazardous to anything near or possibly even far from the landing point. Models currently being used to describe this phenomenon use single particle trajectories and thus ignore the effects of inter-particle collisions. We seek to improve those models by incorporating the effects of collisions. We model the system using the discrete element method (DEM), which models the particles individually using Newton's laws and thus explicitly includes inter-particle collisions. The current study focuses on the effect of particle size, both in monodisperse systems, as well as polydisperse systems using binary and continuous particle size distributions (PSDs). While collisions above the surface are rare in the monodisperse case (about 0.0001% of eroded particles), they are relatively frequent in the binary case, particularly between unlike particle species (about 1--5% of eroded large particles). It is expected that as the size disparity becomes larger, which is the case for lunar regolith as it spans at least three orders of magnitude in size, this effect becomes enhanced. Differences in particle size can result in differences in velocity, leading to interesting phenomena.

  14. Effect of resin-composite filler particle size and shape on shrinkage-stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, Julian D; Maisuria, Amit; Vogel, Karin; Watts, David C

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variations in filler particle size and shape on the polymerization shrinkage-stress kinetics of resin-composites. A model series of 12 VLC resin-composites were studied. The particulate dispersed phase volume fraction was 56.7%: these filler particles were systematically graded in size, and further were either spherical or irregular. A Bioman instrument (cantilever beam method) was employed to determine the shrinkage-stress kinetics following 40s irradiation (600 mW/cm(2)) at 23°C (n=3). All data were captured for 60 min and the final shrinkage-stress calculated. Shrinkage-stress varied between 3.86 MPa (SD 0.14) for S3 (spherical filler particles of 500 nm) and 8.44 MPa (SD 0.41) for I1 (irregular filler particles of 450 nm). The shrinkage-stress values were generally lower for those composites with spherical filler particles than those with irregular filler particles. The differences in shrinkage-stress with filler particle size and shape were statistically significant (pparticles exhibit lower shrinkage-stress values compared to those with irregular filler particles. Shrinkage-stress and shrinkage-stress rate vary in a complex manner with variations in the size of the dispersed phase particles: a hypothesized explanation for the effect of filler particle size and shape is presented. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Size limits for rounding of volcanic ash particles heated by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Fabian B; Vasseur, Jérémie; Llewellin, Edward W; Genareau, Kimberly; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B

    2017-03-01

    Volcanic ash particles can be remelted by the high temperatures induced in volcanic lightning discharges. The molten particles can round under surface tension then quench to produce glass spheres. Melting and rounding timescales for volcanic materials are strongly dependent on heating duration and peak temperature and are shorter for small particles than for large particles. Therefore, the size distribution of glass spheres recovered from ash deposits potentially record the short duration, high-temperature conditions of volcanic lightning discharges, which are hard to measure directly. We use a 1-D numerical solution to the heat equation to determine the timescales of heating and cooling of volcanic particles during and after rapid heating and compare these with the capillary timescale for rounding an angular particle. We define dimensionless parameters-capillary, Fourier, Stark, Biot, and Peclet numbers-to characterize the competition between heat transfer within the particle, heat transfer at the particle rim, and capillary motion, for particles of different sizes. We apply this framework to the lightning case and constrain a maximum size for ash particles susceptible to surface tension-driven rounding, as a function of lightning temperature and duration, and ash properties. The size limit agrees well with maximum sizes of glass spheres found in volcanic ash that has been subjected to lightning or experimental discharges, demonstrating that the approach that we develop can be used to obtain a first-order estimate of lightning conditions in volcanic plumes.

  16. Fragment and particle size distribution of impacted ceramic tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Weerheijm, J.; Ditzhuijzen, C.; Tuinman, I.

    2014-01-01

    The fragmentation of ceramic tiles under ballistic impact has been studied. Fragments and aerosol (respirable) particles were collected and analyzed to determine the total surface area generated by fracturing (macro-cracking and comminution) of armor grade ceramics. The larger fragments were

  17. Particle Size Control for PIV Seeding Using Dry Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    in flight actually being carried out, the observations, drawings and notes of Leonardo da Vinci showed an analytical process to develop a way for...theoretical particle response: dvp dt = −C(vp − U) C = 18µ ρpd2p 86 87 Bibliography 1. Linscott, R. N. and Da Vinci , L., The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci

  18. Aerosol Particle Number Emissions and Size Distributions: Implementation in the GAINS Model and Initial Results

    OpenAIRE

    Paasonen, P.; Visshedjik, A.; Kupiainen, K.; Klimont, Z.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter affects our health and climate. In addition to well based knowledge on the adverse health effects related to particle mass concentrations, there is increasing evidence showing that the number concentrations of ultra-fine aerosol particles, with diameters below 0.1 um, have negative health impacts, which are significantly different from those caused by larger particles with sizes over 1 um. Particles with diameters between 0.1 and 1 um can also be activated as cloud droplets...

  19. Tuning aerosol particle size distribution of metered dose inhalers using cosolvents and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Imran Y; Smyth, Hugh D C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to understand the influence of cosolvent and surfactant contributions to particle size distributions emitted from solution metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) based on the propellant HFA 227. Two sets of formulations were prepared: (a) pMDIs-HFA 227 containing cosolvent (5-15% w/w ethanol) with constant surfactant (pluronic) concentration and (b) pMDIs-HFA 227 containing surfactant (0-5.45% w/w pluronic) with constant cosolvent concentration. Particle size distributions emitted from these pMDIs were analyzed using aerodynamic characterization (inertial impaction) and laser diffraction methods. Both cosolvent and surfactant concentrations were positively correlated with median particle sizes; that is, drug particle size increased with increasing ethanol and pluronic concentrations. However, evaluation of particle size distributions showed that cosolvent caused reduction in the fine particle mode magnitude while the surfactant caused a shift in the mode position. These findings highlight the different mechanisms by which these components influence droplet formation and demonstrate the ability to utilize the different effects in formulations of pMDI-HFA 227 for independently modulating particle sizes in the respirable region. Potentially, the formulation design window generated using these excipients in combination could be used to match the particle size output of reformulated products to preexisting pMDI products.

  20. Particle size prediction of magnesium nanoparticle produced by inert gas condensation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yu; Xia, Dehong

    2018-01-01

    Properties of nanoparticles are normally depending on particle size; therefore, developing a model to predict particle size is of vital importance. This paper established an energy analysis model to predict average particle size of magnesium nanoparticles fabricated by inert gas condensation method. Predictions of average particle size ranging from 20 to 50 nm by energy analysis model have relative errors of less than 10% compared with experimental research. Further, the model is applied to investigate operation conditions to decrease the average particle size of magnesium nanoparticles. It is found that decreasing the absolute pressure in the condensation room and increasing the temperature rise of the inert gas can both produce nanoparticles with smaller average particle sizes. Temperature rise of the inert gas plays a more important role in effect on average nanoparticle size than the absolute pressure in the condensation room. Energy transformed by collision bonding and dissipated by convection are the dominant processes for particle growth when number of atoms in one particle is greater than 2000 atoms.

  1. A Review of Discrete Element Method (DEM) Particle Shapes and Size Distributions for Lunar Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2010-01-01

    As part of ongoing efforts to develop models of lunar soil mechanics, this report reviews two topics that are important to discrete element method (DEM) modeling the behavior of soils (such as lunar soils): (1) methods of modeling particle shapes and (2) analytical representations of particle size distribution. The choice of particle shape complexity is driven primarily by opposing tradeoffs with total number of particles, computer memory, and total simulation computer processing time. The choice is also dependent on available DEM software capabilities. For example, PFC2D/PFC3D and EDEM support clustering of spheres; MIMES incorporates superquadric particle shapes; and BLOKS3D provides polyhedra shapes. Most commercial and custom DEM software supports some type of complex particle shape beyond the standard sphere. Convex polyhedra, clusters of spheres and single parametric particle shapes such as the ellipsoid, polyellipsoid, and superquadric, are all motivated by the desire to introduce asymmetry into the particle shape, as well as edges and corners, in order to better simulate actual granular particle shapes and behavior. An empirical particle size distribution (PSD) formula is shown to fit desert sand data from Bagnold. Particle size data of JSC-1a obtained from a fine particle analyzer at the NASA Kennedy Space Center is also fitted to a similar empirical PSD function.

  2. Effect of fuel particle size on reaction rate in chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iggland, M.; Leion, H.; Mattisson, T.; Lyngfelt, A. [ETH, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Process Engineering

    2010-11-15

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) uses an oxygen carrier circulating between an air and a fuel reactor to replace direct burning of fuels in air. The very low energy penalty for CO{sub 2} separation in CLC gives it the potential to become an important technology on the way to a CO{sub 2} neutral energy supply. In this work, the influence of the particle size of coal on the rate of reaction of the coal was investigated in a bed of oxygen carrier. In order to do this, a method to quench the reaction of coal with oxygen carriers at a specified time and measure the particle size distribution of the remaining coal was developed. Three size fractions of coal were used in the experiments: 90-125, 180-212 and 250-355 mu m. Particle size distributions of the fuel show a decrease in particle size with time. The influence of devolatilisation of the coal on the coal particle size was measured, showing that coal particles do not break in the fluidized bed reactor used for the experiments. Reaction rates based on measurements of gas phase concentrations of CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} showed that the reaction rate is independent of the particle size. These results are in line with literature findings, as studies have shown that carbon gasification is size-independent at conditions similar to those in the performed CLC experiments.

  3. Drop sizes and particle coverage in emulsions stabilised solely by silica nanoparticles of irregular shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Holt, Benjamin L; Parker, James; Beaussoubre, Pascal; Wong, Kenneth

    2010-10-14

    We have investigated emulsions stabilised solely by partially-hydrophobised fumed silica particles which consist of a mixture of primary particles and irregularly-shaped fused aggregates and larger agglomerates. The particle wettability is controlled by varying the extent of hydrophobisation of their surfaces. This, in turn, controls the contact angle between the oil-water interface and the particle surface (θ(ow)) which affects the particle adsorption energy and the type of emulsion formed (oil-in-water, o/w or water-in-oil, w/o). Progressive particle hydrophobisation causes transitional phase inversion of the emulsions from o/w to w/o which occurs when θ(ow) = 90° and the energy of particle adsorption to the oil-water interface is maximally favourable. The key problem addressed here is to understand why the emulsion drop size passes through a minimum at the point of emulsion phase inversion. In principle, this effect could be the result of particle desorption, changes in the extent of close-packing of the adsorbed particle film (at constant particle orientation), particle re-orientation or a combination of these processes. Using measurements of emulsion drop size and the extent of particle desorption, we have derived adsorbed particle surface concentrations as a function of the energy of desorption of the particles from the oil-water interface for a range of particle concentrations and different oil-water systems. The main conclusion is that the minimum in emulsion drop size through phase inversion is mainly caused by re-orientation of the particles from a high surface area orientation when the energy of desorption is high to a low surface area orientation when the energy of desorption is low. Some particle desorption occurs but this is a secondary effect.

  4. The effect of particle size on the morphology and thermodynamics of diblock copolymer/tethered-particle membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Edwards, Brian J., E-mail: bje@utk.edu [Materials Research and Innovation Laboratory (MRAIL), Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    A combination of self-consistent field theory and density functional theory was used to examine the effect of particle size on the stable, 3-dimensional equilibrium morphologies formed by diblock copolymers with a tethered nanoparticle attached either between the two blocks or at the end of one of the blocks. Particle size was varied between one and four tenths of the radius of gyration of the diblock polymer chain for neutral particles as well as those either favoring or disfavoring segments of the copolymer blocks. Phase diagrams were constructed and analyzed in terms of thermodynamic diagrams to understand the physics associated with the molecular-level self-assembly processes. Typical morphologies were observed, such as lamellar, spheroidal, cylindrical, gyroidal, and perforated lamellar, with the primary concentration region of the tethered particles being influenced heavily by particle size and tethering location, strength of the particle-segment energetic interactions, chain length, and copolymer radius of gyration. The effect of the simulation box size on the observed morphology and system thermodynamics was also investigated, indicating possible effects of confinement upon the system self-assembly processes.

  5. Ti particle-reinforced surface layers in Al: Effect of particle size on microstructure, hardness and wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordyuk, B.N., E-mail: mordyuk@imp.kiev.ua [Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, 36 Academician Vernadsky Boulevard, UA-03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); Silberschmidt, V.V. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Prokopenko, G.I. [Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, 36 Academician Vernadsky Boulevard, UA-03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); Nesterenko, Yu.V. [National Technical University ' Kyiv Polytechnic Institute' , 37 Peremohy Avenue, UA-03056, Kyiv (Ukraine); Iefimov, M.O. [Frantzevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, UA-03142, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2010-11-15

    Two types of Ti particles are used in an ultrasonic impact peening (UIP) process to modify sub-surface layers of cp aluminium atomized, with an average size of approx. 20 {mu}m and milled (0.3-0.5 {mu}m). They are introduced into a zone of severe plastic deformation induced by UIP. The effect of Ti particles of different sizes on microstructure, phase composition, microhardness and wear resistance of sub-surface composite layers in aluminium is studied in this paper. The formed layers of a composite reinforced with smaller particles have a highly misoriented fine-grain microstructure of its matrix with a mean grain size of 200-400 nm, while reinforcement with larger particles results in relatively large Al grains (1-2 {mu}m). XRD, SEM, EDX and TEM studies confirm significantly higher particle/matrix bonding in the former case due to formation of a Ti{sub 3}Al interlayer around Ti particles with rough surface caused by milling. Different microstructures determine hardness and wear resistance of reinforced aluminium layers: while higher magnitudes of microhardness are observed for both composites (when compared with those of annealed and UIP-treated aluminium), the wear resistance is improved only in the case of reinforcement with small particles.

  6. Mass-specific scattering coefficient for natural minerogenic particle populations: particle size distribution effect and closure analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Feng; Effler, Steve W

    2012-05-01

    The relationship between the particulate scattering coefficient (b(p)) and the concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM), as represented by the mass-specific scattering coefficient of particulates (b(p)*=b(p)/SPM), depends on particle size distribution (PSD). This dependence is quantified for minerogenic particle populations in this paper through calculations of b(p)* for common minerals as idealized populations (monodispersed spheres); contemporaneous measurements of b(p), SPM, and light-scattering attributes of mineral particles with scanning electron microscopy interfaced with automated image and x-ray analyses (SAX), for a connected stream-reservoir system where minerogenic particles dominate b(p); and estimates of b(p) and its size dependency (through SAX results-driven Mie theory calculations), particle volume concentration, and b(p)*. Modest changes in minerogenic PSDs are shown to result in substantial variations in b(p)*. Good closure of the SAX-based estimates of b(p) and particle volume concentration with bulk measurements is demonstrated. Converging relationships between b(p)* and particle size, developed from three approaches, were well described by power law expressions.

  7. Size and Velocity Distributions of Particles and Droplets in Spray Combustion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    optimal value. the quality of reconstruction of particle size distribution degrades.The values of Omsa were set at 1°. 30 and 100. In the present case m.x...diffraction particle size measurements on 45 pm poly- styrene latex spheres in a water flow cell. The ensemble scattering method assumed that the...form it is possible in theory to determine the range of the diffraction signature given by Eqs. 5 refractive indez along with the size distribution and

  8. Particle Sizing in a Fuel-Rich Ramjet Combustor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    view7. 5- Figure 1 - LDV optical configuration. 8 THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY LAUREL MARYLANO 6, is in micrometers . Particles...OUTPUT WIDTH VERNIER : 10.00 PROCEDURE A: Remove the coaxial 3. LRS 161 Dual Discriminator (lower unit) cable from the amplifier input and ter- a. TERMINATE...measured on the oscilloscope, then remove d. OUTPUT WIDTH VERNIER : 4.900 the 50 0 termination and reconnect the 4. Tennelec TC-214 Linear Amplifier and

  9. Commercial reference shape standards use in the study of particle shape effect on laser diffraction particle size analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Richard N; Kazanjian, Jacqueline

    2006-05-26

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of LGC Promochem AEA 1001 to AEA 1003 monosized fiber-analog shape standards in the study of the effect of particle shape on laser diffraction (LD) particle size analysis (psa). The psa of the AEA standards was conducted using LD psa systems from Beckman Coulter, Horiba, and Malvern Instruments. Flow speed settings, sample refractive index values, and sample cell types were varied to examine the extent to which the shape effect on LD psa results is modified by these variables. The volume and number probability plots resulting from these measurements were each characterized by a spread in the particle size distribution that roughly extended from the breadth to the longest dimension of the particles. For most of the selected sample refractive index values, the volume probability plots were characterized by apparent bimodal distributions. The results, therefore, provide experimental verification of the conclusions from theoretical studies of LD psa system response to monosized elliptical particles in which this apparent bimodality was the predicted result in the case of flow-oriented particles. The data support the findings from previous studies conducted over the past 10 years that have called into question the verity of the tenets of, and therefore the value of the application of, the equivalent spherical volume diameter theory and the random particle orientation model to the interpretation of LD psa results from measurements made on nonspherical particles.

