WorldWideScience

Sample records for sub-micro ti particles

  1. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Quanchao [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Yunnan Copper Smelting and Processing Complex, Yunnan Copper (Group) CO., LTD., Kunming 650102 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Peng, Jinghui [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Xu, Lei, E-mail: xulei_kmust@aliyun.com [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Srinivasakannan, C. [Chemical Engineering Department, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); and others

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of TiAl/Ti3Al-based intermetallic composites (IMCs) reinforced with ceramic particles

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kevorkijan; S.D. Škapin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to fabricate and characterise TiAl/Ti3Al-based intermetallic composites (IMCs) reinforced with ceramic particles.Design/methodology/approach: Composites were formulated by blending commercially available powders of either TiAl or Ti3Al (technical grade with traces of Al and Ti) with ceramic powders (B4C, TiC or TiB2) in appropriate amounts to create titanium aluminide-based matrices with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 vol. % of B4C, TiC or TiB2 discontinuo...

  3. Shape-Controlled TiCx Particles Fabricated by Combustion Synthesis in the Cu-Ti-C System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available TiCx particle-reinforced Cu-matrix composites were prepared in the Cu-Ti-C system by thermal explosion and hot press. Extracted TiCx particles with various shapes of in situ TiCx particles in the Cu-Ti-C system were observed through the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM. It was found that octahedral and close-to-spherical, spherical or cubic TiCx could be fabricated by changing the C/Ti molar ratio and Cu content. Then, the effect of the C/Ti molar ratio and constituent element concentrations on the shape of in situ TiCx particles was determined: the shape of TiCx particles is octahedral at a C/Ti ratio of 0.4–0.6 with the presence of 70 vol% Cu; or spherical and close-to-spherical at 0.8–1.0 with the presence of 70 vol% Cu; or cubic at C/Ti ratios ≥1.0 with the presence of Cu from 80 vol%–90 vol% and even at C/Ti ratios >1.0 with the presence of 70 vol% Cu. The shape-controlled synthesis of TiCx particles in the Cu-Ti-C system is realized.

  4. Teaching the mole concept with sub-micro level: Do the students perform better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, Nurma Yunita; Barke, Hans-Dieter

    2017-08-01

    The concept of mole is an abstract concept of sub-micro level. The main problem in chemistry that should be encounter by educators is students' inability to transfer understanding between macro level and sub-micro level. Particle-oriented approach is created due to improper expression in the term of mole on books and classroom learning. A mole is the amount of substance of a system, which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0,012 kg of carbon-12. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified; they may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles. The study presented here focuses on students' activity and response taught by mole triangle implemented in German and Indonesian classroom. Two classes of grade-10 were involved in each country. The way of students perform in the test was analyzed. Hands-on activities were used as an entrance and followed by particle-oriented expression. In worksheets of each hands-on experience, students should write the correct expression of mole concept. The results of the study indicated that there is different level of understanding in representing knowledge in learning the mole. The use of correct expression will ensure that students see meaningful relationships and can easily go back and forth between macro, sub-micro and symbolic level.

  5. The effect of melting temperature and time on the TiC particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Kun [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Materials Liquid Structure and Heredity, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China)

    2009-09-18

    In the present work, the microstructure formation process and particle size distribution of TiC in Al-Ti-C master alloys are investigated by particle size analysis, which is based on the morphology characterizing from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TiC particle size distributions at different melting temperatures and during different melting times are researched. It is demonstrated that the TiC particle sizes increase with melting temperature and melting time elapsed. The micro size particles appear when the melting temperature is high enough.

  6. Influence of TiB2 particles on machinability and machining parameter optimization of TiB2/Al MMCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong JIANG

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ formed TiB2 particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites (TiB2/Al MMCs have some extraordinary properties which make them be a promising material for high performance aero-engine blade. Due to the influence of TiB2 particles, the machinability is still a problem which restricts the application of TiB2/Al MMCs. In order to meet the industrial requirements, the influence of TiB2 particles on the machinability of TiB2/Al MMCs was investigated experimentally. Moreover, the optimal machining conditions for this kind of MMCs were investigated in this study. The major conclusions are: (1 the machining force of TiB2/Al MMCs is bigger than that of non-reinforced alloy and mainly controlled by feed rate; (2 the residual stress of TiB2/Al MMCs is compressive while that of non-reinforced alloy is nearly neutral; (3 the surface roughness of TiB2/Al MMCs is smaller than that of non-reinforced alloy under the same cutting speed, but reverse result was observed when the feed rate increased; (4 a multi-objective optimization model for surface roughness and material removal rate (MRR was established, and a set of optimal parameter combinations of the machining was obtained. The results show a great difference from SiC particle reinforced MMCs and provide a useful guide for a better control of machining process of this material.

  7. Grain Refinement Efficiency in Commercial-Purity Aluminum Influenced by the Addition of Al-4Ti Master Alloys with Varying TiAl3 Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhua; He, Jiansheng; Tang, Qi; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A series of Al-4Ti master alloys with various TiAl3 particles were prepared via pouring the pure aluminum added with K2TiF6 or sponge titanium into three different molds made of graphite, copper, and sand. The microstructure and morphology of TiAl3 particles were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The microstructure of TiAl3 particles in Al-4Ti master alloys and their grain refinement efficiency in commercial-purity aluminum were investigated in this study. Results show that there were three different morphologies of TiAl3 particles in Al-4Ti master alloys: petal-like structures, blocky structures, and flaky structures. The Al-4Ti master alloy with blocky TiAl3 particles had better and more stable grain refinement efficiency than the master alloys with petal-like and flaky TiAl3 particles. The average grain size of the refined commercial-purity aluminum always hereditarily followed the size of the original TiAl3 particles. In addition, the grain refinement efficiency of Al-4Ti master alloys with the same morphology, size, and distribution of TiAl3 particles prepared through different processes was almost identical. PMID:28773987

  8. Grain Refinement Efficiency in Commercial-Purity Aluminum Influenced by the Addition of Al-4Ti Master Alloys with Varying TiAl₃ Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhua; He, Jiansheng; Tang, Qi; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jing

    2016-10-26

    A series of Al-4Ti master alloys with various TiAl₃ particles were prepared via pouring the pure aluminum added with K₂TiF₆ or sponge titanium into three different molds made of graphite, copper, and sand. The microstructure and morphology of TiAl₃ particles were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The microstructure of TiAl₃ particles in Al-4Ti master alloys and their grain refinement efficiency in commercial-purity aluminum were investigated in this study. Results show that there were three different morphologies of TiAl₃ particles in Al-4Ti master alloys: petal-like structures, blocky structures, and flaky structures. The Al-4Ti master alloy with blocky TiAl₃ particles had better and more stable grain refinement efficiency than the master alloys with petal-like and flaky TiAl₃ particles. The average grain size of the refined commercial-purity aluminum always hereditarily followed the size of the original TiAl₃ particles. In addition, the grain refinement efficiency of Al-4Ti master alloys with the same morphology, size, and distribution of TiAl₃ particles prepared through different processes was almost identical.

  9. Grain Refinement Efficiency in Commercial-Purity Aluminum Influenced by the Addition of Al-4Ti Master Alloys with Varying TiAl3 Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of Al-4Ti master alloys with various TiAl3 particles were prepared via pouring the pure aluminum added with K2TiF6 or sponge titanium into three different molds made of graphite, copper, and sand. The microstructure and morphology of TiAl3 particles were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The microstructure of TiAl3 particles in Al-4Ti master alloys and their grain refinement efficiency in commercial-purity aluminum were investigated in this study. Results show that there were three different morphologies of TiAl3 particles in Al-4Ti master alloys: petal-like structures, blocky structures, and flaky structures. The Al-4Ti master alloy with blocky TiAl3 particles had better and more stable grain refinement efficiency than the master alloys with petal-like and flaky TiAl3 particles. The average grain size of the refined commercial-purity aluminum always hereditarily followed the size of the original TiAl3 particles. In addition, the grain refinement efficiency of Al-4Ti master alloys with the same morphology, size, and distribution of TiAl3 particles prepared through different processes was almost identical.

  10. Homogeneous dispersion of TiC nano particles in a cast carbon steel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Hong, Sung-Mo; Han, Byoung-Sun; Park, Jin-Ju; Lee, Jong-Keuk; Lee, Jung-Gu; Lee, Min-Ku; Rhee, Chang-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Metal matrix nano-composites (MMNCs) (metal matrix with nano-sized ceramic particles) can be of great significance because of their high performance and thus it would be advantageous to produce as-cast bulk MMNCs. However, it is so difficult to disperse nano-sized ceramic particles uniformly in molten metal. In this study, carbon steel matrix composites with a homogeneous dispersion of TiC nano particles were fabricated by conventional liquid metal casting method. In order to get highly wettable nano-sized TiC ceramic particles, the micro-sized (approximately 10 m) TiC particles were first mechanically milled (MMed) by Cu in a high-energy ball mill machine (MMed TiC/Cu), and then mixed with Sn powders to obtain better wettability, as this lowered the surface tension of the carbon steel melt. According to OM images, an addition of MMed TiC/Cu-Sn mixed powders favorably disperses the TiC nano particles in the carbon steel matrix. SEM and EDS images revealed that spherical particles with several hundreds of nanometers were distributed uniformly in the carbon steel matrix. It was also found that the grain size refinement of the cast matrix is achieved remarkably when TiC nano particles were added due to the fact that TiC nano particles act as nucleation sites during the solidification process.

  11. Effect of Particle Size and Impact Velocity on Collision Behaviors Between Nano-Scale TiN Particles: MD Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hai-Long; Hu, Xiao-Zhen; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Inter-particle bonding formation which determines qualities of nano-scale ceramic coatings is influenced by particle collision behaviors during high velocity collision processes. In this study, collision behaviors between nano-scale TiN particles with different diameters were illuminated by using Molecular Dynamics simulation through controlling impact velocities. Results show that nano-scale TiN particles exhibit three states depending on particle sizes and impact velocities, i.e., bonding, bonding with localized fracturing, and rebounding. These TiN particles states are summarized into a parameter selection map providing an overview of the conditions in terms of particle sizes and velocities. Microstructure results show that localized atoms displacement and partial fracture around the impact region are main reasons for bonding formation of nano-scale ceramic particles, which shows differences from conventional particles refining and amorphization. A relationship between the adhesion energy and the rebound energy is established to understand bonding formation mechanism for nano-scale TiN particle collision. Results show that the energy relationship is depended on the particle sizes and impact velocities, and nano-scale ceramic particles can be bonded together as the adhesion energy being higher than the rebound energy.

  12. Study of nano-Ag particles doped TiO2 prepared by photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Huang, Yizhong; Wang, Yuan; Ji, Xiaobo; Shih, Shao-Ju; Jia, Buduo

    2009-06-01

    Nano-silver (Ag) particle doped TiO2 composite photocatalyst was prepared by photocatalytic reaction of anatase TiO2 with AgNO3 solution. Microstructures of these particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Its photocatalytic behavior was examined by the degradations of two dyes, methyl orange and methylene blue. In contrast to Ag free TiO2 particles, the nano-Ag particle doped TiO2 photocatalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity. It was also found that 1.0 wt% Ag doped to the TiO2 particles, synthesized through 10 hour ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, offer the best photocatalytic property.

  13. Reflectance spectroscopy from TiO2 particles embedded in polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Canulescu, Stela; Johansen, Villads Egede

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a physical simulation carried out using TiO2-Polyurethane composite coating on bright aluminium surface to understand the light scattering effect for designing white surfaces. Polyurethane matrix is selected due to the matching refractive index (1.7) with Al2O3...... layer on anodized aluminium surfaces. Three different TiO2 particle distributions were dispersed in polyurethane and spin coated onto high gloss and caustic etched aluminium substrates. Reflectance spectra of TiO2-polyurethane films of various concentrations were analysed using an integrating sphere....... The results show that the TiO2-polyurethane coatings have a high diffuse reflectance as a result of multiple scattering from TiO2 particles. Diffuse reflectance spectra of TiO2 containing films vary weakly with particle concentration and reach a steady state value at a concentration of 0.75 wt.%. Using...

  14. Corrosion behavior of TiC particle-reinforced 2Cr13 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qianlin; Yin, Yansheng [Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306 (China); Li, Wenge [College of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-06-15

    The corrosion behavior of TiC particle-reinforced 2Cr13 stainless steels prepared by in situ reaction and electroslag remelting (ESR) was investigated using potentiodynamic polarisation measurements and immersion tests. The addition of TiC particles to 2Cr13 stainless steel impeded rapid pit propagation but maintained a high corrosion rate in the whole immersion time investigated. The TiC addition developed finer matrix structure, the formation of Cr-rich carbides and high dislocation density around the TiC particles before corrosion, which results in an increasing corrosion rate and preferential pitting attack at the steel matrix/TiC interface. Although the corrosion resistance of 2Cr13 stainless steel is sharply decreased due to TiC addition, it is significantly improved after the ESR process. This is attributed to the more uniform distribution and smaller size of TiC particles, the increase of value of {chi} in TiC{chi} and the elimination of the porosity in TiC particle-reinforced 2Cr13 stainless steel after the ESR process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Nitrogen doped TiO2 nano-particles: Phase control by solution combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Komal; Choudhary, R. J.; Phase, D. M.; Shastri, Sheetal; Prasad, R.; Ahuja, B. L.

    2016-05-01

    N-doped TiO2 nano powders were prepared by sol-gel solution combustion method. The influence of different fuels (urea and citric acid) used in obtaining N-TiO2 nano particles in similar conditions (heat treatment, amount of precursors) has been investigated. The growth of different phases of TiO2 (anatase and rutile) is strongly affected by the ligands and the dehydration reaction. Reduction in the band gap of TiO2 and features observed in the XPS spectra confirm the incorporation of N into TiO2 matrix.

  16. Pseudobrookite-type MgTi2O5 water purification filter with controlled particle morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Nakagoshi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudobrookite-type oxide-based ceramics, such as Al2TiO5 and MgTi2O5, have recently been studied as porous ceramic membranes. Here, the effect of LiF doping on the morphology of MgTi2O5 particles is presented in detail. Water purification filters were produced using porous MgTi2O5, with different particle morphologies. MgCO3 (basic and TiO2 powders with various LiF contents were wet-ball milled, dried, and then, calcined in air at 1100 °C to obtain the MgTi2O5 powders. The powder compacts were sintered at 1000–1200 °C to produce the MgTi2O5 disk filters. The 0.5 wt.% LiF-doped MgTi2O5 disk filter, with elongated grains, showed well-balanced performance removing boehmite particles with diameter of 0.7 μm. Non-doped MgTi2O5 disk filter with equiaxed grains was suitable for precise filtration.

  17. Processing and Characterization of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Particle Reinforced Sn-In Solders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Kohn C

    2006-01-01

    .... In previous work, it was proposed that reinforcement of solder by NiTi shape memory alloy particles to form smart composite solder reduces the inelastic strain of the solder and hence, may enhance...

  18. Ti particle-reinforced surface layers in Al: Effect of particle size on microstructure, hardness and wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordyuk, B.N., E-mail: mordyuk@imp.kiev.ua [Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, 36 Academician Vernadsky Boulevard, UA-03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); Silberschmidt, V.V. [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Prokopenko, G.I. [Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics, 36 Academician Vernadsky Boulevard, UA-03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); Nesterenko, Yu.V. [National Technical University ' Kyiv Polytechnic Institute' , 37 Peremohy Avenue, UA-03056, Kyiv (Ukraine); Iefimov, M.O. [Frantzevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, UA-03142, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2010-11-15

    Two types of Ti particles are used in an ultrasonic impact peening (UIP) process to modify sub-surface layers of cp aluminium atomized, with an average size of approx. 20 {mu}m and milled (0.3-0.5 {mu}m). They are introduced into a zone of severe plastic deformation induced by UIP. The effect of Ti particles of different sizes on microstructure, phase composition, microhardness and wear resistance of sub-surface composite layers in aluminium is studied in this paper. The formed layers of a composite reinforced with smaller particles have a highly misoriented fine-grain microstructure of its matrix with a mean grain size of 200-400 nm, while reinforcement with larger particles results in relatively large Al grains (1-2 {mu}m). XRD, SEM, EDX and TEM studies confirm significantly higher particle/matrix bonding in the former case due to formation of a Ti{sub 3}Al interlayer around Ti particles with rough surface caused by milling. Different microstructures determine hardness and wear resistance of reinforced aluminium layers: while higher magnitudes of microhardness are observed for both composites (when compared with those of annealed and UIP-treated aluminium), the wear resistance is improved only in the case of reinforcement with small particles.

  19. TiO2 (NanoParticles Extracted from Sugar-Coated Confectionery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lorenzetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the debate about TiO2 food additive safety is still open, the present study focuses on the extraction and characterisation of TiO2 (nanoparticles added as a whitening agent to confectionary products, that is, chewing gum pellets. The aim was to (1 determine the colloidal properties of suspensions mutually containing TiO2 and all other chewing gum ingredients in biologically relevant media (preingestion conditions; (2 characterise the TiO2 (nanoparticles extracted from the chewing gum coating (after ingestion; and (3 verify their potential photocatalysis. The particle size distribution, in agreement with the zeta potential results, indicated that a small but significant portion of the particle population retained mean dimensions close to the nanosize range, even in conditions of moderate stability, and in presence of all other ingredients. The dispersibility was enhanced by proteins (i.e., albumin, which acted as surfactants and reduced particle size. The particle extraction methods involved conventional techniques and no harmful chemicals. The presence of TiO2 particles embedded in the sugar-based coating was confirmed, including 17–30% fraction in the nanorange (<100 nm. The decomposition of organics under UV irradiation proved the photocatalytic activity of the extracted (nanoparticles. Surprisingly, photocatalysis occurred even in presence of an amorphous SiO2 layer surrounding the TiO2 particles.

  20. Effect of TiO 2 particle size and layer thickness on mesoscopic perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Geon; Kim, Min-cheol; Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Lee, Sang Myeong; Choi, Mansoo; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2017-11-01

    Mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) layers are commonly used as electron transport layers in perovskite solar cells, which help to extract electrons from the perovskite light-absorbing layer and transport them to the electrodes. We investigated the effects of the layer thickness of mp-TiO2 and particle size of TiO2 on photovoltaic properties, in terms of the surface area of the mp-layer and the interfacial areas of the TiO2 nanoparticles in the mp-layer. Various mp-TiO2 layers with thicknesses of 150, 250, and 400 nm and particle sizes of 25 nm and 41 nm were prepared to compare the photovoltaic properties of such layer-containing perovskite solar cells. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay and impedance studies showed that interfacial resistance as well as perovskite-to-TiO2 charge injection are important factors affecting photovoltaic performance. The deterioration of the photovoltaic parameters with increasing TiO2/TiO2 interfacial area also confirms that the interfacial series resistance that arises from these connections should be reduced to enhance the performance of mesoscopic perovskite solar cells.

  1. Synthesis of BaTiO3 nanoparticles from TiO2-coated BaCO3 particles derived using a wet-chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuuki Mochizuki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BaCO3 particles coated with amorphous TiO2 precursor are prepared by a wet chemical method to produce BaTiO3 nanoparticles at low temperatures. Subsequently, we investigate the formation behavior of BaTiO3 particles and the particle growth behavior when the precursor is subjected to heat treatment. The state of the amorphous TiO2 coating on the surface of BaCO3 particles depends on the concentration of NH4HCO3, and the optimum concentration is found to be in the range 0.5–1.0 M. Thermogravimetric curves of the BaCO3 particles coated with the TiO2 precursor, prepared from BaCO3 particles of various sizes, show BaTiO3 formation occurring mainly at 550–650 °C in the case of fine BaCO3 particles. However, as evidenced from the curves, the temperature of formation of BaTiO3 shifts to higher values with an increase in the size of the BaCO3 particles. The average particle size of single phase BaTiO3 at heat-treatment temperature of 650–900 °C is observed to be in the range 60–250 nm.

  2. The surface modification of TiN nano-particles using macromolecular coupling agents, and their resulting dispersibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guojun; Qian, Jiasheng; Miao, Jibin; Yang, Bin; Xia, Ru; Chen, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) nano-particles were modified by the grafting of a random copolymerization functionalized macromolecular coupling agent (F-MCA) via a direct blending method. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of the nano-TiN particles interact with the silanol groups [SiOCH3] of the F-MCA to form an organic coating layer. The formation of covalent bonds [TiOSi] was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. An X-ray diffraction analysis suggests that the presence of the F-MCA inhibited the growth of the crystal plane but did not change the crystal structure of the TiN. Thermogravimetric analysis and contact angle measurement indicated that the F-MCA molecules were adsorbed or anchored to the surface of the nano-TiN particles, which hindered their aggregation. Pristine nano-TiN particles are poorly dispersed in ethyl acetate. Compared with the pristine TiN particles, the modified TiN particles show good dispersibility and form a stable colloidal dispersion in ethyl acetate. The surface hydrophobicity of the modified TiN increases, and the F-MCA molecules are anchored on the surface of the TiN particles. TiN particles modified by a F-MCA can be used in polymer blends, thermoplastic elastomers and polymer nanocomposites that have a better performance and longer life cycle.

  3. Influence of small particles inclusion on selective laser melting of Ti-6Al-4V powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haijun; Dilip, J. J. S.; Yang, Li; Teng, Chong; Stucker, Brent

    2017-12-01

    The particle size distribution and powder morphology of metallic powders have an important effect on powder bed fusion based additive manufacturing processes, such as selective laser melting (SLM). The process development and parameter optimization require a fundamental understanding of the influence of powder on SLM. This study introduces a pre-alloyed titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V powder, which has a certain amount of small particles, for SLM. The influence of small particle inclusion is investigated through microscopy of surface topography, elemental and microstructural analysis, and mechanical testing, compared to the Ti-6Al-4V powder provided by SLM machine vendor. It is found that the small particles inclusion in Ti-6Al-4V powder has a noticeable effect on extra laser energy absorption, which may develop imperfections and deteriorate the SLM fatigue performance.

  4. Properties of Mechanically Alloyed W-Ti Materials with Dual Phase Particle Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Lukáč

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available W alloys are currently widely studied materials for their potential application in future fusion reactors. In the presented study, we report on the preparation and properties of mechanically alloyed W-Ti powders compacted by pulsed electric current sintering. Four different powder compositions of W-(3%–7%Ti with Hf or HfC were prepared. The alloys’ structure contains only high-melting-point phases, namely the W-Ti matrix, complex carbide (Ti,W,HfC and HfO2 particle dispersion; Ti in the form of a separate phase is not present. The bending strength of the alloys depends on the amount of Ti added. The addition of 3 wt. % Ti led to an increase whereas 7 wt. % Ti led to a major decrease in strength when compared to unalloyed tungsten sintered at similar conditions. The addition of Ti significantly lowered the room-temperature thermal conductivity of all prepared materials. However, unlike pure tungsten, the conductivity of the prepared alloys increased with the temperature. Thus, the thermal conductivity of the alloys at 1300 °C approached the value of the unalloyed tungsten.

  5. The surface modification of TiN nano-particles using macromolecular coupling agents, and their resulting dispersibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Guojun, E-mail: chengguojun0436@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Qian, Jiasheng, E-mail: qianjs@ahu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Miao, Jibin; Yang, Bin; Xia, Ru; Chen, Peng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The hydroxyl groups on the surface of nano-TiN particles interacted with the silanol groups [-Si-OCH{sub 3}] of a F-MCA to form an organic coating layer that hindered the aggregation of the nano-TiN. The obvious agglomeration and homogeneous dispersion can be seen in TEM images. - Highlights: • The dispersible TiN nano-particles were prepared to increase its surface activity. • Surface hydrophobicity increased due to being modified by F-MCA. • TiN nano-particles modified with F-MCA shows good dispersion in anhydrous ethanol. • The coupling agents are tightly absorbed on the surface of particles by chemisorption. • Modified TiN nano-particles can be widely used in polymers with great compatibility. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) nano-particles were modified by the grafting of a random copolymerization functionalized macromolecular coupling agent (F-MCA) via a direct blending method. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of the nano-TiN particles interact with the silanol groups [-Si-OCH{sub 3}] of the F-MCA to form an organic coating layer. The formation of covalent bonds [Ti-O-Si] was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. An X-ray diffraction analysis suggests that the presence of the F-MCA inhibited the growth of the crystal plane but did not change the crystal structure of the TiN. Thermogravimetric analysis and contact angle measurement indicated that the F-MCA molecules were adsorbed or anchored to the surface of the nano-TiN particles, which hindered their aggregation. Pristine nano-TiN particles are poorly dispersed in ethyl acetate. Compared with the pristine TiN particles, the modified TiN particles show good dispersibility and form a stable colloidal dispersion in ethyl acetate. The surface hydrophobicity of the modified TiN increases, and the F-MCA molecules are anchored on the surface of the TiN particles. TiN particles modified by a F-MCA can be used in polymer blends, thermoplastic elastomers and polymer

  6. Structural studies of TiO2/wood coatings prepared by hydrothermal deposition of rutile particles from TiCl4 aqueous solutions on spruce (Picea Abies) wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pori, Pavel; Vilčnik, Aljaž; Petrič, Marko; Sever Škapin, Andrijana; Mihelčič, Mohor; Šurca Vuk, Angela; Novak, Urban; Orel, Boris

    2016-05-01

    A low temperature approach was developed for the deposition of rutile TiO2 particles on a wood surface by hydrolysis of TiCl4 in aqueous solutions acidified with HCl, and crystallization at 75 and 90 °C (1 h). Prior to hydrothermal treatment, Picea Abies wood was first soaked in a 0.5 mmol/l aqueous solution containing anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, Sigma Aldrich) for 2 h at 80 °C. The crystal structure of the hydrothermally made rutile particles was determined with XRD, while the morphology of the deposited TiO2 particles and their distribution in the wood were examined with SEM and EDX measurements. The penetration and amount of deposited rutile particles could be modified by changing the deposition conditions. Thicker layers were obtained from more concentrated aqueous TiCl4 solutions with and without added HCl, and with longer deposition times and higher temperatures of the hydrothermal treatment. The interaction of TiO2 particles with hemicellulose and lignin in wood was established from infrared attenuated total reflection (FT-IR ATR) and Raman spectra measurements, from which the spectra of wood were subtracted. Analysis of the subtraction spectra showed the presence of titania particles on the wood surface, revealing also the establishment of TiO2-wood coordinative bonds of titanium ions with hemicellulose and lignin. The red frequency shift of the OH stretching modes suggested interaction of the TiO2 particles with water molecules of wood. TiO2 deposited on wood treated with SDS became hydrophobic (water contact angles (WCA) of 150°), contrasting the properties of untreated wood with a deposited TiO2 particle coating, which remained hydrophilic.

  7. Durable Self-Cleaning Coatings for Architectural Surfaces by Incorporation of TiO₂ Nano-Particles into Hydroxyapatite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoni, Enrico; D'Amen, Eros; Roveri, Norberto; Scherer, George W; Franzoni, Elisa

    2018-01-23

    To prevent soiling of marble exposed outdoors, the use of TiO₂ nano-particles has been proposed in the literature by two main routes, both raising durability issues: (i) direct application to marble surface, with the risk of particle leaching by rainfall; (ii) particle incorporation into inorganic or organic coatings, with the risk of organic coating degradation catalyzed by TiO₂ photoactivity. Here, we investigated the combination of nano-TiO₂ and hydroxyapatite (HAP), previously developed for marble protection against dissolution in rain and mechanical consolidation. HAP-TiO₂ combination was investigated by two routes: (i) sequential application of HAP followed by nano-TiO₂ ("H+T"); (ii) simultaneous application by introducing nano-TiO₂ into the phosphate solution used to form HAP ("HT"). The self-cleaning ability was evaluated before and after prolonged exposure to simulated rain. "H+T" and "HT" coatings exhibited much better resistance to nano-TiO₂ leaching by rain, compared to TiO₂ alone. In "H+T" samples, TiO₂ nano-particles adhere better to HAP (having flower-like morphology and high specific surface area) than to marble. In "HT" samples, thanks to chemical bonds between nano-TiO₂ and HAP, the particles are firmly incorporated in the HAP coating, which protects them from leaching by rain, without diminishing their photoactivity and without being degraded by them.

  8. Distinct Structural Behavior and Transport of TiO2 Nano- and Nanostructured Particles in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental impact of TiO2 particles along with other widely-used nanomaterials as a new class of contaminants has recently emerged. Due to the lack of detailed information and proper understanding of their properties as a result of synthesis (nanoparticles vs nanost...

  9. Chemical modification of polysulfone: composite anionic exchange membrane with TiO2 nano-particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, PT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available -1 International Journal of Hydrogen Energy April 2013/ Vol. 38(12) Chemical modification of polysulfone: Composite anionic exchange membrane with TiO2 nano-particles Patrick T. Nonjola*, Mkhulu K. Mathe, Remegia M. Modibedi Material Science...

  10. Effect of C particle size on the mechanism of self-propagation high-temperature synthesis in the Ni-Ti-C system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.F., E-mail: y.yang6@uq.edu.au [University of Queensland, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Wang, H.Y.; Wang, J.G. [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun 130025 (China); Jiang, Q.C., E-mail: jqc@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Nanling Campus, Changchun 130025 (China)

    2011-06-23

    Highlights: > We investigated the effect of C particle size on the self-propagating high temperature reaction mechanism. > Coarse C particle size (>38 {mu}m) resulted in the formation of prior TiC{sub x} layer between Ti and C. > Prior TiC{sub x} layer control the whole reaction of Ni-Ti-C and domain the reaction kinetics. > The selection of C particle size is the most important factor to fabricate TiC/Ni composite using Ti, C and Ni mixtures. - Abstract: Effect of C particle size on the mechanism of self-propagation high-temperature synthesis (SHS) in the Ni-Ti-C system was investigated. Fine C particle resulted in a traditional mechanism of dissolution-precipitation while coarse C particle made the reaction be controlled by a mechanism of the diffusion of C through the TiC{sub x} layer. The whole process can be described: C atoms diffusing through the TiC{sub x} layer dissolved into the Ni-Ti liquid and TiC were formed once the liquid became supersaturated. Simultaneously, the heat generated from the TiC formation made the unstable TiC{sub x} layer break up. However, with the spread of Ti-Ni liquid, a new TiC{sub x} layer was formed again at the interface between spreading liquid and C particle. This process cannot stop until all the C particles are consumed completely.

  11. Microstructure and corrosion performance of steam-based conversion coatings produced in the presence of TiO2 particles on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    with TiO2 particles. The electrochemical measurements showthe beneficial effect of TiO2 particles in the oxide layer by exhibiting lowestanodic and cathodic activities, and reduced pit depth. The presence of TiO2 particles shifts the corrosion potentialvalues to positive side (noble side) when compared...

  12. Mechano-Chemical Preparation of Powder QUARTZ/TiO2 Composite Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Gao-Xiang; He, Hao; Liao, Li-Bing; Wang, Li-Juan

    2013-03-01

    Titanium dioxide pigment is a white pigment of high performance. However, its production could cause severe environmental and resource problems. In this paper, powder quartz/TiO2 composite particles (PQ/TCP), a type of core (powder quartz)-shell(TiO2) composite powder, were prepared by a mechano-chemical method. The pigment properties of PQ/TCP and the mechanism of the mechano-chemical reaction between quartz and TiO2 were investigated. Orthogonal analyses of experimental vairables showed optimal pigment characteristics of PQ/TCP under the following conditions: 4 h of activation for powder quartz, mixing/grinding at 1000 rpm for 1 h, with a mixing slurry made of 50% powder quartz and 0.4% dispersant. Powder quartz was evenly coated by TiO2 and the Si-O-Ti bond was formed between powder quartz and TiO2 in PQ/TCP as revealed by FTIR analyses and confirmed by surface thermodynamic calculation.

  13. Nanogenerator power output: influence of particle size and crystallinity of BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutal Schädli, Gian; Büchel, Robert; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2017-07-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric nanogenerators made with BaTiO3 offer an attractive energy harvesting solution towards portable, battery-free medical devices such as self-powered pacemakers. Here, we assembled nanogenerators made of thin, flexible poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) films containing either polycrystalline BaTiO3 nanoparticles of various sizes or commercial monocrystalline particles of 64 or 278 nm in average diameter. The nanoparticles were prepared by hydrogen-driven flame aerosol technology and had an average diameter of 24-50 nm with an average crystal size of about 10 nm. The rapid cooling during nanoparticle formation facilitated the synthesis of polycrystalline, multi-domain, piezoelectrically active tetragonal BaTiO3 with a high c/a lattice ratio. Using these particles, 2 μm thin polymer nanocomposites were formed, assembled into nanogenerators that exhibited a 1.4 V time-averaged output, almost twice that of the best commercial BaTiO3 particles. That output was maintained stable for over 45 000 cycles with each cycle corresponding to a heartbeat of 60 bpm. The exceptional piezoelectric performance of these nanogenerators is traced to their constituent polycrystalline nanoparticles, having high degree of domain orientation upon poling and exhibiting the flexoelectric effect, polarization induced by a strain gradient.

  14. Effect of Nano-TiC Dispersed Particles and Electro-Codeposition Parameters on Morphology and Structure of Hybrid Ni/TiC Nanocomposite Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea, Lidia; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-06

    This research work describes the effect of dispersed titanium carbide (TiC) nanoparticles into nickel plating bath on Ni/TiC nanostructured composite layers obtained by electro-codeposition. The surface morphology of Ni/TiC nanostructured composite layers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of coatings and the incorporation percentage of TiC nanoparticles into Ni matrix were studied and estimated by using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). X-ray diffractometer (XRD) has been applied in order to investigate the phase structure as well as the corresponding relative texture coefficients of the composite layers. The results show that the concentration of nano-TiC particles added in the nickel electrolyte affects the inclusion percentage of TiC into Ni/TiC nano strucured layers, as well as the corresponding morphology, relative texture coefficients and thickness indicating an increasing tendency with the increasing concentration of nano-TiC concentration. By increasing the amount of TiC nanoparticles in the electrolyte, their incorporation into nickel matrix also increases. The hybrid Ni/nano-TiC composite layers obtained revealed a higher roughness and higher hardness; therefore, these layers are promising superhydrophobic surfaces for special application and could be more resistant to wear than the pure Ni layers.

  15. Biological response to nano-scale titanium dioxide (TiO2): role of particle dose, shape, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rona M; Teesy, Christel; Franzi, Lisa; Weir, Alex; Westerhoff, Paul; Evans, James E; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most widely used nanomaterials, valued for its highly refractive, photocatalytic, and pigmenting properties. TiO2 is also classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible human carcinogen. The objectives of this study were to (1) establish a lowest-observed-effect level (LOEL) for nano-scale TiO2, (2) determine TiO2 uptake in the lungs, and (3) estimate toxicity based on physicochemical properties and retention in the lungs. In vivo lung toxicity of nano-scale TiO2 using varying forms of well-characterized, highly dispersed TiO2 was assessed. Anatase/rutile P25 spheres (TiO2-P25), pure anatase spheres (TiO2-A), and anatase nanobelts (TiO2-NB) were tested. To determine the effects of dose and particle characteristics, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered TiO2 (0, 20, 70, or 200 μg) via intratracheal instillation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were obtained for analysis 1 and 7 d post exposure. Despite abundant TiO2 inclusions in all exposed animals, only TiO2-NB displayed any significant degree of inflammation seen in BALF at the 1-d time point. This inflammation resolved by 7 d, although TiO2 particles had not cleared from alveolar macrophages recovered from the lung. Histological examination showed TiO2-NB produced cellular changes at d 1 that were still evident at d 7. Data indicate TiO2-NB is the most inflammatory with a LOEL of 200 μg at 1 d post instillation.

  16. Biomimetic Multi-Functional Superamphiphobic FOTS-TiO2 Particles beyond Lotus Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwei; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-10-12

    It is widely known that natural examples like lotus leaves can only repel room-temperature water but cannot repel hot water and oils. Even though superamphiphobic surfaces composed of re-entrant "mushroom-like" or "T-shaped" structures are promising, they are generally regarded as substrate-dependent and difficult to fabricate, and hence, their practical use on various materials has been limited. Here, we synthesize a flower-like superamphiphobic FOTS-TiO2 powder by solvothermal process and self-assembly functionalization. These structured and functionalized submicron particles can repel the liquids with surface tension as low as 23.8 mN·m-1 (n-decane), which is the lowest among powder samples. With respect to the biomimetic aspect, the surface morphology of FOTS-TiO2 particle is similar to the hierarchical micro/nano-structures of the lotus leaf surface, but it is beyond the lotus leaf for superoleophobic capacity. The difference in the oleophobicity is suggested to be the interplay of quasi-spherical re-entrant structure and perfluorined modification. Because of superior superamphiphobicity of the powder, a facile yet versatile strategy is developed, adhesive-assisted sieve deposition fabrication (AASDF), for preparing superamphiphobic coatings on various substrates. The investigation results pertaining to the water/oil proofing, mechanical durability, self-cleaning, and antifouling performances prove that the FOTS-TiO2 coating is robust and multifunctional, which will enable more opportunities for practical applications. Apart from these general applications, we find that the superamphiphobic FOTS-TiO2 powders when coated on sponge as anti-icing surface have good ice delay and icephobic performances. Furthermore, they can be used to prepare magnetic Fe3O4&FOTS-TiO2 composite particles through liquid marbles, implying significant scientific value.

  17. Analysis of the solidification and microstructure of two aluminium alloys reinforced with TiB{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egizabal, Pedro; Garcia de Cortazar, Maider [Fundacion Inasmet E-20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Torregaray, Amaia [University of Basque Country UPV/EHU E-48012, Bilbo-Bilbao (Spain); Veillere, Amelie; Silvain, Jean-Francois [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB 87 Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac (France); Douin, Joel [CEMES-CNRS 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2011-09-15

    Two aluminium alloys with 6 wt% TiB{sub 2} particles are studied for applications where increased wear resistance and mechanical strength at high temperature are required. The incorporation of hard ceramic particles has a strong influence on the microstructure and properties of the alloys. TiB{sub 2} particles play an important role in the nucleation of the different phases of the alloys during solidification, and in the reduction of grain size and porosity. The solidification patterns of Al-Si{sub 7}Mg{sub 0.3} + TiB{sub 2} (6 wt%) and Al-Cu{sub 5}MgTi+TiB{sub 2} (6 wt%) materials are compared to their corresponding non-reinforced alloys, and the microstructures are analyzed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Enhanced Mechanical Properties of MgZnCa Bulk Metallic Glass Composites with Ti-Particle Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Chun Wong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rod samples of Mg60Zn35Ca5 bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs dispersed with Ti particles have been successfully fabricated via injection casting. The glass forming ability (GFA and the mechanical properties of these Mg-based BMGCs have been systematically investigated as a function of the volume fraction (Vf of Ti particles. The results showed that the compressive ductility increased with Vf. The mechanical performance of these BMGCs, with up to 5.4% compressive failure strain and 1187 MPa fracture strength at room temperature, can be obtained for the Mg-based BMGCs with 50 vol % Ti particles, suggesting that these dispersed Ti particles can absorb the energy of the crack propagations and can induce branches of the primary shear band into multiple secondary shear bands. It follows that further propagation of the shear band is blocked, enhancing the overall plasticity.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 particles and characterization of their photocatalytic antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdural, Beril K; Yurum, Alp; Bakir, Ufuk; Karakas, Gurkan

    2008-02-01

    Nanostructured titania particles were synthesized by using hydrothermal processing and the photocatalytic antimicrobial activities were characterized. Both sol-gel synthesized and commercial TiO2 (anatase) samples were processed with two step hydrothermal treatments, under alkaline and neutral conditions. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images showed that alkaline treatment yields nanofibers and lamellar structured particles from the commercial anatase and sol-gel synthesized samples respectively. Further treatment of nanofibers and nanostructured lamellar particles with distilled water results with crystal growth and the formation of nano structured bipyramidal crystalline particles. The photocatalytic antimicrobial activities of the samples were determined against Escherichia coil under irradiation. It was observed that the samples treated under alkaline conditions have improved activity than the original anatase samples. Limited activity and resulting time lag in bacterial inactivation were observed for hydrothermally treated samples with distilled water. However, a post treatment comprising the UV irradiation in aqueous conditions enhanced the photocatalytic activity.

  20. Ethylene glycol assisted preparation of Ti(4+)-modified polydopamine coated magnetic particles with rough surface for capture of phosphorylated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiangdong; Ding, Chun; Yao, Xin; Jia, Li

    2016-07-27

    The reversible protein phosphorylation is very important in regulating almost all aspects of cell life, while the enrichment of phosphorylated proteins still remains a technical challenge. In this work, polydopamine (PDA) modified magnetic particles with rough surface (rPDA@Fe3O4) were synthesized by introduction of ethylene glycol in aqueous solution. The PDA coating possessing a wealth of catechol hydroxyl groups could serve as an active medium to immobilize titanium ions through the metal-catechol chelation, which makes the fabrication of titanium ions modified rPDA@Fe3O4 particles (Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4) simple and very convenient. The spherical Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4 particles have a surface area of 37.7 m(2) g(-1) and superparamagnetism with a saturation magnetization value of 38.4 emu g(-1). The amount of Ti element in the particle was measured to be 3.93%. And the particles demonstrated good water dispersibility. The particles were used as adsorbents for capture of phosphorylated proteins and they demonstrated affinity and specificity for phosphorylated proteins due to the specific binding sites (Ti(4+)). Factors affecting the adsorption of phosphorylated proteins on Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4 particles were investigated. The adsorption capacity of Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4 particles for κ-casein was 1105.6 mg g(-1). Furthermore, the particles were successfully applied to isolate phosphorylated proteins in milk samples, which demonstrated that Ti(4+)-rPDA@Fe3O4 particles had potential application in selective separation of phosphorylated proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ionic liquid templated porous nano-TiO2 particles for the selective isolation of cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hao; Chen, Xu-Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2010-09-24

    Porous nano-titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles with anatase framework were prepared by using an effective template of hydrophobic ionic liquid, i.e., N, N-bis [2-methylbutyl] imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([PPim][PF(6)]). The nano-TiO(2) particles were characterized with TEM and BET, resulting in the distribution of the pore diameters centering at 7.3 nm and 26.2 nm, attributed to the template effect of the ionic liquid and the aggregation of the TiO(2) particles, respectively. A much improved surface area of 68.31 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume of 0.2814 cm(3) g(-1) were obtained with respect to 15.16 m(2) g(-1) and 0.0402 cm(3) g(-1) achieved by the non-templated nano-TiO(2) counterpart. The porous nano-TiO(2) particles were used as adsorbent for selective adsorption and isolation of cytochrome c (cyt-c) at certain conditions. An adsorption efficiency of 87% was achieved for 150 microg ml(-1) cyt-c in 1.0 ml of sample solution at pH 9.0 by using 2.0 mg of the nano-TiO(2) particles, in comparison to 30% obtained by the non-templated nano-TiO(2). In addition, an adsorption capacity of 112.6 microg mg(-1) was derived for the porous nano-TiO(2) with respect to 25.1 microg mg(-1) for the normal ones. The absorbed cyt-c could be readily recovered by stripping with a 0.1 mol l(-1) Na(3)PO(4) solution, giving rise to a recovery of ca. 90%. The porous nano-TiO(2) particles have been used for the isolation of cyt-c from human whole blood, achieving satisfactory results by assay with SDS-PAGE.

  2. Quantitative characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle release from textiles by conventional and single particle ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2018-01-01

    TiO2 is ubiquitously present in a wide range of everyday items, both as an intentionally incorporated additive and naturally occurring constituent. It can be found in a wide range of consumer products, including personal care products, food contact materials, and textiles. Normal use of these products may lead to consumer and/or environmental exposure to TiO2, possibly in form of nanoparticles. The aim of this study is to perform a leaching test and apply state-of-the-art methods to investigate nano-TiO2 and total Ti release from five types of commercially available conventional textiles: table placemats, wet wipes, microfiber cloths, and two types of baby bodysuits, with Ti contents ranging from 2.63 to 1448 μg/g. Released particle analysis was performed using conventional and single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and spICP-MS), in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to measure total and particulate TiO2 release by mass and particle number, as well as size distribution. Less than 1% of the initial Ti content was released over 24 h of leaching, with the highest releases reaching 3.13 μg/g. The fraction of nano-TiO2 released varied among fabric types and represented 0-80% of total TiO2 release. Particle mode sizes were 50-75 nm, and TEM imaging revealed particles in sizes of 80-200 nm. This study highlights the importance of using a multi-method approach to obtain quantitative release data that is able to provide an indication regarding particle number, size distribution, and mass concentration, all of which can help in understanding the fate and exposure of nanoparticles.

  3. Particle morphology influence on mechanical and biocompatibility properties of injection molded Ti alloy powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülsoy, H Özkan; Gülsoy, Nagihan; Calışıcı, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    Titanium and Titanium alloys exhibits properties that are excellent for various bio-applications. Metal injection molding is a processing route that offers reduction in costs, with the added advantage of near net-shape components. Different physical properties of Titanium alloy powders, shaped and processed via injection molding can achieve high complexity of part geometry with mechanical and bioactivity properties, similar or superior to wrought material. This study describes that the effect of particle morphology on the microstructural, mechanical and biocompatibility properties of injection molded Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy powder for biomaterials applications. Ti64 powders irregular and spherical in shape were injection molded with wax based binder. Binder debinding was performed in solvent and thermal method. After debinding the samples were sintered under high vacuum. Metallographic studies were determined to densification and the corresponding microstructural changes. Sintered samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with elemental concentrations that were comparable to those of human blood plasma for a total period of 15 days. Both materials were implanted in fibroblast culture for biocompatibility evaluations were carried out. The results show that spherical and irregular powder could be sintered to a maximum theoretical density. Maximum tensile strength was obtained for spherical shape powder sintered. The tensile strength of the irregular shape powder sintered at the same temperature was lower due to higher porosity. Finally, mechanical tests show that the irregular shape powder has lower mechanical properties than spherical shape powder. The sintered irregular Ti64 powder exhibited better biocompatibility than sintered spherical Ti64 powder. Results of study showed that sintered spherical and irregular Ti64 powders exhibited high mechanical properties and good biocompatibility properties.

  4. MD Simulation on Collision Behavior Between Nano-Scale TiO₂ Particles During Vacuum Cold Spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hai-Long; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2018-04-01

    Particle collision behavior influences significantly inter-nano particle bonding formation during the nano-ceramic coating deposition by vacuum cold spraying (or aerosol deposition method). In order to illuminate the collision behavior between nano-scale ceramic particles, molecular dynamic simulation was applied to explore impact process between nano-scale TiO2 particles through controlling impact velocities. Results show that the recoil efficiency of the nano-scale TiO2 particle is decreased with the increase of the impact velocity. Nano-scale TiO2 particle exhibits localized plastic deformation during collision at low velocities, while it is intensively deformed by collision at high velocities. This intensive deformation promotes the nano-particle adhesion rather than rebounding off. A relationship between the adhesion energy and the rebound energy is established for the bonding formation of the nano-scale TiO2 particle. The adhesion energy required to the bonding formation between nano-scale ceramic particles can be produced by high velocity collision.

  5. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm...... particlesconsisted of mainly TiO2, TiO2 mixed with Cl and/or Ag, TiO2particles coated with carbon, and Ag particles with size ranging from 60 nm to ca. 5 μm. As expected, no significant VOC emissions were observed as a result of spraying. Finally, we provide recommendations for exposure model parameterization....

  6. Heterogeneous production and loss of HOx by airborne TiO2 particles and implications for climate change mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, D. R.; Heard, D. E.; Ingham, T.; Chipperfield, M.; Seakins, P. W.; Baeza Romero, M. T. T.; Taverna, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    It is suggested that injection of TiO2 particles into the stratosphere to back-scatter solar radiation maybe an effective measure to mitigate the effects of global warming. TiO2 particles are well suited to this application because of their high refractive index.1 However, the effect of such a measure on stratospheric chemistry is not fully understood. HO2 is a key atmospheric species in both the troposphere and the stratosphere and is responsible for 40% of ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere.2 In addition to this, application of TiO2 coatings to surfaces within the urban environment are used to abate ambient levels of NO2 and for their self-cleaning properties. This study investigates the heterogeneous reaction between airborne sub-micron TiO2 particles and HO2 radicals using an aerosol flow tube and the FAGE (fluorescence assay by gas expansion) technique to monitor HO2 uptake. The dependence of the uptake coefficient (γHO2) to relative humidity (RH) has been determined. Experiments performed in dark conditions at the most stratospherically relevant RH (11.1%) determined γHO2 = (2.08 ± 0.11) × 10-2. A positive dependence of γHO2 with RH was observed which showed a correlation between γHO2 and the number of monolayers of water adsorbed on the particle surface. Experiments illuminated with near-UV light (365 nm) were performed and showed significant production of HO2 from the aerosols into the gas phase. The concentrations were dependent on light flux, RH and total particle surface area. While the production of HOx in the gas phase has been observed close to TiO2 surfaces in the presence of H2O23,4 it is believed that this phenomena has not been observed from airborne TiO2 particles and parameterized in this way before. Emissions of HO2 from the surface of TiO2 particles in the stratosphere could rule out the application of TiO2 particles for use within solar-radiation management schemes. The TOMCAT 3-D chemical transport model was used to predict

  7. In Situ Synthesis of Field-responsive Nanocrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} Particles Modified with Functional Organics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogo, Toshinobu [Nagoya University, Nanomaterials Science, EcoTopia Science Institute (Japan)], E-mail: yogo@esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Fukuzawa, Reimon [Nagoya University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Sakamoto, Wataru [Nagoya University, Nanomaterials Science, EcoTopia Science Institute (Japan); Hirano, Shin-ichi [Nagoya University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2005-12-15

    Nanocrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} particles modified with polarizable ligands were synthesized through hydrolysis of modified metal-organics below 100 deg. C. BaTiO{sub 3} precursor was synthesized from barium metal, titanium isopropoxide and polarizable ligands in a mixture of ethanol and 2-ethoxyethanol. The modified Ba-Ti complex alkoxide was hydrolyzed yielding BaTiO{sub 3} particles modified with organics. The crystallinty of nanometer-sized particles was dependent upon the hydrolysis conditions, and increased with increasing water amount and time. The nanocrystalline particles were identified to be BaTiO{sub 3} by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction. A fluid consisting of modified BaTiO{sub 3} particles and silicone oil revealed a typical electrorheological (ER) behavior on applying DC field. The ER behavior was found to depend upon the kind of ligand. 4-Fluorobenzyloxy modifier revealed the highest yield stress in the ER measurement among 4-substituted benzyloxy ligands examined.

  8. Heterogeneous reaction of HO2 with airborne TiO2 particles and its implication for climate change mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Moon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One geoengineering mitigation strategy for global temperature rises resulting from the increased concentrations of greenhouse gases is to inject particles into the stratosphere to scatter solar radiation back to space, with TiO2 particles emerging as a possible candidate. Uptake coefficients of HO2, γ(HO2, onto sub-micrometre TiO2 particles were measured at room temperature and different relative humidities (RHs using an atmospheric pressure aerosol flow tube coupled to a sensitive HO2 detector. Values of γ(HO2 increased from 0.021 ± 0.001 to 0.036 ± 0.007 as the RH was increased from 11 to 66 %, and the increase in γ(HO2 correlated with the number of monolayers of water surrounding the TiO2 particles. The impact of the uptake of HO2 onto TiO2 particles on stratospheric concentrations of HO2 and O3 was simulated using the TOMCAT three-dimensional chemical transport model. The model showed that, when injecting the amount of TiO2 required to achieve the same cooling effect as the Mt Pinatubo eruption, heterogeneous reactions between HO2 and TiO2 would have a negligible effect on stratospheric concentrations of HO2 and O3.

  9. Microplastic deformation of TiB/sub 2/ particles during vibrocrushing and pressing in high pressure chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordan' yan, S.S.; Kravchik, A.E.; Ponomarenko, V.A.; Chunov, V.D. (Leningradskij Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-04-01

    The character of plastic strain in titanium diboride particles is described. It is shown that during titanium diboride vibrocrushing unlike that of carbide there is practically no microplastic deformation that is observed only when TiB/sub 2/ particles are squeezed in high-pressure chambers at pressures not less than 3GPa.

  10. First-principles study on influence of molybdenum on acicular ferrite formation on TiC particles in microallyed steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Guomin; Li, Changsheng; Cheng, Xiaonong; Zhao, Xinluo; Feng, Quan; Li, Zhijie; Li, Dongyang; Szpunar, Jerzy A.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, influences of molybdenum on acicular ferrite formation on precipitated TiC particles are investigated from thermodynamic and kinetic respects. In thermodynamics, Segregation of Mo towards austenite/TiC interface releases the interfacial energy and induces phase transformation from austenite to acicular ferrite on the precipitated TiC particles. The Phase transformation can be achieved by displacive deformation along uniaxial Bain path. In addition, the segregation of Mo atom will also lead to the enhanced stability of ferrite in comparison with austenite no matter at low temperature or at high temperature. In kinetics, the Mo solute in acicular ferrite can effectively suppress the diffusion of carbon atoms, which ensures that orientation relationship between acicular ferrite and austenitized matrix can be satisfied during the diffusionless phase transformation. In contrast to ineffectiveness of TiC particles, the alloying Mo element can facilitate the formation of acicular ferrite on precipitated TiC particles, which is attributed to the above thermodynamic and kinetic reasons. Furthermore, Interfacial toughness and ductility of as-formed acicular ferrite/TiC interface can be improved simultaneously by segregation of Mo atom.

  11. Enhancement removal of tartrazine dye using HCl-doped polyaniline and TiO2-decorated PANI particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, M. A.; Gobara, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    HCl-doped polyaniline (HCl-PANI) and titanium dioxide decorated with polyaniline (TiO2-decorated PANI) with different TiO2:PANI ratios were chemically prepared and utilized for the removal of tartrazine (TZ) dye from a synthetic aqueous solution. The mechanism of preparation of the sample suggested that aniline was adsorbed on the TiO2 surface before the polymerization process took place. Samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that HCl-PANI and TiO2-decorated PANI have an amorphous structure. The thermal stability of the prepared samples was characterized using thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis. HCl-PANI is stable up to 200 °C and the relative weight per cent of PANI in the TiO2-decorated PANI was 20, 25, 40 and 45%. The removal activity of TiO2-decorated PANI via TZ azo dye was investigated under UV light irradiations and compared with HCl-PANI and TiO2 particles. The results indicated the superiority of the TiO2-decorated PANI over pure HCl-PANI and TiO2. However, the excessive PANI percentage tends to form a relatively thick layer, and even aggregates on the surface of TiO2. This hinders the migration of excited electrons from the outer PANI layer to the inner TiO2 particles, which consequently leads to a decrease in the removal efficiency. A possible mechanism for the removal oxidative degradation is also mentioned.

  12. Photocatalytic removal of gaseous nitrogen oxides using WO3/TiO2 particles under visible light irradiation: Effect of surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Joseph Albert; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2017-09-01

    Photocatalytic nanoparticles have been receiving considerable attention for their potential use in many environmental management applications, including urban air quality control. This paper investigates the performance of surface modified WO3/TiO2 composite particles in removing gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOx) under visible light irradiation. The WO3/TiO2 composite particles were synthesized using a modified wet chemical method with different concentrations of NaOH solution used as a surface modification agent for the host TiO2 particles. The NOx removal efficiency of the WO3/TiO2 particles was evaluated using a lab-scale continuous gas flow photo-reactor with a gas contact time of 1 min. Results showed that surface modification using NaOH can enhance the photocatalytic activity of the WO3/TiO2 particles. The NOx removal efficiency of the surface modified WO3/TiO2 was greater than 90%, while that of WO3/TiO2 particles prepared by the conventional wet chemical method was ∼75%. The enhanced removal efficiency might be attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancies on the TiO2 surface, providing sites for WO3 particles to effectively bind with TiO2. However, excess amount of NaOH >3 M deteriorated the photocatalytic performance due to the increased agglomeration of the host TiO2 particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heterogeneous reaction of ClONO2 with TiO2 and SiO2 aerosol particles: implications for stratospheric particle injection for climate engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Deliberate injection of aerosol particles into the stratosphere is a potential climate engineering scheme. Particles injected into the stratosphere would scatter solar radiation back to space, thereby reducing the temperature at the Earth's surface and hence the impacts of global warming. Minerals such as TiO2 or SiO2 are among the potentially suitable aerosol materials for stratospheric particle injection due to their greater light-scattering ability than stratospheric sulfuric acid particles. However, the heterogeneous reactivity of mineral particles towards trace gases important for stratospheric chemistry largely remains unknown, precluding reliable assessment of their impacts on stratospheric ozone, which is of key environmental significance. In this work we have investigated for the first time the heterogeneous hydrolysis of ClONO2 on TiO2 and SiO2 aerosol particles at room temperature and at different relative humidities (RHs, using an aerosol flow tube. The uptake coefficient, γ(ClONO2, on TiO2 was ∼ 1.2 × 10−3 at 7 % RH and remained unchanged at 33 % RH, and increased for SiO2 from ∼ 2 × 10−4 at 7 % RH to  ∼ 5 × 10−4 at 35 % RH, reaching a value of  ∼ 6 × 10−4 at 59 % RH. We have also examined the impacts of a hypothetical TiO2 injection on stratospheric chemistry using the UKCA (United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosol chemistry–climate model, in which heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 and ClONO2 on TiO2 particles is considered. A TiO2 injection scenario with a solar-radiation scattering effect very similar to the eruption of Mt Pinatubo was constructed. It is found that, compared to the eruption of Mt Pinatubo, TiO2 injection causes less ClOx activation and less ozone destruction in the lowermost stratosphere, while reduced depletion of N2O5 and NOx in the middle stratosphere results in decreased ozone levels. Overall, no significant difference in the vertically

  14. Quantitative characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle release from textiles by conventional and single particle ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2018-01-01

    electron microscopy (TEM), to measure total and particulate TiO2 release by mass and particle number, as well as size distribution. Less than 1% of the initial Ti content was released over 24 h of leaching, with the highest releases reaching 3.13 μg/g. The fraction of nano-TiO2 released varied among fabric...... placemats, wet wipes, microfiber cloths, and two types of baby bodysuits, with Ti contents ranging from 2.63 to 1448 μg/g. Released particle analysis was performed using conventional and single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and spICP-MS), in conjunction with transmission...... types and represented 0–80% of total TiO2 release. Particle mode sizes were 50–75 nm, and TEM imaging revealed particles in sizes of 80–200 nm. This study highlights the importance of using a multi-method approach to obtain quantitative release data that is able to provide an indication regarding...

  15. Novel Composite Powders with Uniform TiB2 Nano-Particle Distribution for 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengxing Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is reported that the ductility and strength of a metal matrix composite could be concurrently improved if the reinforcing particles were of the size of nanometers and distributed uniformly. In this paper, we revealed that gas atomization solidification could effectively disperse TiB2 nanoparticles in the Al alloy matrix due to its fast cooling rate and the coherent orientation relationship between TiB2 particles and α-Al. Besides, nano-TiB2 led to refined equiaxed grain structures. Furthermore, the composite powders with uniformly embedded nano-TiB2 showed improved laser absorptivity. The novel composite powders are well suited for selective laser melting.

  16. Fabrication of BaTiO{sub 3}/Ni composite particles and their electro-magneto responsive properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yaping [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710119 (China); School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); Gao, Lingxiang, E-mail: gaolx@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710119 (China); School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); Wang, Lijuan [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710119 (China); School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); Xie, Zunyuan, E-mail: zyxie123@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710119 (China); School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); Gao, Meixiang [Yulin Vocational and Technical College, Yulin 719000 (China); Zhang, Weiqiang [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710119 (China); School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: The spherical BaTiO{sub 3}/Ni particles with excellent structure were made by one-step method through fixing the metal Ni(0) reduced by a specific reducing agent (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) on the surface of the BaTiO{sub 3} particles with grain diameter of ∼500 nm. BaTiO{sub 3}/Ni particle has double responses of electric and magnetic field simultaneously. Consequentially, coating magnetic metal on BT particle is proposed an effective method to prepare novel electro-magneto responsive particles and one basis of electro-magneto responsive elastomers. - Highlights: • The BaTiO{sub 3}/Ni composite particles were fabricated. • The content of Ni(0) in nickel sheath is 70.2%. • The BaTiO{sub 3}/Ni particles have double responses of electric and magnetic field. - Abstract: BaTiO{sub 3} (BT)/Ni composite particles were made by one-step method through agglomerating the metal Ni(0) nanoparticles reduced by a specific reducing agent (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) on the surface of BT sphere with diameter of ∼500 nm. The BT/Ni composite particles were characterized by the means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In BT/Ni particles, pure BT spherical particle was coated with Ni nanoparticles agglomerated on its surface. The average thickness of the Ni sheath was ∼30 nm and the content of Ni(0) and Ni (II) in the sheath were 70.2% and 29.8%, respectively. The responsive effects of BT/Ni particles filled in hydrogel elastomer were investigated by the viscoelastic properties. The results indicate that the BT/Ni particles exhibit electro and magneto coordinated responsive properties (E = 1 kV/mm, H = 0.1 T/mm), which is superior to BT particles with individual electro response.

  17. Nanofibers obtained by electrospinning of BaTiO3 particles dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol and ethylcellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Humar A.; Reboredo, Maria M.; Castro, Miriam; Parra, Rodrigo, E-mail: havila@fi.mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales - INTEMA, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas - CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata - UNMdP, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    Barium titanate particles (100-300 nm) synthesized by hydrothermal method were dispersed in both polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and ethylcellulose (EC) solutions. These suspensions were processed by electrospinning. When no particles were added, homogeneous polymeric nanofibers were obtained. Under certain conditions, polymeric suspensions of barium titanate particles were electrospun generating polymeric fibers with BT particles. The effect of a surfactant was also assessed over the formation of nanofibers. The BaTiO{sub 3} particles synthesized by hydrothermal method were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (author)

  18. Toxicogenomic effects of nano- and bulk-TiO2 particles in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Sylvie; Arbour, Mélanie; Elias, Miria; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Masson, Luke

    2015-05-01

    The toxicity and toxicogenomics of selected anatase and rutile nanoparticles (NP) and bulk titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles were evaluated in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Results indicated that bulk or nano-TiO2 particles were slightly toxic to soil nematode C. elegans, as measured by reproduction EC50 values ranging from 4 to 32 mg/L. Whole-genome microarray results indicated that the regulation of glutathione-S-transferase gst-3, cytochrome P450 cypp33-c11, stress resistance regulator scl-1, oxidoreductase wah-1 and embryonic development pod-2 genes were significantly affected by nano-sized and bulk-TiO2 particles. More specifically, it was determined that anatase particles exerted a greater effect on metabolic pathways, whereas rutile particles had a greater effect on developmental processes. The up-regulation of the pod-2 gene corroborated the phenotypic effect observed in the reproduction test. Our results demonstrated that C. elegans is a good genomic model for nano-TiO2 toxicity assessment.

