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Sample records for sub-humid tropical highlands

  1. Suspended sediment concentration–discharge relationships in the (sub- humid Ethiopian highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Guzman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Loss of top soil and subsequent filling up of reservoirs in much of the lands with variable relief in developing countries degrades environmental resources necessary for subsistence. In the Ethiopia highlands, sediment mobilization from rain-fed agricultural fields is one of the leading factors causing land degradation. Sediment rating curves, produced from long-term sediment concentration and discharge data, attempt to predict suspended sediment concentration variations, which exhibit a distinct shift with the progression of the rainy season. In this paper, we calculate sediment rating curves and examine this shift in concentration for three watersheds in which rain-fed agriculture is practiced to differing extents. High sediment concentrations with low flows are found at the beginning of the rainy season of the semi-monsoonal climate, while high flows and low sediment concentrations occur at the end of the rainy season. Results show that a reasonably unique set of rating curves were obtained by separating biweekly data into early, mid, and late rainfall periods and by making adjustments for the ratio of plowed cropland. The shift from high to low concentrations suggests that diminishing sediment supply and dilution from greater base flow during the end of the rainfall period play important roles in characterizing changing sediment concentrations during the rainy season.

  2. Impacts of Present and Future Climate Variability On Agriculture and Forestry in the Humid and Sub-Humid Tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, C.; Wang, S.; Tibig, Lourdes V.

    2005-01-01

    Although there are different results from different studies, most assessments indicate that climate variability would have negative effects on agriculture and forestry in the humid and sub-humid tropics. Cereal crop yields would decrease generally with even minimal increases in temperature. For commercial crops, extreme events such as cyclones, droughts and floods lead to larger damages than only changes of mean climate. Impacts of climate variability on livestock mainly include two aspects; impacts on animals such as increase of heat and disease stress-related death, and impacts on pasture. As to forestry, climate variability would have negative as well as some positive impacts on forests of humid and sub-humid tropics. However, in most tropical regions, the impacts of human activities such as deforestation will be more important than climate variability and climate change in determining natural forest cover

  3. Effects of a deep-rooted crop and soil amended with charcoal on spatial and temporal runoff patterns in a degrading tropical highland watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayabil, Haimanote K.; Tebebu, Tigist Y.; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2016-01-01

    Placement and hence performance of many soil and water conservation structures in tropical highlands has proven to be challenging due to uncertainty of the actual location of runoff-generating areas in the landscape. This is the case especially in the (sub-)humid areas of the Ethiopian highlands,

  4. Hydrologic and Erosional Response to Natural Rainfall and Effects of Conservation and Rehabilitation Measures in a Degraded Dry Sub-Humid Watershed of the Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, O. V.; Liu, B. M.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2005-12-01

    A good understanding of runoff and erosion under actual field conditions is essential for effective planning of land conservation in the Ethiopian highlands. Hydrologic and sediment yield response to natural rainfall was measured during 3 rainy seasons (2003-2004) at plot and catchment scales with and without conservation practices. Results show that as expected surface runoff generation and erosion rates are significantly influenced by rainfall intensity, land use, scale of measurement, land slope, and the presence or not of conservation measures. Seasonal runoff coefficient and sediment yield were significantly better correlated to number of storms with high 30-minute maximum rainfall intensity (I30 > 20 mm h-1) than to total seasonal rainfall depth. Under conventional management systems cropland on slopes greater than 3 % generated significantly more (over twice) surface runoff and sediment yield compared with shrub and open forest grazing land on steep slopes (34 %). Plot measured surface runoff coefficients (for crop and grazing land uses which cover over 90 % of the catchment area) exceeded total catchment streamflow discharge demonstrating a scale effect. The observed scale effect, a stronger correlation of runoff with maximum rainfall intensity than rainfall depth and average rainfall intensity, and observed significant increases in runoff with steeper land slopes indicate that Hortonian overland flow is the primary runoff generation mechanism in the study zone. Concerning slope effects, cropland on mild slopes produced relatively low seasonal sediment yields (hillside conservation (areas with bench terracing, planted tree seedlings, and small area closure from livestock grazing) resulted in significantly lower catchment peak streamflow discharge and longer duration streamflow compared to a catchment in the same watershed without these measures. Cropland tied ridge and no till conservation practices reduced surface runoff and soil loss during seasons with

  5. Exclusion of soil macrofauna did not affect soil quality but increases crop yields in a sub-humid tropical maize-based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, B.K.; Vanlauwe, B.; Hoogmoed, M.; Hurisso, T.T.; Ndabamenye, T.; Terano, Y.; Ayuke, F.O.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Soil macrofauna such as earthworms and termites are involved in key ecosystem functions and thus considered important for sustainable intensification of crop production. However, their contribution to tropical soil and crop performance, as well as relations with agricultural management (e.g.

  6. Distribution, diversity and environmental adaptation of highland papaya (Vasconcellea spp.) in tropical and subtropical America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheldeman, X.; Willemen, L.; Coppens D'eeckenbrugge, G.; Romeijn-Peeters, E.; Restrepo, M.T.; Romero Motoche, J.; Jimenez, D.; Lobo, M.; Medina, C.I.; Reyes, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Ocampo, J.A.; Damme, van P.; Goetghebeur, P.

    2007-01-01

    Vasconcellea species, often referred to as highland papayas, consist of a group of fruit species that are closely related to the common papaya (Carica papaya). The genus deserves special attention as a number of species show potential as raw material in the tropical fruit industry, fresh or in

  7. Microorganisms in Soils of Bovine Production Systems in Tropical Lowlands and Tropical Highlands in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Guzmán, Licet Paola; Henao-Jaramillo, Paula Andrea; Gutiérrez-Builes, Lina Andrea; Ríos-Osorio, Leonardo Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the physical and chemical effects of extensive grazing on soils have been performed in Colombia, but the effects of dairy cattle rearing on the biological properties of soils are not well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate microorganisms in 48 soils from livestock farms in the highland and lowland tropics in the Northern and Magdalena Medio subregions of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia). Principal component analysis demonstrated differences in the edaphic comp...

  8. Microorganisms in Soils of Bovine Production Systems in Tropical Lowlands and Tropical Highlands in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licet Paola Molina-Guzmán

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the physical and chemical effects of extensive grazing on soils have been performed in Colombia, but the effects of dairy cattle rearing on the biological properties of soils are not well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate microorganisms in 48 soils from livestock farms in the highland and lowland tropics in the Northern and Magdalena Medio subregions of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia. Principal component analysis demonstrated differences in the edaphic compositions of the soils, with increased percentages of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the density of microorganisms in farms that have soils with moderate phosphorus and nitrogen contents, low potassium content, and a moderately acidic pH. Agglomerative cluster analysis showed two groups for the highland tropic soils and six groups for the lowland tropic soils based on their population densities and interactions with the studied parameters. These results represent a first attempt to describe the density of microorganisms and the effect of soil physicochemical parameters on colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in areas with determinant agroecological conditions, microbial functional diversity, and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi in livestock farm soils in Colombia.

  9. Preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans in the highland tropics of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Andrade-Piedra, Jorge L.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether preemergence infection of potato sprouts by Phytophthora infestans occurs in the highland tropics of Ecuador. In three separate experiments in the field, P. infestans was identified on the preemerged sprouts of 49, 5, and 43% of tubers, respectively...

  10. Morphological, sediment and soil chemical characteristics of dry tropical shallow reservoirs in the Southern Mexican Highlands

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    José Luis ARREDONDO-FIGUEROA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The morphometry, sediment and soil chemical characteristics of eleven dry tropical shallow reservoirs situated in Southern Mexican Highlands were studied. The reservoirs are located at 1104 to 1183 meters above sea level in a sedimentary area. Seventeen morphometric and eight sediment and soil chemical parameters were measured. The results of the morphometric parameters showed that these reservoirs presented a soft and roughness bottom, with an ellipsoid form and a concave depression that permit the mix up of water and sediments, causing turbidity and broken thermal gradients; their slight slopes allowed the colonization of submerged macrophyte and halophyte plants and improved the incidence of sunlight on water surface increasing evaporation and primary productivity. Dry tropical shallow reservoirs have fluctuations in area, and volume according to the amount of rainfall, the effect of evaporation, temperature, lost volume for irrigation, and other causes. The sand-clay was the most important sediment texture and their values fluctuated with the flooded periods. The concentration-dilution cycle showed a direct relationship in the percentage of organic matter in the soil as well as with pH, soil nitrogen and phosphorus. El Tilzate, El Candelero and El Movil were related by the shore development and high concentrations of organic matter and nitrogen in the soil. Finally, we emphasize the importance of this study, in relation to possible future changes in morphometrical parameters as a consequence of human impact.

  11. Twelve years of continuous measurements of atmospheric electrical activity in Mexico's Tropical highland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troncoso Lozada, O. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-04-01

    Atmospheric electric activity measurements have been recorded continuously by a punctual lightning system at a tropical highland observatory from 1988 onwards, and were analyzed to obtain lightning statistical confident results for thunderstorms occurrence on the leeward side of the southern mountain ridge of Mexico's Valley. Shown, as examples, are individual profiles of the atmospheric electrical activity, associated with severe storms. The results make clear that the fastest possible sequence of electrical measurements is required to obtain significant and applications oriented data in connection with a whole series of thunderstorms taking into account the mean time variation of the atmospheric electricity measurements at an altitude of 2270 m a.s.l. The seasonal variation indicates that the lightning flash peak currents were found to be larger in summer with less than 10% occurring in the autumn and winter. With rainfall data from a network of 66 stations, we obtained a significant correlation with the lightning frequency. Special attention was undertaken concerning the question of the atmospheric electrical activity and climate at Valley of Mexico. [Spanish] Se midieron ininterrumpidamente las variaciones de la actividad electrica en la atmosfera, de enero de 1988 a diciembre de 1999, en un observatorio de altura (2,250 m s.n.m.), y se analizaron para obtener resultados estadisticos confiables con relacion a la ocurrencia de tormentas en la region sur del Valle de Mexico. Como ejemplos, se muestran los perfiles individuales de la actividad electrica atmosferica asociada con tormentas severas. Los resultados dejan claro que se requiere de la secuencia de medidas electricas lo mas rapida posible para obtener datos significativos y aplicables en relacion con una serie completa de tormentas, considerando la media del tiempo de variacion de las mediciones de la actividad electrica atmosferica a una altitud de 2,270 m s.n.m. La validacion estacional indica que

  12. Sediment dynamics during the rainy season in tropical highland catchments of central Mexico using fallout radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie; Lefevre, Irene; Bonte, Philippe; Nemery, Julien; Gratiot, Nicolas; Duvert, Clement; Prat, Christian; Esteves, Michel; Poulenard, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Tropical regions are affected by intense soil erosion associated with deforestation, overgrazing, and cropping intensification. This land degradation leads to important on-site (e.g., decrease in soil fertility) and off-site (e.g., reservoir siltation and water pollution) impacts. This study determined the mean soil particle and sediment residence times in soils and rivers of three sub-catchments (3-12 km 2 ) with contrasted land uses (i.e., cropland, forests, and rangelands) draining to a reservoir located in highlands of the trans-volcanic Mexican belt. Calculations were based on rainfall amount and river discharges as well as on fallout radionuclide measurements (Be-7, Cs-137, and Pb-210) conducted on rainfall precipitated samples, soil sampled in the catchments, and suspended sediment collected by automatic samplers in the river during most storms recorded throughout the 2009 rainy season. Calculations using a radionuclide two-box balance model showed that the mean residence time of particles in soils ranged between 5000 ± 1500 and 23, 300 ± 7000 years. In contrast, sediment residence time in rivers was much shorter, fluctuating between 50 ± 30 and 200 ± 70 days. The shortest mean residence times were measured in a hilly catchment dominated by cropland and rangelands, whereas they were the longest in an undulating catchment dominated by forests and cropland. Calculation of the Be-7/excess-Pb-210 in both rainfall and sediment allowed gaining insight on sediment dynamics throughout the rainy season. The first heavy storms of the year exported the bulk of the sediment stock accumulated in the river channel during the previous year. Then, during the rainy season, the two steeper catchments dominated by cropland and rangelands reacted strongly to rainfall. Sediment was indeed eroded and exported from both catchments during single heavy storms on several occasions in 2009. In contrast, the agro-forested catchment with gentler slopes exported sediment at a

  13. Comparison of two strategies for use of translaminar and contact fungicide in the control of potato late blight in the highland tropics of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Peter; Leon, D.; Andrade-Piedra, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Strategies based on using the translaminar fungicide cymoxanil for control of potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, were compared in the highland tropics of Ecuador in three separate field experiments. In one strategy, a commercial formulation of cymoxanil mixed with mancozeb was ...

  14. Impact of Soil and Water Conservation Interventions on Watershed Runoff Response in a Tropical Humid Highland of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Dagnenet; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Adgo, Enyew; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Masunaga, Tsugiyuki; Aklog, Dagnachew; Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Ebabu, Kindiye

    2018-05-01

    Various soil and water conservation measures (SWC) have been widely implemented to reduce surface runoff in degraded and drought-prone watersheds. But little quantitative study has been done on to what extent such measures can reduce watershed-scale runoff, particularly from typical humid tropical highlands of Ethiopia. The overall goal of this study is to analyze the impact of SWC interventions on the runoff response by integrating field measurement with a hydrological CN model which gives a quantitative analysis future thought. Firstly, a paired-watershed approach was employed to quantify the relative difference in runoff response for the Kasiry (treated) and Akusty (untreated) watersheds. Secondly, a calibrated curve number hydrological modeling was applied to investigate the effect of various SWC management scenarios for the Kasiry watershed alone. The paired-watershed approach showed a distinct runoff response between the two watersheds however the effect of SWC measures was not clearly discerned being masked by other factors. On the other hand, the model predicts that, under the current SWC coverage at Kasiry, the seasonal runoff yield is being reduced by 5.2%. However, runoff yields from Kasiry watershed could be decreased by as much as 34% if soil bunds were installed on cultivated land and trenches were installed on grazing and plantation lands. In contrast, implementation of SWC measures on bush land and natural forest would have little effect on reducing runoff. The results on the magnitude of runoff reduction under optimal combinations of SWC measures and land use will support decision-makers in selection and promotion of valid management practices that are suited to particular biophysical niches in the tropical humid highlands of Ethiopia.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Biome-Bgc Model for Dry Tropical Forests of Vindhyan Highlands, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Raghubanshi, A. S.

    2011-08-01

    A process-based model BIOME-BGC was run for sensitivity analysis to see the effect of ecophysiological parameters on net primary production (NPP) of dry tropical forest of India. The sensitivity test reveals that the forest NPP was highly sensitive to the following ecophysiological parameters: Canopy light extinction coefficient (k), Canopy average specific leaf area (SLA), New stem C : New leaf C (SC:LC), Maximum stomatal conductance (gs,max), C:N of fine roots (C:Nfr), All-sided to projected leaf area ratio and Canopy water interception coefficient (Wint). Therefore, these parameters need more precision and attention during estimation and observation in the field studies.

  16. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF BIOME-BGC MODEL FOR DRY TROPICAL FORESTS OF VINDHYAN HIGHLANDS, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kumar; A. S. Raghubanshi

    2012-01-01

    A process-based model BIOME-BGC was run for sensitivity analysis to see the effect of ecophysiological parameters on net primary production (NPP) of dry tropical forest of India. The sensitivity test reveals that the forest NPP was highly sensitive to the following ecophysiological parameters: Canopy light extinction coefficient (k), Canopy average specific leaf area (SLA), New stem C : New leaf C (SC:LC), Maximum stomatal conductance (gs,max), C:N of fine roots (C:Nfr), All-sided to...

  17. Distribution and fate of HCH isomers and DDT metabolites in a tropical environment-case study Cameron Highlands-Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Naghmeh; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Zakaria, Zuriati; Rezayi, Majid; Hosseinizare, Nader

    2012-11-07

    The serious impact effects of persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorine pesticides, especially dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane family (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) have been causing widespread concern, despite effective control on their manufacturing, agricultural and vector practices. In that, in addition to the previous global limitations on DDTs usage, α-HCH, β-HCH and lindane have also became an on-going topic of global relevance based on the latest Stockholm Convention list on 10th of May 2009. Concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane family (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) were determined by GC-ECD in Cameron Highlands, the main vegetables and flowers farming area in Malaysia as an agricultural tropical environment. A total of 112 surface water and sediment samples at eight points were collected along the main rivers in the area namely Telom and Bertam in the dry and wet seasons of 2011. Total concentration of HCH isomers ranged from not detected to 25.03 ng/L in the water (mean of 5.55 ±6.0 ng/L), while, it ranged from 0.002 to 59.17 ng/g (mean of 8.06±9.39 ng/g) in the sediment. Total concentration of DDT and its metabolites in the water samples varied from not detected to 8.0 ng/L (mean of 0.90±1.66 ng/g), whereas, it was in the range of 0.025 to 23.24 ng/g (mean of 2.55±4.0 ng/g) in the surface sediment samples. The ratio of HCHs and DDTs composition indicated an obvious historical usage and new inputs of these pesticides. Among alpha, beta, gamma and delta isomers of HCH, gamma was the most dominant component in the sediment and water as well. Some seasonal variations in the level of selected pesticides were noted. The results illustrate distribution, behaviour and fate of HCHs, and DDTs have closely connected with topological and meteorological properties of the area beyond their chemical characterizations. The features of environmental circumstances exceed one or more of these characters in

  18. Ethnoecology of the tropical Andes avian indicators of landscape change in highland Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiento, F. O.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Four Andean birds offer clues to rethink the ethnoecology of neotropical cloud forests, challenging the notion of conservation based only in water resources and biodiversity. Using both archaeological and actuoecological evidence, the role of humans in shaping high Andean landscapes' location and maintenance is argued as an important factor for conservation priorities of tropical montane cloud forests, particularly in the equatorial mountains. Avian examples demonstrate intricate linkages of culture and nature in the tropical Andes. Traditional knowledge associated to ornithological clues, helps understanding the dynamics of cultural landscapes, with birds as proxy of synergisms affecting the complexities of both, nature and culture. A paradox of conservation is highlighted with avian indicators. The four selected species were cases where landscape change and biodiversity help in determining ethnoecological insights. Unlike the preservation of absolute nature reserves, landscape stewardship, conservation easements and cultural la^tdscapes are listed as options for inclusion in the repertoire of conservation scenarios for cloud forests survival, which includes sacred places and spiritual domains as intangibles worth protecting in the Tropical Andes.