  10. On the relation between the size and chemical composition of aerosol particles and their optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, A.; Mészáros, E.

    The light scattering and absorption coefficients of fine atmospheric aerosol particles were recorded in Hungary under rural conditions in 1998-1999 by an integrating nephelometer and particle soot absorption photometer, respectively. In some cases optical properties in the fine size range were compared to those in the coarse particles. Results obtained indicate, as expected, that fine particles control the scattering and absorption caused by the aerosol. In 1999 the size distribution of aerosol particles was also monitored by means of an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). This makes it possible the study of the relationship between the number, surface and mass concentration in the size range of 0.1-1.0 μm and the optical characteristics by also considering the chemical composition of the particles.

  11. Effects of particle size and heating rate on swelling characteristics of a bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, D.; Xu, M.; Liu, X.; Wang, Q.; Gao, X. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2006-02-15

    A size-classified bituminous coal was pyrolyzed in a laboratory drop tube furnace at different heating rates. The effects of coal particle size and heating rate on particle swelling properties were investigated. The results show that coal particles undergo obvious swelling during pyrolysis, leading to the formation of a large number of char cenospheres with a large central void surrounded by a thin shell. Analyses indicate this is caused by high concentrations of vitrinite present in coal samples. At the same heating rate, the extent of swelling increases with deceasing particle size and the difference in swelling decreases with increasing particle size. Since finer coal samples contain higher content of vitrinite, the observed phenomena are considered to be the result of the different content of vitrinite in these samples. The reason is that coal particles containing more vitrinite early undergo a softening and deformation stage and swell significantly during pyrolysis. When the heating rate increases the swelling of coal particle sin the same size range firstly increases and then decreases, which implies that an optimum heating rate at which coal particles swell most must exist. Reasonable explanation for this effect of heating rate on particle swelling are provided in the present study. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Enhanced resolution particle size distributions by multiple angle photon correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Steven E.

    1989-01-01

    Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) has become a method of choice for measuring submicrometer particles. It is capable of rapid, accurate measurements of mean particle size. Since the measurements are nonperturbing, it is ideal for monitoring systems undergoing dynamic changes. Despite its widespread acceptance, the information content of PCS measurements for particle size distributions is low and provides limited resolution. A method is presented whereby PCS measurements made at several scattering angles plus the angular distribution of light scattered from the particles are combined in a single simultaneous analysis to effect an enhanced resolution particle size distribution. The efficacy of the method is assessed by recovering size distributions from computer simulated data and by comparisons of conventional PCS measurements of polystyrene spheres with those made by the new method.

  13. Cefquinome Controlled Size Submicron Particles Precipitation by SEDS Process Using Annular Gap Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefeng Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An annular gap nozzle was applied in solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS process to prepare cefquinome controlled size submicron particles so as to enhance their efficacy. Analysis results of orthogonal experiments indicated that the concentration of solution was the primary factor to affect particle sizes in SEDS process, and feeding speed of solution, precipitation pressure, and precipitation temperature ranked second to fourth. Meanwhile, the optimal operating conditions were that solution concentration was 100 mg/mL, feeding speed was 9 mL/min, precipitation pressure was 10 MPa, and precipitation temperature was 316 K. The confirmatory experiment showed that D50 of processed cefquinome particles in optimal operating conditions was 0.73 μm. Moreover, univariate effect analysis showed that the cefquinome particle size increased with the increase of concentration of the solution or precipitation pressure but decreased with the increase of solution feeding speed. When precipitation temperature increased, the cefquinome particle size showed highest point. Moreover, characterization of processed cefquinome particles was analyzed by SEM, FT-IR, and XRD. Analysis results indicated that the surface appearance of processed cefquinome particles was flakes. The chemical structure of processed cefquinome particles was not changed, and the crystallinity of processed cefquinome particles was a little lower than that of raw cefquinome particles.

  14. Acoustophoretic separation of airborne millimeter-size particles by a Fresnel lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Ahmet; Korozlu, Nurettin; Adem Kaya, Olgun; Ulug, Bulent

    2017-03-01

    We numerically demonstrate acoustophoretic separation of spherical solid particles in air by means of an acoustic Fresnel lens. Beside gravitational and drag forces, freely-falling millimeter-size particles experience large acoustic radiation forces around the focus of the lens, where interplay of forces lead to differentiation of particle trajectories with respect to either size or material properties. Due to the strong acoustic field at the focus, radiation force can divert particles with source intensities significantly smaller than those required for acoustic levitation in a standing field. When the lens is designed to have a focal length of 100 mm at 25 kHz, finite-element method simulations reveal a sharp focus with a full-width at half-maximum of 0.5 wavelenghts and a field enhancement of 18 dB. Through numerical calculation of forces and simulation of particle trajectories, we demonstrate size-based separation of acrylic particles at a source sound pressure level of 153 dB such that particles with diameters larger than 0.5 mm are admitted into the central hole, whereas smaller particles are rejected. Besides, efficient separation of particles with similar acoustic properties such as polyethylene, polystyrene and acrylic particles of the same size is also demonstrated.

  15. The Effect of Solid Constituent Particle Size Distributions on TP-H1148 Propellant Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Douglas H.; Miles, William L.; Taylor, David S.; Rackham, Jon L.

    1997-01-01

    Special aluminum and ammonium perchlorate (AP) particle size distributions were prepared for a matrix of five-inch diameter, center-perforated (CP) motor tests to measure the aluminum oxide slag response in Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) propellant. Previous tests of TP-H1148 propellant in five-inch CP spin motors have shown a correlation between aluminum particle size and generated slag. The motors for this study were cast from thirteen five-gallon propellant mixes which used five particle size levels of aluminum powder, five of unground AP and three of ground AP. Aluminum had the greatest effect on slag formation, the more coarse fractions causing greater slag quantities and larger slag particles. Unground AP had about half the effect of aluminum with the coarser fractions again producing more and larger sized slag particles. The variation in ground AP did not have a significant effect on slag formation. Quench bomb tests showed the same trends as the spin motors, that is, larger aluminum and AP particle size distributions generated larger slag particles leaving the propellant surface. Cured propellant mechanical properties were also impacted by particle size variation.

  16. Effect of sulfate and carbonate minerals on particle-size distributions in arid soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Teng, Yuazxin; Robins, Colin; Goldstein, Harland L.

    2014-01-01

    Arid soils pose unique problems during measurement and interpretation of particle-size distributions (PSDs) because they often contain high concentrations of water-soluble salts. This study investigates the effects of sulfate and carbonate minerals on grain-size analysis by comparing analyses in water, in which the minerals dissolve, and isopropanol (IPA), in which they do not. The presence of gypsum, in particular, substantially affects particle-size analysis once the concentration of gypsum in the sample exceeds the mineral’s solubility threshold. For smaller concentrations particle-size results are unaffected. This is because at concentrations above the solubility threshold fine particles cement together or bind to coarser particles or aggregates already present in the sample, or soluble mineral coatings enlarge grains. Formation of discrete crystallites exacerbates the problem. When soluble minerals are dissolved the original, insoluble grains will become partly or entirely liberated. Thus, removing soluble minerals will result in an increase in measured fine particles. Distortion of particle-size analysis is larger for sulfate minerals than for carbonate minerals because of the much higher solubility in water of the former. When possible, arid soils should be analyzed using a liquid in which the mineral grains do not dissolve, such as IPA, because the results will more accurately reflect the PSD under most arid soil field conditions. This is especially important when interpreting soil and environmental processes affected by particle size.

  17. Effect of particle size on osteoinductive potential of microstructured biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liao; Barbieri, Davide; Zhou, Hongyu; de Bruijn, Joost D; Bao, Chongyun; Yuan, Huipin

    2015-06-01

    Material factors such as chemistry, surface microstructure and geometry have shown their influence on osteoinduction of calcium phosphate ceramics. Hereby we report that osteoinduction of a micro-structured biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP) has a relation with the particle sizes. BCP particles with the size of 212-300 µm, 106-212 µm, 45-106 µm, and smaller than 45 µm were prepared and implanted in paraspinal muscle of dogs for 12 weeks. Histological evaluation of the explants showed abundant bone in all samples with particle size of 212-300 µm, 106-212 µm, and 45-106 µm, while no bone was seen in any sample having particle size smaller than 45 µm. Bone was formed as early as 3 weeks after implantation in implants having BCP particles bigger than 45 µm and the volume of the formed bone was similar among the implants with particles larger than 45 µm after 12 weeks implantation. The results herein show that a size limitation of microstructured calcium phosphate ceramic particles for osteoinduction. It is most likely that the particle size affect inductive bone formation via macroporous structures for body fluid infiltration, cell/tissue ingrowth and angiogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Kinetic plots in aqueous size exclusion chromatography of monoclonal antibodies and virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Judith; Conze, Werner; Müller, Egbert

    2015-12-24

    The growing importance of monoclonal antibodies and virus particles has led to a pressure for faster size exclusion chromatography. In recent years, numerous small particle columns for size exclusion chromatography of biologicals have been introduced. Small particles are a strategy to reduce analysis time. In the following study, opportunities of small particles in size exclusion chromatography of large biomolecules are investigated. Poppe plots reveal that the lower particle size limit depends on the size of the sample molecule. Hydrodynamic radii of monoclonal antibody monomer, aggregates and H1N1 as well as the diffusion coefficients were determined. Considering this sample compound dependency, kinetic plots referring to the resolution of a distinct compound pair instead of the plate number of a single analyte are more meaningful. Plate times were found to be equivalent with 4 and 2μm particles for a monoclonal antibody aggregate separation at resolutions smaller than 1.8. Quantification of a H1N1 in clarified cell culture can be accomplished with 17μm and 13μm particles at equal plate times at resolutions smaller than 2.5. Virus polydispersity is likely to be affected by run times of several hours at room temperature and shear forces resulting from particles smaller than 10μm. Comparatively high flow rates should be applied in size exclusion chromatography of the 100nm H1N1 virions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Accurate particle speed prediction by improved particle speed measurement and 3-dimensional particle size and shape characterization technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernuschi, Federico; Rothleitner, Christian; Clausen, Sønnik

    2017-01-01

    methods, e.g. laser light scattering, and velocity by the double disk (DD) method. In this article we present two novel techniques, which allow a more accurate measurement of mass, velocity and shape, and we later compare the experimentally obtained flow velocities of particles with a simulation that also...... includes the particle's shape parameter, known as sphericity. Mass and sphericity are obtained from 3-dimensional data with an industrial X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. CT data can be used to accurately determine the volume-basis median of the particles (using the volume-equivalent particle......Accurate particle mass and velocity measurement is needed for interpreting test results in erosion tests of materials and coatings. The impact and damage of a surface is influenced by the kinetic energy of a particle, i.e. particle mass and velocity. Particle mass is usually determined with optical...

  20. Effects of particle-fluid density ratio on the interactions between the turbulent channel flow and finite-size particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaosheng; Lin, Zhaowu; Shao, Xueming; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2017-09-01

    A parallel direct-forcing fictitious domain method is employed to perform fully resolved numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow laden with finite-size particles. The effects of the particle-fluid density ratio on the turbulence modulation in the channel flow are investigated at the friction Reynolds number of 180, the particle volume fraction of 0.84 % , and the particle-fluid density ratio ranging from 1 to 104.2. The results show that the variation of the flow drag with the particle-fluid density ratio is not monotonic, with a larger flow drag for the density ratio of 10.42, compared to those of unity and 104.2. A significant drag reduction by the particles is observed for large particle-fluid density ratios during the transient stage, but not at the statistically stationary stage. The intensity of particle velocity fluctuations generally decreases with increasing particle inertia, except that the particle streamwise root-mean-square velocity and streamwise-transverse velocity correlation in the near-wall region are largest at the density ratio of the order of 10. The averaged momentum equations are derived with the spatial averaging theorem and are used to analyze the mechanisms for the effects of the particles on the flow drag. The results indicate that the drag-reduction effect due to the decrease in the fluid Reynolds shear stress is counteracted by the drag-enhancement effect due to the increase in the total particle stress or the interphase drag force for the large particle-inertia case. The sum of the total Reynolds stress and particle inner stress contributions to the flow drag is largest at the density ratio of the order of 10, which is the reason for the largest flow drag at this density ratio. The interphase drag force obtained from the averaged momentum equation (the balance theory) is significantly smaller than (but agrees qualitatively with) that from the empirical drag formula based on the phase-averaged slip velocity for large density

  1. Deconvolution of the particle size distribution of ProRoot MTA and MTA Angelus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, William Nguyen; Shakibaie, Fardad; Kahler, Bill; Walsh, Laurence James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cements contain two types of particles, namely Portland cement (PC) (nominally 80% w/w) and bismuth oxide (BO) (20%). This study aims to determine the particle size distribution (PSD) of PC and BO found in MTA. Materials and methods The PSDs of ProRoot MTA (MTA-P) and MTA Angelus (MTA-A) powder were determined using laser diffraction, and compared to samples of PC (at three different particle sizes) and BO. The non-linear least squares method was used to deconvolute the PSDs into the constituents. MTA-P and MTA-A powders were also assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Results BO showed a near Gaussian distribution for particle size, with a mode distribution peak at 10.48 μm. PC samples milled to differing degrees of fineness had mode distribution peaks from 19.31 down to 4.88 μm. MTA-P had a complex PSD composed of both fine and large PC particles, with BO at an intermediate size, whereas MTA-A had only small BO particles and large PC particles. Conclusions The PSD of MTA cement products is bimodal or more complex, which has implications for understanding how particle size influences the overall properties of the material. Smaller particles may be reactive PC or unreactive radiopaque agent. Manufacturers should disclose particle size information for PC and radiopaque agents to prevent simplistic conclusions being drawn from statements of average particle size for MTA materials. PMID:27335899

  2. A study on the effect of particle size on coal flotation kinetics using fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkhoshk, E.; Kor, M.; Rezai, B. [Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran)

    2010-07-15

    This paper investigates the effect of particle size on the flotation kinetics of coal in a batch flotation cell. The relationship between flotation kinetics constant and theoretical flotation recovery with particle size was estimated with nonlinear equations. Analysis of variance shows that varying of particle size is statistically significant on kinetics constant with approximately 96.5% confidence level; however it is not significant on maximum theoretical flotation recovery (RI) in 95% confidence level. Using fuzzy logic method, a multi-input/single-output (MISO) fuzzy model with two input variables: particle size and time and one output variable: cumulative recovery was established to predict the effect of particle size on the flotation kinetics of coal in a batch flotation cell. Application of fuzzy model shows that the results of model fits well to the result of batch flotation and the fuzzy model can be applied to predict cumulative recovery of different coal particle size. The correlation coefficient (R{sup 2}) values of the proposed fuzzy model were 0.986. 0.993, 0.983, 0.977 and 0.972 for 37.5 {mu}m, 112.5 {mu}m, 225 {mu}m, 400 {mu}m and 625 {mu}m average particle sizes, respectively.