  19. Effect of TiC nano-particles on the mechanical properties of an Al-5Cu alloy after various heat treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingquan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Weisi; Zhao, Qinglong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of TiC nano-particles on the mechanical properties of Al-5Cu alloy were investigated. Adding TiC nano-particles can effectively refine grain size and secondary dendritic arm. The ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of the Al-5Cu alloy in each of the three states (i.e. as-cast, solid-solution state and T6 state) were also improved by adding TiC nano-particles. Moreover, the elastic-plastic plane-strain fracture toughness (K J) and work of fracture ( wof) of Al-5Cu containing TiC were significantly higher than those of Al-5Cu without TiC after aging for 10 h. The addition of TiC nano-particles also led to finer and denser ‧ precipitates.

  20. Impact of nano and bulk ZrO2, TiO2 particles on soil nutrient contents and PGPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Manivasakan, Palanisamy; Yuvakkumar, Rathinam; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Kannan, Narayanasamy

    2013-01-01

    Currently, nanometal oxides are used extensively in different industries such as medicine, cosmetics and food. The increased consumption of nanoparticles (NPs) leads the necessity to understand the fate of the nanoparticles in the environment. The present study focused on the ecotoxicological behaviour of bulk and nano ZrO2 (Zirconia) and TiO2 (Titania) particles on PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria), soil and its nutrient contents. The microbial susceptibility study showed that nano TiO2 had 13 +/- 0.9 mm (B. megaterium), 15 +/- 0.2 mm (P. fluorescens), 16 +/- 0.2 mm (A. vinelandii) and 12 +/- 0.3 mm (B. brevis) zones of inhibition. However, nano and bulk ZrO2 particles were non-toxic to PGPR. In addition, it was found that toxicity varied depends on the medium of reaction. The soil study showed that nano TiO2 was found to be highly toxic, whereas bulk TiO2 was less toxic towards soil bacterial populations at 1000 mg L(-1). In contrast, nano and bulk ZrO2 were found to be inert at 1000 mg L(-1). The observed zeta potential and hydrophobicity of TiO2 particles causes more toxic than ZrO2 in parallel with particle size. However, nano TiO2 decreases the microbial population as well as nutrient level of the soil but not zirconia. Our finding shows that the mechanism of toxicity depends on size, hydrophobic potential and zeta potential of the metal oxide particles. Thus, it is necessary to take safety measures during the disposal and use of such toxic nanoparticles in the soil to prevent their hazardous effects.

  1. Statistical Evaluation of Potential Damage to the Al(OH)3 Layer on nTiO2 Particles in the Presence of Swimming Pool and Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanosized TiO2 particles (nTiO2) are usually coated with an Al(OH)3 layer when used in sunscreen to shield against the harmful effects of free radicals that are generated when these particles are exposed to UV radiation. Therefore, it is vital to ...

  2. Joining of the AMC Composites Reinforced with Ti3Al Intermetallic Particles by Resistance Butt Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamiak M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new reinforcing materials continues to be investigated to improve the final behaviour of AMCs as well as to avoid some drawbacks of using ceramics as reinforcement. The present work investigates the structure, properties and ability of joining aluminium EN-AW 6061 matrix composite materials reinforced with Ti3Al particles by resistance butt welding as well as composite materials produced by mechanical milling, powder metallurgy and hot extrusion techniques. Mechanically milled and extruded composites show finer and better distribution of reinforcement particles, which leads to better mechanical properties of the obtained products. Finer microstructure improves mechanical properties of obtained composites. The hardness increases twice in the case of mechanically milled composites also, a higher reinforcement content results in higher particle dispersion hardening, for 15 wt.% of intermetallics reinforcement concentration composites reach about 400 MPa UTS. Investigation results of joints show that best hardness and tensile properties of joints can be achieved by altering soft conditions of butt welding process e.g. current flow time 1.2 s and current 1400 A. To improve mechanical properties of butt welding joints age hardening techniques can also be used.

  3. Effect of particle size and microstructure on the hydrogen storage property in a V-Ti-Cr solid solution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hanjung; Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Roh, Ki-Min; Suh, Chang-Yul; Kim, Won-Baek [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Wook, E-mail: cho@kigam.re.kr [Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer V-Ti-Cr nano-particles were prepared via the electric explosion of wire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two kinds of particles with different size were formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen storage capacity of nano-particles decreased due to increased surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plateau pressure was higher in the particle with smaller lattice parameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hysteresis in P-C isotherm was larger in the particle with lower strain. - Abstract: Nano-particles of V-Ti and V-Ti-Cr alloys with a BCC (Body Centered Cubic) structure were prepared via the EEW (electric explosion of wire) method. However, due to the formation of chromium oxide (CrO{sub 0.87}) and/or vanadium oxide (V{sub 16}O{sub 3}) during the explosion, the exploded particles were deficient in Cr and V content, contrary to the anticipated composition, and micro-particles also formed in addition to the nano-particles. The hydrogen storage capacity of the exploded particles decreased compared to that of mechanically crushed particles from ingots, because the number of interstitial sites for hydrogen in the lattice was reduced due to the increased surface area and also because the BCC phase decreased as a result of the formation of oxide phases. As the lattice parameters of the alloys became small, the plateau pressure in the P-C isotherm increased because it was more difficult for hydrogen to diffuse through the lattice. It was also found that the strain induced by adding other elements in the V lattice reduced the hysteresis in the P-C isotherm.

  4. Hydrogen effect in (Al-Ti)-SiC particle metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovioff, G.; Eliezer, D. (Dept. of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)); Lavernia, E.J. (Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, California Univ., Irvine (United States))

    1992-12-30

    The development of advanced air frames and propulsion systems has generated significant research and development activity in the area of light-weight high temperature intermetallic alloys. Exposure to hydrogen results in the severe embrittlement of many intermetallics. In the present study the microstructure of spray-atomized and codeposited metal matrix composites (MMCs) were characterized following hydrogen charging. The results show that, under severe conditions such as exposure to NaCl solutions at cathodic charging conditions, initial crack propagation in (Al-Ti)-SiC[sub p] MMCs (which SiC[sub p] represents SiC particles) occurs without any applied stress. It is also important to note that hydrogen charging increases the amount of hydrogen in the material. There is always the possibility of preferential hydrogen accumulation at the large number of incoherent interfaces between the reinforcement particulates and the matrix. The phenomenology of hydrogen embrittlement and possible mechanisms of embrittlement are discussed. (orig.).

  5. Experimental evidence of false-positive Comet test results due to TiO2 particle--assay interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Katarina; Drobne, Damjana; Kastelec, Damijana; Marinsek-Logar, Romana

    2013-08-01

    We have studied the genotoxicity of TiO2 particles with a Comet assay on a unicellular organism, Tetrahymena thermophila. Exposure to bulk- or nano-TiO2 of free cells, cells embedded in gel or nuclei embedded in gel, all resulted in a positive Comet assay result but this outcome could not be confirmed by cytotoxicity measures such as lipid peroxidation, elevated reactive oxygen species or cell membrane composition. Published reports state that in the absence of cytotoxicity, nano- and bulk-TiO2 genotoxicity do not occur directly, and a possible explanation of our Comet assay results is that they are false positives resulting from post festum exposure interactions between particles and DNA. We suggest that before Comet assay is used for nanoparticle genotoxicity testing, evidence for the possibility of post festum exposure interactions should be considered. The acellular Comet test described in this report can be used for this purpose.

  6. The effects of propionic acid on nano-sized BaTiO3 particles synthesized by a hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, San; Choi, Chang Hak; Baek, Changyeon; Kim, Do Kyung

    2014-10-01

    The influence of propionic acid on BaTiO3 particles prepared via hydorthermal method is discussed. The amount of the acid is varied in the experimental processes to enhance understanding of the roles of the propionic acid. Smaller sized BaTiO3 powders with more uniform particle sizes can be achieved at 200 degrees C after 24 h using propionic acid. The acid is found to be excellent for size reduction and narrow size distribution. Reitveld refinement of the XRD patterns revealed that the synthesize BaTiO3 nanopowders have tetragonal asymmetry dominant structures. The "micro-capsules" caused by the acid are observed using high temperature in-situ TEM analysis. High vacuum condition of the TEM is attributed to the notable differences. It can thus be posited that the reduction of particle size and the narrow size distribution result from the "micro-capsule" effects of propionic acid. Moreover, the "capsules" are attributed to a decrease of intragranular pores in the BaTiO3 particles.

  7. Laser melt injection of hard ceramic particles into Al and Ti alloys - processing, microstructure and mechanical behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Nijman, S.; van Ingen, R.; Oliveira, U.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Brebbia, CA; DeHosson, JTM; Nishida, SI

    2003-01-01

    The conditions for a successful Laser Melt Injection (LMI) of SiC and WC particles into the melt pool of Al8Si and Ti6A14V alloys were studied experimentally and theoretically by FEM calculations. The laser employed is a high power Nd:YAG. The formation of a relatively thick aluminium oxide layer on

  8. Effect of BaTiO3 nano-particles on breakdown performance of propylene carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanpan; Zhang, Zicheng; Zhang, Jiande; Liu, Zhuofeng; Song, Zuyin

    2015-05-01

    As an alternative to water, propylene carbonate (PC) has a good application prospect in the compact pulsed power sources for its breakdown strength higher than that of water, resistivity bigger than 10(9) Ω m, and low freezing temperature (-49 °C). In this paper, the investigation into dielectric breakdown of PC and PC-based nano-fluids (NFs) subjected to high amplitude electric field is presented with microsecond pulses applied to a 1 mm gap full of PC or NFs between spherical electrodes. One kind of NF is composed of PC mixed with 0.5-1.4 vol. % BaTiO3 (BT) nano-particles of mean diameter ≈100 nm and another is mixed with 0.3-0.8 vol. % BT nano-particles of mean diameter ≈30 nm. The experimental results demonstrate the rise of permittivity and improvement of the breakdown strength of NFs compared with PC. Moreover, it is found that there exists an optimum fraction for these NFs corresponding to tremendous surface area in nano-composites with finite mesoscopic thickness. In concrete, the dielectric breakdown voltage of NFs is 33% higher than that of PC as the volume concentration of nano-particles with a 100 nm diameter is 0.9% and the breakdown voltage of NFs is 40% higher as the volume concentration of nano-particles with a 30 nm diameter is 0.6%. These phenomena are considered as the dielectric breakdown voltage of PC-based NFs is increased because the interfaces between nano-fillers and PC matrices provide myriad trap sites for charge carriers, which play a dominant role in the breakdown performance of NFs.

  9. Effect of a nano-sized TiC particle addition on the flow-assisted corrosion resistance of SA 106B carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Ju; Park, Eun-Kwang; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Min-Ku

    2017-09-01

    Carbon steel with dispersed nano-sized TiC ceramic particles was fabricated by the ex-situ introduction of the particles into the melt, with the flow-assisted corrosion (FAC) resistance then investigated in the presence and absence of TiC nanoparticles using a once-through type of FAC loop test. From the potentiodynamic polarization curves, the current density at any given anodic potential was decreased and the open-circuit potential was increased by the addition of TiC nanoparticles. In addition, when the nano-sized TiC particles were added, the FAC rate was 1.38 times lower than that of carbon steel without TiC nanoparticles, indicating an improvement of the FAC resistance due to the homogeneous distribution of the TiC reinforcing nanoparticles.

  10. Turn-key module for neutron scattering with sub-micro-eV resolution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgii, R.; Brandl, G.; HauBler, W.; Tischendorf, A.; Pfleiderer, C.; Boni, P.; Arend, N.; Keller, T.; Lal, J. (Biosciences Division); ( MSD); (Technische Univ. Munchen); (JCNS); (MPI-FKE)

    2011-02-18

    We report the development of a compact turn-key module that boosts the resolution in quasielastic neutron scattering by several orders of magnitude down to the low sub-micro-eV range. It is based on a pair of neutron resonance spin flippers that generate a well defined temporal intensity modulation, also known as Modulation of IntEnsity by Zero Effort (MIEZE). The module may be used under versatile conditions, in particular, in applied magnetic fields and for depolarizing and incoherently scattering samples. We demonstrate the power of MIEZE in studies of the helimagnetic order in MnSi under applied magnetic fields.

  11. Stress evolution in magnetron sputtered Ti-Zr-N and Ti-Ta-N films studied by in situ wafer curvature: Role of energetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadias, G., E-mail: gregory.abadias@univ-poitiers.f [Laboratoire PHYMAT, UMR 6630, Universite de Poitiers-CNRS, SP2MI, Teleport 2, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Koutsokeras, L.E. [Laboratoire PHYMAT, UMR 6630, Universite de Poitiers-CNRS, SP2MI, Teleport 2, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Guerin, Ph. [Laboratoire PHYMAT, UMR 6630, Universite de Poitiers-CNRS, SP2MI, Teleport 2, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Patsalas, P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)

    2009-12-31

    Stress evolution during reactive magnetron sputtering of binary TiN, ZrN and TaN thin films as well as ternary Ti-Zr-N and Ti-Ta-N solid-solutions was studied using real-time wafer curvature measurements. The energy of the incoming particles (sputtered atoms, backscattered Ar, ions) was tuned by changing either the metal target (M{sub Ti} = 47.9, M{sub Zr} = 91.2 and M{sub Ta} = 180.9 g/mol), the plasma conditions (effect of pressure, substrate bias or magnetron configuration) for a given target or by combining different metal targets during co-sputtering. Experimental results were discussed using the average energy of the incoming species, as calculated using Monte-Carlo simulations (SRIM code). In the early stage of growth, a rapid evolution to compressive stress states is noticed for all films. A reversal towards tensile stress is observed with increasing thickness at low energetic deposition conditions, revealing the presence of stress gradients. The tensile stress is ascribed to the development of a 'zone T' columnar growth with intercolumnar voids and rough surface. At higher energetic deposition conditions, the atomic peening mechanism is predominant: the stress remains largely compressive and dense films with more globular microstructure and smooth surface are obtained.

  12. Compression Properties and Electrical Conductivity of In-Situ 20 vol.% Nano-Sized TiCx/Cu Composites with Different Particle Size and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The compression properties and electrical conductivity of in-situ 20 vol.% nano-sized TiCx/Cu composites fabricated via combustion synthesis and hot press in Cu-Ti-CNTs system at various particles size and morphology were investigated. Cubic-TiCx/Cu composite had higher ultimate compression strength (σUCS, yield strength (σ0.2, and electric conductivity, compared with those of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite. The σUCS, σ0.2, and electrical conductivity of cubic-TiCx/Cu composite increased by 4.37%, 20.7%, and 17.8% compared with those of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite (526 MPa, 183 MPa, and 55.6% International Annealed Copper Standard, IACS. Spherical-TiCx/Cu composite with average particle size of ~94 nm exhibited higher ultimate compression strength, yield strength, and electrical conductivity compared with those of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite with 46 nm in size. The σUCS, σ0.2, and electrical conductivity of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite with average size of ~94 nm in size increased by 17.8%, 33.9%, and 62.5% compared with those of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite (417 MPa, 121 MPa, and 40.3% IACS with particle size of 49 nm, respectively. Cubic-shaped TiCx particles with sharp corners and edges led to stress/strain localization, which enhanced the compression strength of the composites. The agglomeration of spherical-TiCx particles with small size led to the compression strength reduction of the composites.

  13. Compression Properties and Electrical Conductivity of In-Situ 20 vol.% Nano-Sized TiCx/Cu Composites with Different Particle Size and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Bai, Fang; Sun, Liping; Wang, Yong; Wang, Jinguo

    2017-05-04

    The compression properties and electrical conductivity of in-situ 20 vol.% nano-sized TiCx/Cu composites fabricated via combustion synthesis and hot press in Cu-Ti-CNTs system at various particles size and morphology were investigated. Cubic-TiCx/Cu composite had higher ultimate compression strength (σUCS), yield strength (σ0.2), and electric conductivity, compared with those of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite. The σUCS, σ0.2, and electrical conductivity of cubic-TiCx/Cu composite increased by 4.37%, 20.7%, and 17.8% compared with those of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite (526 MPa, 183 MPa, and 55.6% International Annealed Copper Standard, IACS). Spherical-TiCx/Cu composite with average particle size of ~94 nm exhibited higher ultimate compression strength, yield strength, and electrical conductivity compared with those of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite with 46 nm in size. The σUCS, σ0.2, and electrical conductivity of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite with average size of ~94 nm in size increased by 17.8%, 33.9%, and 62.5% compared with those of spherical-TiCx/Cu composite (417 MPa, 121 MPa, and 40.3% IACS) with particle size of 49 nm, respectively. Cubic-shaped TiCx particles with sharp corners and edges led to stress/strain localization, which enhanced the compression strength of the composites. The agglomeration of spherical-TiCx particles with small size led to the compression strength reduction of the composites.

  14. Effect of nano/micro-Ag compound particles on the bio-corrosion, antibacterial properties and cell biocompatibility of Ti-Ag alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mian; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Qin, Gaowu; Zhang, Erlin

    2017-06-01

    In this research, Ti-Ag alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy, casting and heat treatment method in order to investigate the effect of Ag compound particles on the bio-corrosion, the antibacterial property and the cell biocompatibility. Ti-Ag alloys with different sizes of Ag or Ag-compounds particles were successfully prepared: small amount of submicro-scale (100nm) Ti 2 Ag precipitates with solid solution state of Ag, large amount of nano-scale (20-30nm) Ti 2 Ag precipitates with small amount of solid solution state of Ag and micro-scale lamellar Ti 2 Ag phases, and complete solid solution state of Ag. The mechanical tests indicated that both nano/micro-scale Ti 2 Ag phases had a strong dispersion strengthening ability and Ag had a high solid solution strengthening ability. Electrochemical results shown the Ag content and the size of Ag particles had a limited influence on the bio-corrosion resistance although nano-scale Ti 2 Ag precipitates slightly improved corrosion resistance. It was demonstrated that the nano Ag compounds precipitates have a significant influence on the antibacterial properties of Ti-Ag alloys but no effect on the cell biocompatibility. It was thought that both Ag ions release and Ti 2 Ag precipitates contributed to the antibacterial ability, in which nano-scale and homogeneously distributed Ti 2 Ag phases would play a key role in antibacterial process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Shape memory effect of nano-ferromagnetic particle doped NiTi for orthopedic devices and rehabilitation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Arvind; Balouria, Anuradha; Acharyya, Amit; Acharyya, Swati Ghosh; Panwar, Madhuri; Naik, Ganesh R

    2017-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel shape memory alloy (SMA) material for the controllability in the shape recovery of traditional SMA for orthopedic devices and rehabilitation techniques. The proposed material is formed by doping nano-ferromagnetic particle into porous NiTi alloy. The finite element analysis of shape memory effect property of the different distribution of nano-ferromagnetic particle is done and compared for same load and boundary conditions. The comparative analysis of the percentage change in volume deformation when load is released (for 2 nd step) shows an average of 2.55 % with standard deviation of 1.69 whereas on thermal loading (for 3 rd step) shows an average of 94.94% with standard deviation of 7.75 for all heterogeneous distribution of nano-particles in porous NiTi alloy. Our findings are, all the different conditions of heterogeneous distributions of nano-ferromagnetic particle doped NiTi alloy exhibits its inherent SME property.

  16. Characterization and environmental implications of nano- and larger TiO(2) particles in sewage sludge, and soils amended with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bojeong; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Colman, Benjamin P; Hochella, Michael F

    2012-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is the most extensively used engineered nanoparticle to date, yet its fate in the soil environment has been investigated only rarely and is poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted two field-scale investigations to better describe TiO(2) nano- and larger particles in their most likely route of entry into the environment, i.e., the application of biosolids to soils. We particularly concentrated on the particles in the nano-size regime due to their novel and commercially useful properties. First, we analyzed three sewage sludge products from the US EPA TNSSS sampling inventory for the occurrence, qualitative abundance, and nature of TiO(2) nano- and larger particles by using analytical scanning electron microscopy and analytical (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Nano- and larger particles of TiO(2) were repeatedly identified across the sewage sludge types tested, providing strong evidence of their likely concentration in sewage sludge products. The TiO(2) particles identified were as small as 40 nm, and as large as 300 nm, having faceted shapes with the rutile crystal structure, and they typically formed small, loosely packed aggregates. Second, we examined surface soils in mesocosms that had been amended with Ag nanoparticle-spiked biosolids for the occurrence of TiO(2) particles. An aggregate of TiO(2) nanoparticles with the rutile structure was again identified, but this time TiO(2) nanoparticles were found to contain Ag on their surfaces. This suggests that TiO(2) nanoparticles from biosolids can interact with toxic trace metals that would then enter the environment as a soil amendment. Therefore, the long-term behavior of TiO(2) nano- and larger particles in sewage sludge materials as well as their impacts in the soil environment need to be carefully considered.

  17. Microstructure Evolution of TiC Particles In Situ, Synthesized by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a TiC reinforcement metal matrix composite coating is produced using nickel and graphite mixing powder on the surface ofTi-6Al-4V alloy by laser radiation. The microstructure of the coatings is investigated by XRD, SEM and EDS. Results show that most of the TiC phase is granular, with a size of several micrometers, and a few of the TiC phases are petals or flakes. At the cross-section of the coatings, a few special TiC patterns are found and these TiC patterns do not always occur at the observed cross-section. The even distribution of the TiC phase in the coatings confirms that the convection of the laser-melted pool leads to the homogenization of titanium atoms from the molten substrate, and carbon atoms from the preplace powder layer, by the mass transfer. The characteristics of the TiC pattern confirm that the morphology and distribution of the primary TiC phase could be influenced by convection. Two main reasons for this are that the density of the TiC phase is lower than the liquid melt, and that the primary TiC phase precipitates from the pool with a high convection speed at high temperature.

  18. Blood Compatibility of ZrO2 Particle Reinforced PEEK Coatings on Ti6Al4V Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Titanium (Ti and its alloys are widely used in biomedical devices. As biomaterials, the blood compatibility of Ti and its alloys is important and needs to be further improved to provide better functionality. In this work, we studied the suitability of zirconia (ZrO2 particle reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates for blood-contacting implants. The wettability, surface roughness and elastic modulus of the coatings were examined. Blood compatibility tests were conducted by erythrocytes observation, hemolysis assay and clotting time of recalcified human plasma, to find out correlations between the microstructure of the ZrO2-filled PEEK composite coatings and their blood compatibilities. The results suggested that adding ZrO2 nanoparticles increased the surface roughness and improved the wettability and Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT elastic modulus of PEEK coating. The PEEK composite matrix coated Ti6Al4V specimens did not cause any aggregation of erythrocytes, showing morphological normal shapes. The hemolysis rate (HR values of the tested specimens were much less than 5% according to ISO 10993-4 standard. The values of plasma recalcification time (PRT of the tested specimens varied with the increasing amount of ZrO2 nanoparticles. Based on the results obtained, 10 wt % ZrO2 particle reinforced PEEK coating has demonstrated an optimum blood compatibility, and can be considered as a candidate to improve the performance of existing PEEK based coatings on titanium substrates.

  19. Ammonia Synthesis using Ti and Nb Nitride Nano-particles Prepared by Mesoporous Graphitic C3N4

    KAUST Repository

    Kumagai, Hiromu

    2015-01-22

    TiN and NbN nanoparticles were synthesized from mesoporous graphitic C3N4 (mpg-C3N4) as a reactive template and used as the catalyst for ammonia synthesis. The obtained TiN and NbN nanoparticles possess high surface areas of 299 and 275 m2 g-1, respectively, making them attractive in the use of catalysis and support. Although most of the TiN and NbN particles show no measurable activity for ammonia formation, the nanoparticles enabled an ammonia synthesis rate of 31 μmol h-1 g-cat-1 at 673 K and 0.1 MPa of synthesis gas (N2 + 3H2) for both TiN and NbN catalysts. It is evident that the formation of nanoparticles with high nitride surface area is essential for the materials to function as catalysts in ammonia synthesis. The addition of Fe to TiN enhanced the ammonia synthesis activity, whereas it had detrimental effects on the catalytic activity of NbN. The properties of these catalysts in ammonia synthesis are discussed.

  20. Visible active nanocrystalline N-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} particles for photocatalytic mineralization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkul, R.P. [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Sub–campus Osmanabad, 413 501, MS (India); Koli, V.B.; Shewale, V.B. [Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416 004, MS (India); Patil, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Sub–campus Osmanabad, 413 501, MS (India); Delekar, S.D., E-mail: sddelekar7@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Sub–campus Osmanabad, 413 501, MS (India); Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416 004, MS (India); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 30306-4390, FL (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (N–TiO{sub 2} NPs) with anatase phase were synthesized by sol–gel method using a single precursor containing titanium (IV) terbutoxide, glacial acetic acid, sodium dodecyl sulphate, ammonia, and urea. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the nanocrystalline nature with anatase phase of all the samples. The particle size of all samples was found in the range of 5–12 nm using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV–visible absorption measurements examined that the optical band gap of the doped samples decrease with increase in dopant concentration from 0.0 to 7.0 mol%. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive atomic X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy was employed to analyse the morphology and chemical composition of these N–TiO{sub 2} NPs. The photocatalytic activity of bare/doped TiO{sub 2} samples was demonstrated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye under direct sunlight irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation was monitored by measuring the kinetic parameters based on UV–visible spectroscopy as well as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) during the course of the reaction. The effect of dye concentration and pH of the solution on the photocatalytic degradation reaction in the presence of colloidal bare/doped TiO{sub 2} were also studied. The N–TiO{sub 2} catalyst, with a nitrogen concentration of 7.0 mol%, showed the highest activity for photocatalytic mineralization of dye at acidic or alkaline medium than neutral condition under solar light irradiation directly. - Highlights: • Nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles where synthesized by using simple sol–gel method at room temperature. • N–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles shows red shift. • Hydroxylation on the surface of TiO{sub 2} increase with increasing nitrogen concentration. • In presence of sunlight N–TiO{sub 2} shows enhancement in degradation of RhB dye.

  1. Fatigue behavior of Ti6Al4V and 316 LVM blasted with ceramic particles of interest for medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriuso, S; Chao, J; Jiménez, J A; García, S; González-Carrasco, J L

    2014-02-01

    Grit blasting is used as a cost-effective method to increase the surface roughness of metallic biomaterials, as Ti6Al4V and 316 LVM, to enhance the osteointegration, fixation and stability of implants. Samples of these two alloys were blasted by using alumina and zirconia particles, yielding rough (up to Ra~8μm) and nearly smooth (up to Ra~1μm) surfaces, respectively. In this work, we investigate the sub-surface induced microstructural effects and its correlation with the mechanical properties, with special emphasis in the fatigue behavior. Blasting with zirconia particles increases the fatigue resistance whereas the opposite effect is observed using alumina ones. As in a conventional shot penning process, the use of rounded zirconia particles for blasting led to the development of residual compressive stresses at the surface layer, without zones of stress concentrators. Alumina particles are harder and have an angular shape, which confers a higher capability to abrade the surface, but also a high rate of breaking down on impact. The higher roughness and the presence of a high amount of embedded alumina particles make the blasted alloy prone to crack nucleation. Interestingly, the beneficial or detrimental role of blasting is more intense for the Ti6Al4V alloy than for the 316 steel. It is proposed that this behavior is related to their different strain hardening exponents and the higher mass fraction of particles contaminating the surface. The low value of this exponent for the Ti6Al4V alloy justifies the expected low sub-surface hardening during the severe plastic deformation, enhancing its capability to soft during cyclic loading. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The effect of the TiC particle size on the preferred oxidation temperature for self-healing of oxide ceramic matrix materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boatemaa, L.; Brouwer, J.C.; van der Zwaag, S.; Sloof, W.G.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of particle size on the oxidation kinetics of TiC powders is studied. Different sizes of TiC powder ranging from nanometre to submillimetre sizes are investigated. The samples are heated at different heating rates from room temperature up to 1200 °C in dry synthetic air. The Kissinger

  3. A new strategy on utilizing nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} in nanostructured solar cells: Embedded multifunctional N-TiO{sub 2} scattering particles in mesoporous photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shogh, Shiva [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadpour, Raheleh [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 14588-89694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iraji zad, Azam, E-mail: Iraji@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 14588-89694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghavinia, Nima [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 14588-89694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • N-doped TiO{sub 2} scattering particles were synthesized for embedding into commercial photoanode of dye sensitized solar cells. • Embedded scatterers improved optical and electrical features of the cells. • These multifunctional scatterers increased cell performance up to 17%. - Abstract: Aggregated sub-micron size nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} (N-TiO{sub 2}) particles with superior optical and electrical features were successfully synthesized for embedding into commercial mesoporous TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as the light scattering particles compared to undoped one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and absorption spectra confirmed that the titanium dioxide is sufficiently doped by nitrogen in N-TiO{sub 2} sample. Employing these high-surface N-TiO{sub 2} in mesoporous photoelectrode of solar cells, the power conversion efficiency of 8% has been achieved which shows 17% improvement for the optimum embedded level of doping (30 wt%) compared to commercial photoelectrode without additive; while enhanced efficiency is only 3% embedding undoped sub-micron size TiO{sub 2} particles. These results can introduce the novel multifunctional photoelectrode for nanostructured solar cells with enhanced values of scattering efficiency and improved electrical features including trap states density reduction in comparison to commercial mesoporous photoelectrodes.

  4. Dynamic Hydrogen Production from Methanol/Water Photo-Splitting Using Core@Shell-Structured CuS@TiO2 Catalyst Wrapped by High Concentrated TiO2 Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghwan Im

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the dynamic hydrogen production ability of a core@shell-structured CuS@TiO2 photocatalyst coated with a high concentration of TiO2 particles. The rectangular-shaped CuS particles, 100 nm in length and 60 nm in width, were surrounded by a high concentration of anatase TiO2 particles (>4~5 mol. The synthesized core@shell-structured CuS@TiO2 particles absorbed a long wavelength (a short band gap above 700 nm compared to that pure TiO2, which at approximately 300 nm, leading to easier electronic transitions, even at low energy. Hydrogen evolution from methanol/water photo-splitting over the core@shell-structured CuS@TiO2 photocatalyst increased approximately 10-fold compared to that over pure CuS. In particular, 1.9 mmol of hydrogen gas was produced after 10 hours when 0.5 g of 1CuS@4TiO2 was used at pH = 7. This level of production was increased to more than 4-fold at higher pH. Cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy confirmed that the CuS in CuS@TiO2 strongly withdraws the excited electrons from the valence band in TiO2 because of the higher reduction potential than TiO2, resulting in a slower recombination rate between the electrons and holes and higher photoactivity.

  5. High Photocatalytic Activity of Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 Functional Particles with Core-Shell Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Chenyang Xue; Qiang Zhang; Junyang Li; Xiujian Chou; Wendong Zhang; Hua Ye; Zhanfeng Cui; Dobson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method of synthesizing Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles with the core-shell structure. The Fe3O4 cores which were mainly superparamagnetic were synthesized through a novel carbon reduction method. The Fe3O4 cores were then modified with SiO2 and finally encapsulated with TiO2 by the sol-gel method. The results of characterizations showed that the encapsulated 700 nm Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 particles have a relatively uniform size distribution, an anatase TiO2 she...

  6. Effect of Chelating Agents on the Stability of Nano-TiO2 Sol Particles for Sol-Gel Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Wan Young; Yoo, Mi

    2015-11-01

    Agglomeration of sol particles in a titanium alkoxide (tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT), > 97%) solution during the hydrolysis and condensation steps makes the sol solution difficult to use for synthesizing homogeneous sol-gel coating. Here, we have investigated the effect of stabilizing agents (acetic acid and ethyl acetoacetate (EAcAc)) on the agglomeration of Ti alkoxide particles during hydrolysis and condensation in order to determine the optimized conditions for controlling the precipitation of TiO2 particles. The study was conducted at R(AC) ([acetic acid]/[TBOT]) = 0.1-5 and R(EAcAc)([EAcAc]/[TBOT]) = 0.05-0.65. We also studied the effects of a basic catalyst ethanolamine (ETA), water, and HCl on sol stability. The chelating ligands in the precursor sol were analyzed with FT-IR. The coating properties were examined by focused ion beam. The stabilizing agents (acetic acid and EAcAc) significantly influenced the agglomeration and precipitation of TBOT precursor particles during hydrolysis. As R(AC) and R(EAcAc) increased, the agglomeration remarkably decreased. The stability of the sol with acetic acid and EAcAc arises from the coordination of the chelating ligand to TBOT that hinders hydrolysis and condensation. A uniform fine coating (thickness: 30 nm) on stainless steel was obtained by using an optimized sol with R(AC) = 0.5 and R(EAcAc) = 0.65.

  7. Synthesis and magnetic properties of Fe2O3-TiO2 nano-composite particles using pulsed laser gas phase evaporation-liquid phase collecting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suiyuan; Zhang, Yikun; Han, Weili; Wellburn, Daniel; Liang, Jing; Liu, Changsheng

    2013-10-01

    Fe2O3-TiO2 nano-composite particles were synthesized by a new method: pulsed laser gas phase evaporation-liquid phase collection. The targets are mixtures composed of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% content micron-sized Fe2O3 powders each also mixed with micron-sized TiO2 powder. The morphology, structure, magnetic properties and synthesis mechanism of the samples were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, vibration magnetometer and other techniques. The results indicate that the Fe2O3-TiO2 nano-composite particles prepared with this new method are spherical, diameters of the primary particles range from 20 nm to 50 nm, and the particles have a tendency to form chain connections. All of the Fe2O3-TiO2 nano-composite particles contain TiO2 and Fe2O3 phases of both rutile and anatase crystal structures. With the addition of Fe2O3 content the magnetic saturation intensity and the coercivity both increase and the magnetic properties are obviously improved, the composite Fe2O3-TiO2 nanoparticles have added magnetic recovery functionality.

  8. Microstructure and wear-resistance of laser clad TiC particle-reinforced coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, T.C.; Ouyang, J.H.; Pei, Y.T.; Zhou, Y.

    A TiC-Ni alloy composite coating was clad to 1045 steel substrate using a 2kW CO2 laser. The microstructural constituents of the clad layer are found to be gamma-Ni and TiCp in the dendrites, and a fine eutectic of gamma-Ni plus (Fe, Cr)(23)C-6 in the interdendritic areas. Partial dissolution and

  9. Synthesis of PtSn nanostructured catalysts supported over TiO{sub 2} and Ce-doped TiO{sub 2} particles for the electro-oxidation of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.E. [Instituto de Ingeniería Electroquímica y Corrosión (INIEC), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Gravina, A.N. [Departamento de Química, INQUISUR, CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Sieben, J.M., E-mail: jmsieben@uns.edu.ar [Instituto de Ingeniería Electroquímica y Corrosión (INIEC), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Messina, P.V. [Departamento de Química, INQUISUR, CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Duarte, M.M.E. [Instituto de Ingeniería Electroquímica y Corrosión (INIEC), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • PtSn particles supported on TiO2 and Ce-doped TiO2 were evaluated as catalysts for EOR. • PtSn/TiO2 showed better mass current and higher TON than PtSn/Ce–TiO2 materials. • The activity for EOR decreased markedly with increasing Ce content in the TiO2. - Abstract: PtSn/TiO2 and PtSn/Ce-doped TiO2 catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for ethanol electro-oxidation in acid media. Titanium dioxide and Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method followed by calcination at 923 K. Bimetallic PtSn catalysts supported on the oxide materials were synthesized by microwave assisted reduction in ethylene glycol (EG). The structural properties of the resulting materials were evaluated via TEM and XRD, and the compositions were assessed by EDX and ICP-AES analysis. PtSn nanoparticles of about 3–4 nm were deposited on TiO2 and Ce–TiO2 particles. It was found that the catalyst composition is scarcely influenced by the cerium content in the mixed oxides while the electrochemical surface area per unit mass decreases upon the incorporation of Ce in the anatase lattice. The electrochemical tests pointed out that the electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation decreases markedly as the Ce content increases. The results indicate that the presence of cerium in the titanium dioxide crystalline network induces local structural and electronic modifications, thereby leading to a reduction of the crystallinity, surface conductivity and the amount of OH species adsorbed on the surface of the oxide support.

  10. MICRODOSIMETRIC MODELING OF THE RELATIVE LUMINESCENCE EFFICIENCY OF LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) DETECTORS EXPOSED TO CHARGED PARTICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Alessio; Van Hoey, Olivier; Vanhavere, Filip

    2017-09-29

    A microdosimetric model has been developed to predict the relative efficiency of luminescent detectors for measuring different radiation qualities. The model has been tested for LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) detectors exposed to charged particles from 1H to 132Xe in the energy range 3-1000 MeV/u. The obtained results have been compared with experimental data present in literature showing very good agreement in case of calculations performed in a site size of 40 nm. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Quantitative study of particle size distribution in an in-situ grown Al–TiB{sub 2} composite by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, Z., E-mail: zhe.chen@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Borbély, A. [SMS Materials Center, LGF-CNRS UMR 5307, Ecole des Mines de Saint Etienne, 158, Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Ji, G. [Unité Matériaux et Transformations, CNRS UMR 8207, Université Lille 1, Villeneuve d' Ascq 59655 (France); Zhong, S.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Schryvers, D. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Ji, V. [ICMMO/LEMHE, UMR CNRS 8182, Université Paris-Sud 11, Orsay Cedex 91405, France. (France); Wang, H.W. [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to quantitatively characterize the average particle size and size distribution of free-standing TiB{sub 2} particles and TiB{sub 2} particles in an in-situ grown Al–TiB{sub 2} composite. The detailed evaluations were carried out by X-ray line profile analysis using the restricted moment method and multiple whole profile fitting procedure (MWP). Both numerical methods indicate that the formed TiB{sub 2} particles are well crystallized and free of crystal defects. The average particle size determined from different Bragg reflections by the restricted moment method ranges between 25 and 55 nm, where the smallest particle size is determined using the 110 reflection suggesting the highest lateral-growth velocity of (110) facets. The MWP method has shown that the in-situ grown TiB{sub 2} particles have a very low dislocation density (~ 10{sup 11} m{sup −} {sup 2}) and their size distribution can be described by a log-normal distribution. Good agreement was found between the results obtained from the restricted moment and MWP methods, which was further confirmed by TEM. - Highlights: • Accurate quantitative characterization of in-situ grown T{sub i}B{sub 2} particles has been achieved. • Particle size anisotropy was revealed indicating 110 facets being largest during T{sub i}B{sub 2} growth. • A wide size distribution was observed for T{sub i}B{sub 2} particles with a dominant size smaller than 100 nm.

  12. Stability of nTiO2 particles and their attachment to sand: Effects of humic acid at different pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Cheng, Tao

    2016-01-15

    The fate and transport of nano-scale or micro-scale titanium dioxide particles (nTiO2) in subsurface environments are strongly influenced by the stability of nTiO2 and their attachment to sediment grains. nTiO2 may carry either positive or negative charges in natural water, therefore, environmental factors such as pH, humic substances, and Fe oxyhydroxide coatings on sediment grains, which are known to control the stability and transport of negatively-charged colloids, may influence nTiO2 in different manners. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pH and humic acid (HA) on the stability and attachment of nTiO2 to sand at HA concentrations that are relevant to typical groundwater conditions, so that mechanisms that control nTiO2 immobilization and transport in natural systems can be elucidated. Stability and attachment of nTiO2 to quartz sand and Fe oxyhydroxide coated quartz sand are experimentally measured under a range of HA concentrations at pH5 and 9. Results show that at pH5, negatively-charged HA strongly adsorbs to positively-charged nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide, which, at low HA concentrations, partially neutralizes the positive charges on nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide, and therefore decreases the repulsive electrostatic forces between the surfaces, resulting in nTiO2 aggregation and attachment. At high HA concentrations, adsorbed HA reverses the surface charges of nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide, and makes nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide strongly negatively charged, resulting in stable nTiO2 suspension and low nTiO2 attachment. At pH9, HA, nTiO2, and Fe oxyhydroxide are all negatively charged, and HA adsorption is low and does not have a strong impact on the stability and attachment of nTiO2. Overall, this study shows that changes in surface charges of nTiO2 and Fe oxyhydroxide coating caused by HA adsorption is a key factor that influences the stability and attachment of nTiO2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of micro-particles on cavitation erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy in sulfuric acid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D G; Long, Y; Liang, P; Chen, D R

    2017-05-01

    The influences of micro-particles on ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy in 0.1M H 2 SO 4 solution were investigated using mass loss weight, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometer. Mass loss results revealed that the cavitation erosion damage obviously decreased with increasing particle size and mass concentration. Open circuit potential recorded during cavitation erosion shifted to positive direction with the decreased mass loss. Meanwhile, the mass loss sharply decreased with applying a positive potential during the entire ultrasonic cavitation erosion, and the relationship between the open circuit potential and the cavitation erosion resistance was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Solid-particle erosion of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-TiC composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, M.; Goretta, K.C.; Singh, D.; Routbort, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schuldies, J.J. [Industrial Ceramic Technology, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-11-01

    An electrodischarge-machinable Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-TiC composite developed by Industrial Ceramic Technology, Inc., has a high fracture toughness, 9.6{+-}0.6 MPm{sup 1/2}, as measured by indentation, and a Vickers hardness of 20.3{+-}0.6 GPa. The composite`s resistance to solid-particle erosion was measured for 143-{mu}m dia SiC particles impacting at 20-90{degree} angles and 50-100 m/s velocities. Erosion rate exhibited a maximum for normal incidence, and the erosion resistance was better than that of commercial Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. SEM indicated that material wastage was by a combination of brittle fracture and microplasticity.

  15. Markers of lipid oxidative damage among office workers exposed intermittently to air pollutants including nanoTiO2 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelclova, Daniela; Zdimal, Vladimir; Kacer, Petr; Komarc, Martin; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Zikova, Nadezda; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Makes, Otakar; Navratil, Tomas; Zakharov, Sergey; Bello, Dhimiter

    2017-03-01

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls. Office workers were observed to get intermittent exposures to nanoTiO2 during their process monitoring. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of such short-term exposures on the markers of health effects in office workers relative to production workers from the same factory. Twenty-two office employees were examined. They were occupationally exposed to (nano)TiO2 aerosol during their daily visits of the production area for an average of 14±9 min/day. Median particle number concentration in office workers while in the production area was 2.32×104/cm3. About 80% of the particles were office workers and 14 unexposed controls. Nine markers of lipid oxidation were elevated in the EBC of office employees relative to controls (poffice employees reached about 50% of the levels measured in production workers, and the difference between production workers and office employees was highly significant (p<0.001). None of these biomarkers were elevated in urine. The approach presented here seems to be very sensitive and useful for non-invasive monitoring of employees exposed to air pollutants, including gases, organic aerosols, and nanoTiO2, and may prove useful for routine biomonitoring purposes. Among them, aldehydes C6, C8, C9, and C10 appear to be the most sensitive markers of lipid oxidation in similar occupational cohorts. One major challenge with sensitive biomonitoring techniques, however, is their

  16. Antibacterial performance of nano polypropylene filter media containing nano-TiO{sub 2} and clay particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, Sara; Zarrebini, Mohammad; Naghashzargar, Elham, E-mail: e.naghashzargar@tx.iut.ac.ir; Semnani, Dariush, E-mail: d-semnani@cc.iut.ac.ir [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Textile Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Disinfection and elimination of pathogenic microorganisms from liquid can be achieved by filtration process using antibacterial filter media. The advent of nanotechnology has facilitated the introduction of membranes consisting of nano-fiber in filtration operations. The melt electro-spun fibers due to their extremely small diameters are used in the production of this particular filtration medium. In this work, antibacterial polypropylene filter medium containing clay particles and nano-TiO{sub 2} were made using melt electro-spun technology. Antibacterial performance of polypropylene nano-filters was evaluated using E. coli bacteria. Additionally, filtration efficiency of the samples in terms fiber diameter, filter porosity, and fiber distribution using image processing technique was determined. Air permeability and dust aerosol tests were conducted to establish the suitability of the samples as a filter medium. It was concluded that as far as antibacterial property is concerned, nano-fibers filter media containing clay particles are preferential to similar media containing TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  17. Influence of Hydrogen and Number of Particle Variants on Ordinary and Two-Way Shape Memory Effects in Ti-Ni Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, I. V.; Platonova, Yu. N.; Chumlyakov, Yu. I.

    2017-02-01

    The ordinary and two-way shape memory effects (SMEs) are investigated for [ overline{1} 12] single crystals of Ti-51.3Ni (at.%) alloy aged at 823 K for 1.5 h in free state and under tensile stress of 150 MPa without hydrogen and after saturation by hydrogen. It is established that without hydrogen in [ overline{1} 12] single crystals with one and four variants of Ti3Ni4 particles the maximum magnitude of the ordinary SME is 1.9-2.6% under the external stress σext = 250 MPa. Under σext > 250 MPa, crystals are destroyed. The magnitude of the two-way SME caused by the B2- R- B19' MT equal to 1.1% at σext = 0 is observed in [ overline{1} 12] single crystals with one variant of Ti3Ni4 particles. The physical reason for the observed two-way SME is the internal compressive stresses oriented along the [ overline{1} 12] directions arising from one variant of Ti3Ni4 particles as a result of aging under tensile stress of 150 MPa. It is established that hydrogen does not influence the TR temperature, reduces the plasticity, and suppresses the two-way SME. The suppression of two-way SME in the [ overline{1} 12] single crystals of the Ti-51.3Ni (at.%) alloy with one variant of Ti3Ni4 particles is caused by shielding of stress fields from one variant of Ti3Ni4 particles and multiple nucleation of R- and B19' martensite variants under loading with saturation by hydrogen.

  18. Effects of Cd(II) on the stability of humic acid-coated nano-TiO2particles in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Lu, Yixin; Yang, Chen; Chen, Chengyu; Huang, Weilin; Dang, Zhi

    2017-10-01

    The stability of nanoparticles (NPs) in aquatic environments is important to evaluate their adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health. Nanoparticle stability is known to be influenced by coexisting ions and dissolved organic matter. This study was designed to investigate the effects of coexisting low-level Cd(II) on the stability of humic acid-coated nano-TiO 2 (HA-TiO 2 ) particles in aquatic environments by measuring their aggregation kinetics through time-resolved dynamic light scattering (DLS) and monitoring suspended HA-TiO 2 concentrations via optical absorbance changes over time. The particles exhibited aggregation behavior consistent with the classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The results showed that Cd(II) concentration, pH, and ionic strength had various effects on the aggregation kinetics of the HA-TiO 2 NPs. The HA-TiO 2 particles aggregated faster as the Cd(II) concentration increased whereas the stability of the nanoparticles increased as the solution pH increased or ionic strength decreased regardless of the Cd(II) concentration. At the fixed pH and ionic strength conditions, the addition of Cd(II) promoted aggregation of nanoparticles, leading to higher attachment efficiencies. The enhanced aggregation of the HA-TiO 2 NPs in the presence of coexisting cadmium ions in aqueous solutions indicated that the fate and transport of nanoparticles could be greatly affected by heavy metals in aquatic environments.

  19. The effect of silica thickness on nano TiO2 particles for functional polyurethane nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Wu, Wei; Xu, William Z.; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2017-03-01

    In order to help reduce the agglomeration of TiO2 nanoparticles in polyurethane coatings while enhancing their photoactivity and mechanical/physical properties, this work examined encapsulating TiO2 nanoparticles in a thin layer of SiO2, prior to their nanocomposite polymerization. By applying a Stöber process, varying thicknesses of SiO2 were successfully coated onto the surface of anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles. The methylene blue results showed that different loadings of SiO2 onto the TiO2 surface significantly influenced their photocatalytic activity. When the loading weight of SiO2 was lower than 3.25 wt%, the photocatalytic activity was enhanced, while with higher loadings, it gave lower photocatalytic activity. When the rutile phase TiO2 surface was fully covered with SiO2, an enhanced photocatalytic activity was observed. When these silica coated nanoparticles were applied in polyurethane coatings, increasing the amount of SiO2 on the titania surface increased the coatings contact angle from 75° to 87° for anatase phase and 70°-78° for rutile phase. The Young’s modulus was also increased from 1.06 GPa to 2.77 GMPa for anatase phase and 1.06-2.17 GPa for rutile phase, attributed to the silica layer giving better integration. The thermal conductivity of the polyurethane coatings was also successfully decreased by encapsulating SiO2 on the titania surface for next generation high performance coatings.

  20. High Photocatalytic Activity of Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 Functional Particles with Core-Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method of synthesizing Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles with the core-shell structure. The Fe3O4 cores which were mainly superparamagnetic were synthesized through a novel carbon reduction method. The Fe3O4 cores were then modified with SiO2 and finally encapsulated with TiO2 by the sol-gel method. The results of characterizations showed that the encapsulated 700 nm Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 particles have a relatively uniform size distribution, an anatase TiO2 shell, and suitable magnetic properties for allowing collection in a magnetic field. These magnetic properties, large area, relative high saturation intensity, and low retentive magnetism make the particles have high dispersibility in suspension and yet enable them to be recovered well using magnetic fields. The functionality of these particles was tested by measuring the photocatalytic activity of the decolouring of methyl orange (MO and methylene blue (MB under ultraviolet light and sunlight. The results showed that the introduction of the Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles significantly increased the decoloration rate so that an MO solution at a concentration of 10 mg/L could be decoloured completely within 180 minutes. The particles were recovered after utilization, washing, and drying and the primary recovery ratio was 87.5%.

  1. Interfacial reactions in Ti-6Al-4V with laser-embedded SiC particles and the origin of intergranular corrosion susceptibility of an Al-Mg alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM; Carter, CB; Hall, EL; Nutt,; Briant, CL

    2000-01-01

    In the first part of the paper the microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V with laser embedded SiC particle is explained. The interfacial reaction between Ti and SiC is responsible for the largely improved wear resistance of the Ti alloy. In the second part the phase responsible for the intergranular corrosion

  2. Effect of the nanosized TiO2 particles in Pd/C catalysts as cathode materials in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mahnsoo; Han, Choonsoo; Kim, In-Tae; Lee, Ji-Jung; Lee, Hong-Ki; Shim, Joongpyo

    2011-07-01

    Pd-TiO2/C catalysts were prepared by impregnating titanium dioxide (TiO2) on carbon-supported Pd (Pd/C) for use as the catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were carried to confirm the distribution, morphology and structure of Pd and TiO2 on the carbon support. In fuel cell test, we confirmed that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles make the improved catalytic activity of oxygen reduction. The electrochemical characterization of the Pd-TiO2/C catalyst for the ORR was carried out by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in the voltage window of 0.04 V to 1.2 V with scan rate of 25 mV/s. With the increase in the crystallite size of TiO2, the peak potential for OH(ads) desorption on the surface of Pd particle shifted to higher potential. This implies that TiO2 might affect the adsorption and desorption of oxygen molecules on Pd catalyst. The performance of Pd-TiO2/C as a cathode material was found to be similar to or better performance than that of Pt/C.

  3. Coagualation interaction of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC and TiO2 particles in aqueous solutions of TiOSO4∙2H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Izmailova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aggregative and sediment stability of "MCC-TiO2" mixture in aqueous solutions of TiOSO4 ∙2H2O in a wide рН range was investigated with spectrophotometry. It is shown that TiOSO4∙2H2O coagulant adding to MCC-TiO2 system reduces considerably stability of the system studied.

  4. Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Added TiO2 Particles: Physicomechanical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Guzmán-Aponte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the TiO2 addition on the physicomechanical properties of a geopolymer system based on metakaolin (MK and hydroxide and potassium silicate as activators is presented in this article. Three different liquid-solid systems (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45 and two titanium additions were investigated (5% and 10% of the cement content. The flowability, setting time, and mechanical strength of the geopolymer mixtures and their microstructural characteristics were evaluated using techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was concluded that a percentage of up to 10% TiO2 does not affect the mechanical properties of the geopolymer, although it does reduce the fluidity and setting times of the mixture.

  5. Tribo-Mechanical Properties of HVOF Deposited Fe3Al Coatings Reinforced with TiB2 Particles for Wear-Resistant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Amiriyan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reveals the effect of TiB2 particles on the mechanical and tribological properties of Fe3Al-TiB2 composite coatings against an alumina counterpart. The feedstock was produced by milling Fe3Al and TiB2 powders in a high energy ball mill. The high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF technique was used to deposit the feedstock powder on a steel substrate. The effect of TiB2 addition on mechanical properties and dry sliding wear rates of the coatings at sliding speeds ranging from 0.04 to 0.8 m·s−1 and loads of 3, 5 and 7 N was studied. Coatings made from unreinforced Fe3Al exhibited a relatively high wear rate. The Vickers hardness, elastic modulus and wear resistance of the coatings increased with increasing TiB2 content in the Fe3Al matrix. The wear mechanisms strongly depended on the sliding speed and the presence of TiB2 particles but were less dependent on the applied load.

  6. Metallic ions in organs of rats injected with metallic particles of stainless steel 316L and Ti6Al4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Giertz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the interest in identifying systemic effects caused by the metallic particles released from long term metallic implants in the body, few works support reliable conclusions about the effects of those particles in organs. The aim of the present work is to look for damages in tissues of liver, kidney, lung and heart of rats submitted to injection of Hank's solution contained particles of Ti6Al4V alloy and Stainless Steel 316L, obtained by metal friction. The particles size ranges from 50 to 200 µm for the Ti alloy and from 100 to 500 µm for the 316L. Tissues isolated from the organs after the euthanasia were prepared and analyzed in an optical microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS. Lesions caused by an inflammatory response such as strange body epithelioid granuloma and giant cells were found in some of the tissues containing yttrium and aluminum.

  7. Dynamic study of sub-micro sized LiFePO4 cathodes by in-situ tender X-ray absorption near edge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongniu; Wang, Huixin; Yang, Jinli; Zhou, Jigang; Hu, Yongfeng; Xiao, Qunfeng; Fang, Haitao; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2016-01-01

    Olivine-type phosphates (LiMPO4, M = Fe, Mn, Co) are promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries that are generally accepted to follow first order equilibrium phase transformations. Herein, the phase transformation dynamics of sub-micro sized LiFePO4 particles with limited rate capability at a low current density of 0.14 C was investigated. An in-situ X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) measurement was conducted at the Fe and P K-edge for the dynamic studies upon lithiation and delithiation. Fe K-edge XANES spectra demonstrate that not only lithium-rich intermediate phase LixFePO4 (x = 0.6-0.75), but also lithium-poor intermediate phase LiyFePO4 (y = 0.1-0.25) exist during the charge and discharge, respectively. Furthermore, during charge and discharge, a fluctuation of the FePO4 and LiFePO4 fractions obtained by liner combination fitting around the imaginary phase fractions followed Faraday's law and the equilibrium first-order two-phase transformation versus reaction time is present, respectively. The charging and discharging process has a reversible phase transformation dynamics with symmetric structural evolution routes. P K-edge XANES spectra reveal an enrichment of PF6-1 anions at the surface of the electrode during charging.

  8. Surfactant-Assisted Sol-Gel Synthesis of TiO2 with Uniform Particle Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Galkina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 materials were prepared from a titanium isopropoxide precursor by sol-gel processing in water media with or without various templates (polyethylenimine or Pluronic P-123. The photocatalytic efficiency of the samples was found to depend strongly on the use of and type of template added. Titania/Pluronic sols resulted in homogeneous anatase TiO2—rutile with uniform particle size distribution after calcination (400°C. Optical properties of the samples were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and crystalline structures by X-ray diffraction. A surfactant-assisted sol-gel process retarded crystallization of the anatase and rutile titania, which resulted in smaller grain sizes and presumably a larger active surface area. The morphology of the surfaces was obtained by AFM techniques. The highest photobleaching rate was found for samples deposited from the sol with the addition of the Pluronic P-123 surfactant, and it was almost twice as high as that for films deposited from sols with polyethylenimine.

  9. Black Anatase Formation by Annealing of Amorphous Nanoparticles and the Role of the Ti2O3Shell in Self-Organized Crystallization by Particle Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengkun; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Wang, Kai; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Tennyson, Wesley D; Cross, Nicholas; Rouleau, Christopher M; Zawodzinski, Thomas A; Duscher, Gerd; Eres, Gyula

    2017-07-05

    We use amorphous titania nanoparticle networks produced by pulsed laser vaporization at room temperature as a model system for understanding the mechanism of formation of black titania. Here, we characterize the transformation of amorphous nanoparticles by annealing in pure Ar at 400 °C, the lowest temperature at which black titania was observed. Atomic resolution electron microscopy methods and electron energy loss spectroscopy show that the onset of crystallization occurs by nucleation of an anatase core that is surrounded by an amorphous Ti 2 O 3 shell. The formation of the metastable anatase core before the thermodynamically stable rutile phase occurs according to the Ostwald phase rule. In the second stage the particle size increases by coalescence of already crystallized particles by a self-organized mechanism of crystallization by particle attachment. We show that the Ti 2 O 3 shell plays a critical role in both black titania transformation and functionality. At 400 °C, Ti 2 O 3 hinders the agglomeration of neighboring particles to maintain a high surface-to-volume ratio that is beneficial for enhanced photocatalytic activity. In agreement with previous results, the thin Ti 2 O 3 surface layer acts as a narrow bandgap semiconductor in concert with surface defects to enhance the photocatalytic activity. Our results demonstrate that crystallization by particle attachment can be a highly effective mechanism for optimizing photocatalytic efficiency by controlling the phase, composition, and particle size distribution in a wide range of self-doped defective TiO 2 architectures simply by varying the annealing conditions of amorphous nanoparticles.

  10. Effect of nanoscale Fe(3)O(4), TiO(2) and carbon particles on cucumber seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Yasmeen K

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Fe(3)O(4), TiO(2) and carbon nanoparticles on the cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed germination rate, root elongation and germination index were studied. The nanoparticles used ranged in average particle size from 30-50 nm, and their concentration ranged from 0 to 5000 μg/mL. Inhibitory effects were observed and the reduction in root growth was more obvious than the seed germination percentages. In all cases some perturbations of the normal functions with respect to control in germinating test were observed. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the phytotoxicity of the nanomaterials used in this study, and may help to further understand the interaction of nanoparticles with the environment prior to their use in agriculture.

  11. Effects of Alloying Elements on the Formation of Core-Shell-Structured Reinforcing Particles during Heating of Al–Ti Powder Compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijun Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To prepare core-shell-structured Ti@compound particle (Ti@compoundp reinforced Al matrix composite via powder thixoforming, the effects of alloying elements, such as Si, Cu, Mg, and Zn, on the reaction between Ti powders and Al melt, and the microstructure of the resulting reinforcements were investigated during heating of powder compacts at 993 K (720 °C. Simultaneously, the situations of the reinforcing particles in the corresponding semisolid compacts were also studied. Both thermodynamic analysis and experiment results all indicate that Si participated in the reaction and promoted the formation of Al–Ti–Si ternary compounds, while Cu, Mg, and Zn did not take part in the reaction and facilitated Al3Ti phase to form to different degrees. The first-formed Al–Ti–Si ternary compound was τ1 phase, and then it gradually transformed into (Al,Si3Ti phase. The proportion and existing time of τ1 phase all increased as the Si content increased. In contrast, Mg had the largest, Cu had the least, and Si and Zn had an equivalent middle effect on accelerating the reaction. The thicker the reaction shell was, the larger the stress generated in the shell was, and thus the looser the shell microstructure was. The stress generated in (Al,Si3Ti phase was larger than that in τ1 phase, but smaller than that in Al3Ti phase. So, the shells in the Al–Ti–Si system were more compact than those in the other systems, and Si element was beneficial to obtain thick and compact compound shells. Most of the above results were consistent to those in the semisolid state ones except the product phase constituents in the Al–Ti–Mg system and the reaction rate in the Al–Ti–Zn system. More importantly, the desirable core-shell structured Ti@compoundp was only achieved in the semisolid Al–Ti–Si system.

  12. Photocatalytic H2 Evolution Using Different Commercial TiO2 Catalysts Deposited with Finely Size-Tailored Au Nanoparticles: Critical Dependence on Au Particle Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Kmetykó

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One weight percent of differently sized Au nanoparticles were deposited on two commercially available TiO2 photocatalysts: Aeroxide P25 and Kronos Vlp7000. The primary objective was to investigate the influence of the noble metal particle size and the deposition method on the photocatalytic activity. The developed synthesis method involves a simple approach for the preparation of finely-tuned Au particles through variation of the concentration of the stabilizing agent. Au was deposited on the TiO2 surface by photo- or chemical reduction, using trisodium citrate as a size-tailoring agent. The Au-TiO2 composites were synthetized by in situ reduction or by mixing the titania suspension with a previously prepared gold sol. The H2 production activities of the samples were studied in aqueous TiO2 suspensions irradiated with near-UV light in the absence of dissolved O2, with oxalic acid or methanol as the sacrificial agent. The H2 evolution rates proved to be strongly dependent on Au particle size: the highest H2 production rate was achieved when the Au particles measured ~6 nm.

  13. Size Effects in PbTiO3 nanocrystals: Effect of Particle Size on Spontaneous Polarization and Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdgan,E.; Rawn, C.; Porter, W.; Payzant, E.; Safari, A.

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous polarization (P{sub s}) and spontaneous strains (x{sub i}) in mechanically unclamped and surface charge compensated PbTiO{sub 3} nanocrystals were determined as a function of particle size in the range <150 nm by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray powder diffraction, respectively. Significant deviations from bulk order parameters (P, x{sub i}) have been observed as the particle size decreased below {approx}100 nm. The critical size (r{sub c}) below which the ferroelectric tetragonal phase transforms to the paraelectric cubic phase was determined as {approx}15 nm. The depression in transition temperature with particle size is 14 C at 28 nm. No change in the order of m3m-->4mm ferrodistortive phase transition is observed. A simple analysis showed that {Delta}Htr/(kBT){approx}10{sup 3} at 25 C for r=16 nm, indicating that the stabilization of the cubic phase at rc cannot be linked to an instability in dipolar ordering due to thermal agitations. Comparison of the spontaneous volumetric strains with the strain induced by surface stress indicated that the effect of surface stress on ferroelectric phase stability was negligible. Anomalies in electrostrictive properties were determined for r{yields}r{sub c}. The observed size dependence of P{sub S} is attributed to the reduced extent of long-range dipole-dipole interactions that arise due to the changes in bonding characteristics of ions with decreasing particle size in the perovskite lattice, in conformity with a recent study by Tsunekawa et al.

  14. Size effects in PbTiO3 nanocrystals: Effect of particle size on spontaneous polarization and strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Rawn, C. J.; Porter, W. D.; Payzant, E. A.; Safari, A.

    2005-04-01

    The spontaneous polarization (Ps) and spontaneous strains (xi) in mechanically unclamped and surface charge compensated PbTiO3 nanocrystals were determined as a function of particle size in the range <150nm by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray powder diffraction, respectively. Significant deviations from bulk order parameters (P,xi) have been observed as the particle size decreased below ˜100nm. The critical size (rc) below which the ferroelectric tetragonal phase transforms to the paraelectric cubic phase was determined as ˜15nm. The depression in transition temperature with particle size is 14 °C at 28 nm. No change in the order of m3m →4mm ferrodistortive phase transition is observed. A simple analysis showed that ΔHtr/(kBT )˜103 at 25 °C for r =16nm, indicating that the stabilization of the cubic phase at rc cannot be linked to an instability in dipolar ordering due to thermal agitations. Comparison of the spontaneous volumetric strains with the strain induced by surface stress indicated that the effect of surface stress on ferroelectric phase stability was negligible. Anomalies in electrostrictive properties were determined for r →rc. The observed size dependence of PS is attributed to the reduced extent of long-range dipole-dipole interactions that arise due to the changes in bonding characteristics of ions with decreasing particle size in the perovskite lattice, in conformity with a recent study by Tsunekawa et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (16), 4340 (2000)].