    [fr] Quatre oiseaux andins nous donnent des raisons pour repenser Vethnoécologie des forêts néotropicales humides, ce qui met en question l'idée de la conservation basée sur les ressources d'eau et la biodiversité seules. En se servant des évidences archéologiques et écologiques actuelles, on soutient que les êtres humains ont un rôle dans la formation des hauts paysages andins. On soutient aussi que l'entretien est un facteur important dans la conservation des forêts tropicales humides en montagne, surtout dans les montagnes équatoriales. Les exemples aviaires démontrent les liens compliqués entre la culture et la nature dans les Andes tropicales. Les connaissances

  19. Modelling soil moisture under different land covers in a sub-humid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in the sub-humid climate within the Western Ghats, Karnataka, India. ... carried out with respect to the water-holding capacity of the soils with the aim of explaining ... changes have taken place in the land-use/cover of ... about 20–25 km inland.

  20. Impacts of climate change on cropping patterns in a tropical, sub-humid watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sander J.; Hein, Lars

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, there have been substantial increases in crop production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a result of higher yields, increased cropping intensity, expansion of irrigated cropping systems, and rainfed cropland expansion. Yet, to date much of the research focus of the impact of climate change on crop production in the coming decades has been on crop yield responses. In this study, we analyse the impact of climate change on the potential for increasing rainfed cropping intensity through sequential cropping and irrigation expansion in central Benin. Our approach combines hydrological modelling and scenario analysis involving two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), two water-use scenarios for the watershed based on the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), and environmental water requirements leading to sustained streamflow. Our analyses show that in Benin, warmer temperatures will severely limit crop production increases achieved through the expansion of sequential cropping. Depending on the climate change scenario, between 50% and 95% of cultivated areas that can currently support sequential cropping or will need to revert to single cropping. The results also show that the irrigation potential of the watershed will be at least halved by mid-century in all scenario combinations. Given the urgent need to increase crop production to meet the demands of a growing population in SSA, our study outlines challenges and the need for planned development that need to be overcome to improve food security in the coming decades. PMID:29513753

  1. Assessment of practices for controlling shallow valley-bottom gullies in the sub-humid Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehabilitation of gullies in developing countries is unsuccessful due to the high cost. Arresting head cuts at time of initiation will prevent large gullies from forming and is affordable. However, research on practices to arrest shallow gully heads with local materials is limited. The objective was...

  2. Effective crop evapotranspiration measurement using time-domain reflectometry technique in a sub-humid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R. K.; Panda, R. K.; Halder, Debjani

    2017-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique for daily evapotranspiration estimation of peanut and maize crop in a sub-humid region. Four independent methods were used to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ETc), namely, soil water balance budgeting approach, energy balance approach—(Bowen ratio), empirical methods approach, and Pan evaporation method. The soil water balance budgeting approach utilized the soil moisture measurement by gravimetric and TDR method. The empirical evapotranspiration methods such as combination approach (FAO-56 Penman-Monteith and Penman), temperature-based approach (Hargreaves-Samani), and radiation-based approach (Priestley-Taylor, Turc, Abetw) were used to estimate the reference evapotranspiration (ET0). The daily ETc determined by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, Turc, Pan evaporation, and Bowen ratio were found to be at par with the ET values derived from the soil water balance budget; while the methods Abetw, Penman, and Hargreaves-Samani were not found to be ideal for the determination of ETc. The study illustrates the in situ applicability of the TDR method in order to make it possible for a user to choose the best way for the optimum water consumption for a given crop in a sub-humid region. The study suggests that the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith, Turc, and Priestley-Taylor can be used for the determination of crop ETc using TDR in comparison to soil water balance budget.

  3. Detection of tropical landslides using airborne lidar data and multi imagery: A case study in genting highland, pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamsin, I; Zulkarnain, M; Razak, K A; Rizal, S

    2014-01-01

    The landslide geomorphological system in a tropical region is complex, and its understanding often depends on the completeness and correctness of landslide inventorization. In mountainous regions, landslides pose a significant impact and are known as an important geomorphic process in shaping major landscape in the tropics. A modern remote sensing based approach has revolutionized the landslide investigation in a forested terrain. Optical satellite imagery, aerial photographs and synthetic aperture radar images are less effective to create reliable tropical DTMs for landslide recognition, and even so in the forested equatorial regions. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data have been used to construct the digital terrain model (DTM) under dense vegetation, but its reliability for landslide recognition in the tropics remains surprisingly unknown. The present study aims at providing better insight into the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. For the bare-earth extraction, several prominent filtering algorithms and surface interpolation methods, i.e. progressive TIN densitification, morphological, and command prompt from Lastool are evaluated in a qualitative analysis, aiming at removing non-ground points while preserving important landslide features. As a result, a large landslide can be detected using OOA. Small landslides remain unrecognized. Three out of five landslides can be detected, with a 60 percent overall accuracy

  4. Crop coefficients for winter wheat in a sub-humid climate regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Jeppe Hvelplund; Plauborg, Finn; Mollerup, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    Estimations of evapotranspiration (ET) from natural surfaces are used in a large number of applications such as agricultural water management and water resources planning. Lack of reliable, cheap and easy-to-use instruments, associated with the chaotic and varying nature of the meteorological...... coefficients for a winter wheat crop growing under standard conditions, i.e. not short of water and growing under optimal agronomic conditions, were estimated for a cold sub-humid climate regime. One of the two methods used to estimate ET from a reference crop required net radiation (Rn) as input. Two sets...... of coefficients were used for calculating Rn. Weather data from a meteorological station was used to estimate Rn and ET from the reference crop. The winter wheat ET was measured using an eddy covariance system during the main parts of the growing seasons 2004 and 2005. The meteorological data and field...

  5. Modelling approach for the rainfall erosivity index in sub-humid urban areas in northern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaibia, I.; Abderrahmane Guenim, N.; Touaibia, B.

    2014-09-01

    This work presents an approach for storm water erosivity index modelling in the absence of measurement in an urban area, in a sub-humid climate. In torrential storms, floods, loaded with sediments, obstruct storm water drainage. With the aim of estimating the amount of sediment that can be deposited on a stretch of road, adjacent to the study area, the erosivity index is determined from a count of 744 rain showers recorded over a period of 19 years. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) of Wischmeier and Smith is applied, where only the index of erosivity is calculated; it is based on the intensity of the rain starting the process of erosion in the basin. Functional relations are required between this factor and the explanatory variables. A power type regression model is reached, making it possible to bring a decision-making aid in absences of measurements.

  6. Modelling approach for the rainfall erosivity index in sub-humid urban areas in northern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Touaibia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an approach for storm water erosivity index modelling in the absence of measurement in an urban area, in a sub-humid climate. In torrential storms, floods, loaded with sediments, obstruct storm water drainage. With the aim of estimating the amount of sediment that can be deposited on a stretch of road, adjacent to the study area, the erosivity index is determined from a count of 744 rain showers recorded over a period of 19 years. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE of Wischmeier and Smith is applied, where only the index of erosivity is calculated; it is based on the intensity of the rain starting the process of erosion in the basin. Functional relations are required between this factor and the explanatory variables. A power type regression model is reached, making it possible to bring a decision-making aid in absences of measurements.

  7. Use of high resolution Airborne Laser Scanning data for landslide interpretation under mixed forest and tropical rainforest: case study in Barcelonnette, France and Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Straatsma, Menno; van Westen, Cees; Malet, Jean-Philippe; de Jong, Steven M.

    2010-05-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is the state of the art technology for topographic mapping over a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales. It is also a promising technique for identification and mapping of landslides in a forested mountainous landscape. This technology demonstrates the ability to pass through the gaps between forest foliage and record the terrain height under vegetation cover. To date, most of the images either derived from satellite imagery, aerial-photograph or synthetic aperture radar are not appropriate for visual interpretation of landslide features that are covered by dense vegetation. However, it is a necessity to carefully map the landslides in order to understand its processes. This is essential for landslide hazard and risk assessment. This research demonstrates the capabilities of high resolution ALS data to recognize and identify different types of landslides in mixed forest in Barcelonnette, France and tropical rainforest in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. ALS measurements over the 100-years old forest in Bois Noir catchment were carried out in 2007 and 2009. Both ALS dataset were captured using a Riegl laser scanner. First and last pulse with density of one point per meter square was derived from 2007 ALS dataset, whereas multiple return (of up to five returns) pulse was derived from July 2009 ALS dataset, which consists of 60 points per meter square over forested terrain. Generally, this catchment is highly affected by shallow landslides which mostly occur beneath dense vegetation. It is located in the dry intra-Alpine zone and represented by the climatic of the South French Alps. In the Cameron Highlands, first and last pulse data was captured in 2004 which covers an area of up to 300 kilometres square. Here, the Optech laser scanner was used under the Malaysian national pilot study which has slightly low point density. With precipitation intensity of up to 3000 mm per year over rugged topography and elevations up to 2800 m a

  8. Tropical and Highland Temperate Forest Plantations in Mexico: Pathways for Climate Change Mitigation and Ecosystem Services Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Guerra-De la Cruz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations are a possible way of increasing forest productivity in temperate and tropical forests, and therefore also increasing above- and belowground carbon pools. In the context of climate change, monospecific plantations might become an alternative to mitigate global warming; however, their contribution to the structural complexity, complementarity, and biodiversity of forests has not been addressed. Mixed forest plantations can ensure that objectives of climate change mitigation are met through carbon sequestration, while also delivering anticipated ecosystem services (e.g., nutrient cycling, erosion control, and wildlife habitat. However, mixed forest plantations pose considerable operational challenges and research opportunities. For example, it is essential to know how many species or functional traits are necessary to deliver a set of benefits, or what mixture of species and densities are key to maintaining productive plantations and delivering multiple ecosystem services. At the same time, the establishment of forest plantations in Mexico should not be motivated solely by timber production. Forest plantations should also increase carbon sequestration, maintain biodiversity, and provide other ecosystem services. This article analyzes some matters that affect the development of planted forests in the Mexican national context, and presents alternatives for forest resources management through the recommendation of mixed forest plantations as a means of contributing to climate change mitigation and the delivery of ecosystem services.

  9. The role of groundwater in streamflow in a headwater catchment with sub-humid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang; Tie, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bedrock groundwater can exert considerable influence on streamflow in headwater catchments under humid climate. However, study of the role of bedrock groundwater is still challenged due to limited direct observation data. In this study, by utilizing observed hydrometric and hydrochemical data, we aimed at characterize the bedrock groundwater's response to rainfall at hillslope and catchment scales in a small headwater catchment with sub-humid climate. We selected Xitaizi catchment with area of 6.7 km in the earth-rock mountain region, which located in the north of Beijing, China, as study area. The catchment bedrock is mainly consist of fractured granite. Four weather stations were installed to observe the weather condition and soil volumetric water content (VWC) at depth of 10-60 cm with 10-minute interval. Five wells with depth of 10 m were drilled in two slopes to monitor the bedrock water table by pneumatic water gauge. At slope 1, the soil VWC at depth of 10-80 cm were also observed by soil moisture sensors, and surface/subsurface hillslope runoff at three different layers (0-20cm, 20-80cm, 80-300cm) was observed by three recording buckets. Field works were conducted from July 2013 to November 2014. During the period, precipitation, river, spring and groundwater were sampled nearly monthly. Water temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were measured in site with portable instruments. In addition, the precipitation, river and groundwater were also sampled intensively during two storm events. All the samples were subjected to stable isotope analysis, the samples taken monthly during the period from July 2013 to July 2014 were subjected to hydrochemistry analysis. Our results show that: (1) the bedrock groundwater is the dominant component of streamflow in the headwater catchment with sub-humid climate; (2) stream is recharged by groundwater sourcing from different mountains with different hydrochemistry characteristics

  10. Flight performance and feather quality: paying the price of overlapping moult and breeding in a tropical highland bird.

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    Maria Angela Echeverry-Galvis

    Full Text Available A temporal separation of energetically costly life history events like reproduction and maintenance of the integumentary system is thought to be promoted by selection to avoid trade-offs and maximize fitness. It has therefore remained somewhat of a paradox that certain vertebrate species can undergo both events simultaneously. Identifying potential costs of overlapping two demanding life history stages will further our understanding of the selection pressures that shape the temporal regulation of life history events in vertebrates. We studied free-living tropical Slaty brush-finches (Atlapetes schistaceus, in which individuals spontaneously overlap reproduction and moult or undergo both events in separation. To assess possible costs of such an overlap we quantified feather quality and flight performance of individuals in different states. We determined individual's life history state by measuring gonad size and scoring moult stage, and collected a newly grown 7(th primary wing feather for later analysis of feather quality. Finally, we quantified flight performance for each individual in the wild. Overlapping individuals produced lighter and shorter wing feathers than individuals just moulting, with females decreasing feather quality more strongly during the overlap than males. Moreover, overlapping individuals had a reduced flight speed during escape flights, while their foraging flight speed was unaffected. Despite overlappers being larger and having a smaller wing area, their lower body mass resulted in a similar wing load as in breeders or moulters. Individuals measured repeatedly in different states also showed significant decreases in feather quality and escape flight speed during the overlap. Reduced escape flight speed may represent a major consequence of the overlap by increasing predation risk. Our data document costs to undergoing two life history stages simultaneously, which likely arise from energetic trade-offs. Impairments in

  11. Application of artificial intelligence to estimate the reference evapotranspiration in sub-humid Doon valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Manish K.; Khare, Deepak; Chandniha, Surendra K.

    2017-11-01

    Estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the hydrologic cycle, which is also requisite for efficient irrigation water management planning and hydro-meteorological studies at both the basin and catchment scales. There are about twenty well-established methods available for ET estimation which depends upon various meteorological parameters and assumptions. Most of these methods are physically based and need a variety of input data. The FAO-56 Penman-Monteith method (PM) for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is recommend for irrigation scheduling worldwide, because PM generally yields the best results under various climatic conditions. This study investigates the abilities of artificial neural networks (ANN) to improve the accuracy of monthly evaporation estimation in sub-humid climatic region of Dehradun. In the first part of the study, different ANN models, comprising various combinations of training function and number of neutrons were developed to estimate the ET0 and it has been compared with the Penman-Monteith (PM) ET0 as the ideal (observed) ET0. Various statistical approaches were considered to estimate the model performance, i.e. Coefficient of Correlation ( r), Sum of Squared Errors, Root Mean Square Error, Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency Index (NSE) and Mean Absolute Error. The ANN model with Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm, single hidden layer and nine number of neutron schema was found the best predicting capabilities for the study station with Coefficient of Correlation ( r) and NSE value of 0.996 and 0.991 for calibration period and 0.990 and 0.980 for validation period, respectively. In the subsequent part of the study, the trend analysis of ET0 time series revealed a rising trend in the month of March, and a falling trend during June to November, except August, with more than 90% significance level and the annual declining rate was found to 1.49 mm per year.

  12. Yield, Phenotypical Stability and Micronutrients Contents in the Biofortified Bean in the Colombian Sub-humid Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Patricia Tofiño-Rivera,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The intake of protein and micronutrients in the Colombian sub-humid Caribbean has been a concern in recent years. About 57 % of the population in the sub-humid Caribbean region, has a deficit of amino acids —iron (Fe and zinc (Zn— in their diet. This study shows the results of the agronomic evaluation of the performance and quality of nine genotypes of biofortified bean and one local control in four environments of Cesar. The methodology included chemical and microbio-logical soil characterization, reaction evaluation to pests and diseases, multi-sited valuation by AMMI and selection of two varieties with better yield and nutritional content by ACP. In addition to these two prioritized genotypes, the Pearson correlation coefficient between seed micronutrient content for locations and years was determined. The biofortified genotypes surpassed the control group significantly in both yield and precocity. According to the ACP, the biofortified group differed from the control group in iron and zinc content in the seed, confirming its superior characteristics in nutritional quality, and resistance to pests and diseases. The AMMI showed that the genotype SMR43 reflected stability and predi-ctability between environments and SMR39 had specific adaptation in the best location for grain production. Both genotypes retained high levels of micronutrients between locations and years as according to the Pearson correlation.

  13. Mapping Annual Forest Cover in Sub-Humid and Semi-Arid Regions through Analysis of Landsat and PALSAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanwei Qin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurately mapping the spatial distribution of forests in sub-humid to semi-arid regions over time is important for forest management but a challenging task. Relatively large uncertainties still exist in the spatial distribution of forests and forest changes in the sub-humid and semi-arid regions. Numerous publications have used either optical or synthetic aperture radar (SAR remote sensing imagery, but the resultant forest cover maps often have large errors. In this study, we propose a pixel- and rule-based algorithm to identify and map annual forests from 2007 to 2010 in Oklahoma, USA, a transitional region with various climates and landscapes, using the integration of the L-band Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS PALSAR Fine Beam Dual Polarization (FBD mosaic dataset and Landsat images. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the PALSAR/Landsat forest map were about 88.2% and 0.75 in 2010, with the user and producer accuracy about 93.4% and 75.7%, based on the 3270 random ground plots collected in 2012 and 2013. Compared with the forest products from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA, National Land Cover Database (NLCD, Oklahoma Ecological Systems Map (OKESM and Oklahoma Forest Resource Assessment (OKFRA, the PALSAR/Landsat forest map showed great improvement. The area of the PALSAR/Landsat forest was about 40,149 km2 in 2010, which was close to the area from OKFRA (40,468 km2, but much larger than those from JAXA (32,403 km2 and NLCD (37,628 km2. We analyzed annual forest cover dynamics, and the results show extensive forest cover loss (2761 km2, 6.9% of the total forest area in 2010 and gain (3630 km2, 9.0% in southeast and central Oklahoma, and the total area of forests increased by 684 km2 from 2007 to 2010. This study clearly demonstrates the potential of data fusion between PALSAR and Landsat images for mapping annual forest cover dynamics in sub-humid to semi-arid regions, and the resultant forest maps would be

  14. Effect of Small-Scale Variations in Environmental Factors on the Distribution of Woody Species in Tropical Deciduous Forests of Vindhyan Highlands, India

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    R. K. Chaturvedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the composition of mature, naturally established and unmanaged TDF in response to small-scale variations in environmental factors. All woody species with a minimum circumference of 10 cm at 1.37 m height were surveyed in forty-five 20×50 m plots distributed over 5 sites in the TDF of Vindhyan highlands, India. Cluster analysis identified two distinct groups of plots. Group 1 plots had higher soil moisture content (SMC, clay, organic C, total N, total P, and light attenuation than group 2 plots. A total of 48 native species belonging to 25 families were encountered in the sampled area. High eigenvalues for the first two Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA axes indicated the occurrence of species in distinct groups, and significant correlations of the axes with environmental variables indicated the effect of these variables on species grouping. In conclusion, patchiness in the soil resources needs to be considered in restoration efforts. The results of this study are expected to facilitate the decision regarding choice of species in afforestation programmes for restoring the TDF.