  3. [Influence of wall polymer and preparation process on the particle size and encapsulation of hemoglobin microcapsules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Ma, Guang-Hui; Meng, Fan-Tao; Su, Zhi-Guo

    2004-03-01

    Methoxypoly (ethylene glycol)- block-poly (DL-lactide) (PELA) microcapsules containing bovine hemoglobin (BHb) were prepared by a W/O/W double emulsion-solvent diffusion process. The P50 and Hill coeffcient were 3466 Pa and 2.4 respectively, which were near to the natural bioactivity of bovine hemoglobin. The results suggested that polymer composition had significant influence on encapsulation efficiency and particle size of microcapsules. The encapsulation efficiency could reach 90% and the particle size 3 - 5 microm when the PELA copolymer containing MPEG 2000 block was used. The encapsulation efficiency and particle size increased with the concentration of PELA. Increasing the concentrations of NaCl in outer aqueous solution resulted in the increase of encapsulation efficiency and the decrease of particle size. As the concentration of stabilizer in outer aqueous solution increased in the range of 10 g/L to 20 g/L, the particle size reduced while encapsulation efficiency was increased, further increase of the stabilizer concentration would decrease encapsulation efficiency. Increasing of primary emulsion stirring rate was advantageous to the improvement of encapsulation efficiency though it had little influence on the particle size. The influence of re-emulsion stirring rate was complicated, which was not apparent in the case of large volume of re-emulsion solution. When the wall polymer and primary emulsion stirring rate were fixed, the encapsulation efficiency decreased as the particle size reduced.

  4. The effect of particle size on sorption of estrogens, androgens and progestagens in aquatic sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangster, Jodi L.; Oke, Hugues; Zhang, Yun; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L., E-mail: sbartelt2@unl.edu

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Two sediments were used to evaluate the effects of particle size on steroid sorption. • Sorption capacity did not increase with decreasing particle size for all steroids. • Particle interactions affect the distribution of steroids within the whole sediments. • Preferential sorption to fine particles was observed. - Abstract: There is growing concern about the biologic effects of steroid hormones in impacted waterways. There is increasing evidence of enhanced transport and biological effects stemming from steroid hormones associated with soils or sediments; however, there are limited studies evaluating how steroid hormone distribution between various particle sizes within whole sediments affects steroid fate. In this study, sorption of 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and testosterone was evaluated to different size fractions of two natural sediments, a silty loam and a sandy sediment, to determine the steroid sorption capacity to each fraction and distribution within the whole sediment. Sorption isotherms for all steroid hormones fit linear sorption models. Sorption capacity was influenced more by organic carbon content than particle size. Interactions between size fractions were found to affect the distribution of steroids within the whole sediments. All four steroids preferentially sorbed to the clay and colloids in the silty loam sediment at the lowest aqueous concentration (1 ng/L) and as aqueous concentration increased, the distribution of sorbed steroid was similar to the distribution by weight of each size fraction within the whole sediment. In the sandy sediment, preferential sorption to fine particles was observed.

  5. Feed particle size evaluation: conventional approach versus digital holography based image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell’Orto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of image analysis approach based on digital holography in defining particle size in comparison with the sieve shaker method (sieving method as reference method. For this purpose ground corn meal was analyzed by a sieve shaker Retsch VS 1000 and by image analysis approach based on digital holography. Particle size from digital holography were compared with results obtained by screen (sieving analysis for each of size classes by a cumulative distribution plot. Comparison between particle size values obtained by sieving method and image analysis indicated that values were comparable in term of particle size information, introducing a potential application for digital holography and image analysis in feed industry.

  6. Influence of reducing agents and surfactants on size and shape of silver fine powder particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan P. Dimitrijević

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Silver fine powder with different shapes and sizes were prepared by chemical reduction and characterized by scanning electron microscope. In this paper was presented the method for the preparation of the fine Ag powder with particles size smaller than 2.5 µm with suitability for the mass-production scale. Reduction was performed from nitrate solution directly by vigorous stirring at room temperature by three different reduction agents, with and without presence of two dispersants. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the preferred size of the particles obtained in all experiments with aim of the protecting agent. Larger particles and wider size distribution were obtained without surfactants although with average size of about 1 µm and small quantity of larger clusters of primary particles that is out of the fine powder classification. High purity, 99.999%, of silver was obtained in every experiment.

  7. Effects of Particle Size Distribution on the Burn Ability of Limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila E. SULEIMAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of particle size reduction on the burn ability of Limestone was investigated using the limestone obtained from Obajana Cement Mines. Limestone samples were grinded and were classified into following particles size distribution: 90µm, 200µm, 250µm and 500µm graduated in different sieve sizes. The decomposition rates of these samples were monitored under the same temperature condition in a pre-heated furnace of 1000°C and at constant time interval of 0-35 minutes. From the results of the investigation, the material with particle size distribution of 90µm has the fastest reaction rate of 0.1369g/min and highest lime conversion of 52.0 weight percent; loss on ignition being 48 weight percent. This reaction rate increases as the particle size decreases from 500µm to 90µm.

  8. Particle size and surface charge affect particle uptake by human dendritic cells in an in vitro model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Brodin, Birger; Frøkjær, Sven

    2005-01-01

    Current vaccine development includes optimization of antigen delivery to antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DC). Particulate systems have attracted increasing attention in the development of vaccine delivery systems. In the present study, we investigated DC uptake of model...... fluorescent polystyrene particles with a broad size range and variable surface properties. Localization of particles was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and uptake was quantified by flow cytometry. Immature DC were generated from mononuclear cells isolated from human blood...

  9. Effect of particle size on flip bucket scour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kucukali, Serhat; Kökpinar, Mehmet Ali

    2016-01-01

    ..., and sediment non-uniformity constant. The proposed formula is valid for Fr d = 2.9–29.69, Re = 8.9 × 10 3 –4.2 × 10 5 , and We > 32. Moreover, the scour profiles for different sediment sizes...

  10. Effects of particle size and surrounding media on optical radiation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sity of SPR are strongly dependent on the size and shape of the nanoparticle as well as the dielectric function of the sur- rounding medium. The metal nanoparticles find useful appli- cations in the area of nanophotonics (Stuart and Hall 1998;. Peyser et al 2001; Cao et al 2002; Fritzsche and Taton 2003;. Andersen et al 2004 ...

  11. Influence of surface charge distributions and particle size distributions on particle attachment in granular media filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkeun; Nason, Jeffrey A; Lawler, Desmond F

    2008-04-01

    Filtration experiments were performed with a laboratory-scale filter using spherical glass beads with 0.55 mm diameter as collectors. Suspensions were made with Min-U-Sil 5 particles, and two different methods (pH control and polymer dosing) were used for destabilization. In the pH control experiments, all particles had negative surface charge, and those with lower (absolute value) charge were selectively attached to the collectors, especially during the early stage of filtration. This selective attachment of the lower charged particles caused the zeta potential distribution (ZPD) of the effluent to move to a more negative range. However, the ZPD of the effluent did not continue moving to more negative values during the later stages of filtration, and this result was attributed to two reasons: ripening effects and detachment of flocs. In the polymer experiments, substantial differences were found between experiments performed with negatively charged particles (underdosing) and those with positively charged particles (overdosing). With under-dosing, the results were similar to the pH control experiments (which also had negatively charged particles), but with overdosing, the effluent's ZPDs in the early stages did not overlap with those of the influent and more highly charged particles were removed more efficiently than lesser-charged particles. It is hypothesized that, despite a substantial period of pre-equilibration of media and coagulant, this equilibrium shifted when particles were also added. It was assumed that coagulant molecules previously adsorbed to the particles desorbed and subsequently attached to the filter media because of surface area differences in the particle and filter media.

  12. Effect of particle shape and structure on the results of single-particle light-scattering size analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhauer, H; Bottlinger, M

    1991-11-20

    To evaluate quantitatively the influence exerted by the shape and structure of nonspherical, nonideal particles on the results of single-particle scattered-light size analysis, measurements were conducted with individual particles of different materials (glass, limestone, and quartz). For this purpose, the particles were suspended in an electrodynamic balance and repeatedly passed through the analyzer's measuring volume with a continually changing random orientation. The scattered-light signal spectra thus obtained specify the probability with which a certain pulse height is induced when the particle passes once through the measuring volume at a given coincidental orientation. The spectra reflect the material-characteristic influence. They allow the loss of resolution of common scattered-light size analyses to be assessed and algorithms (matrices) to be compiled with which the shape and structure influence may be mathematically eliminated. Because a shape and structure independent size parameter is also determined from the individual particles, exact calibration curves can be derived in which the shape and structure influence are incorporated.

  13. A new approach to fluid-structure interaction within graphics hardware accelerated smooth particle hydrodynamics considering heterogeneous particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtesad, Adnan; Knezevic, Marko

    2017-12-01

    A corrective smooth particle method (CSPM) within smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is used to study the deformation of an aircraft structure under high-velocity water-ditching impact load. The CSPM-SPH method features a new approach for the prediction of two-way fluid-structure interaction coupling. Results indicate that the implementation is well suited for modeling the deformation of structures under high-velocity impact into water as evident from the predicted stress and strain localizations in the aircraft structure as well as the integrity of the impacted interfaces, which show no artificial particle penetrations. To reduce the simulation time, a heterogeneous particle size distribution over a complex three-dimensional geometry is used. The variable particle size is achieved from a finite element mesh with variable element size and, as a result, variable nodal (i.e., SPH particle) spacing. To further accelerate the simulations, the SPH code is ported to a graphics processing unit using the OpenACC standard. The implementation and simulation results are described and discussed in this paper.

  14. Particle size and time of the day influences on the morphology distributions of atmospheric fine particles at the Baltimore supersite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani-Paco, Ruben M.; Helble, Joseph J.

    The morphology of size-classified ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5) was studied in samples collected at the USEPA supersite located in Baltimore, MD. Size classification was accomplished through the use of a low pressure impactor to produce samples with cut-off diameters of 0.10, 0.15, 0.55, and 2.0 μm. Sampling was conducted in two campaigns during the fall of 2002, with separate sampling occurring during early morning, mid-day, late afternoon, and evening periods. Particles with cut-off diameters of 2 μm were generally round in shape, with a border fractal dimension close to 1 based on the analysis of transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of collected samples. Particles with a cut-off diameter of 0.15 μm had on average higher fractal dimensions than the other size classes considered, regardless of time of day associated with the sample. As expected, the time of the day influenced the shape of particle populations sampled. Particles collected during early morning were found to have higher fractal dimension than those collected at other sampling times. At night, particles presented mostly round shapes. This difference was particularly pronounced in particles with cut-off diameters of 0.15 μm.

  15. Comprehensive Characterization Of Ultrafine Particulate Emission From 2007 Diesel Engines: PM Size Distribution, Loading And Indidividual Particle Size And Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Imre, D.; Shimpi, S.; Warey, A.

    2006-12-01

    The strong absorption of solar radiation by black carbon (BC) impacts the atmospheric radiative balance in a complex and significant manner. One of the most important sources of BC is vehicular emissions, of which diesel represents a significant fraction. To address this issue the EPA has issues new stringent regulations that will be in effect in 2007, limiting the amount of particulate mass that can be emitted by diesel engines. The new engines are equipped with aftertreatments that reduce PM emissions to the point, where filter measurements are subject to significant artifacts and characterization by other techniques presents new challenges. We will present the results of the multidisciplinary study conducted at the Cummins Technical Center in which a suite of instruments was deployed to yield comprehensive, temporally resolved information on the diesel exhaust particle loadings and properties in real-time: Particle size distributions were measured by Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Total particle diameter concentration was obtained using Electrical Aerosol Detector (EAD). Laser Induced Incandescence and photoacoustic techniques were used to monitor the PM soot content. Single Particle Laser Ablation Time-of- flight Mass Spectrometer (SPLAT) provided the aerodynamic diameter and chemical composition of individual diesel exhaust particles. Measurements were conducted on a number of heavy duty diesel engines operated under variety of operating conditions, including FTP transient cycles, ramped-modal cycles and steady states runs. We have also characterized PM emissions during diesel particulate filter regeneration cycles. We will present a comparison of PM characteristics observed during identical cycles, but with and without the use of aftertreatment. A total of approximately 100,000 individual particles were sized and their composition characterized by SPLAT. The aerodynamic size distributions of the characterized

  16. Ideal Particle Sizes for Inhaled Steroids Targeting Vocal Granulomas: Preliminary Study Using Computational Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Elizabeth L; Basu, Saikat; Garcia, Guilherme J M; Buckmire, Robert A; Shah, Rupali N; Kimbell, Julia S

    2017-11-01

    Objectives Vocal fold granulomas are benign lesions of the larynx commonly caused by gastroesophageal reflux, intubation, and phonotrauma. Current medical therapy includes inhaled corticosteroids to target inflammation that leads to granuloma formation. Particle sizes of commonly prescribed inhalers range over 1 to 4 µm. The study objective was to use computational fluid dynamics to investigate deposition patterns over a range of particle sizes of inhaled corticosteroids targeting the larynx and vocal fold granulomas. Study Design Retrospective, case-specific computational study. Setting Tertiary academic center. Subjects/Methods A 3-dimensional anatomically realistic computational model of a normal adult airway from mouth to trachea was constructed from 3 computed tomography scans. Virtual granulomas of varying sizes and positions along the vocal fold were incorporated into the base model. Assuming steady-state, inspiratory, turbulent airflow at 30 L/min, computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate respiratory transport and deposition of inhaled corticosteroid particles ranging over 1 to 20 µm. Results Laryngeal deposition in the base model peaked for particle sizes 8 to 10 µm (2.8%-3.5%). Ideal sizes ranged over 6 to 10, 7 to 13, and 7 to 14 µm for small, medium, and large granuloma sizes, respectively. Glottic deposition was maximal at 10.8% for 9-µm-sized particles for the large posterior granuloma, 3 times the normal model (3.5%). Conclusion As the virtual granuloma size increased and the location became more posterior, glottic deposition and ideal particle size generally increased. This preliminary study suggests that inhalers with larger particle sizes, such as fluticasone propionate dry-powder inhaler, may improve laryngeal drug deposition. Most commercially available inhalers have smaller particles than suggested here.

  17. Rutile nanopowders for pigment production: Formation mechanism and particle size prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wu; Tang, Hongxin

    2018-01-01

    Formation mechanism and particle size prediction of rutile nanoparticles for pigment production were investigated. Anatase nanoparticles were observed by oriented attachment with parallel lattice fringe spaces of 0.2419 nm. Upon increasing the calcination temperature, the (1 1 0) plane of rutile was gradually observed, suggesting that the anatase (1 0 3) planes undergo internal structural rearrangement of oxygen and titanium ions into rutile phase due to ionic diffusion. Backpropagation neural network was used to predict particle size of rutile nanopowders, the prediction errors were all smaller than 2%, providing an efficient method to control particle size in pigment production.

  18. Effect of particle size of rice flour on physical and sensory properties of Sel-roti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba, Dilip; Katawal, Surendra Bahadur

    2013-02-01

    Sel-roti is a delicious, deep-fat fried, puffed, ring shaped spongy doughnut like Nepalese indigenous food prepared from the batter of rice flour, ghee and sugar. A study was conducted to determine the effect of particle size of rice flour on bulk density, oil uptake and texture of Sel-roti. Rice was soaked in water and ground with the help of iron mortar and pestle and the flour was analyzed for particle size distribution by using standard sieves and separated into three particle size categories as coarse (> 890 u), medium (120-890 u) and fine ( 0.05) were found.

  19. Seasonal cycle and modal structure of particle number size distribution at Dome C, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Järvinen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied new particle formation and modal behavior of ultrafine aerosol particles on the high East Antarctic plateau at the Concordia station, Dome C (75°06' S, 123°23' E. Aerosol particle number size distributions were measured in the size range 10–600 nm from 14 December 2007 to 7 November 2009. We used an automatic algorithm for fitting up to three modes to the size distribution data. The total particle number concentration was low with the median of 109 cm−3. There was a clear seasonal cycle in the total particle number and the volume concentrations. The concentrations were at their highest during the austral summer with the median values of 260 cm−3 and 0.086 μm3 cm−3, and at their lowest during the austral winter with corresponding values of 15 cm−3 and 0.009 μm3 cm−3. New particle formation events were determined from the size distribution data. During the measurement period, natural new particle formation was observed on 60 days and for 15 of these days the particle growth rates from 10 to 25 nm in size could be determined. The median particle growth rate during all these events was 2.5 nm h−1 and the median formation rate of 10 nm particles was 0.023 cm−3 s−1. Most of the events were similar to those observed at other continental locations, yet also some variability in event types was observed. Exceptional features in Dome C were the winter events that occurred during dark periods, as well as the events for which the growth could be followed during several consecutive days. We called these latter events slowly growing events. This paper is the first one to analyze long-term size distribution data from Dome C, and also the first paper to show that new particle formation events occur in central Antarctica.