  15. Particle reflections of low energy light ions from a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, H. [Harima Institute, RIKEN The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)]. E-mail: yamaoka@spring8.or.jp; Tanaka, N. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)]. E-mail: nozomi.tanaka@ppl2.qse.tohoku.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nishiura, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsumori, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Takeuchi, S. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sugawara, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Shinto, K. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Okamoto, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sasao, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Wada, M. [Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The angular distributions and energy spectra of positive and negative ions reflected from a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) bombarded by beams of low energy (1-2 keV) ions of H, He, and O were measured. The intensities of H{sup +} or H{sup -} produced from reflection of 2 keV H{sup +} beam at the surface of vanadium alloy showed the maxima at the angles closer to the surface normal from the mirror reflection angle, compared with Mo and W samples. The time dependence of the angular distributions of the reflected H{sup +} or H{sup -} ions measured at the sample temperature of about 240-260 {sup o}C showed a shift of the peak in the angular distribution to the mirror reflection angle.

  16. Modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics (MSPH) for the analysis of centrifugally assisted TiC-Fe-Al2O3 combustion synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M A; Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, M

    2014-01-16

    A modified smoothed particle hydrodynamic (MSPH) computational technique was utilized to simulate molten particle motion and infiltration speed on multi-scale analysis levels. The radial velocity and velocity gradient of molten alumina, iron infiltration in the TiC product and solidification rate, were predicted during centrifugal self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) simulation, which assisted the coating process by MSPH. The effects of particle size and temperature on infiltration and solidification of iron and alumina were mainly investigated. The obtained results were validated with experimental microstructure evidence. The simulation model successfully describes the magnitude of iron and alumina diffusion in a centrifugal thermite SHS and Ti + C hybrid reaction under centrifugal acceleration.

  17. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) fine particle capture and BVOC emissions of Betula pendula and Betula pubescens at different wind speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Janne V.; Leskinen, Jari T. T.; Holopainen, Toini; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Pasanen, Pertti; Kivimäenpää, Minna

    2017-03-01

    Trees are known to affect air quality by capturing a remarkable amount of particles from the atmosphere. However, the significance of trees in removing very fine particles (diameter less than 0.5 μm) is not well understood. We determined particle capture efficiency (Cp) of two birch species: Betula pendula and Betula pubescens by using inert titanium dioxide fine particles (TiO2, geometric mean diameter 0.270 μm) at three wind speeds (1, 3 and 6 ms-1) in a wind tunnel. Capture efficiencies were determined by measuring densities of TiO2 particles on leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the particle intake into an inner structure of leaves was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of fine particle exposure and wind speed on emission rates of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were measured. Particles were captured (Cp) equally efficiently on foliage of B. pendula (0.0026 ± 0.0005) % and B. pubescens (0.0025 ± 0.0006) %. Increasing wind speed significantly decreased Cp. Increasing wind speed increased deposition velocity (Vg) on B. pendula but not on B. pubescens. Particles were deposited more efficiently on the underside of B. pendula leaves, whereas deposition was similar on the upper and under sides of B. pubescens leaves. TiO2 particles were found inside three of five B. pendula leaves exposed to particles at a wind speed of 1 ms-1 indicating that particles can penetrate into the plant structure. Emission rates of several mono-, homo- and sesquiterpenes were highest at a wind speed of 3 ms-1 in B. pendula. In B. pubescens, emission rates of a few monoterpenes and nonanal decreased linearly with wind speed, but emission rates of sesquiterpenes were lowest at 3 ms-1 and increased at 6 ms-1. Emission rates of a few green leaf volatile compounds increased with increasing wind speed in both species. The results of this study suggest that the surface structure of trees is less important for capturing particles with

  18. Detection of sub micro Gray dose levels using OSL phosphor LiMgPO{sub 4}:Tb,B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawat, N.S., E-mail: naru@barc.gov.in [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Dhabekar, Bhushan [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Muthe, K.P. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Koul, D.K.; Datta, D. [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • LiMgPO4:Tb,B has been studied and shown to possesses minimum measurable dose (MMD) in sub micro Gray region. • MMD as low as 0.49 µGy in readout time of less than 1 s at stimulation intensity of 32 mW/cm{sup 2} has been achieved. • The OSL measurements for low doses has strengthened and validated this claim. • OSL spectrum shows several emission peaks and the prominent peak around 380 nm. - Abstract: Detection of sub micro Gray doses finds application in personnel and environmental monitoring, and nuclear forensics. Recently developed LiMgPO{sub 4}:Tb,B (LMP) is highly sensitive Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) phosphor with excellent dosimetric properties. The OSL emission spectrum of LMP consists of several peaks attributed to characteristic Tb{sup 3+} emission. The OSL emission peak at 380 nm is favorable for bi-alkali PMT used in RISO reader system. It is demonstrated that significant improvement in dose detection threshold can be realized for LMP by optimization of continuous wave (CW–) OSL parameters like stimulation intensity and readout time. The minimum measurable dose (MMD) as low as 0.49 µGy in readout time of less than 1 s at stimulation intensity of 32 mW/cm{sup 2} has been achieved using this phosphor. The recommendations for choice of parameters for personnel and environmental monitoring are also discussed.

  19. Enhancement of nonlinear optical and temperature dependent dielectric properties of Ce:BaTiO3 nano and submicron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Dhanuskodi, S.; Thomas, Anitta Rose; Philip, Reji

    2017-08-01

    The solgel synthesized Ce: BaTiO3 (BT) particles are crystallized in tetragonal structure and the expansion of lattice along a-axis is ensured from the Rietveld refined XRD spectra. FTIR shows that the increase of force constant from 199.97 to 213.13 N m-1 is owing to an effective incorporation of heavier atomic mass of Ce in BT lattice. HRTEM reflects the discontinuous atomic planes in the form of Ti vacancies which is supported by EDS measurement. The modification of optical band structure of BT with Ce ions is validated through several absorption and defect emission bands. Energy dependent second harmonic generation is carried out to confirm the non saturated signal, thermal stability and maximum intensity 2483 counts attained for 2 mol% Ce at 200 mJ. Optical limiting characteristics of the samples is analysed at 532 nm using 5 ns laser pulses of energy 50, 100 and 150 µJ. The nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) is found to be enhanced upon Ce doping. Lower optical limiting thresholds of 2.8 and 3.3 J cm-2 are obtained in the case of 1 and 4 mol% Ce samples respectively. Dielectric properties in a broad temperature range (40-500 °C) and frequency (100 Hz-5 MHz) have been investigated in detail. The dielectric constant is increased from 1926 to 3750 on Ce doping and there are two semicircles in the Cole-Cole plot at 500 °C due to grain and grain boundaries and corresponding equivalent circuit model is proposed.

  20. Screening of in vitro cytotoxicity, antioxidant potential and bioactivity of nano- and micro-ZrO2 and -TiO2 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Manivasakan, Palanisamy; Yuvakkumar, Rathinam; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Kannan, Narayanasamy

    2013-07-01

    Nanometal oxides are used in tissue engineering and implants. The increased use of nanoparticles suggests the need to study their adverse effects on biological systems. The present investigation explores in vitro cytotoxicity, antioxidant potential, and bioactivity of nano- and micro-particles such as zirconia (ZrO2) and titania (TiO2) on biological systems such as National Institute of Health (NIH) 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts cell line, di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium (DPPH) and simulated body fluid (SBF). The cell line viability % indicated that nano ZrO2 and TiO2 were less toxic than microparticles up to 200µgml(-1). DPPH assay revealed that the free radical scavenging potential of tested particles were higher for nano ZrO2 (76.9%) and nano TiO2 (73.3%) at 100mg than that for micron size particles. Calcium deposition percentage of micro- and nano-ZrO2 particles, after SBF study, showed 0.066% and 0.094% respectively, whereas for micro- and nano-TiO2, it was 0.251% and 0.615% respectively. FTIR results showed a good bioactivity through hydroxyapatite formation. The present investigation clearly shows that nanoparticles possess good antioxidant potential and better biocompatibility under in vitro conditions which are dose and size dependent. Hence, cytotoxicity itself is not promising evaluation method for toxicity rather than particles individual characterisation using antioxidant and bioactivity analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrogen Trapping in Quenched and Tempered 0.42C-0.30Ti Steel Containing Bimodally Dispersed TiC Particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Fu-Gao; Hara, Toru; Tsuchida, Takehiro; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki

    2003-01-01

    The effect of tempering on hydrogen trapping in 0.42C-0.30Ti steel was studied by means of a hardness test, hydrogen thermal desorption spectrometry and high resolution transmission electron microscopy...

  2. Low Energy Consumption Synthesis of Nanostructured TiO2 Particles by Combining Oxidant Peroxide Method and Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide with high specific surface area in the crystalline anatase phase is a promising material for environmental applications. In this work, TiO2 with good applicability for photocatalytic processes has been obtained using the low energy consumption synthesis based on oxidant peroxide method combined with microwave-assisted low temperature hydrothermal treatment. To prepare the material, titanium propoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and isopropyl alcohol were used. The influence of time and temperature during the hydrothermal step on properties like morphology, crystallinity, phase composition, specific surface area, and photocatalytic behavior were investigated. Photoactivity was measured using the methyl orange decomposition method in UV-A light. Increasing temperature during hydrothermal step, photocatalytic properties could be improved. The nanostructured TiO2 particles synthesized at 200°C and 30 min with this method showed photocatalytic activity comparable to commercial Aeroxide® TiO2 P25.

  3. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of phenanthrene in surfactant solution containing TiO{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yanlin, E-mail: zhangyl@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China); Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wong, J.W.C. [Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Liu Peihong [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China); Yuan Min [Research Resources Center, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Degradation of phenanthrene in surfactant solution and the role of surfactant have been elucidated. {yields} Possible pathway of phenanthrene degradation in surfactant solution is proposed. {yields} The degradation of phenanthrene follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. {yields} It is proved that applying the surfactants as solubilizing agents to remove contaminants from soils followed by photocatalytic degradation is a promising strategy for soil remediation. - Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of phenanthrene (PHE) over TiO{sub 2} in aqueous solution containing nonionic surfactant micelles was investigated. All photocatalytic experiments were conducted using a 253.7 nm mercury monochromatic ultraviolet lamp in a photocatalytic reactor. The surfactant micelles could provide a nonaqueous 'cage' to result in a higher degradation rate of PHE than in an aqueous solution, but the higher Triton X-100 concentration (more than 2 g/L) lowered the degradation ratio of PHE because the additional surfactant micelles hindered the movement of micelles containing PHE so as to reduce their adsorption onto titania. Pseudo-second-order kinetics was observed for the photocatalytic degradation of PHE. Alkaline solution environment was beneficial to the photocatalytic degradation of PHE. PHE degradation could mainly be attributed to the formation of hydroxyl radicals as evident from the comparison of degradation efficiencies when O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) were applied as oxidants or hydroxyl radical scavenger. Based on the GC/MS analysis of the intermediates, the possible pathways of the photocatalytic degradation of PHE were proposed.

  4. Thermal oxidation of medical Ti6Al4V blasted with ceramic particles: Effects on the microstructure, residual stresses and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblich, M; Barriuso, S; Multigner, M; González-Doncel, G; González-Carrasco, J L

    2016-02-01

    Roughening of Ti6Al4V by blasting with alumina or zirconia particles improves the mechanical fixation of implants by increasing the surface area available for bone/implant apposition. Additional thermal oxidation treatments of the blasted alloy have already shown to be a complementary low-cost solution to enhancing the in vitro biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of the alloy. In this work, the effects of oxidation treatment on a grit blasted Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy have been analysed in order to understand the net effect of the combined treatments on the alloy fatigue properties. Synchrotron radiation diffraction experiments have been performed to measure residual stresses before and after the treatments and microstructural and hardness changes have been determined. Although blasting of Ti6Al4V with small spherical zirconia particles increases the alloy fatigue resistance with respect to unblasted specimens, fatigue strength after oxidation decreases below the unblasted value, irrespective of the type of particle used for blasting. Moreover, at 700°C the as-blasted compressive residual stresses (700MPa) are not only fully relaxed but even moderate tensile residual stresses, of about 120MPa, are found beneath the blasted surfaces. Contrary to expectations, a moderate increase in hardness occurs towards the blasted surface after oxidation treatments. This can be attributed to the fact that grit blasting modifies the crystallographic texture of the Ti6Al4V shifting it to a random texture, which affects the hardness values as shown by additional experiments on cold rolled samples. The results indicate that the oxidation treatment performed to improve biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of grit blasted Ti6Al4V should be carried out with caution since the alloy fatigue strength can be critically diminished below the value required for high load-bearing components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of surface modification with silane coupling agent on suppressing the photo-catalytic activity of fine TiO 2 particles as inorganic UV filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukaji, Emi; Furusawa, Takeshi; Sato, Masahide; Suzuki, Noboru

    2007-11-01

    The effect of surface modification with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and n-propyltriethoxysilane (PTES) on photo-catalytic activity and UV-shielding ability of fine TiO 2 particles were investigated. The number of surface groups ( NR) [nm -2] which shows the density of modifier on TiO 2 surface was calculated from the results of elemental analysis and BET measurement. The modified samples of which NR are different were obtained by changing the concentration of modifier. When the photo-catalytic activity and UV-shielding ability of modified samples were evaluated, it was found that APTES was more effective modifier than PTES to obtained samples with low photo-catalytic activity and high UV-shielding ability. This is probably because the adsorption mechanisms on TiO 2 surface between modifiers were different and NR is a key factor to control the performances of fine TiO 2 particles. The result of zeta potential showed that surface character of modified samples was varied by changing NR. It suggested from these results that NR affected the photo-catalytic activity and UV-shielding ability because NR changed surface character of modified samples.

  6. Flux Growth of Highly Crystalline Photocatalytic BaTiO3 Particle Layers on Porous Titanium Sponge Substrate and Insights into the Formation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Li, B.

    2017-09-01

    A unique architecture of idiomorphic and highly crystalline BaTiO3 particle layers directly grown on a porous titanium sponge substrate was successfully achieved for the first time using a facile molten salt method at a relatively low temperature of 700 °C. Specifically, the low-melting KCl-NaCl eutectic salts and barium hydroxide octahydrate were employed as the reaction medium and barium source, respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry were used to characterize the structure, morphology and optical property of the obtained samples. The results revealed that the flux-grown tetragonal BaTiO3 products had well-defined and uniform morphology with an average size of 300 nm and a band gap of ∼3.16 eV. Based on XRD, EDS, SEM, and TEM, the possible formation mechanism responsible for the well-developed architecture of BaTiO3 particle layers was proposed and discussed. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the flux-grown BaTiO3 products for organic pollutant degradation under simulated sunlight irradiation was also investigated.

  7. Parametric investigations on the influence of nano-second Nd{sup 3+}:YAG laser wavelength and fluence in synthesizing NiTi nano-particles using liquid assisted laser ablation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Nandini, E-mail: nandinipatra2007@gmail.com [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India); Akash, K.; Shiva, S.; Gagrani, Rohit; Rao, H. Sai Pranesh; Anirudh, V.R. [Mechatronics and Instrumentation lab, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India); Palani, I.A., E-mail: palaniia@iiti.ac.in [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India); Mechatronics and Instrumentation lab, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India); Singh, Vipul [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Influence of laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) and fluences (40 J/cm{sup 2}, 30 J/cm{sup 2} and 20 J/cm{sup 2}) on generation of underwater laser ablated NiTi nanoparticles. • Particle size range of 140–10 nm was generated at varying laser wavelengths. • The alloy formation of NiTi nanoparticles was confirmed from XRD and TEM analysis where the crystalline peaks of NiTi, Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} and Ni{sub 3}Ti were observed from XRD. • Formation efficiency of NiTi nanoparticles was maximum at 1064 nm wavelength and 40 J/cm{sup 2} fluence. - Abstract: This paper investigates the influence of laser wavelengths and laser fluences on the size and quality of the NiTi nanoparticles, generated through underwater solid state Nd:YAG laser ablation technique. The experiments were performed on Ni55%–Ti45% sheet to synthesize NiTi nano-particles at three different wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) with varying laser fluences ranging from 20 to 40 J/cm{sup 2}. Synthesized NiTi nano-particles were characterized through SEM, DLS, XRD, FT-IR, TEM and UV–vis spectrum. It was observed that, maximum particle size of 140 nm and minimum particle size of 10 nm were generated at varying laser wavelengths. The crystallinity and lattice spacing of NiTi alloy nanoparticles were confirmed from the XRD analysis and TEM images, respectively.

  8. Study of different 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) concentration on TiO2 particles based IDE for cervical cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raqeema, S.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.; Nadzirah, Sh.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    HPV that also called Human Papillomaviruses is the major cause of the cervical cancer. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are the two types of HPV are the most HPV-associated cancers and responsible as a high-risk HPV. Cervical cancer taken about 70 percent of all cases due HPV infections. Cervical malignancy for the most part development on a lady's cervix and its was developed slowly as cancer disease. TiO2 particles give better performance and low cost of the biosensor. The used of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) will be more efficient for DNA nanochip. APTES used as absorption reaction to immobilize organic biomolecules on the inorganic surface. Besides, APTES give better functionalization of the adsorption mechanism on IDE. The surface functionalized for immobilizing the DNA, which is the combination of the DNA probe and the HPV target produce high sensitivity andfast detection of the IDE. The Current-Voltage (IV) characteristic proved the sensitivity of the DNA nanochip increase as the concentration varied from 0% concentration to 24% of APTES concentration.

  9. Effect of particle size and volume fraction of BaTiO{sub 3} powders on the functional properties of BaTiO{sub 3}/poly(ε-caprolactone) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airimioaei, M., E-mail: mirela.airimioaei@yahoo.com [Dielectrics, Ferroelectrics & Multiferroics Group, Department of Physics, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Blv. Carol I, nr.11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Stanculescu, R.; Preutu, V.; Ciomaga, C.; Horchidan, N. [Dielectrics, Ferroelectrics & Multiferroics Group, Department of Physics, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Blv. Carol I, nr.11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Tascu, S. [Interdisciplinary Research Department – Field Science (RAMTECH), “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Blv. Carol I, nr.11, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Lutic, D.; Pui, A. [Faculty of Chemistry, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Mitoseriu, L., E-mail: lmtsr@uaic.ro [Dielectrics, Ferroelectrics & Multiferroics Group, Department of Physics, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, Blv. Carol I, nr.11, 700506, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-10-01

    A systematic study concerning the effect of particle size and volume fraction of BaTiO{sub 3} filler on the functional properties of composite materials with poly-(ε-caprolactone) polymer matrix obtained by solvent casting method was performed. Two series of xBT-(1-x)PCL composites prepared by using BaTiO{sub 3} powders with two different particles size (60 nm and 400 nm) in different amounts (x = 2; 5; 10 and 20 vol %) were investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated a particle size dependence of phase symmetry for BT filler powders (cubic phase for ultrafine particles and tetragonal phase for larger particles size) and the formation of pure composites consisting of orthorhombic PCL and cubic or tetragonal BT with no chemical reactions between them. The micrographs of the composites revealed the formation of homogeneous composites with two distinct phases, a good dispersion of ferroelectric phase into the polymer matrix and a low content of air pores. Dielectric investigations at room temperature showed the increases of permittivity with increasing the particle volume fraction of ferroelectric filler as result of the “sum property” of the effective permittivity in composites. For a given concentration, the permittivity of composites increases with particle size, as result of a size effect of BT powder. The composites with low BT addition presents stable dielectric properties at bending cycles. The polarization-field dependences also show a BT-induced size dependence, i.e. at a given value of field, polarization is higher for the composites with coarser BT particles. The composition x = 0.05 with coarse particles can be considered as an optimum among these series for the stored energy density. - Highlights: • Study of particles size effect of BT on the properties of composites with PCL matrix. • xBT-(1-x)PCL composite films were prepared by solvent casting method. • Homogeneous composites with good dispersion of BT filler PCL matrix were

  10. Magnetic and Mössbauer studies of pure and Ti-doped YFeO {sub 3} nanocrystalline particles prepared by mechanical milling and subsequent sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, N. O. [University of Khartoum, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Sudan); Widatallah, H. M., E-mail: hishammw@squ.edu.om; Gismelseed, A. M.; Al-Mabsali, F. N.; Sofin, R. G. S. [Sultan Qaboos University, Physics Department, College of Science (Oman); Pekala, M. [University of Warsaw, Chemistry Department (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Single-phased nanocrystalline particles of pure and 10 % Ti {sup 4+}-doped perovskite-related YFeO {sub 3}were prepared via mechanosynthesis at 450{sup ∘}C. This temperature is ∼150–350 {sup ∘}C lower than those at which the materials, in bulk form, are normally prepared. Rietveld refinements of the X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the dopant Ti {sup 4+} ions prefer interstitial octahedral sites in the orthorhombic crystal lattice rather than those originally occupied by the expelled Fe {sup 3+} ions. Magnetic measurements show canted antiferromagnetism in both types of nanoparticles. Doping with Ti {sup 4+} lowers the Néel temperature of the YFeO {sub 3} nanoparticles from ∼ 586 K to ∼ 521 K. The Ti {sup 4+}-doped YFeO {sub 3} nanoparticles exhibit enhanced magnetization and coercivity but less magnetic hyperfine fields relative to the un-doped nanoparticles. The {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra show ∼ 15 % of the YFeO {sub 3} nanoparticles and ∼22 of Ti {sup 4+}-doped YFeO {sub 3} ones to be superparamagnetic with blocking temperatures < 78 K. The broadened magnetic components in the {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra suggest size-dependent hyperfine magnetic fields at the {sup 57}Fe nuclear sites and were associated with collective magnetic excitations. The {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra show the local environments of the Fe {sup 3+} ions in the superparamagnetic nanoparticles to be more sensitive to the presence of the Ti {sup 4+} ions relative to those in the larger magnetic nanoparticles.

  11. Suppressing NOM access to controlled porous TiO2 particles enhances the decomposition of target water contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppressing access of natural organic matter (NOM) to TiO2 is a key to the successful photocatalytic decomposition of a target contaminant in water. This study first demonstrates simply controlling the porous structure of TiO2 can significantly improve the selective oxidation.

  12. Independent control of metal cluster and ceramic particle characteristics during one-step synthesis of Pt/TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, H.; Madler, L.; Strobel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid quenching during flame spray synthesis of Pt/TiO2 (0-10 Wt% Pt) is demonstrated as a versatile method for independent control of support (TiO2) and noble metal (Pt)cluster characteristics. Titania grain size, morphology, crystal phase structure, and crystal size were analyzed by nitrogen...

  13. Excitation functions of alpha particle induced reactions on {sup nat}Ti up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S., E-mail: md.shuzauddin@yahoo.com [Tandem Accelerator Facilities, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Scholten, B. [Institut für Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5:Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    Excitation functions of the reactions {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 48}Cr, {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 48}V and {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 46,48}Sc were determined by the stacked-foil activation technique up to 40 MeV. The radioactivities produced in the {sup nat}Ti target were measured by γ-ray spectrometry using HPGe detector. The reaction {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 51}Cr was used to determine the beam parameters. New experimental values for the above reactions have been obtained. An intercomparison of our data with the available literature values has been done. The cross section results obtained in this work could be useful in defining new monitor reactions, radiation safety and isotope production.

  14. Excitation functions of alpha particle induced reactions on natTi up to 40 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M. S.; Scholten, B.

    2016-08-01

    Excitation functions of the reactions natTi(α,x)48Cr, natTi(α,x)48V and natTi(α,x)46,48Sc were determined by the stacked-foil activation technique up to 40 MeV. The radioactivities produced in the natTi target were measured by γ-ray spectrometry using HPGe detector. The reaction natTi(α,x)51Cr was used to determine the beam parameters. New experimental values for the above reactions have been obtained. An intercomparison of our data with the available literature values has been done. The cross section results obtained in this work could be useful in defining new monitor reactions, radiation safety and isotope production.

  15. High-Temperature Active Soldering of SiC Particle-Reinforced Al-MMC Using a Novel ZnAlGaMgTi Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biqiang; Zhang, Guifeng; Zhang, Linjie; Xu, Tingting

    2017-10-01

    In order to broaden the application of SiC particle-reinforced aluminum matrix composite in electronics packaging, newly developed ZnAlGaMgTi filler with a low melting point of 418-441 °C was utilized as filler metal for active soldering of aluminum matrix composites (70 vol.%, SiCp/Al-MMCs) for the first time. The effect of loading pressure on joint properties of ZnAlGaMgTi active filler was investigated. The experimental results indicated that novel filler could successfully solder Al-MMCs, and the presence of Mg in the filler enhanced the penetration of Zn, while the forming of Zn-rich barrier layer influenced the active element MPD (melting point depressant) diffusion into parent composite, and the bulk-like (Mg-Si)-rich phase and Ti-containing phase were readily observed at the interface and bond seam. With the increase in loading pressure, the runout phenomenon appeared more significant, and the filler foil thickness and the Zn penetration depth varied pronouncedly. Sound joints with maximum shear strength of 29.6 MPa were produced at 480 °C at 1 MPa, and the crack occurred adjacent to the boundary of SiC particle and then propagated along the interface. A novel model describing the significant mutual diffusion of Al and Zn atoms between the parent material and solder was proposed.

  16. One new route to optimize the oxidation resistance of TiC/hastelloy (Ni-based alloy) composites applied for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell interconnect by increasing graphite particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qian; Liu, Yan; Wang, Lujie; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Jian; Huang, Zhengren

    2017-09-01

    TiC/hastelloy composites with suitable thermal expansion and excellent electrical conductivity are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnect. In this paper, the TiC/hastelloy composites are fabricated by in-situ reactive infiltration, and the oxidation resistance of composites is optimized by increasing graphite particle size. Results show that the increase of graphite particles size from 1 μm to 40 μm reduces TiC particle size from 2.68 μm to 2.22 μm by affecting the formation process of TiC. Moreover, the decrease of TiC particles size accelerates the fast formation of dense and continuous TiO2/Cr2O3 oxide layer, which bring down the mass gain (800 °C/100 h) from 2.03 mg cm-2 to 1.18 mg cm-2. Meanwhile, the coefficient of thermal expansion decreases from 11.15 × 10-6 °C-1 to 10.80 × 10-6 °C-1, and electrical conductivity maintains about 5800 S cm-1 at 800 °C. Therefore, the decrease of graphite particle size is one simple and effective route to optimize the oxidation resistance of composites, and meantime keeps suitable thermal expansion and good electrical conductivity.

  17. Correlation between microstructure and wear behavior of AZX915 Mg-alloy reinforced with 12 wt% TiC particles by stir-casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj M. Chelliah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work concerns with correlation between microstructure and wear behavior of AZX915 Mg-alloy reinforced with 12 wt% of TiC particles by stir-casting process. Dry sliding tests were performed under ambient environment by using a pin-on-disc (EN8 steel configuration with a normal load of 50 N at a constant sliding speed of 2.50 ms−1. While as-cast composite experienced delamination wear, heat treated composite suffered from delamination and oxidation wear during dry sliding contact. Moreover, the heat treated composite exhibited lower friction and higher wear rate as compared to the as-cast composite. Friction and wear behavior were correlated with microstructures based on the concept of oxidation tendency and crack nucleation/propagation. Further, a schematic model has been proposed illustrating wear mechanisms from the point of view of subsurface microstructural evolution of the AZX915-TiCp composite.

  18. Statistical evaluation of potential damage to the Al(OH){sub 3} layer on nTiO{sub 2} particles in the presence of swimming pool and seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virkutyte, Jurate [Pegasus Technical Services, Inc (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R., E-mail: al-abed.souhail@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Nanosized TiO{sub 2} particles (nTiO{sub 2}) are usually coated with an Al(OH){sub 3} layer when used in sunscreen to shield against the harmful effects of free radicals that are generated when these particles are exposed to UV radiation. Therefore, it is vital to insure the structural stability of these particles in the environment where the protective layer may be damaged and adverse health and environmental effects can occur. This study utilized X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS) to provide a qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of the chemical and physical characteristics of Al(OH){sub 3}-coated original and damaged nTiO{sub 2} particles (used in sunscreen lotion formulations) in the presence of both swimming pool and seawater. Also, by utilizing statistical tools, a distribution of Al/Ti (%) on the particle surface was determined and evaluated. It was found that 45 min of treatment with swimming pool and seawater significantly induced the redistribution of Al/Ti (%), which changed the surface characteristics of particles and, therefore, may have induced undesired photo-activity and the consequent formation of free radicals.

  19. Factors affecting color strength of printing on film-coated tablets by UV laser irradiation: TiO2 particle size, crystal structure, or concentration in the film, and the irradiated UV laser power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Akihiro; Kato, Yoshiteru

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to study factors affecting color strength of printing on film-coated tablets by ultraviolet (UV) laser irradiation: particle size, crystal structure, or concentration of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in film, and irradiated UV laser power. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose films containing 4.0% of TiO2, of which BET particle sizes were ranging from 126.1 to 219.8 nm, were irradiated 3.14W of UV laser at a wavelength 355 nm to study effects of TiO2 particle size and crystal structure on the printing. The films containing TiO2 concentration ranging from 1.0 to 7.7% were irradiated 3.14 or 5.39W of the UV laser to study effect of TiO2 concentration on the printing. The film containing 4.0% of TiO2, was irradiated the UV laser up to 6.42W to study effect of the UV laser power on the printing. The color strength of the printed films was estimated by a spectrophotometer as total color difference (dE). Particle size, crystal structure, and concentration of TiO2 in the films did not affect the printing. In the relationship between the irradiated UV laser power and dE, there found an inflection point (1.6W). When the UV laser power was below 1.6W, the films were not printed. When it was beyond the point, total color difference increased linearly in proportion with the irradiated laser power. The color strength of the printing on film was not changed by TiO2 particle size, crystal structure, and concentration, but could be controlled by regulating the irradiated UV laser power beyond the inflection point.

  20. Influence of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} particle sizes in the mechanical and dielectric properties of vulcanized rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Neudys; Custal, Maria del Angels; Rodriguez, Daniel [Sicame Company, Barcelona (Spain); Riba, Jordi-Roger [Departament d' Enginyeria Eletrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Terrasssa (Spain); Armelin, Elaine, E-mail: elaine.armelin@upc.edu [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-07-15

    The novelty of the present study relies on the straightforward sonication of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} and incorporation to a complex formulation of latex, with other several organic-inorganic additives that influences the cross-linking reactions. The new elastomer with particles carefully sonicated exhibit improved electrical and mechanical properties. Strong interaction among the nanoparticles and the polymer amorphous phase has been proved by means of FTIR, SEM and XRD analyses. The synergistic effect of hybrid fillers with nanometric dimensions can be used to design high-performance natural rubber nanocomposites with enhanced electrical resistance and good cross-linking degree. (author)

  1. Determination of the light-induced degradation rate of the solar cell sensitizer N719 on TiO2 nanocrystalline particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Doan Nguyen, Sau; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2005-01-01

    The oxidative degradation rate, kdeg of the solar cell dye (Bu4N+)2 [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2]2–, referred to as N719 or [RuL2(NCS)2], was obtained by applying a simple model system. Colloidal solutions of N719-dyed TiO2 particles in acetonitrile were irradiated with 532-nm monochromatic light....... The stability of N719 dye during solar cell operation was discussed based on this number, and on values of the electron transfer rate between [Ru(III) L2(NCS) 2] and iodide that are available in the literature....

  2. Tailoring ultrafine grained and dispersion-strengthened Ti2AlC/TiAl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In situ Ti 2 AlC/TiAl composite was fabricated by hot-pressing method via the reaction system of Ti 3 AlC 2 and Ti-Al pre-alloyed powders at low temperature of 1150 ∘ C. The composite mainly consisted of TiAl, Ti 3 Al and Ti 2 AlC phases. Fine Ti 2 AlC particles were homogeneously distributed and dispersed in the matrix.

  3. Improving Dielectric Properties of PVDF Composites by Employing Surface Modified Strong Polarized BaTiO₃ Particles Derived by Molten Salt Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Hou, Yudong; Zheng, Mupeng; Wei, Qiaoyi; Zhu, Mankang; Yan, Hui

    2015-11-11

    BaTiO3/polyvinylidene fluoride (BT/PVDF) is the extensive reported composite material for application in modern electric devices. However, there still exists some obstacles prohibiting the further improvement of dielectric performance, such as poor interfacial compatibility and low dielectric constant. Therefore, in depth study of the size dependent polarization and surface modification of BT particle is of technological importance in developing high performance BT/PVDF composites. Here, a facile molten-salt synthetic method has been applied to prepare different grain sized BT particles through tailoring the calcination temperature. The size dependent spontaneous polarizationof BT particle was thoroughly investigated by theoretical calculation based on powder X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinement data. The results revealed that 600 nm sized BT particles possess the strong polarization, ascribing to the ferroelectric size effect. Furthermore, the surface of optimal BT particles has been modified by water-soluble polyvinylprrolidone (PVP) agent, and the coated particles exhibited fine core-shell structure and homogeneous dispersion in the PVDF matrix. The dielectric constant of the resulted composites increased significantly, especially, the prepared composite with 40 vol % BT loading exhibited the largest dielectric constant (65, 25 °C, 1 kHz) compared with the literature values of BT/PVDF at the same concentration of filler. Moreover, the energy storage density of the composites with tailored structure was largely enhanced at the low electric field, showing promising application as dielectric material in energy storage device. Our work suggested that introduction of strong polarized ferroelectric particles with optimal size and construction of core-shell structured coated fillers by PVP in the PVDF matrix are efficacious in improving dielectric performance of composites. The demonstrated approach can also be applied to the design and preparation of other polymers

  4. Sonophotocatalytic degradation of methyl orange by nano-sized Ag/TiO2 particles in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyuan; Niu, Junfeng; Long, Xingxing; He, Ya

    2008-04-01

    Sonophotocatalytic behaviour of methyl orange (MeO) in aqueous solution illuminated by light generated by a xenon lamp was investigated. For all three kinds of photocatalysts: Degussa P25 (75% anatase, 25% rutile, with a surface area of 55.07 m(2)/g), Yili TiO(2) (mainly anatase, with a surface area of 10.45 m(2)/g) and Ag/TiO(2) (silver loaded on Yili TiO(2)), the degradation followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The results showed a synergistic effect between sonolysis and photocatalysis. Some parameters affecting the sonophotocatalytic degradation of MeO with nanoparticles Ag/TiO(2) were determined. The results indicated that the degradation ratio of MeO increased with the increase of ultrasonic power. An optimum 60 mg/L of Ag/TiO(2) added to relatively low concentrations of MeO was proved to have the most effective degradation efficiency. The study on the effects of hydroxyl radical (*OH) scavengers (i.e. mannitol and dimethyl sulfoxide) on the MeO degradation indicated that *OH radicals played an important role during MeO degradation, which enhanced MeO to be completely decomposed.

  5. Porous Zr(x)Si(1-x)O₂ shell/void/TiO₂ core particles with enhancing transfer for cleaning water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Zhang, Yunge

    2015-06-15

    In order to immobilize TiO2 and prevent TiO2 nanoparticles from damaging polymeric supporters, the porous Zr(x)Si(1-x)O2 shell/void/TiO2 core particles (Zr-SVTs) were fabricated by the synergistic effect between nonionic surfactant P123 ((EO)20(PO)70(EO)20) and oleic acid (CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH) and cohydrolysis between TEOS and ZrOCl2·8H2O. Zr-SVTs were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, TEM, EDX and BET. The results show Zr-SVTs exhibit well-developed spherical shape with channels (approximately 5.5 nm in diameter) in porous Zr(x)Si(1-x)O2 shells. Moreover, the preparation conditions of Zr-SVTs were studied and confirmed, and the photocatalytic activity of Zr-SVTs was studied by photodegrading methyl orange in aqueous solution and oil in sewage containing oil. Alternatively, the photocatalytic activity of Zr-SVTs presents better result compared with SiO2 shell/void/TiO2 core (SVT) without doping Zr into the SiO2 shell, which further demonstrates that the Zr(x)Si(1-x)O2 shell could promote the mass transfer inside channels of Zr-SVTs. It suggests that Zr-SVTs with higher photocatalytic activity are desirable for application in water cleaning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adsorptive separation and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye on titanate nanotube powders prepared by hydrothermal process using metal Ti particles as a precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Keshui; Xiao, Xin; Cao, Xiufang; Hao, Rong; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Xiaojing; Nan, Junmin

    2011-08-30

    Titanate nanotube powders (TNTPs) with the twofold removal ability, i.e. adsorptive separation and photocatalytic degradation, are synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using metal Ti particles as a precursor in the concentrated alkaline solution, and their morphology, structure, adsorptive and photocatalytic properties are investigated. Under hydrothermal conditions, the titanate nanotubes (TNTs) with pore diameter of 3-4nm are produced on the surface of metal Ti particles, and stacked together to form three-dimensional (3D) network with porous structure. The TNTPs synthesized in the autoclave at 130°C for 24h exhibits a maximum adsorption capability of about 197mg g(-1) in the neutral methylene blue (MB) solution (40mg L(-1)) within 90min, the adsorption process can be described by pseudo second-order kinetics model. Especially, in comparison with the adsorptive and the photocatalytic processes are performed in turn, about 50min can be saved through synchronously utilizing the double removal ability of TNTPs when the removal ratio of MB approaches 95% in MB solution (40mg L(-1)) at a solid-liquid (S/L) ratio of 1:8 under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. These 3D TNTPs with the twofold removal properties and easier separation ability for recycling use show promising prospect for the treatment of dye pollutants from wastewaters in future industrial application. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental Study on Impact-Induced Reaction Characteristics of PTFE/Ti Composites Enhanced by W Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal/fluoropolymer composites are a category of energetic structural materials that release energy through exothermic chemical reactions initiated under highly dynamic loadings. In this paper, the chemical reaction mechanism of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene/Ti/W composites is investigated through thermal analysis and composition analysis. These composites undergo exothermic reactions at 510 °C to 600 °C, mainly producing TiFx. The tungsten significantly reduces the reaction heat due to its inertness. In addition, the dynamic compression properties and impact-induced reaction behaviors of PTFE/Ti/W composites with different W content prepared by pressing and sintering are studied using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and high speed photography. The results show that both the mechanical strength and the reaction degree are significantly improved with the increasing strain rate. Moreover, as W content increases, the mechanical strength is enhanced, but the elasticity/plasticity is decreased. The PTFE/Ti/W composites tend to become more inert with the increasing W content, which is reflected by the reduced reaction degree and the increased reaction threshold for the impact ignition.

  8. Comparison of the effects of different protocols on the particle size distribution of TiO2 dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    studies, the degree of variability in TiO2 nanomaterial dispersions was assessed by differential centrifugal sedimentation (DCS) methods. Case study 1 addresses the variability that arises from variations within one protocol, investigating the effects of dispersion aging, sonication exposure time...

  9. Experimental Study on Impact-Induced Reaction Characteristics of PTFE/Ti Composites Enhanced by W Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Zaicheng; Jiang, Chunlan; Niu, Haohao

    2017-02-13

    Metal/fluoropolymer composites are a category of energetic structural materials that release energy through exothermic chemical reactions initiated under highly dynamic loadings. In this paper, the chemical reaction mechanism of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene)/Ti/W composites is investigated through thermal analysis and composition analysis. These composites undergo exothermic reactions at 510 °C to 600 °C, mainly producing TiFx. The tungsten significantly reduces the reaction heat due to its inertness. In addition, the dynamic compression properties and impact-induced reaction behaviors of PTFE/Ti/W composites with different W content prepared by pressing and sintering are studied using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and high speed photography. The results show that both the mechanical strength and the reaction degree are significantly improved with the increasing strain rate. Moreover, as W content increases, the mechanical strength is enhanced, but the elasticity/plasticity is decreased. The PTFE/Ti/W composites tend to become more inert with the increasing W content, which is reflected by the reduced reaction degree and the increased reaction threshold for the impact ignition.

  10. Bovine Serum Albumin Adsorption on TiO2 Colloids: The Effect of Particle Agglomeration and Surface Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Augusto; Berger, Thomas; Feinle, Andrea; Hüsing, Nicola; Himly, Martin; Duschl, Albert; Diwald, Oliver

    2017-03-14

    Protein adsorption at nanostructured oxides strongly depends on the synthesis conditions and sample history of the material investigated. We measured the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to commercial Aeroxide TiO2 P25 nanoparticles in aqueous dispersions. Significant changes in the adsorption capacity were induced by mild sample washing procedures and attributed to the structural modification of adsorbed water and surface hydroxyls. Motivated by the lack of information about the sample history of commercial TiO2 nanoparticle samples, we used vapor-phase-grown TiO2 nanoparticles, a well-established model system for adsorption and photocatalysis studies, and performed on this material for the first time a systematic and quantitative BSA adsorption study. After alternating vacuum and oxygen treatment of the nanoparticle powders at elevated temperatures for surface purification, we determined size distributions covering both the size of the individualized nanoparticles and nanoparticle agglomerates using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) in an aqueous dispersion. Quantitative BSA adsorption measurements at different pH values and thus variable combinations of surface-charged proteins and TiO2 nanoparticles revealed a consistent picture: BSA adsorbs only at the outer agglomerate surfaces without penetrating the interior of the agglomerates. This process levels at coverages of single monolayers, which resist consecutive simple washing procedures. A detailed analysis of the protein-specific IR amide bands reveals that the adsorption-induced protein conformational change is associated with a decrease in the helical content. This study underlines that robust qualitative and quantitative statements about protein adsorption and corona formation require well-documented and controllable surface properties of the nanomaterials involved.

  11. Influence of nano-TiO2 particles on the bioaccumulation of Cd in soybean plants (Glycine max): A possible mechanism for the removal of Cd from the contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Phytoremediation is a highly efficient technique for the elimination of trace elements from contaminated soils through the shoots and roots of plants. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) on Cd uptake by soybean plants. The objective of the present research was to examine the potential to improve the phytoextraction of Cd by the application of nano-TiO2 particles. The results showed that an addition of Cd to the soil significantly decreased plant growth and the biomass, pigment and protein contents. Increases in the proline content and malondialdehyde (MDA) indicate that Cd toxicity stresses the plants. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine variations in functional groups due to the Cd taken up into the shoot and root tissues of plants. An application of nano-TiO2 particles restricts Cd toxicity by increasing the photosynthetic rate and growth parameters of the plants. The uptake of Cd was also increased from 128.5 to 507.6 μg/plant with an increase in the nano-TiO2 concentration from 100 to 300 mg/kg in the soil. The application of nano-TiO2 significantly enhanced Cd uptake in the plants. The results of this study thus demonstrate that an application of nano-TiO2 can increase Cd uptake and minimize Cd stress in soybean plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of Microwave/UV/O3 in the Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Bromothymol Blue in Aqueous Nano TiO2 Particles Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a microwave/UV/TiO2/ozone/H2O2 hybrid process system, in which various techniques that have been used for water treatment are combined, is evaluated to develop an advanced technology to treat non-biodegradable water pollutants efficiently. In particular, the objective of this study is to develop a novel advanced oxidation process that overcomes the limitations of existing single-process water treatment methods by adding microwave irradiation to maximize the formation of active intermediate products, e.g., OH radicals, with the aid of UV irradiation by microwave discharge electrodeless lamp, photo-catalysts, and auxiliary oxidants. The results of photo-catalytic degradation of BTB showed that the decomposition rate increased with the TiO2 particle dosages and microwave intensity. When an auxiliary oxidant such as ozone or hydrogen peroxide was added to the microwave-assisted photo-catalysis, however, a synergy effect that enhanced the reaction rate considerably was observed.

  13. Application of CaCO3, CaF2, SiO2, and TiO2 particles to silicone lens for enhancing angular color uniformity of white LED lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh Q. D.; Nguyen, Vinh H.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we present an insightful investigation on optimal selection of scattering enhancement particles (SEP) to satisfy each specific optical property of white LEDs (WLEDs). The interested contenders include CaCO3, CaF2, SiO2, and TiO2, each of them is added with YAG:Ce phosphor compounding. The quality improvement on each considered property is demonstrated convincingly by applying Mie-scattering theory together with Monte Carlo simulation on a particular WLEDs which has the color temperature of 8500K. It is observed by simulation results that TiO2 particles provide the highest color uniformity among the SEP, as increasing TiO2 concentration. These results of this work can serve as a practical guideline for manufacturing high-quality WLEDs.

  14. Characteristics and in vitro response of thin hydroxyapatite–titania films produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation of Ti alloys in electrolytes with particle additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, W. K.; Sukhorukova, I. V.; Shtansky, D. V.; Levashov, E. A.; Zhitnyak, I. Y.; Gloushankova, N. A.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, P. V.; Petrzhik, M. I.; Matthews, A.

    2016-01-01

    The enhancement of the biological properties of Ti by surface doping with hydroxyapatite (HA) is of great significance, especially for orthodontic applications. This study addressed the effects of HA particle size in the electrolyte suspension on the characteristics and biological properties of thin titania-based coatings produced on Ti–6Al–4V alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). Detailed morphological investigation of the coatings formed by a single-stage PEO process with two-step control of the electrical parameters was performed using the Minkowski functionals approach. The surface chemistry was studied by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whereas mechanical properties were evaluated using scratch tests. The biological assessment included in vitro evaluation of the coating bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) as well as studies of spreading, proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The results demonstrated that both HA micro- and nanoparticles were successfully incorporated in the coatings but had different effects on their surface morphology and elemental distributions. The micro-particles formed an irregular surface morphology featuring interpenetrated networks of fine pores and coating material, whereas the nanoparticles penetrated deeper into the coating matrix which retained major morphological features of the porous TiO2 coating. All coatings suffered cohesive failure in scratch tests, but no adhesive failure was observed; moreover doping with HA increased the coating scratch resistance. In vitro tests in SBF revealed enhanced bioactivity of both HA-doped PEO coatings; furthermore, the cell proliferation/morphometric tests showed their good biocompatibility. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a well-organised actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions in MC3T3-E1 cells cultivated on these substrates. The cell alkaline phosphatase activity in the presence of

  15. Ziegler-Natta Catalyst Based on MgCl₂/Clay/ID/TiCl₄ for the Synthesis of Spherical Particles of Polypropylene Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Renata da Silva; Oliveira, Jaqueline da Silva; Ramis, Luciana Bortolin; Marques, Maria de Fátima V

    2018-07-01

    In the present work, we have designed MgCl2/clay/internal donor (ID)/TiCl4 based bisupported Ziegler-Natta catalysts containing varying amounts of organoclay (montmorillonite) in order to synthesize spherical particles of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites (PCN). The organoclay was introduced into the catalyst support formulation and PCN was obtained using the in situ polymerization technique. Decreasing the reaction time, it was possible to obtain nanocomposites with high concentrations of clay (masterbatches). Micrographs of SEM confirmed the spherical morphology of the catalysts. In addition, XRD patterns show that the active sites for polymerization were inserted in the clay galleries. The catalytic performance was evaluated in slurry propylene polymerization using triethylaluminium as cocatalyst and silane as external electron donor at 70 °C, 4 bar, and different reaction times. The PCNs obtained containing different clay amounts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses, transmission electronic microscopy, and extractables in heptane. The results revealed that the synthesized PP/clay particles were also spherical showing that the morphological control is possible even using catalysts containing high amounts of clay. The PCN presented high degradation temperature (459 °C). The XRD peak related to the clay interlamellar distance has shifted to lower angles, and TEM images confirmed the formation of exfoliated/intercalated clay on the PP matrix and absence of microparticles of clay.

  16. Particle size effect of BaTiO3 nanofillers on the energy storage performance of polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Meihua; Hao, Yanan; Zhang, Jiameng; Lei, Ming; Bi, Ke

    2017-11-02

    Polymer nanocomposites are a promising substitute for energy-storage dielectric materials in pulsed power systems. A barium titanate/polyvinylidenefluoride (BT/PVDF) nanocomposite is one of the most widely studied composite systems due to its comprehensive excellent dielectric properties. As the dielectric response of nanocomposites depends strongly on the size of the fillers, in this study, BT/PVDF nanocomposites with 92.3 nm, 17.8 nm and 5.9 nm BT particle fillers are fabricated to reveal the particle size effect of the fillers on the energy storage performance of the polymer nanocomposites. Owing to the small particle size and good dispersibility of the nanofillers, the nanocomposites with smaller BT particles show more uniform and denser microstructures. Moreover, with the increase of the filler fraction, the dielectric results indicate a breakdown strength enhancement in the nanocomposites with sub-20 nm BT fillers, which is quite different from the nanocomposites with normal fillers, and therefore leads to superior energy storage performance. This study provides experimental evidence for the application of ultrafine nanofillers in the nanocomposite for future energy storage systems.

  17. Comparative study of three magnetic nano-particles (FeSO4, FeSO4/SiO2, FeSO4/SiO2/TiO2) in plasmid DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, H; Sattarzadeh, A; Kazemi, F; Ahmadi, N; Sanjarian, F; Zand, Z

    2016-11-15

    Recent updates on Magnetic Nano-Particles (MNPs) based separation of nucleic acids have received more attention due to their easy manipulation, simplicity, ease of automation and cost-effectiveness. It has been indicated that DNA molecules absorb on solid surfaces via hydrogen-bonding, and hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. These properties highly depend on the surface condition of the solid support. Therefore, surface modification of MNPs may enhance their functionality and specification. In the present study, we functionalized Fe3O4 nano-particle surface utilizing SiO2 and TiO2 layer as Fe3O4/SiO2 and Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 and then compare their functionality in the adsorption of plasmid DNA molecules with the naked Fe3O4 nano-particles. The result obtained showed that the purity and amount of DNA extracted by Fe3O4 coated by SiO2 or SiO2/TiO2 were higher than the naked Fe3O4 nano-particles. Furthermore, we obtained pH 8 and 1.5 M NaCl as an optimal condition for desorption of DNA from MNPs. The result further showed that, 0.2 mg nano-particle and 10 min at 55 °C are the optimal conditions for DNA desorption from nano-particles. In conclusion, we recommended Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 as a new MNP for separation of DNA molecules from biological sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanocrystalline oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, NiO) coatings on BaTiO{sub 3} submicron particles by precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassano, Alessio [University of Genoa, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering (Italy); Buscaglia, Vincenzo, E-mail: v.buscaglia@ge.ieni.cnr.i [National Research Council, Institute for Energetics and Interphases (Italy); Sennour, Mohamed [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre des Materiaux (France); Buscaglia, Maria Teresa; Viviani, Massimo [National Research Council, Institute for Energetics and Interphases (Italy); Nanni, Paolo [University of Genoa, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Nanocoatings (5-20 nm) of different compounds on fine BaTiO{sub 3} particles were obtained by means of precipitation processes. Homogeneous and smooth shells of Y(OH)CO{sub 3} and Dy(OH)CO{sub 3} were grown from nitrate solutions in the presence of urea. An irregular coating consisting of zirconia nanoparticles was produced from zirconyl nitrate solution using ammonia as a precipitating agent after adsorption of a polymeric polyelectrolyte on the BaTiO{sub 3} surface. Composite particles with a peculiar morphology were obtained by inducing heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Ni(OH){sub 2} lamellae on the BaTiO{sub 3} surface. The different shells can be transformed in a nanocrystalline coating of the corresponding oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, NiO) by calcination at moderate temperatures (400-700 {sup o}C). The overall results indicate that precipitation from solution represents a versatile process to grow a second-phase layer on the surface of BaTiO{sub 3} particles. This approach can be used as an alternative to mechanical wet mixing for controlled doping of ferroelectric materials and for the fabrication of composite materials with specific geometry of the two-phase assembly.

  19. Fabrication of TiCx-TiB₂/Al Composites for Application as a Heat Sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shili; Yang, Hongyu; Tong, Cunzhu; Qiu, Feng

    2016-07-29

    Metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles have become the most attractive material in the research and development of new materials for thermal management applications. In this work, 40-60 vol. % TiCx-TiB₂/Al composites were successfully fabricated by the method of combustion synthesis and hot press consolidation in an Al-Ti-B₄C system. The effect of the TiCx-TiB₂ content on the microstructure and compression properties of the composites was investigated. Moreover, the abrasive wear behavior and thermo-physics properties of the TiCx-TiB₂/Al composite were studied and compared with the TiCx/Al composite. The compression properties, abrasive wear behavior and thermo-physics properties of the TiCx-TiB₂/Al composite are all better than those of the TiCx/Al composite, which confirms that the TiCx-TiB₂/Al composite is more appropriate for application as a heat sink.

  20. Enhanced methane steam reforming activity and electrochemical performance of Ni0.9Fe0.1-supported solid oxide fuel cells with infiltrated Ni-TiO2 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Jia, Lichao; Wang, Xin; Pu, Jian; Chi, Bo; Li, Jian

    2016-10-24

    Ni0.9Fe0.1 alloy-supported solid oxide fuel cells with NiTiO3 (NTO) infiltrated into the cell support from 0 to 4 wt.% are prepared and investigated for CH4 steam reforming activity and electrochemical performance. The infiltrated NiTiO3 is reduced to TiO2-supported Ni particles in H2 at 650 °C. The reforming activity of the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support is increased by the presence of the TiO2-supported Ni particles; 3 wt.% is the optimal value of the added NTO, corresponding to the highest reforming activity, resistance to carbon deposition and electrochemical performance of the cell. Fueled wet CH4 at 100 mL min(-1), the cell with 3 wt.% of NTO demonstrates a peak power density of 1.20 W cm(-2) and a high limiting current density of 2.83 A cm(-2) at 650 °C. It performs steadily for 96 h at 0.4 A cm(-2) without the presence of deposited carbon in the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support and functional anode. Five polarization processes are identified by deconvoluting and data-fitting the electrochemical impedance spectra of the cells under the testing conditions; and the addition of TiO2-supported Ni particles into the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support reduces the polarization resistance of the processes ascribed to CH4 steam reforming and gas diffusion in the Ni0.9Fe0.1-support and functional anode.

  1. Scalable fabrication of core-shell structured Li4Ti5O12/PPy particles embedded in N-doped graphene networks as advanced anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haidong; Chen, Feng; Liu, Chengbao; Qian, Junchao; Ni, Min; Liu, Tingting

    2017-11-01

    Spinel-type Li4Ti5O12 has been proposed as an advanced anode for energy storage because of its safety and stability in recent years. However, the Li4Ti5O12 anode reported so far exhibited poor rate performance and required further improvement. Herein, a highly conductive network with PPy polymer and N-doped graphene sheet is constructed with Li4Ti5O12 embedded inside for the first time. In this design, the Li4Ti5O12 particles are uniformly coated with conducting PPy layer and further connected by the N-doped graphene. This combined structure is favorable to facilitate the electron and Li+ transmission, and thus enhance the battery performance. The as-fabricated composite delivers the initial capacities of 186.2 and 152.9 mAh g-1 at 0.1 and 10 C, respectively. The above results reveal that the conducting PPy polymer and N-doped graphene sheet co-modified Li4Ti5O12 composite would be a potential anode for next-generation energy storage device.

  2. Fabrication of hydroxyl group modified monodispersed hybrid silica particles and the h-SiO(2)/TiO(2) core/shell microspheres as high performance photocatalyst for dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhe-Ying; Li, Long-Yu; Li, Yat; Wang, Chang-Chun

    2011-02-01

    The monodisperse hybrid silica particles (h-SiO(2)) were firstly prepared by a modified sol-gel process and the surface was modified in situ with double bonds, then abundant carboxyl moieties were introduced onto the surface of the silica core via thiol-ene click reaction. Afterward, the h-SiO(2)/TiO(2) core/shell microspheres were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium tetrabutoxide (TBOT) via sol-gel process in mixed ethanol/acetonitrile solvent, in which the activity of TBOT could be easily controlled. The carboxyl groups on the surface of silica particles promote the formation of a dense and smooth titania layer under well control, and the layer thickness of titania could be tuned from 12 to 100nm. The well-defined h-SiO(2)/TiO(2) core/shell structures have been confirmed by electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. After calcination at 500°C for 2h, the amorphous TiO(2) layer turned into anatase titania. These anatase titania-coated silica particles showed good photocatalytic performance in degradation of methyl orange aqueous solution under UV light. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of laminated Ti-(TiB+La2O3/Ti composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfei Han

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of ceramic particulate reinforcements into titanium alloys can improve the specific strength and specific stiffness, while inevitably reduce the plasticity and ductility. In this study, in situ synthesized multilayer Ti-(TiB+La2O3/Ti composite was designed by learning from the microstructure of nature biological materials with excellent mechanical properties. The Ti-(TiB+La2O3/Ti composite with unique characteristic of laminated structure was prepared by combined powder metallurgy and hot rolling. The method has the synthesize advantages with in-situ reaction of Ti and LaB6 at high temperature and controllability of reinforcements size and constituent phases in composites. The result shows that the pores in the as sintered laminated structure composite completely disappeared after hot rolling at 1050 °C. The agglomerated reinforcement particles were well dispersed and distributed uniformly along the rolling direction. The thickness of pure Ti layer and (TiB+La2O3/Ti composite layer decreased from 1 mm to about 200 μm. Meanwhile, the grains size was refined obviously after rolling deformation. The room temperature tensile test indicates that the elongation of the laminated Ti-(TiB+La2O3/Ti composite improved from 13% to 17% in comparison with the uniform (TiB+La2O3/Ti composite, while the tensile strength had little change. It provides theoretical and experimental basis for fabricating the novel high performance laminated Ti-(TiB+La2O3/Ti composites.

  4. Electromagnetic properties of multiferroic magnetoelectric BaTiO{sub 3}-Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} core-shell particles obtained by homogeneous coprecipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mei, E-mail: yumei@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Hu, Jingzhi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Jianhua, E-mail: liujh@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Songmei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Electromagnetic properties of multiferroic magnetoelectric core-shell structured BaTiO{sub 3}-Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} composite particles synthesized by homogeneous coprecipitation method were studied. The complex permeability and permittivity of samples prepared with different R values (the molar ratio of FeCl{sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O to CoCl{sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O, M(FeCl{sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O)/M(CoCl{sub 2}{center_dot}6 H{sub 2}O)) during the coprecipitation processes were measured in the frequency range of 2-8 GHz by a network vector analyzer. The result showed that the electromagnetic parameters of BaTiO{sub 3}-Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} core-shell particles could be controlled effectively by adjusting the R value of reaction solution. The increasing R value intensified the interfacial polarization process, leading the {epsilon} Prime value of BaTiO{sub 3}-Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} core-shell particles to increase and the fluctuation of {epsilon} Double-Prime curves to become obvious. Meanwhile, the increasing R value enhanced M{sub s} and adjusted the direction of easy magnetization axis, which resulted in the {mu} Prime value of BaTiO{sub 3}-Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} core-shell particles getting increased and the resonance peak of {mu} Double-Prime moving to a higher frequency. The increased complex permeability and permittivity also resulted in an improvement of dielectric and magnetic loss. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied electromagnetic properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} core-shell particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molar ratio of FeCl{sub 2}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O to CoCl{sub 2}{center_dot}6 H{sub 2}O(R) controls electromagnetic parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial polarization adjusted by R affects {epsilon} Prime value and the fluctuation of {epsilon} Double-Prime . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer M{sub s} enhanced by increasing R makes the {mu} Prime increase

  5. Microstructure and morphology of powder particles TiC-NiCr, synthesized in plasma jet, at high-energy actions on components of initial composition Ti-C-NiCr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solonenko, Oleg P.; Smirnov, Andrey V.; Chesnokov, Anton E.

    2017-10-01

    The results of experiments on in-situ synthesis of the microspherical, in particular hollow, cermet powder TiC- 30vol.%NiCr at processing of the Ti-C-NiCr agglomerates in argon-helium plasma jet flowing out into controlled atmosphere are presented. Preparation of the agglomerates consisted of the following stages: (i) high-energy treatment of the initial powders Ti and NiCr in planetary mill with their subsequent uniform mixing with glass black powder, (ii) preparation of dough from mechanically mixed powders and binder, and their granulation using the extrusion method, (iii) drying and classification of granules by the sizes.

  6. Nanostructured aluminium titanate (Al{sub 2}TiO{sub 5}) particles and nanofibers: Synthesis and mechanism of microstructural evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarniya, Abolfazl, E-mail: abolfazl_azarniya@mehr.sharif.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9466, Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azarniya, Amir, E-mail: a.azarnia91@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9466, Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Hamid Reza Madaah, E-mail: madaah@sharif.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9466, Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, Abdolreza [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9466, Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, aluminium titanate (AT) particles and nanofibers were synthesized through citrate sol gel and sol gel-assisted electrospinning methods in both nanostructured powder and nanofiber forms. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis showed that the synthetic products benefit a nanostructured nature with a grain size less than 70 nm. The optimal values for time and temperature at which a roughly pure AT is attained were determined as 2 h and 900 °C, respectively. It was found that the sol gel precursor bears an amorphous structure till 700 °C and begins to be crystallized to alumina, anatase and AT at higher temperatures. Moreover, AT tends to decompose into rutile and alumina at temperatures higher than 900 °C and its degradation rate reaches a maximum at temperatures near to 1100 °C. In this synthesis, citric acid was used as a chelating agent for Al{sup 3} {sup +} and Ti{sup 4} {sup +} ions and it was shown that a low citric acid-to-metal cation ratio leads to larger numbers of nuclei during crystallization and smaller grain size. Finally, a model was suggested to describe the microstructural evolution of AT compound based on a nucleation and growth regime. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • We synthesized aluminium titanate ceramic in both powder and nanofiber forms. • The methods in use were citrate sol gel and sol gel-assisted electrospinning. • Powders and nanofibers bear a nanostructured nature with a grain size less than 70 nm. • A model is suggested to describe microstructural evolution of synthetic products.

  7. Stability and aggregation of nanoscale titanium dioxide particle (nTiO2): Effect of cation valence, humic acid, and clay colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhong; Cheng, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Fate and transport of engineered nanoscale titanium dioxide (nTiO 2 ) have received much attention during the past decade. The aggregation and stability of nTiO 2 in water with complicated components, however, have not been fully examined. The objective of this paper is to determine the individual and synergistic effect of cation valence, humic acid, and clay colloids on nTiO 2 stability and aggregation, and elucidate the related mechanisms. We conducted systematic laboratory experiments to determine nTiO 2 stability and aggregation in NaCl and MgCl 2 solutions, both in the absence and presence of humic acid and illite colloids. Results showed that Mg 2+ , in comparison to Na + , could make the zeta potential of nTiO 2 more positive, and shift the point of zero charge of nTiO 2 (pH pzc,TiO2 ) towards higher pH. We also found that nTiO 2 are destabilized by illite colloids at pH colloids at higher pH. HA was found to make nTiO 2 stable via electrostatic and steric effects, both in the absence and presence of illite colloids. Calculated interaction energy based on DLVO theory revealed that instability of the nTiO 2 suspensions is mainly caused by primary minima, and that secondary minima normally do not destabilize the suspension, even though they are found to promote aggregation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the Nucleation and Growth of Alpha-Ti Off of TiB Precipitates (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    the aluminum and oxygen are enriched in α-Ti phase and depleted in the boride . In contrast, the molybdenum and niobium are enriched in the boride ...that a dispersion of thermally stable titanium- boride particles, formed by trace boron additions, was effective in restricting the grain growth...reinforced by the TiB phase [6-13]. The boride particles act as the pinning sites for the grain boundaries. In the TiB reinforced Ti-6Al-4V alloy

  9. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xiaoguang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn; Ding Haimin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-03-05

    Because flake-like TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of {alpha}-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption.