  15. Transient peat properties in two pond-peatland complexes in the sub-humid Western Boreal Plain, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Petrone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Canadian Western Boreal Plain (WBP, wetlands (ponds and peatlands comprise up to 50% of the landscape and represent unique habitat where summer precipitation is often outpaced by evapotranspiration and hillslope groundwater position does not follow topography. In this sub-humid location, groundwater fluxes and stores in riparian peatlands influence pond water levels and root zone moisture sources for forested uplands. To accurately describe the transport and retention of water in peat, it is important to consider peat subsidence. This paper quantifies the amount and effect of seasonal subsidence in a riparian peatland in the Utikuma Lake region in north-central Alberta, Canada. Results demonstrate that the deep and poorly decomposed peat deposits are resistant to compression, and that thick (and persistent ground frost hinders pore collapse (shrinkage above the water table until late summer when the ground has thawed. Even then, subsidence is still limited to the top 50 cm and is not closely related to changes in peatland water table or pond water level. Thus the water balance of these ponds and riparian areas appears to be less sensitive to peat volume changes than it is to the persistence of a substantial frost layer well into the snow-free period.

  16. A Comprehensive Characterisation of Rosemary tea Obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. Collected in a sub-Humid Area of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Mariem; Mateos, Raquel; Ben Fredj, Maha; Mtiraoui, Ali; Bravo, Laura; Saguem, Saad

    2018-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is an aromatic plant common in Tunisia and it is widely consumed as a tea in traditional cuisine and in folk medicine to treat various illnesses. Currently, most research efforts have been focused on rosemary essential oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts, however, little is reported on rosemary infusion composition. To investigate compounds present in rosemary tea obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. collected in a sub-humid area of Tunisia in order to assess whether the traditional rosemary tea preparation method could be considered as a reference method for rosemary's compounds extraction. Qualitative characterisation of Rosmarinus officinalis tea obtained after rosemary infusion in boiled water was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). Quantitative analysis relies on high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Forty-nine compounds belonging to six families, namely flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenolic terpenes, jasmonate, phenolic glycosides, and lignans were identified. To the best of the authors' knowledge eucommin A is characterised for the first time in rosemary. Rosmarinic acid (158.13 μg/g dried rosemary) was the main compound followed then by feruloylnepitrin (100.87 μg/g) and luteolin-3'-O-(2″-O-acetyl)-β-d-glucuronide (44.04 μg/g). Among quantified compounds, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside was the compound with the lowest concentration. The infusion method allows several polyphenols present in rosemary tea to be extracted, therefore it could be a reference method for rosemary's compounds extraction. Moreover, traditional Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis tea consumption is of interest for its rich phenolic content. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mixed crop-livestock production systems of smallholder farmers in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, J.C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on the other. In Zambia, crop production depends on draught animals for tillage of cropping area, animal manure for fertilisation of crops while livestock depend on crop residues for dry season feeding. Good quality grass is generally available in adequate amounts to support reasonable level of livestock productivity during the rainy season. But livestock rely on low quantity and poor quality, highly fibrous perennial grass from veld and fibrous crop residues during the dry season. These resources are inadequate to support optimum livestock productivity activities. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to diseases. With the increasing human population cropping land is expanding, leading to increased production of crop residues. This has however, reduced the grazing land available for ruminant production. In Zambia large quantities of crop residues (stovers, husks and straws, legume tops and hulls, sugar cane tops, cassava leaves, potato vines, etc.) are left in the field where they are wasted each year because small-scale farmers lack the knowledge on how best to use them. There is a need to find ways to reverse this situation by adapting known and workable technologies to local conditions and by introducing new approaches for improving the use of crop residues and poor quality fibrous feeds. Efforts should also be made to enlarge feed resource base. The technologies should be simple and effective. In the presence of a dynamic market system, livestock production in a crop/livestock system could be intensified and made profitable for small-scale farmers. (author)

  18. I Remember Highlander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hawkins, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "I Remember Highlander" reflects on the life choices of Marion Barry and Herman Henning Jr., fraternity brothers who sought the same goal but took different paths. The essay examines cultural and family situations that shaped lives and decisions.

  19. Deposition of eroded soil on terraced croplands in Minchet catchment, Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemtsehay Subhatu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Ethiopian Highlands, soil and water conservation practices are of utmost importance to conserve eroded soil and combat soil loss. This study provides detailed results on on-site sediment deposition and net soil loss in terraced croplands in a catchment in the sub-humid Ethiopian Highlands. Sediment deposition was measured on horse bean and maize fields during the crop growing seasons of 2014 and 2015. Measurements took place on observation plots on terraced cropland with varying spacing between terraces and varying slope gradients. Net soil loss, in this case the amount leaving the terraced cropland, was calculated by modelling the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE for the whole observation field and subtracting the measured sediment deposition. The study result showed about 8–11 t ha−1 sediment was deposited in the deposition zone of the terraced cropland, with greater sediment deposition on terraces with narrow spacing and steeper slope gradients. Sediment deposition was highest in July and August, and relatively low in September. Annual soil loss ranged from 32 to 37 t ha−1 in the terraced cropland of the study area. From the total soil loss in the crop growing season, about 54–74% sediment was deposited on the deposition zone of terraced crop fields. Implementation of soil and water conservation with narrow spacing, especially on the steep slopes of the sub-humid Ethiopian Highlands or other similar area, are thus highly recommended as they enable conservation of the eroded soil in the cropland.

  20. Highland Medical Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the Highland Medical Research Journal is to publish scientific research in various fields of medical science and to communicate such research findings to the larger world community. It aims to promote cooperation and understanding amoungst workers in various fields of medical science.

  1. The Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Max

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark Highlands include diverse topographic, geologic, soil, and hydrologic conditions that support a broad range of habitat types. The landscape features rugged uplands - some peaks higher than 2,500 feet above sea level - with exposed rock and varying soil depths and includes extensive areas of karst terrain. The Highlands are characterized by extreme biological diversity and high endemism (uniqueness of species). Vegetation communities are dominated by open oak-hickory and shortleaf pine woodlands and forests. Included in this vegetation matrix is an assemblage of various types of fens, forests, wetlands, fluvial features, and carbonate and siliceous glades. An ever-growing human population in the Ozark Highlands has become very dependent on reservoirs constructed on major rivers in the region and, in some cases, groundwater for household and public water supply. Because of human population growth in the Highlands and increases in industrial and agricultural activities, not only is adequate water quantity an issue, but maintaining good water quality is also a challenge. Point and nonpoint sources of excessive nutrients are an issue. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership programs to monitor water quality and develop simulation tools to help stakeholders better understand strategies to protect the quality of water and the environment are extremely important. The USGS collects relevant data, conducts interpretive studies, and develops simulation tools to help stakeholders understand resource availability and sustainability issues. Stakeholders dependent on these resources are interested in and benefit greatly from evolving these simulation tools (models) into decision support systems that can be used for adaptive management of water and ecological resources. The interaction of unique and high-quality biological and hydrologic resources and the effects of stresses from human activities can be evaluated best by using a multidisciplinary approach that the USGS

  2. Connecting landscape function to hyperspectral reflectance in a dry sub-humid native grassland in southern Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy; Apan, Armando; Alchin, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Native grasslands cover over 80% of significant ecosystems in Australia, stretching across arid, semi-arid, tropical, sub-tropical and savannah landscapes. Scales of pastoral operations in Australia range from hundreds of hectares to thousands of square kilometres and are predominately found in regions with highly variable rainfall. Land use is governed by the need to cope with droughts, floods and fires. Resilience to climatic extremes can be attained through effective soil management. Connecting landscape function on the fine scale to broad land management objectives is a critical step in evaluation and requires an understanding of the relevant spectral properties in remotely sensed images. The aim of this study was to assess key landscape function indices across spatial scales in order to examine their correlation with hyperspectral reflectance measurements. The results from this study could be applied as a model for land management centred on remote sensing. The study site is located at Stonehenge (southern Queensland) on a moderately deep texture contrast soil with hard setting gravelly topsoil. Mean annual rainfall of 667 mm supports open forest and native perennial pastures with a diverse biocrust dominated by N-fixing cyanobacteria. Land use history is continuous grazing however; it had been destocked for several years prior to our study. There was some evidence of cattle, kangaroos and feral herbivores (rabbits, deer and goats) although impacts appeared to be minimal. We established four land cover types: native pasture - NP1 (~100% FPC - foliage projective cover), native pasture - NP2 (~50% FPC, 50% biocrust), natural bare soil - BC (>80% biocrust), bare and eroded soil - BE (<1% biocrust). Duplicate 0.25 m2 quadrats of each land cover type were selected contiguous with a 100 m transect across the slope. The quadrats were analysed as five micro-transects with each row consisting of five sub-cells. Stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling indices were

  3. Origins of streamflow in a crystalline basement catchment in a sub-humid Sudanian zone: The Donga basin (Benin, West Africa): Inter-annual variability of water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguis, L.; Kamagaté, B.; Favreau, G.; Descloitres, M.; Seidel, J.-L.; Galle, S.; Peugeot, C.; Gosset, M.; Le Barbé, L.; Malinur, F.; Van Exter, S.; Arjounin, M.; Boubkraoui, S.; Wubda, M.

    2011-05-01

    SummaryDuring the last quarter of the 20th century, West Africa underwent a particularly intense and generalized drought. During this period, the biggest drops in streamflow were observed in the Sudanian zone rather than in the Sahelian zone, but the reasons are still poorly understood. In 2000, a meso-scale hydrological observatory was set up in the sub-humid Sudanian zone of the Upper Ouémé Valley (Benin). Three embedded catchments of 12-586 km 2 located on a crystalline bedrock were intensively instrumented to document the different terms of the water budget and to identify the main streamflow generating processes and base-flow mechanisms at different scales. Geophysical, hydrological and geochemical data were collected throughout the catchments from 2002 to 2006. Crossing these data helped define their hydrological functioning. The region has seasonal streamflow, and the permanent groundwater in the weathered mantle does not drain to rivers, instead, seasonal perched groundwaters are the major contributor to annual streamflow. The perched groundwaters are mainly located in seasonally waterlogged sandy layers in the headwater bottom-lands called bas-fonds in French-speaking West Africa of 1st order streams. During the period 2003-2006, regolith groundwater recharge ranged between 10% and 15% of the annual rainfall depth. Depletion of permanent groundwater during the dry season is probably explained by local evapotranspiration which was seen not to be limited to gallery forests. During the 4-year study period, a reduction of 20% in annual rainfall led to a 50% reduction in streamflow. This reduction was observed in the two components of the flow: direct runoff and drainage of perched groundwater. Thanks to the comprehensive dataset obtained, the results obtained for the Donga experimental catchment are now being extrapolated to the whole upper Ouémé valley, which can be considered as representative of sub-humid Sudanian rivers flowing on a crystalline

  4. Spatio-temporal monitoring of vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid region of Nigeria using time series of AVHRR NDVI and TAMSAT datasets

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    Osunmadewa Babatunde Adeniyi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Time series data are of great importance for monitoring vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid regions where change in land cover has influence on biomass productivity. However few studies have inquired into examining the impact of rainfall and land cover change on vegetation phenology. This study explores Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA approach in order to investigate overall greenness, peak of annual greenness and timing of annual greenness in the seasonal NDVI cycle. Phenological pattern for the start of season (SOS and end of season (EOS was also examined across different land cover types in four selected locations. A significant increase in overall greenness (amplitude 0 and a significant decrease in other greenness trend maps (amplitude 1 and phase 1 was observed over the study period. Moreover significant positive trends in overall annual rainfall (amplitude 0 was found which follows similar pattern with vegetation trend. Variation in the timing of peak of greenness (phase 1 was seen in the four selected locations, this indicate a change in phenological trend. Additionally, strong relationship was revealed by the result of the pixel-wise regression between NDVI and rainfall. Change in vegetation phenology in the study area is attributed to climatic variability than anthropogenic activities.

  5. Spatio-temporal monitoring of vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid region of Nigeria using time series of AVHRR NDVI and TAMSAT datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunmadewa, Babatunde Adeniyi; Gebrehiwot, Worku Zewdie; Csaplovics, Elmar; Adeofun, Olabinjo Clement

    2018-03-01

    Time series data are of great importance for monitoring vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid regions where change in land cover has influence on biomass productivity. However few studies have inquired into examining the impact of rainfall and land cover change on vegetation phenology. This study explores Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) approach in order to investigate overall greenness, peak of annual greenness and timing of annual greenness in the seasonal NDVI cycle. Phenological pattern for the start of season (SOS) and end of season (EOS) was also examined across different land cover types in four selected locations. A significant increase in overall greenness (amplitude 0) and a significant decrease in other greenness trend maps (amplitude 1 and phase 1) was observed over the study period. Moreover significant positive trends in overall annual rainfall (amplitude 0) was found which follows similar pattern with vegetation trend. Variation in the timing of peak of greenness (phase 1) was seen in the four selected locations, this indicate a change in phenological trend. Additionally, strong relationship was revealed by the result of the pixel-wise regression between NDVI and rainfall. Change in vegetation phenology in the study area is attributed to climatic variability than anthropogenic activities.

  6. Landslide monitoring in the Atlantic Highlands area, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Pamela A.; Ashland, Francis X.; Fiore, Alex R.

    2017-08-25

    Shallow and deep-seated landslides have occurred episodically on the steep coastal bluffs of the Atlantic Highlands area (Boroughs of Atlantic Highlands and Highlands) in New Jersey. The oldest documented deep-seated landslide occurred in April 1782 and significantly changed the morphology of the bluff. However, recent landslides have been mostly shallow in nature and have occurred during large storms with exceptionally heavy rainfall. These shallow landslides have resulted in considerable damage to residential property and local infrastructure and threatened human safety.The recent shallow landslides in the area (locations modified from New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection) consist primarily of slumps and flows of earth and debris within areas of historical landslides or on slopes modified by human activities. Such landslides are typically triggered by increases in shallow soil moisture and pore-water pressure caused by sustained and intense rainfall associated with spring nor’easters and late summer–fall tropical cyclones. However, the critical relation between rainfall, soil-moisture conditions, and landslide movement has not been fully defined. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently monitoring hillslopes within the Atlantic Highlands area to better understand the hydrologic and meteorological conditions associated with shallow landslide initiation.

  7. Groundwater in the Boreal Plains: How Climate and Geology Interact to Control Water Table Configurations in a Sub-Humid, Low-Relief Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokanson, K. J.; Devito, K.; Mendoza, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Boreal Plain (BP) region of Canada, a landscape characterized by low-relief, a sub-humid climate and heterogeneous glacial landforms, is experiencing unprecedented anthropogenic and natural disturbance, including climate change and oil & gas operations. Understanding the controls on and the natural variability of water table position, and subsequently predicting changes in water table position under varying physical and climatic scenarios will become important as water security becomes increasingly threatened. The BP is composed of a mosaic of forestland, wetland, and aquatic land covers that contrast in dominant vegetation cover, evapotranspiration, and soil storage that, in turn, influence water table configurations. Additionally, these land-covers overlie heterogeneous glacial landforms with large contrasts in storage and hydraulic properties which, when coupled with wet-dry climate cycles, result in complex water table distributions in time and space. Several forestland-wetland-pond complexes were selected at the Utikuma Research Study Area (URSA) over three distinct surficial geologic materials (glacial fluvial outwash, stagnant ice moraine, lacustrine clay plain) to explore the roles of climate (cumulative departure from the long term yearly mean precipitation), geology, topographic position, and land cover on water table configurations over 15 years (2002 - 2016). In the absence of large groundwater flow systems, local relief and shallow low conductivity substrates promote the formation of near-surface water tables that are less susceptible to climate variation, regardless of topography. Furthermore, in areas of increased storage, wet and dry climate conditions can result in appreciably different water table configurations over time, ranging from mounds to hydraulic depressions, depending on the arrangement of land-covers, dominant surficial geology, and substrate layering.

  8. Response of apple (malus domestica borkh.) cultivars grafted on two rootstocks under sub-humid temperate climate of azad jammu and kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.J.; Gillani, G.M.; Kiani, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nine apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars grafted on two rootstocks were assessed on morphological and biochemical basis under sub-humid temperate region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Starking Delicious, Kala Kulu, Fuji, Red Chief, Royal Gala, Red Labnani, Red Delicious, Star Crimson and Sky Spur grafted on local Crab apple and MM.111 were studied for various growth characteristics. Red Chief exhibited maximum (415.8 cm) plant height on crab apple whereas, more flower (1866) tree-1, higher number (967.0) of fruit set tree/sup -1/, fruits matured (490.0) tree/sup -1/ and maximum (46.33 kg) weight of fruits tree/sup -1/ were recorded on MM.111. Minimum duration (5 days) of flowering was presented by Sky Spur on local crab apple while minimum (92.0) days for fruit maturation were required by Royal Gala on MM.111. Maximum (112.5 g) fruit weight, total soluble solids (13.95%), total sugars (10.9 %) and reducing sugars (7.94%) were recorded for Starking Delicious on MM.111. On the other hand more pH (3.51) and ascorbic acid (9.2 %) content were recorded for Kala Kulu on crab apple. Red Chief found to be high yielding cultivar on MM.111 than crab apple while total sugars, TSS and average fruit weight were better for Starking Delicious. It was concluded that performance of apple cultivars were variable on both rootstocks. However, MM.111 proved better than local crab apple under prevailing conditions. (author)

  9. Crater Highlands, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), flown aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour in February 2000, acquired elevation measurements for nearly all of Earth's landmass between 60oN and 56oS latitudes. For many areas of the world SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional observation of landforms at regional scales. SRTM data were used to generate this view of the Crater Highlands along the East African Rift in Tanzania. Landforms are depicted with colored height and shaded relief, using a vertical exaggeration of 2X and a southwestwardly look direction. Lake Eyasi is depicted in blue at the top of the image, and a smaller lake occurs in Ngorongoro Crater. Near the image center, elevations peak at 3648 meters (11,968 feet) at Mount Loolmalasin, which is south of Ela Naibori Crater. Kitumbeine (left) and Gelai (right) are the two broad mountains rising from the rift lowlands. Mount Longido is seen in the lower left, and the Meto Hills are in the right foreground. Tectonics, volcanism, landslides, erosion and deposition -- and their interactions -- are all very evident in this view. The East African Rift is a zone of spreading between the African (on the west) and Somali (on the east) crustal plates. Two branches of the rift intersect here in Tanzania, resulting in distinctive and prominent landforms. One branch trends nearly parallel the view and includes Lake Eyasi and the very wide Ngorongoro Crater. The other branch is well defined by the lowlands that trend left-right across the image (below center, in green). Volcanoes are often associated with spreading zones where magma, rising to fill the gaps, reaches the surface and builds cones. Craters form if a volcano explodes or collapses. Later spreading can fracture the volcanoes, which is especially evident on Kitumbeine and Gelai Mountains (left and right, respectively, lower center). The Crater Highlands rise far above the adjacent savannas, capture moisture from passing air masses, and host rain

  10. Genetic structure of the population of Phytophthora infestans attacking Solanum ochranthum in the highlands of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacón, M.G.; Adler, N.E.; Jarrin, F.; Flier, W.G.; Gessler, C.; Forbes, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-nine isolates of Phytophthora infestans were collected from the wild host Solanum ochranthum in the highland tropics of Ecuador and characterized with a set of phenotypic and molecular markers (mating type, metalaxyl sensitivity, the allozyme loci Gpi, and Pep, mitochondrial DNA haplotype,

  11. Turbocharging Normalization in Highland Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filippov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure many production processes are used compressors of various types, including turbochargers, which produce compressed air. The actual performance values of turbochargers used in highlands are significantly different from the certified values, and parameters of compressed air do not always guarantee the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.The paper presents research results of the turbochargers of 4CI 425MX4 type, a series of "CENTAC", manufactured by INGERSOL – RAND Company. The research has been conducted in industrial highland conditions in difficult climatic environment. There were almost no investigations of turbochargers running in highland conditions. The combination of low atmospheric pressure with high temperature of the intake air causes the abnormal operating conditions of a turbocharger. Only N. M. Barannikov in his paper shows the results of theoretical studies of such operating conditions, but as to the practical research, there is no information at all.To normalize the turbocharger operation an option of the mechanical pressurization in the suction pipe is adopted. As a result of theoretical research, a TurboMAX blower MAX500 was chosen as a supercharger. The next stage of theoretical research was to construct characteristics of the turbocharger 4CI 425MX4 with a mechanical supercharger in the suction pipe. The boost reduces to the minimum the time of using additional compressors when parameters of the intake air are changed and ensures the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.To verify the results of theoretical studies, namely, the technique for recalculation of the turbocharger characteristics under the real conditions of suction, were carried out the experimental researches. The average error between experimental and theoretical data is 2,9783 %, which confirms the validity of the technique used for reduction of the turbocharger characteristics to those under the real conditions of suction.