  20. Simulations of the effect of particle size on texture and force transmission in bidisperse granular composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preechawuttipong Itthichai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the particle size ratio on texture and force transmission in two-dimensional cohesionless binary granular composties by using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Four numerical composite samples, which differ in terms of the particle size ratios, are used in this study. The samples are composed of two constitutive materials with a stiffness ratio of four between the higher one termed as stiff particle and another termed as soft particle. The samples are subjected to an uniaxial confined vertical compression on the upper wall. The results under static conditions show that the particle size ratio mainly affects the contact sub-networks. The coordination number decreases when the particle size ratios (Dstiff/Dsoft = 1.2 − 3.0 increase, contrary to stiff-any case. Considering the spatial arrangement of contact directions, contacts between stiff particles exhibit an anisotropic distribution. On the contrary, the other contacts, i.e. soft-soft and stiff-soft contacts play a role to support the granular system in equilibrium. It is interesting to note that for all the particle size ratios, an exponential distribution and power-law are observed for the strong and weak network, respectively. Furthermore, almost 60% of the entire contacts transmit the weak forces.

  1. Direct Online Determination of Laser-Induced Particle Size Distribution by ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donard, Ariane; Claverie, Fanny; Pointurier, Fabien; Blitz Frayret, Céline; Svatosova, Barbora; Pécheyran, Christophe

    2017-09-05

    The characterization of the aerosol (size, composition, and concentration) generated by Laser Ablation is of great interest due to its impact on the analytical performances when coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). The capabilities of High Resolution ICPMS as a direct tool to characterize nanoparticles produced by femtosecond Laser Ablation of pure copper are presented. An analytical protocol, similar to the "single particle ICPMS" technique used to characterize the size distribution of nanoparticles in solution, was developed in order to observe the signals of individual particles produced by a single ablation shot. A Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) data processing was developed to count and sort the particles as a function of their size and thus determine the particle size distribution. To check the reliability of the method, the results were compared to a more conventional technique, namely, Electrical Low Pressure Impaction (ELPI) for 4000 shots. Detection limit for the particles produced by the laser ablation of a copper foil is of a few attograms corresponding to a nanoparticle of 14 nm. The direct online determination of particle size by ICPMS gave similar results than ELPI for copper particles ejected during the ablation shot by shot at a fixed spot, from 1 to 100 shots. Particles larger than 159 nm represented less than 1% of the aerosol whose distribution was centered on 25-51 nm.

  2. The Effect of Particle Size on Thermal Conduction in Granular Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghwoon; Yun, Tae Sup; Choi, Sung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Shredded rubber tire is a geomaterial that is potentially useful in environmental and engineering projects. Here, we study the effect of particle size ratio on the thermal conductivity of granular mixtures containing rubber tire particles. Glass beads were mixed at various volume fractions with rubber particles of varying size. The 3D network model analysis using synthetic packed assemblies was used to determine the dominant factors influencing the thermal conduction of the mixtures. Results present that mixtures with varying size ratios exhibit different nonlinear evolutions of thermal conductivity values with mixture fractions. In particular, mixtures with large insulating materials (e.g., rubber particles) have higher thermal conduction that those with small ones. This is because the larger insulating particles allow better interconnectivity among the conductive particles, thereby avoiding the interruption of the thermal conduction of the conductive particles. Similar tests conducted with natural sand corroborate the significant effect of the relative size of the insulating particles. The 3D network model identifies the heterogeneity of local and effective thermal conductivity and the influence of connectivity among conductive particles. A supplementary examination of electrical conductivity highlights the significance of local and long-range connectivity on conduction paths in granular mixtures. PMID:28793419

  3. Detection of nano- and micro-sized particles in routine biopsy material - pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorackova, Jana; Bielnikova, Hana; Kukutschova, Jana; Peikertova, Pavlina; Filip, Peter; Zelenik, Karol; Kominek, Pavel; Uvirova, Magdalena; Pradna, Jana; Cermakova, Zuzana; Dvoracek, Igor

    2015-03-01

    Nanotechnology is receiving enormous funding. Very little however is known about the health dangers of this technology so far. Chronic tonsillitis is one of a number of diseases called idiopathic. Among other factors, the tonsils are exposed to suspended particles in inhaled air including nano particles. The objective of this study was to detect and evaluate metallic particles in human tonsil tissue diagnosed with chronic tonsillitis and in amniotic fluid as a comparison. . Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used for identification of solid particles in a total of 64 samples of routinely analyzed biopsy and cytologic material. Almost all samples were found to contain solid particles of various metals. The most frequent, regardless of diagnosis, were iron, chromium, nickel and aluminium. The size, determined using SEM, varied from around 500 nm to 25 µm. The majority formed aggregates of several micrometers in size but there were a significant number of smaller (sub-micrometer or nano-sized) particles present. The incidence of metallic particles was similar in child and adult tissues. The difference was in composition: the presence of several metals in adults was due to occupational exposure. The presence of metallic particles in pathologically altered tissues may signal an alternative causation of some diseases. The ethiopathogenic explanation of these diseases associated with the presence of nano-sized particles in the organism has emerged into a new field of pathology, nanopathology.

  4. The Effect of Particle Size on Thermal Conduction in Granular Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghwoon Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shredded rubber tire is a geomaterial that is potentially useful in environmental and engineering projects. Here, we study the effect of particle size ratio on the thermal conductivity of granular mixtures containing rubber tire particles. Glass beads were mixed at various volume fractions with rubber particles of varying size. The 3D network model analysis using synthetic packed assemblies was used to determine the dominant factors influencing the thermal conduction of the mixtures. Results present that mixtures with varying size ratios exhibit different nonlinear evolutions of thermal conductivity values with mixture fractions. In particular, mixtures with large insulating materials (e.g., rubber particles have higher thermal conduction that those with small ones. This is because the larger insulating particles allow better interconnectivity among the conductive particles, thereby avoiding the interruption of the thermal conduction of the conductive particles. Similar tests conducted with natural sand corroborate the significant effect of the relative size of the insulating particles. The 3D network model identifies the heterogeneity of local and effective thermal conductivity and the influence of connectivity among conductive particles. A supplementary examination of electrical conductivity highlights the significance of local and long-range connectivity on conduction paths in granular mixtures.

  5. Evaluating unsupervised methods to size and classify suspended particles using digital in-line holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emlyn J.; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Graham, George W.; Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial information can be gained from digital in-line holography of marine particles, eliminating depth-of-field and focusing errors associated with standard lens-based imaging methods. However, for the technique to reach its full potential in oceanographic research, fully unsupervised (automated) methods are required for focusing, segmentation, sizing and classification of particles. These computational challenges are the subject of this paper, in which we draw upon data collected using a variety of holographic systems developed at Plymouth University, UK, from a significant range of particle types, sizes and shapes. A new method for noise reduction in reconstructed planes is found to be successful in aiding particle segmentation and sizing. The performance of an automated routine for deriving particle characteristics (and subsequent size distributions) is evaluated against equivalent size metrics obtained by a trained operative measuring grain axes on screen. The unsupervised method is found to be reliable, despite some errors resulting from over-segmentation of particles. A simple unsupervised particle classification system is developed, and is capable of successfully differentiating sand grains, bubbles and diatoms from within the surf-zone. Avoiding miscounting bubbles and biological particles as sand grains enables more accurate estimates of sand concentrations, and is especially important in deployments of particle monitoring instrumentation in aerated water. Perhaps the greatest potential for further development in the computational aspects of particle holography is in the area of unsupervised particle classification. The simple method proposed here provides a foundation upon which further development could lead to reliable identification of more complex particle populations, such as those containing phytoplankton, zooplankton, flocculated cohesive sediments and oil droplets.

  6. The effect of particles in different sizes on the mechanical properties of spray formed steel composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kenneth; Pedersen, A. S.; Pryds, N.

    2000-01-01

    National Laboratory, Denmark, where composites with a low alloyed boron steel (0.2 wt.% carbon) matrix containing alumina particles were produced. A comparison between cast hot-rolled material without particles, spray formed material without particles and the spray formed composites with an average ceramic...... particle size of 46 and 134 μm were carried out with respect to their mechanical properties e.g. wear resistance and tensile strength. It was found that the addition of Al2O3 particles to the steel improves its wear properties and reduces the elongation and tensile strength of the material...

  7. Effect of particle size on oral absorption of carvedilol nanosuspensions: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Pan, Hao; He, Fengwei; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Jinyu; Yang, Xinggang; Pan, Weisan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the particle size reduction effect of carvedilol on dissolution and absorption. Three suspensions containing different sized particles were prepared by antisolvent precipitation method or in combination with an ultrasonication process. The suspensions were characterized for particle size, surface morphology, and crystalline state. The crystalline form of carvedilol was changed into amorphous form after antisolvent precipitation. The dissolution rate of carvedilol was significantly accelerated by a reduction in particle size. The intestinal absorption of carvedilol nanosuspensions was greatly improved in comparison with microsuspensions and solution in the in situ single-pass perfusion experiment. The in vivo evaluation demonstrated that carvedilol nanosuspensions and microsuspensions exhibited markedly increased Cmax (2.09- and 1.48-fold) and AUC0−t (2.11- and 1.51-fold), and decreased Tmax (0.34- and 0.48-fold) in contrast with carvedilol coarse suspensions. Moreover, carvedilol nanosuspensions showed good biocompatibility with the rat gastric mucosa in in vivo gastrointestinal irritation test. The entire results implicated that the dissolution rate and the oral absorption of carvedilol were significantly affected by the particle size. Particle size reduction to form nanosized particles was found to be an efficient method for improving the oral bioavailability of carvedilol. PMID:26508852

  8. Microscopic characterization of particle size and shape: an inexpensive and versatile method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, M E; Amidon, G E

    1992-07-01

    A variety of methods exists for measuring individual particle dimensions as a means of characterizing particle size, size distribution, and shape. The equipment described in this report belongs to the class of semiautomatic non-TV-interfaced analyzers. Unlike many existing image analysis systems, three-dimensional form measurements and texture data for the calculation of particle size and shape parameters can be determined easily and directly from each particle profile using this system. Essentially all data are collected directly from the particle and recorded by the computer with no intermediate steps. Much of the system consists of general-purpose and relatively inexpensive, commercially available hardware and software. Using this method, particle size, size distribution, and qualitative or quantitative shape information can easily and rapidly be obtained simultaneously. Particle length and width characterization, for example, can take less than 15 min. The equipment is versatile and flexible in measurements and calculations. The size and shape parameters to be measured are determined by the researcher and not the instrument. The ease with which this information can be obtained from small samples early in the development process makes it a valuable tool for the formulator.

  9. Particle Size Distributions Measured in the Stratospheric Plumes of Three Rockets During the ACCENT Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedinmyer, C.; Brock, C. A.; Reeves, J. M.; Ross, M. N.; Schmid, O.; Toohey, D.; Wilson, J. C.

    2001-12-01

    The global impact of particles emitted by rocket engines on stratospheric ozone is not well understood, mainly due to the lack of comprehensive in situ measurements of the size distributions of these emitted particles. During the Atmospheric Chemistry of Combustion Emissions Near the Tropopause (ACCENT) missions in 1999, the NASA WB-57F aircraft carried the University of Denver N-MASS and FCAS instruments into the stratospheric plumes from three rockets. Size distributions of particles with diameters from 4 to approximately 2000 nm were calculated from the instrument measurements using numerical inversion techniques. The data have been averaged over 30-second intervals. The particle size distributions observed in all of the rocket plumes included a dominant mode near 60 nm diameter, probably composed of alumina particles. A smaller mode at approximately 25 nm, possibly composed of soot particles, was seen in only the plumes of rockets that used liquid oxygen and kerosene as a propellant. Aircraft exhaust emitted by the WB-57F was also sampled; the size distributions within these plumes are consistent with prior measurements in aircraft plumes. The size distributions for all rocket intercepts have been fitted to bimodal, lognormal distributions to provide input for global models of the stratosphere. Our data suggest that previous estimates of the solid rocket motor alumina size distributions may underestimate the alumina surface area emission index, and so underestimate the particle surface area available for heterogeneous chlorine activation reactions in the global stratosphere.

  10. Sub-micron indent induced plastic deformation in copper and irradiated steel; Deformation plastique induite par l'essai d'indentation submicronique, dans le cuivre et l'acier 316L irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Ch

    1999-07-01

    In this work we aim to study the indent induced plastic deformation. For this purpose, we have developed a new approach, whereby the indentation curves provides the mechanical behaviour, while the deformation mechanisms are observed thanks to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In order to better understand how an indent induced dislocation microstructure forms, numerical modeling of the indentation process at the scale of discrete dislocations has been worked out as well. Validation of this modeling has been performed through direct comparison of the computed microstructures with TEM micrographs of actual indents in pure Cu (001]. Irradiation induced modifications of mechanical behaviour of ion irradiated 316L have been investigated, thanks to the mentioned approach. An important hardening effect was reported from indentation data (about 50%), on helium irradiated 316L steel. TEM observations of the damage zone clearly show that this behaviour is associated with the presence of He bubbles. TEM observations of the indent induced plastic zone also showed that the extent of the plastic zone is strongly correlated with hardness, that is to say: harder materials gets a smaller plastic zone. These results thus clearly established that the selected procedure can reveal any irradiation induced hardening in sub-micron thick ion irradiated layers. The behaviour of krypton irradiated 316L steel is somewhat more puzzling. In one hand indeed, a strong correlation between the defect cluster size and densities on the irradiation temperature is observed in the 350 deg. C - 600 deg. C range, thanks to TEM observations of the damage zone. On the other hand, irradiation induced hardening reported from indentation data is relatively small (about 10%) and shows no dependence upon the irradiation temperature (within the mentioned range). In addition, it has been shown that the reported hardening vanishes following appropriate post-irradiation annealing, although most of the TEM

  11. Particle counting and numerical models: Effect of instrumental size resolution and particle shapes on optical cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamaillard, Karine; Jennings, S. G.

    2006-07-01

    The effect of instrumental size resolution measurements on numerical calculations of optical cross-sections is investigated. The particle counting instruments considered are a FSSP-300, a large scattering angle probe instrument similar to a ASASP-X, and, an aerodynamical system ELPI instrument. The scattering and hemispheric backscattering cross-sections, Csca and Cbk, are calculated on the basis that the full width of the instrumental size bin should be considered in modeling. An average process is applied on these quantities over the full size bin of the instrument; they are then compared to their usual estimation on the single mean diameter Dp per channel. The effect of particle shape is investigated with ellipsoids and spheres. Results show sensitivity of the optical cross-sections to the shape of the particles as well as position of the mean geometrical diameter Dp of the channels within the interferences modes of the scattering efficiencies. The value of the width of the size bins, d log D, of each channel is crucial in the results. This comparison gives a useful estimation of error important in optical particle counting instruments based on inversion process of optical quantities. In addition, accuracy of size distribution measurements is found not to be representative of accuracy in the calculations of optical cross-sections.