  10. Self-assembled core-shell CoFe2O4@BaTiO3 particles loaded P(VDF-HFP) flexible films with excellent magneto-electric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Fu, Qiuyun; Zhou, Dongxiang; Zheng, Zhiping; Hu, Yunxiang; Luo, Wei; Tian, Yahui; Wang, Chaohong; Xue, Fei; Tang, Xiahui

    2017-07-01

    Flexible composited multiferroic films with excellent magnetic-electric effects were prepared. The films were composed of self-assembled CoFe2O4@BaTiO3 core-shell nanoparticle fillers and a poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) matrix. The CoFe2O4@BaTiO3 core-shell particles were prepared using a hydrolysis-hydrothermal method. The surface modification of CoFe2O4 with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide promoted the BaTiO3 nanocrystals' self-assembly precipitation. Compared with the films loaded by bare CoFe2O4, the films filled with core-shell particles exhibited reduced leakage current density, enhanced dielectric properties, ferroelectric (FE) polarization, and magneto-electric (ME) effects. An excellent ME voltage coefficient of 1835 mV/cm Oe was measured at a DC bias field of -3500 Oe and an AC magnetic field of 3.5 Oe with a frequency of 45 kHz. This enhancement of ME effects was attributed to the large FE-ferromagnetic (FM) interface to volume and the increment of induced polarization, which were originated from the efficient impediment of the aggregation of FM fillers in the core-shell matrix.

  11. First results on Fe solid-phase extraction from coastal seawater using anatase TiO{sub 2} nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quetel, Christophe R.; Petrov, Ivan [Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Vassileva, Emilia [Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); IAEA-Marine Environment Laboratories, Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Chakarova, Kristina; Hadjiivanov, Konstantin I. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-03-15

    This paper describes the application of TiO{sub 2} nano-particles (anatase form) for the solid-phase extraction of iron from coastal seawater samples. We investigated the adsorption processes by infra-red spectroscopy. We compared in batch and on-(mini)column extraction approaches (0.1 and 0.05 g TiO{sub 2} per sample, respectively), combined to external calibration and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at medium mass resolution. Globally, this titania phase was slightly more efficient with seawater than with ultra-pure water, although between pH 2 and pH 7, the Fe retention efficiency progressed more in ultra-pure water than in seawater (6.9 versus 4.8 times improvement). Different reaction schemes are proposed between Fe(III) species and the two main categories of titania sites at pH 2 (adsorption of [FeL{sub x}]{sup (3-x)+} via possibly the mediation of chlorides) and at pH 7 (adsorption of [Fe(OH){sub 2}]{sup +} and precipitation of [Fe(OH){sub 3}]{sup 0}). Under optimised conditions, the inlet system was pre-cleaned by pumping 6% HCl for {proportional_to}2 h, and the column was conditioned by aspirating ultra-pure water (1.7 g min {sup -1}) and 0.05% ammonia (0.6 g min {sup -1}) for 1 min. Then 3 g seawater sample was loaded at the same flow rate while being mixed on-line with 0.05% ammonia at 0.6 g min {sup -1} to adjust the pH to 7. The iron retained on the oxide powder was then eluted with 3 g 6% HCl (<0.002% residual salinity in the separated samples). The overall procedural blank was 220 {+-} 46 (2 s, n = 16) ng Fe kg {sup -1} (the titania was renewed in the column every 20 samples, with 2-min rinsing in between samples with 6% HCl at 1.5 g min {sup -1}). The recovery estimated from the Canadian certified reference material CASS-2 was 69.5 {+-} 7.6% (2 s, n = 4). Typically, the relative combined uncertainty (k = 2) estimated for the measurement of {proportional_to}1 {mu}g Fe kg {sup -1} (0.45 {mu}m filtered and acidified to pH 1

  12. Monoclinic β-Li2TiO3 nanocrystalline particles employing novel urea assisted solid state route: Synthesis, characterization and sintering behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Biranchi M.; Mohanty, Trupti; Prakash, Deep; Tyagi, A. K.; Sinha, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Pure phase monoclinic nano-crystalline Li2TiO3 powder was synthesized by a novel urea assisted solid state synthesis method using readily available and economical precursors. A single phase and well crystalline Li2TiO3 powder has been obtained at slightly lower temperature (600-700 °C) and shorter duration (2 h) as compared to the conventional solid state method. The proposed method has significant advantages in comparison to other viable methods mainly in terms of phase purity, powder properties and sinterability. Analysis of chemical composition using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) shows no loss of lithium from Li2TiO3 in the proposed method. The emergence of monoclinic Li2TiO3 phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of as-synthesized powder. The crystallite size of Li2TiO3 powder was calculated to be in the range of 15-80 nm, which varied as a function of urea composition and temperature. The morphology of as-prepared Li2TiO3 powders was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of urea composition on phase and morphology was investigated so as to delineate the role of urea. Upon sintering at < 1000 °C temperature, the Li2TiO3 powder compact attained about 98% of the theoretical density with fine grained (grain size: 2-3 μm) microstructure. It indicates excellent sinter-ability of Li2TiO3 powder synthesized by the proposed method. The fine grained structure is desirable for better tritium breeding performance of Li2TiO3. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at variable temperature showed good electrical properties of Li2TiO3. The proposed method is simple, anticipated to be cost effective and convenient to realise for large scale production of phase pure nanocrystalline and having significantly enhanced sinter-ability Li2TiO3 powder.

  13. The photocatalytic application and regeneration of anatase thin films with embedded commercial TiO{sub 2} particles deposited on glass microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Valtierra, Jorge [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioquimica, Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos No. 182 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, Aguascalientes, Ags., 20256 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jormeval@yahoo.com; Garcia-Servin, Josafat [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioquimica, Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos No. 182 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, Aguascalientes, Ags., 20256 (Mexico)]. E-mail: josgaser@yahoo.com.mx; Frausto-Reyes, Claudio [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C., Unidad Aguascalientes, Prol. Constitucion No. 607, Reserva de Loma Bonita, Aguascalientes, Ags., 20200 (Mexico)]. E-mail: cfraus@cio.mx; Calixto, Sergio [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C., Loma del Bosque No. 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, Leon, Gto., 37150 (Mexico)]. E-mail: scalixto@cio.mx

    2006-03-15

    Anatase thin films (<200 nm in thickness) embedding Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} were prepared by sol-gel method. TiO{sub 2}-anatase thin films were deposited on a fiberglass substrate and then ground to obtain glass microrods containing the composite films. The film structure was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption and UV-vis spectrophotometry, and atomic force microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the composite films, calcined at 450 deg. C, and the regeneration of the activity under the same experimental conditions, were assessed using gas chromatography to study the photodegradation of phenol, an industrial pollutant, in water under 365 nm irradiation. The film with 15.0 wt.% of P25 TiO{sub 2} was found to be more photoactive (54 ppm of degraded phenol at 6 h of illumination) than the other ones.

  14. Predicting the combined effect of TiO{sub 2} nano-particles and welding input parameters on the hardness of melted zone in submerged arc welding by fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghakhani, Masood; Ghaderi, Mohammad Reza; Jalilian, Maziar Mahdipour; Derakhshan, Ali Ashraf [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a high-quality arc welding process used in heavy industries for welding thick plates. In this process, selecting appropriate values for the input parameters is required for high productivity and cost effectiveness. A very important weld quality characteristic affected by welding input parameters is the hardness of melted zone (HMZ). This paper reports the applicability of fuzzy logic (FL) to predict HMZ in the SAW process which is affected by the combined effect of TiO{sub 2} nano-particles and welding input parameters. The arc voltage, welding current, welding speed, contact tip-to-plate distance, and TiO{sub 2} nano-particles were used as input parameters and HMZ as the response to develop FL model. A five-level five-factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used in the experiments to generate experimental data. Experiments were performed, and HMZs were measured. The predicted results from FL were compared with the experimental data. The correlation factor value obtained was 99.99% between the measured and predicted values of HMZ. The results showed that FL is an accurate and reliable technique for predicting HMZ because of its low error rate.

  15. Combined in situ small and wide angle X-ray scattering studies of TiO2 nano-particle annealing to 1023 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    -1023 K. Aggregates formed by the titanium dioxide particles exhibit a continuous growth as a function of temperature. The particle size determined with SAXS and the crystallite size refined from WAXS show a correlated growth at temperatures above 673 K, where the decomposition of the surfactant...... is expected. At temperatures above 823 K, the particle and crystallite sizes increase rapidly. An increasing discrepancy between particle and crystallite size indicates growth of a shell structure on the single-crystalline core of the particles. This was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron...... microscopy studies of the sample. Transmission electron microscopy shows a transformation from a rod to a spherical particle shape; the WAXS data indicate that the shape change occurs in a temperature interval of 773-923 K. The highly crystalline titanium dioxide particles remain in the metastable anatase...

  16. Modification of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of SrTiO3 particles and resultant influence on photoreduction of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kunjuan; Wang, Yanjie; Iqbal, Muzaffar; Lin, Lin; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xuehua; He, Meng; He, Tao

    2018-03-01

    Modification of a wide-bandgap semiconductor with noble metals that can exhibit surface plasmon effect is an effective approach to make it responsive to the visible light. In this work, a series of cubic and all-edge-truncated SrTiO3 with and without thermal pretreatment in air are modified by Ag nanoparticles via photodeposition method. The crystal structure, morphology, loading amount of Ag nanoparticles, and optical properties of the obtained Ag-SrTiO3 nanomaterials are well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy, ICP-MS and UV-vis diffuse-reflection spectroscopy. The loading amount and size of the Ag nanoparticles can be controlled to some extent by tuning the photodeposition time via growth-dissolution mechanism. The Ag nanoparticles are inclined to deposit on different locations on the surface of cubic and truncated SrTiO3 with and without thermal pretreatment. The resultant SrTiO3 modified by Ag nanoparticles exhibits visible light activity for photocatalytic reduction of CO2, which is closely related to the oxygen vacancy induced by thermal pretreatment, size and amount of Ag nanoparticles. Accordingly, there is an optimized photodeposition time for the synthesis of the photocatalyst that exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity.

  17. The Photocatalysis of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) Using Dispersions of Degussa P-25 TiO2 Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The photocatalysis of N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was examined using aqueous Degussa P-25 TiO2 dispersions and a 350 nm high pressure Hg lamp UV reactor. Various concentrations of humic acid (HA) were added to the photocatalytic sample matrix in order to simulat...

  18. Toxic effect of Cr(VI) in presence of n-TiO2 and n-Al2O3 particles towards freshwater microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Bhuvaneshwari, M; Iswarya, V; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    The reactivity and toxicity of the soluble toxicants in the presence of the engineered nanomaterials is not well explored. In this study, the probable effects of TiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles (n-TiO2, n-Al2O3) on the toxicity of Cr(VI) were assessed with the dominant freshwater algae, Scenedesmus obliquus, in a low range of exposure concentrations (0.05, 0.5 and 1μg/mL). In the presence of 0.05μg/mL n-TiO2, the toxicity of Cr(VI) decreased considerably, which was presumably due to the Cr(VI) adsorption on the nanoparticle surface leading to its aggregation and precipitation. The elevated n-TiO2 concentrations (0.5 and 1μg/mL) did not significantly influence Cr(VI) bio-availability, and a dose dependent toxicity of Cr(VI) was observed. On the other hand, n-Al2O3 did not have any significant effect on the Cr(VI) toxicity. The microscopic observations presented additional information on the morphological changes of the algal cells in the presence of the binary toxicants. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) suggested contribution of oxidative stress on toxicity and LDH release confirmed membrane permeability of algal cells upon stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Formation of Al3Ti/Mg composite by powder metallurgy of Mg–Al–Ti system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi R Yang et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An in situ titanium trialuminide (Al3Ti-particle-reinforced magnesium matrix composite has been successfully fabricated by the powder metallurgy of a Mg–Al–Ti system. The reaction processes and formation mechanism for synthesizing the composite were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, x-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Al3Ti particles are found to be synthesized in situ in the Mg alloy matrix. During the reaction sintering of the Mg–Al–Ti system, Al3Ti particles are formed through the reaction of liquid Al with as-dissolved Ti around the Ti particles. The formed intermetallic particles accumulate at the original sites of the Ti particles. As sintering time increases, the accumulated intermetallic particles disperse and reach a relatively homogeneous distribution in the matrix. It is found that the reaction process of the Mg–Al–Ti system is almost the same as that of the Al–Ti system. Mg also acts as a catalytic agent and a diluent in the reactions and shifts the reactions of Al and Ti to lower temperatures. An additional amount of Al is required for eliminating residual Ti and solid-solution strengthening of the Mg matrix.

  20. Formation of Al3Ti/Mg composite by powder metallurgy of Mg-Al-Ti system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi R; Qi Wang, Shu; Cui, Xiang H; Zhao, Yu T; Gao, Ming J; Wei, Min X

    2008-07-01

    An in situ titanium trialuminide (Al3Ti)-particle-reinforced magnesium matrix composite has been successfully fabricated by the powder metallurgy of a Mg-Al-Ti system. The reaction processes and formation mechanism for synthesizing the composite were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Al3Ti particles are found to be synthesized in situ in the Mg alloy matrix. During the reaction sintering of the Mg-Al-Ti system, Al3Ti particles are formed through the reaction of liquid Al with as-dissolved Ti around the Ti particles. The formed intermetallic particles accumulate at the original sites of the Ti particles. As sintering time increases, the accumulated intermetallic particles disperse and reach a relatively homogeneous distribution in the matrix. It is found that the reaction process of the Mg-Al-Ti system is almost the same as that of the Al-Ti system. Mg also acts as a catalytic agent and a diluent in the reactions and shifts the reactions of Al and Ti to lower temperatures. An additional amount of Al is required for eliminating residual Ti and solid-solution strengthening of the Mg matrix.

  1. Formation of Al3Ti/Mg composite by powder metallurgy of Mg–Al–Ti system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi R; Qi Wang, Shu; Cui, Xiang H; Zhao, Yu T; Gao, Ming J; Wei, Min X

    2008-01-01

    An in situ titanium trialuminide (Al3Ti)-particle-reinforced magnesium matrix composite has been successfully fabricated by the powder metallurgy of a Mg–Al–Ti system. The reaction processes and formation mechanism for synthesizing the composite were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Al3Ti particles are found to be synthesized in situ in the Mg alloy matrix. During the reaction sintering of the Mg–Al–Ti system, Al3Ti particles are formed through the reaction of liquid Al with as-dissolved Ti around the Ti particles. The formed intermetallic particles accumulate at the original sites of the Ti particles. As sintering time increases, the accumulated intermetallic particles disperse and reach a relatively homogeneous distribution in the matrix. It is found that the reaction process of the Mg–Al–Ti system is almost the same as that of the Al–Ti system. Mg also acts as a catalytic agent and a diluent in the reactions and shifts the reactions of Al and Ti to lower temperatures. An additional amount of Al is required for eliminating residual Ti and solid-solution strengthening of the Mg matrix. PMID:27878002

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of SiO2-BN ceramic and Invar alloy joints brazed with Ag–Cu–Ti+TiH2+BN composite filler

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Wang; Z.W. Yang; L.X. Zhang; D.P. Wang; J.C. Feng

    2016-01-01

    Ag–Cu–Ti + TiH2+BN composite filler was prepared to braze SiO2-BN ceramic and Invar alloy. The interfacial microstructure, mechanical properties, and residual stress distribution of the brazed joints were investigated. The results show that a wave-like Fe2Ti–Ni3Ti structure appears in the Invar substrate and a thin TiN–TiB2 reaction layer forms adjacent to the SiO2-BN ceramic. The added BN particles react with Ti to form TiN–TiB fine-particles, which is beneficial to refine the microstructure...

  3. Synthesis And Characterization Of SiO2, SnO2 And TiO2 Metal Oxide Shells Covering Cu2O Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work is described a means of improving the chemical stability of Cu2O@SiO2, Cu2O@SnO2 and Cu2O@TiO2 materials. The SiO2, SnO2 and TiO2 coated samples were stable from pH 3 to pH 10 for up to seven days. To determine the stability of the coated nanoparticles, and their colloidal solutions under acidic and basic conditions, colloidal nanoparticle solutions with various pH values were prepared and monitored over time. Details of the effect of variations in pH on the phase stability of core-shell type Cu2O were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  4. New Avenue for Limiting Degradation in NanoLi4Ti5O12 for Ultrafast-Charge Lithium-Ion Batteries: Hybrid Polymer-Inorganic Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Jean-Christophe; Asakawa, Yuichiro; Beaupré, Mélanie; Vieillette, René; Laul, Dharminder; Trudeau, Michel; Zaghib, Karim

    2017-12-13

    Lithium titanium oxide (Li4Ti5O12)-based cells are a very promising battery technology for ultrafast-charge-discharge and long-cycle-life batteries. However, the surface reactivity of lithium titanium oxide in the presence of organic electrolytes continues to be a problem that may cause expansion of pouch cells. In this study, we report on the development of a simple and economical grafting method for forming hybrid polymer-Li4Ti15O12 nanoparticles, which can be successfully applied in lithium-ion batteries. This method utilizes a low-cost and scalable hydrophobic polymer that is applicable in industrial processes. The hybrid materials demonstrated exceptional capability for preventing the degradation of cells in accelerated aging and operating over 150 cycles at 1C and 45 °C.

  5. Nanoemulsions containing octyl methoxycinnamate and solid particles of TiO₂: preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of the solar protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flavia F F; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Mansur, Claudia R E

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate the physical-chemical properties of oil-in-water nanoemulsions for application as nanocosmetics for sun protection. Oil-in-water dispersions were processed by ultrasound (US) to obtain small emulsion droplets. These emulsions were obtained in the presence of commercial nonionic surfactants based on polyoxides and avocado oil as the oil phase. The US generated small but unstable droplets. This problem was solved by using a different surfactant, with a longer ethylene oxide chain, able to promote stabilization by steric mechanisms. The light scattering technique was used to characterize the nanoemulsions by their dispersed droplets' size, size distribution and variation of distribution with time (stability). Chemical and physical sunscreens - octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) and titanium dioxide (TiO₂), respectively - were added to the stable system. The anti-UVB activity of the nanoemulsions and their components were evaluated by the method of Mansur et al. (1986) and spectral transmittance. The solar protection factor (SPF) was proportional to the OMC and TiO₂ concentrations. The in vitro OMC release was evaluated, and the presence of TiO₂ in the nanoemulsion did not affect the release profile, which showed the diffusion-dependent kinetics of the active ingredient in the formulation.

  6. Estructura y propiedades del material compuesto de base cobre reforzado con partículas intermetálicas de TiB2. // Structure and properties of copper base reinforced with intermetallic particles of TiB2 material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. López J.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió las propiedades mecánicas y eléctricas de la aleación compuesta de base cobre reforzada mediante la dispersiónde cerámicas intermetálicas TiB2. La mezcla mecánica cobre-cerámica, se obtuvo aleando cobre en polvo de tamaño 140mm con 1% y 2% de TiB2 en volumen, además de dispersante en un molino planetario de inoxidable martensítico de altaenergía, con moliendas de 12 y 36 horas en atmósfera de argón y razón de carga bolas/masa en polvo de 10:1. Laconsolidación del aleado en polvo se realizó en dos etapas. Primeramente, se compactó uniaxialmente a 650ºC y 90MPa depresión en atmósfera de argón durante 2 horas. Finalmente el compacto se laminó en caliente a 800ºC con un 20% dereducción de área.El objetivo del estudio, es investigar la evolución de las propiedades mecánicas y eléctricas asociadas a los cambiosmicroestructurales producidos por el proceso de compactación y laminación en caliente.Se constató que el proceso de laminación en caliente actúa como un tratamiento de precipitación de fases frágiles, quedisminuyen la dureza y la resistencia a la tracción sin aumentar la ductilidad de los compactos. Cuando la compactaciónuniaxial es uniforme, el laminado en caliente posterior puede obviarse, obteniendo aleaciones con mejores propiedadesmecánicas en desmedro de las eléctricas. La caracterización microestructural realizada con TEM y Microsonda electrónicaWDX, confirma que las cerámicas de TiB2 dispersadas son estables y no se descomponen en otros compuestosintermetálicos con el cobre en el rango de los 800ºC. Microanálisis con TEM muestran la precipitación de fases frágiles deltipo Sigma (s provenientes de la contaminación de los medios de molienda.Palabras claves: Aleación de cobre, propiedades mecánicas, microestructura, laminado en caliente.____________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper an analisys of mechanical and electric properties of

  7. Electrorheological properties of carbon nanotube decorated TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Niu, Chenguang; Dong, Xufeng; Han, Baoguo

    2017-06-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) particles decorated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) were synthesized and applied to prepare ER suspensions in this study. Compared with the bare TiO2 particles, the MCNTs decorated TiO2 particles have a rougher surface but little change in diameters. Thanks to the less severe aggregation and better dispersibility of the decorated particles, the MCNTs decorated TiO2 particles-based ER fluids present higher viscosity and higher shear stress than the bare TiO2 particles-based materials, indicating enhanced ER performance. In addition, the ER fluid containing the MCNTs decorated TiO2 particles present lower leakage current density and better anti-settling ability than that containing the bare particles. The MCNTs decorated TiO2 particles-based ER fluids with enhanced ER performance, improved anti-sedimentation property, and lower leakage current density may be a promising ER material for practical applications.

  8. Physico-chemical characterization and the in vitro genotoxicity of medical implants metal alloy (TiAlV and CoCrMo) and polyethylene particles in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajski, Goran; Jelčić, Zelimir; Oreščanin, Višnja; Gerić, Marko; Kollar, Robert; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and possible cyto/genotoxic potential of several medical implant materials commonly used in total hip joint replacement. Medical implant metal alloy (Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo) and high density polyethylene particles were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry while toxicological characterization was done on human lymphocytes using multi-biomarker approach. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed that none of the elements identified deviate from the chemical composition defined by appropriate ISO standard. Toxicological characterization showed that the tested materials were non-cyto/genotoxic as determined by the comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Particle morphology was found (by using scanning electron and optical microscope) as flat, sharp-edged, irregularly shaped fiber-like grains with the mean particle size less than 10µm; this corresponds to the so-called "submicron wear". The very large surface area per wear volume enables high reactivity with surrounding media and cellular elements. Although orthopedic implants proved to be non-cyto/genotoxic, in tested concentration (10μg/ml) there is a constant need for monitoring of patients that have implanted artificial hips or other joints, to minimize the risks of any unwanted health effects. The fractal and multifractal analyses, performed in order to evaluate the degree of particle shape effect, showed that the fractal and multifractal terms are related to the "remnant" level of the particles' toxicity especially with the cell viability (trypan blue method) and total number of nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds as CBMN assay parameters. © 2013.

  9. Influence of clay particles on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles transport and retention through limestone porous media: measurements and mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayat, Ali Esfandyari, E-mail: ali.esfandiari.bayat@gmail.com; Junin, Radzuan [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering (Malaysia); Mohsin, Rahmat [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM-MPRC Institute for Oil and Gas, N29A, Lengkuk Suria (Malaysia); Hokmabadi, Mehrdad [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering (Malaysia); Shamshirband, Shahaboddin [University of Malaya, Department of Computer System and Information Technology, Faculty of Computer System and Information Technology (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Utilization of nanoparticles (NPs) for a broad range of applications has caused considerable quantities of these materials to be released into the environment. Issues of how and where the NPs are distributed into the subsurface aquatic environments are questions for those in environmental engineering. This study investigated the influence of three abundant clay minerals namely kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite in the subsurface natural aquatic systems on the transport and retention of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 40 nm) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}, 10–30 nm) NPs through saturated limestone porous media. The clay concentrations in porous media were set at 2 and 4 vol% of the holder capacity. Breakthrough curves in the columns outlets were measured using a UV–Vis spectrophotometer. It was found that the maximum NPs recoveries were obtained when there was no clay particle in the porous medium. On the other hand, increase in concentration of clay particles has resulted in the NPs recoveries being significantly declined. Due to fibrous structure of illite, it was found to be more effective for NPs retention in comparison to montmorillonite and kaolinite. Overall, the position of clay particles in the porous media pores and their morphologies were found to be two main reasons for increase of NPs retention in porous media.

  10. Influence of calcinated and non calcinated nanobioglass particles on hardness and bioactivity of sol-gel-derived TiO2-SiO2 nano composite coatings on stainless steel substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadash, Mohammad Saleh; Karbasi, Saeed; Esfahani, Mojtaba Nasr; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Reza; Vali, Hojatollah

    2011-04-01

    Thick films of calcinated and non calcinated nanobioglass (NBG)-titania composite coatings were prepared on stainless steel substrates by alkoxide sol-gel process. Dip-coating method was used for the films preparation. The morphology, structure and composition of the nano composite films were evaluated using environmental scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The SEM investigation results showed that prepared thick NBG-titania films are smooth and free of macrocracking, fracture or flaking. The grain size of these films was uniform and nano scale (50-60 nm) which confirmed with TEM. Also FTIR confirmed the presence of Si-O-Si bands on the calcinated NBG-titania films. The hardness of the prepared films (TiO(2)-calcinated NBG and TiO(2)-Non calcinated NBG) was compared by using micro hardness test method. The results verified that the presence of calcinated NBG particles in NBG-titania composite enhanced gradually the mechanical data of the prepared films. The in vitro bioactivity of these films was discussed based on the analysis of the variations of Ca and P concentrations in the simulated body fluid (SBF) and their surface morphologies against immersion time. Surface morphology and Si-O-Si bands were found to be of great importance with respect to the bioactivity of the studied films. The results showed that calcinated NBG-titania films have better bioactivity than non calcinated NBG-titania films.

  11. 'Pre-prosthetic use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) membranes treated with oxygen plasma and TiO2 nanocomposite particles for guided bone regeneration processes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Dalí, Gabriel; Castillo-Oyagüe, Raquel; Terriza, Antonia; Saffar, Jean-Louis; Batista-Cruzado, Antonio; Lynch, Christopher D; Sloan, Alastair J; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis; Torres-Lagares, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) processes are frequently necessary to achieve appropriate substrates before the restoration of edentulous areas. This study aimed to evaluate the bone regeneration reliability of a new poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) membrane after treatment with oxygen plasma (PO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) composite nanoparticles. Circumferential bone defects (diameter: 10mm; depth: 3mm) were created on the parietal bones of eight experimentation rabbits and were randomly covered with control membranes (Group 1: PLGA) or experimental membranes (Group 2: PLGA/PO2/TiO2). The animals were euthanized two months afterwards, and a morphologic study was then performed under microscope using ROI (region of interest) colour analysis. Percentage of new bone formation, length of mineralised bone formed in the grown defects, concentration of osteoclasts, and intensity of osteosynthetic activity were assessed. Comparisons among the groups and with the original bone tissue were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The level of significance was set in advance at a=0.05. The experimental group recorded higher values for new bone formation, mineralised bone length, and osteoclast concentration; this group also registered the highest osteosynthetic activity. Bone layers in advanced formation stages and low proportions of immature tissue were observed in the study group. The functionalised membranes showed the best efficacy for bone regeneration. The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles onto PLGA/PO2 membranes for GBR processes may be a promising technique to restore bone dimensions and anatomic contours as a prerequisite to well-supported and natural-appearing prosthetic rehabilitations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation of TiO2 photoanodes by simultaneous electrophoretic deposition of anatase and rutile particles for photoassisted electrolytic copper ions removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimmy Y. Peralta-Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Anatasa/Rutile ratio on TiO2 films, grown by electrophoretic deposition was studied in the photoassisted electrolytic copper ions removal from cyanide solutions. The proper dispersant dosage allowing the simultaneous electrophoretic deposition of Anatase and Rutile was chosen based on electrokinetic measurements; evidenced by the XRD spectra of the formed films. The evaluation of films photoassisted electrolytic copper ion removal showeds that it is possible to enhance the activity of Anatase films by adding some Rutile exploiting the synergetic interaction between these two materials, achieve by its proper deposition.

  13. An investigation of the photosubstitution reaction between N719-dyed nanocrystalline TiO2 particles and 4-tert-butylpyridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Nguyen, Thai Hoang; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    The effect of high concentrations of the solar cell additive 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP) on the stability and lifetime of the sensitizer [Ru(Hdcbpy)2(NCS)2]2-, 2(n-C4H9)4N+, (H2dcbpy=2,2′-bipyridine-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid), known as N719, has been evaluated based on kinetic data obtained from...... concentration. Based on this observation, a degradation mechanism was proposed, in which the reaction proceeds through the rate-determining formation of a common intermediate complex, I=[RuII(H2dcbpy)2(NCS)(NCS)]+. An average degradation rate of kdeg=6×10-3s-1 was obtained from the value of Φdeg and the back...... electron-transfer rate, kback of the reaction TiO2+e-|N719+→TiO2|N719, obtained by means of photo-induced absorption (PIA) measurements. The lifetime of the solar cell sensitizer N719 was estimated to be between 34 years, based on kdeg and an average literature value of the regeneration rate, kreg=2×106M-1...

  14. Plasma and BIAS Modeling: Self-Consistent Electrostatic Particle-in-Cell with Low-Density Argon Plasma for TiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Geiser

    2011-01-01

    processes. In this paper we present a new model taken into account a self-consistent electrostatic-particle in cell model with low density Argon plasma. The collision model are based of Monte Carlo simulations is discussed for DC sputtering in lower pressure regimes. In order to simulate transport phenomena within sputtering processes realistically, a spatial and temporal knowledge of the plasma density and electrostatic field configuration is needed. Due to relatively low plasma densities, continuum fluid equations are not applicable. We propose instead a Particle-in-cell (PIC method, which allows the study of plasma behavior by computing the trajectories of finite-size particles under the action of an external and self-consistent electric field defined in a grid of points.

  15. Fabrication of TiCx-TiB2/Al Composites for Application as a Heat Sink

    OpenAIRE

    Shili Shu; Hongyu Yang; Cunzhu Tong; Feng Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles have become the most attractive material in the research and development of new materials for thermal management applications. In this work, 40–60 vol. % TiCx-TiB2/Al composites were successfully fabricated by the method of combustion synthesis and hot press consolidation in an Al-Ti-B4C system. The effect of the TiCx-TiB2 content on the microstructure and compression properties of the composites was investigated. Moreover, the abrasiv...

  16. The application of imperialist competitive algorithm for optimization of deposition rate in submerged arc welding process using TiO{sub 2} nano particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaderi, Mohammad Reza; Eslampanah, Amirhossein; Ghaderi, Kianoosh [Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghakhani, Masood [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We used a novel optimization algorithm based on the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) to optimize the deposition rate in the submerged arc welding (SAW) process. This algorithm offers some advantages such as simplicity, accuracy and time saving. Experiments were conducted based on a five factor, five level rotatable central composite design (RCCD) to collect welding data for deposition rate as a function of welding current, arc voltage, contact tip to plate distance, welding speed and thickness of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles coated on the plates of mild steel. Furthermore, regression equation for deposition rate was obtained using least squares method. The regression equation as the cost function was optimized using ICA. Ultimately, the levels of input variables to achieve maximum deposition rate were obtained using ICA. Computational results indicate that the proposed algorithm is quite effective and powerful in optimizing the cost function.

  17. Fabrication of TiCx-TiB2/Al Composites for Application as a Heat Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shili Shu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles have become the most attractive material in the research and development of new materials for thermal management applications. In this work, 40–60 vol. % TiCx-TiB2/Al composites were successfully fabricated by the method of combustion synthesis and hot press consolidation in an Al-Ti-B4C system. The effect of the TiCx-TiB2 content on the microstructure and compression properties of the composites was investigated. Moreover, the abrasive wear behavior and thermo-physics properties of the TiCx-TiB2/Al composite were studied and compared with the TiCx/Al composite. The compression properties, abrasive wear behavior and thermo-physics properties of the TiCx-TiB2/Al composite are all better than those of the TiCx/Al composite, which confirms that the TiCx-TiB2/Al composite is more appropriate for application as a heat sink.

  18. Fabrication of TiCx-TiB2/Al Composites for Application as a Heat Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shili; Yang, Hongyu; Tong, Cunzhu; Qiu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles have become the most attractive material in the research and development of new materials for thermal management applications. In this work, 40–60 vol. % TiCx-TiB2/Al composites were successfully fabricated by the method of combustion synthesis and hot press consolidation in an Al-Ti-B4C system. The effect of the TiCx-TiB2 content on the microstructure and compression properties of the composites was investigated. Moreover, the abrasive wear behavior and thermo-physics properties of the TiCx-TiB2/Al composite were studied and compared with the TiCx/Al composite. The compression properties, abrasive wear behavior and thermo-physics properties of the TiCx-TiB2/Al composite are all better than those of the TiCx/Al composite, which confirms that the TiCx-TiB2/Al composite is more appropriate for application as a heat sink. PMID:28773765

  19. Nanoscopic platinum particles on TiO{sub 2}(110). STM and point-contact studies on the chemical and photosensitivity; Nanoskopische Platin-Teilchen auf TiO{sub 2}(110). STM- und Punktkontaktuntersuchungen zur chemischen und Photosensitivitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelbach, Johannes Micha

    2009-06-23

    In the ultra high vacuum produced nanoscopical platinum particles on TiO{sub 2}(110)- single crystal surfaces are contacted with the tunneltip of a raster tunnel microscope, and the chemical as well as photo sensitivity of an individual hetero contact are determined. For the experiments a UHV equipment was developed, equipped with methods to the controlled preparation and surface-analytic techniques (LEED, AES and STM). Platinum is resistively evaporated and thus small platinum particles with a size of about 8nm are generated on the pure titanium dioxide surface and characterized by STM and STS. A new developed oxygen source based on zirconoxide ceramics enables in-situ experiments for undisturbed determination of current-voltage characteristics in the tunneling and contact mode. A special preamplifier with controllable range of amplification is applied. Applying a voltage to the ceramic oxygen can be let into the UHV chamber by the oxygen source and the partial pressure can be adjusted within the range of 1.10{sup -10} mbar to 1.10{sup -5} mbar. The effect of the oxygen on the electrical characteristics of the Pt/TiO{sub 2}-contacts was proven. The clear dependence of the current-voltage characteristics on the oxygen partial pressure can be explained as a result of interface states due to the dissociation and adsorption of the oxygen, which determine the electrical characteristic of the contact. Schottky barriere heights and quality parameters were determined and compared with values of macroscopic surface contacts. For the investigations of the photo sensitivity a special STM head was developed, which enables the coupling of laser light with a wavelength of 413.1 nm. Irradiation of the nanoscopical Pt/TiO{sub 2}-contacts changes the current-voltage characteristics as well. The results of the power-dependent measurements refer to a temperature effect, that dominates the photoelectric effect. The combined power-and oxygen partial pressure dependent measurements are

  20. Preparation and surface encapsulation of hollow TiO nanoparticles for electrophoretic displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Qian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tan Tingfeng, E-mail: tantingfeng@sina.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Tianjin 300384 (China); Qi Peng [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang Shirong, E-mail: wangshirong@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Bian Shuguang [High Technology Research and Development Center, Ministry of Science and Technology, Beijing 100044 (China); Li Xianggao; An Yong; Liu Zhaojun [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Hollow black TiO nanosparticles were obtained via deposition of inorganic coating on the surface of hollow core-shell polymer latex with Ti(OBu){sub 4} as precursor and subsequent calcination in ammonia gas. Hollow TiO particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. Encapsulation of TiO via dispersion polymerization was promoved by pretreating the pigments with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate, making it possible to prepare hollow TiO-polymer particles. When St and DVB were used as polymerization monomer, hollow TiO-polymer core-shell particles came into being via dispersion polymerization, and the lipophilic degree is 28.57%. Glutin-arabic gum microcapsules containing TiO-polymer particles electrophoretic liquid were prepared using via complex coacervation. It was founded that hollow TiO-polymer particles had enough electrophoretic mobility after coating with polymer.

  1. Preparation and surface encapsulation of hollow TiO nanoparticles for electrophoretic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Tan, Tingfeng; Qi, Peng; Wang, Shirong; Bian, Shuguang; Li, Xianggao; An, Yong; Liu, Zhaojun

    2011-02-01

    Hollow black TiO nanosparticles were obtained via deposition of inorganic coating on the surface of hollow core-shell polymer latex with Ti(OBu)4 as precursor and subsequent calcination in ammonia gas. Hollow TiO particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. Encapsulation of TiO via dispersion polymerization was promoved by pretreating the pigments with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate, making it possible to prepare hollow TiO-polymer particles. When St and DVB were used as polymerization monomer, hollow TiO-polymer core-shell particles came into being via dispersion polymerization, and the lipophilic degree is 28.57%. Glutin-arabic gum microcapsules containing TiO-polymer particles electrophoretic liquid were prepared using via complex coacervation. It was founded that hollow TiO-polymer particles had enough electrophoretic mobility after coating with polymer.

  2. Microstructure and oxidation behaviour of TiAl(Nb)/Ti2AlC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. TiAl-based intermetallic matrix composites with dispersed Ti2AlC particles and different amounts of. Nb were successfully synthesized by mechanical alloying and hot pressing. The phase evolution of Ti–48 at%. Al elemental powder mixture milled for different times with hexane as a process control agent was ...

  3. Characterisation of a metal matrix composite produced with laser particle injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, AB; De Hosson, JTM; Sudarshan, TS; Jeandin, M; Khor, KA

    1998-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the laser particle injection process. TiC, TiN end SiC particles were injected into Ti-6Al-4V, which resulted in the formation of a metal matrix composite with modest dissolution of the added particles. The laser tracks with SIC exhibited a diversity of microstructures

  4. In situ controlled rapid growth of novel high activity TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a reaction coupling self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (RC-SHS method was developed for the in situ controlled synthesis of novel, high activity TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites using TiO2, Mg, B2O3, KBH4 and NH4NO3 as raw materials. The as-synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX, transition electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution TEM (HRTEM and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED. The obtained TiB2/TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites demonstrated an average particle size of 100–500 nm, and every particle surface was covered by many multibranched, tapered nanorods with diameters in the range of 10–40 nm and lengths of 50–200 nm. In addition, the tapered nanorod presents a rough surface with abundant exposed atoms. The internal and external components of the nanorods were TiB2 and TiN, respectively. Additionally, a thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyzer (TG-DSC comparison analysis indicated that the as-synthesized samples presented better chemical activity than that of commercial TiB2 powders. Finally, the possible chemical reactions as well as the proposed growth mechanism of the TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites were further discussed.

  5. Low modulus and bioactive Ti/α-TCP/Ti-mesh composite prepared by spark plasma sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Tan, Yanni; Liu, Yong; Liu, Shifeng; Zhou, Rui; Tang, Hanchun

    2017-11-01

    A titanium mesh scaffold composite filled with Ti/α-TCP particles was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructures and interfacial reactions of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The compressive strength and elastic modulus were also measured. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility was evaluated by using simulated body fluid and cells culture, respectively. After high temperature sintering, Ti oxides, TixPy and CaTiO3 were formed. The formation of Ti oxides and TixPy were resulted from the diffusion of O and P elements from α-TCP to Ti. CaTiO3 was the reaction product of Ti and α-TCP. The composite of 70Ti/α-TCP incorporated with Ti mesh showed a high compressive strength of 589MPa and a low compressive modulus of 30GPa. The bioactivity test showed the formation of a thick apatite layer on the composite and well-spread cells attachment. A good combination of mechanical properties and bioactivity indicated a high potential application of Ti/α-TCP/Ti-mesh composite for orthopedic implants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye under UV‐A Irradiation Using TiO2‐Vetiver Multifunctional Nano Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Song Thao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties and photocatalytic performance of anatase nanoparticles of pure TiO2 and a core–shell structure of TiO2 on calcined vetiver grass leaves have been compared. Samples were fabricated by sol‐gel and heating at 450 °C for 5h.The comparison was based on data for X‐ray diffraction(XRD, UV‐Vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area measurement, pore volume assessment, and methylene blue degradation testing. The results showed that the pure TiO2 consisted of agglomerated equiaxed nanoparticles of individual grain sizes in the range 10–20 nm. In contrast, the TiO2‐vetiver composite exhibited a core–shell structure consisting of a carbonaceous core and TiO2 shell of thickness 10–15nm. These features influenced the photocatalytic performance in such a way that the lower crosssectional area, greater surface area, and higher pore volume of the TiO2 shell increased the number of active sites, reduced the charge carrier diffusion distance, and reduced the recombination rate, thereby improving the photocatalytic activity. This improvement derived from morphological characteristics rather than crystallographic, semiconducting, or optical properties. The improved performance of the TiO2‐vetiver core–shell was unexpected since the X‐ray diffraction data showed that the crystallinity of the TiO2 was lower than that of the pure TiO2. These outcomes are attributed to the reducing effect of the carbon on the TiO2 during heating, thereby facilitating the formation of oxygen vacancies, which enhance charge separation and hence photocatalysis by TiO2.

  7. Microstructures and Continuous Cooling Transformation of CGHAZ in E36 Class V-N-Ti, V-Ti and Nb-Ti Shipbuilding Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhongran; Wang, Ruizhen; Wang, Qingfeng; Su, Hang; Chai, Feng; Yang, Caifu

    For the purpose of obtaining the optimal microstructures and mechanical properties of the CGHAZ under high input welding, continuous cooling transformation diagrams of the coarse grain heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) and the corresponding microstructures were investigated for a E36 class V-N-Ti, V-Ti, and Nb-Ti shipbuilding steels. The results indicated that the CGHAZ continuous transformation behaviors of Nb-Ti and V-Ti steel were similar, but the V-retard phenomenon was not as apparent as that of Nb. In addition, the cooling rate of ferrite transformation of V-Ti steel was higher than that of Nb-Ti steel. The nitrogen addition in the V-Ti steel enhanced the ferrite transformation, since that increasing the nitrogen could obtain fine (Ti, V)(C, N) particles and refine the original austenite size, which can promote the ferrite nucleation. The bainite transformation range of V-N-Ti steel was obviously lower than that of Nb-Ti, V-Ti steel at the t8/5≥100s.

  8. The Effect of Film Thickness and TiO2 Content on Film Formation from PS/ TiO2 Nanocomposites Prepared by Dip-Coating Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Selin Sunay; Onder Pekcan; Saziye Ugur

    2012-01-01

    ...) was used for studying film formation from TiO2 covered nanosized polystyrene (PS) latex particles (320 nm). The effects of film thickness and TiO2 content on the film formation and structure properties of PS/TiO2 composites were studied...

  9. Microstructures and electrochemical properties of Si-Ni-xTi alloys for anode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jong Jin; Kwon, Hye Jin; Ahn, Deuk Kyu; Chu, Yeon Yi; Cho, Jong Soo; Moon, Jeong Tak; Park, Won-Wook; Sohn, Keun Yong

    2013-05-01

    The phase change due to varying content of titanium in Si-Ni-xTi alloys and its effect on the electrochemical behavior has been investigated. Specimens were prepared by melt-spinning to reduce the microstructure scale. Results showed that silicon particles of 50-100 nm diameter and dendrites of somewhat larger scale were formed in the Si-Ni-Ti alloys ribbons. The microstructure of Si70Ni15Ti15 alloy ribbons was composed of silicon particles finely dispersed in Si7Ni4Ti4 phase. The cycle performance was improved by the formation of TiSi2 or NiSi2 phase at the presence of Si7Ni4Ti4 phase, either of which combined with Si7Ni4Ti4 phase effectively accommodated the volume change of silicon particles during cycling. The reduced scale of silicon particles contributed to the enhanced cycle efficiency as well.

  10. Effect of TiH{sub 2} in the preparation of MMC Ti based with TiC reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peillon, N.; Fruhauf, J.B. [Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, LGF UMR5307 CNRS, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Gourdet, S. [EADS Innovation Works, 12, Rue Pasteur, BP 76, 92152 Suresnes Cedex (France); Feraille, J. [Eurocopter SA, Aéroport International de Marseille, 13725 Marignane Cedex (France); Saunier, S.; Desrayaud, C. [Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, LGF UMR5307 CNRS, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Using TiH{sub 2} precursors promotes the MMC densification and microstructure homogeneity. • Clear description of the TiH{sub 2} interest and limitations. • Coupling of TGA, TMA and EBSD analyses to investigate the sintering process of MMC. • Process parameters: granulometry, precursor composition, temperature and rate. - Abstract: Many studies were carried out on the elaboration Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) and a wide variety of process is reported in the bibliography. For titanium based MMC, the basis material for these elaboration techniques mainly consists of atomized titanium powder. In this work a titanium hydride powder is used to elaborate Ti/TiC MMC. Although an additional dehydrogenation operation is required a significant decrease of the sintering temperature is expected with this basis powder. In this context, the behavior of titanium hydride powder mixed with 0, 10 and 20 vol.% TiC reinforcement is studied during densification by free sintering. The effects of particle size, temperature and rate of sintering reinforcement are discussed. The comparison of the TiH{sub 2} process with Ti HDH (Hydride Dehydride) and atomized Ti mixture is made with 10 vol.% reinforcement. The results indicate that the sintering temperature is lowered and the final densities achieved are higher if the hydride is used. Interactions between dehydrogenation and sintering mechanisms clearly appear for the higher sintering temperature rate (10 °C/min) and need specific attention to prevent porosity nucleation through hydrogen entrapment.

  11. Cytotoxicity Property of Nano-TiO2 Sol and Nano-TiO2 Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingting He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A homogeneous and transparent titania (TiO2 sol with nanosized anatase TiO2 particles was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method. The transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the structure and morphology of particulates in the TiO2 sol and purchased TiO2 powder. The results show that the homogeneous anatase crystalline phase was formed and the size of the spindle-like particle in sol was about 20 nm in width and 150 nm in average length, and the particulates of the purchased powder were globular-like about 50 nm in diameter. In addition, a consistent set of in vitro experimental protocols was used to study the effects of nano-TiO2 sol as prepared and nano-TiO2 powder on mouse peritoneal macrophage. The cytotoxicity tests in vitro indicate that, with the increasing of TiO2 sol concentration contaminated with the cells, the relative proliferation rate of macrophage cells was improved slightly after the cells contaminated for 24 h, but it reduced rapidly after contaminated for 48 h. The purchased nano-TiO2 powder inhibited the growth of the cells obviously as cultivating with macrophage both for 24 h and 48 h.

  12. Self-Cleaning Limestone Paint Modified by Nanoparticles TiO2 Synthesized from TiCl3 as Precursors and PEG6000 as Dispersant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Fadhilah; Niki Etruly; Maktum Muharja; Dyah Sawitri

    2017-01-01

    Limestone is commonly used for wall painting, but it is easy to be dirty. In this study, a self-cleaning limestone paint was synthesized by modifying dispersant and TiO2 nanoparticles. The TiO2 that prepared by TiCl3 were functionalized with PEG6000 as a surface activating agent. The paint achieved highest impurity degradation of 83.11 % for the mass ratio of TiO2 and PEG6000 (MRTP) of 1: 6, in which TiO2 average size distribution was 75.81 µm2, the particle surface area of TiO2 was 2,544 µm2...

  13. Preparation and Photocatalytic Performance of Ti3C2/TiO2/CuO Ternary Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti3C2/TiO2/CuO nanocomposites were synthesized via the decomposition of a mixture of Ti3C2 (a novel two-dimensional carbide and cupric nitrate under an argon atmosphere. The morphology and structures of the obtained samples were characterized. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis indicate that the sample is composed of Ti3C2, anatase-TiO2, and CuO. Scanning electron microscopy images show that CuO and TiO2 nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of Ti3C2. The particles size increased with an increase in the cupric nitrate content. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange shows that the Ti3C2/TiO2/CuO nanocomposite has good photocatalytic degradation efficiency. A possible photocatalytic mechanism of the Ti3C2/TiO2/CuO nanocomposites was proposed. The data indicated that CuO and Ti3C2 effectively promote the separation of photoelectrons from vacancies.

  14. Plasma torch production of Ti/Al nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zea, Hugo [UNM MECH.ENG; Cheng, Lily [UNM MECH.ENG.; Luhrs, Claudia [UNM MECH.ENG.; Courtney, Matthew [UNM MECH.ENG.

    2009-01-01

    Using the Aerosol-through-Plasma (A-T-P) technique high surface area bi-cationic (Ti-Al) oxide particles of a range of stoichiometries were produced that showed remarkable resistance to sintering. Specifically, we found that homogeneous nanoparticles with surface areas greater than 150 m{sup 2}/gm were produced at all stoichiometries. In particular, for particles with a Ti:Al ratio of 1:3 a surface area of just over 200 m{sup 2}/gm was measured using the BET method. The most significant characteristic of these particles was that their sinter resistance was far superior to that of TiAl particles produced using any other method. For example, A-T-P generated particles retained >70% of their surface area even after sintering at 1000 C for five hours. In contrast, particles made using all other methods lost virtually all of their surface area after an 800 C treatment.

  15. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anatase TiO2 Nanorods Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal method provides an effective reaction environment for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with high purity and well-controlled crystallinity. In this work, we started with various sizes of commercial TiO2 powders and used the hydrothermal method to prepare TiO2 thin films. We found that the synthesized TiO2 nanorods were thin and long when smaller TiO2 particles were used, while larger TiO2 particles produced thicker and shorter nanorods. We also found that TiO2 films prepared by TiO2 nanorods exhibited larger surface roughness than those prepared by the commercial TiO2 particles. It was found that a pure anatase phase of TiO2 nanorods can be obtained from the hydrothermal method. The dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with TiO2 nanorods exhibited a higher solar efficiency than those fabricated with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles directly. Further, triple-layer structures of TiO2 thin films with different particle sizes were investigated to improve the solar efficiency.

  16. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  17. Synthetic TiO2 nanoparticle emission from exterior facades into the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaegi, R; Ulrich, A; Sinnet, B; Vonbank, R; Wichser, A; Zuleeg, S; Simmler, H; Brunner, S; Vonmont, H; Burkhardt, M; Boller, M

    2008-11-01

    We present direct evidence of the release of synthetic nanoparticles from urban applications into the aquatic environment. We investigated TiO(2) particles as these particles are used in large quantities in exterior paints as whitening pigments and are to some extent also present in the nano-size range. TiO(2) particles were traced from exterior facade paints to the discharge into surface waters. We used a centrifugation based sample preparation which recovers TiO(2) particles between roughly 20 and 300nm. Analytical electron microscopy revealed that TiO(2) particles are detached from new and aged facade paints by natural weather conditions and are then transported by facade runoff and are discharged into natural, receiving waters. Microscopic investigations are confirmed by bulk chemical analysis. By combining results from microscopic investigations with bulk chemical analysis we calculated the number densities of synthetic TiO(2) particles in the runoff.

  18. Laser processed TiN reinforced Ti6Al4V composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bhat, Abhimanyu; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this first generation investigation is to evaluate fabrication, in vitro cytotoxicity, cell-material interactions and tribological performance of TiN particle reinforced Ti6Al4V composite coatings for potential wear resistant load bearing implant applications. The microstructural analysis of the composites was performed using scanning electron microscope and phase analysis was done with X-ray diffraction. In vitro cell-material interactions, using human fetal osteoblast cell line, have been assessed on these composite coatings and compared with Ti6Al4V alloy control samples. The tribological performance of the coatings were evaluated, in simulated body fluids, up to 1000 m sliding distance under 10 N normal load. The results show that the composite coatings contain distinct TiN particles embedded in α+β phase matrix. The average top surface hardness of Ti6Al4V alloy increased from 394±8 HV to 1138±61 HV with 40 wt% TiN reinforcement. Among the composite coatings, the coatings reinforced with 40 wt% TiN exhibited the highest wear resistance of 3.74×10(-6) mm(3)/Nm, which is lower than the wear rate, 1.04×10(-5) mm(3)/Nm, of laser processed CoCrMo alloy tested under identical experimental conditions. In vitro biocompatibility study showed that these composite coatings were non-toxic and provides superior cell-material interactions compared to Ti6Al4V control, as a result of their high surface energy. In summary, excellent in vitro wear resistance and biocompatibility of present laser processed TiN reinforced Ti6Al4V alloy composite coatings clearly show their potential as wear resistant contact surfaces for load bearing implant applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite arrays on Ti fabric for enhanced photocatalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiujuan; Wang, Chang; Xia, Ning; Jiang, Ming; Liu, Ruina; Huang, Jing; Li, Qiong; Luo, Zhiping; Liu, Lin; Xu, Weilin; Fang, Dong

    2017-11-01

    In this study, ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite arrays on Ti fabric were synthesized via a hydrothermal process, where the amorphous TiO2 nanotube array was used as a precursor. The fabrication process involved the preparation of zinc acetate particles that were modified on TiO2 nanotube arrays. These transformed the amorphous TiO2 to crystallized ZnO-TiO2. The prepared samples were then characterized by X-ray diffractometer, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Photodegradation test of methyl orange was examined using the ZnO-TiO2 nanocomposite arrays on the Ti fabric. Following 60 min of UV irradiation nearly 100% photodegradation of the 20 mg L-1 methyl orange solution at pH = 10 was achieved. The degradation products were identified and the photocatalysis process was studied. The results obtained in the study will enable researchers to design a scalable, practical process for dye wastewater treatment.

  20. Particle size effect on microwave absorbing of La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.94}Ti{sub 0.06}O{sub 3} powders prepared by mechanical alloying with the assistance of ultrasonic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saptari, Sitti Ahmiatri, E-mail: siti-ahmiatri@yahoo.co.id [Faculty of Science and Technology, State Islamic University, Jakarta (Indonesia); Manaf, Azwar; Kurniawan, Budhy [Departement of Physics, University of Indonesia, Depok (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Doped manganites have attracted substantial interest due to their unique chemical and physics properties, which makes it possible to be used for microwave absorbing materials. In this paper we report synthesizes and characterization of La{sub 0.67}Ba{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 0.94}Ti{sub 0.06}O{sub 3} powders prepared by mechanical alloying with the assistance of a high power ultrasonic treatment. After solid state reaction, the presence of single phase was confirmed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Refinement results showed that samples are single phase with monoclinic structure. It was found that powder materials derived from mechanical alloying results in large variation in the particle size. A significant improvement was obtained upon subjecting the mechanically milled powder materials to an ultrasonication treatment for a relatively short period of time. As determined by particle size analyzer (PSA), the mean particle size gradually decreased from the original size of 5.02 µm to 0.36 µm. Magnetic properties were characterized by VSM, and hysteresis loops results showed that samples are soft magnetic. It was found that when the mean particle size decreases, saturation was increases and coersitivity was decreases. Microwave absorption properties were investigated in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz using vector network analyzer. An optimal reflection loss of 24.44 dB is reached at 11.4 GHz.

  1. Molecular dynamics study of the interactions of incident N or Ti atoms with the TiN(001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhai [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture and Engineering Management, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Zeng, Quanren [Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture and Engineering Management, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Yuan, Lin [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Qin, Yi [Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture and Engineering Management, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Chen, Mingjun [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shan, Debin, E-mail: d.b.shan@gmail.com [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Interactions of incident N or Ti atoms with TiN(001) surface are studied by CMD. • The impact position of incident N on the surface determines the interaction modes. • Adsorption could occur due to the atomic exchange process. • Resputtering and reflection may simultaneously occur. • The initial sticking coefficient of N on TiN(001) is much smaller than that of Ti. - Abstract: The interaction processes between incident N or Ti atoms and the TiN(001) surface are simulated by classical molecular dynamics based on the second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method potentials. The simulations are carried out for substrate temperatures between 300 and 700 K and kinetic energies of the incident atoms within the range of 0.5–10 eV. When N atoms impact against the surface, adsorption, resputtering and reflection of particles are observed; several unique atomic mechanisms are identified to account for these interactions, in which the adsorption could occur due to the atomic exchange process while the resputtering and reflection may simultaneously occur. The impact position of incident N atoms on the surface plays an important role in determining the interaction modes. Their occurrence probabilities are dependent on the kinetic energy of incident N atoms but independent on the substrate temperature. When Ti atoms are the incident particles, adsorption is the predominant interaction mode between particles and the surface. This results in the much smaller initial sticking coefficient of N atoms on the TiN(001) surface compared with that of Ti atoms. Stoichiometric TiN is promoted by N/Ti flux ratios larger than one.

  2. Sintering of HDH Ti Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Jaroslav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium powders prepared by hydro-dehydration process (HDH powder were pressure less sintered in vacuum oven at different temperatures, time and green density. The sintering properties of powders of two particle sizes - 30 and 150 microns were investigated. The usual powder metallurgical (PM results were observed, i.e., decreasing final porosity with increasing sintering temperature and time at constant heating rate. Higher green density leading to higher final density for both powder sizes was also observed. The obtained results will be used as comparative material for future sintering experiments of Ti based composites.

  3. Electrochemical behavior of hydroxyapatite/TiN multi-layer coatings on Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Ju [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative Science and Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of hydroxyapatite (HA) and titanium nitride (TiN) multi-layer coatings on Ti–Nb–Zr alloys was investigated by a variety of surface analytical methods. The HA/TiN layers were deposited using a magnetron sputtering system. The HA target was made of human tooth-ash sintered at 1300 °C for 1 h and had an average Ca/P ratio of 1.9. From X-ray diffraction patterns, the Ti–29Nb–5Zr alloy was composed entirely of equiaxed β-phase exhibiting the principal (110) reflection, and the coating exhibited the (111) and (200) reflections for TiN and the (112) and (202) reflections for HA. At the coating surface the HA films consisted of granular particles, and the surface roughness was 4.22 nm. The thickness of the coating layers increased in the order of HA/TiN (lowest), TiN, and HA (highest). Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the corrosion current density was the lowest, and the corrosion potential and polarization resistance the highest, when the Ti–29Nb–5Zr surface was covered by the HA/TiN film, compared to solely HA or TiN films. - Highlights: • HA/TiN films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on a Ti–29Nb–5Zr biomedical alloy. • The corrosion current density for the HA/TiN films was lower than that of the non-coated alloy. • The polarization resistance of the HA/TiN films was higher than that of the non-coated alloy.

  4. Electrochemical deposition of Ni–TiN nanocomposite coatings and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    porated reinforcing particles are determined by the relative magnitudes of the rates at which the particles and cations reached to the growing film surface. Increasing deposition current density can enhance both rates [1]. The value of. TiN nanoparticles in the coating is enhanced by increasing the current density up to 0.04 A ...

  5. 6th iTi Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kampers, Gerrit; Oberlack, Martin; Wacławczyk, Marta; Talamelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This volume collects the edited and reviewed contributions presented in the 6th iTi Conference in Bertinoro, covering fundamental and applied aspects in turbulence. In the spirit of the iTi conference, the volume has been produced after the conference so that the authors had the possibility to incorporate comments and discussions raised during the meeting. In the present book the contributions have been structured according to the topics : I Theory II Wall bounded flows III Particles in flows IV Free flows V Complex flows The volume is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Konrad Bajer who prematurely passed away in Warsaw on August 29, 2014. .

  6. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti6Al4V Alloy Modified and Reinforced by In Situ Ti5Si3/Ti Composite Ribbon Inoculants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuo Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a novel fabrication method (a vacuum rapid solidification technique to prepare in situ Ti5Si3/Ti composite ribbon as inoculants to modify Ti6Al4V alloy to obtain titanium matrix composites (TMCs. Microstructure and morphology observations showed that the grain size of the TMCs was refined as the volume fraction of inoculants increased. The grain size of the TMCs can be refined from a grade of 650 μm to about 110 μm with a very small refiner adding ratio of 0.6% in weight. Thereafter, the mechanical properties of the TMCs, including their tensile strength, microhardness, impact properties, and resistant properties were improved obviously by adding the ribbon inoculants. The excellent grain refining and reinforcement effect can be attributed to the nano-sized Ti5Si3 refiner particles distributed homogeneously in the matrix, the well-banded particle/matrix interface, and the good wettability between the Ti5Si3 particles in inoculants and the Ti6Al4V alloy melt, which are benefit for the heterogeneous nucleation of the TMCs during solidification.

  7. Plasma-spray synthesis and characterization of ti-based nitride and oxide nanogranules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipas, Georgios S.E., E-mail: gantipas@metal.ntua.gr [School of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2014-09-15

    The synthesis of nanosized Ti-based nanogranules via plasma spraying is reported. The synthesis route involved use of both nitrogen and oxygen gases with varying results. In the case of nitrogen, a mixture of titanium nitrides were produced, yielding both the Ti2N and the sub-stoichiometric TiN0.61 compounds. In the case of oxygen, both the stoichiometric rutile and TiO ceramic phases were indexed. Based on EDS analysis, even fractional oxygen concentrations caused tungsten impurities which originated from the cathode electrode. The method yielded particle mass median sizes of the order of 15nm and the smallest particles detected were 5nm. (author)

  8. TiO2 Surface Coating of Mn-Zn Dopped Ferrites Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solný, Tomáš; Ptacek, Petr; Másilko, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with TiO2 coating of powder Mn-Zn ferrite in order to recieve photocatalytic layer on the top of these particles, forming core-shell catalyst. Powder catalysts are of great advance over the world due to the high surface area, considering the kinetics proceeds through heterogenous...... photocatalytic decomposition system using external magnetic field. In this study the surface coating is performed, using Ti alkoxides mixtures with nanosized TiO2 particles and C and Au coating to form film layer of TiO2 on the surface of ferrite. XRD, SEM – EDS analyses are employed to study surface coating....

  9. Titanium Dioxide Particle Type and Concentration Influence the Inflammatory Response in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeko Tada-Oikawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles are widely used in cosmetics, sunscreens, biomedicine, and food products. When used as a food additive, TiO2 nanoparticles are used in significant amounts as white food-coloring agents. However, the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on the gastrointestinal tract remain unclear. The present study was designed to determine the effects of five TiO2 particles of different crystal structures and sizes in human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cells and THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. Twenty-four-hour exposure to anatase (primary particle size: 50 and 100 nm and rutile (50 nm TiO2 particles reduced cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophages, but in not Caco-2 cells. However, 72-h exposure of Caco-2 cells to anatase (50 nm TiO2 particles reduced cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose (50 µg/mL of anatase (100 nm, rutile (50 nm, and P25 TiO2 particles also reduced cellular viability in Caco-2 cells. The production of reactive oxygen species tended to increase in both types of cells, irrespective of the type of TiO2 particle. Exposure of THP-1 macrophages to 50 µg/mL of anatase (50 nm TiO2 particles increased interleukin (IL-1β expression level, and exposure of Caco-2 cells to 50 µg/mL of anatase (50 nm TiO2 particles also increased IL-8 expression. The results indicated that anatase TiO2 nanoparticles induced inflammatory responses compared with other TiO2 particles. Further studies are required to determine the in vivo relevance of these findings to avoid the hazards of ingested particles.

  10. Polygamous particles

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Kun-Ta; Feng, Lang; Sha, Ruojie; Dreyfus, Rémi; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Seeman, Nadrian C.; Chaikin, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    DNA is increasingly used as an important tool in programming the self-assembly of micrometer- and nanometer-scale particles. This is largely due to the highly specific thermoreversible interaction of cDNA strands, which, when placed on different particles, have been used to bind precise pairs in aggregates and crystals. However, DNA functionalized particles will only reach their true potential for particle assembly when each particle can address and bind to many different kinds of particles. ...