  12. A-B-O and Rh affinities between highland and lowland Quechua-speaking Peruvian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, A R; Klayman, J E

    1975-09-01

    According to the accounts of the Spanish chronicles and various historical analyses the Quechua-speaking population inhabiting the Province of Lamas in the Eastern Tropical Lowlands of Peru are descendants of the Chanca Tribes that migrated from the highlands about 500 years ago. The results of the present study indicate that in terms of the A-B-O and Rh systems the lowland Quechua-speaking population from the Province of Lamas and the highland Quechua population from the Province of Junin are more similar to each other than to other tropical tribes. Therefore, it is quite possible that the present lowland Quechua-speaking population from the Province of Lamas may be descendants of Andean populations.

  13. Introduction of deciduous fruit tree growing in the tropical highlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    have ever been conducted to investigate the potential of temperate tree fruits .... year-old apple cultivars at altitudes of 1830 and 2500 m.a.s.l while tables 2 and 3 ..... breaking are established in addition to determining the best fruiting season.

  14. Efficacy of highland production of strawberry transplants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... Figure 1. Number of runners per mother plant with bare root propagation system under lowland and highland conditions. ... Containerized plugs (58 x 29 cm, 32 cells), filled with .... and Utilization for a New Century. Larson KD ...

  15. New York - New Jersey Highlands Regional Study: 2002 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry

    2003-01-01

    Stewardship Goals For The New York - New Jersey Highlands This 2002 Update of the 1992 New York - New Jersey Highlands Regional Study embodies the following goals for the long-term stewardship of the Highlands: 1. Manage future growth that is compatible with the region's ecological constraints; 2. Maintain an adequate surface and ground water supply that...

  16. Management of grassy bald communities in the Roan Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Donaldson; N. Schubert; Lisa C. Huff

    2010-01-01

    No place better exemplifies that which is rare and unique within high-elevation communities of the Appalachian Mountains than the highlands of Roan Mountain. The Roan Highlands are protected through a landscape-level conservation initiative originally established by the Southern Appalachian Highlands Conservancy and the U.S. Forest Service in 1974.

  17. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Aquatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses,...

  18. Towards improving highland ban.anas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most fertile land races belonged to 'Nakabululu' and 'Nfuuka' clone sets. Viable seeds were obtained from several land races indicating that genetic improvement ofthese highland bananas through cross breeding is possible. The fertile Iandraces should be cross-pollinated with improved diploids to produce resistant ...

  19. Conservation priorities in the Apache Highlands ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale Turner; Rob Marshall; Carolyn A. F. Enquist; Anne Gondor; David F. Gori; Eduardo Lopez; Gonzalo Luna; Rafaela Paredes Aguilar; Chris Watts; Sabra Schwartz

    2005-01-01

    The Apache Highlands ecoregion incorporates the entire Madrean Archipelago/Sky Island region. We analyzed the current distribution of 223 target species and 26 terrestrial ecological systems there, and compared them with constraints on ecosystem integrity (e.g., road density) to determine the most efficient set of areas needed to maintain current biodiversity. The...

  20. Histopathological study of malignant melanoma in highlanders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological study of malignant melanoma in highlanders. AZ Mohammed, AN Manasseh, BM Mandong, ST Edino. Abstract. Background:Malignant melanoma is a fatal skin cancer that is curable when detected and treated early. Recent reports indicate a rising incidence globally. This study aims at identifying the ...

  1. Seismic activity maps for the Armenian Highlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, N.K.; Manukyan, Zh.O.

    1976-01-01

    Seismic activity maps for the periods 1952 to 1967 and 1952 to 1968 were compiled for the Armenian Highlands in order to study the spatial distribution of earthquake recurrence and to construct maps in isolines of seismic activity. Diagrams are presented illustrating such seismic activity maps for the indicated periods. 4 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  2. Human malaria in the highlands of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Mekhlafi, A M; AL-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; Azazy, A A; Fong, M Y

    2011-01-01

    Between June 2008 and March 2009, a cross-sectional study of human malaria was carried out in four governorates of Yemen, two (Taiz and Hodiedah) representing the country’s highlands and the others (Dhamar and Raymah) the country’s coastal plains/foothills. The main aims were to determine the prevalences of Plasmodium infection among 455 febrile patients presenting for care at participating health facilities and to investigate the potential risk factors for such infection. Malarial infection was detected in 78 (17·1%) of the investigated patients and was more likely to be detected among the febrile patients from the highlands than among those presenting in the coastal plains/foothills (22·6% v.13·9%; χ2 = 10·102; P = 0·018). Binary logistic-regression models identified low household income [odds ratio (OR) = 13·52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2·62–69·67; P = 0·002], living in a household with access to a water pump (OR = 4·18; CI = 1·60–10·96; P = 0·004) and living in a household near a stream (OR = 4·43; CI = 1·35–14·56; P = 0·014) as significant risk factors for malarial infection in the highlands. Low household income was the only significant risk factor identified for such infection in the coastal plains and foothills (OR = 8·20; CI = 1·80–37·45; P = 0·007). It is unclear why febrile patients in the highlands of Yemen are much more likely to be found to have malarial infection than their counterparts from the coastal plains and foothills. Although it is possible that malarial transmission is relatively intense in the highlands, it seems more likely that, compared with those who live at lower altitudes, those who live in the highlands are less immune to malaria, and therefore more likely to develop febrile illness following malarial infection. Whatever the cause of the symptomatic malarial infection commonly found in the highlands of Yemen, it is a matter of serious

  3. Mapping of government land encroachment in Cameron Highlands using multiple remote sensing datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, M H M; Ahmad, B

    2014-01-01

    The cold and refreshing highland weather is one of the factors that give impact to socio-economic growth in Cameron Highlands. This unique weather of the highland surrounded by tropical rain forest can only be found in a few places in Malaysia. It makes this place a famous tourism attraction and also provides a very suitable temperature for agriculture activities. Thus it makes agriculture such as tea plantation, vegetable, fruits and flowers one of the biggest economic activities in Cameron Highlands. However unauthorized agriculture activities are rampant. The government land, mostly forest area have been encroached by farmers, in many cases indiscriminately cutting down trees and hill slopes. This study is meant to detect and assess this encroachment using multiple remote sensing datasets. The datasets were used together with cadastral parcel data where survey lines describe property boundary, pieces of land are subdivided into lots of government and private. The general maximum likelihood classification method was used on remote sensing image to classify the land-cover in the study area. Ground truth data from field observation were used to assess the accuracy of the classification. Cadastral parcel data was overlaid on the classification map in order to detect the encroachment area. The result of this study shows that there is a land cover change of 93.535 ha in the government land of the study area between years 2001 to 2010, nevertheless almost no encroachment took place in the studied forest reserve area. The result of this study will be useful for the authority in monitoring and managing the forest

  4. Mapping of government land encroachment in Cameron Highlands using multiple remote sensing datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, M. H. M.; Ahmad, B.

    2014-02-01

    The cold and refreshing highland weather is one of the factors that give impact to socio-economic growth in Cameron Highlands. This unique weather of the highland surrounded by tropical rain forest can only be found in a few places in Malaysia. It makes this place a famous tourism attraction and also provides a very suitable temperature for agriculture activities. Thus it makes agriculture such as tea plantation, vegetable, fruits and flowers one of the biggest economic activities in Cameron Highlands. However unauthorized agriculture activities are rampant. The government land, mostly forest area have been encroached by farmers, in many cases indiscriminately cutting down trees and hill slopes. This study is meant to detect and assess this encroachment using multiple remote sensing datasets. The datasets were used together with cadastral parcel data where survey lines describe property boundary, pieces of land are subdivided into lots of government and private. The general maximum likelihood classification method was used on remote sensing image to classify the land-cover in the study area. Ground truth data from field observation were used to assess the accuracy of the classification. Cadastral parcel data was overlaid on the classification map in order to detect the encroachment area. The result of this study shows that there is a land cover change of 93.535 ha in the government land of the study area between years 2001 to 2010, nevertheless almost no encroachment took place in the studied forest reserve area. The result of this study will be useful for the authority in monitoring and managing the forest.

  5. Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Suvaryan, Yu. M.; Mickaelian, A. M. (Eds.)

    2016-12-01

    The book contains 29 articles of the Proceedings of the Young Scientists Conference "Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland" held at the Armenian National Academy of Sciences on 20-23 June 2016. It consists of 4 main sections: "Introductory", "Cultural Astronomy", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Journalism, Astronomical Education and Amateur Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, culturologists, philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists, art historians, ethnographers and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  6. Tropical Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigh, Ronald B.; Nations, James D.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a summary of scientific knowledge about the rainforest environment, a tropical ecosystem in danger of extermination. Topics include the current state of tropical rainforests, the causes of rainforest destruction, and alternatives of rainforest destruction. (BT)

  7. Morphological dynamics of gully systems in the subhumid Ethiopian Highlands: the Debre Mawi watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Assefa D.; Langendoen, Eddy J.; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Dagnew, Dessalegn C.; Zimale, Fasikaw A.; Guzman, Christian D.; Yitaferu, Birru; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2016-09-01

    Gully expansion in the Ethiopian Highlands dissects vital agricultural lands with the eroded materials adversely impacting downstream resources, for example as they accumulate in reservoirs. While gully expansion and rehabilitation have been more extensively researched in the semiarid region of Ethiopia, few studies have been conducted in the (sub)humid region. For that reason, we assessed the severity of gully erosion by measuring the expansion of 13 selected permanent gullies in the subhumid Debre Mawi watershed, 30 km south of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. In addition, the rate of expansion of the entire drainage network in the watershed was determined using 0.5 m resolution aerial imagery from flights in 2005 and 2013. About 0.6 Mt (or 127 t ha-1 yr-1) of soil was lost during this period due to actively expanding gullies. The net gully area in the entire watershed increased more than 4-fold from 4.5 ha in 2005 to 20.4 ha in 2013 (> 3 % of the watershed area), indicating the growing severity of gully erosion and hence land degradation in the watershed. Soil losses were caused by upslope migrating gully heads through a combination of gully head collapse and removal of the failed material by runoff. Collapse of gully banks and retreat of headcuts was most severe in locations where elevated groundwater tables saturated gully heads and banks, destabilizing the soils by decreasing the shear strength. Elevated groundwater tables were therefore the most important cause of gully expansion. Additional factors that strongly relate to bank collapse were the height of the gully head and the size of the drainage area. Soil physical properties (e.g., texture and bulk density) only had minor effects. Conservation practices that address factors controlling erosion are the most effective in protecting gully expansion. These consist of lowering water table and regrading the gully head and sidewalls to reduce the occurrence of gravity-induced mass failures. Planting

  8. Tropical Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Andrew

    The term "tropical glacier" calls to mind balmy nights and palm trees on one hand and cold, blue ice on the other. Certainly author Gabriel Garcia Marqez exploited this contrast in One Hundred Years of Solitude. We know that tropical fish live in warm, Sun-kissed waters and tropical plants provide lush, dense foliage populated by colorful tropical birds. So how do tropical glaciers fit into this scene? Like glaciers everywhere, tropical glaciers form where mass accumulation—usually winter snow—exceeds mass loss, which is generally summer melt. Thus, tropical glaciers exist at high elevations where precipitation can occur as snowfall exceeds melt and sublimation losses, such as the Rwenzori Mountains in east Africa and the Maoke Range of Irian Jaya.

  9. Tropical radioecology

    CERN Document Server

    Baxter, M

    2012-01-01

    Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. Features chapters, co-authored by world experts, that explain the origins, inputs, distribution, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrate...

  10. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  11. Genetic Diversity Among East African Highland Bananas For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are 84 distinct cultivars of highland bananas (Musa spp.) in Uganda, grouped in five clone sets and it is not known which among these are female fertile. The objective of the study reported herein was to identify female fertile highland bananas that can be used in a cross breeding program and to determine the ...

  12. Elephantiasis of non-filarial origin (podoconiosis) in the highlands of north-western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Esum, M; Che, J N; Mand, S; Tanga Mbi, C; Enyong, P; Hoerauf, A

    2008-09-01

    Lymphoedema, a condition of localized fluid retention, results from a compromised lymphatic system. Although one common cause in the tropics is infection with filarial worms, non-filarial lymphoedema, also known as podoconiosis, has been reported among barefoot farmers in volcanic highland zones of Africa, Central and South America and north-western India. There are conflicting reports on the causes of lymphoedema in the highland regions of Cameroon, where the condition is of great public-health importance. To characterise the focus of lymphoedema in the highlands of the North West province of Cameroon and investigate its real causes, a cross-sectional study was carried out on the adults (aged > or =15 years) living in the communities that fall within the Ndop and Tubah health districts. The subjects, who had to have lived in the study area for at least 10 years, were interviewed, examined clinically, and, when possible, checked for microfilaraemia. The cases of lymphoedema confirmed by ultrasonography and a random sample of the other subjects were also tested for filarial antigenaemia. The interviews, which explored knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) relating to lymphoedema, revealed that the condition was well known, with each study community having a local name for it. Of the 834 individuals examined clinically, 66 (8.1%) had lymphoedema of the lower limb, with all the clinical stages of this condition represented. None of the 792 individuals examined parasitologically, however, had microfilariae of W. bancrofti (or any other filarial parasite) in their peripheral blood, and only one (0.25%) of the 399 individuals tested for the circulating antigens of W. bancrofti gave a positive result. In addition, none of the 504 mosquitoes caught landing on human bait in the study area and dissected was found to harbour any stage of W. bancrofti. These findings indicate that the elephantiasis seen in the North West province of Cameroon is of non-filarial origin.

  13. Potential impacts of global warming on Australia's unique tropical biodiversity and implications for tropical biodiversity in general

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilbert, David W

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Globally, forest clearing is often thought to be the greatest threat to biodiversity in the tropics, and rates of clearing are certainly highest there, particularly in tropical South-East Asia. Climate change in the tropics has been less studied in tropical regions than in temperate, boreal or arctic ecosystems. However, modelling studies in Australian rainforests indicate that climate change may be a particularly significant threat to the long-term preservation of the biodiversity of tropical, rainforest biodiversity. Our research has shown that global warming can have a particularly strong impact on the biodiversity of mountainous tropical regions, including the Wet Tropics of north-east Queensland. Here, the mountain tops and higher tablelands are relatively cool islands in a sea of warmer climates. These species-rich islands, mostly limited in their biodiversity by warm interglacial periods, are separated from each other by the warmer valleys and form a scattered archipelago of habitat for organisms that are unable to survive and reproduce in warmer climates. Many of the endemic Australian Wet Tropics species live only in these cooler regions. Similar situations occur throughout south-east Asia and in the highlands of the Neotropics. Unfortunately, these upland and highland areas represent the majority of biodiversity conservation areas because they are less suitable for clearing for agriculture. This presentation will summarise research about the potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity in Australia's rainforests, the potential implications for tropical biodiversity in general and discuss the limitations of these projections and the need for further research that could reduce uncertainties and inform effective adaptation strategies

  14. determination of the power law exponent for southern highlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    site located in the southern highland zone of Tanzania, was established using wind speeds measured at heights ... distribution, turbulence and wind gusts at the ... mathematical models, which normally .... other locations that have similar wind.

  15. Building Effective Water Governance in the Asian Highlands | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Effective Water Governance in the Asian Highlands ... This project is funded through IDRC's Adaptation Research Initiative in Asia (ARI-Asia) ... Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences as represented by Sun Hang.

  16. Maize production in the central Kenya highlands using cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    effective in the production of maize, compared to singular application of manures (5 t ha-1) and mineral fertilizer alone applied at rates below ...... A Handbook of Methods, 2nd. Edition. ... Manure management in the Kenya highlands: Practices.

  17. Building Effective Water Governance in the Asian Highlands | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project seeks to facilitate effective water resource management in the Asian Highlands by integrating climate ... Journal articles ... Adaptation strategies for two Colombian cities were discussed at ADAPTO's second international workshop.

  18. Morphological dynamics of gully systems in the subhumid Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegeye, Assefa D.; Langendoen, Eddy J.; Stoof, C.R.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Dagnew, Dessalegn C.; Zimale, Fasikaw A.; Guzman, C.D.; Yitaferu, B.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    Gully expansion in the Ethiopian Highlands dissects vital agricultural lands with the eroded materials adversely impacting downstream resources, for example as they accumulate in reservoirs. While gully expansion and rehabilitation have been more extensively researched in the semiarid region of

  19. Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2012 ... Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of Eastern Africa: ... goal of implementing an integrated approach to natural resource ... and the International Water Management Institute in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  20. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland and mid altitude areas ... production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution. A single-visit multi subject formal survey method was used in the survey.