  12. Laser tweezers: spectroscopy of optically trapped micron-sized particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, K.M.; Livett, M.K.; Nugent, K.W. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Information is often obtained about biological systems by analysis of single cells in the system. The optimum conditions for this analysis are when the cells are living and in their natural surroundings as they will be performing their normal functions and interactions. Analysis of cells can be difficult due to their mobility. Laser tweezing is a non contact method that can be employed to overcome this problem and provides a powerful tool in the analysis of functions and interactions at single cell level. In this investigation Raman spectra of a molecule of {beta} - carotene, dissolved in microdroplets of oil was obtained. The droplets were trapped using Nd-YAG beam and a low intensity Ar{sup +} beam was used to analyse the trapped particles. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Particle size tailoring of ursolic acid nanosuspensions for improved anticancer activity by controlled antisolvent precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yancai; Song, Ju; Chow, Shing Fung; Chow, Albert H L; Zheng, Ying

    2015-10-15

    The present study was aimed at tailoring the particle size of ursolic acid (UA) nanosuspension for improved anticancer activity. UA nanosuspensions were prepared by antisolvent precipitation using a four-stream multi-inlet vortex mixer (MIVM) under defined conditions of varying solvent composition, drug feeding concentration or stream flow rate. The resulting products were characterized for particle size and polydispersity. Two of the UA nanosuspensions with mean particle sizes of 100 and 300 nm were further assessed for their in-vitro activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells using fluorescence microscopy with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, as well as flow cytometry with propidium (PI) staining and with double staining by fluorescein isothiocyanate. It was revealed that the solvent composition, drug feeding concentration and stream flow rate were critical parameters for particle size control of the UA nanosuspensions generated with the MIVM. Specifically, decreasing the UA feeding concentration or increasing the stream flow rate or ethanol content resulted in a reduction of particle size. Excellent reproducibility for nanosuspension production was demonstrated for the 100 and 300 nm UA preparations with a deviation of not more than 5% in particle size from the mean value of three independent batches. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry revealed that these two different sized UA nanosuspensions, particularly the 300 nm sample, exhibited a higher anti-proliferation activity against the MCF-7 cells and afforded a larger population of these cells in both early and late apoptotic phases. In conclusion, MIVM is a robust and pragmatic tool for tailoring the particle size of the UA nanosuspension. Particle size appears to be a critical determinant of the anticancer activity of the UA nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Particle size and surface area effects on the thin-pulse shock initiation of Diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burritt, Rosemary; Francois, Elizabeth; Windler, Gary; Chavez, David

    2017-06-01

    Diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF) has many of the safety characteristics of an insensitive high explosive (IHE): it is extremely insensitive to impact and friction and is comparable to triaminotrinitrobezene (TATB) in this way. Conversely, it demonstrates many performance characteristics of a Conventional High Explosive (CHE). DAAF has a small failure diameter of about 1.25 mm and can be sensitive to shock under the right conditions. Large particle sized DAAF will not initiate in a typical exploding foil initiator (EFI) configuration but smaller particle sizes will. Large particle sized DAAF, of 40 μm, was crash precipitated and ball milled into six distinct samples and pressed into pellets with a density of 1.60 g/cc (91% TMD). To investigate the effect of particle size and surface area on the direct initiation on DAAF multiple threshold tests were preformed on each sample of DAAF in different EFI configurations, which varied in flyer thickness and/or bridge size. Comparative tests were performed examining threshold voltage and correlated to Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) results. The samples with larger particle sizes and surface area required more energy to initiate while the smaller particle sizes required less energy and could be initiated with smaller diameter flyers.

  15. Concentration and particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed by thermal cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, E; Tanaka, N; Miyazaki, A; Tsuzaki, M

    2014-06-15

    The concentration and particle size distribution of 19 major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by thermal cooking were investigated. Corn, trout, beef, prawns, and pork were selected for grilling. The PAHs in the oil mist emitted when the food was grilled were collected according to particle size range and analysed by GC/MS. Much higher concentrations of PAHs were detected in the oil mist emitted by grilled pork, trout, and beef samples, which were rich in fat. The main components of the cooking exhaust were 3- and 4-ring PAHs, regardless of food type. The particle size distribution showed that almost all the PAHs were concentrated in particles with diameters of particles with diameters of 90% of the PAHs would reach the alveolar region of the lungs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Size distribution of particles in planetary rings. [applied to Saturn and terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R.; Davis, D. R.; Hartmann, W. K.; Chapman, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    Harris (1975) has suggested that the maximum size of particles in a planetary ring is controlled by collisional fragmentation rather than tidal stress. While this conclusion is probably true, estimated radius limits must be revised upward from Harris' values of a few kilometers by at least an order of magnitude. Accretion of particles within the Roche limit is also possible. These considerations affect theories concerning the evolution of Saturn's rings, of the moon, and of possible former satellites of Mercury and Venus. In the case of Saturn's rings, comparison of various theoretical scenarios with available observational evidence suggests that the rings formed from the breakup of larger particles rather than from original condensation as small particles. This process implies a distribution of particle sizes in Saturn's rings possibly ranging up to about 100 km but with most of the cross section in centimeter-scale particles.

  17. Optimal automated path planning for infinitesimal and real-sized particle assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Karakoc

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article introduces an algorithm for path planning and assembly of infinitesimal and real-sized particles by using a distance and path based permutation algorithm. The main objective is to define non-overlapping particle paths subject to minimal total path length during particles positioning and assembly. Thus, a local minimum is sought with a low computational cost. For this reason, an assignment problem, to be specific Euclidean bipartite matching problem, is presented, where the particles in the initial (random selection and final (particle assembly configurations are in one-to-one correspondence. The cost function for particle paths is defined through Euclidean distance of each particle between the initial and final configurations. Principally, a cost flow problem is formed and solved by determining an optimal permutation subject to the total Euclidean distance of the particles and their non-overlapping paths. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out for non-overlapping paths; thus, non-colliding particles, and then total path distances of the obtained sets are minimized, resulting in an optimal solution which may not be necessarily the global optimum. Case studies on basic and complex shaped infinitesimal and real-sized particle assemblies are shown with their total costs, i.e., path lengths. It is believed that the present study contributes to the current efforts in optical trapping automation for particle assemblies with possible applications, e.g., in the areas of micro-manufacturing, microfluidics, regenerative medicine and biotechnology.

  18. Particle Imaging, Characterization and Extinction Measurement with Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Nava; Berg, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Digital holographic microcopy (DHM) can be a ground breaking technique in the field of particle diagnostic because of its capability for imaging, characterization and extinction measurement in situ. The beauty of this technique is that a single experimental set up is able to do all these works at the same time. In this sense DHM can be used to establish a new kind of instrumentation having the properties of cost-effective, light-weight and portable. Besides this, this technique also has lots of useful applications in the field of aerosol research, climate modeling, life science, polymer crystallization, and defense. We are using DHM for sub-micron sized particle imaging, characterization and extinction. In this work, a particle is illuminated by a pulsed laser and the interference pattern produced by superposition of particle's forward-scattered wave with the incident wave is recorded by a digital camera. The recorded pattern constitutes a digital hologram which can be numerically processed to get image, composition information and extinction cross-section of the particle. These information of the particle are the basic requirements for the characterization of respirable-sized (1-10 μm) aerosols particles.

  19. Effect of particle size on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of alumina suspension in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Rosado, Jose Carlos [CEA, DEN, SEARS, LANIE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Univ. Paris Sud, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health and Environment UMR 8079, 5 rue J.B. Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); National University of Engineering, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 31-139, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima (Peru); L' hermite, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lhermite@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, SEARS, LANIE, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Levi, Yves [Univ. Paris Sud, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Public Health and Environment UMR 8079, 5 rue J.B. Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2012-08-15

    The analysis by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was proposed for the detection and the quantification of different elements in water even when the analyte is composed of particles in suspension. We have studied the effect of particle size on the LIBS signal during liquid analysis. In our study we used different particle sizes (from 2 {mu}m to 90 {mu}m) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in suspension in water. The results were compared to the signal obtained in the case of dissolved aluminum. In the case of particles, a linear correlation between the LIBS signal versus concentration was found but a significant decrease in the slope of the calibration curve was found when the particle size increased. Several hypotheses have been tested and only a partial ablation of the particles might explain this decrease in signal intensity. This effect probably does not occur at smaller particle size. We estimated 860 nm/pulse as ablated thickness from the top of the particle. A statistical analysis over all data obtained allowed us to calculate 100 {mu}m as ablated water column depth. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have identified a decrease of calibration curve when particle size increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partial particle ablation has been identified as the origin of this effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation rate on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in suspension in water has been estimated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We can determine the deepness of the interaction volume into the liquid.

  20. Development of an ejecta particle size measurement diagnostic based on Mie scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauer, Martin Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buttler, William Tillman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frayer, Daniel K. [National Security Tech, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grover, Michael [National Security Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Special Technologies Lab.; Monfared, Shabnam Kalighi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Gerald D. [National Security Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Special Technologies Lab.; Stone, Benjamin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Turley, William Dale [National Security Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Special Technologies Lab.

    2017-09-27

    The goal of this work is to determine the feasibility of extracting the size of particles ejected from shocked metal surfaces (ejecta) from the angular distribution of light scattered by a cloud of such particles. The basis of the technique is the Mie theory of scattering, and implicit in this approach are the assumptions that the scattering particles are spherical and that single scattering conditions prevail. The meaning of this latter assumption, as far as experimental conditions are concerned, will become clear later. The solution to Maxwell’s equations for spherical particles illuminated by a plane electromagnetic wave was derived by Gustav Mie more than 100 years ago, but several modern treatises discuss this solution in great detail. The solution is a complicated series expansion of the scattered electric field, as well as the field within the particle, from which the total scattering and absorption cross sections as well as the angular distribution of scattered intensity can be calculated numerically. The detailed nature of the scattering is determined by the complex index of refraction of the particle material as well as the particle size parameter, x, which is the product of the wavenumber of the incident light and the particle radius, i.e. x = 2rπ= λ. Figure 1 shows the angular distribution of scattered light for different particle size parameters and two orthogonal incident light polarizations as calculated using the Mie solution. It is obvious that the scattering pattern is strongly dependent on the particle size parameter, becoming more forward-directed and less polarizationdependent as the particle size parameter increases. This trend forms the basis for the diagnostic design.

  1. Particle size distributions and the vertical distribution of suspended matter in the upwelling region off Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various methods of presenting and mathematically describing particle size distribution are explained and evaluated. The hyperbolic distribution is found to be the most practical but the more complex characteristic vector analysis is the most sensitive to changes in the shape of the particle size distributions. A method for determining onshore-offshore flow patterns from the distribution of particulates was presented. A numerical model of the vertical structure of two size classes of particles was developed. The results show a close similarity to the observed distributions but overestimate the particle concentration by forty percent. This was attributed to ignoring grazing by zooplankton. Sensivity analyses showed the size preference was most responsive to the maximum specific growth rates and nutrient half saturation constants. The verical structure was highly dependent on the eddy diffusivity followed closely by the growth terms.

  2. The interactive effect of agitation condition and titania particle size in hydrothermal synthesis of titanate nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safaei, Maryam; Sarraf-Mamoory, Rasoul, E-mail: rsarrafm@modares.ac.i [Tarbiat Modares University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidzadeh, Mehdi [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The nucleation and growth mechanisms of hydrothermal synthesized nanotitanates are proposed based on the interaction effect between agitation condition and pristine titania particle size. TEM examination and N{sub 2} adsorption measurements revealed distinct morphology and textural properties depending on TiO{sub 2} particle size in constant agitation condition. Regarding to the supersaturation degree, heterogeneous nucleation dominates for nanotubes formation from large particle size of raw material. On the other hand, homogeneous nucleation determines nanospheres formation from small particle size of raw material. The nanotubes have an outer diameter ranging from 8 to 10 nm and inner diameter of 2 to 3 nm. The nanospheres have diameters ranging from 50 to 100 nm.

  3. Effect of particle size on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing metallic nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warrier, Pramod; Teja, Amyn

    2011-01-01

    .... Although literature data could be correlated well using the model, the effect of the size of the particles on the effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluid could not be elucidated from these data...

  4. Development of a simplified optical technique for the simultaneous measurement of particle size distribution and velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Existing techniques were surveyed, an experimental procedure was developed, a laboratory test model was fabricated, limited data were recovered for proof of principle, and the relationship between particle size distribution and amplitude measurements was illustrated in an effort to develop a low cost, simplified optical technique for measuring particle size distributions and velocities in fluidized bed combustors and gasifiers. A He-Ne laser illuminated Rochi Rulings (range 10 to 500 lines per inch). Various samples of known particle size distributions were passed through the fringe pattern produced by the rulings. A photomultiplier tube converted light from the fringe volume to an electrical signal which was recorded using an oscilloscope and camera. The signal amplitudes were correlated against the known particle size distributions. The correlation holds true for various samples.

  5. Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.

    2012-01-01

    A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

  6. Nanoparticles and metrology: a comparison of methods for the determination of particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Victoria A.; Jämting, Åsa K.; Catchpoole, Heather J.; Roy, Maitreyee; Herrmann, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Nanoparticles and products incorporating nanoparticles are a growing branch of nanotechnology industry. They have found a broad market, including the cosmetic, health care and energy sectors. Accurate and representative determination of particle size distributions in such products is critical at all stages of the product lifecycle, extending from quality control at point of manufacture to environmental fate at the point of disposal. Determination of particle size distributions is non-trivial, and is complicated by the fact that different techniques measure different quantities, leading to differences in the measured size distributions. In this study we use both mono- and multi-modal dispersions of nanoparticle reference materials to compare and contrast traditional and novel methods for particle size distribution determination. The methods investigated include ensemble techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and differential centrifugal sedimentation (DCS), as well as single particle techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microchannel resonator (ultra high-resolution mass sensor).

  7. Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2014-03-31

    This study used particle size analysis to investigate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in four irrigation ponds, ~4-5 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (DNPP) accident. Trap efficiency, represented by the inventory of (137)Cs in pond sediment to the inventory of radiocesium in soil surrounding the pond (i.e., total (137)Cs inventory), was less than 100% for all but one pond. Trap efficiency decreased as sediment particle size increased, indicating that sediments with a smaller particle size accumulate more (137)Cs. In ponds showing low trap efficiency, fine sediment containing high concentrations of (137)Cs appeared to be removed from the system by hydraulic flushing, leaving behind mostly coarse sediment. The results of this study suggest that sediment particle size can be used to estimate the initial accumulation and trap efficiency of (137)Cs in pond sediment, as well as the amount lost through hydraulic flushing.

  8. In situ atomic-scale observation of melting point suppression in nanometer-sized gold particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junggoo; Lee, Joonho; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Mori, Hirotaro

    2009-11-01

    Phase stabilities of nanometer-sized materials are quite different from those of the corresponding bulk materials. Among the phase stabilities, melting point suppression is one of the most fundamentally important issues. In this work, real-time, atomic-scale direct observation of melting point suppression in nanometer-sized Au particles, along with simple size reduction, was carried out by means of in situ high resolution electron microscopy. Namely, it was confirmed in real space on an atomic scale that a solid-to-liquid transition occurred when the size of a particle, placed on a graphite substrate maintained at 1100 K, decreased to 5 nm during diminution. Furthermore, a monolayer-thick hole was formed on the substrate at the position of the liquid Au particle, probably due to carbon dissolution into the liquid Au particle.

  9. In situ atomic-scale observation of melting point suppression in nanometer-sized gold particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junggoo [Functional Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 66 Sangnam-dong, Changwon, Kyungsangnam-Do 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joonho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Tanaka, Toshihiro [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Mori, Hirotaro, E-mail: jglee36@kims.re.k [Research Center for Ultra-High Voltage Electron Microscopy, Osaka University, 7-1 Mihogaoka, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2009-11-25

    Phase stabilities of nanometer-sized materials are quite different from those of the corresponding bulk materials. Among the phase stabilities, melting point suppression is one of the most fundamentally important issues. In this work, real-time, atomic-scale direct observation of melting point suppression in nanometer-sized Au particles, along with simple size reduction, was carried out by means of in situ high resolution electron microscopy. Namely, it was confirmed in real space on an atomic scale that a solid-to-liquid transition occurred when the size of a particle, placed on a graphite substrate maintained at 1100 K, decreased to 5 nm during diminution. Furthermore, a monolayer-thick hole was formed on the substrate at the position of the liquid Au particle, probably due to carbon dissolution into the liquid Au particle.

  10. Effects of Na and Ca on particle size; Effect of filtering on UV absorbance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Effects of Na and Ca on particle size; Effect of filtering on UV absorbance. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Bouchard, D., C. Knightes, X....