  11. Influence of clay particles on the transport and retention of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in quartz sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Tong, Meiping; Wang, Xueting; Kim, Hyunjung

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of two representative suspended clay particles, bentonite and kaolinite, on the transport of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) in saturated quartz sand in both NaCl (1 and 10 mM ionic strength) and CaCl2 solutions (0.1 and 1 mM ionic strength) at pH 7. The breakthrough curves of nTiO2 with bentonite or kaolinite were higher than those without the presence of clay particles in NaCl solutions, indicating that both types of clay particles increased nTiO2 transport in NaCl solutions. Moreover, the enhancement of nTiO2 transport was more significant when bentonite was present in nTiO2 suspensions relative to kaolinite. Similar to NaCl solutions, in CaCl2 solutions, the breakthrough curves of nTiO2 with bentonite were also higher than those without clay particles, while the breakthrough curves of nTiO2 with kaolinite were lower than those without clay particles. Clearly, in CaCl2 solutions, the presence of bentonite in suspensions increased nTiO2 transport, whereas, kaolinite decreased nTiO2 transport in quartz sand. The attachment of nTiO2 onto clay particles (both bentonite and kaolinite) were observed under all experimental conditions. The increased transport of nTiO2 in most experimental conditions (except for kaolinite in CaCl2 solutions) was attributed mainly to the clay-facilitated nTiO2 transport. The straining of larger nTiO2-kaolinite clusters yet contributed to the decreased transport (enhanced retention) of nTiO2 in divalent CaCl2 solutions when kaolinite particles were copresent in suspensions.

  12. Characteristics of the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using TiO2 Nanotubes Treated with TiCl4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyuk Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of oxide semiconducting TiO2 nano particles with one dimensional TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs has been used for improving the electron transport in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Although use of one dimensional structure provides the enhanced photoelectrical performance, it tends to reduce the adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface due to decrease of surface area. To overcome this problem, we investigate the effects of TiCl4 treatment on DSSCs which were constructed with composite films made of TiO2 nanoparticles and TNTs. To find optimum condition of TNTs concentration in TiO2 composites film, series of DSSCs with different TNTs concentration were made. In this optimum condition (DSSCs with 10 wt% of TNT, the effects of post treatment are compared for different TiCl4 concentrations. The results show that the DSSCs using a TiCl4 (90 mM post treatment shows a maximum conversion efficiency of 7.83% due to effective electron transport and enhanced adsorption of dye on TiO2 surface.

  13. Interface role in the enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2-Na0.9Mg0.45Ti3.55O8 nanoheterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Qing Guo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-Na0.9Mg0.45Ti3.55O8 (TiO2-NMTO nanocomposites were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. TiO2 nanoparticles were loaded on NMTO nanosheets with well matched lattices. The TiO2-NMTO nanoheterojunctions enjoyed high photodegradative ability for a RhB pollutant. The photoinduced electron-hole pairs were separated effectively by the TiO2-NMTO nanoheterojunctions, which were directly observed by surface potential measurements with a scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The photogenerated electrons accumulate at interface due to the high density of interface states, and holes remain TiO2 and NMTO particles, other than they migrate from one part to another in heterojunctions by comparing the surface potentials under illumination with different wavelengths.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of SiO2-BN ceramic and Invar alloy joints brazed with Ag–Cu–Ti+TiH2+BN composite filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ag–Cu–Ti + TiH2+BN composite filler was prepared to braze SiO2-BN ceramic and Invar alloy. The interfacial microstructure, mechanical properties, and residual stress distribution of the brazed joints were investigated. The results show that a wave-like Fe2Ti–Ni3Ti structure appears in the Invar substrate and a thin TiN–TiB2 reaction layer forms adjacent to the SiO2-BN ceramic. The added BN particles react with Ti to form TiN–TiB fine-particles, which is beneficial to refine the microstructure of the brazing seam and to greatly inhibit the brittle compounds formation. The interfacial microstructure at various brazing temperatures was analyzed, and the mechanism for the interfacial reactions responsible for the bonding was proposed. The maximum shear strength of the joints brazed with the composite filler at 880 °C for 10 min is 39 MPa, which is 30% greater than that brazed with Ag–Cu–Ti alloy. The improvement of the joint strength is attributed to the variation of joint microstructure and the reduction of tensile stresses induced in the SiO2-BN ceramic. The finite element analysis indicates that the peak tensile stress decreases from 230 to 142 MPa due to the addition of BN particles in the ceramic.

  15. Facile synthesis of porous La-Ti-O and LaTiO2N microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugen, Evan E; Koczkur, Kallum M; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2017-08-15

    Photocatalysts offer an excellent opportunity to shift the global energy landscape from a fossil fuel-dependent paradigm to sustainable and carbon-neutral solar fuels. Oxynitride materials such as LaTiO2N are potential photocatalysts for the water splitting reaction due to their high oxidative stability and their narrow band gaps, which are suitable for visible light absorption. However, facile synthetic routes to metal oxynitrides with controlled morphologies are rare. Ultrasonic spray synthesis (USS) offers a facile method toward complex metal oxides which can potentially be converted to oxynitrides with preservation of the microsphere structures that typify the products from such aerosol routes. Here, La-Ti-O microspheres were facilely produced by USS and converted by ammonolysis to LaTiO2N microspheres with porous shells and hollow interiors. This particle architecture is accounted for by coupling suitable combustion chemistry with the aerosol technique, producing precursor particles where the La(3+) and Ti(4+) are well-mixed at small length scales; this feature enables preservation of the microsphere morphology during nitridation despite the crystallographic changes that occur. The LaTiO2N microspheres are comparable oxygen evolving photocatalysts to samples produced by conventional solid state methods. These results demonstrate the utility of USS as a facile, potentially scalable route to complex photocatalytic materials and their precursors with distinct morphologies.

  16. Formation of L12 modified Al2.5Cu0.5Ti phase by heat treatment of spark-plasma-sintered Cu/Al3Ti specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Hirata, Kazuaki; Sato, Hisashi

    2018-01-01

    In our previous studies, the influence of L12 modified Al2.5Cu0.5Ti and Al2.7Fe0.3Ti particles on the grain refining performance of an Al cast was studied. It has been shown that the L12 modified intermetallic compound particles act as heterogeneous nucleation sites of α-Al solidification. Since nuclei are formed on the surface of the heterogeneous nucleation site particles, only the surface region of the Al3Ti particles must be modified into an L12 structure. In this study, therefore, the formation of the Al2.5Cu0.5Ti phase by the reaction between Al3Ti and Cu is studied. For this purpose, Cu/Al3Ti diffusion couple specimens and specimens of Al3Ti particles dispersed in a Cu matrix are fabricated by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) method, and the reaction between Cu and Al3Ti during heat treatment of these specimens is studied. It is found that the L12 modified Al2.5Cu0.5Ti phase is formed at the Cu/Al3Ti interface by heat treatment.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate)/nano-titanium oxide composite particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gang; Yu, Jie; Luo, Zhu; Zhou, LiangXue; Liang, Hang; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong

    2011-06-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) [P(MMA-BA)]/nanosized titanium oxide (nano-TiO2) composite particles were prepared via insitu emulsion polymerization of MMA and BA in presence of nano-TiO2 particles. Before polymerization, the nano-TiO2 particles were modified by coupling agent. The structure and thermal properties of the obtained P(MMA-BA)/nano-TiO2 composite particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that there are covalent bond bindings between P(MMA-BA) and nano-TiO2 particles, meaning that P(MMA-BA) and nano-TiO2 particles were not simply blended or mixed up and that there is a strong interaction between P(MMA-BA) and nano-TiO2 particles. TGA and DSC measurements indicated an enhancement of thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that P(MMA-BA) enhanced the dispersibility of nano-TiO2 particles. The dispersion stabilization of modified nano-TiO2 particles in aqueous system was significantly improved due to the introduction of grafted polymer on the surface of nano-particles.

  18. Industrial worker exposure to airborne particles during the packing of pigment and nanoscale titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, A J; Lyyränen, J; Auvinen, A; Vanhala, E; Hämeri, K; Tuomi, T; Jokiniemi, J

    2012-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) factory workers' source specific exposure and dose to airborne particles was studied extensively for particles between 5 nm and 10 μm in size. We defined TiO₂ industry workers' quantitative inhalation exposure levels during the packing of pigment TiO₂ (pTiO₂) and nanoscale TiO₂ (nTiO₂) material from concentrations measured at work area. Particle emissions from different work events were identified by linking work activity with the measured number size distributions and mass concentrations of particles. A lung deposit model was used to calculate regional inhalation dose rates in units of particles min⁻¹ and μg min⁻¹ without use of respirators. Workers' average exposure varied from 225 to 700 μg m⁻³ and from 1.15 × 10⁴ to 20.1 × 10⁴ cm⁻⁴. Over 90% of the particles were smaller than 100 nm. These were mainly soot and particles formed from process chemicals. Mass concentration originated primarily from the packing of pTiO₂ and nTiO₂ agglomerates. The nTiO₂ exposure resulted in a calculated dose rate of 3.6 × 10⁶ min⁻¹ and 32 μg min⁻¹ where 70% of the particles and 85% of the mass was deposited in head airways. The recommended TiO₂ exposure limits in mass by NIOSH and in particle number by IFA were not exceeded. We recommend source-specific exposure assessment in order to evaluate the workers' risks. In nTiO₂ packing, mass concentration best describes the workers' exposure to nTiO₂ agglomerates. Minute dose rates enable the simulation of workers' risks in different exposure scenarios.

  19. Polymer-Particle Pressure-Sensitive Paint with High Photostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Matsuda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel fast-responding and paintable pressure-sensitive paint (PSP based on polymer particles, i.e. polymer-particle (pp-PSP. As a fast-responding PSP, polymer-ceramic (PC-PSP is widely studied. Since PC-PSP generally consists of titanium (IV oxide (TiO2 particles, a large reduction in the luminescent intensity will occur due to the photocatalytic action of TiO2. We propose the usage of polymer particles instead of TiO2 particles to prevent the reduction in the luminescent intensity. Here, we fabricate pp-PSP based on the polystyrene particle with a diameter of 1 μm, and investigate the pressure- and temperature-sensitives, the response time, and the photostability. The performances of pp-PSP are compared with those of PC-PSP, indicating the high photostability with the other characteristics comparable to PC-PSP.

  20. Preparation of Nano-TiO₂-Coated SiO₂ Microsphere Composite Material and Evaluation of Its Self-Cleaning Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sijia; Deng, Tongrong; Ding, Hao; Chen, Ying; Chen, Wanting

    2017-11-03

    In order to improve the dispersion of nano-TiO₂ particles and enhance its self-cleaning properties, including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and surface hydrophilicity, we prepared nano-TiO₂-coated SiO₂ microsphere composite self-cleaning materials (SiO₂-TiO₂) by co-grinding SiO₂ microspheres and TiO₂ soliquid and calcining the ground product. The structure, morphology, and self-cleaning properties of the SiO₂-TiO₂ were characterized. The characterization results showed that the degradation efficiency of methyl orange by SiO₂-TiO₂ was 97%, which was significantly higher than that obtained by pure nano-TiO₂. The minimum water contact angle of SiO₂-TiO₂ was 8°, indicating strong hydrophilicity and the good self-cleaning effect. The as-prepared SiO₂-TiO₂ was characterized by the nano-TiO₂ particles uniformly coated on the SiO₂ microspheres and distributed in the gap among the microspheres. The nano-TiO₂ particles were in an anatase phase with the particle size of 15-20 nm. The nano-TiO₂ particles were combined with SiO₂ microspheres via the dehydroxylation of hydroxyl groups on their surfaces.

  1. Preparation of Nano-TiO2-Coated SiO2 Microsphere Composite Material and Evaluation of Its Self-Cleaning Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the dispersion of nano-TiO2 particles and enhance its self-cleaning properties, including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and surface hydrophilicity, we prepared nano-TiO2-coated SiO2 microsphere composite self-cleaning materials (SiO2–TiO2 by co-grinding SiO2 microspheres and TiO2 soliquid and calcining the ground product. The structure, morphology, and self-cleaning properties of the SiO2–TiO2 were characterized. The characterization results showed that the degradation efficiency of methyl orange by SiO2–TiO2 was 97%, which was significantly higher than that obtained by pure nano-TiO2. The minimum water contact angle of SiO2–TiO2 was 8°, indicating strong hydrophilicity and the good self-cleaning effect. The as-prepared SiO2–TiO2 was characterized by the nano-TiO2 particles uniformly coated on the SiO2 microspheres and distributed in the gap among the microspheres. The nano-TiO2 particles were in an anatase phase with the particle size of 15–20 nm. The nano-TiO2 particles were combined with SiO2 microspheres via the dehydroxylation of hydroxyl groups on their surfaces.

  2. Preparation of Nano-TiO2-Coated SiO2 Microsphere Composite Material and Evaluation of Its Self-Cleaning Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sijia; Deng, Tongrong; Ding, Hao; Chen, Ying; Chen, Wanting

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the dispersion of nano-TiO2 particles and enhance its self-cleaning properties, including photocatalytic degradation of pollutants and surface hydrophilicity, we prepared nano-TiO2-coated SiO2 microsphere composite self-cleaning materials (SiO2–TiO2) by co-grinding SiO2 microspheres and TiO2 soliquid and calcining the ground product. The structure, morphology, and self-cleaning properties of the SiO2–TiO2 were characterized. The characterization results showed that the degradation efficiency of methyl orange by SiO2–TiO2 was 97%, which was significantly higher than that obtained by pure nano-TiO2. The minimum water contact angle of SiO2–TiO2 was 8°, indicating strong hydrophilicity and the good self-cleaning effect. The as-prepared SiO2–TiO2 was characterized by the nano-TiO2 particles uniformly coated on the SiO2 microspheres and distributed in the gap among the microspheres. The nano-TiO2 particles were in an anatase phase with the particle size of 15–20 nm. The nano-TiO2 particles were combined with SiO2 microspheres via the dehydroxylation of hydroxyl groups on their surfaces. PMID:29099774

  3. Processing and Characterization of Novel Biomimetic Nanoporous Bioceramic Surface on β-Ti Implant by Powder Mixed Electric Discharge Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Chander; Kansal, H. K.; Pabla, B. S.; Puri, Sanjeev

    2015-09-01

    Herein, a β-Ti-based implant was subjected to powder mixed electric discharge machining (PMEDM) for surface modification to produce a novel biomimetic nanoporous bioceramic surface. The microstructure, surface topography, and phase composition of the non-machined and machined (PMEDMed) surfaces were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The microhardness of the surfaces was measured on a Vickers hardness tester. The corrosion resistance of the surfaces was evaluated via potentiodynamic polarization measurements in simulated body fluid. The application of PMEDM not only altered the surface chemistry, but also imparted the surface with a nanoporous topography or a natural bone-like surface structure. The characterization results confirmed that the alloyed layer mainly comprised bioceramic oxides and carbide phases (TiO2, Nb2O5, ZrO2, SiO2, TiC, NbC, SiC). The microhardness of PMEDMed surface was twofold higher than that of the base material (β-Ti alloy), primarily because of the formation of the hard carbide phases on the machined layer. Electrochemical analysis revealed that PMEDMed surface featured insulative and protective properties and thus displayed higher corrosion resistance ability when compared with the non-machined surface. This result was attributed to the formation of the bioceramic oxides on the machined surface. Additionally, the in vitro biocompatibility of the surfaces was evaluated using human osteoblastic cell line MG-63. PMEDMed surface with a micro-, sub-micro-, and nano-structured topography exhibited bioactivity and improved biocompatibility relative to β-Ti surface. Furthermore, PMEDMed surface enabled better adhesion and growth of MG-63 when compared with the non-machined substrate.

  4. Electrochemical behaviour of TiO{sub 2} reinforced Al 7075 composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karunanithi, R., E-mail: karunaponni@gmail.com; Bera, Supriya; Ghosh, K.S., E-mail: ksghosh2001@yahoo.co.uk

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Clustering of TiO{sub 2} particle and porosity increased with increasing TiO{sub 2}. • Coarse and numerous very fine η′ and η precipitates in T6 temper composite. • Shifting corrosion potential to noble direction with increasing TiO{sub 2}. • Corrosion is maximum for 30 vol.% TiO{sub 2} composite and least for 7075 alloy. • Pitting damage greater with the increasing TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Microstructures of sintered Al 7075 alloy and Al 7075 alloy reinforced with varying TiO{sub 2} composites exhibited uniform distribution of TiO{sub 2} particles, but clustering and porosity have increased with TiO{sub 2} content. TEM micrographs of the Al 7075 alloy and Al 7075 + TiO{sub 2} composite of peak aged T6 (PA) temper showed some coarse and numerous very fine η′ (MgZn{sub 2}) precipitates, and equilibrium η (MgZn{sub 2}) precipitates along the grain boundaries. Potentiodynamic electrochemical polarisation studies on the Al 7075 alloy of different tempers and Al 7075 + TiO{sub 2} composites in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution showed that the corrosion potentials (E{sub corr}) have shifted towards noble direction with the addition of TiO{sub 2}, and there is an increase of corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) beyond 10 vol.% TiO{sub 2} in the composites. This is attributed to the increase in particle-matrix interface areas enhancing pitting corrosion. Optical micrographs of the corroded surface of 30% TiO{sub 2} composites exhibited maximum pitting damage.

  5. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of WO3-surface modified TiO2 thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Mohammad; Drmosh, Qasem; Ahmed, Muhammad I; Qamaruddin, Muhammad; Yamani, Zain H

    2015-01-01

    Development of nanostructured photocatalysts for harnessing solar energy in energy-efficient and environmentally benign way remains an important area of research. Pure and WO3-surface modified thin films of TiO2 were prepared by magnetron sputtering on indium tin oxide glass, and photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities of these films were studied. TiO2 particles were TiO2 surface was modified WO3 nanoparticles. Effect of potential, WO3 amount, and radiations of different wavelengths on the photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2 electrodes was investigated. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and WO3-modified TiO2 for the decolorization of methyl orange was tested. Graphical abstractWO3-surface modified TiO2 film showing better photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activity.

  6. Synthesis of nano-sized TiO(2)/poly(AA-co-MMA) composites by heterocoagulation and blending with PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Hung; Dai, Chi-An; Chen, Hung-Jen; Chien, Pei-Chi; Chiu, Wen-Yen

    2007-04-01

    Nano-sized TiO(2) or SiO(2)/TiO(2) particles were prepared by hydrolysis and condensation reactions in aqueous media, followed by mixing with poly(AA-co-MMA) latex to form different composites, then blending with poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET. The TGA results of composites indicated that negative charged latexes had greater interaction with TiO(2)/ or SiO(2)/TiO(2) particles through strong electrostatic forces, while cationic latexes incorporated with TiO(2) or SiO(2)/TiO(2) particles by pH induced coagulation, carbonyl group chelation and hydrogen bonding. The soapless latex polymer particles showed lower ability of adsorption to TiO(2) particles due to the decrease of total surface area of these larger particles. If SiO(2)/TiO(2) particles were used instead of TiO(2) particles, unexpected high adsorption result was observed. Morphology results observed by SEM showed that PET blended with positive charged composites was more homogeneous than PET blended with negative charged composites. DSC results also indicated that the T(g) of PET was increased, melting temperatures (T(m) or T(m)(')) were increased, and the temperature range of crystallization was narrowed after blending with the composites. The presence of composites affected the mobility and packing of PET molecular chains therefore changing the thermal properties of PET.

  7. Grain-size effects on thermal properties of BaTiO3 ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    fine non-agglomerated powder with a narrow particle size distribution and an appropriate densification method to minimize the grain growth are required. In our experi- ment, the raw BaTiO3 powder with the grain sizes of 10 and 100 nm were synthesized by chemical processing. (Li et al 2002). Dense BaTiO3 ceramics with ...

  8. Tribological behaviour of laser-clad TiCp composite coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, J.H.; Pei, Y.T.; Lei, T.C.; Zhou, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The wear behaviour of laser-clad TiC-Ni alloy coatings was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and pin-on-ring friction and wear tests. TiC particles can act as hard barriers to resist the scoring and plastic deformation of the matrix and then

  9. Preparation of TiO₂ supported Au–Pd and Cu–Pd by the combined ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TiO₂ supported Au–Pd and Cu–Pd catalysts were prepared by strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) of Pd followed by electroless deposition (ED) of a second metal with incremental surface coverages of Au or Cu. High dispersion of small Pd particles on the Pd/TiO2 prepared by SEA led to the high amount of second metal ...

  10. Gradient microstructure in laser clad TiC-reinforced Ni-alloy composite coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Zuo, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    A gradient TiC–(Ni alloy) composite coating was produced by one step laser cladding with pre-placed mixture powder on a 1045 steel substrate. The clad layers consisted of TiC particles, γ-Ni primary dendrites and interdendritic eutectics. From the bottom to the top of the clad layer produced at 2000

  11. Particle detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    Introduction, interaction of radiation with matter measurement of momentum of charged particles, of energy of e/gamma, hadrons, identification of particles. Design of HEP detectors. Principle of operation and performance of tracking sub-detectors, calorimeters and muon system.

  12. Performance Comparison of Al–Ti Master Alloys with Different Microstructures in Grain Refinement of Commercial Purity Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wanwu; Xia, Tiandong; Zhao, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    Three types of Al–5Ti master alloys were synthesized by a method of thermal explosion reaction in pure molten aluminum. Performance comparison of Al–5Ti master alloy in grain refinement of commercial purity Al with different additions (0.6%, 1.0%, 1.6%, 2.0%, and 3.0%) and holding time (10, 30, 60 and 120 min) were investigated. The results show that Al–5Ti master alloy with blocky TiAl3 particles clearly has better refining efficiency than the master alloy with mixed TiAl3 particles and the master alloy with needle-like TiAl3 particles. The structures of master alloys, differing by sizes, morphologies and quantities of TiAl3 crystals, were found to affect the pattern of the grain refining properties with the holding time. The grain refinement effect was revealed to reduce markedly for master alloys with needle–like TiAl3 crystals and to show the further significant improvement at a longer holding time for the master alloy containing both larger needle–like and blocky TiAl3 particles. For the master alloy with finer blocky particles, the grain refining effect did not obviously decrease during the whole studied range of the holding time. PMID:28788642

  13. Performance Comparison of Al-Ti Master Alloys with Different Microstructures in Grain Refinement of Commercial Purity Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wanwu; Xia, Tiandong; Zhao, Wenjun

    2014-05-07

    Three types of Al-5Ti master alloys were synthesized by a method of thermal explosion reaction in pure molten aluminum. Performance comparison of Al-5Ti master alloy in grain refinement of commercial purity Al with different additions (0.6%, 1.0%, 1.6%, 2.0%, and 3.0%) and holding time (10, 30, 60 and 120 min) were investigated. The results show that Al-5Ti master alloy with blocky TiAl₃ particles clearly has better refining efficiency than the master alloy with mixed TiAl₃ particles and the master alloy with needle-like TiAl₃ particles. The structures of master alloys, differing by sizes, morphologies and quantities of TiAl₃ crystals, were found to affect the pattern of the grain refining properties with the holding time. The grain refinement effect was revealed to reduce markedly for master alloys with needle-like TiAl₃ crystals and to show the further significant improvement at a longer holding time for the master alloy containing both larger needle-like and blocky TiAl₃ particles. For the master alloy with finer blocky particles, the grain refining effect did not obviously decrease during the whole studied range of the holding time.

  14. Insignificant acute toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeger, Eva Mareike; Baun, Anders; Kästner, M.

    2009-01-01

    , no results of toxicity tests with trees have been reported. Woody species, dominant in many ecosystems, may be vulnerable in particular due to the large porous wood compartment. This study tests the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles on trees with the short-term willow tree transpiration test. TiO2 particles....... The loss of nanoparticles from solution was faster for particles with larger diameter and in the presence of trees. Willow trees were not sensitive to short-term exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Similar results were obtained for other plant species. Effects of nanoparticles were observed for zinc and zinc...... oxide particles, but these effects were probably due to heavy metal toxicity and not nanosize specific. In summary, we came to the conclusion that woody species are not in particular vulnerable to nanosized TiO2 particles in the conditions, concentrations, and time periods used in this study...

  15. Optimization of Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroxylenol Using TiO2, Er3+/TiO2, and Ni2+/TiO2 via the Taguchi Orthogonal Array Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed J. Mohammed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optical properties of a TiO2 photocatalyst were enhanced with various impregnations of Er3+ and Ni2+ separately, using the impregnation method as photocatalysts for the direct solar photolysis degradation of chloroxylenol. The synthesized Er3+/TiO2 and Ni2+/TiO2 catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, metal mapping, and ultraviolet visible (UV–Vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the Er3+/TiO2 and Ni2+/TiO2 nano-particles have the same structures of TiO2 nano-particles with little difference in particle size. The Er3+ and Ni2+ ions were well-distributed on the TiO2 surface, and it was found that the maximum band gap decreased from 3.13 eV for intrinsic TiO2 to 2.63 eV at 1.8 wt % Er3+/TiO2 and to 2.47 eV at 0.6 wt % for Ni2+/TiO2. The initial concentration of chloroxylenol, catalyst loading, and pH of the solution are the most important factors affecting the solar photocatalytic degradation efficiency that were optimized using Design Expert software (version 6.0.10, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 2003. The results showed that the optimal conditions for chloroxylenol degradation include a pH of 4, TiO2 loading at 3 g/L, and a chloroxylenol concentration of 50 mg/L. These conditions resulted in a degradation efficiency of 90.40% after 60 min of direct solar irradiation, wherein the solar energy recorded during a clear sunny day is 1000 W/m2. However, some experiments were conducted on a semi-cloudy day to cover all weather stated and to study the degradation kinetics. During semi-cloudy day experiments, using Er3+/TiO2 and Ni2+/TiO2 with a solar irradiation activity of 600 W/m2 for a 60 min exposure at optimal conditions increased the degradation efficiency from 68.28% for intrinsic TiO2 to 82.38% for Er3+/TiO2 and 80.70% for Ni2+/TiO2.

  16. The potential of TiO2 nanoparticles as carriers for cadmium uptake in Lumbriculus variegatus and Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Legros, Samuel; Von der Kammer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    tests were associated to suspended TiO2 particles, respectively. μXRF (micro X-ray fluorescence) analysis confirmed the uptake of TiO2 in the gut of D. magna. For L. variegatus μXRF analysis indicated attachment of TiO2 nanoparticles to the organism surface as well as a discrete distribution within...

  17. Laser metal deposition of Ti6Al4V: A study on the effect of laser power on microstructure and microhardness

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of laser power on the resulting microstructure and microhardness of laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V powder on Ti6Al4V substrate has been investigated. The tracks were deposited using 99.6 % pure Ti6Al4V powder of particle size ranging...

  18. Behavior and effect of Ti{sub 2}Ni phase during processing of NiTi shape memory alloy wire from cast ingot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagyaraj, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Ramaiah, K.V.; Saikrishna, C.N.; Bhaumik, S.K. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Materials Science Division, CSIR – National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Gouthama, E-mail: gouthama@iitk.ac.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •Ti{sub 2}Ni second phase particles forms in different sizes and shapes in cast ingot. •TEM evidences showed shearing/fragmentation of Ti{sub 2}Ni during processing. •Matrix close to Ti{sub 2}Ni experienced severe plastic deformation lead to amorphisation. •Ti{sub 2}Ni interfaces were mostly faceted and assist in nucleation of martensite. •Heterogeneity of microstructure observed near to and away from Ti{sub 2}Ni. -- Abstract: Binary NiTi alloy is one of the commercially successful shape memory alloys (SMAs). Generally, the NiTi alloy composition used for thermal actuator application is slightly Ti-rich. In the present study, vacuum arc melted alloy of 50.2Ti–Ni (at.%) composition was prepared and characterized using optical, scanning and transmission electron microcopy. Formation of second phase particles (SPPs) in the cast alloy and their influence on development of microstructure during processing of the alloy into wire form has been investigated. Results showed that the present alloy contained Ti{sub 2}Ni type SPPs in the matrix. In the cast alloy, the Ti{sub 2}Ni particles form in varying sizes (1–10 μm) and shapes. During subsequent thermo-mechanical processing, these SPPs get sheared/fragmented into smaller particles with low aspect ratio. The presence of SPPs plays a significant role in refinement of the microstructure during processing of the alloy. During deformation of the alloy, the matrix phase around the SPPs experiences conditions similar to that observed in severe plastic deformation of metallic materials, leading to localized amorphisation of the matrix phase.

  19. Electrochemical and in vitro behavior of the nanosized composites of Ti-6Al-4V and TiO2 fabricated by friction stir process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjian; Ding, Zihao; Xie, Lechun; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Wu, Laizhi; Fu, Yuanfei; Wang, Liqiang; Lu, Weijie

    2017-11-01

    Although Ti-6Al-4V has been widely used in biomaterial field. Compared with other classes of materials, it still encounters some problems such as low surface hardness and relative low biocompatibility. To solve these problems friction stir processing (FSP) was applied to fabricate a nanosized composite layer of TiO2 and Ti-6Al-4V. Uniform distribution of TiO2 particles with some clusters on the surface of alloy can be observed. Due to severe plastic deformation and stirring heat, nanocrystallines and amorphous TiO2 can be observed in stir zone. FSPed samples show significant improvement in surface microhardness and biocompatibility due to its modified structure compared with original sample. In addition, through corrosion behaviors of the samples in simulated body fluid, it is found that FSP can enhance whilst TiO2 reduces the possibility and corrosion rate of material in environment of human body.

  20. Cristobalite and Hematite Particles in Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopani, Martin; Kopaniova, A; Trnka, M; Caplovicova, M; Rychly, B; Jakubovsky, J

    2016-11-01

    Foreign substances get into the internal environment of living bodies and accumulate in various organs. Cristobalite and hematite particles in the glial cells of pons cerebri of human brain with diagnosis of Behhet disease with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive microanalysis (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with diffraction were identified. SEM with EDX revealed the matter of irregular micrometer-sized particles sometimes forming polyhedrons with fibrilar or stratified structure. It was found in some particles Ti, Fe, and Zn. Some particles contained Cu. TEM and electron diffraction showed particles of cristobalite and hematite. The presence of the particles can be a result of environmental effect, disruption of normal metabolism, and transformation of physiologically iron-ferrihydrite into more stable form-hematite. From the size of particles can be drawn the long-term accumulation of elements in glial cells.

  1. Nanomechanical properties of TiCN and TiCN/Ti coatings on Ti prepared by Filtered Arc Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yong [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Lu, Cheng, E-mail: chenglu@uow.edu.au [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Yu, Hailiang [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang University, Shenyang 110044 (China); Kiet Tieu, A.; Su, Lihong; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Hongtao [School of Mechanical, Materials & Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Kong, Charlie [Electron Microscope Unit, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2015-02-11

    Monolayer TiCN and multilayer TiCN/Ti coatings were deposited on the surface of Ti using the Filtered Arc Deposition System (FADS). Nanoindentation tests were performed on both coatings. The multilayer TiCN/Ti coating exhibited better ductility than the monolayer TiCN coating. The lattice constants of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the fracture behavior of the coatings. Inter-columnar, inclined and lateral cracks were found to be the dominant crack modes in the monolayer TiCN coatings while small bending crack and radial crack were the dominant crack modes in the multilayer TiCN/Ti coatings. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to simulate the indentation process. It was found that the Ti interlayer in the multilayer TiCN/Ti coating could efficiently suppress the fracture, which is responsible for the improved ductility of the multilayer TiCN/Ti coating.

  2. Friction stir processed Al–TiO{sub 2} surface composites: Anodising behaviour and optical appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy, E-mail: chakri_gvc@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Jensen, Flemming [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Simar, Aude [iMMC, Université Catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Shabadi, Rajashekhara [Unité Matériaux et Transformations, Université Lille1, 59655 Villeneuve-d’Ascq (France); Ambat, Rajan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Microstructure of friction stir processed Al–TiO{sub 2} surface composites after anodising. • Effect of sulphuric acid anodising parameters on optical appearance of anodised layer. • Partial to complete amorphization of TiO{sub 2} particles with increasing anodising voltage. • Unoxidized metallic Al “shadow region” below TiO{sub 2} particles at low anodising voltage. • Presence of coloured Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n−1} and light absorbing unoxidized metallic Al cause darkening of anodised layer. - Abstract: Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate TiO{sub 2} (rutile) particles into the surface of an aluminium alloy. The surface composites of Al–TiO{sub 2} were then anodised in a sulphuric acid electrolyte. The effect of anodising parameters on the resulting optical appearance was investigated. Microstructural and morphological characterization was performed using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface appearance was analysed using an integrating sphere-spectrophotometer setup which measures the diffuse and total reflectance of light from the surface. Compared to samples without TiO{sub 2}, surface appearance after anodising of samples with TiO{sub 2} changed from dark to greyish white upon increasing the anodising voltage. This is attributed to the localized microstructural and morphological differences around the TiO{sub 2} powder particles incorporated into the anodic alumina matrix. The TiO{sub 2} powder particles in the FSP zone were partially or completely amorphized during the anodising process, and also electrochemically shadowed the anodising of underlying Al matrix.

  3. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting of Powder Produced by Granulation-Sintering-Deoxygenation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Fang, Z. Zak; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Commercial spherical Ti powders for additive manufacturing applications are produced today by melt-atomization methods at relatively high costs. A meltless production method, called granulation-sintering-deoxygenation (GSD), was developed recently to produce spherical Ti alloy powder at a significantly reduced cost. In this new process, fine hydrogenated Ti particles are agglomerated to form spherical granules, which are then sintered to dense spherical particles. After sintering, the solid fully dense spherical Ti alloy particles are deoxygenated using novel low-temperature deoxygenation processes with either Mg or Ca. This technical communication presents results of 3D printing using GSD powder and the selective laser melting (SLM) technique. The results showed that tensile properties of parts fabricated from spherical GSD Ti-6Al-4V powder by SLM are comparable with typical mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V. The characteristics of 3D printed Ti-6Al-4V from GSD powder are also compared with that of commercial materials.

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting of Powder Produced by Granulation-Sintering-Deoxygenation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Fang, Z. Zak; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Yang

    2017-09-01

    Commercial spherical Ti powders for additive manufacturing applications are produced today by melt-atomization methods at relatively high costs. A meltless production method, called granulation-sintering-deoxygenation (GSD), was developed recently to produce spherical Ti alloy powder at a significantly reduced cost. In this new process, fine hydrogenated Ti particles are agglomerated to form spherical granules, which are then sintered to dense spherical particles. After sintering, the solid fully dense spherical Ti alloy particles are deoxygenated using novel low-temperature deoxygenation processes with either Mg or Ca. This technical communication presents results of 3D printing using GSD powder and the selective laser melting (SLM) technique. The results showed that tensile properties of parts fabricated from spherical GSD Ti-6Al-4V powder by SLM are comparable with typical mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V. The characteristics of 3D printed Ti-6Al-4V from GSD powder are also compared with that of commercial materials.

  5. Novel Ag/Si composite particles through galvanic displacement and its conductive application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenfan; Liu, Xuelong; Lv, Tiezheng; Zhao, Lili; Cui, Can; Wang, Yuying; Cha, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Here we synthesized a novel Ag/Si composite sub-micro particle using galvanic displacement by capitalizing on the active chemical surface of Si particles sludge from wafer-slicing process. Si works as chemical reactant, as well as reaction site to form composite particles. Sequent structural characterizations and analysis which include X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray and electrical properties of this composite particle were done. A well-proved hetero-epitaxial growth mechanism could explain Ag nano-island/layer with a satisfactory bond property deposited on the Si surface. Since these Si are mechanically cleaved from crystal, formed conductive Ag/Si composites retain the flake shape from Si sludge particles, and narrow size distribution. They are preferred as conductive fillers, an Ag/Si composite-based conductive ink was prepared, its conductance was tested through screen printing, film thickness and resistivity were measured. The resistivity reached the µΩ cm level, even without optimizing the ink formulation. Our methods not only convert this Si sludge into highly conductive composite particles as filler for applications, but also considerably reduce the consumption of precious metal.

  6. Finite element analysis of multi-particle impact on erosion in abrasive water jet machining of titanium alloy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Naresh; Shukla, Mukul

    2012-01-01

    ...) particle impact on erosion of Grade 5 Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). The influence of abrasive particle impact angle and velocity on the crater sphericity and depth, and erosion rate has been investigated...

  7. Polygamous particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Ta; Feng, Lang; Sha, Ruojie; Dreyfus, Rémi; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Seeman, Nadrian C; Chaikin, Paul M

    2012-11-13

    DNA is increasingly used as an important tool in programming the self-assembly of micrometer- and nanometer-scale particles. This is largely due to the highly specific thermoreversible interaction of cDNA strands, which, when placed on different particles, have been used to bind precise pairs in aggregates and crystals. However, DNA functionalized particles will only reach their true potential for particle assembly when each particle can address and bind to many different kinds of particles. Indeed, specifying all bonds can force a particular designed structure. In this paper, we present the design rules for multiflavored particles and show that a single particle, DNA functionalized with many different "flavors," can recognize and bind specifically to many different partners. We investigate the cost of increasing the number of flavors in terms of the reduction in binding energy and melting temperature. We find that a single 2-μm colloidal particle can bind to 40 different types of particles in an easily accessible time and temperature regime. The practical limit of ∼100 is set by entropic costs for particles to align complementary pairs and, surprisingly, by the limited number of distinct "useful" DNA sequences that prohibit subunits with nonspecific binding. For our 11 base "sticky ends," the limit is 73 distinct sequences with no unwanted overlaps of 5 bp or more. As an example of phenomena enabled by polygamous particles, we demonstrate a three-particle system that forms a fluid of isolated clusters when cooled slowly and an elastic gel network when quenched.

  8. Wet-Chemical Preparation of TiO₂-Based Composites with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Liqin; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2017-10-09

    TiO₂-based composites have been paid significant attention in the photocatalysis field. The size, crystallinity and nanomorphology of TiO₂ materials have an important effect on the photocatalytic efficiency. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO₂-based materials have been widely investigated in past decades. Based on our group's research works on TiO₂ materials, this review introduces several methods for the fabrication of TiO₂, rare-earth-doped TiO₂ and noble-metal-decorated TiO₂ particles with different morphologies. We focused on the preparation and the formation mechanism of TiO₂-based materials with unique structures including spheres, hollow spheres, porous spheres, hollow porous spheres and urchin-like spheres. The photocatalytical activity of urchin-like TiO₂, noble metal nanoparticle-decorated 3D (three-dimensional) urchin-like TiO₂ and bimetallic core/shell nanoparticle-decorated urchin-like hierarchical TiO₂ are briefly discussed.

  9. In vitro bioactivity of 3D Ti-mesh with bioceramic coatings in simulated body fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 3D Ti-mesh has been coated with bioceramics under different coating conditions, such as material compositions and micro-porosity, using a dip casting method. Hydroxyapatite (HA, micro-HA particles (HAp, a bioglass (BG and their different mixtures together with polymer additives were used to control HA-coating microstructures. Layered composites with the following coating-to-substrate designs, such as BG/Ti, HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti, were fabricated. The bioactivity of these coated composites and the uncoated Ti-mesh substrate was then investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF. The Ti-mesh substrate and BG/Ti composite did not induce biomimetic apatite deposition when they were immersed in SBF for the selected BG, a pressable dental ceramic, used in this study. After seven days in SBF, an apatite layer was formed on both HA + BG/BG/Ti and HAp + BG/BG/Ti composites. The difference is the apatite layer on the HAp + BG/BG/Ti composite was rougher and contained more micro-pores, while the apatite layer on the HA + BG/BG/Ti composite was dense and smooth. The formation of biomimetic apatite, being more bioresorbable, is favored for bone regeneration.

  10. Microstructure and sliding wear characterization of Cu/TiB2 copper matrix composites fabricated via friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dinaharan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The poor wear performance of copper is improved by reinforcing hard ceramic particles. The present work reports the fabrication of Cu/TiB2 (0, 6, 12, 18 vol.% copper matrix composites (CMCs using friction stir processing (FSP. TiB2 particles were initially packed together into a machined groove and were subjected to FSP under a constant set of process parameters. The microstructure was observed using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The wear behavior was examined using a pin-on-disc apparatus. The micrographs showed a homogeneous distribution of TiB2 particles without aggregation and segregation. The distribution of TiB2 particles was closely persistent across the stir zone. TiB2 particles were well bonded with the copper matrix without any interfacial reaction. Many TiB2 particles fractured during FSP. The grains in the composite were extensively refined because of dynamic recrystallization and pinning effect of TiB2 particles. The wear behavior under dry sliding condition was presented in detail.

  11. Solution based approaches for the morphology control of BaTiO3 particulates

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Maxim; Paula Ferreira; Paula M. Vilarinho; Ian Reaney; Anne Aimable; Paul Bowen

    2010-01-01

    Within the action COST 539 - ELENA our contribution was aimed at studying solution based approaches for the morphology control of BaTiO3 particulates. Initially, our kinetic analysis and systematic structural and morphological studies, demonstrated that during hydrothermal synthesis from layered titanate nanotubes (TiNTS), BaTiO3 forms via two mechanisms depending on the temperature and time. At low temperatures (90°C), “wild” type BaTiO3 dendritic particles with cubic structure were formed t...

  12. Nonaqueous and halide-free route to crystalline BaTiO3, SrTiO3, and (Ba,Sr)TiO3 nanoparticles via a mechanism involving C-C bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, Markus; Garnweitner, Georg; Pinna, Nicola; Antonietti, Markus

    2004-07-28

    A novel nonaqueous route for the preparation of nanocrystalline BaTiO(3), SrTiO(3), and (Ba,Sr)TiO(3) has been developed. In a simple one-pot reaction process, the elemental alkaline earth metals are directly dissolved in benzyl alcohol at slightly elevated temperatures. After the addition of Ti(O(i)Pr)(4), the reaction mixture is heated to 200 degrees C, resulting in the formation of a white precipitate. XRD measurements prove the exclusive presence of the perovskite phase without any other crystalline byproducts such as BaCO(3) or TiO(2). TEM investigations reveal that the BaTiO(3) nanoparticles are nearly spherical in shape with diameters ranging from 4 to 5 nm. The SrTiO(3) particles display less uniform particle shapes, and the size varies between 5 and 10 nm. Lattice fringes observed in HRTEM measurements further prove the high crystallinity of the nanoparticles. Surprisingly, GC-MS analysis of the reaction solution after hydrothermal treatment shows that hardly any ether formation occurs during the BaTiO(3) synthesis. Instead, the presence of 4-phenyl-2-butanol in stoichiometric amounts gives evidence that the formation mechanism proceeds mainly via a novel pathway involving C-C bond formation between benzyl alcohol and the isopropanolate ligand.

  13. Synthesis of AlN-TiN nanostructured composite powder by reactive ball milling and subsequent thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashhadi, H. Amini, E-mail: hossein1@shock.smrc.kumamoto-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto (Japan); Manikandan, P.; Suetsugu, R. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto (Japan); Tanaka, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto (Japan); Hokamoto, K. [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: {yields} A part of AlN was found to be gradually reduced by Ti during MA and Ti(Al,N) solid solution formed after early stages of milling. {yields} The particle size of supersaturated Ti(Al,N) solid solution and AlN reduced to submicron size and nanocrystalline structure as evident from XRD and SEM results. {yields} The lattice parameter and interplanar distance of Ti shows that all of the decomposed Al dissolved in the Ti lattice by MA and causes its contraction, while only 1 at.% of N dissolves to form Ti(Al,N) solid solution and leads to its dilation and the remaining N reacts with Ti to form TiN. {yields} Annealing of 360 ks MA powder leads to phase transformation as a result of increased thermal diffusivity, the formation of more TiN phase with more under-stoichiometric characteristic, as well as stress releasing and grain growth. - Abstract: In the present article, synthesis of AlN-TiN nanostructured composite by high-energy ball milling process (HEM) of Ti and AlN by 1:1 molar ratio and subsequent heat treatment was investigated. The microstructural evolution of samples was studied by scan electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), composition map analysis by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and phase determination using X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. It was found that a Ti(Al,N) solid solution was formed at the early stages of milling and while Al causes the Ti lattice to contract, N has the opposite effect. The nonlinear variation of interplanar distance and c/a ratio of Ti is considered due to the competition between these two processes during MA and finally led to complete dissolution of Al and only 1 at.% of N in Ti lattice. On further milling, mechanochemical reaction between Ti solid solution and AlN took place in the gradual mode which led to the formation of TiN with an average crystallite size of 10 nm. It is generally acknowledged that the reactions between Ti and AlN includes three stages: (i

  14. Lyothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, A.; Berger, A.; Sporn, D. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung, Wuerzburg (Germany); Bertagnolli, H. [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    The synthesis of BaTiO{sub 3} and powders has been investigated at a temperature of 175{degrees}C and pressures between 0.1 MPa and MPa, starting from TiO{sub 2}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O and Ba(OH){sub 2}{center_dot}8H{sub 2}O in the solvents of pure water, 1,5-pentanediol and in different mixtures of both. The influence of feedstock concentration and the reaction time on particle growth and habit formation was studied by TEM and XRD. When starting with a higher feedstock concentration at short reaction times (2h), then the BaTiO{sub 3} particle size and habit changed from single crystal dendrites (up to 700 nm in size) to small individual particles (100 nm) with uniform crystallite shapes. An increasing proportion of aggregated particles is observed at extended reaction times at any feedstock concentration investigated The influence of solvent on particle growth was investigated by the use of different 1,5-pentanediol to water mixtures (lyothermal synthesis). By increasing the 1,5-pentanediol to water ratio the primary particle size of BaTiO{sub 3} was reduced from about 700 nm to 15 nm. The reduction of the particle size is probably due to the higher viscosity of 1,5-pentanediol compared to water, and the decrease of diffusivity and concentration of Ba{sup 2+}-ions involved. Hence, the particle size can be controlled by the choice of the solvent mixture.

  15. Impedance spectroscopy studies of surface engineered TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Dielectric analysis of nanometre range size ceramic particles like TiO2 is very important in the understanding of the performance and design of their polymer nanocomposites for energy storage and other applications. In recent times, impedance spectroscopy is shown to be a very powerful tool to investigate the.

  16. Gradient microstructure in laser clad TiC-reinforced Ni-alloy composite coating

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Y.T.; Zuo, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    A gradient TiC–(Ni alloy) composite coating was produced by one step laser cladding with pre-placed mixture powder on a 1045 steel substrate. The clad layers consisted of TiC particles, γ-Ni primary dendrites and interdendritic eutectics. From the bottom to the top of the clad layer produced at 2000 W laser power and 6 mm s−1 scanning speed, TiC particles exhibited a continuous increase both in size (from 0.8 to 4.8 µm) and in volume fraction (from 1.72 to 32.8%). Their morphology changes fro...

  17. Particle cosmology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The understanding of the Universe at the largest and smallest scales traditionally has been the subject of cosmology and particle physics, respectively. Studying the evolution of the Universe connects today's large scales with the tiny scales in the very early Universe and provides the link between the physics of particles and of the cosmos. This series of five lectures aims at a modern and critical presentation of the basic ideas, methods, models and observations in today's particle cosmology.

  18. Statistical analysis of oxides particles in ODS ferritic steel using advanced electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unifantowicz, P.; Schäublin, R.; Hébert, C.; Płociński, T.; Lucas, G.; Baluc, N.

    2012-03-01

    In this work a combination of advanced transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques enabled a statistically significant analysis of various types of few nanometer size oxides particles in Fe-14Cr-2W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3 ferritic steel. These methods include a scanning TEM with EDS and EFTEM coupled with EELS. In addition, principal component analysis was applied to the chemical maps obtained by EFTEM, which drastically improved the signal to noise ratio. Three types of particles were identified in a size range from 2 to 300 nm, namely Cr-Ti-O, Y-O and Y-Ti-O particles, with an average size of 33,16 and 8 nm, respectively. The Cr-Ti-O particles contain Y and Ti enriched zones, which were not observed previously. The EFTEM analysis showed that the titanium addition leads to formation of Y-Ti-O nano-particles, which constitute 84% of the oxides but also precipitation of larger Cr-Ti-O. The presence of small amount of Y-O particles indicated a not sufficient amount of Ti available for reaction during mechanical alloying or consolidation.

  19. Quantum tunneling injection of hot electrons in Au/TiO2 plasmonic photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Yasumoto, Naoki; Imai, Jun; Sakamoto, Hirokatsu; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Ohtani, Bunsho; Hirai, Takayuki

    2017-06-22

    Visible light absorption of plasmonic Au nanoparticles supported on semiconductor TiO2 leads to injection of their photoactivated "hot electrons (ehot-)" into the TiO2 conduction band. This charge separation facilitates several oxidation and reduction reactions. These plasmonic systems, however, suffer from low quantum yields because the Schottky barrier created at the Au-TiO2 interface suppresses ehot- injection. Here we report that Au nanoparticles supported on the anatase particles isolated from Degussa (Evonik) P25 TiO2 promote ehot- injection with much higher efficiency than those supported on other commercially-available TiO2 and catalyze aerobic oxidation with very high quantum yield (7.7% at 550 nm). Photoelectrochemical and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the number of Ti4+ atoms located at the Au-TiO2 interface is the crucial factor. These Ti4+ atoms neutralize the negative charge of the Au particles and create a Schottky barrier with narrower depletion layer. This facilitates efficient ehot- injection by "quantum tunneling" through the Schottky barrier without overbarrier energy. The ehot- injection depends on several factors, and loading of 2 wt% Au particles with 3.5-4 nm diameters at around room temperature exhibits the highest activity of plasmonic photocatalysis.

  20. Exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles increases Staphylococcus aureus infection of HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, H Daniel; Walker, Stephen G; Wang, Hong Zhan; Gordon, Chris R; Guterman, Shoshana; Zawacki, Emma; Applebaum, Eliana; Brink, Peter R; Rafailovich, Miriam; Mironava, Tatsiana

    2016-04-22

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most common nanoparticles found in industry ranging from food additives to energy generation. Approximately four million tons of TiO2 particles are produced worldwide each year with approximately 3000 tons being produced in nanoparticulate form, hence exposure to these particles is almost certain. Even though TiO2 is also used as an anti-bacterial agent in combination with UV, we have found that, in the absence of UV, exposure of HeLa cells to TiO2 nanoparticles significantly increased their risk of bacterial invasion. HeLa cells cultured with 0.1 mg/ml rutile and anatase TiO2 nanoparticles for 24 h prior to exposure to bacteria had 350 and 250 % respectively more bacteria per cell. The increase was attributed to bacterial polysaccharides absorption on TiO2 NPs, increased extracellular LDH, and changes in the mechanical response of the cell membrane. On the other hand, macrophages exposed to TiO2 particles ingested 40 % fewer bacteria, further increasing the risk of infection. In combination, these two factors raise serious concerns regarding the impact of exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles on the ability of organisms to resist bacterial infection.

  1. Mechanism of enhanced photocatalysis of TiO{sub 2} by Fe{sup 3+} in suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Junwei [Department of Municipal Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Fu Dafang, E-mail: fdf@seu.edu.cn [Department of Municipal Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Gao Haiying; Deng Lin [Department of Municipal Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2011-12-01

    In this work, the mechanism of enhanced photocatalysis of TiO{sub 2} with Fe{sup 3+} was studied using Sulfadiazine (SD) as the model compound. Results indicated that degradation rate of SD was enhanced by the addition of Fe{sup 3+} in TiO{sub 2} suspension. The crystalline structure of TiO{sub 2} particles was stable in suspensions. The hydroxyl radical generated by TiO{sub 2}/Fe{sup 3+} (both TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sup 3+}) photocatalysis was in a higher yield. Moreover, Fe{sup 2+} was found not to give an obvious impact on the SD degradation in TiO{sub 2} suspension, whereas Fe{sup 3+} had a notable effect. The adsorption amount of TiO{sub 2} was greatly enhanced by the addition of Fe{sup 3+} in suspensions. Finally, an interaction model of SD degradation in TiO{sub 2} suspension containing Fe{sup 3+} was also proposed by investigating of surface behaviors of TiO{sub 2} particles. It will be beneficial to use Fe{sup 3+} as the electron acceptors on the surface of TiO{sub 2} particles, which helps to improve the yield of hydroxyl radical.

  2. Effect of nano-CeO2 on microstructure properties of TiC/TiN+ TiCN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, Al3Ti+TiC/TiN+nano-CeO2 laser-cladded coatings have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. X-ray diffraction results indicated that Al3Ti+TiC/TiN+nano-CeO2 laser-cladded coating consisted of Ti3Al, TiC, TiN, Ti2Al20Ce, TiC0.3N0.7, Ce(CN)3 and CeO2, this phase ...

  3. Adsorption of Rhodococcus Strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) on Titanium Dioxide and Coal Fly Ash Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtai, Y; Fleminger, G

    1994-09-01

    Rhodococcus strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) can be used to enrich and isolate a titanium-rich fraction from coal fly ash. The gram-positive bacterium was isolated by its ability to adhere strongly and rapidly to suspended particles of pure titanium dioxide or coal fly ash. Adsorption depends on the salt concentration and occurs in seawater. Lowering of the salt concentration or washing of particles with pure water did not, however, cause desorption of the bacteria from TiO(2) particles; this was achieved by strong alkaline treatment or combined treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea but not with dilute acids, alcohols, or cationic or nonionic detergents. The bacterium exhibits higher affinity towards oxides of Ti and Zn than to other oxides with similar distribution of particle size. Moreover, it adheres much faster to TiO(2) than to magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) or Al(2)O(3). After about 1 min, more than 85% of the cells were adsorbed on TiO(2), compared with adsorption of only 10 and 8% to magnetite and Al(2)O(3), respectively. Adsorption of the bacteria on TiO(2) occurs over a pH range of 1.0 to 9.0 and at temperatures from 4 to over 80 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray analysis revealed preferential adherence of the bacterium to coal ash particles richer in Ti. Stronger adhesion to TiO(2) was also demonstrated in the translocation of bacteria, preadsorbed on magnetite, to TiO(2) particles. The temporary co-adhesion to magnetite and TiO(2) was exploited for the design of a prototype biomagnetic separation process in which bacterial cells serve as an adhesive mediator between magnetite and TiO(2) particles in a mixture of Al, Si, and Ti oxides that simulates their proportion in the ash.

  4. Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, B R

    2008-01-01

    An essential introduction to particle physics, with coverage ranging from the basics through to the very latest developments, in an accessible and carefully structured text. Particle Physics: Third Edition is a revision of a highly regarded introduction to particle physics. In its two previous editions this book has proved to be an accessible and balanced introduction to modern particle physics, suitable for those students needed a more comprehensive introduction to the subject than provided by the 'compendium' style physics books. In the Third Edition the standard mod

  5. Binding of human serum proteins to titanium dioxide particles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, Mazen S K; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Igisu, Hideki; Higashi, Toshiaki; Myojo, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    To determine the capacity of human serum proteins to bind to titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles of different polymorphs and sizes. TiO(2) particles were mixed with diluted human serum, purified human serum albumin (HSA) or purified human serum gamma-globulin (HGG) solutions. After incubation at 37°C for 1 h, the particles were sedimented by centrifugation, and proteins in the supernatant, as well as those bound to the particles, were analyzed. The total protein concentration in the supernatant was lowered by TiO(2), whereas the albumin/globulin ratio was elevated by the particles. Incubation with TiO(2) also lowered the immunoglobulin, pre-albumin, beta2-microglobulin, ceruloplasmin and retinol-binding protein levels, but not ferritin levels, in the supernatant. After sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), proteins in the supernatant, especially HGG, were observed to decrease, while those released from the particles (after adding 1% SDS and heating) increased, depending on the dose of TiO(2). Purified HGG and HSA were also bound to TiO(2), although the former appeared to have a higher affinity. All the proteins tested showed the highest binding potency to the amorphous particles (<50 nm) and the lowest to the rutile particles (<5,000 nm), while binding to anatase particles was intermediate. The affinity to the larger anatase was higher than that to smaller anatase particles in most cases. Human serum proteins, including the two major components, HSA and HGG, are bound by TiO(2) particles. The polymorph of the particles seems to be important for determining the binding capacity of the particles and it may affect distribution of the particles in the body.

  6. Friction stir processed Al–TiO2 surface composites: Anodising behaviour and optical appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jensen, Flemming; Simar, Aude

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate TiO2(rutile) particles into the surface of an aluminium alloy. The surface composites of Al–TiO2 were then anodised in a sulphuricacid electrolyte. The effect of anodising parameters on the resulting optical appearance...... was investigated. Microstructural and morphological characterization was performed using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface appearance was analysed using an integrating sphere-spectrophotometer setup which measures the diffuse and total reflectance...... of light from the surface. Compared to samples without TiO2, surface appearance after anodising of samples with TiO2changed from dark to greyish white upon increasing the anodising voltage. This is attributed to the localized microstructural and morphological differences around the TiO2powder particles...

  7. Effect of different alcohols, gelatinizing times, calcination and microwave on characteristics of TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Mahmoud; Mozaffari, Masoud; Esmaeili, Sahar

    2017-03-01

    In this work, nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) were synthesized by means of TiCl4 as precursor. Effects of alcohol type, calcination, gelatinizing time and microwave exposure on the particle size, morphology, crystallinity and particle phase are studied using XRD patterns and SEM images. Results showed that alcohols such as ethanol increased the particle size; calcination increased the particle size and improved the crystallinity of particles. Microwave exposure of particles resulted in smaller particles; adding water increased the impact of microwave. Effect of microwave exposure in rutile phase formation is also observed during this study.

  8. Bulk Synthesis and Characterization of Ti3Al Nanoparticles by Flow-Levitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanjun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel bulk synthesis method for preparing high pure Ti3Al nanoparticles was developed by flow-levitation method (FL. The Ti and Al vapours ascending from the high temperature levitated droplet were condensed by cryogenic Ar gas under atmospheric pressure. The morphology, crystalline structure, and chemical composition of Ti3Al nanoparticles were, respectively, investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The results indicated that the Ti3Al powders are nearly spherical-shaped, and the particle size ranges from several nanometers to 100 nm in diameter. Measurements of the d-spacing from X-ray (XRD and electron diffraction studies confirmed that the Ti3Al nanoparticles have a hexagonal structure. A thin oxidation coating of 2-3 nm in thickness was formed around the particles after exposure to air. Based on the XPS measurements, the surface coating of the Ti3Al nanoparticles is a mixture of Al2O3 and TiO2. The production rate of Ti3Al nanoparticles was estimated to be about 3 g/h. This method has a great potential in mass production of Ti3Al nanoparticles.

  9. Protonation of the polyethyleneimine and titanium particles and their effect on the electrophoretic mobility and deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Kok-Tee, E-mail: ktlau@utem.edu.my [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Anand, T. Joseph Sahaya [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Sorrell, Charles C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-10-01

    Proton activities of suspensions of Ti particles with added cationic polyelectrolyte as a function of acid additions have been investigated and compared in terms of the electrophoretic mobility and deposition yield. The proton activity in ethanol medium decreased with the addition of PEI polyelectrolyte and reduced further in the presence of Ti particles. The decrease in proton activity in the suspension indicates that protonation occurred on both the PEI molecules and Ti particles. It is proposed that the protonation of the amine groups of PEI and hydroxyl sites of Ti particle led to the formation of hydrogen bonding between the Ti particle and PEI molecules. Increase in the PEI and Ti with increasing acid addition translated to higher electrophoretic mobilities and deposition yield at low ranges of acetic acid addition (<0.75 vol%). - Highlights: • Protonation characteristics of polyelectrolytes and suspension particles are reported. • The protonation characteristics explained the electrophoretic mobility and yield results. • Adsorption mechanisms of protonated polyelectrolytes on the titanium particle is proposed. • Hydroxyl sites on the particles link the oxide particle and the polyelectrolyte molecules.

  10. The effects of Ti and Sn alloying elements on precipitation strengthened Cu40Zn brass using powder metallurgy and hot extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shufeng, E-mail: shufenglimail@gmail.com [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University (Japan); Imai, Hisashi; Atsumi, Haruhiko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University (Japan); Kojima, Akimichi; Kosaka, Yoshiharu [San-Etsu metals Co. Ltd., 1892, OHTA, Tonami, Toyama (Japan); Yamamoto, Koji; Takahashi, Motoi [Nippon Atomized Metal Powders Corporation, 87-16, Nishi-Sangao, Noda, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alloying elements Ti and Sn are proposed as additives in 60/40 brass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Super-saturated Ti in powder creates high chemical potential for precipitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti is readily segregated in primary particle boundaries in BS40-1.0Ti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sn was proposed as an additive to inhibit segregation of Ti in BS40-1.0Ti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The introduction of Sn to BS40-1.0Ti brass effectively impedes Ti segregation. - Abstract: The effects of Ti and Sn alloying elements on the microstructural and mechanical properties of 60/40 brass were studied by powder metallurgy processing. The super-saturated solid solution of Ti creates a high precipitation reaction chemical potential in water-atomized BS40-1.0Ti brass powder. Consequently, BS40-1.0Ti brass was remarkably strengthened by the addition of Ti. However, Ti readily segregated in the primary particle boundaries at elevated temperatures, which detrimentally affected the mechanical properties of BS40-1.0Ti brass. Accordingly, Sn was proposed as an additive to BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti to inhibit the segregation of Ti. Consequently, the Ti precipitate was retained in the form of CuSn{sub 3}Ti{sub 5} in the interior of grains and grain boundaries rather than in the primary particle boundaries. This result demonstrates that the addition of Sn can effectively hinder Ti segregation in the primary particle boundaries. Sn addition produced significant grain refinement and mechanical strengthening effects in BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti brass. As a result, outstanding strengthening effects were observed for BS40-0.6Sn1.0Ti sintered at 600 Degree-Sign C, which exhibited a yield strength of 315 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 598 MPa, and a Vickers micro-hardness of 216 Hv. These values represent increases of 27.5%, 20.1% and 45.6%, over those of extruded BS40-1.0Ti brass.

  11. Porous titanium particles for acetabular reconstruction in total hip replacement show extensive bony armoring after 15 weeks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walschot, L.H.; Aquarius, R.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Buma, P.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose - The bone impaction grafting technique restores bone defects in total hip replacement. Porous titanium particles (TiPs) are deformable, like bone particles, and offer better primary stability. We addressed the following questions in this animal study: are impacted TiPs

  12. Electrochemical Characteristics and Li+ Ion Intercalation Kinetics of Dual-phase Li4Ti5O12/Li2TiO3 Composite in Voltage Range of 0−3 V

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatti, Humaira S

    2016-04-20

    Li4Ti5O12, Li2TiO3 and dual-phase Li4Ti5O12/Li2TiO3 composite were prepared by sol-gel method with average particle size of 1 µm, 0.3 µm and 0.4 µm, respectively. Though Li2TiO3 is electrochemically inactive, the rate capability of Li4Ti5O12/Li2TiO3 is comparable to Li4Ti5O12 at different current rates. Li4Ti5O12/Li2TiO3 also shows good rate performance of 90 mA h g-1 at high rate of 10 C in voltage range of 1−3 V, attributable to increased interfaces in the composite. While Li4Ti5O12 delivers capacity retention of 88.6 % at 0.2 C over 50 cycles, Li4Ti5O12/Li2TiO3 exhibits no capacity fading at 0.2 C (40 cycles) and capacity retention of 98.45 % at 0.5 C (50 cycles). This highly stable cycling performance is attributed to the contribution of Li2TiO3 in preventing undesirable reaction of Li4Ti5O12 with the electrolyte during cycling. CV curves of Li4Ti5O12/Li2TiO3 in 0−3 V range exhibit two anodic peaks at 1.51 V and 0.7−0.0 V, indicating two modes of lithium intercalation into the lattice sites of active material. Owing to enhanced intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in 0−3 V, composite electrode delivers superior rate performance of 203 mAh/g at 2.85 C and 140 mAh/g at 5.7 C with good reversible capacity retention over 100 cycles.