  1. Improving Food Security in the Highlands of Ethiopia through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in the Highlands of Ethiopia through Improved and Sustainable Agricultural Productivity and ... Women will be involved as agents of change in the adoption of improved ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  2. Wet tropical climate in SE Tibet during the Late Eocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrel, Philippe; Eymard, Ines; Leloup, Philippe-Herve; Maheo, Gweltaz; Olivier, Nicolas; Sterb, Mary; Gourbet, Loraine; Wang, Guocan; Jing, Wu; Lu, Haijian; Li, Haibing; Yadong, Xu; Zhang, Kexin; Cao, Kai; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Replumaz, Anne

    2017-08-10

    Cenozoic climate cooling at the advent of the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), ~33.7 Ma ago, was stamped in the ocean by a series of climatic events albeit the impact of this global climatic transition on terrestrial environments is still fragmentary. Yet archival constraints on Late Eocene atmospheric circulation are scarce in (tropical) monsoonal Asia, and the paucity of terrestrial records hampers a meaningful comparison of the long-term climatic trends between oceanic and continental realms. Here we report new sedimentological data from the Jianchuan basin (SE Tibet) arguing for wetter climatic conditions in monsoonal Asia at ~35.5 Ma almost coevally to the aridification recognized northwards in the Xining basin. We show that the occurrence of flash-flood events in semi-arid to sub-humid palustrine-sublacustrine settings preceded the development of coal-bearing deposits in swampy-like environments, thus paving the way to a more humid climate in SE Tibet ahead from the EOT. We suggest that this moisture redistribution possibly reflects more northern and intensified ITCZ-induced tropical rainfall in monsoonal Asia around 35.5 Ma, in accordance with recent sea-surface temperature reconstructions from equatorial oceanic records. Our findings thus highlight an important period of climatic upheaval in terrestrial Asian environments ~2-4 millions years prior to the EOT.

  3. HLA studies of Highland and Coastal New Guineans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, G; Bhatia, K; Honeyman, M; Doran, T; Messel, N; Hakos, G; Tarlinton, D; Amos, D B; Bashir, H

    1985-04-01

    The HLA profile of three New Guinean populations, two Highland (Asaro, Watut), and one Coastal is presented. The Highland populations are characterized by a low average number of alleles segregating at the HLA loci and also by a low mean value of heterozygosity at these loci. The genetic affinities of the two Highland groups with other Melanesian populations in the Pacific are remote. The Coastal group, on the other hand, shows strong similarities in its antigenic diversity and haplotypic combinations with other Melanesian populations. Nonetheless, the two Highland groups show significant divergence from each other in terms of allelic and haplotypic frequencies. Two different waves of migration settled in the Highlands of New Guinea between 10,000 and 15,000 years ago, and it is possible that the Watut, an Angan speaking group, represents the remnants of the first migration into the interior, whereas the Asaro, members of the Eastern Central family of the Trans-New Guinea phylum, arrived at a later date.

  4. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana Highlands straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.The Guiana Highlands are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the inspiration for Arthur Conan

  5. Effects of foliar and tuber sprout suppressants on shelf life of ware potatoes under tropical ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important source of dietary carbohydrate and cash income for farmers in the tropical highlands of Kenya. The feasibility for cold storage at the farm level is limited due to the high costs of maintaining such a facility and there is limited data on the long-term post...

  6. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  7. Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the deforestation problem and some efforts for solving the problem. Considers the impact of population growth, poverty, and ignorance. Includes a discussion of the current rapid decline in tropical forests, the consequences of destruction, and an outlook for the future. (YP)

  8. Final report of the FAO/IAEA/SIDA co-ordinated research programme on the use of isotope studies on increasing and stabilizing plant productivity in low phosphate and semi-arid and sub-humid soils of the tropics and sub-tropics, October 1989 - October 1994. SIDA annual review 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasinghe, Saliya

    1994-11-01

    In developing countries low soil resources and fragile soils are the major limitation to crop production. This project addresses two of the most common and serious soil limitations to agricultural productivity in the developing world, i.e., low soil moisture and low soil nutrients, especially phosphorus and nitrogen. For economic reasons, these problems can rarely be solved in developing countries by expensive soil inputs. A more effective approach would be to identify genotypes (of commonly used species) which are highly effective in the use of the soil resources for plant productivity and to integrate these with minimum inputs of fertilizers where necessary. Relatively simple isotope and nuclear related methods are extremely important in identifying such efficient genotypes. The project focused on Africa (but not necessarily exclusively) and on food crops as well as on fuel wood trees. Many African countries are in a fuel wood crisis which will get worse. Integrating fuelwood trees into agricultural/pastoral practices will not only help alleviate this crisis in the agricultural community but will form a component part in stabilizing fragile soils against erosion and desertification. The project was primarily institution building in nature and provided training, equipment and expert services to participating institutes and through these direct recipients, the project aimed at reaching the target beneficiaries who are basically farmers and other agriculturalists. The final goal was to develop agricultural practices that would contribute to increasing and sustaining crop productivity in soils of low water and low phosphate levels

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS IN THE HIGHLANDS OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA: GENERAL LESSONS FOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Fullen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil conservation in the highlands of South-East Asia is essential for sustainable agro-environmental development. The effectiveness of soil conservation treatments developed in runoff plots was investigated in farmer-managed plots on a natural catchment. This wasachieved by the development and scientific evaluation of modified and novel cropping practices in a representative highland catchment in Yunnan Province, China. Wang Jia Catchment covers 40.1 hectares near Kedu, in Xundian County, north-east Yunnan (25o28'N, 102o53'E. The initial project consisted of an evaluation of the effects of modified cropping practices on maize productivity and soil properties. This programme was extended to investigate ways of increasing the productivity of maize, wheat and soybean on fragile slopes in a sustainable and environmentally-friendly way. The approach incorporates modified and novel agronomic and soil conservation measures, with the evaluation of their agricultural, environmental and socio-economic impacts using multidisciplinary approaches. This European Union funded project involved an international research team from Belgium, China, Ireland, Thailand and the U.K. Five co-ordinated work packages were implemented. Involving: (1 Background agricultural and environmental assessment of Wang Jia Catchment. (2Implementation and evaluation of modified and novel cropping systems for wheat, maize and soybean in the catchment. (3 Cost-benefit analyses of the socio-economic impacts of the changed cropping practices. (4 Comparative scientific evaluation of the cropping techniques in the highlands of northern Thailand. (5 Dissemination of project outcomes and establishment of training programmes for best practice in highland rural development. The lessons of the Project for promoting sustainable agro-environmental development in tropical and subtropical highlands include: (1 Recognizing the importance of both ‘north-south’ and ‘south-south’ co

  10. "Free Primary Education" in Lesotho and the Disadvantages of the Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwick, James

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the effects of national policies associated with "Education for All" on a disadvantaged region, the highlands of Lesotho. Since 2000 a programme of "Free Primary Education" has improved the position of the highlands in access to primary schooling; nevertheless, highland primary schools compare poorly with…

  11. Effects of late Holocene climate variability and anthropogenic stressors on the vegetation of the Maya highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Gaviria, F.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Cordero-Oviedo, C.; López-Pérez, M.; Cárdenes-Sandí, G. M.; Romero, F. M.

    2018-06-01

    Climate variability and human activities have shaped the vegetation communities of the Maya region of southern Mexico and Central America on centennial to millennial timescales. Most research efforts in the region have focused on the lowlands, with relatively little known about the environmental history of the regional highlands. Here we present data from two sediment sequences collected from lakes in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Our aim was to disentangle the relative contributions of climate and human activities in the development of regional vegetation during the late Holocene. The records reveal a long-term trend towards drier conditions with superimposed centennial-scale droughts. A declining moisture trend from 3400 to 1500 cal yr BP is consistent with previously reported southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, whereas periodic droughts were probably a consequence of drivers such as El Niño. These conditions, together with dense human occupation, converted the vegetation from forest to more open systems. According to the paleoecological records, cultural abandonment of the area occurred ca. 1500 cal yr BP, favoring forest recovery that was somewhat limited by low moisture availability. About 600 cal yr BP, wetter conditions promoted the establishment of modern montane cloud forests, which consist of a diverse mixture of temperate and tropical elements. The vegetation types that occupied the study area during the last few millennia have remained within the envelope defined by the modern vegetation mosaic. This finding highlights the importance of microhabitats in the maintenance biodiversity through time, even under scenarios of high climate variability and anthropogenic pressure.

  12. Hydrogeology of the Mogollon Highlands, central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John T.C.; Steinkampf, William C.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Mogollon Highlands, 4,855 square miles of rugged, mountainous terrain at the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau in central Arizona, is characterized by a bedrock-dominated hydrologic system that results in an incompletely integrated regional ground-water system, flashy streamflow, and various local water-bearing zones that are sensitive to drought. Increased demand on the water resources of the area as a result of recreational activities and population growth have made necessary an increased understanding of the hydrogeology of the region. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study of the geology and hydrology of the region in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources under the auspices of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative, a program launched in 1998 to assist rural areas in dealing with water-resources issues. The study involved the analysis of geologic maps, surface-water and ground-water flow, and water and rock chemical data and spatial relationships to characterize the hydrogeologic framework. The study area includes the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau and the Mogollon Rim, which is the eroded edge of the plateau. A 3,000- to 4,000-foot sequence of early to late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks forms the generally south-facing scarp of the Mogollon Rim. The area adjacent to the edge of the Mogollon Rim is an erosional landscape of rolling, step-like terrain exposing Proterozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Farther south, the Sierra Ancha and Mazatzal Mountain ranges, which are composed of various Proterozoic rocks, flank an alluvial basin filled with late Cenozoic sediments and volcanic flows. Eight streams with perennial to intermittent to ephemeral flow drain upland regions of the Mogollon Rim and flow into the Salt River on the southern boundary or the Verde River on the western boundary. Ground-water flow paths generally are controlled by large-scale fracture systems or by karst features in carbonate rocks. Stream

  13. Interest groups, the Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interest groups can bring about changes in the water policy arena. ... Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 1 as a case study. ... attempts to influence public policy and their representation ... ties concern the relations between state actors and non-state ..... 'bears responsibility here [LHWP], since it is the sponsor of.

  14. Proliferation and Shoot Recovery among the East African Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of East African highland banana (EA-AAA banana) (Musa spp.) is limited by scarcity of planting materials, attributable to their low natural proliferation ability. Under natural field conditions, the EA-AAA bananas greatly differ in suckering ability. In vitro micropropagation has been adopted as an alternative means ...

  15. Social capital in water user organizations of the Ecuadorian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I explore how new water user organizations have developed in formerly state managed irrigation systems in the Ecuadorian highlands since the 1990s. The article is based on an in-depth case study of the Pillaro irrigation system and illustrations of other cases. These water user

  16. Virulence diversity of Uromyces Appendiculatus in the Highlands of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bean is planted throughout Guatemala, especially in the highlands of the South East, North East, and South West regions. In these regions, temperatures fluctuate between 16 y 20 °C and the average rain precipitation is about 1000 mm. These conditions are optimum for the rust disease and b...

  17. Rural income and forest reliance in highland Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Córdova, José Pablo Prado; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages (n = 149 randomly selected...

  18. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted in the highland and mid altitude areas of Horro and Guduru districts of Horro Guduru Wollega Zone of Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing livestock production situation, livestock production constraints, major feed resources and their potential contribution.

  19. 27 CFR 9.122 - Western Connecticut Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Highlands. 9.122 Section 9.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... (Litchfield-Hartford-New Haven County line); (6) The boundary then travels approximately 7 miles west along the Litchfield-New Haven County line to Connecticut Route #8 at Waterville in the Town of Waterbury...

  20. Predation drives nesting success in moist highland grasslands: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By focusing on process-oriented data rather than inventory-type data, this study provides a robust understanding of the effects of agricultural management on grassland bird reproductive output in the moist highland grasslands (MHGs) of South Africa. Four-hundred and four nests of 12 grassland-breeding bird species were ...

  1. 'Dar' + gerund in Ecuadorian Highland Spanish: contact-induced grammaticalization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olbertz, H.

    2008-01-01

    The benefactive construction dar + gerund is used in the North Andean region only and is unknown elsewhere in the Spanish-speaking world. Based on the analysis of spontaneous data from Ecuadorian Highland Spanish, this paper provides a linguististic description of dar + gerund and of the social and

  2. Interrill and rill erodibility in the northern andean highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, C.; Stroosnijder, L.; Baigorria, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of quantitative information describing the physical processes causing soil erosion in the Andean Highlands, especially those related to interrill and rill erodibility factors. To assess how susceptible are soils to erosion in this region, field measurements of interrill (Ki) and rill

  3. Descartes highlands: Possible analogs around the Orientale Basin, part D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Two possible analogs, although not entirely satisfactory, offer reasonable alternatives to the volcanic interpretation of the Descartes highlands. Reconsideration of this complex terrain, prompted by the preliminary results of the Apollo 16 mission, will lead to the revision of some theories on lunar volcanism and also to a better understanding of the landforms caused by the formation of multi-ring basins.

  4. Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.

    2006-01-01

    Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays

  5. Participatory policy development for integrated watershed management in Uganda's highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutekanga, F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem in the densely populated Uganda highlands and previous interventions were ineffective. This study, on the Ngenge watershed, Mount Elgon, was aimed at developing policy for the implementation of a new strategy for solving the problem, Integrated Watershed

  6. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  7. Tropical Warm Semi-Arid Regions Expanding Over Temperate Latitudes In The Projected 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaud, A.; de Noblet, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    Two billion people today live in drylands, where extreme climatic conditions prevail, and natural resources are limited. Drylands are expected to expand under several scenarios of climatic change. However, relevant adaptation strategies need to account for the aridity level: it conditions the equilibrium tree-cover density, ranging from deserts (hyper-arid) to dense savannas (sub-humid). Here we focus on the evolution of climatically defined warm semi-arid areas, where low-tree density covers can be maintained. We study the global repartition of these regions in the future and the bioclimatic shifts involved. We adopted a bioclimatological approach based on the Köppen climate classification. The warm semi-arid class is characterized by mean annual temperatures over 18°C and a rainfall-limitation criterion. A multi-model ensemble of CMIP5 projections for three representative concentration pathways was selected to analyze future conditions. The classification was first applied to the start, middle and end of the 20th and 21st centuries, in order to localize past and future warm semi-arid regions. Then, time-series for the classification were built to characterize trends and variability in the evolution of those regions. According to the CRU datasets, global expansion of the warm semi-arid area has already started (~+13%), following the global warming trend since the 1900s. This will continue according to all projections, most significantly so outside the tropical belt. Under the "business as usual" scenario, the global warm semi-arid area will increase by 30% and expand 12° poleward in the Northern Hemisphere, according to the multi-model mean. Drying drives the conversion from equatorial sub-humid conditions. Beyond 30° of latitude, cold semi-arid conditions become warm semi-arid through warming, and temperate conditions through combined warming and drying processes. Those various transitions may have drastic but also very distinct ecological and sociological

  8. Fascioliasis and eosinophilia in the highlands of Cuzco, Peru and their association with water and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Goodrich, Mary R; Graham, Brittany; Villanueva-Meyer, Pablo G; Lopez, Martha; Arque, Eulogia; White, A Clinton

    2014-11-01

    There are limited data about the epidemiology of fascioliasis in Cuzco, Peru. We studied children 3-12 years old from six communities in the highlands of Cuzco to evaluate the epidemiology of fascioliasis; 227 children were included, one-half were female, the mean age was 7.5 (±2.6) years, and 46.2±% had one or more parasites, including Fasciola (9.7%), Ascaris (12.8%), Hymenolepis (9.3%), Trichuris (1.3%), hookworm (1.8%), Strongyloides (0.9%), and Giardia (27.8%). Fasciola was associated with the number of siblings in the household, drinking untreated water, and giardiasis. Eosinophilia was encountered in 21% of children and more common in those drinking untreated water at home and those infected with a parasite, but the differences were not significant. Eating water plants was not associated with Fasciola or eosinophilia. Fascioliasis and eosinophilia were common in the highlands of Cuzco. Fascioliasis was associated with socioeconomic factors and drinking water. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Willingness to pay for highlands' agro-tourism recreational facility: A case of Boh Tea plantation, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Syamsul Herman M.; M, Nur A'in C.; S, Ahmad; S, Ramachandran

    2014-03-01

    The increase in tourist demand for highland experience is inevitable. Cameron Highlands, established as a Tea Plantation Estate during the British Colonial era in 1929, has evolved into a major highland tourism destination providing a cool climatic experience coupled with scenic beauty in the midst of Tudor concept architecture which enhances the destinations historical value. Realising such tourism potential, the Boh Plantation management has provided a visitor centre as recreational facility for tourist utilisation. However, the absence in imposing an entrance fee has left a vacuum in determining the recreational economic value of this facility as the benefit of this agro-tourism product to tourists remains unknown. It would be important for the management to identify the benefit since the development and maintenance of the facility is costly. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefit of such establishment in highlands area by assessing visitor's Willingness to pay (WTP). The study examines, explores and debates the issues in a critical yet supportive environment especially highlands. The study obtained 179 usable questionnaires from visitors during weekends, weekdays and public holidays. The result showed that 59% of the visitors were willing to pay for the agro-tourism product. The WTP was estimated at RM 7.21 (1.81). Three factors were found to be influencing WTP which were monthly income, years of education and perception on scenery. Although the study was conducted post development, the finding indicated the WTP for current management practise. Should the management change its style, it would also affect WTP and also the total economic value. Since WTP is established concept, the finding of the study reflects on the opportunities, barriers and challenges inherent in embracing post-disciplinary approaches to research and suggest ways to further enhance the approach.

  10. Demise and rise: the biogeography and taxonomy of the Odonata of tropical Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe Benediktus

    2007-01-01

    Africa has a large and almost uninterrupted land surface that is isolated from surrounding continents. In the last 20 million years Africa had a variable and increasingly dry climate. As a result the Afrotropics have only half as many odonate species as tropical America or Asia. ‘Relict’ families are scarce and concentrated in five isolated, climatically stable areas: (1) the Cameroon highlands, (2) locally in East Africa, (3) the Cape region, (4) the granitic Seychelles, and especially (5) M...