  11. Determination of factors controlling the particle size in nanoemulsions using Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Amir; York, Peter; Chrystyn, Henry; Clark, Brian J; Do, Duong Q

    2008-09-02

    The purpose of this study was to use Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in identifying factors, in addition to surfactant and internal phase content, that influence the particle size of nanoemulsions. The phase diagram and rheometric characteristics of a nanoemulsion system containing polysorbate 80, ethanol, medium chain triglycerides and normal saline loaded with budesonide were investigated. The particle size of samples of various compositions prepared using different rates and amounts of applied energy was measured. Data, divided into training, test and validation sets, were modelled by ANNs. The developed model was assessed and found to be of high quality. The model was then used to explore the effect of composition and processing factors on particle size of the nanoemulsion preparation. The study demonstrates the potential of ANNs in identifying critical parameters controlling preparation for this system, with the total amount of applied energy during preparation found to be the dominant factor in controlling the final particle size.

  12. Digital image processing of nanometer-size metal particles on amorphous substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, F.; Artal, P.; Bescos, J.; Heinemann, K.

    1989-01-01

    The task of differentiating very small metal aggregates supported on amorphous films from the phase contrast image features inherently stemming from the support is extremely difficult in the nanometer particle size range. Digital image processing was employed to overcome some of the ambiguities in evaluating such micrographs. It was demonstrated that such processing allowed positive particle detection and a limited degree of statistical size analysis even for micrographs where by bare eye examination the distribution between particles and erroneous substrate features would seem highly ambiguous. The smallest size class detected for Pd/C samples peaks at 0.8 nm. This size class was found in various samples prepared under different evaporation conditions and it is concluded that these particles consist of 'a magic number' of 13 atoms and have cubooctahedral or icosahedral crystal structure.

  13. Heterotrophic free-living and particle-bound bacterial cell size in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    living and particle-bound bacterial cell size in the river Cauvery and its downstream tributaries. T S HARSHA, SADANAND M YAMAKANAMARDI* and M MAHADEVASWAMY. Aquatic Microbial Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of ...

  14. Simultaneous Comparison of Two Roller Compaction Techniques and Two Particle Size Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Tuomas; Antikainen, Osmo; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2017-11-01

    A new dry granulation technique, gas-assisted roller compaction (GARC), was compared with conventional roller compaction (CRC) by manufacturing 34 granulation batches. The process variables studied were roll pressure, roll speed, and sieve size of the conical mill. The main quality attributes measured were granule size and flow characteristics. Within granulations also the real applicability of two particle size analysis techniques, sieve analysis (SA) and fast imaging technique (Flashsizer, FS), was tested. All granules obtained were acceptable. In general, the particle size of GARC granules was slightly larger than that of CRC granules. In addition, the GARC granules had better flowability. For example, the tablet weight variation of GARC granules was close to 2%, indicating good flowing and packing characteristics. The comparison of the two particle size analysis techniques showed that SA was more accurate in determining wide and bimodal size distributions while FS showed narrower and mono-modal distributions. However, both techniques gave good estimates for mean granule sizes. Overall, SA was a time-consuming but accurate technique that provided reliable information for the entire granule size distribution. By contrast, FS oversimplified the shape of the size distribution, but nevertheless yielded acceptable estimates for mean particle size. In general, FS was two to three orders of magnitude faster than SA.

  15. Uncertainty assessment of current size-resolved parameterizations for below-cloud particle scavenging by rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Current theoretical and empirical size-resolved parameterizations of the scavenging coefficient (Λ, a parameter commonly used in aerosol transport models to describe below-cloud particle scavenging by rain, have been reviewed in detail and compared with available field and laboratory measurements. Use of different formulations for raindrop-particle collection efficiency can cause uncertainties in size-resolved Λ values of one to two orders of magnitude for particles in the 0.01–3 μm diameter range. Use of different formulations of raindrop number size distribution can cause Λ values to vary by a factor of 3 to 5 for all particle sizes. The uncertainty in Λ caused by the use of different droplet terminal velocity formulations is generally small than a factor of 2. The combined uncertainty due to the use of different formulations of raindrop-particle collection efficiency, raindrop size spectrum, and raindrop terminal velocity in the current theoretical framework is not sufficient to explain the one to two order of magnitude under-prediction of Λ for the theoretical calculations relative to the majority of field measurements. These large discrepancies are likely caused by additional known physical processes (i.e, turbulent transport and mixing, cloud and aerosol microphysics that influence field data but that are not considered in current theoretical Λ parameterizations. The predicted size-resolved particle concentrations using different theoretical Λ parameterization can differ by up to a factor of 2 for particles smaller than 0.01 μm and by a factor of >10 for particles larger than 3 μm after 2–5 mm of rain. The predicted bulk mass and number concentrations (integrated over the particle size distribution can differ by a factor of 2 between theoretical and empirical Λ parameterizations after 2–5 mm of moderate intensity rainfall.

  16. Damping of Mechanical Waves with Styrene/Butadiene Rubber Filled with Polystyrene Particle: Effects of Particles Size and Wave Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haghgo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing polymeric materials for damping mechanical waves is of great importance in various fields of applications such as military camouflage, prevention of structural vibrational energy transfer, and noise attenuation. This ability originates from segmental dynamics of chain-like polymer molecules. Damping properties of styrene-butadiene rubbercontaining 10 wt% of monosize polystyrene particles with different diameters (from 80 nm to 500 μm was investigated in the frequency range of vibration, sound, and ultrasound via dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, normalsound adsorption test, and ultrasound attenuation coefficient measurement. The obtained results indicated that for different systems, containing different sizes of polystyrene particles, the area under the damping curve does not show significant change comparing to the neat SBR in the frequency range studied. However, addition of polystyrene particles, specifically nanosized particles, resulted in emergence of a secondary glass transition temperature which could be attributed to the modified dynamics of a layer of matrix molecules near the surface of PS particles. In the range of sound frequency, 0.5 to 6.3 kHz, the maximum damping was observed for the system containing polystyrene nanoparticles. However the single damping curve of neat SBR was separated into two or even three distinct curves owing to the presence of the particles. The maximum damping in the ultrasound frequency range was found for the system containing 0.5 mm polystyrene particles. This is attributed to different contributions from matrix chains dynamics and the reflection of mechanical waves from particles-matrix interface at different frequency ranges. On other words, the increase in the glass transition temperature of the elastomeric matrix phase with increasing the mechanical wave frequency causes a reduction in the contribution from matrix chains dynamics while the contribution due to diffraction from dispersed

  17. Effect of corn silage particle size and level of soybean oil on ruminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the effects of two corn silage particle size (coarse particle with geometric mean of 5.83 ± 2.47 mm and fine particle with geometric mean of 4.74 ± 2.74 mm) and two levels of soybean oil (0 and 4% of DM) on ruminal mat composition, distribution and consistency, four two years fistulated ruminant Zel ewes (BW ...

  18. Size-resolved chemical composition, effective density, and optical properties of biomass burning particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jinghao; Lu, Xiaohui; Li, Ling; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Ci; Chen, Hong; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-06-01

    Biomass burning aerosol has an important impact on the global radiative budget. A better understanding of the correlations between the mixing states of biomass burning particles and their optical properties is the goal of a number of current studies. In this work, the effective density, chemical composition, and optical properties of rice straw burning particles in the size range of 50-400 nm were measured using a suite of online methods. We found that the major components of particles produced by burning rice straw included black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and potassium salts, but the mixing states of particles were strongly size dependent. Particles of 50 nm had the smallest effective density (1.16 g cm-3) due to a relatively large proportion of aggregate BC. The average effective densities of 100-400 nm particles ranged from 1.35 to 1.51 g cm-3 with OC and inorganic salts as dominant components. Both density distribution and single-particle mass spectrometry showed more complex mixing states in larger particles. Upon heating, the separation of the effective density distribution modes confirmed the external mixing state of less-volatile BC or soot and potassium salts. The size-resolved optical properties of biomass burning particles were investigated at two wavelengths (λ = 450 and 530 nm). The single-scattering albedo (SSA) showed the lowest value for 50 nm particles (0.741 ± 0.007 and 0.889 ± 0.006) because of the larger proportion of BC content. Brown carbon played an important role for the SSA of 100-400 nm particles. The Ångström absorption exponent (AAE) values for all particles were above 1.6, indicating the significant presence of brown carbon in all sizes. Concurrent measurements in our work provide a basis for discussing the physicochemical properties of biomass burning aerosol and its effects on the global climate and atmospheric environment.

  19. effects of variation of particle size and weight fraction on the tensile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    Abstract. The effects of variation of particle size and weight fraction on the tensile strength and Youngs modulus of periwinkle shell reinforced polyester composite have been investigated. Particulate reinforced polyester composites incorporating varying amounts of periwinkle shell particles (10, 20, 30, 35, 40 and 45 wt %) of ...

  20. Effects of Variation of Particle Size and Weight Fraction on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of variation of particle size and weight fraction on the tensile strength and Young's modulus of periwinkle shell reinforced polyester composite have been investigated. Particulate reinforced polyester composites incorporating varying amounts of periwinkle shell particles (10, 20, 30, 35, 40 and 45wt %) of different ...

  1. Size and chemical characterization of individual particles resulting from biomass burning of local southern California species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip J. Silva; Don-Yuan Liu; Christopher A. Noble; Kimberly A. Prather

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition and size of individual particles derived from combustion products of several species found in Southern California were obtained using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The major inorganic species observed in >90% of all biomass burning particles is potassium, indicated by the atomic ion, as well as clusters containing chloride,...

  2. Surface particle sizes on armoured gravel streambeds: Effects of supply and hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Whiting; John G. King

    2003-01-01

    Most gravel-bed streams exhibit a surface armour in which the median grain size of the surface particles is coarser than that of the subsurface particles. This armour has been interpreted to result when the supply of sediment is less than the ability of the stream to move sediment. While there may be certain sizes in the bed for which the supply is less than the...

  3. Effects of soil surface roughness on interrill erosion processes and sediment particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenfeng; Huang, Chihua

    2017-10-01

    Soil surface roughness significantly impacts runoff and erosion under rainfall. Few previous studies on runoff generation focused on the effects of soil surface roughness on the sediment particle size distribution (PSD), which greatly affects interrill erosion and sedimentation processes. To address this issue, a rainfall-simulation experiment was conducted with treatments that included two different initial soil surface roughnesses and two rainfall intensities. Soil surface roughness was determined by using photogrammetric method. For each simulated event, runoff and sediment samples were collected at different experimental times. The effective (undispersed) PSD of each sediment sample and the ultimate (after dispersion) PSD were used to investigate the detachment and transport mechanisms involved in sediment movement. The results show that soil surface roughness significantly delayed runoff initiation, but had no significant effect on the steady runoff rate. However, a significant difference in the soil loss rate was observed between the smooth and rough soil surfaces. Sediments from smooth soil surfaces were more depleted in clay-size particles, but more enriched in sand-size particles than those from rough soil surfaces, suggesting that erosion was less selective on smooth than on rough soil surfaces. The ratio of different sizes of transported sediment to the soil matrix indicates that most of the clay was eroded in the form of aggregates, silt-size particles were transported mainly as primary particles, and sand-size particles were predominantly aggregates of finer particles. Soil surface roughness has a crucial effect on the sediment size distribution and erosion processes. Significant differences of the enrichment ratios for the effective PSD and the ultimate PSD were observed under the two soil surface roughness treatments. These findings demonstrate that we should consider each particle size separately rather than use only the total sediment discharge in

  4. Effect of particle size on the diffuse reflection coefficient of titanium dioxide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, V. A.; Astafyev, A. L.; Zarubin, A. N.

    2015-04-01

    In the present work a model of light scattering is shown which explains the result about effect of particle size on the diffuse reflection coefficient of initial titanium dioxide powders. The diffuse reflection coefficient depending on particle size for TiO2 pigment varies on the curve with maximum. The experimental results and the model can be used for technology development of manufacturing pigment for light-reflecting temperature-control coatings of spacecraft

  5. Effect of particle size on the diffuse reflection coefficient of titanium dioxide powder

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Vitaliy Anatolievich; Astafyev, Alexander Leonidovich; Zarubin, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work a model of light scattering is shown which explains the result about effect of particle size on the diffuse reflection coefficient of initial titanium dioxide powders. The diffuse reflection coefficient depending on particle size for TiO2 pigment varies on the curve with maximum. The experimental results and the model can be used for technology development of manufacturing pigment for light-reflecting temperature-control coatings of spacecraft.

  6. Optimal foraging by deposit-feeding invertebrates: roles of particle size and organic coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghon, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Feeding experiments were conducted on marine, deposit-feeding benthic invertebrates to test the predictions of an optimal foraging model. Food item selection based on sediment particle size and presence or absence of an organic coating on particles was investigated. Animals displaying a wide range of feeding mechanisms were studied in particle size-selection experiments using artificial sediment of closely controlled size composition. While these trends of selection of smaller particles and protein-coated particles follow qualitatively the predictions of the optimal foraging model, the animals did not ingest exclusively the preferred particle types. Mechanics of particle handling rather than behavioral responses to particle characteristics appear to offer the better explanation for the observed selection patterns. In particular, the results support strongly the recently proposed role of mucous adhesion in particle selection by deposit feeders. These and other results from studies of deposit feeders suggest that factors in addition to food item selection must be considered when testing the assumptions and predictions of optimal foraging theory.

  7. The effect of particle size on fracture properties and size effect of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlangen, E.; Lim, H.S.; Weerheijm, J.

    2005-01-01

    In the study the effect of scaling the material structure on the fracture behaviour of concrete is investigated. Next to this the size effect of concrete fracture strength and fracture energy is studied. The fracture mechanism of concrete made with different size aggregates are tested numerically. A

  8. A new approach in the prediction of the dissolution behavior of suspended particles by means of their particle size distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinke, A.P.; Houtte, K.J.A. van; Maesschalck, R. de; Verheyen, S.; Winter, H. de

    2005-01-01

    Though various attempts have been made in literature to model the particle size distribution of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in function of the required release profile of the pharmaceutical product, so far one has not succeeded to develop a universal approach in the correlation of

  9. Effects of particle size distribution on some physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savlak, Nazlı; Türker, Burcu; Yeşilkanat, Nazlıcan

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of particle size distribution on physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour for the first time. A pure triploid (AAA group) of Musa acuminata subgroup Cavendish (°Brix;0.2, pH;4.73, titratable acidity; 0.56g/100g malic acid, total solids; 27.42%) which was supplied from Gazipaşa, Antalya, Turkey from October 2014 to October 2015 was used. Size fractions of Particle size significantly effected color, water absorbtion index and wettability. L(∗) value decreased, a(∗) and b(∗) values decreased by increasing particle size (r(2)=-0.94, r(2)=0.72, r(2)=0.73 respectively). Particles under 212μm had the lowest rate of wettability (83.40s). A negative correlation between particle size and wettability (r(2)=-0.75) and positive correlation between particle size and water absorption index (r(2)=0.94) was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of particle size distribution on the rheology of oil-coal slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, L.; Wang, Y.; Xiong, C. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2007-02-15

    The rheological behaviour of Shenhua coal-oil slurry was studied as a function of solids concentration, particle size and size distribution. At a certain particle size distribution the apparent viscosity of coal slurry increases with the increase of solid concentration. Coal slurries were found to exhibit a wide spectrum of flow behaviour ranging from Newtonian at low concentrations to shear-thinning and pseudoplastic with a yield stress at higher concentrations. By adding a narrow-sized coarse coal fraction to the finer coal slurry, a flow characteristics optimum coarse-to-fine particle ratio of 40:60 exists at which the slurry is Newtonian. The significant improvement in the rheological behavior with changing the particle size distribution may be explained in terms of spatial rearrangement of the particles and apparent dilution effect. The results indicate that, with a careful control of the particle size distribution, it is possible to prepare an optimum oil-coal slurry which has a low viscosity but with high solids loadings. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. A challenge to develop a continuous centrifuge for precision particle size fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2007-03-01

    In producing particles, including nanoparticles, of narrow particle size distribution, synthetic methods have been widely used, since considerable amounts of products could rather simply be obtained. On the other hand, such sort of processes have a significant drawback, since applicable range of materials is rather limited. Under such circumstances, we have started to develop a continuous centrifuge for precision particle size fractionation, which could be applied, in principle, to any material, in stark contrast to synthetic processes. Besides, continuous systems could realize not only considerable processing capacity but also the exact particle sizes we want, in contrast to batch systems. Furthermore, since such methodology is based upon principles completely different from those of synthetic processes, it could complement them, by further sharpening the size distribution of the products, for example. We chose liquid phase as separation medium, since it enables high processing capacity and also suppresses the possible aggregation of the particles. At present, there are no continuous particle size fractionation systems in liquid phase applicable to the size range below several micrometers. The designs to widen this range down to submicrometers and further, together with realization of high resolution, are to be discussed.