  13. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsmith, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Particle Physics is the first book to connect theory and experiment in particle physics. Duncan Carlsmith provides the first accessible exposition of the standard model with sufficient mathematical depth to demystify the language of gauge theory and Feynman diagrams used by researchers in the field. Carlsmith also connects theories to past, present, and future experiments.

  14. Occurrence and possible significance of rare Ti oxides (Magneli phases) in carbonaceous chondrite matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Adrian J.

    1993-01-01

    Rare, ultrafine-grained Ti oxides (Ti3O5 and the Magneli phases, Ti5O9 and Ti8O15) have been identified by TEM in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite, Bells, and a carbonaceous chondrite matrix clast from the Nilpena polymict ureilite. In both meteorites the Ti oxides occur in the matrix as isolated grains and clusters of two or more grains. They are euhedral in shape and have grain sizes of 0.05-0.3 micron. Magneli phases have been recently shown to be a common component in some interplanetary dust particles, but this is the first reported occurrence in a meteorite. The morphological properties and grain size of the Ti oxides are consistent with formation by vapor phase condensation either within the solar nebula or possibly in a presolar environment.

  15. Reactive synthesis of Ti-Al intermetallics during microwave heating in an E-field maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, S., E-mail: sebastien.vaucher@empa.ch [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research - Empa, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Stir, M.; Ishizaki, K. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research - Empa, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Catala-Civera, J.-M. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Nicula, R. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research - Empa, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)

    2011-08-10

    The time-resolved X-ray diffraction synchrotron radiation technique was used in combination with E-field microwave heating to study in situ the kinetics of intermetallic phase formation in the Ti-Al system. The reaction of Ti with Al is triggered by the melting and spreading of Al onto the surface of Ti particles. The tetragonal TiAl{sub 3} phase is the primary reaction product, formed by instantaneous nucleation at the interface between the unreacted Ti cores and the Al melt. The growth of TiAl{sub 3} layers is diffusion-controlled. These preliminary results demonstrate that microwave heating can be used to rapidly synthesise intermetallic phases from high-purity elemental powders.

  16. Cleaner Production of Ti Powder by a Two-Stage Aluminothermic Reduction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Wang, Yaowu; Feng, Naixiang

    2017-10-01

    A two-stage aluminothermic reduction process for preparing Ti powder under vacuum conditions using Na2TiF6 was investigated. An Al-Ti master alloy and a clean cryolite were simultaneously obtained as co-products. The first-stage reduction was an exothermic process that occurred at approximately 660°C. The Al and O contents of the Ti powder product were 0.18 wt.% and 0.35 wt.%, respectively, with an average particle size clean cryolite were reduced to 0.002 wt.%. The Al-Ti master alloy obtained by second-stage reduction was composed of Al and TiAl3. The mechanisms involved in these reduction processes were also examined.

  17. Growth of 1-D TiO2 Nanowires on Ti and Ti Alloys by Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Huyong Lee; Suliman Dregia; Sheikh Akbar; Mansour Alhoshan

    2010-01-01

    The growth of titania nanowires by a simple metal oxidation process was investigated for both commercially pure α-Ti and Ti alloys including Ti64 and β-Ti under a limited supply of oxygen. The effects of processing variables including heat treatment temperature, gas flow rate, and process duration on the growth of nanowires were explored. Similarities and differences in the growth of nanowires on pure Ti versus Ti alloys were observed. While the growth window in terms of temperature and flow ...

  18. [Effect of Nano-TiO₂ on Release and Speciation Changes of Heavy Metals in Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-yang; Wang, Ding-yong; Liang, Li; Li, Chu-xian; Zhang, Cheng; Zhou, Xiong; Liu, Juan

    2016-05-15

    The effects of nano-TiO₂ on migration and transformation of heavy metals in soil were investigated by outdoor flooding simulation experiments. Cr, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu contents of different forms were determined in soil of typical fluctuating zone of Three Gorges Reservoir. The results showed that, after flooding months, both addition of 4 g · kg⁻¹ of rutile and anatase particles resulted in the release of about 30% Cr into the water. Nano-TiO₂ particles mainly promoted the dissolution of oxidizable residual Cr, and elevated its ecological risk. Thus nano-TiO₂promoted the activation of chromium and improved the mobility of chromium in soil. 4 g · kg⁻¹ of rutile particles caused the decrease of acid exchangeable lead by 25.92% and oxidizable lead by 33.09%, and enhanced the mobility of Pb. However, anatase particles caused the increase of oxidizable zinc by 30% in soil, which facilitated fixing of zinc. In addition, two types of nano-TiO₂particles had no significant effect on the speciation changes of Cu and Cd. Therefore, the effect of nano-TiO₂ on release and transformation of Cr in soil was the largest, followed by Pb and Zn. This needs special attention when using nano-TiO₂ to remediate heavy metals contaminated soil and assessing its environmental risk.

  19. Co-doping TiO{sub 2} with boron and/or yttrium elements: Effects on antimicrobial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuzheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Wu, Yusheng, E-mail: henanwys@sina.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Yang, He; Xue, Xiangxin; Liu, Zhihua [Institute of Metallurgical Resources and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • B-Y/TiO{sub 2} nano materials firstly applied to the fields of antibacterial materials. • Systems analysis the existence state of boron and yttrium ion in TiO{sub 2}. • Doping B and Y greatly strengthened the antibacterial activity of TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Pure TiO{sub 2}, boron and/or yttrium doped TiO{sub 2} nano-materials were synthesized by a sol–gel method and characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and PL. XRD analysis indicates that, in the pure TiO{sub 2} and B single doped TiO{sub 2} (B-TiO{sub 2}) nano-materials calcinated at 700 °C, the presence of TiO{sub 2} is a mixture of anatase and rutile; in the Y single doped (Y-TiO{sub 2}), B and Y co-doped TiO{sub 2} nano-materials (B/Y-TiO{sub 2}), the presence of TiO{sub 2} is anatase. SEM image shows the prepared materials have a common round morphology and hexagonal plate morphology caused by the agglomeration of particles. Boron atoms are partially embedded into the TiO{sub 2} interstitial structure or incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} lattice through occupying the position of the oxygen atoms. The results of antimicrobial experiment show that B/Y-TiO{sub 2} material has a remarkable antimicrobial activity. Compared with the visible light irradiation, antimicrobial activity of B/Y-TiO{sub 2} in dark is significant poor.

  20. Corrosion-Erosion Effect on TiN/TiAlN Multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, J. C.; Cabrera, G.; Aperador, W.; Escobar, C.; Amaya, C.

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this work is to study electrochemical behavior under corrosion-erosion conditions for [TiN/TiAlN] n multilayer coatings with bilayer number ( n) of 2, 6, 12, and 24 and/or bilayer period (Λ) of 1500, 500, 250, 150, and 125 nm deposited by a magnetron sputtering technique on Si (100) and AISI 1045 steel substrates. The Ti-N and Ti-Al-N structures for multilayer coatings were evaluated via x-ray diffraction analysis. Silica particles were used as the abrasive material in corrosion-erosion tests within the 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at impact angles of 30° and 90° over the surface. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using the polarization resistance technique (Tafel) to observe changes in corrosion rates as a function of the bilayer number ( n) or bilayer period (Λ) and impact angle. Corrosion rate values of 359 mpy of uncoated steel substrate and 103 mpy for substrate coated with n = 24 (Λ = 125 nm) under an impact angle of 30° were found. On the other hand, with an impact angle of 90° the corrosion rate exhibited 646 mpy on uncoated steel substrate and 210 mpy for substrate coated with n = 24 (Λ = 125 nm). This behavior was related to the curves of mass loss for both coated samples and the surface damage was analyzed via SEM images for the two different impact angles. These results indicate that TiN/TiAlN multilayer coatings deposited on AISI 1045 steel are a practical solution for applications in erosive-corrosive environments.

  1. Electrolytic reduction of mixed (Fe, Ti) oxide using molten calcium chloride electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay, E-mail: mp@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Iizuka, Atsushi; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tan et al. have electrolyzed mixtures of TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to produce alloys containing Fe-Ti intermetallic phases such as FeTi and Fe{sub 2}Ti using the FFC process. However, the produced alloys have a porous structure with many carbon impurities, e.g., titanium carbide (TiC). Most of the carbon contamination could be caused by the presence of carbon particles in the porous alloy structure. They did not mention any obvious ways of excluding carbon and other impurities, and only suggested that the use of mixed oxides with refined structures or using a single phase, namely ilmenite (FeO{center_dot}TiO{sub 2}), were methods of decreasing impurities in the formed alloys. For future industrialization, there is an urgent need for obvious ways of producing purer Fe-Ti alloys with dense structures, rather than porous structures, as these absorb carbon impurities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finally, we successfully reduced to a highly purified Fe-Ti intermetallic alloy of FeTi and {beta}-Ti (FeTi{sub 4}) phases. FeTi phases of size around 5-10 {mu}m were dispersed in a matrix of the {beta}-Ti (FeTi{sub 4}) phase. The carbon content of the electrolyzed alloy was as low as less than 0.01 mass%. It was suggested that the dense structure of the alloy of FeTi and {beta}-Ti (FeTi{sub 4}) avoided the inclusion of carbon particle impurities, unlike the porous alloy structure. - Abstract: The production of high-purity metals or alloys using effective technologies is critical for future industrialization. With this aim in mind, a fundamental study of electrolysis in molten CaCl{sub 2} electrolytes was conducted to develop a new production process for ferrotitanium (Fe-Ti) intermetallic alloys. Mixed solid oxides of TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were used in a molar ratio of 5.44:1.00. In this composition of Ti and Fe, FeTi and {beta}-Ti containing iron can co-exist in equilibrium. A mixed solid (Fe, Ti) oxide was reduced

  2. Composite hydroxyapatite/TiO{sub 2} materials for photocatalytic oxidation of NO{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannakopoulou, T., E-mail: tgia@ims.demokritos.gr [NCSR Demokritos, Institute of Materials Science, 153 10 Attikis (Greece); Todorova, N. [NCSR Demokritos, Institute of Materials Science, 153 10 Attikis (Greece); Romanos, G. [NCSR Demokritos, Institute of Physical Chemistry, 153 10 Attikis (Greece); Vaimakis, T. [University of Ioannina, Department of Chemistry, 451 10 Ioannina (Greece); Dillert, R.; Bahnemann, D. [Institut fur Technische Chemie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Trapalis, C., E-mail: trapalis@ims.demokritos.gr [NCSR Demokritos, Institute of Materials Science, 153 10 Attikis (Greece)

    2012-08-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher photocatalytic activity of hydroxyapatite/TiO{sub 2} composites than pure TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of the HA/TiO{sub 2} ratio leads to increase of both NO oxidation and NO{sub x} removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydroxyapatite diminishes TiO{sub 2} particles aggregation leading to higher dispersion. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite/TiO{sub 2} composite photocatalysts were obtained from sol-gel prepared TiO{sub 2} and commercial hydroxyapatite (HA) powders. Composites with different HA/TiO{sub 2} ratio were studied to assess the influence of HA on the morphology and the photocatalytic behavior of the materials. Morphological SEM analysis revealed that the presence of HA diminishes the aggregation of TiO{sub 2} particles and leads to their higher dispersion in the composites that was confirmed by the N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms and Barret-Joyner-Halenda analysis. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared catalysts was examined by monitoring photocatalytic oxidation of NO{sub x} model gases over catalysts under UV illumination. The NO{sub x} oxidation over the composite catalysts was improved in comparison with pure TiO{sub 2} powder. Moreover, the decrease of the TiO{sub 2} content, which is the photocatalytically active component in the composites, resulted in enhanced NO{sub x} removal. Maximum activity was recorded for composites with HA/TiO{sub 2} ratios 1 and 2 that was related to improved TiO{sub 2} dispersion and NO{sub 2} trapping by the composite materials.

  3. Tribological behavior and wear mechanisms of TiN/TiCN/TiN multilayer coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y. L.; Kao, W. H.

    1998-10-01

    This work employs the PVD process to deposit coatings of single layer TiN, binary layer TiN/TiCN, multilayer TiN⇔⇔N, and sequenced TiN⇔CN⇔N multilayer coatings with variable individual TiN-layer and TiCN-layer thicknesses on tungsten carbide disks and inserts. Also investigated are the fracture mechanisms and the influence of sequence and thickness of these coatings on cylinder-on-disk, line-contact wear mode and ball-on-disk, point-contact wear mode through SRV reciprocating wear tests. Actual milling tests identify wear performance. Experimental results indicate that the coating with a total thickness of 7 Μm and layer sequence TiN/TiCN/TiN exhibits good wear resistance on SRV wear test and milling test. The thickest multilayer TiN/Ti/TiN coating, although having the highest hardness, has the worst wear resistance for all tests. No-tably zero-wear performance was observed for all coating disks under cutting fluid lubricated condition due to the transferred layers formed between the contact interface.

  4. Enhanced photocatalysts based on Ag-TiO2 and Ag-N-TiO2 nanoparticles for multifunctional leather surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaidau Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ag deposition on TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag-TiO2 NPs and N-TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag-N-TiO2 NPs has been made by electrochemical methodology in view of improved antibacterial properties and enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. The particle size in powder and in dispersion showed similar values and good stability in aqueous medium which made them suitable for use in leather surface covering for new multifunctional properties development. The diffuse reflectance spectra of Ag-TiO2 NPs, Ag-N-TiO2 NPs and TiO2 NPs have been investigated and correlated with their photocatalytic performances under UV and visible light against different silver concentrations. The leather surfaces treated with Ag-N-TiO2 NPs showed advanced self-cleaning properties under visible light exposure through the hydrophilic mechanism of organic soil decomposition. Moreover the bacterial sensitivity and proven fungitoxic properties of Ag-N-TiO2 NPs leads to the possibility of designing new multifunctional additives to extend the advanced applications for more durable and useable materials.

  5. Synthesis of hectorite-TiO2 and kaolinite-TiO2 nanocomposites with photocatalytic activity for the degradation of model air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Kibanova, D.; Trejo, M.; Destaillats, H.; Cervini-Silva, J.

    2008-03-01

    We studied the synthesis and photocatalytic activity of small-sized TiO{sub 2} supported on hectorite and kaolinite. Deposition of TiO{sub 2} on the clay mineral surface was conducted by using a sol-gel method with titanium isopropoxide as precursor. Anatase TiO{sub 2} particles formation was achieved by hydrothermal treatment at 180 C. Material characterization was conducted using XRD, SEM, XPS, ICP-OES, BET and porosimetry analysis. Efficiency in synthesizing clay-TiO{sub 2} composites depended strongly on the clay mineral structure. Incorporation of anatase in hectorite, an expandable clay mineral, was found to be very significant (> 36 wt.% Ti) and to be followed by important structural changes at the clay mineral surface. Instead, no major structural modifications of the clay were observed for kaolinite-TiO{sub 2}, as compared with the untreated material. Photocatalytic performance of clay-TiO{sub 2} composites was evaluated with ATR-FTIR following the oxidation of adsorbed toluene and d-limonene, two model air pollutants. In either case, the photocatalytic removal efficiency of these hydrophobic substrates by the synthesized clay-TiO{sub 2} composites was comparable to that observed using pure commercial TiO{sub 2} (Degussa P25).

  6. Structural analyses of reaction layers between SiC and Ti-6Al-4V after laser embedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hosson, J.T.M.; Kloosterman, A.J.; Kooi, B.J.; Brebbia, CA; Kenny, JM

    1999-01-01

    Metal-matrix-composites are produced by the laser particle injection processing route. SiC particles are entrapped during solidification of liquid Ti. Since the injected particles partially dissolve, depending on the process conditions, new phases are formed in the matrix. The degree of dissolution

  7. Rapid sintering and microstructure evolution of composite TiC cermet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, L.; Liu, X. G.; Pan, Y. L.; Wang, Y. W.; Xiang, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Ti, Ni, activated carbon, and Mo powders were used as raw materials to prepare a composite TiC cermet in this study. The powders were mixed and prepared through high-energy ball milling and then sintered in a spark plasma sintering (SPS) system. Results revealed that ball milling time affected the raw materials. After ball milling was performed for 10 h, Ti and C particles reacted and generated TiC, meanwhile, the solid Mo solutionized in TiC and formed (Ti,Mo)C lumps. XRD results showed that the product of (Ti,Mo)C cermet with high hardness can be prepared at a low sintering temperature of 1150 °C. The microstructure of composite TiC cermet was different from the traditional core-ring structure. In particular, the developed microstructure comprises a (Ti,Mo)C-Ni dark-gray phase at the center surrounded by (Ti,Mo)C light-gray phase and dispersed Mo white phase.

  8. Synthesis of Hydroxide-TiO2 Compounds with Photocatalytic Activity for Degradation of Phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Ruiz, J. C.; Martínez-Gallegos, S.; Ordoñez, E.; González-Juárez, J. C.; García-Rivas, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of phenol using titanium dioxide (TiO2), either alone or in combination with other materials, has been tested. Mg/Al hydrotalcites prepared by two methods using inorganic (HC) or organic (HS) chemical reagents, along with mixed oxides produced by calcination of these products (HCC and HSC), were mixed with titanium isopropoxide to obtain hydroxide-TiO2 compounds (HCC-TiO2 and HSC-TiO2) and their photocatalytic activity tested in solutions of 10 mg/L phenol at 120 min under illumination at λ UV = 254 nm with power of 4 W or 8 W. The obtained materials were characterized by various techniques, revealing that TiO2 was incorporated into the mixed oxides of the calcined hydrotalcite to form the above-mentioned compounds. The photocatalytic test results indicate that the activity of HCC-TiO2 can be attributed to increased phenol adsorption by hydrotalcite for transfer to the active photocatalytic phase of the impregnated TiO2 particles, while the better results obtained for HSC-TiO2 are due to greater catalyst impregnation on the surface of the calcined hydrotalcite, reducing the screening phenomenon and achieving HSC-TiO2 degradation of up to 21.0% at 8 W. Reuse of both compounds indicated tight combination of HCC or HSC with TiO2, since in four successive separation cycles there was little reduction of activity, being associated primarily with material loss during recovery.

  9. The effect of La on the synthesis and properties of a W-Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Liang, E-mail: chunliang@mail.ndhu.edu.tw; Zeng, Yong

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of W-Ti alloy dispersed with in-situ La oxides is developed. • Formation of La oxides can be influenced by secondary ball milling. • A complex LaTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} oxide is found as interaction of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}. • Material behavior is strongly affected by La-Ti-O oxides. - Abstract: A new method for the synthesis of tungsten-titanium alloys dispersed with in-situ RE-oxides was developed. In this paper, the addition of the rare earth element lanthanum in W-Ti alloys has been investigated. The results suggested that La plays an important role in influencing the formation of dispersed oxides, which can further change the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the W-Ti alloys. A complicated oxide particle was found in this study and has been identified as the LaTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} structure, which could be associated with the interaction between La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} during mechanical alloying. Nanoindentation was further used to measure local variations in the mechanical properties of the alloys, which could correspond to interfaces between the dispersed oxides and the tungsten matrix where the bond strengths are different form the bulk alloy.

  10. Influence of cobalt and chromium additions on the precipitation processes in a Cu-4Ti alloys; Influencia de la adicion de cobalto y cromo en el proceso de precipitacion en una aleacion de Cu-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, E.

    2010-07-01

    The influence of 0.5% atomic cobalt and 1% atomic chromium additions on the precipitation hardening of Cu-4Ti alloy was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microhardness measurements. The analysis of the calorimetric curves, for binary alloy, shows the presence of two overlapping exothermic reactions (stages 1 and 2) attributed to the formation of Cu{sub 4}Ti and Cu{sub 3}Ti particles in the copper matrix, respectively. DSC curves for Cu-4Ti-0.5Co alloy shows three exothermic effects (overlapping stages 3 and 4 and stage 5) associated to the formation of phases Ti{sub 2}Co, TiCo and Cu{sub 4}Ti, respectively. DSC curves for Cu-4Ti1Cr alloy shows three exothermic reactions (stages 6, 7 and 9) and one endothermic peak (stage 8). The exothermic reactions correspond to the formation of phases Cr{sub 2}Ti, Cu{sub 4}Ti and Cu{sub 3}Ti, respectively, and the endothermic reactions are attributed to the Cr{sub 2}Ti dissolution. The activation energies calculated using the modified Kissinger method were lower than the ones corresponding to diffusion of cobalt, chromium, and titanium in copper. Kinetic parameters were obtained by a convolution method based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) formalism. Microhardness measurements confirmed the formation of the mentioned phases. Also, these measurements confirmed the effect of cobalt and chromium addition on the binary alloy hardness. (Author). 31 refs.

  11. Phase Composition and Microstructure of Hot-Pressing Sintered Ti2AlN Metal-Ceramic Bulk Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Suying

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ti2AlN metal-ceramic bulk material was fabricated by hot-pressing sintering (HPS using TiN, Ti and Al powder in a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1:1.03 after mechanical mixing. XRD, SEM and TEM were employed to investigate the phase composition and microstructures of the products. The results show that the high purity Ti2AlN can be obtained by HPS at 1300 ℃ for 2.5 h. The sintered Ti2AlN presented a hexagonal system layered structure with an anisotropy. Twins are found in the Ti2AlN. There were a few nano-scale TiN particles in the products.

  12. Novel Method for Making Biomedical Segregation-Free Ti-30Ta Alloy Spherical Powder for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sun, Pei; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Ti-Ta alloys offer a good combination of high strength and low modulus among Ti-based alloys, and are ideal for biomedical applications. However, making Ti-Ta alloys has always been challenging because they tend to suffer from compositional segregation during melting due to the large difference between the melting points of Ti and Ta. This article describes a novel process for making spherical Ti-30Ta alloy powder through a unique powder metallurgy technique, namely the granulation-sintering-deoxygenation process. The results indicate that the compositional segregation problem can be overcome using this process technology. Combined with use of a deoxygenation process, the critical interstitial element, oxygen, can be controlled to < 400 ppm for powder with particle size < 75 µm. The destabilization effect of Ta on Ti-O solid solutions, and the resulting improved deoxygenation process for Ti-Ta, are discussed, as well as the phase composition and microstructure of the powders.

  13. Comparison study on photocatalytic oxidation of pharmaceuticals by TiO2-Fe and TiO2-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites immobilized on optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Wang, Huiyao; Jiang, Wenbin; Mkaouar, Ahmed Radhi; Xu, Pei

    2017-07-05

    Incorporating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) or Fe 3+ ions in TiO 2 photocatalyst could enhance photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants in aqueous solutions. This study characterized the photocatalytic activities of TiO 2 -Fe and TiO 2 -rGO nanocomposites immobilized on optical fibers synthesized by polymer assisted hydrothermal deposition method. The photocatalysts presented a mixture phase of anatase and rutile in the TiO 2 -rGO and TiO 2 -Fe nanocomposites. Doping Fe into TiO 2 particles (2.40eV) could reduce more band gap energy than incorporating rGO (2.85eV), thereby enhancing utilization efficiency of visible light. Incorporating Fe and rGO in TiO 2 decreased significantly the intensity of TiO 2 photoluminescence signals and enhanced the separation rate of photo-induced charge carriers. Photocatalytic performance of the synthesized nanocomposites was measured by the degradation of three pharmaceuticals under UV and visible light irradiation, including carbamazepine, ibuprofen, and sulfamethoxazole. TiO 2 -rGO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of pharmaceuticals under UV irradiation, while TiO 2 -Fe demonstrated more suitable for visible light oxidation. The results suggested that the enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 -rGO could be attributed to reduced recombination rate of photoexcited electrons-hole pairs, but for TiO 2 -Fe nanocomposite, narrower band gap would contribute to increased photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Elementary particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, Harald; Heusch, Karin

    Introduction -- Electrons and atomic nuclei -- Quantum properties of atoms and particles -- The knives of Democritus -- Quarks inside atomic nuclei -- Quantum electrodynamics -- Quantum chromodynamics -- Mesons, baryons, and quarks -- Electroweak interactions -- Grand unification -- Conclusion.

  15. Comparison study on photocatalytic oxidation of pharmaceuticals by TiO{sub 2}-Fe and TiO{sub 2}-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites immobilized on optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Lu; Wang, Huiyao, E-mail: huiyao@nmsu.edu; Jiang, Wenbin; Mkaouar, Ahmed Radhi; Xu, Pei, E-mail: pxu@nmsu.edu

    2017-07-05

    Highlights: • Incorporating rGO or Fe{sup 3+} ions in TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst could enhance photocatalysis. • TiO{sub 2}-rGO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. • TiO{sub 2}-Fe demonstrated more suitable for visible light irradiation. • Reduced recombination rate contributed to enhanced photocatalysis of TiO{sub 2}-rGO. • Narrower band gap accounted for increased photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}-Fe. - Abstract: Incorporating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) or Fe{sup 3+} ions in TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst could enhance photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants in aqueous solutions. This study characterized the photocatalytic activities of TiO{sub 2}-Fe and TiO{sub 2}-rGO nanocomposites immobilized on optical fibers synthesized by polymer assisted hydrothermal deposition method. The photocatalysts presented a mixture phase of anatase and rutile in the TiO{sub 2}-rGO and TiO{sub 2}-Fe nanocomposites. Doping Fe into TiO{sub 2} particles (2.40 eV) could reduce more band gap energy than incorporating rGO (2.85 eV), thereby enhancing utilization efficiency of visible light. Incorporating Fe and rGO in TiO{sub 2} decreased significantly the intensity of TiO{sub 2} photoluminescence signals and enhanced the separation rate of photo-induced charge carriers. Photocatalytic performance of the synthesized nanocomposites was measured by the degradation of three pharmaceuticals under UV and visible light irradiation, including carbamazepine, ibuprofen, and sulfamethoxazole. TiO{sub 2}-rGO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of pharmaceuticals under UV irradiation, while TiO{sub 2}-Fe demonstrated more suitable for visible light oxidation. The results suggested that the enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2}-rGO could be attributed to reduced recombination rate of photoexcited electrons-hole pairs, but for TiO{sub 2}-Fe nanocomposite, narrower band gap would contribute to increased photocatalytic

  16. Auroral particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David S.

    1987-01-01

    The problems concerning the aurora posed prior to the war are now either solved in principle or were restated in a more fundamental form. The pre-war hypothesis concerning the nature of the auroral particles and their energies was fully confirmed, with the exception that helium and oxygen ions were identified as participating in the auroral particle precipitation in addition to the protons. The nature of the near-Earth energization processes affecting auroral particles was clarified. Charged particle trajectories in various electric field geometries were modeled. The physical problems have now moved from determining the nature and geometry of the electric fields, which accelerate charged particles near the Earth, to accounting for the existence of these electric fields as a natural consequence of the solar wind's interaction with Earth. Ultimately the reward in continuing the work in auroral and magnetospheric particle dynamics will be a deeper understanding of the subtleties of classical electricity and magnetism as applied to situations not blessed with well-defined and invariant geometries.

  17. Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to a freshwater benthic amphipod: are benthic systems at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) to a freshwater benthic amphipod (Hyalella azteca) using 48-h and 96-h bioassays. Thorough monitoring of particle interactions with exposure media (Lake Superior water, LSW) and the surface of organisms was p...

  18. Fabrication of Ag-Decorated CaTiO₃ Nanoparticles and Their Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity for Dye Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, T; Yang, H; Huo, Y S; Ma, J Y; Zhang, H M; Su, J Y; Feng, W J

    2016-01-01

    CaTiO₃nanoparticles of 30-40 nm in size were synthesized via a polyacrylamide gel route. Ag nanoparticles with size of 8-16 nm were deposited onto CaTiO₃particles by a photochemical reduction method to yield CaTiO₃@Ag composites. The photocatalytic activity of prepared samples was evaluated by degrading methyl orange under ultraviolet irradiation. It is demonstrated that Ag-decorated CaTiO₃ particles exhibit an enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to bare CaTiO₃ particles. After 60 min of photocatalysis, the degradation percentage of MO increases from 54% for bare CaTiO₃particles to 72% for CaTiO₃@Ag composites. This can be explained by the fact that photogenerated electrons are captured by Ag nanoparticles and photogenerated holes are therefore increasingly available to react with OH⁻/H₂O to generate hydroxyl (·OH) radicals. ·OH radicals were detected by fluorimetry using terephthalic acid as a probe molecule, revealing an enhanced yield on the irradiated CaTiO₃@Ag composites. In addition, it is found that the addition of ethanol, which acts as an ·OH scavenger, leads to a quenching of ·OH radicals and simultaneous decrease in the photocatalytic efficiency. This suggests that ·OH radicals are the dominant active species responsible for the dye degradation.

  19. The micro-arc oxidation (MAO) behaviors of in-situ TiB2/A201 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Geng, Jiwei; Li, Xianfeng; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Mingliang; Ma, Naiheng; Wang, Haowei

    2017-11-01

    The Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment on the in-situ TiB2/A201 composites was performed using the aluminate-based electrolyte, and the corresponding MAO behavior was discussed in this work. In connection with the film thickness-time curve, the voltage-time for the MAO process on the TiB2/A201 composite can be divided into two periods, namely the initial period (Stage I and II) and linear growth period (Stage III and IV). The phase and morphologies evolutions of the composite experienced these stages have been characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. It is found the TiB2 particles have played a dual role in the MAO process. Firstly, the external current can leak through conductive TiB2 particles in the initial period. However, this leaking way has been quickly cut off by the oxidation of TiB2 to TiO2. Secondly, the TiB2 particles beneath the metal-oxide interface can impede MAO film from growing inward. Nevertheless, these TiB2 particles should be oxidized and then melted gradually, and finally dissolved into the oxide film.

  20. Preparation of transparent fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coating with improved self-cleaning performance and anti-aging property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianping; Tan, Zhongyuan; Liu, Zhilei; Jing, Mengmeng; Liu, Wenjie; Fu, Wanli

    2017-02-01

    This work reports a facile method to fabricate transparent self-cleaning fluorocarbon coatings filled by semicrystalline colloidal particles of TiO2-SiO2 composite oxide presenting a particle size ranging from 6 to 10 nm. Anatase-TiO2 crystallites were successfully obtained after microwave heating treatment of the TiO2-SiO2 colloidal particles as confirmed by XRD, TEM and FTIR measurements. The fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coatings exhibited a superior hydrophilicity and an improved photocatalytic activity in contrast to the TiO2-filled coatings. In particular, a water contact angle (WCA) value of 4.5° and a decolorization ratio relative to methyl orange as high as 96.0% were achieved for the composite coatings containing 1.5 wt% of TiO2-SiO2 colloidal particles. The results of the anti-soiling experiments indicated that the fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coatings exhibited a prominent self-cleaning performance, while the accelerated aging experiments revealed that the fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coatings were highly stable toward UV irradiation when compared to the TiO2-filled fluorocarbon coatings. These findings indicated that the fluorocarbon/TiO2-SiO2 composite coatings could be a very attractive solution for many practical areas, especially for outdoor applications.

  1. Electrochemical Characteristics of HA Film on the Ti Alloy Using Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Shin, Seung-Pyo; Chung, Chae-Heon [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Sub [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this study, we have investigated the surface morphology of hydroxyapatite (HA) coated Ti alloy surface using pulsed laser plating. The HA (tooth ash) films were grown by pulsed KrF excimer laser, film surfaces were analyzed for topology, chemical composition, crystal structure and electrochemical behavior. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy showed α and β phase, Cp-Ti showed α phase and the HA coated surface showed HA and Ti alloy peaks. The HA coating layer was formed with 1-2um droplets and grain-like particles, particles which were smaller than the HA target particle, and the composition of the HA coatings were composed of Ca and P. From the electrochemical test, the pitting potential (1580 mV) of HA coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy was higher than those of Cp-Ti (1060 mV) and HA coated Cp-Ti (1350 mV). The HA coated samples showed a lower current density than non-HA coated samples, whereas, the polarization resistance of HA coated samples showed a high value compared to non-HA coated samples.

  2. Heat-Treated TiO2 Plasma Spray Deposition for Bioactivity Improvement in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Renu; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, titanium di-oxide (TiO2) coating has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition. Followed by plasma spraying, heat treatment of the sprayed sample has been carried out by isothermally holding it at 823 K (550 °C) for 2 h. Microstructural analysis shows the presence of porosity and unmelted particles on the as-sprayed surface, the area fraction of which reduces after heat treatment. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the phase transformation from anatase (in precursor powder) to rutile (in as-sprayed coating and the same after heat treatment). There is an improvement in nano-hardness, "Young's modulus" and wear resistance in plasma-sprayed TiO2 coating (as-sprayed as well as post-heat-treated condition) as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V, though post-heat treatment offers a superior hardness, "young's modulus" and wear resistance as compared to as-sprayed coating. The corrosion behavior in "hank's solution" shows decrease in corrosion resistance after plasma spraying and post-heat treatment as compared to as-received substrate. A significant decrease in contact angle and improvement in bioactivity (in terms of apatite deposition) were observed in TiO2-coated surface as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V.

  3. Green Electrochemical Process Solid-Oxide Oxygen-Ion-Conducting Membrane (SOM): Direct Extraction of Ti-Fe Alloys from Natural Ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xionggang; Zou, Xingli; Li, Chonghe; Zhong, Qingdong; Ding, Weizhong; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2012-06-01

    The direct electrochemical extraction of Ti-Fe alloys from natural ilmenite (FeTiO3) in molten CaCl2 is reported in this article. The sintered porous pellet of natural ilmenite acted as the cathode of the electrochemical system, and the carbon-saturated liquid tin contained in a solid-oxide oxygen-ion-conducting membrane (SOM) tube served as the anode of the electrolytic cell. The electrochemical process was carried out at 3.8 V, under 1223 K and 1273 K (950 °C and 1000 °C). Oxygen was ionized continuously from the cathode and discharged at the anode; solid porous Ti-Fe alloys were obtained at the cathode. The electro-deoxidation procedure of the ilmenite was characterized by analyzing partially electro-deoxidized samples taken periodically throughout the electro-deoxidation process. The findings of this study are as follows: (1) The electro-deoxidation process followed these steps: Fe2TiO5 → FeTiO3 → Fe2TiO4 → Fe, Ti (and/or Ti-Fe alloys); and TiO2 → CaTiO3 → Ti; and (2) two types of particle growth pattern are observed in the experiments. The first pattern is characterized with particle fusion and second pattern is interconnection of particles to form porous structure. A microhole oxygen-ion-migration model is suggested based on the experimental evidence.

  4. TiO2@C Core-Shell Nanoparticles Formed by Polymeric Nano-Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra eVasei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 semiconducting nanoparticles are known to be photocatalysts of moderate activity due to their high band-gap and high rate of electron-hole recombination. The formation of a shell of carbon around the core of TiO2, i.e. the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles, is believed to partly alleviate these problems. It is usually achieved by a hydrothermal treatment in a presence of a sugar derivative. We present here a novel method for the formation of highly uniform C shell around TiO2 nanoparticles. For this purpose, TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed in water using an oligomeric dispersant prepared by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT polymerization. Then the nanoparticles were engaged into an emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile, resulting in the formation of a shell of polyacrylonitrile (PAN around each TiO2 nanoparticles. Upon pyrolisis, the PAN was transformed into carbon, resulting in the formation of TiO2@C nanoparticles. The structure of the resulting particles was elucidated by X-Ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy as well as TEM microscopy. Preliminary results about the use of the TiO2@C particles as photocatalysts for the splitting of water are presented. They indicate that the presence of the C shell is responsible for a significant enhancement of the photocurrent.

  5. Controllable Charge Transfer in Ag-TiO2 Composite Structure for SERS Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The nanocaps array of TiO2/Ag bilayer with different Ag thicknesses and co-sputtering TiO2-Ag monolayer with different TiO2 contents were fabricated on a two-dimensional colloidal array substrate for the investigation of Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS properties. For the TiO2/Ag bilayer, when the Ag thickness increased, SERS intensity decreased. Meanwhile, a significant enhancement was observed when the sublayer Ag was 10 nm compared to the pure Ag monolayer, which was ascribed to the metal-semiconductor synergistic effect that electromagnetic mechanism (EM provided by roughness surface and charge-transfer (CT enhancement mechanism from TiO2-Ag composite components. In comparison to the TiO2/Ag bilayer, the co-sputtered TiO2-Ag monolayer decreased the aggregation of Ag particles and led to the formation of small Ag particles, which showed that TiO2 could effectively inhibit the aggregation and growth of Ag nanoparticles.

  6. Self-Consolidation Mechanism of Nanostructured Ti5Si3 Compact Induced by Electrical Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharge using a capacitance of 450 μF at 7.0 and 8.0 kJ input energies was applied to mechanical alloyed Ti5Si3 powder without applying any external pressure. A solid bulk of nanostructured Ti5Si3 with no compositional deviation was obtained in times as short as 159 μsec by the discharge. During an electrical discharge, the heat generated is the required parameter possibly to melt the Ti5Si3 particles and the pinch force can pressurize the melted powder without allowing the formation of pores. Followed rapid cooling preserved the nanostructure of consolidated Ti5Si3 compact. Three stepped processes during an electrical discharge for the formation of nanostructured Ti5Si3 compact are proposed: (a a physical breakdown of the surface oxide of Ti5Si3 powder particles, (b melting and condensation of Ti5Si3 powder by the heat and pinch pressure, respectively, and (c rapid cooling for the preservation of nanostructure. Complete conversion yielding a single phase Ti5Si3 is primarily dominated by the solid-liquid mechanism.

  7. Influences of TiO2nanoparticles on dietary metal uptake in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-12-01

    Increasing applications of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) have intensified the risk of environmental contamination. Since nano-TiO 2 can absorb metals and be consumed as 'food' by zooplankton but also can interact with phytoplankton, they could significantly disturb the existing metal assimilation patterns. In the present study, we quantified the dietary assimilation of Cd and Zn from nano-TiO 2 and algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) at comparable particle concentrations as well as in complex food environment (variable food quality and quantity) in a freshwater zooplankton Daphnia magna using the radiotracer technique. For both nano-TiO 2 and algae as food, the feeding food quality and depuration food quantity significantly affected the assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of Cd and Zn. At feeding food quantity of 1 mg/L to 10 mg/L without food in depuration, the AEs of Cd and Zn from nano-TiO 2 were lower than those from algae. When food was added during depuration, the influences of nano-TiO 2 on metal AEs were variable due to the differential effects of food quantity on the gut passage of nano-TiO 2 and algae. Furthermore, mixed nano-TiO 2 and algae had the lowest metal AEs compared to sole nano-TiO 2 or algae as a result of interaction between nano-TiO 2 and algae during feeding. Overall, this study showed the distinguishing metal AEs between nano-TiO 2 and algae, and that nano-TiO 2 could significantly reduce the existing metal AEs from algae. More attention should be paid to the potential roles of nano-TiO 2 in disturbing metal assimilation in the environmental risk assessments of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Photo degradation of methyl orange by attapulgite-SnO2-TiO2 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Lv, Fujian; Zhang, Weiguang; Li, Rongqing; Zhong, Hui; Zhao, Yijiang; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xin

    2009-11-15

    Photocatalytic removal of methyl orange under ultraviolet radiation has been studied using attapulgite (ATT) composites, which were synthesized by depositing SnO(2)-TiO(2) hybrid oxides on the surface of ATT to form a composite photocatalyst (denoted ATT-SnO(2)-TiO(2)) using an in situ sol-gel technique. Results showed that SnO(2)-TiO(2) nanocomposite particles with average size of about 10nm were loaded successfully on to the surface of ATT fibers and were widely dispersed. Correspondingly, the photocatalytic activity of ATT was improved significantly by loading SnO(2)-TiO(2). The photoactivity of the composite photocatalyst decreased in the sequence ATT-SnO(2)-TiO(2)>ATT-SnO(2)>ATT-TiO(2)>ATT. In order to achieve the best photocatalyst, the molar ratio of SnO(2) and TiO(2) in the ATT-SnO(2)-TiO(2) composites was adjusted to give a series with proportions r=n(Ti)/(n(Ti)+n(Sn))=0.0, 0.25, 0.33, 0.50, 0.67, 0.75, 0.80, 0.82, 0.86, 1.0. Results indicated that the proportion of SnO(2) and TiO(2) had a critical effect on the photocatalytic activity, which increased as the content of TiO(2) increased to r0.82. The highest degradation rate of methyl orange was 99% within 30 min obtained by using ATT-SnO(2)-TiO(2) with r=0.82. The repeated use of the composite photocatalyst was also confirmed.

  9. Preparation of platinum- and silver-incorporated TiO2 coatings in thin-film photoreactor for the photocatalytic decomposition of o-cresol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Lin; Su, Te-Li; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Hua-Wei; Kung, Fu-Chen

    2011-12-01

    Platinum-incorporated TiO2 (Pt-TiO2) and silver-incorporated TiO2 (Ag-TiO2) coatings on sapphire tubes of a thin-film photoreactor were prepared using a photoreduction process. Results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the Ag-TiO2 coatings consisted of a mixture of Ag2O, Ag and TiO2 particles, owing to the partial oxidization of silver particles on the TiO2 coatings, while the Pt-TiO2 coating contained a mixture of Pt and TiO2 particles. Diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DRS) showed that metal particles (Ag or Pt) incorporated into the TiO2 coatings promoted optical absorption in the visible region and made it possible for the coatings to be excited by visible light. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed that the PL intensity of the Pt-TiO2 coating was lower than that of the Ag-TiO2 and TiO2 coatings, indicating that the Pt-TiO2 coating had a higher efficiency of charge carrier trapping, immigration and transfer, which subsequently promoted the pseudo-first-order rate constants after the UV/TiO2 process. The Pt-TiO2 coatings for the photocatalytic decomposition of o-cresol under UV light irradiation corresponded to a higher pseudo-first-order rate constant (k) of 0.02 min(-1) when compared with the photocatalytic decomposition rates of pure TiO2 coatings (k = 0.0062 min(-1)) and Ag-TiO2 coatings (k = 0.01 min(-1)). The experimental results also indicated that the photodegradation rate of the Pt-TiO2 coating under visible light irradiation was significantly higher than the photodegradation rates of the Ag-TiO2 and pure TiO2 coatings.

  10. Deformation Behavior of Sub-micron and Micron Sized Alumina Particles in Compression.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay; Mook, William; Boyce, Brad; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Hall, Aaron Christopher.

    2014-09-01

    The ability to integrate ceramics with other materials has been limited due to high temperature (>800degC) ceramic processing. Recently, researchers demonstrated a novel process , aerosol deposition (AD), to fabricate ceramic films at room temperature (RT). In this process, sub - micro n sized ceramic particles are accelerated by pressurized gas, impacted on the substrate, plastically deformed, and form a dense film under vacuum. This AD process eliminates high temperature processing thereby enabling new coatings and device integration, in which ceramics can be deposited on metals, plastics, and glass. However, k nowledge in fundamental mechanisms for ceramic particle s to deform and form a dense ceramic film is still needed and is essential in advancing this novel RT technology. In this wo rk, a combination of experimentation and atomistic simulation was used to determine the deformation behavior of sub - micron sized ceramic particle s ; this is the first fundamental step needed to explain coating formation in the AD process . High purity, singl e crystal, alpha alumina particles with nominal size s of 0.3 um and 3.0 um were examined. Particle characterization, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM ), showed that the 0.3 u m particles were relatively defect - free single crystals whereas 3.0 u m p articles were highly defective single crystals or particles contained low angle grain boundaries. Sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited ductile failure in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 0.3um particles deformed plastically, fractured, and became polycrystalline. Moreover, dislocation activit y was observed within the se particles during compression . These sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited large accum ulated strain (2 - 3 times those of micron - sized particles) before first fracture. I n agreement with the findings from experimentation , a tomistic simulation s of nano - Al 2 O 3 particles showed dislocation slip and

  11. Laser engineered net shaping of quasi-continuous network microstructural TiB reinforced titanium matrix bulk composites: Microstructure and wear performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingbin; Ning, Fuda; Wang, Hui; Cong, Weilong; Zhao, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been successfully applied to the aeronautical and biomedical industries. However, their poor tribological properties restrict their fields of applications under severe wear conditions. Facing to these challenges, this study investigated TiB reinforced Ti matrix composites (TiB-TMCs), fabricated by in-situ laser engineered net shaping (LENS) process, through analyzing parts quality, microstructure formation mechanisms, microstructure characterizations, and workpiece wear performance. At high B content areas (original B particle locations), reaction between Ti and B particles took place, generating flower-like microstructure. At low B content areas, eutectic TiB nanofibers contacted with each other with the formation of crosslinking microstructure. The crosslinking microstructural TiB aggregated and connected at the boundaries of Ti grains, forming a three-dimensional quasi-continuous network microstructure. The results show that compared with commercially pure Ti bulk parts, the TiB-TMCs exhibited superior wear performance (i.e. indentation wear resistance and friction wear resistance) due to the present of TiB reinforcement and the innovative microstructures formed inside TiB-TMCs. In addition, the qualities of the fabricated parts were improved with fewer interior defects by optimizing laser power, thus rendering better wear performance.

  12. Cold Sprayability of Mixed Commercial Purity Ti Plus Ti6Al4V Metal Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Huseyin; Alomair, Mashael; Wong, Wilson; Vo, Phuong; Yue, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, metallic composite coatings of commercial purity Ti plus Ti6Al4V were produced by cold spraying to explore the effect of mixing on porosity and mechanical properties of the coatings. The coatings were deposited using N2 gas at 800 °C and 4 MPa pressure on 1020 steel substrate. Coating characteristics were studied by examining porosity percentages and Vickers's hardness. The microstructure was examined using optical and electron microscopy techniques. It was observed that mixing metal powders can lead to improvements in cold sprayability, specifically decreases in the porosity of the `matrix' powder. It is shown that a critical addition can significantly influence porosity, but above this critical level, there is a little change in porosity. Hardness differences between the two powders are considered to be the first-order influence, but differences in particle sizes and morphology may also be contributing factors.

  13. Effect of nano-CeO2 on microstructure properties of TiC/TiN+TiCN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray diffraction results indi- cated that Al3Ti+TiC/TiN+nano-CeO2 laser-cladded coating consisted of Ti3Al, TiC, TiN, Ti2Al20Ce, TiC0·3N0·7, ... Experimental. Cross-flow CO2 laser cladding equipment was used in this experiment. .... convection by a high energy density lead the distribution of. TiC0·3N0·7 precipitates to a ...

  14. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized on titanium dioxide fine particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nino-Martinez, N [Facultad de Ciencias, UASLP, Alvaro Obregon 64, CP 78000, San Luis PotosI, SLP (Mexico); Martinez-Castanon, G A [Maestria en Ciencias Odontologicas, Facultad de EstomatologIa, UASLP, Avenida Manuel Nava 2, Zona Universitaria, San Luis PotosI, SLP (Mexico); Aragon-Pina, A [Instituto de Metalurgia, Facultad de IngenierIa, UASLP, Alvaro Obregon 64, CP 78000, San Luis PotosI, SLP (Mexico); Martinez-Gutierrez, F [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, UASLP, Alvaro Obregon 64, CP 78000, San Luis PotosI, SLP (Mexico); Martinez-Mendoza, J R [Facultad de Ciencias, UASLP, Alvaro Obregon 64, CP 78000, San Luis PotosI, SLP (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [Facultad de Ciencias, UASLP, Alvaro Obregon 64, CP 78000, San Luis PotosI, SLP (Mexico)

    2008-02-13

    Silver nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were synthesized over the surface of two different commercial TiO{sub 2} particles using a simple aqueous reduction method. The reducing agent used was NaBH{sub 4}; different molar ratios TiO{sub 2}:Ag were also used. The nanocomposites thus prepared were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy; the antibacterial activity was assessed using the standard microdilution method, determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. From the microscopy studies (TEM and STEM) we observed that the silver nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed over the surface of TiO{sub 2} particles and that the TiO{sub 2}:Ag molar ratio plays an important role. We used three different TiO{sub 2}Ag molar ratios and the size of the silver nanoparticles is 10, 20 and 80 nm, respectively. It was found that the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites increases considerably comparing with separated silver nanoparticles and TiO{sub 2} particles.

  15. Pulmonary toxicity studies in rats with triethoxyoctylsilane (OTES)-coated, pigment-grade titanium dioxide particles: bridging studies to predict inhalation hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Reed, K L; Webb, T R

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare the acute lung toxicities of intratracheally instilled hydrophobic relative to hydrophilic surface-coated titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles using a pulmonary bridging methodology. In addition, the results of these instillation studies were bridged with data previously generated from inhalation studies with hydrophilic, pigment-grade (base) TiO(2) particles, using the base, pigment-grade TiO(2) particles as the inhalation/instillation bridge material. To conduct toxicity comparisons, the surface coatings of base pigment-grade TiO(2) particles were made hydrophobic by application of triethoxyoctylsilane (OTES), a commercial product used in plastics applications. For the bioassay experimental design, rats were intratracheally instilled with 2 or 10 mg/kg of the following TiO(2) particle-types: (1) base (hydrophilic) TiO(2) particles; (2) TiO(2) with OTES surface coating; (3) base TiO(2) with Tween 80; or (4) OTES TiO(2) with Tween 80. Saline instilled rats served as controls. Following exposures, the lungs of sham- and TiO(2)-exposed rats were assessed both using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) biomarkers and by histopathology of lung tissue at 24 hours, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months post exposure. The results demonstrated that only the base, high-dose (10 mg/kg) pigment-grade TiO(2) particles and those with particle-types containing Tween 80 produced a transient pulmonary inflammatory response, and this was reversible within 1 week postexposure. The authors conclude that the OTES hydrophobic coating on the pigment-grade TiO(2) particle does not cause significant pulmonary toxicity.

  16. Growth of 1-D TiO2 Nanowires on Ti and Ti Alloys by Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyong Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of titania nanowires by a simple metal oxidation process was investigated for both commercially pure α-Ti and Ti alloys including Ti64 and β-Ti under a limited supply of oxygen. The effects of processing variables including heat treatment temperature, gas flow rate, and process duration on the growth of nanowires were explored. Similarities and differences in the growth of nanowires on pure Ti versus Ti alloys were observed. While the growth window in terms of temperature and flow rate is narrow in pure Ti, the window is much wider in the alloys. However, the trend towards high temperature is similar in all the samples promoting faceted oxide crystal growth rather than nanowires.

  17. Multi-scale dispersion in fuel cell anode catalysts: Role of TiO{sub 2} towards achieving nanostructured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiun-Ming; Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Cheng, Ming-Yao; Shih, Shou-Chu; Wang, Guo-Rung; Hwang, Bing-Joe [Nanoelectrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (ROC); Liu, Din-Goa; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Tang, Mau-Tsu [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (ROC)

    2006-09-13

    Multi-scale dispersion involving dispersion of catalyst particles on carbon support as well as intra-particle dispersion within the particles of a ternary Pt-Ru-Ti/C catalyst has been demonstrated. The presence of TiO{sub 2} can dramatically decreases the grain size of the obtained catalyst to about 1-2nm when compared with similarly prepared Pt-Ru/C (3-4nm) catalyst indicating that TiO{sub 2} can enhance the dispersion of the catalyst particles on carbon support. The structure and distribution of the Pt-Ru-Ti/C catalyst nanoparticles has been studied from high angle annular dark-field (HAADF) images combining with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The composition of the Pt-Ru-Ti/C was found to be 50:34:16 (Pt:Ru:Ti, at%). The role of TiO{sub 2} in improving the intra-particle distribution has been investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at extended X-ray absorption fine structure region (EXAFS). The XAS parameters suggest that the Pt-Ru-Ti/C catalyst possess a structure in which the core is rich in Pt-Ru alloy and the shell is rich in Pt. In the shell, the Pt, Ru and TiO{sub 2} species are distributed homogenously. As a result of the improved multi-scale dispersion, the Pt-Ru-Ti/C catalyst exhibited enhanced activity towards methanol oxidation when compared to the commercial E-TEK 30 Pt-Ru/C catalyst and shows nearly similar performance when compared to the commercial JM 30 Pt-Ru/C catalyst with promising applications in fuel cells. (author)

  18. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.

  19. Hybrid microwave synthesis and characterization of the compounds in the Li-Ti-O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li Hong; Dong, Cheng; Guo, Juan

    Hybrid microwave synthesis has been applied for preparation of Li 4Ti 5O 12, Li 2Ti 3O 7, Li 2TiO 3 and LiTiO 2 for the first time. Stepwise heating was used for avoiding the instantaneous release of gas by-product and obtaining well-shaped samples. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The obtained samples have relatively uniform particle sizes. The electrochemical performance of Li 4Ti 5O 12 and Li 2Ti 3O 7 were investigated. The first discharge capacity of Li 4Ti 5O 12 was 150 mAh g -1 and 141 mAh g -1 after 27 cycles and a very flat discharge and charge curve of Li 4Ti 5O 12 was shown at about 1.56 V. Similarly, Li 2Ti 3O 7 exhibits good cycle performance. The initial discharge capacity is 118 mAh g -1 and 30th cycle is still 112 mAh g -1.

  20. Hybrid microwave synthesis and characterization of the compounds in the Li-Ti-O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li Hong; Dong, Cheng; Guo, Juan [National Laboratory for Superconductivity, Institute of Physics and Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2008-01-03

    Hybrid microwave synthesis has been applied for preparation of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and LiTiO{sub 2} for the first time. Stepwise heating was used for avoiding the instantaneous release of gas by-product and obtaining well-shaped samples. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The obtained samples have relatively uniform particle sizes. The electrochemical performance of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} were investigated. The first discharge capacity of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} was 150 mAh g{sup -1} and 141 mAh g{sup -1} after 27 cycles and a very flat discharge and charge curve of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} was shown at about 1.56 V. Similarly, Li{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} exhibits good cycle performance. The initial discharge capacity is 118 mAh g{sup -1} and 30th cycle is still 112 mAh g{sup -1}. (author)

  1. Effect of HCl on the Formation of TiO2 Nanocrystallites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Trong Tung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanocrystals are prepared by pyrolysis of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 as precursor in HCl aqueous solution at 80°C. The experimental results show that the HCl concentrations in the synthesizing medium and the following aging are the essential factors affecting the phase formation and phase composition of the resulting TiO2 nanocrystals. The TiO2 suspended in the HCl media is predominant anatase in uniform cluster and the TiO2 deposited in the sedimentation is predominant rutile in the rod-like structure. In the anatase phase, TiO2 crystallites have particle structure of 4–11 nm in mean size depending on the HCl concentration and aging time. In the rutile phase, the mean size of rutile TiO2 is 12-13 nm and there is not much change with HCl environment and aging time. The mean size of TiO2 of around 11-12 nm is considered to be the critical point of phase transition from anatase to rutile in HCl media. Consequence, TiO2 nanocrystallites in pure anatase and rutile phase can be extracted and segregated from the colloidal suspension and the deposited parts in the synthesizing media.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of CeO2-doped TiO2 Composite Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman ZUAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure TiO2 and CeO2-doped TiO2 (3 % CeO2-97 %TiO2 composite nanocrystals were synthesized via co-precipitation method and characterized using TGA, XRD, FTIR, DR-UV-vis and TEM. The XRD data revealed that the phase structure of the synthesized samples was mainly in pure anatase having crystallite size in the range of 7 nm – 11 nm. Spherical shapes with moderate aggregation of the crystal particles were observed under the TEM observation. The presence of the CeO2 at TiO2 site has not only affected morphologically but also induced the electronic property of the TiO2 by lowering the band gap energy from 3.29 eV (Eg-Ti to 3.15 eV (Eg-CeTi. Performance evaluation of the synthesized samples showed that both samples have a strong adsorption capacity toward Congo red (CR dye in aqueous solution at room temperature experiment, where  the capacity of the CeTi was higher than the Ti sample. Based on DR-UV data, the synthesized samples obtained in this study may also become promising catalysts for photo-assisted removal of synthetic dye in aqueous solution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2732

  3. Silver film on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support: Photocatalytic and antimicrobial ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukoje, Ivana D., E-mail: ivanav@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tomašević-Ilić, Tijana D., E-mail: tommashev@gmail.com [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zarubica, Aleksandra R., E-mail: zarubica2000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Niš, Višegradska 33, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Dimitrijević, Suzana, E-mail: suzana@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Budimir, Milica D., E-mail: mickbudimir@gmail.com [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vranješ, Mila R., E-mail: mila@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Šaponjić, Zoran V., E-mail: saponjic@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nedeljković, Jovan M., E-mail: jovned@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Simple photocatalytic rout for deposition of Ag on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films. • High antibactericidal efficiency of deposited Ag on TiO{sub 2} support. • Improved photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} films in the presence of deposited Ag. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films were prepared on glass slides by the dip coating technique using colloidal solutions consisting of 4.5 nm particles as a precursor. Photoirradiation of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} film modified with alanine that covalently binds to the surface of TiO{sub 2} and at the same time chelate silver ions induced formation of metallic silver film. Optical and morphological properties of thin silver films on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support were studied by absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Improvement of photocatalytic performance of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films after deposition of silver was observed in degradation reaction of crystal violet. Antimicrobial ability of deposited silver films on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support was tested in dark as a function of time against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The silver films ensured maximum cells reduction of both bacteria, while the fungi reduction reached satisfactory 98.45% after 24 h of contact.

  4. The Effect of Process Parameters on the Synthesis of Ti and TiO2 Nanoparticles Producted by Electromagnetic Levitational Gas Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moazeni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticles of Ti and TiO2 have attracted extensive research interest because of their diverse applications in, for instance, catalysis, energy conversion, pigment and cosmetic manufacturing and biomedical engineering. Through this project, a one-step bulk synthesis method of electromagnetic levitational gas condensation (ELGC was utilized for the synthesis of monodispersed and crystalline Ti and TiO2 nanoparticles. Within the process, the Ti vapours ascending from the high temperature levitated droplet were condensed by an argon gas stream under atmospheric pressure. The TiO2 nanoparticles were produced by simultaneous injection of argon and oxygen into the reactor. The effects of flow rate of the condensing and oxidizing gases on the size and the size distribution of the nanoparticles were investigated. The particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and image analysis. The process parameters for the synthesis of the crystalline Ti and TiO2 nanoparticles were determined.

  5. Microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of laser-welded joint of γ-TiAl alloy with pure Ti filler metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaolong; Sun, Daqian; Li, Hongmei; Guo, Hongling; Gu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Zhuo

    2017-12-01

    γ-TiAl alloy was successfully welded using pure Ti filler metal by laser. The microstructures, element distribution and phase composition of the joint were investigated by SEM, EDS and XRD, and the mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated by nanoindentation and tensile strength tests. Crack-free joints were obtained by using Ti filler metal. The weld zone mainly contained of α2-Ti3Al phase and a small amount of Ti2Al phases. The hardness values in the weld zone were higher than that of base metal (BM) due to the formation of α2-Ti3Al phase, but for the modulus values were just the reverse. The tensile strength and elongation of the joints were 288 MPa and 2.19%, respectively, accounting for 74.8% and 94.0% of the BM, respectively. The joint fracture surface exhibited typical brittle fracture morphology, and Ti2Al and TiAl2 particle phases can be seen on the fracture surface.

  6. The Role of Molecular Modeling in TiO₂ Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Zekiye

    2017-03-30

    Molecular Modeling methods play a very important role in TiO₂ photocatalysis. Recent advances in TiO₂ photocatalysis have produced a number of interesting surface phenomena, reaction products, and various novel visible light active photocatalysts with improved properties. Quantum mechanical calculations appear promising as a means of describing the mechanisms and the product distributions of the photocatalytic degradation reactions of organic pollutants in both gas and aqueous phases. Since quantum mechanical methods utilize the principles of particle physics, their use may be extended to the design of new photocatalysts. This review introduces molecular modeling methods briefly and emphasizes the use of these methods in TiO₂ photocatalysis. The methods used for obtaining information about the degradabilities of the pollutant molecules, predicting reaction mechanisms, and evaluating the roles of the dopants and surface modifiers are explained.

  7. Mechanical properties of NiTi and CuNiTi wires used in orthodontic treatment. Part 2: Microscopic surface appraisal and metallurgical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Abdo Gravina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This research aimed at comparing the qualitative chemical compositions and the surface morphology of fracture regions of eight types of Nickel (Ni Titanium (Ti conventional wires, superelastic and heat-activated (GAC, TP, Ormco, Masel, Morelli and Unitek, to the wires with addition of copper (CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC, Ormco after traction test. METHODS: The analyses were performed in a scanning electronic microscope (JEOL, model JSM-5800 LV with EDS system of microanalysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy. RESULTS : The results showed that NiTi wires presented Ni and Ti as the main elements of the alloy with minimum differences in their composition. The CuNiTi wires, however, presented Ni and Ti with a significant percentage of copper (Cu. As for surface morphology, the wires that presented the lowest wire-surface roughness were the superelastic ones by Masel and Morelli, while those that presented the greatest wire-surface roughness were the CuNiTi 27oC and 35oC ones by Ormco, due to presence of microcavity formed as a result of pulling out some particles, possibly of NiTi. 4 The fracture surfaces presented characteristics of ductile fracture, with presence of microcavities. The superelastic wires by GAC and the CuNiTi 27oC and the heat-activated ones by Unitek presented the smallest microcavities and the lowest wire-surface roughness with regard to fracture, while the CuNiTi 35oC wires presented inadequate wire-surface roughness in the fracture region. CONCLUSION: CuNiTi 35oC wires did not present better morphologic characteristics in comparison to the other wires with regard to surfaces and fracture region.

  8. Effects of the Ti/Fe ratio on the phase composition and magnetic properties of mechanochemically activated Ti-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristobal, A.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA), CONICET-UNMdP, Av. J.B. Justo 4302 - B7608FDQ - Mar del Plata (Argentina); Ramos, C.P. [CONICET and Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin (Argentina); Bercoff, P.G. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (FaMAF), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, IFEG (CONICET), Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Botta, P.M., E-mail: pbotta@fi.mdp.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA), CONICET-UNMdP, Av. J.B. Justo 4302 - B7608FDQ - Mar del Plata (Argentina); Lopez, J.M. Porto [Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA), CONICET-UNMdP, Av. J.B. Justo 4302 - B7608FDQ - Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanochemical treatment of Ti/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders induces fast redox reactions at RT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite materials Fe/TiO{sub 2} or Fe/FeTiO{sub 3} are formed according to starting Ti/Fe ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These materials show high saturation magnetization and a relatively high coercivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating favors the formation of FeTiO{sub 3}, decreasing the magnetization and coercivity. - Abstract: The mechanochemical activation of Ti/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder mixtures with molar ratio 1 and 1.5 was performed with the aim of understanding the effects of the starting composition on the reactivity and structure of the produced phases. The solid mixture was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The consumption of the reactants and the formation of metallic iron are observed at short activation times. After 3 h, the redox reaction completes, yielding a composite powder formed by nanocrystalline Fe particles dispersed in an oxide matrix. The mixture with the highest Ti/Fe ratio leads to the formation of a TiO{sub 2} matrix, whereas the other composition forms FeTiO{sub 3}. Both composite materials have very high saturation magnetization and moderate coercivities. Under subsequent thermal treatment at 700 Degree-Sign C, the activated solids show a progressive crystalline ordering with partial oxidation of Fe (mainly to FeTiO{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and crystallization into the rutile phase of TiO{sub 2}. This leads to a significant decrease of magnetization and coercivity.