  11. The megalithic complex of highland Jambi: An archaeological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Lin Tjoa-Bonatz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The highlands of Sumatra remain one of the most neglected regions of insular Southeast Asia in terms of history and archaeology. No comprehensive research program incorporating both a survey and excavations within a defined geographical or environmental zone has been carried out there since Van der Hoop (1932 conducted his study of the megaliths on the Pasemah plateau in the 1930s. Meanwhile, Van der Hoop’s investigations and several other archaeological research activities at places such as northwest Lampung (McKinnon 1993, Pasemah (Sukendar and Sukidjo 1983-84; Caldwell 1997; Kusumawati and Sukendar 2000, Kerinci (Laporan 1995a, 1996a, and the Minangkabau heartland (Miksic 1986, 1987, 2004 have placed special emphasis on the megalithic remains. As a result, the megaliths are by far the bestknown archaeological attraction of the Sumatran highlands.

  12. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, Rick M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in Highlands County, Florida. As the demand for water in the county increases, additional information about local groundwater resources is needed to manage and develop the water supply effectively. To address the need for additional data, a study was conducted to evaluate the hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County. Total groundwater use in Highlands County has increased steadily since 1965. Total groundwater withdrawals increased from about 37 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 107 million gallons per day in 2005. Much of this increase in water use is related to agricultural activities, especially citrus cultivation, which increased more than 300 percent from 1965 to 2005. Highlands County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer, which is underlain by the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, which consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, as many as three middle confining units, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of fine-to-medium grained quartz sand with varying amounts of clay and silt. The aquifer system is unconfined and underlies the entire county. The thickness of the surficial aquifer is highly variable, ranging from less than 50 to more than 300 feet. Groundwater in the surficial aquifer is recharged primarily by precipitation, but also by septic tanks, irrigation from wells, seepage from lakes and streams, and the lateral groundwater inflow from adjacent areas. The intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit acts as a confining layer (except where breached by sinkholes) that restricts the vertical movement of water between the surficial aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The sediments have varying degrees of permeability and consist of permeable limestone, dolostone, or

  13. Tropical forest cover change in the 1990s and options for future monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaux, Philippe; Holmgren, Peter; Achard, Frédéric; Eva, Hugh; Stibig, Hans-Jürgen; Branthomme, Anne

    2005-02-28

    Despite the importance of the world's humid tropical forests, our knowledge concerning their rates of change remains limited. Two recent programmes (FAO 2000 Forest Resources Assessment and TREES II), exploiting the global imaging capabilities of Earth observing satellites, have recently been completed to provide information on the dynamics of tropical forest cover. The results from these independent studies show a high degree of conformity and provide a good understanding of trends at the pan-tropical level. In 1990 there were some 1150 million ha of tropical rain forest with the area of the humid tropics deforested annually estimated at 5.8 million ha (approximately twice the size of Belgium). A further 2.3 million ha of humid forest is apparently degraded annually through fragmentation, logging and/or fires. In the sub-humid and dry tropics, annual deforestation of tropical moist deciduous and tropical dry forests comes to 2.2 and 0.7 million ha, respectively. Southeast Asia is the region where forests are under the highest pressure with an annual change rate of -0.8 to -0.9%. The annual area deforested in Latin America is large, but the relative rate (-0.4 to -0.5%) is lower, owing to the vast area covered by the remaining Amazonian forests. The humid forests of Africa are being converted at a similar rate to those of Latin America (-0.4 to -0.5% per year). During this period, secondary forests have also been established, through re-growth on abandoned land and forest plantations, but with different ecological, biophysical and economic characteristics compared with primary forests. These trends are significant in all regions, but the extent of new forest cover has proven difficult to establish. These results, as well as the lack of more detailed knowledge, clearly demonstrate the need to improve sound scientific evidence to support policy. The two projects provide useful guidance for future monitoring efforts in the context of multilateral environmental

  14. Revolutionary and Christian Ecumenes and Desire for Modernity in the Vietnamese Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salemink, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by a critical reading of James Scott's The Art of Not Being Governed (2009) which argued that Highlanders in Southeast Asia have intentionally evaded ‘state capture and state formations’, I offer a contrasting vision of Highlander motivations and desires from the Central Highlands...... in scholarship but in such phrases as ‘remote and backward areas’. For postcolonial Vietnam, I show that Highlanders were often motivated by the desire to become modern, and enacted such desires by joining ecumenes that embody modern universals, in particular revolutionary and Christian ecumenes, exemplifying...... oppositional pathways to modernity that contrast with those offered by authors Tania Li and Holly High....

  15. Temperature suitability for malaria climbing the Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bradfield; Dinku, Tufa; Raman, Anita; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2017-06-01

    While the effect of climate change on the prevalence of malaria in the highlands of Eastern Africa has been the topic of protracted debate, temperature is widely accepted as a fundamentally important environmental factor constraining its transmission. Air temperatures below approximately 18 °C and 15 °C, respectively, prohibit the development of the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites responsible for the majority of malaria cases in Ethiopia. Low temperatures also impede the development rates of the Anopheles mosquito vectors. While locations of sufficiently high elevation have temperatures below these transmission thresholds, a fundamental question is how such temperature ‘threshold elevations’ are changing with time. A lack of high quality, high spatial resolution climate data has previously prohibited a rigorous investigation. Using a newly developed national temperature dataset for Ethiopia that combines numerous in-situ surface observations with downscaled reanalysis data, we here identify statistically significant increases in elevation for both the 18 °C and 15 °C thresholds in highland areas between 1981-2014. Substantial interannual and spatial variations in threshold elevations are identified, the former associated with the El Niño Southern-Oscillation and the latter with the complex climate of the region. The estimated population in locations with an upward trend in the 15 °C threshold elevation is approximately 6.5 million people (2.2 million for 18 °C). While not a direct prediction of the additional population made vulnerable to malaria through a shift to higher temperature, our results underscore a newly acquired ability to investigate climate variability and trends at fine spatial scales across Ethiopia, including changes in a fundamental constraint on malaria transmission in the Ethiopian Highlands.

  16. Burial No. 67 of the Keliysky Burial Ground (Ingushetia Highlands)

    OpenAIRE

    Narozhny Evgeniy I; Narozhny Vitaliy E.

    2012-01-01

    Martial burial No, 67 from excavations of Keliyskiy burial ground in Ingushetia highlands is introduced into scientific use. The grave goods contained in the burial are quite traditional: a knife, arrowheads, belt buckles dating from the Golden Horde epoch. An iron helmet with a visor is a find standing apart. Helmets of the kind are similar not only to those found in burial sites of Ingushetia, but also to the helmets discovered in the burials of the Golden Horde nomads, which makes it possi...

  17. The geology of Burnsville Cove, Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Haynes, John T.; Lambert, Richard A.; White, William B.; Lucas, Philip C.; Garrity, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Burnsville Cove is a karst region in Bath and Highland Counties of Virginia. A new geologic map of the area reveals various units of limestone, sandstone, and siliciclastic mudstone (shale) of Silurian through Devonian age, as well as structural features such as northeast-trending anticlines and synclines, minor thrust faults, and prominent joints. Quaternary features include erosional (strath) terraces and accumulations of mud, sand, and gravel. The caves of Burnsville Cove are located within predominantly carbonate strata above the Silurian Williamsport Sandstone and below the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. Most of the caves are located within the Silurian Tonoloway Limestone, rather than the Silurian-Devonian Keyser Limestone as reported previously.

  18. Welding in the highlands of Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinon, Mike; Mendez, Alfredo; Ward, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives examples of the qualification of welding procedures intended for use in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Two examples are given of welding procedures which required the development of a unique approach in each case after an early attempt using inherited standard procedures failed. The main conclusions are the requirement for caution when converting ASMEIX welding procedures for use with AS 2885.2, the requirement under the Australian Code to 'design out' the risk of hydrogen assisted cold cracking, and the importance of choosing an upper-end carbon equivalent when welding high carbon equivalent fittings

  19. Report on stakeholder evaluation of highland aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren

    This report gives an overview of completed research activities on the value ascribed by users, local communities and stakeholders to functions, goods and services (including non‐use values) derived from the aquatic resources in the study areas. The perceived impact of factors such as environmental...... degradation, changing demand for goods and services and modified highland aquatic resources management practices on these values has also been assessed. To help structure this analysis stakeholder Delphi studies have been undertaken in each country involving representatives from all stakeholder groups...

  20. Farm management in mixed crop-livestock systems in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abegaz Yimer, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key Words: nutrient dynamics, fertility management, feed availability and quality and livestock production, Northern Highlands of EthiopiaIn the Northern Highlands of Ethiopiaone of the

  1. Ky'osimba Onaanya: Understanding Productivity of East African Highland Banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taulya, G.

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress, potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) deficiencies are major constraints to East African highland banana (Musa spp. AAA-EA; hereafter referred to as ‘highland banana’), a primary staple food crop for over 30 million people in East Africa. This study explored the main and interactive effects

  2. Gaining ground : land reform and the constitution of community in the Tojolabal Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, van der G.

    2001-01-01

    This study reconstructs the process of land redistribution in an indigenous region of Chiapas, the Tojolabal Highlands, situated between the better known Central Highlands and the Lacandona Rainforest. Until 1930 this region was dominated by large private estates or fincas ,

  3. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  4. Neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Molyneux

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen neglected tropical diseases (NTDs have been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO. It is estimated that over 1 billion people are infected with NTDs, with a further 1 billion at risk. The majority of NTDs occur in the tropics and sub-tropics and have particular characteristics in common.

  5. Tropical Freshwater Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology promotes the publication of scientific contributions in the field of freshwater biology in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One issue is published annually but this number may be increased. Original research papers and short communications on any aspect of tropical freshwater ...

  6. Quality maintenance Tropical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Moraes Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The climatic characteristics of the country favor the cultivation of tropical flowers. The continued expansion of this market is due the beauty, exoticit nature and postharvest longevity of flower. However, little is known about the postharvest of tropical plants. Therefore, this paper provides information on harvest, handling and storage of cut tropical plantspostharvest, storage temperature, conditioning solution.

  7. Non-native species in the vascular flora of highlands and mountains of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wasowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlands and mountains of Iceland are one of the largest remaining wilderness areas in Europe. This study aimed to provide comprehensive and up-to-date data on non-native plant species in these areas and to answer the following questions: (1 How many non-native vascular plant species inhabit highland and mountainous environments in Iceland? (2 Do temporal trends in the immigration of alien species to Iceland differ between highland and lowland areas? (3 Does the incidence of alien species in the disturbed and undisturbed areas within Icelandic highlands differ? (4 Does the spread of non-native species in Iceland proceed from lowlands to highlands? and (5 Can we detect hot-spots in the distribution of non-native taxa within the highlands? Overall, 16 non-native vascular plant species were detected, including 11 casuals and 5 naturalized taxa (1 invasive. Results showed that temporal trends in alien species immigration to highland and lowland areas are similar, but it is clear that the process of colonization of highland areas is still in its initial phase. Non-native plants tended to occur close to man-made infrastructure and buildings including huts, shelters, roads etc. Analysis of spatio-temporal patterns showed that the spread within highland areas is a second step in non-native plant colonization in Iceland. Several statically significant hot spots of alien plant occurrences were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic and these were linked to human disturbance. This research suggests that human-mediated dispersal is the main driving force increasing the risk of invasion in Iceland’s highlands and mountain areas.

  8. A mantle plume model for the Equatorial Highlands of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that the Equatorial Highlands are the surface expressions of hot upwelling mantle plumes is considered via a series of mantle plume models developed using a cylindrical axisymmetric finite element code and depth-dependent Newtonian rheology. The results are scaled by assuming whole mantle convection and that Venus and the earth have similar mantle heat flows. The best model fits are for Beta and Atla. The common feature of the allowed viscosity models is that they lack a pronounced low-viscosity zone in the upper mantle. The shape of Venus's long-wavelength admittance spectrum and the slope of its geoid spectrum are also consistent with the lack of a low-viscosity zone. It is argued that the lack of an asthenosphere on Venus is due to the mantle of Venus being drier than the earth's mantle. Mantle plumes may also have contributed to the formation of some smaller highland swells, such as the Bell and Eistla regions and the Hathor/Innini/Ushas region.

  9. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  10. Hymenolepis nana Impact Among Children in the Highlands of Cusco, Peru: An Emerging Neglected Parasite Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Morales, Maria Luisa; Lopez, Martha; Reynolds, Spencer T; Vilchez, Elizabeth C; Lescano, Andres G; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Garcia, Hector Hugo; White, Clinton A

    2016-11-02

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study. A total of 1,230 children were included in the study. Forty-five percent were infected with at least one pathogenic intestinal parasite. Giardia spp. (22.9%) was the most common, followed by Hymenolepis (17.4%), Fasciola (14.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.1%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (2%). The prevalence of Hymenolepis infection varied by community, by other parasitic infections, and by socioeconomic status. However, only years of education of the mother, use of well water, and age less than 10 years were associated with Hymenolepis infection in the multivariate analysis. Hymenolepis nana infection was associated with diarrhea, jaundice, headaches, fever, and fatigue. Children with > 500 eggs/g of stool were more likely to have symptoms of weight loss, jaundice, diarrhea, and fever. Hymenolepis nana infection and age were the only factors retained in the multivariate analysis modeling diarrhea. Hymenolepiasis is a common gastrointestinal helminth in the Cusco region and is associated with significant morbidity in children in rural communities. The impact caused by the emergence of Hymenolepis as a prevalent intestinal parasite deserves closer scrutiny. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Vulnerability assessment to frost disaster in dieng volcanic highland using spatial multi-criteria evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradana, A.; Rahmanu, Y. A.; Prabaningrum, I.; Nurafifa, I.; Hizbaron, D. R.

    2018-04-01

    Dieng Volcanic Highland is one of frost disaster prone area which is very unique phenomenon in tropical region. Frost indicated by appearance of frozen dew or ice layer on the ground or vegetation surface due air inversion and cold temperatures during midnight in dry season. Appearance of frost significantly causes plant damage and losses on agricultural land, while the impacts were strongly influenced by level of vulnerability within agricultural communities. This study aims to analyze the impact of frost on agricultural land in Dieng, to identify characteristics of physical, social, economic vulnerability and coping capacity of agricultural communities to frost disaster in Dieng, and to estimate total vulnerability of frost disasters in Dieng through SMCE scenario. Research was conducted in Dieng Village, Wonosobo and Dieng Kulon Village, Banjarnegara. Method to assess vulnerability level is performed by Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation (SMCE) method using ILWIS software through a combination of physical, social, and economic vulnerability regarding frost hazard, as well as coping capacity of farmers. Data collected by interview within different agricultural plots using questionnaire and in-depth interview method on frost affected agricultural land. Impact of frost mostly causes damage on potato agricultural land than any other types of commodities, such as carrot, leek or cabbage. Losses varies in range of 0 million to 55 million rupiah, at most events in range of 10 million to 15 million rupiah during frost season on July-August-September. Main factors determining vulnerability comes from crop losses, preparedness effort, and type of commodity. Agricultural land dominated by high level physical vulnerability (95.37 percent), high level social vulnerability (70.79 percent), moderate level economic vulnerability (79.23 percent) and moderate level coping capacity (73.18 percent). All five scenarios indicated that level of total vulnerability vary only from

  12. Evidence for the microbial degradation of imidacloprid in soils of Cameron Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sabourmoghaddam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid (1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridinylmethyl]-N-nitro-2-imidazolidinimine, with a novel mode of action is a recent systemic and contact insecticide with high activity against a wide range of pests. Continuous dispersion of this pesticide in the environment and its stability in soil results in environmental pollution which demands remediation. The present research was attempted to isolate and characterize imidacloprid degrading bacteria from vegetable farms of Cameron Highlands in Malaysia. The degradation ability of the isolates was tested in minimal salt medium (MSM for a duration of 25 days and the selected strains were characterized based on their biochemical and molecular characteristics. Levels of imidacloprid in MSM medium were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Among 50 soil bacterial isolates Bacillus sp., Brevibacterium sp., Pseudomonas putida F1, Bacillus subtilis and Rhizobium sp. were able to degrade 25.36–45.48% of the initial amount of imidacloprid at the concentration of 25 mg L−1 in C limited media. Brevibacterium sp. was isolated from organic farms that had never been exposed to imidacloprid while the other farms had previously been exposed to different levels of imidacloprid. All bacteria introduced in this study were among the first reports of imidacloprid degrading isolates in C limited media from tropical soil. Therefore, the results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of using soil bacteria for microbial degradation of imidacloprid. These findings suggest that these strains may be promising candidates for bioremediation of imidacloprid-contaminated soils.

  13. An ethnobotany of the Lukomir Highlanders of Bosnia & Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Jonathan; Saciragic, Lana; Trakić, Sabina; Chen, Eric C H; Gendron, Rachelle L; Cuerrier, Alain; Balick, Michael J; Redžić, Sulejman; Alikadić, Emira; Arnason, John T

    2015-11-25

    This aim of this study is to report upon traditional knowledge and use of wild medicinal plants by the Highlanders of Lukomir, Bjelašnica, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). The Highlanders are an indigenous community of approximately 60 transhumant pastoralist families who speak Bosnian (Bosanski) and inhabit a highly biodiverse region of Europe. This paper adds to the growing record of traditional use of wild plants within isolated communities in the Balkans. An ethnobotanical study using consensus methodology was conducted in Lukomir in Bjelašnica's mountains and canyons. Field work involved individual semi-structured interviews during which informants described plants, natural product remedies, and preparation methods on field trips, garden tours, while shepherding, or in settings of their choice. Plant use categories were ranked with informant consensus factor and incorporated into a phylogenetic tree. Plants cited were compared to other ethnobotanical surveys of the country. Twenty five people were interviewed, resulting in identification of 58 species (including two subspecies) from 35 families, which were cited in 307 medicinal, 40 food, and seven material use reports. Individual plant uses had an average consensus of five and a maximum consensus of 15 out of 25. There were a number of rare and endangered species used as poisons or medicine that are endemic to Flora Europaea and found in Lukomir. Ten species (including subspecies) cited in our research have not previously been reported in the systematic ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plant use in B&H: (Elymus repens (L.) Gould, Euphorbia myrsinites L., Jovibarba hirta (L.) Opiz, Lilium bosniacum (Beck) Fritsch, Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter ex Britton, Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman, Rubus saxatilis L., Silene uniflora Roth ssp. glareosa (Jord.) Chater & Walters, Silene uniflora Roth ssp. prostrata (Gaudin) Chater & Walters, Smyrnium perfoliatum L.). New uses not reported in any of the

  14. Freshwater fishes of Golden Gate Highlands National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Golden Gate Highlands National Park. A total of 1778 fish specimens from three species were collected during surveys carried out in the Little Caledon River during 2002. The chubbyhead barb Barbus anoplus was the only indigenous species recorded, and comprised 99.5 of the total catch. Two of the three recorded species were alien {Cypnnus carpio, Oncorhynchus mykiss}. A further nine indigenous species could potentially occur within the park, though are unlikely to be permanent residents. Barriers formed by instream impoundments may prevent temporary immigration of indigenous fishes, but also limit the further spread of alien species in the park's rivers.