  12. Size Effects in PbTiO3 nanocrystals: Effect of Particle Size on Spontaneous Polarization and Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdgan,E.; Rawn, C.; Porter, W.; Payzant, E.; Safari, A.

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous polarization (P{sub s}) and spontaneous strains (x{sub i}) in mechanically unclamped and surface charge compensated PbTiO{sub 3} nanocrystals were determined as a function of particle size in the range <150 nm by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray powder diffraction, respectively. Significant deviations from bulk order parameters (P, x{sub i}) have been observed as the particle size decreased below {approx}100 nm. The critical size (r{sub c}) below which the ferroelectric tetragonal phase transforms to the paraelectric cubic phase was determined as {approx}15 nm. The depression in transition temperature with particle size is 14 C at 28 nm. No change in the order of m3m-->4mm ferrodistortive phase transition is observed. A simple analysis showed that {Delta}Htr/(kBT){approx}10{sup 3} at 25 C for r=16 nm, indicating that the stabilization of the cubic phase at rc cannot be linked to an instability in dipolar ordering due to thermal agitations. Comparison of the spontaneous volumetric strains with the strain induced by surface stress indicated that the effect of surface stress on ferroelectric phase stability was negligible. Anomalies in electrostrictive properties were determined for r{yields}r{sub c}. The observed size dependence of P{sub S} is attributed to the reduced extent of long-range dipole-dipole interactions that arise due to the changes in bonding characteristics of ions with decreasing particle size in the perovskite lattice, in conformity with a recent study by Tsunekawa et al.

  13. Size effects in PbTiO3 nanocrystals: Effect of particle size on spontaneous polarization and strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Rawn, C. J.; Porter, W. D.; Payzant, E. A.; Safari, A.

    2005-04-01

    The spontaneous polarization (Ps) and spontaneous strains (xi) in mechanically unclamped and surface charge compensated PbTiO3 nanocrystals were determined as a function of particle size in the range <150nm by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray powder diffraction, respectively. Significant deviations from bulk order parameters (P,xi) have been observed as the particle size decreased below ˜100nm. The critical size (rc) below which the ferroelectric tetragonal phase transforms to the paraelectric cubic phase was determined as ˜15nm. The depression in transition temperature with particle size is 14 °C at 28 nm. No change in the order of m3m →4mm ferrodistortive phase transition is observed. A simple analysis showed that ΔHtr/(kBT )˜103 at 25 °C for r =16nm, indicating that the stabilization of the cubic phase at rc cannot be linked to an instability in dipolar ordering due to thermal agitations. Comparison of the spontaneous volumetric strains with the strain induced by surface stress indicated that the effect of surface stress on ferroelectric phase stability was negligible. Anomalies in electrostrictive properties were determined for r →rc. The observed size dependence of PS is attributed to the reduced extent of long-range dipole-dipole interactions that arise due to the changes in bonding characteristics of ions with decreasing particle size in the perovskite lattice, in conformity with a recent study by Tsunekawa et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (16), 4340 (2000)].

  14. Particle size effect on the complex permeability for permalloy composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasagi, Teruhiro; Tsutaoka, Takanori; Hatakeyama, Kenichi

    1999-09-01

    Complex permeability {mu}* = {mu}{prime}-i{mu}{double{underscore}prime} of permalloy (Fe{sub 0.55}Ni{sub 0.45}) composite materials has been studied in the frequency range from 10kHz to 2GHz for two different particle sizes of permalloys (particle diameter d < 45{micro}m and d < 6{micro}m). Low frequency permeabilities of small particle composites have larger values than those of large particle ones and natural resonance frequency of small particle composites is lower than that of large particle ones. The ac electrical resistivity in low frequency range shows a drastic increase at about 40 vol% permalloy content with decreasing permalloy content indicating the disconnection of embedded permalloy particles. These properties can be realized considering the eddy current in composite materials.

  15. Accurate stratospheric particle size distributions from a flat plate collection surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Flat plate particle collections have revealed the presence of a remarkable variety of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial material in the stratosphere. It is found that the ratio of terrestrial to extraterrestrial material and the nature of the material collected may vary significantly over short time scales. These fluctuations may be related to massive injections of volcanic ash, emissions from solid fuel rockets, or variations in the micrometeoroid flux. The variations in particle number density can be of great importance to the earth's atmospheric radiation balance, and, therefore, its climate. With the objective to assess the number density of solid particles in the stratosphere, an examination has been conducted of all particles exceeding 1 micron in average diameter for a representative suite of particles obtained from a single flat plate collection surface. Attention is given to solid particle size distributions in the stratosphere, and the origin of important stratospheric particle types.

  16. Decreasing Particle Size of Paclitaxel Using Polymer in Fractional Precipitation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Jin-Hyun [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we have for the first time applied fractional precipitation with hydrophilic polymer in order to decrease the particle size of the anticancer agent paclitaxel from plant cell cultures. When compared with the case where no hydrophilic polymer was employed, the addition of hydrophilic polymer in fractional precipitation resulted in a decrease in the size of the paclitaxel precipitate. Among the polymers used, HPMC 2910 was the most effective for inhibition of precipitate growth. A polymer concentration of 0.2% (w/v) obtained the smallest particle size. The particle size was reduced by -35% compared to control. In addition, the precipitate size was inversely correlated with the absolute value of the zeta potential.

  17. Particle-size distribution of airborne poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, A; Kirchgeorg, T; Weinberg, I; Matthias, V

    2015-06-01

    Eleven particle-size-segregated samples were taken to investigate the particle-size distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) using two five stage impactors in parallel. Samples were extracted with methanol and detected by HPLC/MS-MS. Investigation yielded reproducible results for the parallel samples over the entire sampling period. Particle-size distribution varied between perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), perfluorooctane carboxylate (PFOA) and other perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and n-methyl-perfluorooctanesulfonamido ethanol (MeFOSE). Whereas PFOA and MeFOSE were predominantly observed in smallest size fraction (size fractions between 1.38 and 3.81μm. The reason for this different behaviour remained unclear and indicated a complex atmospheric PFAS processing and sampling which should be further investigated and optimized, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Particle size distribution and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls in the atmosphere in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingqing; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Xian; Dong, Shujun; Gao, Lirong; Liang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Size-fractionated samples of urban particulate matter (PM; ≤1.0, 1.0-2.5, 2.5-10, and >10 μm) and gaseous samples were simultaneously obtained to study the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the atmosphere in Beijing, China. Most recent investigations focused on the analysis of gaseous PCBs, and much less attention has been paid to the occurrence of PCBs among different PM fractions. In the present study, the gas-particle partitioning and size-specific distribution of PCBs in atmosphere were investigated. The total concentrations (gas + particle phase fractions) of Σ12 dioxin-like PCBs, Σ7 indicator PCBs, and ΣPCBs were 1.68, 42.1, and 345 pg/m3, respectively. PCBs were predominantly in the gas phase (86.8-99.0 % of the total concentrations). The gas-particle partition coefficients (K p ) of PCBs were found to be a significant linear correlated with the subcooled liquid vapor pressures (P L0) (R 2 = 0.83, P particle partitioning of PCBs was affected both by the mechanisms of adsorption and absorption. In addition, the concentrations of PCBs increased as the particle size decreased (>10, 2.5-10, 1.0-2.5, and ≤1.0 μm), with most of the PCBs contained in the fraction of ≤1.0 μm (53.4 % of the total particulate concentrations). Tetra-CBs were the main homolog in the air samples in the gas phase and PM fractions, followed by tri-CBs. This work will contribute to the knowledge of PCBs among different PM fractions and fill the gap of the size distribution of particle-bound dioxin-like PCBs in the air.

  19. [Particle Size Distribution and Pollutant Speciation Analyses of Stormwater Runoff in the Ancient Town of Suzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai; Wu, Wei; Tian, Yong-jing; Huang, Tian-yin

    2016-02-15

    The particle size distribution (PSD) and its transformation processes in the stormwater runoffs in the ancient town of Suzhou were studied based on the particles size analyses, the water-quality monitoring data and the parameters of the rainfall-runoff models. The commercial districts, the modern residential area, the old residential area, the traffic area and the landscape tourist area were selected as the five functional example areas in the ancient town of Suzhou. The effects of antecedent dry period, the rainfall intensity and the amount of runoffs on the particle size distributions were studied, and the existing forms of the main pollutants in different functional areas and their possible relations were analyzed as well. The results showed that the particle size distribution, the migration processes and the output characteristics in the stormwater runoffs were greatly different in these five functional areas, which indicated different control measures for the pollution of the runoffs should be taken in the design process. The antecedent dry period, the rainfall intensity and the amount of runoffs showed significant correlations with the particle size distribution, showing these were the important factors. The output of the particles was greatly influenced by the flow scouring in the early period of the rainfall, and the correlations between the amount of runoffs and the particle migration ability presented significant difference in 30% (early period) and 70% (later period) of the runoff volume. The major existence form of the output pollutants was particle, and the correlation analyses of different diameter particles showed that the particles smaller than 150 microm were the dominant carrier of the pollutants via adsorption and accumulation processes.

  20. Particle Size Effects on Flow Properties of PS304 Plasma Spray Feedstock Powder Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Eylon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The effects of BaF2-CaF2 particle size and size distribution on PS304 feedstock powder flowability have been investigated. Angular BaF2-CaF2 eutectic powders were produced by comminution and classified by screening to obtain 38 to 45 microns 45 to 106 microns, 63 to 106 microns, 45 to 53 microns, 63 to 75 microns, and 90 to 106 microns particle size distributions. The fluorides were added incrementally from 0 to 10 wt% to the other powder constituents of the PS304 feedstock: nichrome, chromia, and silver powders. The flow rate of the powder blends decreased linearly with increasing concentration of the fluorides. Flow was degraded with decreasing BaF2-CaF2 particle size and with increasing BaF2-CaF2 particle size distribution. A semiempirical relationship is offered to describe the PS304 powder blend flow behavior. The Hausner Ratio confirmed the funnel flow test results, but was slightly less sensitive to differences in BaF2-CaF2 particle size and size distribution. These findings may have applicability to other powders that do not flow easily, such as ceramic powders.

  1. 40 CFR Table F-3 to Subpart F of... - Critical Parameters of Idealized Ambient Particle Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Particle Size Distributions F Table F-3 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Ambient Particle Size Distributions Idealized Distribution Fine Particle Mode MMD (µm) Geo. Std. Dev. Conc. (µg/m3) Coarse Particle Mode MMD (µm) Geo. Std. Dev. Conc. (µg/m3) PM2.5/PM10 Ratio FRM Sampler...

  2. Effect of particle size on thermal decomposition of alkali metal picrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Tonglai, E-mail: ztlbit@bit.edu.cn; Yang, Li; Zhou, Zunning

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The smaller-sized picrate has greater gas emission than do its larger counterpart. The small size effect reduces the thermal decomposition activation energy, accelerates the reaction rate, and promotes the reaction activity. - Highlights: • Picrates were prepared into three micron sizes by microemulsion synthesis. • Thermal decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics were studied by DPTA and DSC. • Smaller-sized picrate has higher activity and faster reaction rate. • Particle size effect on thermal decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics was revealed. - Abstract: Three alkali metal picrates, KPA, RbPA and CsPA, were prepared into three micron sizes by microemulsion synthesis, and their thermal decomposition behaviors were investigated by DPTA at different temperatures and by DSC at different heating rates. The smaller-sized picrate has greater gas emission and smaller kinetic and thermodynamic parameters than do its larger counterpart. It can be attributed to the decreasing particle size which leads to the high surface energy, the fast mass and heat transfer, and the increasing active sites on the reaction interface. The small size effect and surface effect cause the autocatalysis which reduces the activation energy and promotes the reaction activity. The particle size does not affect the reaction mechanism. However, the picrates with different central alkali metals exhibit different reaction mechanisms even though they are of the same size. This is because the central metal determines the bond energy and consequently affects the stability of picrate.

  3. Effect of particle size on the thermo-optic properties of gold nanofluids – A thermal lens study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Basheer, N. Shemeena; Kurian, Achamma [Photonics Lab, Department of Physics, Catholicate College, Pathanamthitta (India); George, Sajan D., E-mail: sajan.george@manipal.edu [Centre for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-28

    Spherical gold nanoparticles having particle size in the range 30 to 50 nm are prepared using citrate reduction of gold chloride trihydrate in water. The influence of particle size on the thermal diffusivity value of gold nanofluid is measured using dual beam thermal lens technique. The present study shows that the particle size influences the effective thermal diffusivity value of the nanofluid substantially and the value decreases with decrease in particle size for the investigated samples.

  4. Effect of indirect non-thermal plasma on particle size distribution and composition of diesel engine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linbo, GU; Yixi, CAI; Yunxi, SHI; Jing, WANG; Xiaoyu, PU; Jing, TIAN; Runlin, FAN

    2017-11-01

    To explore the effect of the gas source flow rate on the actual diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM), a test bench for diesel engine exhaust purification was constructed, using indirect non-thermal plasma technology. The effects of different gas source flow rates on the quantity concentration, composition, and apparent activation energy of PM were investigated, using an engine exhaust particle sizer and a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The results show that when the gas source flow rate was large, not only the maximum peak quantity concentrations of particles had a large drop, but also the peak quantity concentrations shifted to smaller particle sizes from 100 nm to 80 nm. When the gas source flow rate was 10 L min-1, the total quantity concentration greatly decreased where the removal rate of particles was 79.2%, and the variation of the different mode particle proportion was obvious. Non-thermal plasma (NTP) improved the oxidation ability of volatile matter as well as that of solid carbon. However, the NTP gas source rate had little effects on oxidation activity of volatile matter, while it strongly influenced the oxidation activity of solid carbon. Considering the quantity concentration and oxidation activity of particles, a gas source flow rate of 10 L min-1 was more appropriate for the purification of particles.

  5. In situ exhaust cloud measurements. [particle size distribution and cloud physics of rocket exhaust clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wornom, D.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne in situ exhaust cloud measurements were conducted to obtain definitions of cloud particle size range, Cl2 content, and HCl partitioning. Particle size distribution data and Cl2 measurements were made during the May, August, and September 1977 Titan launches. The measurements of three basic effluents - HCl, NO sub X, and particles - against minutes after launch are plotted. The maximum observed HCl concentration to the maximum Cl2 concentration are compared and the ratios of the Cl2 to the HCl is calculated.

  6. Anomalous Particle Size Dependence of Magnetic Relaxation Phenomena in Goethite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Frandsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By use of Mössbauer spectroscopy we have studied the magnetic properties of samples of goethite nanoparticles with different particle size. The spectra are influenced by fluctuations of the magnetization directions, but the size dependence is not in accordance with the Néel-Brown expression for superparamagnetic relaxation of the magnetization vectors of the particles as a whole. The data suggest that the magnetic fluctuations can be explained by fluctuations of the magnetization directions of small interacting grains within the particles.

  7. Influence of removal time and particle size on the particle substrate adhesion force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Felicetti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted on influence of removal time on the particle substrate adhesive force. The centrifuge technique was used to determine the adhesion force at different compression and removal rates. A microcentrifuge with a maximum rotation of 14000 rpm was used to both compress upon particles and remove them from the surface of the substrate. An image analysis program (Image-Pro Plus 4.5 was employed to monitor the number of particles adhering to and removed from the surface of the substrate after each increase in angular speed. The influence of removal time on the adhesion force was investigated, using removal times of 1, 3 and 5 minutes, which indicated that removal time does not interfere with the adhesion force within the diameter range analyzed here.