  9. Wet-Chemical Preparation of TiO2-Based Composites with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-based composites have been paid significant attention in the photocatalysis field. The size, crystallinity and nanomorphology of TiO2 materials have an important effect on the photocatalytic efficiency. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based materials have been widely investigated in past decades. Based on our group’s research works on TiO2 materials, this review introduces several methods for the fabrication of TiO2, rare-earth-doped TiO2 and noble-metal-decorated TiO2 particles with different morphologies. We focused on the preparation and the formation mechanism of TiO2-based materials with unique structures including spheres, hollow spheres, porous spheres, hollow porous spheres and urchin-like spheres. The photocatalytical activity of urchin-like TiO2, noble metal nanoparticle-decorated 3D (three-dimensional urchin-like TiO2 and bimetallic core/shell nanoparticle-decorated urchin-like hierarchical TiO2 are briefly discussed.

  10. Synthesis of Nano-Ilmenite (FeTiO3) doped TiO2/Ti Electrode for Photoelectrocatalytic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmawati; Watoni, A. H.; Wibowo, D.; Maulidiyah; Nurdin, M.

    2017-11-01

    Ilmenite (FeTiO3) doped on Ti and TiO2/Ti electrodes were successfully prepared by using the sol-gel method. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of FeTiO3 are characterized by XRD, UV-Vis DRS, and SEM. The FeTiO3 and TiO2 greatly affect the photoelectrocatalysis performance characterized by Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The characterization result shows a band gap of FeTiO3 is 2.94 eV. XRD data showed that FeTiO3 formed at 2θ were 35.1° (110), 49.9° (024), and 61.2° (214). The morphology of FeTiO3/Ti and FeTiO3.TiO2/Ti using SEM shows that the formation of FeTiO3 thin layer signifies the Liquid Phase Deposition method effectively in the coating process. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) test showed that FeTiO3.TiO2/Ti electrode was highly oxidation responsive under visible light compared to the FeTiO3/Ti electrodes i.e. 7.87×10‑4 A and 9.87×10‑5 A. Degradation test of FeTiO3/Ti and FeTiO3.TiO2/Ti electrodes on titan yellow showed that the percentages of degradation with photoelectrocatalysis at 0.5 mg/L were 41% and 43%, respectively.

  11. Electrodeposition and Corrosion Resistance Properties of Zn-Ni/TiO2 Nano composite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano sized TiO2 particles were prepared by sol-gel method. TiO2 nano particles were dispersed in zinc-nickel sulphate electrolyte and thin film of Zn-Ni-TiO2 composite was generated by electrodeposition on mild steel plates. The effect of TiO2 on the corrosion behavior and hardness of the composite coatings was investigated. The film was tested for its corrosion resistance property using electrochemical, weight loss, and salt spray methods. The paper revealed higher resistance of composite coating to corrosion. Microhardness of the composite coating was determined. Scanning electron microscope images and X-ray diffraction patterns of coating revealed its fine-grain nature. Average crystalline size of the composite coating was calculated. The anticorrosion mechanism of the composite coating was also discussed.

  12. Surface coating changes the physiological and biochemical impacts of nano-TiO2 in basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenjuan; Du, Wenchao; Barrios, Ana C; Armendariz, Raul; Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Zink, Jeffrey I; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of surface coating on the interaction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plants. In this study, basil (Ocimum basilicum) was cultivated for 65 days in soil amended with unmodified, hydrophobic (coated with aluminum oxide and dimethicone), and hydrophilic (coated with aluminum oxide and glycerol) titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) at 125, 250, 500, and 750 mg nano-TiO2 kg-1 soil. ICP-OES/MS, SPAD meter, and UV/Vis spectrometry were used to determine Ti and essential elements in tissues, relative chlorophyll content, carbohydrates, and antioxidant response, respectively. Compared with control, hydrophobic and hydrophilic nano-TiO2 significantly reduced seed germination by 41% and 59%, respectively, while unmodified and hydrophobic nano-TiO2 significantly decreased shoot biomass by 31% and 37%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). Roots exposed to hydrophobic particles at 750 mg kg-1 had 87% and 40% more Ti than the pristine and hydrophilic nano-TiO2; however, no differences were found in shoots. The three types of particles affected the homeostasis of essential elements: at 500 mg kg-1, unmodified particles increased Cu (104%) and Fe (90%); hydrophilic increased Fe (90%); while hydrophobic increased Mn (339%) but reduced Ca (71%), Cu (58%), and P (40%). However, only hydrophobic particles significantly reduced root elongation by 53%. Unmodified, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic particles significantly reduced total sugar by 39%, 38%, and 66%, respectively, compared with control. Moreover, unmodified particles significantly decreased reducing sugar (34%), while hydrophobic particles significantly reduced starch (35%). Although the three particles affected basil plants, coated particles impacted the most its nutritional quality, since they altered more essential elements, starch, and reducing sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    While biomedicine and geoscience use grids to bring together many different sub-disciplines, particle physicists use grid computing to increase computing power and storage resources, and to access and analyze vast amounts of data collected from detectors at the world's most powerful accelerators (1 page)

  14. Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles containing Fe, Si, and V using multiple diffusion flames and catalytic oxidation capability of carbon-coated nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Mohamed

    2016-01-19

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles containing iron, silicon, and vanadium are synthesized using multiple diffusion flames. The growth of carbon-coated (C–TiO2), carbon-coated with iron oxide (Fe/C–TiO2), silica-coated (Si–TiO2), and vanadium-doped (V–TiO2) TiO2 nanoparticles is demonstrated using a single-step process. Hydrogen, oxygen, and argon are utilized to establish the flame, with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor for TiO2. For the growth of Fe/C–TiO2 nanoparticles, TTIP is mixed with xylene and ferrocene. While for the growth of Si–TiO2 and V–TiO2, TTIP is mixed with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and vanadium (V) oxytriisopropoxide, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy-filtered TEM for elemental mapping (of Si, C, O, and Ti), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption BET surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Anatase is the dominant phase for the C–TiO2, Fe/C–TiO2, and Si–TiO2 nanoparticles, whereas rutile is the dominant phase for the V–TiO2 nanoparticles. For C–TiO2 and Fe/C–TiO2, the nanoparticles are coated with about 3-5-nm thickness of carbon. The iron-based TiO2 nanoparticles significantly improve the catalytic oxidation of carbon, where complete oxidation of carbon occurs at a temperature of 470 °C (with iron) compared to 610 °C (without iron). Enhanced catalytic oxidation properties are also observed for model soot particles, Printex-U, when mixed with Fe/C-TiO2. With regards to Si–TiO2 nanoparticles, a uniform coating of 3 to 8 nm of silicon dioxide is observed around the TiO2 particles. This coating mainly occurs due to variance in the chemical reaction rates of the precursors. Finally, with regards to V–TiO2, vanadium is doped within the TiO2 nanoparticles as visualized by HRTEM and XPS further confirms the formation of

  15. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles containing Fe, Si, and V using multiple diffusion flames and catalytic oxidation capability of carbon-coated nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Mohamed A. [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Clean Combustion Research Center (Saudi Arabia); Memon, Nasir K., E-mail: nmemon@qf.org.qa [HBKU, Qatar Foundation, Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI) (Qatar); Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Anjum, Dalaver H. [KAUST, Imaging and Characterization Lab (Saudi Arabia); Chung, Suk Ho [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Clean Combustion Research Center (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-01-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles containing iron, silicon, and vanadium are synthesized using multiple diffusion flames. The growth of carbon-coated (C–TiO{sub 2}), carbon-coated with iron oxide (Fe/C–TiO{sub 2}), silica-coated (Si–TiO{sub 2}), and vanadium-doped (V–TiO{sub 2}) TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles is demonstrated using a single-step process. Hydrogen, oxygen, and argon are utilized to establish the flame, with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor for TiO{sub 2}. For the growth of Fe/C–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, TTIP is mixed with xylene and ferrocene. While for the growth of Si–TiO{sub 2} and V–TiO{sub 2}, TTIP is mixed with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and vanadium (V) oxytriisopropoxide, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with energy-filtered TEM for elemental mapping (of Si, C, O, and Ti), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption BET surface area analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. Anatase is the dominant phase for the C–TiO{sub 2}, Fe/C–TiO{sub 2}, and Si–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, whereas rutile is the dominant phase for the V–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. For C–TiO{sub 2} and Fe/C–TiO{sub 2}, the nanoparticles are coated with about 3-5-nm thickness of carbon. The iron-based TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles significantly improve the catalytic oxidation of carbon, where complete oxidation of carbon occurs at a temperature of 470 °C (with iron) compared to 610 °C (without iron). Enhanced catalytic oxidation properties are also observed for model soot particles, Printex-U, when mixed with Fe/C-TiO{sub 2}. With regards to Si–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, a uniform coating of 3 to 8 nm of silicon dioxide is observed around the TiO{sub 2} particles. This coating mainly occurs due to variance in the chemical reaction rates of the precursors. Finally, with regards

  16. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange by TiO2-coated activated carbon and kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youji; Li, Xiaodong; Li, Junwen; Yin, Jing

    2006-03-01

    TiO2-coated activated carbon (AC) grain (TiO2/AC) was prepared through hydrolytic precipitation of TiO2 from Tetrabutylorthotitanate and following heat treatment. The TiO2/AC was characterized by BET, SEM, XRD and optical absorption spectroscopy. The samples were employed as catalysts for methyl orange photocatalytic oxidation degradation in aqueous suspension, used as probe reaction. The kinetics of methyl orange photodegradation was analyzed. The results indicate that BET surface area of TiO2-coated ACs decreased drastically in comparison with the original AC with increasing TiO2 coatings by more than 1 doped cycle. Nano-TiO2 particles were dispersed on the AC with the size of 20-40 nm. Crystalline TiO2 doped onto AC was from anatase to rutile with increase of heat-treatment temperature. The TiO2/AC was shown high photoactivity for the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) dyestuff in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. The kinetics of photocatalytic MO dyestuff degradation was found to follow a pseudo-first-order rate law. It was observed that the presence of the AC enhanced the photoefficiency of the titanium dioxide catalyst. Different amount of TiO2 coatings induced different increases in the apparent first-order rate constant of the process. The kinetic behavior could be described in terms of a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The values of the adsorption equilibrium constants for the organic molecules, KC, and for the rate constants, kc, were certainly dependent on TiO2 content. At 47wt% TiO2 coatings with the highest rate constant, the KC and kc was 0.1116l mmol(-1) and 0.1872 mmol l(-1) min(-1), respectively. The mechanism of methyl orange degradation was discussed in terms of the titanium dioxide photosensitization by the AC.

  17. Lithium storage in amorphous TiNi hydride: Electrode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bououdina, M., E-mail: mboudina@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Centre, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 (Bahrain); Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 (Bahrain); Oumellal, Y.; Dupont, L.; Aymard, L. [Laboratoire de Reactivite du Solid (RCS), UMR CNRS 6007, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Al-Gharni, H. [Department of Electronics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Al-Hajry, A. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Maark, T.A. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala University, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); De Sarkar, A. [Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Ahuja, R. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala University, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Deshpande, M.D. [Department of Physics, H.P.T. Arts and R.Y.K. Science College, Nasik 422 005, Maharashtra (India); Qian, Z. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala University, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rahane, A.B. [Department of Physics, H.P.T. Arts and R.Y.K. Science College, Nasik 422 005, Maharashtra (India)

    2013-08-15

    In this study, amorphous TiNi phase was successfully prepared using mechanically milling for a very short time of 8 h. HRTEM confirms the formation of amorphous phase with the presence of nanocrystalline Fe particles. After hydrogenation (30 bars of H{sub 2} for a duration of 2 h), the electrochemical reaction shows that TiNi hydride/Li cell discharges at a current of one Li for 10 h between 3 V and 0.005 V. The discharge of TiNiH electrode around x = 1 Li corresponds to a capacity of 251 mAh g{sup −1} and a hydride composition of TiNiH{sub 1.0} at an average voltage of 0.4 V. Ex-situ X-ray diffraction pattern collected at the end of the discharge shows a mixture of amorphous TiNi compound and LiH. A general mechanism for the electrochemical reaction is then proposed: α-TiNiH + Li{sup +} + e{sup −} → α-TiNi + LiH. The results from DFT calculations yield an average cell voltage of 0.396 V, which is in good agreement with the experimental pseudo-plateau occurring at 0.4 V. - Highlights: • Synthesis of amorphous TiNi in a very short time. • Hydrogenation of amorphous TiNi phase using reactive ball milling (30 bars H{sub 2}, 2 h). • A discharge capacity of 251 mAh g{sup −1} which corresponds to TiNiH{sub 1.0} at an average voltage of 0.4 V. • Using ex-situ X-ray diffraction, a mechanism has been proposed: α-TiNiH + Li{sup +} + e{sup −} → α-TiNi + LiH. • DFT results show an average cell voltage of 0.396 V.

  18. Three-dimensional observation of TiO2 nanostructures by electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Suh, Young Joon

    2013-03-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures of TiO2 related materials including nanotubes, electron acceptor materials in hybrid polymer solar cells, and working electrodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were visualized by electron tomography as well as TEM micrographs. The regions on the wall of TiO2 nanotubes where the streptavidins were attached were elucidated by electron tomogram analysis. The coverage of TiO2 nanotubes by streptavidin was also investigated. The TiO2 nanostructures in hybrid polymer solar cells made by sol-gel and atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods and the morphologies of pores between TiO2 particles in DSSCs were also observed by reconstructed three-dimensional images made by electron tomography. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of an Orthodontic Composite Containing Titanium-dioxide Nano-particles

    OpenAIRE

    Farzin Heravi; Mohammad Ramezani; Maryam Poosti; Mohsen Hosseini; Arezoo Shajiei; Farzaneh Ahrari

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Incorporation of nano-particles to orthodontic bonding systems has been considered to prevent enamel demineralization around appliances. This study investigated cytotoxicity of Transbond XT adhesive containing 1 wt% titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles. Materials and methods. Ten composite disks were prepared from each of the conventional and TiO2-containg composites and aged for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). The extrac...

  20. Effect of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Tensile Strength of Dental Acrylic Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkavand, Saeed; Moslehifard, Elnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Adding further fillers to dental resins may enhance their physical characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of heat-curing acrylic resin reinforced by TiO2nanoparticles added into the resin matrix. Materials and methods. Commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained and characterized using X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine their crystalline structure, particle size and morphology. TiO2-acrylic resin nanocomposite was prepared by mixing 0.5, 1 and 2 (wt%) of surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles in an amalgamator providing three groups of samples. Before curing, the obtained paste was packed into steel molds. After cur-ing, the specimens were removed from the molds. The tensile strength test samples were prepared according to ISO 1567. Results. Two crystalline phases were found in TiO2 nanoparticles including: (i) anatase as the major one, and (ii) rutile. The average particle size calculated according to the Scherrer equation was 20.4 nm, showing a normal size distribution. According to SEM images, the nanocomposite with 1wt% TiO2 nanoparticles had a better distribution compared to other groups. In addition, the group by 1wt% TiO2 exhibited higher tensile strength with a significant difference compared to other groups. ANOVA showed significant differences between the contents of TiO2 particles in acrylic resin (F = 22.19; P < 0.001). Conclusion. A considerable increase in tensile strength was observed with titania NPs reinforcement agents in 1wt% by weight. Further increase of TiO2 nanoparticles decreased the tensile strength.

  1. Effect of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Tensile Strength of Dental Acrylic Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shirkavand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Adding further fillers to dental resins may enhance their physical characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of heat-curing acrylic resin reinforced by TiO2nanoparticles added into the resin matrix. Materials and methods. Commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained and characterized using X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to determine their crystalline structure, particle size and morphology. TiO2-acrylic resin nanocomposite was prepared by mixing 0.5, 1 and 2 (wt% of surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles in an amalgamator providing three groups of samples. Before curing, the obtained paste was packed into steel molds. After cur-ing, the specimens were removed from the molds. The tensile strength test samples were prepared according to ISO 1567. Results. Two crystalline phases were found in TiO2 nanoparticles including: (i anatase as the major one, and (ii rutile. The average particle size calculated according to the Scherrer equation was 20.4 nm, showing a normal size distribution. Ac-cording to SEM images, the nanocomposite with 1wt% TiO2 nanoparticles had a better distribution compared to other groups. In addition, the group by 1wt% TiO2 exhibited higher tensile strength with a significant difference compared to other groups. ANOVA showed significant differences between the contents of TiO2 particles in acrylic resin (F = 22.19; P < 0.001. Conclusion. A considerable increase in tensile strength was observed with titania NPs reinforcement agents in 1wt% by weight. Further increase of TiO2 nanoparticles decreased the tensile strength.

  2. Preparation and characterization of poly(lactic acid)-grafted TiO 2 nanoparticles with improved dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Bing; Wang, Xiu-Li; Xu, Da-Yun; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2009-05-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-grafted TiO 2 particles were prepared by in situ melt polycondensation of lactic acid onto the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles. The resulting products were characterized by FTIR, XPS, TG-FTIR, XRD analysis and electron microscopy observation so as to have a better understanding of bonding between the graft polymer and nanoparticles. New characteristic peaks of Ti-carboxylic coordination bond, the changes in the relative intensities of the infrared absorption bands of graft polymer and the two decomposition stage of PLA-grafted TiO 2 confirmed that PLA was grafted on the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles. By attachment of PLA, the PLA-grafted TiO 2 samples exhibited much better dispersion and a slightly larger particle size than bare TiO 2 particles. PLA-grafted TiO 2 nanoparticles will find wide applications in biomedical and eco-friendly materials, especially as fillers in PLA matrix.

  3. Effect of model dissolved organic matter coating on sorption of phenanthrene by TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Ma, Enxing; Shen, Xiaofang; Guo, Xiaoying; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Haiyun; Liu, Ye; Cai, Fei; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-11-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) may alter the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC) to metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), but the role of DOM and NP types is poorly understood. Here, phenanthrene sorption was quantified on four types of nano-TiO2 (three rutile, one anatase), and a bulk, raw TiO2 powder. Prior to the sorption experiments, these nanoparticles were coated using four different organic materials: Lignin (LIG), tannic acid (TAN), Congo red (CON), and capsorubin (CAP). Lignin, tannic acid, congo red and capsorubin coating substantially enhanced phenanthrene sorption to various TiO2 particles. After coating with a specific DOM, Kd values by the DOM-coated TiO2 particles on percent organic carbon content and surface area (SA) basis (Koc/SA) generally followed the order: TiO2 NPs with hydrophobic surfaces > bulk TiO2 particles > other TiO2 NPs. Different Koc/SA values of various DOM-TiO2 complexes resulted from distinct conformation of the coated DOM and aggregation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nitrogen-doped carbon-TiO2 composite as support of Pd electrocatalyst for formic acid oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuan-Hang; Li, Yunfeng; Lam, Thomas; Xing, Yangchuan

    2015-06-01

    We report Pd nanoparticles supported on a composite consisting of oxide TiO2 and nitrogen-doped carbon for formic acid oxidation (FAO). The nitrogen-doped carbon-TiO2 (NCx-TiO2) composite support was prepared by a simple polymerization-pyrolysis process using commercial TiO2 nanoparticles (P25). Surface analysis showed that elements of Ti, C, O, and N were present on the composite surface, on which nitrogen existed in both pyridinic and quaternary forms. Pd nanoparticles with a mean size of ca. 4 nm were uniformly deposited on the composite via a polyol process. Electrochemical characterizations showed that the NCx-TiO2-supported Pd particles (Pd/NCx-TiO2) exhibited an electrocatalytic activity towards FAO that almost doubled that of the carbon black-supported Pd particles (Pd/C) with much enhanced electrocatalytic stability. The better performance of the composite supported Pd was attributed to a possible electronic structure modification in the metallic Pd particles and bifunctional effect produced by the NCx-TiO2 composite.

  5. Ultrasonic Preparation of Nitrogen-doped TiO2 Nan crystalline Photo catalysts and Evaluation of Photo catalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huifang; Lu, Zixin; Tang, Mengyao; Cao, Wenping; Cai, Kangni; Liu, Hanhu

    2017-12-01

    Pure TiO2 and N-doped nano-TiO2 photo catalysts were individually prepared following the sol-gel method under ultrasonic conditions. The photo catalytic decomposition of methyl orange (MO) solution under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation was used as a probe reaction to estimate their photo catalytic activities. The particle size, crystal structure, and optical properties of the prepared TiO2 were performed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results suggest that ultrasound significantly reduced the size of the TiO2 particles, improved particle dispersion, which in turn improve the photo catalytic activity of TiO2 under ultraviolet light. Ultrasound also promoted the doping of non-metal nitrogen and markedly enhanced the visible light absorption capacity of the N-doped nano-TiO2. Compared with pure TiO2, the degradation rate for MO under visible light of U-N-TiO2 was increased by 70%.

  6. Characterization, dielectric and electrical behaviour of BaTiO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    thick suspension of BaTiO3 nanoparticles were spread on a carbon conductive tape attached to the surface of SEM brass stub. The particles on the stub were coated with gold–palladium by plasma sputtering for 3 min for the preparation for FE–SEM imaging. The FE–SEM image of. BaTiO3 nanoparticles prepared is shown ...

  7. Drastic enhancement of TiO2-photocatalyzed reduction of nitrobenzene by loading Ag clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Hiroaki; Ishida, Tetsuji; Takao, Ayako; Ito, Seishiro

    2004-09-14

    Ag clusters (mean diameter = 1.5 nm, standard deviation = 0.37 nm) were photodeposited on TiO(2) particles in a highly dispersed state. The loading of a small amount of the Ag clusters (0.24 wt %) dramatically enhanced both the activity for the TiO(2) photocatalytic reduction of nitrobenzene and the product selectivity of aniline. The essential action mechanism of the Ag clusters is discussed.

  8. Hydrogen Storage Enhancement Attained by Fixation of Ti on MWNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Pérez-Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hydrogen has a preponderant position among the potentially sustainable energy sources. Due to its power density, its storage is of main concern when considering a broad use in practical applications. Carbon nanotubes constitute promising candidates for the design and construction of hydrogen storage devices. This work explores the use of some procedures involving electrochemistry, aimed to bond atomic Ti on the outer surface of MWNTs. Each titanium atom has the potential of hosting two hydrogen molecules and relinquishing them by heating. Nevertheless, nanotubes are difficult to handle due to electrostatic charge and agglomeration, and in this context, two routes were tested as procedures to spread and stick nanotubes on an electrode: (1 a functionalization capable of attaching gold was tested in two forms, as either using 4 nm particles or a flat gold electrode. The fixation of Au particles was confirmed by HRTEM. (2 A simpler route that consisted on drying a CH2Cl2/nanotubes solution previously spread on a glassy carbon flat electrode. CH2Cl2 was selected as the medium and TiCl4 as the precursor for attaching atomic Ti to the nanotubes. The results revealed that hydrogen adsorption, estimated from voltamperometry, was five times higher on Ti-MWNTs than on bare nanotubes.

  9. Atomic scale study of surface orientations and energies of Ti 2 O 3 crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Meng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Blvd, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, China; Wang, Zhiguo [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, People' s Republic of China; Wang, Chongmin [Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Zheng, Jianming [Energy and Environmental Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99352, USA

    2017-10-30

    For nanostructured particles, the faceting planes and their terminating chemical species are two critical factors that govern the chemical behavior of the particle. The surface atomistic structure and termination of the Ti2O3 crystals were analyzed using atomic-scale aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combining with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. STEM imaging reveals that the Ti2O3 crystal are most often faceted along (001), (012), (-114) and (1-20) planes. DFT calculation indicates that the (012) surface with TiO-termination have the lowest cleavage energy and correspondingly the lowest surface energy, indicating that (012) will be the most stable and prevalent surfaces in Ti2O3 nanocrystals. These observations provide insights for exploring the interfacial process involving Ti2O3 nanoparticles.

  10. Dye-sensitized Pt@TiO2 core–shell nanostructures for the efficient photocatalytic generation of hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pt@TiO2 core–shell nanostructures were prepared through a hydrothermal method. The dye-sensitization of these Pt@TiO2 core–shell structures allows for a high photocatalytic activity for the generation of hydrogen from proton reduction under visible-light irradiation. When the dyes and TiO2 were co-excited through the combination of two irradiation beams with different wavelengths, a synergic effect was observed, which led to a greatly enhanced H2 generation yield. This is attributed to the rational spatial distribution of the three components (dye, TiO2, Pt, and the vectored transport of photogenerated electrons from the dye to the Pt particles via the TiO2 particle bridge.

  11. Monitoring of conditions inside gas aggregation cluster source during production of Ti/TiOx nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousal, J.; Kolpaková, A.; Shelemin, A.; Kudrna, P.; Tichý, M.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.

    2017-10-01

    Gas aggregation sources are nowadays rather widely used in the research community for producing nanoparticles. However, the direct diagnostics of conditions inside the source are relatively scarce. In this work, we focused on monitoring the plasma parameters and the composition of the gas during the production of the TiOx nanoparticles. We studied the role of oxygen in the aggregation process and the influence of the presence of the particles on the plasma. The construction of the source allowed us to make a 2D map of the plasma parameters inside the source.

  12. Remarkable Charge Separation and Photocatalytic Efficiency Enhancement through Interconnection of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yusuke; Inami, Nozomu; Hattori, Hideya; Saito, Kanji; Sohmiya, Minoru; Tsunoji, Nao; Komaguchi, Kenji; Sano, Tsuneji; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-07

    Although tremendous effort has been directed to synthesizing advanced TiO2 , it remains difficult to obtain TiO2 exhibiting a photocatalytic efficiency higher than that of P25, a benchmark photocatalyst. P25 is composed of anatase, rutile, and amorphous TiO2 particles, and photoexcited electron transfer and subsequent charge separation at the anatase-rutile particle interfaces explain its high photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, we report on a facile and rational hydrothermal treatment of P25 to selectively convert the amorphous component into crystalline TiO2 , which is deposited between the original anatase and rutile particles to increase the particle interfaces and thus enhance charge separation. This process produces a new TiO2 exhibiting a considerably enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. This method of synthesizing this TiO2 , inspired by a recently burgeoning zeolite design, promises to make TiO2 applications more feasible and effective. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Microstructure, Hardness, and Corrosion Behavior of TiC-Duplex Stainless Steel Composites Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Shicheng; Chen, Hua; Ran, Xu

    2017-08-01

    Duplex stainless steel composites with various weight fractions of TiC particles are prepared by spark plasma sintering. Ferritic 434L and austenitic 316L stainless steel powders are premixed in a 50:50 weight ratio and added with 3-9 wt.% TiC. The compacts are sintered in the solid state under vacuum conditions at 1223 K for 5 min. The effects of TiC content on the microstructure, hardness, and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel composites fabricated by powder metallurgy are evaluated. The results indicate that the TiC particulates as reinforcements can be distributed homogeneously in the steel matrix. Densification of sintered composites decreases with increasing TiC content. M23C6 carbide precipitates along grain boundary, and its neighboring Cr-Mo-depleted region is formed in the sintered microstructure, which can be eliminated subsequently with appropriate heat treatment. With the addition of TiC, the hardness of duplex stainless steel fabricated by powder metallurgy can be markedly enhanced despite increased porosity in the composites. However, TiC particles increase the corrosion rate and degrade the passivation capability, particularly for the composite with TiC content higher than 6 wt.%. Weakened metallurgical bonding in the composite with high TiC content provides the preferred sites for pitting nucleation and/or dissolution.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Sized TiO2@Chitosan for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei JIANG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the development of genetic engineering, it is urgent to find a vector with high transfection efficiency and good biocompatibility for genes. We considered combining nano-TiO2 with chitosan (CTS in order to tap their respective advantages to make a better new nanoparticle as gene vector.Methods: TiO2@CTS was prepared using microemulsion method. The physicochemical property of TiO2@CTS was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and zeta potential. The safety and influence on MC3T3-E1 cells were detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT, blood compatibility assay and flow cytometry.Results: TiO2@CTS was well prepared and it was safe to cells under concentration tests. TiO2@CTS particles had a fuzzy boundary with a particle size remaining in 20-30 nm. Besides, the results also showed that TiO2@CTS did better in cellular uptake than TiO2 at 2 h and 24 h, and had good biocompatibility. MTT assay proved that the MC3T3 cells remained good growth when treated with different concentrations of TiO2@CTS (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/mL. Moreover, transfection assay in vitro and electrophoretic mobility shift assay illustrated the high transfection efficiency of TiO2@CTS.Conclusion: TiO2@CTS is a good choice to gene transfection, with good biocompatibility, and it also provides a new thought for the application of nanotechnology in the field of aveolar bone graft material.

  15. Photocatalytic Performance of Carbon Monolith/TiO2 Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Maletić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new and simple approach for deposition of catalytically active TiO2 coating on carbon monolith (CM carrier was presented. CM photocatalysts were impregnated with TiO2 using titanium solution and thermal treatment, and their photocatalytic activity was investigated in the process of methylene blue (MB photodegradation. For the purpose of comparison, CM composite photocatalysts were prepared by dip-coating method, which implies binder usage. The presence of TiO2 on CM carrier was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The sorption characteristics of CM and the role of adsorption in the overall process of MB removal were evaluated through amount of surface oxygen groups obtained by temperature-programmed desorption and specific surface area determined by BET method. CM has shown good adsorption properties toward MB due to high amount of surface oxygen groups and relatively high specific surface area. It was concluded that photocatalytic activity increases with CM disc thickness due to increase of MB adsorption and amount of deposited TiO2. Good photocatalytic activity achieved for samples obtained by thermal treatment is the result of better accessibility of MB solution to the TiO2 particles induced by binder absence.

  16. Hybrid Ti-ceramic bionanomaterials for medical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niespodziana, K.; Miklaszewski, A.; Jurczyk, M. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Sklodowska-Curie 5 Sq., 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Jurczyk, K. [Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Medical Sciences, Bukowska 70 St., 60-812 Poznan (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    In the last decade a great interest has been observed in the field of nanoscale materials. Commercially pure titanium as well as titanium alloys have become predominant in implantology. Low hardness and poor tribiological properties of titanium alloys may become critical factor when wear phenomena are involved. One of the methods that allow the change of properties of Ti alloys is the production of nanocomposites, which will exhibit the favorable mechanical properties of titanium and excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity of ceramics. In this work hybrid Ti-x wt% ceramic (45S5 Bioglass, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) bionanocomposites (x =0, 3 and 10) were prod-uced by the combination of mechanical alloying and powder metallurgical process. Reinforced by 45S5 Bioglass, SiO{sub 2} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles, Vickers hardness of Ti-based nanocomposite is higher from two to six times in comparison with pure microcrystalline Ti. Additionally, the experimental results show that in Ringer's solution at 37 C, Ti-based nanocomposites have good corrosion resistance. On the other hand, in vitro studies show that these bionanocomposites have excellent biocompatibility and could integrate with bone (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Hydrothermal Synthesis of TiO2@SnO2 Hybrid Nanoparticles in a Continuous-Flow Dual-Stage Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstern, Henrik L; Bremholm, Martin; Mamakhel, Aref; Becker, Jacob; Iversen, Bo B

    2016-03-08

    TiO2@SnO2 hybrid nanocomposites were successfully prepared in gram scale using a dual-stage hydrothermal continuous-flow reactor. Temperature and pH in the secondary reactor were found to selectively direct nucleation and growth of the secondary material into either heterogeneous nanocomposites or separate intermixed nanoparticles. At low pH, 2 nm rutile SnO2 nanoparticles were deposited on 9 nm anatase TiO2 particles; the presence of TiO2 was found to suppress formation of larger SnO2 particles. At high pH SnO2 formed separate particles and no deposition on TiO2 was observed. Ball-milling of TiO2 and SnO2 produced no TiO2@SnO2 composites. This verifies that the composite particles must be formed by nucleation and growth of the secondary precursor on the TiO2 . High concentration of secondary precursor led to formation of TiO2 particles embedded in aggregates of SnO2 nanoparticles. The results demonstrate how nanocomposites may be produced in high yield by green chemistry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Interactions between TiO2 nanoparticles and cadmium: consequences for uptake and ecotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B.; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    sedimentation, the sediments are expected to be a sink for nanoparticles. Both in the water phase and in sediments they will mix and interact with other environmental pollutants, including heavy metals. In this study the toxicity of cadmium to three relevant freshwater species, green algae Pseudokirchneriella...... in the absence and presence of 2mg/L TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 Evonic, d: 30 nm). Mass balances for cadmium in the test systems were determined. A high degree of sorption of cadmium onto TiO2 particles was found, which makes TiO2 nanoparticles potential carriers for cadmium. The observed toxicity was higher than...

  19. Electron microscopy of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst morphology for deep desulfurization of diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yee Cia, E-mail: gabrielle.ciayin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Kait, Chong Fai, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my; Fatimah, Hayyiratul, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com; Wilfred, Cecilia, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared and characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The average particle sizes of the photocatalysts were ranging from 25.7 to 35.8 nm. Incorporation of Mg on TiO{sub 2} did not lead to any surface lattice distortion to TiO{sub 2}. HRTEM data indicated the presence of MgO and Mg(OH){sub 2} mixture at low Mg loading while at higher Mg loading, the presence of lamellar Mg-oxyhydroxide intermediates and Mg(OH){sub 2}.

  20. AgBr-Coupled TiO2: A Visible Heterostructured Photocatalyst for Degrading Dye Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of AgBr/TiO2 visible photocatalysts with heterojunction structure was synthesized using Ti(OC4H94, KBr, and AgNO3 as precursors. The phase composition, particle morphology and size, microstructures, and absorbance of these photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM, high-resolution TEM, and UV-vis spectra. It was found that the coupled AgBr/TiO2 was an effective photocatalyst to degrade the methylene blue under visible light irradiation, compared with the other noncoupled photocatalysts of AgBr, AgBr/P25, and P25. The photocatalytic activities of AgBr/TiO2 increase first and then decrease with increasing the mass ratio of mAgNO3/mTiO2 and the photocatalyst with the mass ratio of 3.35 has the highest photocatalytic activity. The results showed that the coupled photocatalyst has the particle size of about 15 nm with homogeneous dispersion and has the strongest absorption in whole UV-vis light region (250∼800 nm originated from the synergetic effect of heterostructured AgBr/TiO2. The coupled AgBr/TiO2 photocatalyst can keep stable photocatalytic activity after five-circle runs.

  1. Arsenic sorption on TiO[subscript 2] nanoparticles: Size and crystallinity effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegadeesan, Gautham; Al-Abed, Souhail R.; Sundaram, Vijayakumar; Choi, Hyeok; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Dionysiou, Dionysios D. (EPA); (UCIN); (ECO); (Gradient)

    2011-09-20

    Single solute As (III) and As (V) sorption on nano-sized amorphous and crystalline TiO{sub 2} was investigated to determine: size and crystallinity effects on arsenic sorption capacities, possible As (III) oxidation, and the nature of surface complexes. Amorphous and crystalline nanoparticles were prepared using sol-gel synthesis techniques. For amorphous TiO{sub 2}, solute pH in the range of 4-9 had a profound impact on only As (V) sorption. As (III) and As (V) sorption isotherms indicated that sorption capacities of the different TiO{sub 2} polymorphs were dependent on the sorption site density, surface area (particle size) and crystalline structure. When normalized to surface area, As (III) surface coverage on the TiO{sub 2} surface remained almost constant for particles between 5 and 20 nm. However, As (V) surface coverage increased with the degree of crystallinity. X-ray absorption spectroscopic analysis provided evidence of partial As (III) oxidation on amorphous TiO{sub 2} rather than crystalline TiO{sub 2}. The data also indicated that As (III) and As (V) form binuclear bidentate inner-sphere complexes with amorphous TiO{sub 2} at neutral pH.

  2. Preparation and performance evaluation of a Nafion-TiO{sub 2} composite membrane for PEMFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-hua, Tian; Peng-fei, Gao; Zhi-yuan, Zhang; Wen-hui, Luo; Zhong-qiang, Shan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Nafion/TiO{sub 2} composite membranes were studied for the application in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to be used with the humidified or dry reactant gases of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Composite membranes were prepared by carrying out in-situ sol-gel reaction of Ti (OC{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4} in Nafion perfluorosulfonic acid films, such as Nafion112, 1135 and 115. The influence of the concentration of Ti (OC{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4} isopropyl alcohol solution on the Ti content in the membranes of different thicknesses was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis demonstrated that TiO{sub 2} in the composite membranes had a structure of anatase with an average particle size of 4.0 nm. The energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis indicated a symmetrical distribution of the TiO{sub 2} particles in the modified membranes. The water retention ability and electrochemical performance of Nafion/TiO{sub 2} composite membranes were evaluated using a single PEMFC operated with humidified or dry gas reactants during a long period. (author)

  3. The state of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) may affect sunscreen performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, K M; Wokovich, A M; Godar, D E; Doub, W H; Sadrieh, N

    2011-06-01

    In the past several years, there has been a trend in the sunscreen/cosmetics industry to replace micron-sized titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles with nanoscale materials. The increased use of nanoscale TiO(2) has resulted in questions about these and other nanoproducts. This study examines the effects of using nanoscale TiO(2) on ultraviolet (UV) attenuation in simple to complex sunscreen formulations. UV light attenuation, product stability, and potential damage to the skin barrier were examined with both nanoscale and microscale TiO(2) particles. Results indicate that none of the formulations decreased the barrier function of the skin and the best UV attenuation occurs when the TiO(2) particles are stabilized with a coating and evenly distributed such as with non-agglomerated coated nanoscale materials. This indicates that nanoscale TiO(2) may have better efficacy while lacking toxicity. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated by the Large Hadron Collider and the search for the elusive Higgs Boson, interest in particle physics continues at a high level among scientists and the general public. This book includes theoretical aspects, with chapters outlining the generation model and a charged Higgs boson model as alternative scenarios to the Standard Model. An introduction is provided to postulated axion photon interactions and associated photon dispersion in magnetized media. The complexity of particle physics research requiring the synergistic combination of theory, hardware and computation is described in terms of the e-science paradigm. The book concludes with a chapter tackling potential radiation hazards associated with extremely weakly interacting neutrinos if produced in copious amounts with future high-energy muon-collider facilities.

  5. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  6. Interaction of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with the marine microalga Nitzschia closterium: Growth inhibition, oxidative stress and internalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Bin, E-mail: xiabin@ysfri.ac.cn; Chen, Bijuan; Sun, Xuemei; Qu, Keming; Ma, Feifei; Du, Meirong

    2015-03-01

    The toxicity of TiO{sub 2} engineered nanoparticles (NPs) to the marine microalga Nitzschia closterium was investigated by examining growth inhibition, oxidative stress and uptake. The results indicated that the toxicity of TiO{sub 2} particles to algal cells significantly increased with decreasing nominal particle size, which was evidenced by the 96 EC{sub 50} values of 88.78, 118.80 and 179.05 mg/L for 21 nm, 60 nm and 400 nm TiO{sub 2} particles, respectively. The growth rate was significantly inhibited when the alga was exposed to 5 mg/L TiO{sub 2} NPs (21 nm). Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities were first induced and subsequently inhibited following exposure to 5 mg/L TiO{sub 2} NPs. The depletion of antioxidant enzymes with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reactive oxygen species (ROS) posed a hazard to membrane integrity. A combination of flow cytometry analysis, transmission electron microscopy and Ti content measurement indicated that TiO{sub 2} NPs were internalized in N. closterium cells. The level of extracellular ROS, which was induced by TiO{sub 2} NPs under visible light, was negligible when compared with the intracellular ROS level (accounting for less than 6.0% of the total ROS level). These findings suggest that elevated TiO{sub 2} nanotoxicity in marine environments is related to increased ROS levels caused by internalization of TiO{sub 2} NPs. - Highlights: • Inhibition of marine microalgae by TiO{sub 2} NPs and bulk particles was evaluated. • Aggregation of TiO{sub 2} NPs and bulk particles was observed in marine algal test medium. • TiO{sub 2} NPs induced damage to algal cell membranes as detected by flow cytometry. • Increased TiO{sub 2} nanotoxicity to algal cells was caused by internalization of NPs.

  7. The Effect of Toluene Solution on the Hydrogen Absorption of the Mg-Ti Alloy Prepared by Synthetic Alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Suwarno

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of the Mg–Ti alloy have been carried out through a mechanical alloying technique under toluene solution. The Mg and Ti powders are milled for 10, 20, and 30 h in a high energy ball mill. The milled alloys are then hydrided at a temperature of 300 oC in order to investigate the possibility used for hydrogen storage materials. The refinement analyses of the x-ray diffraction patterns show that mechanical alloying of the Mg–Ti powders under toluene solution results in the formation of the TiH2 and Mg2Ti phases. Quantitative analyses indicate that the mass fractions of the TiH2 and Mg2Ti phases are 62.90 % and 30.60 %, while the value for Mg and Ti amount to 2.6 wt% and 1.25 wt%. On hydriding at a temperature of 300 oC, the milled powders are transformed into Mg2TiH4, TiH2 and γ-MgH2 phases with the mass fractions of 25.48 wt%, 64.0 wt%, and 10.52 wt%, respectively. Microstructure analyses show that before milling the shape of particle is mostly a ball shape, after 30 h of milling the shape of particles changes into polygonal shape, and upon hydriding the shape of particles changes from a polygonal shape into an irregular one. The final composition of the specimen after hydriding exhibits that Mg-Ti alloy can be promoted as a hydrogen storage material.

  8. Search for muon electron conversion. mu. +Ti -> e+Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, D.A.; Leitch, M.J.; Navon, I.; Numao, T.; Schlatter, P.; Dixit, M.S.; Hargrove, C.K.; Mes, H.; Burnham, R.A.; Hasinoff, M.

    1985-02-25

    A progress report on a search for the lepton flavor violating reaction ..mu..+Ti->e+Ti is presented. No evidence for this process has yet been found leading to an upper limit < 2 x 10/sup 11/ (90% confidence level) relative to ordinary muon capture. (orig.).

  9. Corrosion Behavior of Mg-Al/TiC Composites in NaCl Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Falcon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of TiC particles reinforced Mg-Al alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution has been evaluated using electrochemical techniques. Tested alloys included an Mg-9Al (Mg AZ91E alloy with and without 56 wt. % TiC particles. Electrochemical techniques included potentiodynamic polarization curves, linear polarization resistance, electrochemical noise, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. All techniques showed that the composite exhibited a lower corrosion rate than the base alloy. Evidence of galvanic effects that increased the composite corrosion rate was found between the matrix and the TiC particles. Additionally, the tendency to suffer from pitting corrosion was higher for the base alloy than that for the composite. Electrochemical impedance results showed the importance of adsorption/diffusion phenomena in both materials.

  10. Three-dimensional self-branching anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorods with the improved carrier collection for SrTiO{sub 3}-based perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yajing; Wang, Chen; Tang, Ying; Huang, Lu [Department of Electronic Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Fu, Jianxun [Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shi, Weimin; Wang, Linjun [Department of Electronic Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Yang, Weiguang, E-mail: wgyang@shu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells based on ternary oxide SrTiO{sub 3} shows a higher Voc, attributed to its slightly higher conduction band edge and better morphology of absorber material. However, its less efficient carrier collection and limited overall interfacial areas between the absorber material and the electron-transport layer (ETL), dramatically reducing the Jsc. Here, By adjusting the concentrations of the Ti(OBu){sub 4}, we successfully prepared the three-dimensional (3D) self-branching anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorod/SrTiO{sub 3} nanocomposites, and slightly tuned the particle size of SrTiO{sub 3}. With the incorporation of the three-dimensional (3D) self-branching anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorod, the Jsc of the device based on SrTiO{sub 3} was highly boosted. The best performing solar cell we obtained exhibited a PCE of 9.99% with a Jsc of 19.48 mA/cm{sup 2}. The excellent performance could be ascribed to the improvement of charge carrier collection of SrTiO{sub 3}, better surface coverage and crystallinity of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}, and enhanced light scattering ability caused by 3D self-branching anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorods. - Highlights: • The three-dimensional (3D) self-branching anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorod/SrTiO{sub 3} nanocomposites were prepared. • The particle sizes of SrTiO{sub 3} can be slightly tuned. • The best performing solar cell we obtained exhibited a PCE of 9.99% with the Jsc of 19.48 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Synthesis of Cr3+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles: characterization and evaluation of their visible photocatalytic performance and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Alvarez, Sandra Yadira; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Turnes-Palomino, Gemma; Maya-Alejandro, Fernando; Caballero-Quintero, Adolfo; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; Hinojosa-Reyes, Laura

    2017-09-28

    Cr3+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (Ti-Cr) were synthesized by microwave-assisted sol-gel method. The Ti-Cr catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zetametry. The anatase mesoporous Ti-Cr material exhibited a specific surface area of 54.5 m2/g. XPS analysis confirmed the proper substitution of Ti4+ cations by Cr3+ cations in the TiO2 matrix. The particle size was of average size of 17 nm for the undoped TiO2 but only 9.5 nm for Ti-Cr. The Cr atoms promoted the formation of hydroxyl radicals and modified the surface adsorptive properties of TiO2 due to the increase in surface acidity of the material. The photocatalytic evaluation demonstrated that the Ti-Cr catalyst completely degraded (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid under visible light irradiation, while undoped TiO2 and P25 allowed 45.7% and 31.1%, respectively. The rate of degradation remained 52% after three cycles of catalyst reuse. The higher visible light photocatalytic activity of Ti-Cr was attributed to the beneficial effect of Cr3+ ions on the TiO2 surface creating defects within the TiO2 crystal lattice, which can act as charge-trapping sites, reducing the electron-hole recombination process.

  12. Preparation and characterization of Fe3+-doped TiO2 on fly ash cenospheres for photocatalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Li, Qin; Wang, Wei; Li, Ying; Zhai, Jianping

    2011-02-01

    Fe3+-doped TiO2 film deposited on fly ash cenosphere (Fe-TiO2/FAC) was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. These fresh photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The XRD results showed that Fe element can maintain metastable anatase phase of TiO2, and effect of temperature showed rutile phase appears in 650 °C for 0.01% Fe-TiO2/FAC. The SEM analysis revealed the Fe-TiO2 films on the surface of a fly ash cenosphere with a thickness of 2 μm. The absorption threshold of Fe-TiO2/FACs shifted to a longer wavelength compared to the photocatalyst without Fe3+-doping in the UV-vis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity and kinetics of Fe-TiO2/FAC with varying the iron content and the calcination temperatures were investigated by measuring the photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) during visible light irradiation. Compared with TiO2/FAC and Fe3+-doped TiO2 powder (Fe-TiO2), the degradation ratio using Fe-TiO2/FAC increased by 33% and 30%, respectively, and the best calcined temperature was 450 °C and the optimum doping of Fe/Ti molar ratio was 0.01%. The Fe-TiO2/FAC particles can float in water due to the low density of FAC in favor of phase separation to recover these photocatalyst after the reaction, and the recovery test shows that calcination contributes to regaining photocatalytic activity of Fe-TiO2/FAC photocatalyst.

  13. Microwave-induced crystallization of AC/TiO{sub 2} for improving the performance of rhodamine B dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Fei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Wu, Zhansheng, E-mail: wuzhans@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Chen, Qiuyu; Yan, Yujun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China); Cravotto, Giancarlo; Wu, Zhilin [Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Turin, Torino 10125 (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mixed phase titania coated with AC was obtained by microwave irradiation method. • The TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were spherical and well distributed on the surface of AC. • The light absorption edges of AC/TiO{sub 2} showed red-shift compared to the pure TiO{sub 2}. • Higher surface and TiO{sub 2} content of AC/TiO{sub 2} could improve photocatalytic efficiency. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) deposition on activated carbon (AC) is widely used for pollutant photodegradation. In this study, a simple and efficient method for preparing AC/TiO{sub 2} composites under microwave irradiation was developed for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under UV light. Results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are anatase and rutile, with a spherical shape and a particle size of 20–50 nm and are well distributed on the AC surface. The UV–vis spectrum of TiO{sub 2} coated on AC showed an evident red-shift and exhibited stronger optical absorption capacity than pure TiO{sub 2}. The AC/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared at a microwave power of 700 W for 15 min exhibited 98% efficiency in removing RhB dye under UV irradiation for 30 min. The high photocatalytic activity of AC/TiO{sub 2}-700 W could be mainly attributed to the high sorption capacity of the mesoporous carbon material and high TiO{sub 2} content, which could produce higher quantity of ·OH. This study provides a rapid synthesis technique to prepare AC/TiO{sub 2} and a novel method to improve photocatalytic efficiency via synergistic effect for other catalytic systems.

  14. In situ Fabrication of Fe-TiB{sub 2} Nanocomposite Powder by Planetary Ball Milling and Subsequent Heat-treatment of FeB and TiH{sub 2} Powder Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Xuan-Khoa [Hanoi Uneversity of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bae, Sun-Woo; Kim, Ji Soon [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Fe-TiB{sub 2} powder was synthesized in-situ by the planetary ball milling and subsequent heat-treatment of an iron boride (FeB) and titanium hydride (TiH{sub 2}) powder mixture. Mechanical activation of the (FeB+TiH{sub 2}) powder mixtures was observed after a milling time of 3 hours at 700 rpm of rotation speed, but activation was not the same after 1 hour milling time. The particle size of the (FeB+ TiH{sub 2}) powder mixture was reduced to the nanometer scale, and each constituent was homogeneously distributed. A sharp exothermic peak was observed at a lower temperature (749 ℃) on the DSC curves for the (FeB+TiH{sub 2}) powder mixture milled for 3 hours, compared to the one milled for 1 hour (774 ℃). These peaks were confirmed to have resulted from the formation reaction of the TiB{sub 2} phase, from Ti and B elements in the FeB. The Fe-TiB{sub 2} composite powder fabricated in situ exhibited only two phases of Fe and TiB{sub 2} with homogeneous distribution. The size of the TiB{sub 2} particulates in the Fe matrix was less than 5 nm.

  15. Investigation of laser cladding high temperature anti-wear composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy with the addition of self-lubricant CaF{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Zhan-Feng [School of Mechanical and Electric Engineering, Soochow University, 178 East Ganjiang Road, Suzhou 215006 (China); Liu, Xiu-Bo, E-mail: liuxiubo@suda.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Electric Engineering, Soochow University, 178 East Ganjiang Road, Suzhou 215006 (China); Ren, Jia; Luo, Jian; Shi, Shi-Hong; Chen, Yao [School of Mechanical and Electric Engineering, Soochow University, 178 East Ganjiang Road, Suzhou 215006 (China); Shi, Gao-Lian; Wu, Shao-Hua [Suzhou Institute of Industrial Technology, Suzhou 215104 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A novel high temperature self-lubricating wear-resistant coating was fabricated. • TiC carbides and self-lubricant CaF{sub 2} were “in situ” synthesized in the coating. • The coating with the addition of CaF{sub 2} possessed superior properties than without. - Abstract: To improve the high-temperature tribological properties of Ti–6Al–4V alloy, γ-NiCrAlTi/TiC and γ-NiCrAlTi/TiC/CaF{sub 2} coatings were fabricated on Ti–6Al–4V alloy by laser cladding. The phase compositions and microstructure of the coatings were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The tribological behaviors were evaluated using a ball-on-disk tribometer from ambient temperature to 600 °C under dry sliding wear conditions and the corresponding wear mechanisms were discussed. The results indicated that the γ-NiCrAlTi/TiC/CaF{sub 2} coating consisted of α-Ti, the “in situ” synthesized TiC block particles and dendrite, γ-NiCrAlTi solid solution and spherical CaF{sub 2} particles. The wear rates of γ-NiCrAlTi/TiC/CaF{sub 2} coating were decreased greatly owing to the combined effects of the reinforced carbides and continuous lubricating films. Furthermore, the friction coefficients of γ-NiCrAlTi/TiC/CaF{sub 2} coating presented minimum value of 0.21 at 600 °C, which was reduced by 43% and 50% compared to the substrate and γ-NiCrAlTi/TiC coating respectively. It was considered that the γ-NiCrAlTi/TiC/CaF{sub 2} coating exhibited excellent friction-reducing and anti-wear properties at high temperature.

  16. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} nanotube–nanocube array composite electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shih-Yu [Institute of Organic and Polymeric Materials, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Su, Chaochin, E-mail: f10913@ntut.edu.tw [Institute of Organic and Polymeric Materials, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Kathirvel, Sasipriya [Institute of Organic and Polymeric Materials, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Li, Chung-Yen [Department of Chemistry, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan (China); Li, Wen-Ren, E-mail: ch01@ncu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    One dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanotube structure recently plays an important role in the application of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) due to its faster electron transport. The fabrication of photoanode using the TiO{sub 2} nanotube structures mixed with the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was investigated to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency of DSSCs by increasing the surface area of electrode. In this work, self-organized and vertically-oriented TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNAs) covered with uniformly distributed TiO{sub 2} nanocubes (TNCs) were fabricated in a simple one-step anodization process. The X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that both TNAs and TNCs are in anatase phase. The scanning electron microscopy analysis demonstrates that the wall thickness and inner diameter of hexagonal close-packed TiO{sub 2} nanotubes from chemically polished Ti foils are 10–15 and 100–120 nm, respectively, and the particle size of TNCs is 60–75 nm. The DSSC fabricated by the mixed morphological TNAs with TNCs shows an enhanced photoconversion efficiency of ∼ 63% than that of TNAs alone, due to the increase of both dye adsorption and electron transportation rate. - Highlights: ► Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays on Ti foils was performed using anodization process. ► Nitrogen blow influences the growth of TiO2 nanocube particles on the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays. ► Mixed morphological nanotube–nanocube TiO{sub 2} photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cell achieved improved efficiency of 1.98%.

  17. Combination of TiO2-Film Photocatalysis and Ultrafiltration to Treat Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hai You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a combination of TiO2-film photocatalysis reactor and ultrafiltration was used treat the secondary effluent from the manufacturing of thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD. TiO2 particles, as a photocatalyst, were immobilized on silica glass to form TiO2-film by the sol-gel and dip coating methods. TiO2-film photocatalysis was done within three parameters, including number of coating times of TiO2-film, wavelengths of UV light source, and operating time. During ultrafiltration, the operating pressure and feed water temperature were controlled at 300 KN/m2 and 25°C, respectively. It was found that TiO2-film photocatalysis followed by ultrafiltration increased the removal of total organic carbon (TOC to 47.13% and 49.94% for 5 KDa and 10 KDa membranes, respectively. It was also found that the process increased the permeate flux rate (ca 23% for 10 KDa membrane after 6 hours of operation, since some larger organic matter had been broken into small organic matter and some small organic matter had been mineralized into CO2 following TiO2-film photocatalysis. Therefore, combining TiO2-film photocatalysis reactor and ultrafiltration can improve organic wastewater quality and increase the permeate flux of ultrafiltration membrane, which may enhance the recycling and reuse of wastewater.

  18. Comparison of photocatalytic properties of TiO2 thin films and fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Mehtap; Kurt, Metin; Ozyuzer, Lutfi; Aygun, Gulnur

    2016-10-01

    Efficiency of solar panels degrades as a result of organic contamination such as airborne particles, bird droppings and leaves. Any foreign object on photovoltaic panels reduces the sunlight entering the absorbing surface of the solar panels. Since this leads to a major problem decreasing in energy production, solar panels should be cleaned. The self-cleaning method can be preferred. There are some methods to clean the surface of solar panels. Among the self-cleaning materials, TiO2 is the most preferable ones because of its powerful photocatalytic properties. In this study, photocatalytic TiO2 were produced in two different nanostructures: nanofibers and thin films. TiO2 nanofibers were successfully produced by electrospinning. TiO2 thin films were fabricated by reactive magnetron sputtering technique. Both TiO2 nanofiber and thin film structures were heat-treated to form TiO2 in anatase phase at 600 °C for 2 h in air. Then, they were evaluated by SEM analyses for morphology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses for phase structures, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for the chemical state and atomic concentration, and UV-spectrometer for photocatalytic performance. The results indicate that photocatalytic and transmittance properties of TiO2 thin films are better than those of nanofibers. Consequently, TiO2 based thin films exhibit better performance for solar cell applications due to the surface cleanliness.

  19. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on carbon nanotube-TiO{sub 2}-Pd composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Hye; Choi, Hyun Chul [Dept. of Chemistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysis is recognized as a promising technique for addressing energy and environmental issues. Among various semiconductors, the use of titanium dioxide (TiO-2) as a photocatalyst in solar energy conversion and pollutant degradation has been widely investigated because of its high efficiency, photostability, and low toxicity. However, its practical application is restricted by the intrinsic wide band gap of TiO-2 and the rapid recombination of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. Therefore, several remedial methods have been proposed, such as the doping of TiO{sub 2} with metallic or non-metallic elements, increasing its surface area, sensitization with dyes, and the generation of defect structures. We have successfully prepared CNT–TiO{sub 2}–Pd composites with a simple two-step sol–gel method. We characterized the composites with TEM and XRD, and demonstrated that anatase TiO{sub 2} and metallic Pd nanoparticles were deposited onto the surfaces of the CNTs. The average particle size of these nanoparticles was approximately 3.4 nm. The prepared catalyst was found to exhibit a higher activity in MB photodegradation than the reference systems. The synergy of the combination of CNTs and Pd nanoparticles with TiO{sub 2} provides superior MB degradation. More comprehensive studies of the mechanism for this synergy between the metal nanoparticles and TiO{sub 2} that enhances the photocatalytic activity of CNT–TiO{sub 2} are underway in our laboratory.

  20. Nuclear microscopy as a tool in TiO2 nanoparticles bioaccumulation studies in aquatic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Teresa; Moita, Liliana; Silva, Luís; Mendonça, Elsa; Picado, Ana

    2013-07-01

    Engineered Titanium nanoparticles are used for a wide range of applications from coatings, sunscreen cosmetic additives to solar cells or water treatment agents. Inevitably environmental exposure can be expected and data on the ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticles are still scarce. The potential effects of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on two model organisms, the water flea, Daphnia magna and the duckweed Lemna minor, were examined in semichronic toxicity tests. Daphnia and Lemna were exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (average particle size value of 28 ± 11 nm (n = 42); concentration range, 1.4-25 mg/L) by dietary route and growth in medium containing the nanoparticles of TiO2, respectively. Both morphology and microdistribution of Ti in the individuals were examined by nuclear microscopy techniques. A significant amount of TiO2 was found accumulated in Daphnia exposed to nanoparticles. Nuclear microscopy imaging revealed that Ti was localized only in the digestive tract of the Daphnia, which displayed difficulty in eliminating the nanoparticles from their body. Daphnia showed higher mortality when exposed to higher concentrations of TiO2 (>10 mg/L). The exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles above 25 mg/L caused morphological alterations in Lemna. The roots became stiff and fronds colorless. The Ti mapping of cross-sections of roots and fronds showed that Ti was mainly deposited in the epidermis of the fronds and roots, with minor internalization. In summary, exposure of aquatic organisms to TiO2 nanoparticles may alter the physiology of these organisms at individual and population levels, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ˙O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Crystal structure change of Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} tritium breeder under moist air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Masanori, E-mail: masahara@ctg.u-toyama.ac.j [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Togashi, Yuka; Matsuyama, Masao [Hydrogen Isotope Research Center, University of Toyama, Gofuku 3190, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Oya, Yasuhisa; Okuno, Kenji [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Ohya 836, Suruga-ku Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)

    2010-09-30

    To investigate the aging behavior of Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}, the materials Li{sub 2.0}TiO{sub 3+y}, Li{sub 2.2}TiO{sub 3+y} and Li{sub 2.4}TiO{sub 3+y} were stored under moist air at ambient temperature. Under these conditions the weight of Li{sub 2.0}TiO{sub 3+y} increased by only 1% in 100 days, which provides evidence for the high chemical stability of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}. In comparison, under the same storage conditions the weights of Li{sub 2.2}TiO{sub 3+y} and Li{sub 2.4}TiO{sub 3+y} increased by 14% and 18%, respectively. The observed weight gain is attributed to the uptake of water, and to the reaction of a by-product of Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} with water and carbon dioxide. The weight gain curves were evaluated by the Jander equation. From the analysis, it was possible to obtain the diffusion coefficient of water through Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} particles at ambient temperature. The determined value was 2 x 10{sup -17} m{sup 2}/s.

  3. Effects of N Doping on Structure and Improvement Photocatalytic Properties of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve UV and visible lights photocatalytic activities of the pure anatase TiO2, a novel and efficient N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method. N-doped titania is prepared using triethylamine (with difference molar ratios as the nitrogen source. The crystalline structure, morphology, particle size, absorbance and band-gap and chemical structure of N-doped TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction , diffuse reflectance spectra , scanning electron microscopy , energy dispersive spectrometry  and Fourier transform infrared  techniques, respectively. Results indicate that the doping of N, cause absorption edge shifts to the visible light region compare to the pure TiO2, reduces average size of the TiO2 crystallites, enhances desired lattice distortion of Ti, promotes separation of photo-induced electron and hole pair, and thus improves pollutant decomposition under UV and visible lights irradiation. The photocatalytic activities of N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were evaluated using the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO as probe reaction under the irradiation of UV and visible light and it was observed that the N-TiO2 photocatalyst shows higher visible photocatalytic activity than the pure TiO2. The optimal N/TiO2 concentration to obtain the highest photocatalytic activity was 2:1 of triethylamine

  4. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Particle Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Collinson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    * Assumes no prior knowledge* Adopts a modelling approach* Numerous tutorial problems, worked examples and exercises included* Elementary topics augmented by planetary motion and rotating framesThis text provides an invaluable introduction to mechanicsm confining attention to the motion of a particle. It begins with a full discussion of the foundations of the subject within the context of mathematical modelling before covering more advanced topics including the theory of planetary orbits and the use of rotating frames of reference. Truly introductory , the style adoped is perfect for those u

  6. Effect of Core-Shell Ag@TiO2 Volume Ratio on Characteristics of TiO2-Based DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop photoanode material required by dye-sensitized solar cells. The material prepared is in the form of Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites. This material is used to replace the titanium oxide powder commonly used in general DSSCs. The prepared Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites are mixed with Degussa P25 TiO2 in different proportions. Triton X-100 is added and polyethylene glycol (PEG at 20 wt% is used as a polymer additive. This study tests the particle size and material properties of Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites and measures the photoelectric conversion efficiency and IPCE of DSSCs. Experimental results show that the DSSC prepared by Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites can achieve a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 3.67%. When Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites are mixed with P25 nanoparticles in specific proportions, and when the thickness of the photoelectrode thin film is 28 μm, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can reach 6.06%, with a fill factor of 0.52, open-circuit voltage of 0.64V, and short-circuit density of 18.22 mAcm−2. Compared to the DSSC prepared by P25 TiO2 only, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can be raised by 38% under the proposed approach.