  15. Highland Uranium Solution Mining Project. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Exxon Minerals Co. proposes to conduct production-scale solution mining (in situ leaching) of uranium within the existing Highland Operation area in Converse County, Wyoming. The project would result in the temporary removal of 200 acres from grazing and the actual disturbance of 50 acres. About 4500 acre-ft of water will be withdrawn from the ore zone aquifer over the 10-year life of the project. There will be no discharge of liquid effluents from the project; atmospheric effluents will be within acceptable limits. Radiation doses at the nearest ranch resulting from solution mining activities were estimated. The project proposes the production and utilization of 1 to 3 million lb of uranium resources. It will not produce any significant socioeconomic impact on the local area. Alternatives to the project were considered, and conditions for issuing the source material license are listed

  16. Mars: Stratigraphy of Western Highlands and Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Scott, D. H.; Tuesink, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    Geologic mapping and stratigraphic studies of Mars based on Viking images improved knowledge of the relative age and occurrence of geologic units on a global scale. Densities of geologic units or features during the Noarchian, Hesperian, and Amazonian periods are indicated for the North and South polar regions as well as the equatorial region of Mars. Cumulative counts of crater size frequencies for craters larger than 2 km in diameter on plateau units mapped in the western region of Mars counts indicate that the plateau terrain as a whole was thinly resurfaced during the Hesperian Period, and a large proportion of pre-existing craters less than 10 to 15 km in diameter was buried. The formation of northern plains, subpolar highlands, and both polar regions is also described.

  17. The Regional Centrality of Vietnam’s Central Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salemink, Oscar

    2018-01-01

    strategic value turned it into a battleground among various Vietnamese parties, France, and the United States. It was here that the outcome of the Indochina wars was determined, but at a terrible price for the local population. After the adoption of economic reforms in reunified Vietnam the Central......Vietnam’s Central Highlands—or Tây Nguyên—area is usually described as remote, backward, and primitive, but this region has played a central role in the history of the surrounding states and the wider East and Southeast Asia region. Far from isolated, the Central Highlands engaged in trade...... various rivalrous polities now known as Vietnam, Champa, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand, the area occupied a strategic position in the wider mainland Southeast Asia region. With the emergence of a unified, neo-Confucianist Vietnamese state the region lost its centrality until the late colonial era, when its...

  18. Geology of the Golden Gate Highlands National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Groenewald

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available The Golden Gate Highlands National Park is underlain by stratigraphic units belonging to the upper part of the Karoo Sequence. These units include part of the Beaufort Group and the Molteno, Elliot, Clarens and Drakensberg Formations. Dolerite dykes and sills are intruded into the succession while recent alluvium and scree cover the valley floors and mountain slopes. The Beaufort Group is represented by red mudstone and light brown fine-grained feldspathic sandstone of the Tarkastad Subgroup. The Molteno Formation consists of medium- to coarse-grained trough cross-bedded sandstone, while the Elliot Formation comprises a thick succession of red mudstone, siltstone and interlayered fine- to medium-grained, light yellow-brown sandstone. The most characteristic feature of the park is the yellowish sandstone cliffs of the Clarens Formation. Cave formation is caused by exudation, differential weathering due to different degrees of carbonate cementation and undercutting of the sandstone. The highest peaks are capped by numerous layers of amygdaloidal and massive varieties of basaltic lava of the Drakensberg Formation. A possible volcanic pipe occurs in the eastern part of the park. The Elliot and Clarens Formations are rich in vertebrate fossil remains, especially Massospondylus sp. Remains of Notochampsa sp., Pachygenelus monus, Clarencea gracilis, Lanasaurus scalpridens and a cluster of unidentified dinosaur eggs have also been found. The formations underlying the Golden Gate Highlands National Park were formed during the Late Triassic Epoch and the Jurassic Period (roughly 150 to 230 million years ago. The strata in the park show very little structural deformation and the only obvious structures are faults which are intruded by dolerite.

  19. Determinants of child malnutrition in rural and urban Ecuadorian highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Johana; Van Camp, John; Wijaya, Sylviana; Donoso, Silvana; Huybregts, Lieven

    2014-09-01

    To identify and compare the sociodemographic determinants of stunting, wasting and overweight among infants of urban and rural areas in the Ecuadorian highlands. Cross-sectional study. Nabon (rural) and Cuenca (urban) cantons, Azuay Province, Ecuador. A total of 703 children aged 0-24 months and their caregivers (227 rural and 476 urban) recruited during the period from June to September 2008. Stunting prevalence was significantly higher in the rural area (37·4 % v. 17·7 %; P child's age (OR = 1·04; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·07; P = 0·011), maternal education (OR = 0·95; 95 % CI 0·92, 0·99; P = 0·025) and facility-based delivery (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P Rural determinants of stunting were maternal height (OR = 0·004; 95 % CI 0·00004, 0·39; P = 0·018), diarrhoea prevalence (OR = 2·18; 95 % CI 1·13, 4·21; P = 0·02), socio-economic status (OR = 0·79; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·98; P = 0·030) and child's age (OR = 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11; P = 0·005). Urban determinants were: maternal BMI for stunting (OR = 0·91; 95 % CI 0·84, 0·99; P = 0·027), cough prevalence (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·96; P = 0·036) and facility-based delivery (OR = 0·25; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·73; P = 0·011) for overweight, and hygiene for wasting (OR = 0·57; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·89; P = 0·013). Infant malnutrition was associated with different sociodemographic determinants between urban and rural areas in the Ecuadorian highlands, a finding which contributes to prioritize the determinants to be assessed in nutritional interventions.

  20. Intercropping Maize With Legumes for Sustainable Highland Maize Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adirek Punyalue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Residue burning to prepare soil for maize growing deprives the soil of both protective cover and organic matter, and it exacerbates environmental issues such as Southeast Asia's haze problem. This paper reports on a study that evaluated the effectiveness of maize/legume intercropping as an alternative to maize cultivation with residue burning. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, mung bean (V. radiata, rice bean (V. umbellata, and lablab (Lablab purpureus were sown into a standing maize crop 30 days before harvest, and the results were compared with a maize crop grown using residue burning as the method for land preparation at Pang Da Agricultural Station in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in a replicated trial conducted over 3 growing seasons from 2012 to 2014. Intercropping increased maize grain yield by 31–53% and left 70–170% more residue containing 113–230% more nitrogen than the maize sown after residue burning, depending on the legume, and decreased weed dry weight by two-thirds after 2 seasons. Soil biodiversity was enriched by the intercrops, with a doubling in the spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the root-zone soil and increased abundance, diversity (Shannon index, and richness of the soil macrofauna. The abundance of soil animals increased with crop residue dry weight (r = 0.90, P < 0.05 and nitrogen content (r = 0.98, P < 0.01. The effect of intercropping on maize grain yield and accumulation of residue and nitrogen were then confirmed in a participatory experiment involving farmers in 2 highland villages in the Phrao and Chiang Dao districts of Chiang Mai Province with maize and rice bean in 2015. The effects of maize/legume intercropping—increased nitrogen accumulation and crop residue, enhanced soil biodiversity, suppression of weeds, and protection of the soil surface, which enabled the maize to be sown without land clearing with fire—should all contribute to sustainable highland maize production.

  1. Effect of environmental factor on some litter traits of sows in the tropics Mexican

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ek M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effect of environmental factors on litter traits at birth and weaning, and their repeatabilities in four farms in the sub-humid tropics of Mexico. Materials and methods. Data from 46.249 to 50.316 litters for litter size at birth (LSB, number of piglets born alive (NBA, litter weight at birth (LWB, number of piglets weaned (NPW and litter weight at weaning (LWW were used. The statistical model for LSB, NBA and LWB included the effects of farm, farrowing year, farrowing season, parity number, simple interactions, random effects of sow and the error term. NPW and LWW were analyzed using the previous model plus the linear and quadratic effects of lactation length (LL. Results. The means for LSB, NBA, LWB, NPW and LWW were 11.7 piglets, 11.0 piglets, 16.1 kg, 10.3 piglets and 61.3 kg, respectively. All effects in the model affected the litter traits. Farrowing year x season interaction was significant for NPW, LWB and LWW. The dry season had the highest LSB, NBA y NPW. First parity sows had higher LSB and NBA means than for second parity sows. Parity increase until parity 4 to decrease thereafter. LL had a quadratic effect on NPW and LWW. Repeatability estimates for LSB, NBA, and LWB were 0.12, 0.12 and 0.14, respectively. Conclusions. All traits studied were influenced by the environmental factors studied. Repeatabilities for LSB, NBA and LWB were low.

  2. Management and conservation of tropical acid soils for sustainable crop production. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Forests of the tropics are invaluable ecosystems of global, regional and local importance, particularly in terms of protection and conservation of biodiversity and water resources. The indiscriminate conversion of tropical forests into agricultural land as a result of intense human activities - logging and modem shifting cultivation - continues to cause soil erosion and degradation. However, the acid savannahs of the world, such as the cerrado of Brazil, the Llanos in Venezuela and Colombia, the savannahs of Africa, and the largely anthropic savannahs of tropical Asia, encompass vast areas of potentially arable land. The acid soils of the savannahs are mostly considered marginal because of low inherent fertility and susceptibility to rapid degradation. These constraints for agricultural development are exacerbated by the poverty of new settlers who try to cultivate such areas after deforestation. Low- or minimum-input systems are not sustainable on these tropical acid soils but, with sufficient investment and adequate technologies, they can be highly productive. Thus, there is a need to develop management practices for sustainable agricultural production systems on such savannah acid soils. The Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture strongly supports an integrated approach to soil, water and nutrient management within cropping systems. In this context, nuclear and related techniques can be used to better understand the processes and factors influencing the productivity of agricultural production systems, and improve them through the use of better soil, water and nutrient management practices. A panel of experts actively engaged in field projects on acid soils of savannah agro-ecosystems in the humid and sub-humid tropics convened in March 1999 in Vienna to review and discuss recent research progress, along the following main lines of investigation: (i) utilization of

  3. The ecology of large carnivores in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yirga, Gidey; De Iongh, Hans H.; Leirs, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    The degradation and fragmentation of the northern Ethiopian highlands has resulted in frequent encounters of large carnivores with humans and their livestock. We interviewed 500 randomly selected households to estimate economic impact of livestock predation by spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta...

  4. Prevalence of Iodine deficiency disorder in a highland district in Tigray

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    , Ethiopia. Brief Communication. Prevalence of Iodine deficiency disorder in a highland district in Tigray. Teklay Kidane1, Aregai Woldegebriel2. Abstract. A cross-sectional community based goiter prevalence survey was conducted in February ...

  5. Environmental degradation and intra-household welfare: the case of the Tanzanian rural South Pare Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimoso, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Key words: Environmental degradation, intrahousehold labour allocation, intrahousehold welfare.
    Rural south Pare highlands in Tanzania experience a deteriorating environmental situation. Of particular importance is the disappearance of forests and woodlands. The consequence are declining

  6. The Map of General Wade’s Clans (1731, or Map of the Highlands Loyalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALKIN S.G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is prepared with the support of London School of Economics and Political Sciences in the scope of implementation of research projects “Imperial Identity in Britain and Russia: Scotland and Ukraine, 1707–1914” (2010 and “Modernizing Empires: Regular State on the Margins of Europe – Britain and Russia in the Age of Reason” (2013. The article analyzes the attempts of the British Military responsible for the appeacement of the Scottish Highlands in the first half of the 18th century, to localize rebellion with the help of military topography and ethnic cartography. The material deals with the representation, interpretation and use of cartographic information about the Highlands. Rhetoric strategies of the military cartographers, their aims and role are also the objects of the analysis.In the light of the evidence provided by the most famous analysts on the state of Scottish Highlands and, respectively, on the “the Highland Problem” (support for the second restoration of the Stuart dynasty on the British throne from the disaffected clans which were armed and loyal only to their chiefs, with the help of the analysis of official and non-official documentary on the “Highland Problem” and keeping in mind sense of active corporative unity which was spread among the Military during the first half of the XVIII century, respecting colonial questions and policy on the other imperial margins, the author sought to concentrate research of military topography and ethnic cartography of the “Highland Problem”, represented in this article, on the data represented in “The Description of the Highlands of Scotland” (1731 by Clement Lemprière. In the end it is possible to conclude that the data collected and arranged by Clement Lemprière was not sufficient for the military aims during campaigns against the rebels in the Highlands and served as a frame for account of General Wade on his deeds as Commanderin-Chief in Scotland

  7. Cosmologic principles of Moche-highland interactions during the Middle Horizon period in Jequetepeque

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, I argue that developments characterizing the Late Moche Period in the Jequetepeque Valley, including both the adoption of highland artistic styles at San José de Moro and Huaca Colorada, as well as the proliferation of Moche religious architecture throughout the hinterland, were significantly influenced by interactions with highland societies, including Wari and Cajamarca. I support this thesis by examining the reconfiguration of the chicha-based political economy and the int...

  8. New records of Anopheles arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya highlands indicate indigenous malaria transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githure John I

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria cases on the highlands west of Mount Kenya have been noticed since 10 – 20 years ago. It was not clear whether these cases were introduced from the nearby lowland or resulted from local transmission because of no record of vector mosquitoes on the highlands. Determination of presence and abundance of malaria vector is vital for effective control and epidemic risk assessment of malaria among both local residents and tourists. Methods A survey on 31 aquatic sites for the malaria-vector mosquitoes was carried out along the primary road on the highlands around Mount Kenya and the nearby Mwea lowland during April 13 to June 28, 2005. Anopheline larvae were collected and reared into adults for morphological and molecular species identification. In addition, 31 families at three locations of the highlands were surveyed using a questionnaire about their history of malaria cases during the past five to 20 years. Results Specimens of Anopheles arabiensis were molecularly identified in Karatina and Naro Moru on the highlands at elevations of 1,720 – 1,921 m above sea level. This species was also the only malaria vector found in the Mwea lowland. Malaria cases were recorded in the two highland locations in the past 10 years with a trend of increasing. Conclusion Local malaria transmission on the Mount Kenya highlands is possible due to the presence of An. arabiensis. Land use pattern and land cover might be the key factors affecting the vector population dynamics and the highland malaria transmission in the region.

  9. Indigenous abundances of siderophile elements in the lunar highlands: implications for the origin of the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, J.W.; Ringwood, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    Substantial indigeneous abundances of siderophile elements have been found to be present in the lunar highlands. The abundances of 13 siderophile elements in the parental magma were estimated by using a simple model. It is shown that metal/silicate fractionation within the Moon cannot have been the cause of the siderophile element abundances in the parental highlands magma and primitive, low-Ti mare basalts. The relative abundances of the indigenous siderophile elements in highlands and mare samples seem, instead, to be the result of complex processes which operated prior to the Moon's accretion. The abundances of the relatively involatile, siderophile elements in the parental highlands magma are strikingly similar to the abundances observed in terrestrial oceanic tholeiites. Furthermore, the abundances of the relatively volatile, siderophile elements in the parental highlands magma are also systematically related to the corresponding abundances in terrestrial oceanic tholeiites. In fact, the parental magma of the lunar highlands can be essentially regarded as having been a volatile-depleted terrestrial oceanic tholeite. The origin of the moon is discussed in the context of the results. The probability that depletion of siderophile elements occurred in an earlier generation of differentiated planetesimals similar to those which formed the basaltic achondrites, stony-irons, and irons is examined but can be dismissed on several grounds. It seems that the uniquely terrestrial 'siderophile signature' within the Moon can be explained only if the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle subsequent to core-formation. (Auth.)

  10. Old tropical botanical collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    The early history of botanical collections is reviewed, with particular emphasis on old collections from the tropics. The information available about older and newer botanical collections from the tropics was much improved after World War Two, including better lists of validly published names, more...

  11. Tropical Veterinarian: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. 2012 Author Guidelines: Instructions to Authors: TROPICAL VETERINARIAN welcomes original work on all aspects of veterinary science as practiced in the Tropics, including livestock production and management, animal disease (domestic and wild), various aspects of preventive medicine and public ...

  12. Tropical Cyclone Propagation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gray, William

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of tropical cyclone propagation or why the average tropical cyclone moves 1-2 m/s faster and usually 10-20 deg to the left of its surrounding (or 5-7 deg radius) deep layer (850-300 mb) steering current...

  13. Computing Tropical Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, D.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, T.

    2005-01-01

    The tropical variety of a d-dimensional prime ideal in a polynomial ring with complex coefficients is a pure d-dimensional polyhedral fan. This fan is shown to be connected in codimension one. We present algorithmic tools for computing the tropical variety, and we discuss our implementation...

  14. Ecological transition from natural forest to tea plantations: effect on the dynamics of malaria vectors in the highlands of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanga, M C; Ngundu, W I

    2010-10-01

    From October 2002 to September 2003, an entomological survey was carried out in a rural forested fringed village in the highlands of Mount Cameroon region to determine the temporal dynamics of the anopheline population and the intensity of malaria transmission. A total of 2387 Anopheles spp. were collected, with A. funestus predominating (59.9%), followed by A. hancocki (24.4%) and A. gambiae s.l. (15.7%). Considerable differences were observed in the nocturnal biting cycles of parous mosquitoes, with peak activity in the latter part of the night. PCR revealed that all specimens of the A. funestus group were A. funestus s.s. and all specimens from the A. gambiae complex were A. gambiae s.s. of the S molecular form. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates of 17.3% and 8.5% were recorded for A. funestus and A. hancocki, respectively, with an anthropophilic rate of 96.3%. A strong positive correlation (r=0.996) was found between the human-biting rate and the entomological inoculation rate (EIR). Malaria transmission was very high and perennial, with an estimated annual EIR of 460.1 infective bites per person per year. These results confirm that in high agricultural activity areas, A. funestus can be by far the major malaria vector responsible for malaria transmission. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Introduction to tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maclagan, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...