  8. [Size distribution of particle and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle emissions from simulated emission sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai-Huan; Tian, Na; Shang, Hui-Bin; Zhang, Bin; Ye, Su-Fen; Chen, Xiao-Qiu; Wu, Shui-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Particles from cooking lampblack, biomass and plastics burning smoke, gasoline vehicular exhausts and gasoline generator exhausts were prepared in a resuspension test chamber and collected using a cascade MOUDI impactor. A total of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particles were analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that there were two peaks in the range of 0.44-1.0 microm and 2.5-10 microm for cooking lampblack, and only one peak in the range of 0.44-1.0 microm for straw and wood burning smoke. But there were no clear peak for plastics burning smoke. The peak for gasoline vehicular exhausts was found in the range of 2.5-10 microm due to the influence of water vapor associated with particles, while the particles from gasoline generator exhausts were mainly in the range of < or = 2.5 microm (accounting for 93% of the total mass). The peak in 2.5-10 microm was clear for cooking lampblack and gasoline vehicular exhausts. The peak in the range of 0.44-1.0 microm became more and more apparent with the increase of PAHs molecular weight. The fraction of PAH on particles less than 1.0 microm to that on the total particles increased along with PAH's molecular weight. Phenanthrene was the dominant compound for cooking lampblack and combustion smoke, while gasoline vehicular exhausts and generator exhausts were characterized with significantly high levels of naphthalene and benzo[g, h, i] perylene, respectively. The distribution of source characteristic ratios indicated that PAHs from cooking lampblack and biomass burning were close and they were different from those of vehicular exhausts and generator exhausts.

  9. Aerosol number size distributions over a coastal semi urban location: Seasonal changes and ultrafine particle bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S. Suresh, E-mail: s_sureshbabu@vssc.gov.in [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram 695022 (India); Kompalli, Sobhan Kumar [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram 695022 (India); Moorthy, K. Krishna [Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2016-09-01

    Number-size distribution is one of the important microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols that influence aerosol life cycle, aerosol-radiation interaction as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. Making use of one-yearlong measurements of aerosol particle number-size distributions (PNSD) over a broad size spectrum (~ 15–15,000 nm) from a tropical coastal semi-urban location-Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram), the size characteristics, their seasonality and response to mesoscale and synoptic scale meteorology are examined. While the accumulation mode contributed mostly to the annual mean concentration, ultrafine particles (having diameter < 100 nm) contributed as much as 45% to the total concentration, and thus constitute a strong reservoir, that would add to the larger particles through size transformation. The size distributions were, in general, bimodal with well-defined modes in the accumulation and coarse regimes, with mode diameters lying in the range 141 to 167 nm and 1150 to 1760 nm respectively, in different seasons. Despite the contribution of the coarse sized particles to the total number concentration being meager, they contributed significantly to the surface area and volume, especially during transport of marine air mass highlighting the role of synoptic air mass changes. Significant diurnal variation occurred in the number concentrations, geometric mean diameters, which is mostly attributed to the dynamics of the local coastal atmospheric boundary layer and the effect of mesoscale land/sea breeze circulation. Bursts of ultrafine particles (UFP) occurred quite frequently, apparently during periods of land-sea breeze transitions, caused by the strong mixing of precursor-rich urban air mass with the cleaner marine air mass; the resulting turbulence along with boundary layer dynamics aiding the nucleation. These ex-situ particles were observed at the surface due to the transport associated with boundary layer dynamics. The particle growth rates from

  10. Intermethod comparison of the particle size distributions of colloidal silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuoriniemi, Jani; Johnsson, Ann-Cathrin J H; Holmberg, Jenny Perez; Gustafsson, Stefan; Gallego-Urrea, Julián A; Olsson, Eva; Pettersson, Jan B C; Hassellöv, Martin

    2014-06-01

    There can be a large variation in the measured diameter of nanoparticles depending on which method is used. In this work, we have strived to accurately determine the mean particle diameter of 30-40 nm colloidal silica particles by using six different techniques. A quantitative agreement between the particle size distributions was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrospray-scanning mobility particle sizer (ES-SMPS). However, transmission electron microscopy gave a distribution shifted to smaller sizes. After confirming that the magnification calibration was consistent, this was attributed to sample preparation artifacts. The hydrodynamic diameter, d h , was determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) both in batch mode, and hyphenated with sedimentation field flow fractionation. Surprisingly the d h were smaller than the SEM, and ES-SMPS diameters. A plausible explanation for the smaller sizes found with DLS is that a permeable gel layer forms on the particle surface. Results from nanoparticle tracking analysis were strongly biased towards larger diameters, most likely because the silica particles provide low refractive index contrast. Calculations confirmed that the sensitivity is, depending on the shape of the laser beam, strongly size dependent for particles with diameters close to the visualization limit.

  11. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Ammonium Sulphate Dried in a Rotary Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susianto Susianto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study theoretically, by mathematical model development, the effect of particle size distribution on the performance of rotary dryer to dry ammonium sulphate fertilizer assuming plug flow with axial dispersion pattern (PFDA model for solid particle flow. The mathematical model development was carried out by combining the drying processes model with particle size distribution model. Particle size distribution models used are Rosin-Rommler model and Gamma distribution model. For simplicity, the model of drying processes of solid particles in the rotary dryer was developed by assuming of uniform air conditions (temperature and humidity along the rotary dryer as in the entry conditions. The resulting differential equations were solved analytically under Matlab 6.1 facility.Since this model, solid hold up, and axial dispersion number were obtained from empirical correlations in the literatures. The drying rate of ammonium sulphate fertilizer in rotary dryer was estimated using isothermal diffusion model with effective diffusivity of moisture in the particle obtained from previous study [2]. Using Gamma function distribution, this research showed that for the value of the coefficient of variance (CV less than 0.5, particle size distribution does not have significant effect on dryer performance. For the value of CV greater than 0.5, the dryer performance increase (or outlet solid moisture content decrease with increasing the value of CV. The application of Rosin-Rammler model gives lower prediction of outlet solid moisture content compared to the application of Gamma function model.

  12. Towards High Capacity Li-ion Batteries Based on Silicon-Graphene Composite Anodes and Sub-micron V-doped LiFePO4 Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, M. J.; Lain, M. J.; Johnson, I. D.; Roberts, A.; Beattie, S. D.; Dashwood, R.; Darr, J. A.; Bhagat, R.

    2016-11-01

    Lithium iron phosphate, LiFePO4 (LFP) has demonstrated promising performance as a cathode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), by overcoming the rate performance issues from limited electronic conductivity. Nano-sized vanadium-doped LFP (V-LFP) was synthesized using a continuous hydrothermal process using supercritical water as a reagent. The atomic % of dopant determined the particle shape. 5 at. % gave mixed plate and rod-like morphology, showing optimal electrochemical performance and good rate properties vs. Li. Specific capacities of >160 mAh g-1 were achieved. In order to increase the capacity of a full cell, V-LFP was cycled against an inexpensive micron-sized metallurgical grade Si-containing anode. This electrode was capable of reversible capacities of approximately 2000 mAh g-1 for over 150 cycles vs. Li, with improved performance resulting from the incorporation of few layer graphene (FLG) to enhance conductivity, tensile behaviour and thus, the composite stability. The cathode material synthesis and electrode formulation are scalable, inexpensive and are suitable for the fabrication of larger format cells suited to grid and transport applications.

  13. Optimization of solid state fermentation of sugar cane by Aspergillus niger considering particles size effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J.; Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Delgado, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba)); Espinosa, M.E. (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    The protein enrichment of sugar cane by solid state fermentation employing Aspergillus niger was optimized in a packed bed column using a two Factor Central Composit Design {alpha} = 2, considering as independent factors the particle diameter corresponding to different times of grinding for a sample and the air flow rate. It was significative for the air flow rate (optimum 4.34 VKgM) and the particle diameter (optimum 0.136 cm). The average particle size distribution, shape factor, specific surface, volume-surface mean diameter, number of particles, real and apparent density and holloweness for the different times of grinding were determined, in order to characterize the samples. (orig.).

  14. An analytical force balance model for dust particles with size up to several Debye lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussems, D. U. B.; Khrapak, S. A.; Doǧan, I.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Morgan, T. W.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we developed a revised stationary force balance model for particles in the regime a / λ D plasmas, a novel contribution to the dipole moment was derived. Moreover, the Coulomb logarithm and collection cross-section were modified. The model was applied on a case study where carbon dust is formed near the plasma sheath in the linear plasma device Pilot-PSI. The pressure force and dipole force were found to be significant. By tracing the equilibrium position, the particle radius was determined at which the particle deposits. The obtained particle radius agrees well with the experimentally obtained size and suggests better agreement as compared to the unrevised model.

  15. LDL particle number and size and cardiovascular risk: anything new under the sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Janie; Vors, Cécile; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-06-01

    We provide here an up-to-date perspective on the potential use of LDL particle number and size as complementary risk factors to predict and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the clinical realm. Studies show that a significant proportion of the population has discordant LDL particle number and cholesterol indices [non-HDL cholesterol (HDL-C)]. Data also show that risk prediction may be improved when using information on LDL particle number in patients with discordant particle number and cholesterol data. Yet, most of the current CVD guidelines conclude that LDL particle number is not superior to cholesterol indices, including non-HDL-C concentrations, in predicting CVD risk. LDL particle size, on the other hand, has not been independently associated with CVD risk after adjustment for other risk factors such as LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-C and that routine use of information pertaining to particle size to determine and manage patients' risk is not yet justified. Additional studies are required to settle the debate on which of cholesterol indices and LDL particle number is the best predictor of CVD risk, and if such measures should be integrated in clinical practice.

  16. A method for detecting the presence of organic fraction in nucleation mode sized particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vaattovaara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation and growth has a very important role in many climate processes. However, the overall knowlegde of the chemical composition of atmospheric nucleation mode (particle diameter, d<20 nm and the lower end of Aitken mode particles (d≤50 nm is still insufficient. In this work, we have applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to shed light on the presence of an organic fraction in the nucleation mode size class in different atmospheric environments. The basic principle of the organic fraction detection is based on our laboratory UFO-TDMA measurements with organic and inorganic compounds. Our laboratory measurements indicate that the usefulness of the UFO-TDMA in the field experiments would arise especially from the fact that atmospherically the most relevant inorganic compounds do not grow in subsaturated ethanol vapor, when particle size is 10 nm in diameter and saturation ratio is about 86% or below it. Furthermore, internally mixed particles composed of ammonium bisulfate and sulfuric acid with sulfuric acid mass fraction ≤33% show no growth at 85% saturation ratio. In contrast, 10 nm particles composed of various oxidized organic compounds of atmospheric relevance are able to grow in those conditions. These discoveries indicate that it is possible to detect the presence of organics in atmospheric nucleation mode sized particles using the UFO-TDMA method. In the future, the UFO-TDMA is expected to be an important aid to describe the composition of atmospheric newly-formed particles.

  17. Trends in the evolution of particle morphology with size in colluvial deposits overlying channel iron deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linero, Sandra; Fityus, Stephen; Simmons, John; Lizcano, Arcesio; Cassidy, Jessica

    2017-06-01

    Size limitations of testing equipment often impliy that samples of coarse granular materials must be scalped or scaled, to reduce the size of the constitutive particles, before they can be tested either by triaxial or direct shear in the laboratory. The objective of the investigation is to evaluate the particle shapes in a natural sample of colluvial sediments, to identify potential correlation(s) between shape and size, that could impact shear strength of scaled samples. The material investigated is derived from eroded ancient sedimentary rocks from the Pilbara region of Australia. The fragments have a particle shape ranging from slabs to sub-equant blocks. The observation indicates that there is an increase in the tendency for slabshapes in larger particles. Therefore, scaling inevitably alters the characteristic shapes of the material particles as it implies substituting larger (slabs) particles by smaller (sub-equant) particles. Changes in particle shape distribution may induce changes in material fabric and shear strength and therefore may need to be considered when scaling samples.

  18. Trends in the evolution of particle morphology with size in colluvial deposits overlying channel iron deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linero Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Size limitations of testing equipment often impliy that samples of coarse granular materials must be scalped or scaled, to reduce the size of the constitutive particles, before they can be tested either by triaxial or direct shear in the laboratory. The objective of the investigation is to evaluate the particle shapes in a natural sample of colluvial sediments, to identify potential correlation(s between shape and size, that could impact shear strength of scaled samples. The material investigated is derived from eroded ancient sedimentary rocks from the Pilbara region of Australia. The fragments have a particle shape ranging from slabs to sub-equant blocks. The observation indicates that there is an increase in the tendency for slabshapes in larger particles. Therefore, scaling inevitably alters the characteristic shapes of the material particles as it implies substituting larger (slabs particles by smaller (sub-equant particles. Changes in particle shape distribution may induce changes in material fabric and shear strength and therefore may need to be considered when scaling samples.

  19. Particle size distributions in polar mesospheric clouds derived from solar mesosphere explorer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusch, D. W.; Thomas, G. E.; Jensen, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    Data from the visible and UV spectrometers on the Solar Mesosphere Explorer are used to derive the color ratios of the reflectance at 265, 296, and 393 nm of light scattered from polar mesospheric cloud particles. This analysis extends the spectral coverage into the visible region of the spectrum. The data reduction technique compared the cloud brightness to the brightness scattered from the background atmosphere at the same wavelength. The ratios determined in this way are independent of systematic errors in instrument radiometric calibration. The data are analyzed using theoretical determinations of the color ratios from the Mie theory of small particle scattering, assuming a lognormal distribution for the particle size dispersion. Here 'size' means the average radius of the sphere having the same ice volume. The present results confirm earlier findings that the effective sizes of polar mesospheric cloud particles are less than 70 nm. Still, there exists a small number of measurements which result in particle sizes of the order of 80 nm. Even for these large particle sizes the required vertical column content of water vapor does not exceed limits imposed by the available atmospheric water vapor concentrations.

  20. Particle size distributions from laboratory-scale biomass fires using fast response instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hosseini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Particle size distribution from biomass combustion is an important parameter as it affects air quality, climate modelling and health effects. To date, particle size distributions reported from prior studies vary not only due to difference in fuels but also difference in experimental conditions. This study aims to report characteristics of particle size distributions in well controlled repeatable lab scale biomass fires for southwestern United States fuels with focus on chaparral. The combustion laboratory at the United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service's Fire Science Laboratory (USDA-FSL, Missoula, MT provided a repeatable combustion and dilution environment ideal for measurements. For a variety of fuels tested the major mode of particle size distribution was in the range of 29 to 52 nm, which is attributable to dilution of the fresh smoke. Comparing mass size distribution from FMPS and APS measurement 51–68% of particle mass was attributable to the particles ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm for PM10. Geometric mean diameter rapidly increased during flaming and gradually decreased during mixed and smoldering phase combustion. Most fuels produced a unimodal distribution during flaming phase and strong biomodal distribution during smoldering phase. The mode of combustion (flaming, mixed and smoldering could be better distinguished using the slopes in MCE (Modified Combustion Efficiency vs. geometric mean diameter than only using MCE values.

  1. Characterisation and Treatment of Nano-sized Particles, Colloids and Associated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Stormwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine

    Stormwater from urban areas contains a vast array of different pollutants, including particulate matter and organic and inorganic compounds as well as microbial pollution. These compounds can be found associated with particulate matter, colloids and nano-sized particles in stormwater. The associa......Stormwater from urban areas contains a vast array of different pollutants, including particulate matter and organic and inorganic compounds as well as microbial pollution. These compounds can be found associated with particulate matter, colloids and nano-sized particles in stormwater.......Since little is known about the colloids and nano-sized particle-enhanced transportation of pollutants in stormwater, it has been difficult to determine their quantitative role in the total release of pollutants into receiving waters.Therefore the main purpose of this thesis has been to document the presence......-sized particles in the stormwater, in terms of particle size distribution (PSD) and zeta potential. In combination with the characterisation of the particles, concentrations