  7. Preparation, Characterization and Comparative Study of Antibacterial Properties of Ag-TiO2 and ZnO-TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yazdkhasti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With various features such as strong oxidation, biocompatibility and acceptable mechanical properties, titanium dioxide (TiO2 is among the materials that are frequently used in biological and medical applications. Nowadays, with the aim of increasing the efficiency of titanium dioxide and practical use of this material, doping it with elements such as silver, zinc and iron has been favored. In this study, Ag-TiO2 and ZnO-TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol–gel method and were evaluated and compared.In order to identify the present phases in the structure, X-ray diffraction analysis was used. Also for the characterization of the nanoparticles, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM and Zeta Potential were used. Inaddition, the antibacterial activities of nanoparticles were investigated and compared. The results showed that sol-gel method could successfully produce nanoparticles of Ag-TiO2 and ZnO-TiO2 with the expected combination. The investigation of antibacterial properties of these particles revealed that at lower inhibitory concentrations, Ag-TiO2 composition has a higher antibacterial activity than ZnO-TiO2 one.

  8. Characterization of manufactured TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkus, C.; Macé, T.; Vaslin-Reimann, S.; Ausset, P.; Maillé, M.

    2013-04-01

    Technological advances in nanomaterials have allowed the development of new applications in industry, increasing the probability of finding airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects in the workplace, as well as in ambient air. Scientific studies on health and environmental risks have indicated that airborne nano-objects in ambient air have potential adverse effects on the health of exposed workers and the general population. For regulatory purposes, ambient measurements of particulate matter are based on the determination of mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5, as regulated in the European Directive 2008/50/EC. However, this legislation is not suitable for airborne manufactured and engineered nano-objects. Parameters characterising ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration and size distribution, are under consideration for future health-based legislation, to monitor workplaces and to control industrial processes. Currently, there are no existing regulations covering manufactured airborne nano-objects. There is therefore a clear, unaddressed need to focus on the toxicology and exposure assessment of nano-objects such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), which are manufactured and engineered in large quantities in industry. To perform reliable toxicology studies it is necessary to determine the relevant characteristics of nano-objects, such as morphology, surface area, agglomeration, chemical composition, particle size and concentration, by applying traceable methods. Manufacturing of nanomaterials, and their use in industrial applications, also require traceable characterisation of the nanomaterials, particularly for quality control of the process. The present study arises from the OECD WPMN sponsorship programme, supported by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), in order to develop analytical methods for the characterization of TiO2 nanoparticles in size and count size distribution, based on different

  9. Impact through time of different sized titanium dioxide particles on biochemical and histopathological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marcos E; Tasat, Deborah R; Ramos, Emilio; Paparella, María L; Evelson, Pablo; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Cabrini, Rómulo L; Guglielmotti, María B; Olmedo, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    Due to corrosion, a titanium implant surface can be a potential source for the release of micro (MPs) and nano-sized particles (NPs) into the biological environment. This work sought to evaluate the biokinetics of different sized titanium dioxide particles (TiO2 ) and their potential to cause cell damage. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with 150 nm, 10 nm, or 5nm TiO2 particles. The presence of TiO2 particles was evaluated in histologic sections of the liver, lung, and kidney and in blood cells at 3 and 12 months. Ultrastructural analysis of liver and lung tissue was performed by TEM, deposit concentration in tissues was determined spectroscopically, and oxidative metabolism was assessed by determining oxidative membrane damage, generation of superoxide anion (O2(-)), and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. TiO2 particles were observed inside mononuclear blood cells and in organ parenchyma at 3 and 12 months. TiO2 deposits were consistently larger in liver than in lung tissue. Alveolar macrophage O2(-) generation and average particle size correlated negatively (p < 0.05). NPs were more reactive and biopersistent in lung tissue than MPs. Antioxidant activity, particularly in the case of 5 nm particles, failed to compensate for membrane damage in liver cells; the damage was consistent with histological evidence of necrosis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Structural phase transitions in SrTiO 3 nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Han; Liu, Sizhan; Scofield, Megan E.; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Hong, Xinguo; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Greenberg, Eran; Tyson, Trevor A.

    2017-07-31

    Pressure dependent structural measurements on monodispersed nanoscale SrTiO3 samples with average diameters of 10 to ~80 nm were conducted to enhance the understanding of the structural phase diagram of nanoscale SrTiO3. A robust pressure independent polar structure was found in the 10 nm sample for pressures up to 13 GPa, while a size dependent cubic to tetragonal transition occurs (at P = Pc) for larger particle sizes. The results suggest that the growth of ~10 nm STO particles on substrates with significant lattice mismatch may maintain a polar state for a large range of strain values, possibly enabling device use.

  11. Exposure assessment of workplace manufacturing titanium dioxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huadong; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Zhangjian; Zhou, Jingwen; Tang, Shichuan; Kong, Fanling; Li, Xinwei; Yan, Ling; Zhang, Ji; Jia, Guang

    2016-10-01

    With the widespread use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) human exposure is inevitable, but the exposure data on TiO2 are still limited. This study adopted off-line filter-based sampling combined with real-time activity-based monitoring to measure the concentrations in a workplace manufacturing TiO2 (primary diameter: 194 ± 108 nm). Mass concentrations (MCs) of aerosol particles in the packaging workshop (total dust: 3.17 mg/m3, nano dust: 1.22 mg/m3) were much higher than those in the milling workshop (total dust: 0.79 mg/m3, nano dust: 0.31 mg/m3) and executive office (total dust: 0.44 mg/m3, nano dust: 0.19 mg/m3). However, the MCs of TiO2 were at a relatively low level in the packaging workshop (total TiO2: 46.4 μg/m3, nano TiO2: 16.7 μg/m3) and milling workshop (total TiO2: 39.4 μg/m3, nano TiO2: 19.4 μg/m3) by ICP-MS. The number concentration (NC), surface area concentration (SAC) of aerosol particles potentially deposited in alveolar (SACA), and tracheobronchial (SACTB) regions of lungs in the packaging workshop were (1.04 ± 0.89) × 105 particles/cm3, 414.49 ± 395.07, and 86.01 ± 83.18 μm2/cm3, respectively, which were all significantly higher than those of the milling workshop [(0.12 ± 0.40) × 105 particles/cm3, 75.38 ± 45.23, and 17.60 ± 9.22 μm2/cm3, respectively] as well as executive office and outdoor background ( p important data of TiO2 particles exposure in the workplace.

  12. Synthesis of TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles via sonochemical approach for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, Sambandam; Sivasankar, Thirugnanasambandam; Lana-Villarreal, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Through an ultrasound assisted method, TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature. The XRD pattern of as-prepared TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles matches well with that of pure monoclinic WO3 and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles. TEM images show that the prepared TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles consist of mixed square and hexagonal shape particles about 8-12nm in diameter. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles was tested for the degradation of a wastewater containing methylene blue (MB) under visible light illumination. The TiO2/WO3 nanoparticles exhibits a higher degradation rate constant (6.72×10(-4)s(-1)) than bare TiO2 nanoparticles (1.72×10(-4)s(-1)) under similar experimental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tailoring the structural and optical properties of TiN thin films by Ag ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popović, M., E-mail: majap@vinca.rs; Novaković, M.; Rakočević, Z.; Bibić, N.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Changes in structural and optical properties of TiN films induced by Ag ions. • The formation of Ag metallic clusters inside of TiN layers was observed. • The SPR of Ag particles was confirmed by a broad band in the spectra. • As the Ag ions fluence increases the n also increase and k values decrease. • With increasing ion fluence the TiN film becomes more metallic. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) thin films thickness of ∼260 nm prepared by dc reactive sputtering were irradiated with 200 keV silver (Ag) ions to the fluences ranging from 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to 20 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation TiN layers were annealed 2 h at 700 °C in a vacuum. Ion irradiation-induced microstructural changes were examined by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while the surface topography was observed using atomic force microscopy. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to get insights on the optical and electronic properties of TiN films with respect to their microstructure. The results showed that the irradiations lead to deformation of the lattice, increasing disorder and formation of new Ag phase. The optical results demonstrate the contribution of surface plasmon resonace (SPR) of Ag particles. SPR position shifted in the range of 354.3–476.9 nm when Ag ion fluence varied from 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to 20 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Shift in peak wavelength shows dependence on Ag particles concentration, suggesting that interaction between Ag particles dominate the surface plasmon resonance effect. Presence of Ag as second metal in the layer leads to overall decrease of optical resistivity of TiN.

  14. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of mono-dispersed cubic BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Chunxi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Inukai, Koji; Takahashi, Yosuke [Noritake Co., Limited, RD Center, Miyoshi 470-0293 (Japan); Izu, Noriya; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Itoh, Toshio [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Shin, Woosuck, E-mail: w.shin@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Mono-dispersed BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles have been prepared via the assistance of capping agent poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). - Highlights: • BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with single cubic crystal structure. • Poor dispersibility of nanoparticles has been overcome by in situ modification way. • Growth competition between BaTiO3 core and polymer shell. - Abstract: In this study, poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-assisted synthesis of mono-dispersed BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles have been reported. The various processing parameters, namely, refluxing temperature, KOH concentration, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) concentration, have been varied, and the effects on the growth of BaTiO{sub 3} particles have been analyzed systematically. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that poly(vinylpyrrolidone) did not affect the crystal structure, but rather influenced the crystal lattice structure. In addition, the use of surfactant poly(vinylpyrrolidone) hindered the agglomeration of the nanoparticles, and facilitated the formation of mono-dispersed core–shell organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite. Furthermore, the mineralizer KOH promoted the dissolution of reactants and promoted the crystallization of BaTiO{sub 3} particles. Accordingly, the dissolution-precipitation scheme was believed to be the mechanism underlying the formation of BaTiO{sub 3} particles. This was further substantiated by the experimental observations, which indicated that the nucleation and crystallization of the particles was affected by the KOH concentration in the reaction system. Finally, the formation of mono-dispersed core–shell nanocomposites proceeded via reaction limited cluster aggregation. We believe that the method proposed in this study could be extended for the synthesis of mono-dispersed nanoparticles for industrial applications.

  15. Synthesis of Pt@TiO2@CNTs Hierarchical Structure Catalyst by Atomic Layer Deposition and Their Photocatalytic and Photoelectrochemical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shih-Yun; Yang, Ya-Chu; Huang, Sheng-Hsin; Gan, Jon-Yiew

    2017-04-29

    Pt@TiO2@CNTs hierarchical structures were prepared by first functionalizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with nitric acid at 140 °C. Coating of TiO2 particles on the CNTs at 300 °C was then conducted by atomic layer deposition (ALD). After the TiO2@CNTs structure was fabricated, Pt particles were deposited on the TiO2 surface as co-catalyst by plasma-enhanced ALD. The saturated deposition rates of TiO2 on a-CNTs were 1.5 Å/cycle and 0.4 Å/cycle for substrate-enhanced process and linear process, respectively. The saturated deposition rate of Pt on TiO2 was 0.39 Å/cycle. The photocatalytic activities of Pt@TiO2@CNTs hierarchical structures were higher than those without Pt co-catalyst. The particle size of Pt on TiO2@CNTs was a key factor to determine the efficiency of methylene blue (MB) degradation. The Pt@TiO2@CNTs of 2.41 ± 0.27 nm exhibited the best efficiency of MB degradation.

  16. Atomic structure of nanometer-sized amorphous TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.; Chen, B.; Banfield, J.F.; Waychunas, G.A.

    2008-10-15

    Amorphous titania (TiO{sub 2}) is an important precursor for synthesis of single-phase nanocrystalline anatase. We synthesized x-ray amorphous titania by hydrolysis of titanium ethoxide at the ice point. Transmission electron microscopy examination and nitrogen gas adsorption indicated the particle size of the synthesized titania is {approx} 2 nm. Synchrotron wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) was used to probe the atomic correlations in this amorphous sample. Atomic pair-distribution function (PDF) derived from Fourier transform of the WAXS data was used for reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations of the atomic structure of the amorphous TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate input structures for the RMC. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) simulations were used to screen candidate structures obtained from the RMC by comparing with experimental XAS data. The structure model that best describes both the WAXS and XAS data shows that an amorphous TiO{sub 2} particle consists of a highly distorted shell and a small strained anatase-like crystalline core. The average coordination number of Ti is 5.3 and most Ti-O bonds are populated around 1.940 {angstrom}. Relative to bulk TiO{sub 2}, the reduction of the coordination number is primarily due to the truncation of the Ti-O octahedra at the amorphous nanoparticle surface and the shortening of the Ti-O bond length to the bond contraction in the distorted shell. The preexistence of the anatase-like core may be critical to the formation of single-phase nanocrystalline anatase in crystallization of amorphous TiO{sub 2} upon heating.

  17. Solution based approaches for the morphology control of BaTiO3 particulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Maxim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the action COST 539 - ELENA our contribution was aimed at studying solution based approaches for the morphology control of BaTiO3 particulates. Initially, our kinetic analysis and systematic structural and morphological studies, demonstrated that during hydrothermal synthesis from layered titanate nanotubes (TiNTS, BaTiO3 forms via two mechanisms depending on the temperature and time. At low temperatures (90°C, “wild” type BaTiO3 dendritic particles with cubic structure were formed through a phase boundary topotactic reaction. At higher temperatures and/or for longer times time, the reaction is controlled by a dissolution precipitation mechanism and “seaweed” type BaTiO3 dendrites are formed. Our results unambiguously elucidated why TiNTs do not routinely act as templates for the formation of 1D BaTiO3.In our subsequent investigations, the effect of additives on the aqueous and hydrothermal synthesis of BaTiO3 was assessed. We reported that although the tested additives influenced the growth of BaTiO3, their behaviour varied; poly(acrylic acid (PAA adsorbed on specific crystallographic faces changing the growth kinetics and inducing the oriented attachment of the particles; poly(vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC act as growth inhibitors rather than crystal habit modifiers; and DFructose appeared to increase the activation energy for nucleation, resulting in small crystals (26 nm. Our work clearly indicates that the synthesis of 1D nanostructures of complex oxides by chemical methods is non trivial.

  18. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} sol in a neutral solution using TiCl{sub 4} as a precursor and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxidizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasirekha, Natarajan; Rajesh, Baskaran [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Wen, E-mail: ywchen@cc.ncu.edu.t [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-02

    Nanosize TiO{sub 2} thin film on glass substrate was obtained through dip-coating method using TiO{sub 2} sol. Suspended nanosize TiO{sub 2} sols with anatase structure in aqueous solution were synthesized by sol-gel method using TiCl{sub 4} as a precursor. TiCl{sub 4} was reacted with an aqueous solution of NH{sub 4}OH to form Ti(OH){sub 4}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was then added to form peroxo titanic acid. It was further heated in water and converted to TiO{sub 2}. The effects of the preparation parameters, viz., pH value of the Ti(OH){sub 4} gel, concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and heating temperature and time, on the properties of the TiO{sub 2} sol were investigated. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the primary TiO{sub 2} particles were rhombus with the major axis ca. 10 nm and minor axis ca. 4 nm, and were in anatase structure. The sol was excellent in dispersibility and was stable in neutral and even slight basic conditions for at least 2 years without causing agglomeration. The best preparation condition was optimized with the pH value of Ti(OH){sub 4} gel at 8, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} mole ratio of 2, and heating at 97 {sup o}C for 8 h. The transparent adherent TiO{sub 2} film on glass substrates exhibits strong hydrophilicity after illuminating with ultraviolet light and it can be used as an efficient photocatalyst.

  19. TiO2/bi A-SPAES(Ds 1.0) composite membranes for proton exchange membrane in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Zhong, Chuanqing; Xie, Bing; Liu, Huiling; Wang, Xingzu

    2014-09-01

    A series of TiO2/bi A-SPAES(Ds 1.0) composite membranes with various contents of nano-sized TiO2 particles were prepared through sol-gel method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated the TiO2 particles were well dispersed within polymer matrix. These membranes were used for proton exchange membrane (PEM) for performance evaluation in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). These composite membranes showed good thermal stability and mechanical strength. It was found that the water uptake of these membranes enhanced with the TiO2 amount increasing in these composite membranes. Meanwhile, the introduction of TiO2 particles increased the proton conductivity and reduced the methanol permeability. The proton conductivities of these composite membranes with 8% TiO2 particles (0.120 S/cm and 0.128 S/cm) were higher than those of Nafion 117 membrane (0.114 S/cm and 0.117 S/cm) at 80 degrees C and 100 degrees C. Specially, the methanol diffusion coefficient (1.2 x 10(-7) cm2/s) of the composite membrane with 8% TiO2 content was much lower than that of Nafion 117 membrane (2.1 x 10(-6) cm2/s). As a result, the TiO2/bi A-SPAES composite membrane was considered as a promising material for PEM in DMFC.

  20. Comparison of mechanical behavior of TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC, TiN/TiNC films on 9Cr18 steel by PVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingguo; Zhang, Yanshuai; Hu, Hanjun; Zheng, Yugang; Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhou, Hui

    2017-11-01

    TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC and TiN/TiNC films were deposited on 9Cr18 steel using magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology, composition, chemical state and crystalline structure of the films were observed and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hardness and adhesion force were tested by nanoindentation and scratch tester, respectively. The friction and wear behavior of TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC and TiN/TiNC films sliding against GCr15 balls were investigated and compared synthetically using ball-on-disk tribometer. It was found that Tisbnd N, Tisbnd C, Tisbnd Nsbnd C and Csbnd C bonds were formed. The TiN/TiNC film was composed of TiN, TiC and TiNC phases. Hardness and adhesion force results indicated that although the TiN film possessed the highest hardness, its adhesion force was lowest among all the films. Tribological test results showed that the friction coefficient of TiN/TiNC was much lower than that of TiN and the wear rate decreases remarkably from 2.3 × 10-15 m3/Nm to 7.1 × 10-16 m3/Nm, which indicated the TiN/TiNC film has better wear resistance.

  1. Preparation and self-sterilizing properties of Ag@TiO{sub 2}–styrene–acrylic complex coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiang-dong; Chen, Feng; Yang, Jin-tao, E-mail: yangjt@zjut.edu.cn; Yan, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Ming-qiang, E-mail: zhongmingqiang@hotmail.com

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we report a simple and cost-effective method for self-sterilized complex coatings obtained by Ag@TiO{sub 2} particle incorporation into styrene–acrylic latex. The Ag@TiO{sub 2} particles were prepared via a coupling agent modification process. The composite latices characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study were highly homogeneous at the nanometric scale, and the Ag@TiO{sub 2} particles were well dispersed and exhibited an intimate contact between both the organic and inorganic components. The Ag@TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles significantly enhanced the absorption in the visible region and engendered a good heat-insulating effect of the complex coatings. Moreover, the Ag@TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle incorporation into this polymer matrix renders self-sterilized nanocomposite materials upon light excitation, which are tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The complex coatings display an impressive performance in the killing of all micro-organisms with a maximum for a Ag@TiO{sub 2} loading concentration of 2–5 wt.%. The weathering endurance of the complex coating was also measured. - Highlights: ► We prepared Ag@TiO{sub 2}–styrene–acrylic complex latex in one pot. ► Good antibacterial performances of complex coatings were observed. ► The complex coating was resistant to weathering after 48 h. ► The complex coating exhibits good heat-insulating effect.

  2. TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and mesosponges. Towards solar cells and related applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Doohun

    2010-07-06

    O{sub 2} nanostructure. Using the anodization in a hot phosphate electrolyte, an anodic oxide layer with several tens of micrometers thickness is formed, and by subsequent selective etching treatment of this layer, a connected, ordered and mesoporous TiO{sub 2} network (so called TiO{sub 2} mesosponge layer) is obtained. Over the past 30 years, most of the works for TiO{sub 2} nanostructures have been investigated on conventionally sintered nanoparticles that are typically prepared by chemical synthesis. It is necessary to study anodic TiO{sub 2} layers in the applications for photoactive electrodes. In this work, the use of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and mesosponges mainly in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are investigated to understand their physical, chemical and electrochemical behaviors. Additionally, for other related applications based on photoelectrochemistry, three different approaches were addressed with nanotube layers grown i) on TiN to activate photocatalysis in the visible range, ii) on TiW to use in electrochromism and iii) on pure Ti to make an UV induced hydrophilic capillary. In the first part of this work, a Ru-complex photosensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers are used in DSCs. A range of fundamental geometries, crystallinities and chemical dye absorptions of TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers are systematically investigated. In the second part, we introduce three approaches to prepare modified TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with various ideas such as i) anodization of polished Ti foil to eliminate an undesired morphology-''nanograss'', ii) applying alternated voltage to prepare bamboo-type nanotubes and iii) decorating TiO{sub 2} particles on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. By these simple variations, the geometry and surface properties of the nanotube layers can be altered over a wide range. When these highly aligned, ordered and reinforced geometries are used in DSCs, significant increase in the conversion efficiencies can be achieved - i.e., efficiency

  3. Plasma-induced synthesis of Pt nanoparticles supported on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes for enhanced methanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Nan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); The Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials, Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Hu, Xiulan, E-mail: whoxiulan@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); The Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials, Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Huihong; Cheng, Jiexu; Yu, Jinchen; Ge, Chao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Pt nanoparticles are synthesized by plasma sputtering in water. • Pt/C/TiO{sub 2} nanotubes shows better mass activity and CO-poisoning tolerance than Pt/C. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes are more suitable for support materials than TiO{sub 2} small particles. • The metal-support interactions between Pt and TiO{sub 2} nanotubes are detected by XPS. - Abstract: A Pt/C/TiO{sub 2} nanotube composite catalyst was successfully prepared for enhanced methanol electro-oxidation. Pt nanoparticles with a particle size of 2 nm were synthesized by plasma sputtering in water, and anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with an inner diameter of approximately 100 nm were prepared by a simple two-step anodization method and annealing process. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images indicated that the different morphologies of TiO{sub 2} synthesized on the surface of Ti foils were dependent on the different anodization parameters. The electrochemical performance of Pt/C/TiO{sub 2} catalysts for methanol oxidation showed that TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were more suitable for use as Pt nanoparticle support materials than irregular TiO{sub 2} short nanorods due to their tubular morphology and better electronic conductivity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization showed that the binding energies of the Pt 4f of the Pt/C/TiO{sub 2} nanotubes exhibited a slightly positive shift caused by the relatively strong interaction between Pt and the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, which could mitigate the poisoning of the Pt catalyst by CO{sub ads}, and further enhance the electrocatalytic performance. Thus, the as-obtained Pt/C/TiO{sub 2} nanotubes composites may become a promising catalyst for methanol electro-oxidation.

  4. Synthesis of TiCr2 intermetallic compound from mechanically activated starting powders via calcio-thermic co-reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, O.; Khavandi, A. R.; Ghasemzadeh, R.

    2017-05-01

    Effect of mechanical activation of TiO2 and Cr2O3 oxides as starting materials was investigated for direct synthesis of TiCr2. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) indicated that increasing the ball milling time resulted in lower exothermic reaction temperatures between molten Ca-Cr2O3 and molten Ca-TiO2. A model-free Kissinger type method was applied to DTA data to evaluate the reaction kinetics. The results reveal that the activation energy of the exothermic reactions decreased with increasing the milling time. The structure, oxygen content, and average particle sizes of the obtained TiCr2 product were affected by the ball milling time of the starting materials. Increasing the milling time from 10 to 40 h decreased the average particle size and oxygen content of the obtained TiCr2 from 10 to 2 μm and from 1690 to 1290 ppm, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that TiCr2 compounds with metastable bcc phase can be produced using nano-sized starting materials, while only a slight amount of bcc phase can be obtained in the TiCr2 compounds, using micron-sized starting materials. The TiCr2 obtained by this method had a hydrogen absorption capability of 0.63 wt % and the kinetics of the hydrogen absorption increased for the 40 h milled sample.

  5. Ferroelectric hollow particles obtained by solid-state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscaglia, Maria Teresa; Buscaglia, Vincenzo; Viviani, Massimo; Nanni, Paolo [Institute of Energetics and Interphases, National Research Council, Via De Marini 6, I-16149 Genoa (Italy); Dondero, Giovanni [Institute for Macromolecular Studies, National Research Council, Via De Marini 6, I-16149 Genoa (Italy); Roehrig, Serge; Ruediger, Andreas [Institute of Solid State Research, Centre of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology, Research Centre Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: v.buscaglia@ge.ieni.cnr.it

    2008-06-04

    Hollow particles of barium titanate were obtained by a two-step process combining colloidal chemistry and solid-state reaction. BaCO{sub 3} crystals (size {approx}1 {mu}m) suspended in a peroxy-Ti(IV) aqueous solution were coated with an amorphous TiO{sub 2} shell using a precipitation process. Calcination of the BaCO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell particles at 700 deg. C resulted in the formation of BaTiO{sub 3} hollow particles (shell thickness of {approx}70 nm) which retain the morphology of the BaCO{sub 3} crystals. Formation of the cavity occurs because out-diffusion of the core phase is much faster than in-diffusion of the shell material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the hollow particles possess a tetragonal ferroelectric structure with axial ratio c/a = 1.005. Piezoresponse force microscopy has shown strong piezoactivity and 180 deg. ferroelectric domains. The process described provides a general route to fabricate hollow ferroelectric structures of several compounds.

  6. Ferroelectric hollow particles obtained by solid-state reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, Maria Teresa; Buscaglia, Vincenzo; Viviani, Massimo; Dondero, Giovanni; Röhrig, Serge; Rüdiger, Andreas; Nanni, Paolo

    2008-06-04

    Hollow particles of barium titanate were obtained by a two-step process combining colloidal chemistry and solid-state reaction. BaCO(3) crystals (size ≈1 µm) suspended in a peroxy-Ti(IV) aqueous solution were coated with an amorphous TiO(2) shell using a precipitation process. Calcination of the BaCO(3)@TiO(2) core-shell particles at 700 °C resulted in the formation of BaTiO(3) hollow particles (shell thickness of ≈70 nm) which retain the morphology of the BaCO(3) crystals. Formation of the cavity occurs because out-diffusion of the core phase is much faster than in-diffusion of the shell material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the hollow particles possess a tetragonal ferroelectric structure with axial ratio c/a = 1.005. Piezoresponse force microscopy has shown strong piezoactivity and 180° ferroelectric domains. The process described provides a general route to fabricate hollow ferroelectric structures of several compounds.

  7. Coatings with laser melt injection of ceramic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hosson, J.T.M.; Ocelik, V.; de Oliveira, U.; Seal, S; Dahotre, NB; Moore, JJ; Suryanarayana, C; Agarwal, A

    2003-01-01

    The conditions for a successful Laser Melt Injection (LMI) of SiC and WC particles into the melt pool of Al8Si and Ti6Al4V alloys were studied experimentally and theoretically by FEM calculations. The laser employed is a high power Nd:YAG The formation of a relatively thick aluminium oxide layer on

  8. The Influence of Suspended Inert Solid Particles on Zinc Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1996-01-01

    The rate of corrosion of electroplated zinc in near-neutral chloride solutions can be lowered by as much as 75% by adding fine, inert particles of substances such as MnO2, Fe3O4, SiC and TiN to the well-stirred solution. Spreading of local areas of etching is also stopped. Copyright (C) 1996...

  9. Effect of photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide by N-Zr co-doped nano TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Wang, Li; Kang, Zhuo; Li, Qiang; Pan, Huixian

    2017-11-01

    Modified sol-gel method was adopted to prepare TiO2, Zr-TiO2 and N/Zr-TiO2 composite catalyst. The as-synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunner- Emmet- Teller measurement and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. And the photocatalytic performance toward CO2 reduction was evaluated under ultraviolet light. The catalyst particles were demonstrated in the nanometer level size. When N and Zr are co-doped, on the one hand, Ti4+ can be replaced by Zr4 +, which leads to lattice distortion and inhibits electron-hole recombination. On the other hand, N enters into TiO2 lattice gap to form O-Ti-N bond structure, and partial Ti4+ are reduced to Ti3+. Compared with pristine TiO2, the specific surface area and the band gap of N/Zr-TiO2 were improved and reduced, respectively. The N and Zr synergistically contribute to the obviously strengthened absorption intensity in visible region, as well as significantly improved photocatalytic activity. In the gas phase reactor, when the calcination temperature was 550°C, 0.125N/0.25Zr-TiO2 composite performed the highest photocatalytic activity UV irradiation for 8 h, and the corresponding CH4 yield was 11.837 µmol/g, which was 87.8% higher than that of pristine TiO2. For the visible light, the CH4 yield was 9.003 µmol/g after 8 h irradiation, which was 83.9% higher than that of pristine TiO2.

  10. Synthesis of TiO2 nanotubes with ZnO nanoparticles to achieve antibacterial properties and stem cell compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwen; Su, Penglei; Chen, Su; Wang, Na; Ma, Yuanping; Liu, Yiran; Wang, Jinshu; Zhang, Zhenting; Li, Hongyi; Webster, Thomas J

    2014-08-07

    To endow titanium (Ti) with antibacterial properties, different concentrations of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were decorated on anodized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes by a simple hydrothermal treatment method. The particle sizes of ZnO, which were evenly distributed and tightly adherent to the walls of the Ti nanotubes, ranged from 20-50 nm. Results from this study showed that Zn was released from the TiO2 nanotubes in a constant, slow, and biologically inspired manner. Importantly, the results showed that the ZnO decorated TiO2 nanotubular samples inhibited Streptococcus mutants and Porphyromonas gingivalis growth compared to control unmodified Ti samples. Specifically, S. mutants and P. gingivalis growth were both reduced 45-85% on the ZnO decorated Ti samples compared to Ti controls after 7 days of culture. When examining the mechanism of action, it has been further found for the first time that the ZnO decorated Ti samples inhibited the expression of Streptococcus mutans bacterial adhesion genes. Lastly, the results showed that the same samples which decreased bacterial growth the most (0.015 M precursor Zn(NO3)2 samples) did not inhibit mesenchymal stem cell growth compared to Ti controls for up to 7 days. In summary, results from this study showed that compared to plain TiO2 nanotubes, TiO2 decorated with 0.015 M ZnO provided unprecedented antibacterial properties while maintaining the stem cell proliferation capacity necessary for enhancing the use of Ti in numerous medical applications, particularly in dentistry.

  11. Contrasting macrophage activation by fine and ultrafine titanium dioxide particles is associated with different uptake mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Annette M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inhalation of (nanoparticles may lead to pulmonary inflammation. However, the precise mechanisms of particle uptake and generation of inflammatory mediators by alveolar macrophages (AM are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between particles and AM and their associated pro-inflammatory effects in relation to particle size and physico-chemical properties. NR8383 rat lung AM were treated with ultrafine (uf, fine (f TiO2 or fine crystalline silica (DQ12 quartz. Physico-chemical particle properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetry. Aggregation and agglomeration tendency of the particles were determined in assay-specific suspensions by means of dynamic light scattering. All three particle types were rapidly taken up by AM. DQ12 and ufTiO2 , but not fTiO2 , caused increased extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 mRNA expression and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α release. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS mRNA expression was increased most strongly by ufTiO2 , while DQ12 exclusively triggered interleukin (IL 1β release. However, oscillations of intracellular calcium concentration and increased intracellular ROS were observed with all three samples. Uptake inhibition experiments with cytochalasin D, chlorpromazine and a Fcγ receptor II (FcγRII antibody revealed that the endocytosis of fTiO2 by the macrophages involves actin-dependent phagocytosis and macropinocytosis as well as clathrin-coated pit formation, whereas the uptake of ufTiO2 was dominated by FcγIIR. The uptake of DQ12 was found to be significantly reduced by all three inhibitors. Our findings suggest that the contrasting AM responses to fTiO2 , ufTiO2 and DQ12 relate to differences in the involvement of specific uptake mechanisms.

  12. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  13. Self-Cleaning Limestone Paint Modified by Nanoparticles TiO2 Synthesized from TiCl3 as Precursors and PEG6000 as Dispersant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Fadhilah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Limestone is commonly used for wall painting, but it is easy to be dirty. In this study, a self-cleaning limestone paint was synthesized by modifying dispersant and TiO2 nanoparticles. The TiO2 that prepared by TiCl3 were functionalized with PEG6000 as a surface activating agent. The paint achieved highest impurity degradation of 83.11 % for the mass ratio of TiO2 and PEG6000 (MRTP of 1: 6, in which TiO2 average size distribution was 75.81 µm2, the particle surface area of TiO2 was 2,544 µm2, and the smallest contact angle was 7°. It was found that the dispersant (PEG6000 significantly improved the self-cleaning ability of limestone paint. The surface tension reduction from PEG6000-modified prevented the agglomeration process of TiO2 and suggests that the limestone paint a good self-cleaning coating for wall painting. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 21st November 2016; Revised: 10th September 2017; Accepted: 11st September 2017; Available online: 27th October 2017; Published regularly: December 2017 How to Cite: Fadhilah, N., Etruly, N., Muharja, M., Sawitri, D. (2017. Self-Cleaning Limestone Paint Modified by Nanoparticles TiO2 Synthesized from TiCl3 as Precursors and PEG6000 as Dispersant. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12(3: 351-356 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.800.351-356

  14. Structure and Dynamic Properties of a Ti-Binding Peptide Bound to TiO2 Nanoparticles As Accessed by (1)H NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yu; Shindo, Heisaburo; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2016-05-26

    Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy is a powerful method for detecting and characterizing ligand-receptor interactions. In this study, the STD method was used to characterize the interactions of a Ti-binding peptide (TBP:RKLPDA) with TiO2 nanoparticles. The water peak in the NMR spectrum was selectively saturated, and the STD amplitudes for TBP were observed in the presence of TiO2, demonstrating that the side chains of the N-terminal residues Arg1 and Lys2 exhibit the strongest saturation transfer effect from water molecules; i.e., the two N-terminal residues are in contact with the TiO2 surface. The relaxation rate in the rotating frame, R1ρ, was observed to be high at the N-terminal residues; R1ρ decelerated toward the C-terminus, indicating that the N-terminal residues serve as anchors on the TiO2 surface and that the TBP motion bound to TiO2 particles is modeled as a wobble-in-cone with a fairly flexible C-terminus. The dissociation constant Kd of the TBP-TiO2 nanoparticle complex was 4.9 ± 1.8 mM, as estimated from the STD experiments and R1ρ measurements. The combination of these results and the negative zeta potential of the TiO2 surface validate that both the positively charged guanidyl group of Arg1 and amino group of Lys2 play key roles in interaction with the TiO2 surface by electrostatic force.

  15. Electrochemical Synthesis of Bismuth Particles: Tuning Particle Shape through Substrate Type within a Narrow Potential Window

    OpenAIRE

    Bilican, Doga; Fornell, Jordina; Sort, Jordi; Pellicer, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Bismuth (Bi) electrodeposition was studied on Si/Ti/Au, FTO-, and ITO-coated glasses from acidic nitrate solutions with and without gluconate within a narrow potential window (∆E = 80 mV). This potential range was sufficient to observe a change in particle shape, from polyhedrons (including hexagons) to dendrites, the trend being slightly different depending on substrate activity. In all cases, though, the formation of dendrites was favoured as the applied potential was made more negative. Bi...

  16. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Li, Weihua; Omura, Seiichi; Fujitani, Yuji; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi; Hiraku, Yusuke; Hisanaga, Naomi; Wakai, Kenji; Ding, Xuncheng; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Ichihara, Gaku

    2016-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO2 particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter affect HRV in workers handling TiO2 particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  17. Biocompatibility and bioactivity of PDLLA/TiO{sub 2} and PDLLA/TiO{sub 2}/Bioglass (registered) nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J.; Chen, Q.Z. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Stevens, M.M. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Roether, J.A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, A.R. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Composites Centre, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.boccaccini@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-01-10

    Biocompatibility and bioactivity of polymer matrix composites containing titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were investigated. The solvent casting method was used to prepare poly (D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) films with 0 and 20 wt.% TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and with 20 wt.% TiO{sub 2} mixed with 5 wt.% micrometre-sized (< 5 {mu}m) Bioglass (registered) particles. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. A Zygo (registered) light interferometer was used to examine the surface roughness of the samples. The bioactivity and the surface reactivity of the materials were determined by investigating the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) on the surface of samples upon immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to 28 days. Heterogeneous distributed HA crystals were found on composite films containing TiO{sub 2} after 21 days exposure to SBF. Cell cytotoxicity and viability were determined by using live/dead and MTS assay on osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. The PDLLA films containing different concentrations of TiO{sub 2} and Bioglass (registered) particulate inclusions showed no effect on cell viability in live/dead assay after incubation period of 7 days. All three groups of samples demonstrated significant increase in relative metabolic activity in MTS assay after 7 days incubation (while a slower proliferation rate was obtained for cells on the PDLLA film containing both TiO{sub 2} and Bioglass (registered) compared to the Thermanox (registered) control). The bioactive behaviour of the nanocomposites may make them attractive materials for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds.

  18. Fabricating TiO2 nanocolloids by electric spark discharge method at normal temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Chaur-Yang; Chung, Meng-Yun; Cheng, Ting-Shou

    2017-11-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanocolloids were successfully fabricated in deionized water without using suspending agents through using the electric spark discharge method at room temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure. This method was exceptional because it did not create nanoparticle dispersion and the produced colloids contained no derivatives. The proposed method requires only traditional electrical discharge machines (EDMs), self-made magnetic stirrers, and Ti wires (purity, 99.99%). The EDM pulse on time (T on) and pulse off time (T off) were respectively set at 50 and 100 μs, 100 and 100 μs, 150 and 100 μs, and 200 and 100 μs to produce four types of TiO2 nanocolloids. Zetasizer analysis of the nanocolloids showed that a decrease in T on increased the suspension stability, but there were no significant correlations between T on and particle size. Colloids produced from the four production configurations showed a minimum particle size between 29.39 and 52.85 nm and a zeta-potential between ‑51.2 and ‑46.8 mV, confirming that the method introduced in this study can be used to produce TiO2 nanocolloids with excellent suspension stability. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy also indicated that the TiO2 colloids did not contain elements other than Ti and oxygen.

  19. Dielectric property of NiTiO{sub 3} doped substituted ortho-chloropolyaniline composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi, Mohana; Faisal, Muhammad [Department of Physics, PES Institute of Technology, BSC, Bangalore- 560100 (India); Roy, Aashish S. [Department of Materials Science, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga-585106, Karnataka (India); Khasim, Syed, E-mail: syed.pes@gmail.com [Department of Physics, PES Institute of Technology, BSC, Bangalore- 560100 (India); Department of Physics, University of Tabuk-71491 (Saudi Arabia); Sajjan, K. C. [Department of Physics, Veerashaiva College, Bellary - 583 104, Karnataka (India); Revanasiddappa, M. [Department of Chemistry, PES Institute of Technology, BSC, Bangalore - 560100 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Ortho-chloropolyaniline (OCP)-NiTiO{sub 3} composites have been synthesized via in-situ polymerization of ortho-chloroaniline with various weight percentages of NiTiO{sub 3.} Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic studies of Ortho-chloropolyaniline and its composites indicated the formation of composites as a result of Vander Waal's interaction between OCP and NiTiO{sub 3} particles. Surface morphology of OCP and OCP-NiTiO{sub 3} composites were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM micrographs indicated a modified morphology after the composite formation. Dielectric properties and electric modulus of OCP and OCP-NiTiO{sub 3} composites have been investigated in the frequency range of 50 Hz – 5 MHz. It has been noticed that electrical resistance decreases with increase in weight percentage of NiTiO{sub 3} particles in polymer matrix as well as with applied frequency. The display of semicircular arcs in Cole-Cole plots indicates the formation of series resistor and capacitor in network causing a decrease in the relaxation time and as a result conductivity enhances in these composites. The facile and cost effective synthesis process and excellent dielectric and conductivity response of these materials makes them promising materials for practical applications.

  20. Room temperature ferromagnetism and phonon properties of pure and doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolova, I.N. [University of Forestry, Faculty of Forest Industry, 10, Kl. Ohridsky Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Apostolov, A.T. [University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Faculty of Hydrotechnics, Department of Physics, 1, Hristo Smirnenski Blvd., 1046 Sofia (Bulgaria); Bahoosh, S.G. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Wesselinowa, J.M., E-mail: julia@phys.uni-sofia.bg [University of Sofia, Department of Physics, 5, J. Bouchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2014-03-15

    We have considered the origin of RTFM in TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs). Further we have studied the properties of the E{sub g1} phonon mode. The phonon frequency of anatase TiO{sub 2} NPs increases whereas in the case of rutile TiO{sub 2} NPs it decreases as the particle size decreases. The phonon damping is always enhanced in the nanosized materials. The hardening of the E{sub g1} mode and the softening of the E{sub g3} mode in anatase TiO{sub 2} NPs could be explained with the different anharmonic spin–phonon interaction constants of these modes. The doping effects with different transition metal ions on the E{sub g1} phonon mode are also discussed. - Highlights: • The origin of RTFM in TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles is investigated. • With decreasing of particle size the phonon frequency of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} NPs increases and decreases, respectively. • This could be explained with the different anharmonic spin–phonon interaction constants of these modes. • The phonon damping is always enhanced in the nanosized materials. • The doping effects with different transition metal ions on the E{sub g1} phonon mode are also discussed.

  1. Search for. mu. -e conversion in Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, D.A.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Leitch, M.J.; Navon, I.; Numao, T.; Schlatter, P.; Dixit, M.S.; Hargrove, C.K.; Mes, H.; Burnham, R.A.

    1985-07-29

    A search has been performed for the lepton-flavor-nonconserving reaction ..mu../sup -/+Ti..-->..e/sup -/+Ti using a time-projection chamber. No candidate events were observed, resulting in a limit of GAMMA(..mu../sup -/+Ti..-->..e/sup -/+Ti) / GAMMA(..mu../sup -/+Ti..-->..capture) <1.6 x 10/sup -11/ (90% C.L.) for this reaction relative to ordinary muon capture.

  2. Efficient photodecomposition of herbicide imazapyr over mesoporous Ga2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adel A; Abdelfattah, Ibrahim; Faisal, M; Helal, Ahmed

    2018-01-15

    The unabated release of herbicide imazapyr into the soil and groundwater led to crop destruction and several pollution-related concerns. In this contribution, heterogeneous photocatalytic technique was employed utilizing mesoporous Ga2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites for degrading imazapyr herbicide as a model pollutant molecule. Mesoporous Ga2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites with varied Ga2O3 contents (0-5wt%) were synthesized through sol-gel process. XRD and Raman spectra exhibited extremely crystalline anatase TiO2 phase at low Ga2O3 content which gradually reduced with the increase of Ga2O3 content. TEM images display uniform TiO2 particles (10±2nm) with mesoporous structure. The mesoporous TiO2 exhibits large surface areas of 167m2g-1, diminished to 108m2g-1 upon 5% Ga2O3 incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 3-9nm. The photocatalytic efficiency of synthesized Ga2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites was assessed by degrading imazapyr herbicide and comparing with commercial photocatalyst UV-100 and mesoporous Ga2O3 under UV illumination. 0.1% Ga2O3-TiO2 nanocomposite is considered the optimum photocatalyst, which degrades 98% of imazapyr herbicide within 180min. Also, the photodegradation rate of imazapyr using 0.1% Ga2O3-TiO2 nanocomposite is nearly 10 and 3-fold higher than that of mesoporous Ga2O3 and UV-100, respectively. The high photonic efficiency and long-term stability of the mesoporous Ga2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites are ascribed to its stronger oxidative capability in comparison with either mesoporous TiO2, Ga2O3 or commercial UV-100. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Poly(lactic acid)/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites as alternative biocidal and antifungal materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Carmen; Ochoa, Almudena [POLCA, Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Química y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería y Diseño Industrial, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, Madrid (Spain); Ulloa, Maria Teresa; Alvarez, Eduardo [Programa de Microbiología y Micología. ICBM-Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Chile, Dirección, Avenida Independencia 1027, Comuna Independencia, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Daniel [Grupo Polímeros, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Zapata, Paula A., E-mail: paula.zapata@usach.cl [Grupo Polímeros, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-12-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) ~ 10-nm nanoparticles were produced by the melting process and their main properties were evaluated. The nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the matrix with a low degree of agglomeration, as seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} was added, showing that the nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents this trend was confirmed by optical images. The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA at 5 wt.% of nanoparticles. Despite these improvements, PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed lower shear viscosity than neat PLA, possibly reflecting degradation of the polymer due to the particles. Regarding biocidal properties, after 2 h of contact the PLA/TiO{sub 2} composites with 8 wt.% TiO{sub 2} showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of ~ 82% under no UVA irradiation compared to pure PLA. This biocidal characteristic can be increased under UVA irradiation, with nanocomposites containing 8 wt.% TiO{sub 2} killing 94% of the bacteria. The PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against Aspergillus fumigatus under the UVA irradiation. - Highlights: • PLA composites with titanium oxide (10 nm) were produced by the melting process. • The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} was added. • The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA. • The PLA/TiO{sub 2} composites showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of 94%. • The PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against fungi.

  4. Nano Sized Ni/TiO2 @ NaX Zeolite with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Torkian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nickel doped TiO2nano particles (1% w/w were prepared and immobilized on NaX zeolite and after characterization by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy used as photo catalyts for degradation of orange G. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the supported TiO2 are crystallized in anatase form and the intensity of the zeolite peaks decreases with the increase of TiO2loading. Scanning electron micrographs of synthesized samples show that nano size titanium dioxide particles are accumulated on the surface of the zeolite. These materials are applied as photo catalysts for the degradation of orange G in aqueous solution by means of ultraviolet light irradiation at room temperature. The effect of solution pH, ultraviolet irradiation time and catalyst in degradation of orange G was investigated. The results show that nickel doped TiO2/NaX zeolite as a photo catalyst in degradation of orange G in acidic solution is superior to the Ni/TiO2 nano composite and also undoped nano size titanium dioxide particles.

  5. Preparation and Microstructure Analysis of TiC-Derived Carbons with Hierarchical Pore Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbide-derived carbons (CDCs with hierarchical pore structure are prepared from commercial TiC powders by chlorination at temperature range of 600–1100°C. As-synthesized CDCs mainly consist of amorphous carbon and there exists a graphitization trend at chlorinating temperature above 800°C. If chlorinating temperature is below 1000°C, CDC particles maintain the shape of original TiC particles. Above 1000°C, obvious cracks appear in CDC particles and some particles are broken into small parts. The specific surface area (SSA of CDCs is in the range from 672 m2/g to 1609 m2/g. The highest SSA is 1609 m2/g for CDC chlorinated at 1000°C. Most pores in these CDCs are micropores with the size of 0.7–2 nm. However, some mesopores and macropores also exist.

  6. The effect of impaction and a bioceramic coating on bone ingrowth in porous titanium particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walschot, L.H.B.; Schreurs, B.W.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Buma, P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Porous titanium (Ti) particles can be impacted like cancellous allograft bone particles, and may therefore be used as bone substitute in impaction grafting. We evaluated the effect of impaction and of a thin silicated biphasic calcium phosphate coating on osteoconduction by

  7. Laser weldability of Pt and Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noolu, N.J. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada)]. E-mail: nnoolu@mecheng1.uwaterloo.ca; Kerr, H.W. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Zhou, Y. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Xie, J. [Cardiac Rhythm Management Division, Street Jude Medical Inc., Sylmar, CA (United States)

    2005-04-25

    Crack susceptibility of laser spot welds between Pt and Ti alloys was studied by characterizing the surface and the cross-sections of the welds produced at different pulse energies. Increase in laser pulse energy increased the dilution by the Ti alloy, giving rise to the evolution of microstructures with varying Ti contents across the entire fusion zone. Hardness results showed that regions with 66-75% Ti, i.e. consisting of primary Ti{sub 3}Pt and/or Ti{sub 3}Pt + TiPt eutectic, have a hardness higher than 700 Vickers hardness numbers (VHN), while regions with 42-66% Ti, i.e. consisting of primary TiPt, possessed hardness between 400 and 700 VHN. The extent of cracking increased with the increase in pulse energy and the cracked regions consisted of Ti contents between 50 and 75%. Brittle cracking in microstructures consisting of Ti{sub 3}Pt and TiPt phases suggested that one or both of the constituent phases are susceptible to cracking. However, crack arrest in microstructures predominantly consisting of TiPt showed that Ti{sub 3}Pt is the most susceptible phase to cracking in Pt-Ti alloy welds.

  8. [Corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu alloy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Xuan; Wang, Shi-Ming

    2010-09-01

    to investigate the corrosion behavior of Ti-Cu alloy in 0.9%NaCl solution and in acidified 0.9%NaCl solution. the microstructure of Ti-Cu alloys were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical behavior of Ti-Cu alloy in two solutions (namely 0.9%NaCl solution and acidified 0.9%NaCl solution) was tested. Commercial pure Ti and 316L stainless steel were used as control. Ti-Cu alloys were composed by α-Ti and Ti(2)Cu intermetallic compound. After 3500 s immersion, the open circuit potential (OCP) values of pure Ti, Ti-5Cu alloy and Ti-10Cu alloy in 0.9% NaCl solution were -188, -181 and -173 mV, respectively. In 0.9% NaCl solution with lactic acid added, the OCP values were -143, -158 and -109 mV, respectively. In potentiodynamic polarization tests, the passive current densities of pure Ti and Ti-5Cu alloys were about 20 µA/cm(2). However, 316L stainless steel experienced pitting corrosion. it was possible to establish the following relation for their corrosion resistances: pure Ti≈Ti-5Cu > Ti-10Cu > 316L stainless steel. The addition of lactic acid in the solution did not compromise the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu alloys.

  9. Evaluation of the content of TiO2 nanoparticles in the coatings of chewing gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudefoi, William; Terrisse, Hélène; Popa, Aurelian Florin; Gautron, Eric; Humbert, Bernard; Ropers, Marie-Hélène

    2018-02-01

    Titanium dioxide is a metal oxide used as a white pigment in many food categories, including confectionery. Due to differences in the mass fraction of nanoparticles contained in TiO2, the estimated intakes of TiO2 nanoparticles differ by a factor of 10 in the literature. To resolve this problem, a better estimation of the mass of nanoparticles present in food products is needed. In this study, we focused our efforts on chewing gum, which is one of the food products contributing most to the intake of TiO2. The coatings of four kinds of chewing gum, where the presence of TiO2 was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, were extracted in aqueous phases. The extracts were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to establish their chemical composition, crystallinity and size distribution. The coatings of the four chewing gums differ chemically from each other, and more specifically the amount of TiO2 varies from one coating to another. TiO2 particles constitute the entire coating of some chewing gums, whereas for others, TiO2 particles are embedded in an organic matrix and/or mixed with minerals like calcium carbonate, talc, or magnesium silicate. We found 1.1 ± 0.3 to 17.3 ± 0.9 mg TiO2 particles per piece of chewing gum, with a mean diameter of 135 ± 42 nm. TiO2 nanoparticles account for 19 ± 4% of all particles, which represents a mass fraction of 4.2 ± 0.1% on average. The intake of nanoparticles is thus highly dependent on the kind of chewing gum, with an estimated range extending from 0.04 ± 0.01 to 0.81 ± 0.04 mg of nano-TiO2 per piece of chewing gum. These data should serve to refine the exposure scenario.

  10. Heat Treatment in High Chromium White Cast Iron Ti Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of high chromium white cast iron alloyed with titanium was investigated. The austenitizing temperatures of 980°C and 1150°C for 1 hour each followed by tempering at 260°C for 2 hours have been performed and the effect of these treatments on wear resistance/impact toughness combination is reported. The microstructure of irons austenitized at 1150°C showed a fine precipitate of secondary carbides (M6C23 in a matrix of eutectic austenite and eutectic carbides (M7C3. At 980°C, the structure consisted of spheroidal martensite matrix, small amounts of fine secondary carbides, and eutectic carbides. Titanium carbides (TiC particles with cuboidal morphology were uniformly distributed in both matrices. Irons austenitized at 980°C showed relatively higher tensile strength compared to those austenitized at 1150°C, while the latter showed higher impact toughness. For both cases, optimum tensile strength was reported for the irons alloyed with 1.31% Ti, whereas maximum impact toughness was obtained for the irons without Ti-addition. Higher wear resistance was obtained for the samples austenitized at 980°C compared to the irons treated at 1150°C. For both treatments, optimum wear resistance was obtained with 1.3% Ti.

  11. Electrochemical Oxidation of Cyanide Using Platinized Ti Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra VALIŪNIENĖ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cyanide-containing effluents are dangerous ecological hazards and must be treated before discharging into the environment. Anodic oxidation is one of the best ways to degrade cyanides. Pt anodes as the most efficient material for the cyanide electrochemical degradation are widely used. However, these electrodes are too expensive for industrial purposes. In this work Ti electrodes covered with nano-sized Pt particle layer were prepared and used for the anodic oxidation of cyanide ions. Surface images of Ti electrodes and Ti electrodes covered with different thickness layer of Pt were compared and characterized by the atomic force microscopy (AFM. The products formed in the solution during the CN- ions electrooxidation were examined by the Raman spectroscopy. An electrochemical Fast Fourier transformation (FFT impedance spectroscopy was used to estimate the parameters that reflect real surface roughness of Pt-modified Ti electrodes.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2514

  12. Improvement of charge separation in TiO{sub 2} by its modification with different tungsten compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tryba, B., E-mail: beata.tryba@zut.edu.pl; Tygielska, M.; Grzeskowiak, M.; Przepiorski, J.

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Ammonium m-tungstate doped to TiO{sub 2} highly improved charge separation in TiO{sub 2}. • Negative electrokinetic potential of TiO{sub 2} facilitates holes migration to its surface. • Fast migration of holes to TiO{sub 2} surfaces increased yield of OH radicals formation. • Adsorption of dyes on photocatalyst increased its decomposition under visible light. - Abstract: Three different tungsten precursors were used for TiO{sub 2} modification: H{sub 2}WO{sub 4}, WO{sub 2}, and ammonium m-tungstate. It was proved that modification of TiO{sub 2} with tungsten compounds enhanced its photocatalytic activity through the improvement of charge separation. This effect was obtained by coating of TiO{sub 2} particles with tungsten compound, which changed their surficial electrokinetical potential from positive onto negative. The most efficient tungsten compound, which caused enhanced separation of free carriers was ammonium m-tungstate (AMT). Two dyes with different ionic potential were used for the photocatalytic decomposition. It appeared that cationic dye—Methylene Blue was highly adsorbed on the negatively charged surface of TiO{sub 2} modified by AMT and decomposed, however this photocatalyst was quickly deactivated whereas anionic dye—acid red was better adsorbed on the less acidic surface of TiO{sub 2} and was rapidly decomposed with almost the same rate in the five following cycles.

  13. CdSe nanorod/TiO2 nanoparticle heterojunctions with enhanced solar- and visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Laatar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available CdSe nanorods (NRs with an average length of ≈120 nm were prepared by a solvothermal process and associated to TiO2 nanoparticles (Aeroxide® P25 by annealing at 300 °C for 1 h. The content of CdSe NRs in CdSe/TiO2 composites was varied from 0.5 to 5 wt %. The CdSe/TiO2 heterostructured materials were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, XPS, UV–visible spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. TEM images and XRD patterns show that CdSe NRs with wurtzite structure are associated to TiO2 particles. The UV–visible spectra demonstrate that the narrow bandgap of CdSe NRs serves to increase the photoresponse of CdSe/TiO2 composites until ≈725 nm. The CdSe (2 wt %/TiO2 composite exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B in aqueous solution under simulated sunlight or visible light irradiation. The enhancement in photocatalytic activity likely originates from CdSe sensitization of TiO2 and the heterojunction between these materials which facilitates electron transfer from CdSe to TiO2. Due to its high stability (up to ten reuses without any significant loss in activity, the CdSe/TiO2 heterostructured catalysts show high potential for real water decontamination.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of LaFeO3/TiO2 nanocomposites for visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinesh Kumar, R.; Thangappan, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2017-02-01

    LaFeO3/TiO2 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. The as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized by TGA, XRD, HRSEM, EDS, TEM, VSM and UV-Vis techniques. Thermal stability of the material was studied by thermal analysis. XRD studies confirm the orthorhombic and rutile phase for pure LaFeO3 and TiO2 nanoparticles. The LaFeO3/TiO2 composite shows the coexistence of LaFeO3 and TiO2 phases with no extra peaks. Morphological analysis shows the spherical nanoparticles and the average particle size of LaFeO3, TiO2 and LaFeO3/TiO2 was around 60 nm. The LaFeO3/TiO2 nanocomposites show a significant shift in the UV-vis absorption spectra in comparison with both TiO2 and LaFeO3 nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activity of the samples were tested for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solutions under visible light irradiations for 180 min. The LaFeO3/TiO2 composite exhibits enhanced visible light photocatalytic properties in comparison with that of LaFeO3 nanoparticles.

  15. Effects of Calcination Temperature on Preparation of Boron-Doped TiO2 by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by a modified sol-gel method. Being calcinated at temperatures from 300°C to 600°C, all the 3% B-TiO2 samples presented anatase TiO2 phase, and TiO2 crystallite sizes were calculated to be 7.6, 10.3, 13.6, and 27.3 nm, respectively. The samples were composed of irregular particles with rough surfaces in the size range within 3 μm. Ti atoms were in an octahedron skeleton and existed mainly in the form of Ti4+, while the Ti-O-B structure was the main boron existing form in the 3% B-TiO2 sample. When calcination temperature increased from 300°C to 600°C, specific surface area decreased sharply from 205.6 m2/g to 31.8 m2/g. The average pore diameter was 10.53 nm with accumulative pore volume of 0.244 mL/g for the 3% B-TiO2 sample calcinated at 400°C, which performed optimal photocatalytic degradation activity. After 90 min of UV-light irradiation, degradation rate of methyl orange was 96.7% on the optimized photocatalyst.

  16. Preparation for Spherical particles of Praseodymium doped Perovskite Red Phosphor by Hydrothermal Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, T.; Matsuda, A.; Mizunuma, M.; Tanaka, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Spherical particles of 0.5mol%Pr3+-doped CaTiO3 were prepared by hydrothermal reaction on dissolved CaCl2, Pr(NO3)3, and ammonium citratoperoxotitanate (IV) complex precursor solution with molar ratio of Ti/CA=1:2 and calcination in ambient atmosphere. The obtained particle exhibited red photoluminescence at 610nm. It is found that several particles have hollow structure. It is required that further investigation is needed to clarify the formation mechanism of these spherical hollow paricles.

  17. UV Light–Induced Aggregation of Titania Submicron Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, aggregation of TiO2 (rutile and anatase submicron particles in deionized (DI water under ultra-violet (UV light irradiation was investigated. While no aggregation was observed in the dark, rutile and anatase submicron particles started aggregating upon application of UV light and ceased aggregation in about 2 and 8.4 h, respectively. It has been demonstrated that UV light directly mitigated the particle mobility of TiO2, resulting in a neutralization effect of the Zeta potential. It was also observed that rutile particles aggregated much faster than anatase particles under UV radiation, indicating that the Zeta potential of as-prepared rutile is less than that of anatase in deionized (DI water. In addition, the interaction energy of rutile and anatase particles was simulated using the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO model. The results showed a significant reduction of barrier energy from 118.2 kBT to 33.6 kBT for rutile and from 333.5 kBT to 46.1 kBT for anatase, respectively, which further validated the remarkable influence of UV irradiation on the aggregation kinetics of rutile and anatase submicron particles. This work presents a further understanding of the aggregation mechanism of light-controlled submicron particles and has a promising potential application in environmental remediation.

  18. Particle kickers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    These devices are designed to provide a current pulse of 5000 Amps which will in turn generate a fast magnetic pulse that steers the incoming beam into the LHC. Today, the comprehensive upgrade of the LHC injection kicker system is entering its final stages. The upgraded system will ensure the LHC can be refilled without needing to wait for the kicker magnets to cool, thus enhancing the performance of the whole accelerator.   An upgraded kicker magnet in its vacuum tank, with an upgraded beam screen. The LHC is equipped with two kicker systems installed at the injection points (near points 2 and 8, see schematic diagram) where the particle beams coming from the SPS are injected into the accelerator’s orbit. Each system comprises four magnets and four pulse generators in which the field rises to 0.12 Tesla in less than 900 nanoseconds and for a duration of approximately 8 microseconds. Although the injection kickers only pulse 12 times to fill the LHC up with beam, the LHC beam circ...

  19. Insight into band positions and inter-particle electron transfer dynamics between CdS nanoclusters and spatially isolated TiO2 dispersed in cubic MCM-48 mesoporous materials: a highly efficient system for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, R.; Lin, C.K.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Wu, C.M.; Dimitrijevic, N.M.; Rajh, T.; May, S.; Koodali, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    CdS incorporated Si-MCM-48 and Ti-MCM-48 cubic phased mesoporous photocatalysts were prepared by a two-step modification synthetic approach under relatively mild conditions. A highly efficient (24.8%, apparent quantum yield (AQY)) photocatalyst for visible light (λ > 400 nm) enabled solar hydrogen

  20. High-temperature nitridation of Nb-Ti alloys in nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscaglia, V.; Martinelli, A. [Nat. Res. Council, Genoa (Italy). Inst. of Phys. Chem. of Mater.; Musenich, R. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genoa (Italy); Mayr, W.; Lengauer, W. [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/161, A-1060 Vienna (Austria)

    1999-02-01

    Microstructure evolution, phase composition, weight gain and layer growth kinetics of Nb-Ti alloys (10, 47, 63 and 90 at.% Ti) annealed in high-purity nitrogen atmosphere (0.3, 3 and 30 bar) were studied in the temperature range 1300-1600 C. After nitridation, the formation of an external compact nitride layer as well as extensive internal nitride precipitation was observed. The overall nitridation kinetics (weight gain) is invariably parabolic; a deviation from the initial rate law is observed at 1450 and 1600 C for the longer reaction times when the alloy core approaches nitrogen saturation and internal precipitation slows down. The parabolic rate constant is strongly affected by the Nb content in the alloy. The phases detected in the reacted samples are isostructural with those of the Nb-Ti, Nb-N and Ti-N systems. The surface nitride was {delta}-(Ti,Nb)N in any case. The morphology of the internal nitridation zone corresponds to the growth of large, oriented, nitride needles for the three alloys richer in titanium. The needles are composed of {alpha}-(Ti,Nb)(N) in the case of Ti{sub 90}Nb{sub 10} alloy and of {delta}-(Ti,Nb)N{sub 1-x} in the case of Ti{sub 63}Nb{sub 37} and Ti{sub 47}Nb{sub 53}. Such a microstructure is evidence for nucleation difficulty; coarsening of the existing particles is favoured in comparison to the formation of new precipitates. Homogeneous nucleation is hindered by the small chemical Gibbs free energy available and the elastic strain energy related to volume misfit. After initial reaction, microstructure evolution is mainly determined by the fast inward diffusion of nitrogen and the slow Nb-Ti interdiffusion in the {beta}-(Ti,Nb) alloy. Internal nitridation of Ti{sub 10}Nb{sub 90} at 1450 and 1600 C leads to the formation of fine and numerous precipitates of {beta}-(Nb,Ti){sub 2}N. (orig.) 58 refs.