  16. Rural Income and Forest Reliance in Highland Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  17. SMALLHOLDER FARMERS’ CROP COMMERCILIZATION IN THE HIGHLANDS OF EASTERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alelign ADEME

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper sorts out the most important factors influencing crop market participation of smallholder farmers in the highlands of Eastern Ethiopia. The study used primary data collected from 385 smallholder farmers during the year 2015. Heckman two-stage and Tobit models were employed for the analyses. Heckman model of first-stage results indicated that households’ decision to participate in crop output markets were influenced by factors such as sex of household head, farming experience, livestock holding, cultivated land size, off/non-farm income, fertilizer used, on-farm income, market distance, and crop diversification. Moreover, the second-stage results revealed that farm households’ intensity of crop output market participation was influenced by different factors such as dependency ratio, cultivated land size, education status, chemical fertilizer, and distance to market. The Tobit model result also indicated that the extent of farm household’s participation in annual crop fertilizer market as buyer is influenced by the amount of cultivated land, land allocated to khat crop, off/ non-farm income (log, amount of manure used and distance to the main road. From policy perspective, we recommend that strategies aimed at improving commercial behaviour of smallholder farmers in the study area should be directed in addressing the determining factors of both crop input and output market participation.

  18. Isotopes in tropical agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-04-15

    Ways in which the use of radioisotopes and radiation can help to improve the agriculture of tropical Africa were discussed by a panel of experts. The panel included scientists from Africa, Europe, and the United States, most of whom had had actual experience dealing with agricultural problems in various parts of tropical Africa. The experts agreed that radioisotopes and radiation might now be employed to particular advantage in tropical Africa to improve crop nutrition and combat insect pests. Other applications discussed were in the fields of hydrology, plant breeding and food preservation

  19. Isotopes in tropical agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    Ways in which the use of radioisotopes and radiation can help to improve the agriculture of tropical Africa were discussed by a panel of experts. The panel included scientists from Africa, Europe, and the United States, most of whom had had actual experience dealing with agricultural problems in various parts of tropical Africa. The experts agreed that radioisotopes and radiation might now be employed to particular advantage in tropical Africa to improve crop nutrition and combat insect pests. Other applications discussed were in the fields of hydrology, plant breeding and food preservation

  20. Willingness to pay for highlands' agro-tourism recreational facility: A case of Boh Tea plantation, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman M A Syamsul; Nur A'in C M; Ramachandran S; Ahmad S

    2014-01-01

    The increase in tourist demand for highland experience is inevitable. Cameron Highlands, established as a Tea Plantation Estate during the British Colonial era in 1929, has evolved into a major highland tourism destination providing a cool climatic experience coupled with scenic beauty in the midst of Tudor concept architecture which enhances the destinations historical value. Realising such tourism potential, the Boh Plantation management has provided a visitor centre as recreational facility for tourist utilisation. However, the absence in imposing an entrance fee has left a vacuum in determining the recreational economic value of this facility as the benefit of this agro-tourism product to tourists remains unknown. It would be important for the management to identify the benefit since the development and maintenance of the facility is costly. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to estimate the benefit of such establishment in highlands area by assessing visitor's Willingness to pay (WTP). The study examines, explores and debates the issues in a critical yet supportive environment especially highlands. The study obtained 179 usable questionnaires from visitors during weekends, weekdays and public holidays. The result showed that 59% of the visitors were willing to pay for the agro-tourism product. The WTP was estimated at RM 7.21 (€1.81). Three factors were found to be influencing WTP which were monthly income, years of education and perception on scenery. Although the study was conducted post development, the finding indicated the WTP for current management practise. Should the management change its style, it would also affect WTP and also the total economic value. Since WTP is established concept, the finding of the study reflects on the opportunities, barriers and challenges inherent in embracing post-disciplinary approaches to research and suggest ways to further enhance the approach

  1. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 473. Introduction ... diabetes.[2,3] Tropical diabetic hand syndrome is a terminology .... the importance of seeking medical attention immediately.

  2. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.

  3. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  4. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Protopopoff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. CONCLUSIONS: In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  5. Ranking malaria risk factors to guide malaria control efforts in African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Van Bortel, Wim; Speybroeck, Niko; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Baza, Dismas; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc

    2009-11-25

    Malaria is re-emerging in most of the African highlands exposing the non immune population to deadly epidemics. A better understanding of the factors impacting transmission in the highlands is crucial to improve well targeted malaria control strategies. A conceptual model of potential malaria risk factors in the highlands was built based on the available literature. Furthermore, the relative importance of these factors on malaria can be estimated through "classification and regression trees", an unexploited statistical method in the malaria field. This CART method was used to analyse the malaria risk factors in the Burundi highlands. The results showed that Anopheles density was the best predictor for high malaria prevalence. Then lower rainfall, no vector control, higher minimum temperature and houses near breeding sites were associated by order of importance to higher Anopheles density. In Burundi highlands monitoring Anopheles densities when rainfall is low may be able to predict epidemics. The conceptual model combined with the CART analysis is a decision support tool that could provide an important contribution toward the prevention and control of malaria by identifying major risk factors.

  6. Pneumonia in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tow Keang; Siow, Wen Ting

    2018-01-01

    Pneumonia in the tropics poses a heavy disease burden. The complex interplay of climate change, human migration influences and socio-economic factors lead to changing patterns of respiratory infections in tropical climate but also increasingly in temperate countries. Tropical and poorer countries, especially South East Asia, also bear the brunt of the global tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, accounting for almost one-third of the burden. But, as human migration patterns evolve, we expect to see more TB cases in higher income as well as temperate countries, and rise in infections like scrub typhus from ecotourism activities. Fuelled by the ease of air travel, novel zoonotic infections originating from the tropics have led to global respiratory pandemics. As such, clinicians worldwide should be aware of these new conditions as well as classical tropical bacterial pneumonias such as melioidosis. Rarer entities such as co-infections of leptospirosis and chikungunya or dengue will need careful consideration as well. In this review, we highlight aetiologies of pneumonia seen more commonly in the tropics compared with temperate regions, their disease burden, variable clinical presentations as well as impact on healthcare delivery. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Neglected tropical diseases outside the tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca F Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the growth in international travel and immigration, NTDs may be diagnosed in countries of the western world, but there has been no specific focus in the literature on imported NTDs. METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of immigrants and travelers diagnosed with one of the 13 core NTDs at a Tropical Medicine Referral Unit in Spain during the period April 1989-December 2007. Area of origin or travel was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 6168 patients (2634 immigrants, 3277 travelers and 257 VFR travelers in the cohort. NTDs occurred more frequently in immigrants, followed by VFR travelers and then by other travelers (p<0.001 for trend. The main NTDs diagnosed in immigrants were onchocerciasis (n = 240, 9.1% acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, Chagas disease (n = 95, 3.6% in immigrants from South America, and ascariasis (n = 86, 3.3% found mainly in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Most frequent NTDs in travelers were: schistosomiasis (n = 43, 1.3%, onchocerciasis (n = 17, 0.5% and ascariasis (n = 16, 0.5%, and all were mainly acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. The main NTDs diagnosed in VFR travelers were onchocerciasis (n = 14, 5.4%, and schistosomiasis (n = 2, 0.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of imported NTDs is emerging as these infections acquire a more public profile. Specific issues such as the possibility of non-vectorial transmission outside endemic areas and how some eradication programmes in endemic countries may have an impact even in non-tropical western countries are addressed. Recognising NTDs even outside tropical settings would allow specific prevention and control measures to be implemented and may create unique opportunities for research in future.

  8. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF TROPICAL SHALLOW RESERVOIR USED FOR AQUACULTURE AND AGRICULTURE IN THE MEXICAN PLATEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldama GR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric characteristics of a tropical shallow reservoir situated in the Southern Mexican Highlands were studied. Seventeen morphometric parameters were measured. Results of the morphometric parameters showed that this reservoir presented a soft and roughness bottom, with an ellipsoid form and a concave depression that allow the mix up of water and sediments, causing turbidity and broken thermal gradients; its slight slopes allowed the colonization of submerged macrophyte and halophyte plants and they improve the incidence of sunlight on water surface increasing evaporation and primary productivity. Tropical shallow reservoirs have fluctuations in area and volume according to the amount of rainfall, the effect of evaporation, the temperature levels, lost of volume due to irrigation, and other causes.

  9. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, Akalu; Graaff, de J.; Kassie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands

  10. Malaria in east African highlands during the past 30 years: impact of environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El - Safi Himeidan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available East African highlands are one of the most populated regions in Africa. The population densities in the highlands ranged between 158 persons/km2 in Ethiopia to 410 persons/km2 in Rwanda. According to the United Nations Population Fund, the region has the world's highest population growth rate. These factors are likely behind the high rates of poverty among the populations. As there were no employment opportunities other than agricultural, this demographic pressure of poor populations have included in an extensive unprecedented land use and land cover changes such as modification of bushland, woodland, and grassland on hillsides to farmland and transformation of papyrus swamps in valley bottoms to dairy pastures and cropland and changing of fallows on hillsides from short or seasonal to longer or perennial. Areas harvested for food crops were therefore increased by more than 100% in most of the highlands. The lost of forest areas, mainly due to subsistence agriculture, between 1990 - 2010 ranged between 8000 ha in Rwanda to 2838000 ha in Ethiopia. These unmitigated environmental changes in the highlands led to rise temperature and optimizing the spread and survival of malaria vectors and development of malaria parasites. Malaria in highlands was initially governed by low ambient temperature, trend of malaria transmission was therefore increased and several epidemics were observed in late 1980s and early 2000s. Although, malaria is decreasing through intensified interventions since mid 2000s onwards, these environmental changes might expose population in the highlands of east Africa to an increase risk of malaria and its epidemic particularly if the current interventions are not sustained.

  11. Reconstructing hydroclimatic variations using compound-specific hydrogen isotope analysis of biomarkers from a maar lake in the Central Highlands, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, K. E.; Stevens, L. R.; Sauer, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    Monsoonal variation in Southeast Asia affects a significant portion of the global population, but knowledge regarding response of the monsoon system to changing boundary conditions is limited. The paleoclimatic tool of compound-specific isotope analysis(CSIA) provides the ability to reconstruct past precipitation using a diverse set of biomarkers preserved in the sedimentary record. Limited proxies in tropical southeast Asia and difficult site access have led to a deficit in paleoclimate records. Ia M'He (14°10'45" N, 107°52' E) is a shallow volcanic crater (maar) lake, approximately 57 ha, located in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. Precipitation in the Central Highlands is sensitive to reorganizations of major climatic features, such as the migration of the ITCZ and the coupled Indo-Asian monsoon, ENSO and related shifts in the Pacific Walker Circulation and typhoon frequency. To examine this complex behavior, this pilot study aims to provide a 500-year record of effective moisture inferred from CSIA of hydrogen isotopes on biomarkers. This study highlights the use of hydrogen isotopes of C28 n-alkanoic acid and dominant n-alkane chain lengths of C27 and C29, associated with terrestrial plant leaf waxes, as tracers for precipitation. The hydrogen isotope ratios of the plant wax components provide a proxy for paleo precipitation in a region where rainfall and droughts heavily influence population dynamics and create social discord. The CSIA record is expected to correlate with records from northern Vietnam, the South China Sea and Indonesia, with greater precipitation during the Little Ice Age. The CSIA data of terrestrial plant leaf waxes will be compared with secondary proxies including: diatoms, C/N and biogenic silica.

  12. Reconstructing hydroclimatic variations using compound-specific hydrogen isotope analysis of biomarkers from a maar lake in the Central Highlands, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Kelsey; Stevens, Lora; Sauer, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Monsoonal variation in Southeast Asia affects a significant portion of the global population, but knowledge regarding response of the monsoon system to changing boundary conditions is limited. The paleoclimatic tool of compound-specific isotope analysis(CSIA) provides the ability to reconstruct past precipitation using a diverse set of biomarkers preserved in the sedimentary record. Limited proxies in tropical southeast Asia and difficult site access have led to a deficit in paleoclimate records. Ia M'He (14˚ 10'45" N, 107˚ 52' E) is a shallow volcanic crater (maar) lake, approximately 57 ha, located in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. Precipitation in the Central Highlands is sensitive to reorganizations of major climatic features, such as the migration of the ITCZ and the coupled Indo-Asian monsoon, ENSO and related shifts in the Pacific Walker Circulation and typhoon frequency. To examine this complex behavior, this pilot study aims to provide a 500-year record of effective moisture inferred from CSIA of hydrogen isotopes on biomarkers. Carbon/nitrogen ratios and carbon isotope ratios indicate that bulk organic matter is a combination of algae and C3 vegetation, offering the potential to use compound-specific hydrogen isotopes of aquatic and terrestrial organic matter in tandem. Preliminary analysis of the core shows dominant alkane chain lengths of C27 and C29, associated with terrestrial plant leaf waxes. The hydrogen isotope ratios of the plant wax components provide a proxy for paleo precipitation in a region where rainfall and droughts heavily influence population dynamics and create social discord. The CSIA record is expected to correlate with records from northern Vietnam, the South China Sea and Indonesia, with greater precipitation during the Little Ice Age. The degree to which evaporative modification of lake water (i.e., seasonal drying) occurs will be estimated by comparing the terrestrial CSIA values indicative of meteoric water with aquatic CSIA

  13. Smallholder Led Irrigation Development in the Humid Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, S. A.; Schmitter, P.; Alemie, T. C.; Yilak, D. L.; Yimer, A.; Mamo, A.; Langan, S.; Baronn, J.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    More than 70% of the population of in sub-Saharan Africa are living in rural areas that depend on the rainfed agriculture for their livelihood on the rainfed agriculture. With the rapidly increasing population, competition for land and water is growing is intensifying. This, together with future landscape and climate change, the rainfed agriculture is unlikely to meet the future food demands. Many donors see irrigation a rational way to solve the future food crises. In Ethiopia, less than 10% of the irrigatable area has been developed. The main limitation of increasing the irrigatable areas is a severe lack of surface water during an extended dry phase of almost seven months. Flow in most rivers currently have dried up before the rain phase begins middle of the dry periods. In response, the Ethiopian government is installing large reservoirs at great cost to store water from the wet monsoon phase. At the same time, small scale household have started using irrigation using wells on sloping lands that have sprung up with minimal governmental intervention. It could be one of the strategies to increase the irrigated acreage without large investments. Donors and governmental planners are eager to follow the farmer's initiatives and intensify irrigation on these hillside areas. However, it is not yet known to the extent that it is sustainable. For this reason, shallow ground water levels and river discharge were measured over a three-year period in the Robit Bata and Dangishta watersheds in Northern Ethiopian highlands for assessing recharge and use of shallow groundwater irrigation during dry period. The theoretical results show that the ground water availability depends on the slope of the land and the depth of the soil. In sloping Robit Bata watershed the groundwater runs out under gravity to the stream channel in 3-4 months after the rainfall stops. The only wells that remain productive are those associated with fractures in the bedrock. For the less sloping

  14. Tropical Agro-Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Tropical Agro-Sciences Division has two functions: conduct research on the impact of air pollution on tropical agricultural and to provide training to UPR graduate students and visiting scientists. Since the reorientation of the Center's interests under ERDA, the Division has directed its research activities, with particular emphasis on the effects of atmospheric pollution on tropical agriculture in the Guayanilla-Penuelas region, which has a fossil-fuel power plant, petroleum refineries, and associated industries. This new area of research is important to ERDA because the knowledge gained regarding the effects of air pollution related to energy technology on the agricultural environment and productivity will be useful in planning future energy developments. Information about the potential harm of air pollutants to man through the food chain and about ways of alleviating their impact on agriculture are of practical importance. Studies of the mechanisms involved in pollution injury, protection, and tolerance are of basic significance

  15. “Medium-Scale” Forestland Grabbing in the Southwestern Highlands of Ethiopia: Impacts on Local Livelihoods and Forest Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tola Gemechu Ango

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest provides a crucial portion of sustenance in many rural communities, although it is increasingly under pressure from appropriations of various scales. This study investigated the impacts of medium-scale forestland grabbing on local livelihoods and forest conservation in the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Data were generated through interviews, discussions and document review. The results indicate that state transfer of part of the forestland since the late 1990s to investors for coffee production created in situ displacement- a situation where farmers remained in place but had fully or partially lost access to forest- that disrupted farmers’ livelihoods and caused conflicts between them and the investors. Court cases about the appropriated land and related imprisonment, inflicted financial and opportunity costs on farmers. Farmers considered the livelihood opportunities created by the companies insufficient to compensate for loss of forest access. Companies’ technology transfers to farmers and contributions to foreign currency earnings from coffee exports have not yet materialized. Forest conservation efforts have been negatively affected by deforestation caused by conversion to coffee plantations and by farmers’ efforts to secure rights to forestland by more intensive use. The medium-scale forestland grabbing has been detrimental to farmers’ livelihoods and forest conservation in a way that recalls criticism of large- and mega-scale land grabbing since 2007–2008. The overall failure to achieve the objectives of transferring forestland to investors highlights a critical need to shift institutional supports to smallholders’ informal forest access and management practices for better development and conservation outcomes.

  16. 1997 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dillon, C

    1997-01-01

    .... Separate bulletins are issued for the Western Pacific and the Indian Ocean. TROPICAL CYCLONE FORMATION ALERT - Defines a specific area when synoptic, satellite, or other germane data indicate development of a significant tropical cyclone (TC...

  17. Tropical varieties, maps and gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenk, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a relatively new field of mathematics that studies the tropicalization map: a map that assigns a certain type of polyhedral complex, called a tropical variety, to an embedded algebraic variety. In a sense, it translates algebraic geometric statements into combinatorial ones. An

  18. Climatic controls of ecohydrological responses in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfaye, Samuale; Birhane, Emiru; Leijnse, Toon; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate variability and recurrent droughts have a strong negative impact on agricultural production and hydrology in the highlands northern Ethiopia. Since the 1980s, numerous mitigation and land rehabilitation measures have been implemented by local and national authorities to reduce these impacts,

  19. Smallholder dairy systems in the Kenya highlands: cattle population dynamics under increasing intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bebe, B.O.; Udo, H.M.J.; Rowlands, G.J.; Thorpe, W.

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 1755 households in the Kenya highlands was conducted between June 1996 and April 1998 to quantify cattle population dynamics in smallholder herds. The free-, semi-zero- and zero-grazing systems practised represented increasing levels of

  20. Embracing epiphytes in sustainable forest management: a pilot study from the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.H.D.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Scatena, F.N.; Hamilton, L.S.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular epiphyte biomass and species richness were investigated in 16 anthropogenically disturbed pine-oak forests within an area of ~400 km2 in the Highlands of Chiapas, southern Mexico. Epiphyte biomass on 35 host oak trees in six diameter classes varied from 0.8 to 243 kg dry-weight and

  1. Aulacoseira coroniformis sp. nov., a new diatom (Bacillariophyta) species from Highland Hammock State Park, Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, H.; Pearce, C.; Wagner-Cremer, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aulacoseira coroniformis sp. nov. is described from a short peat core recovered in Highlands Hammock State Park, Florida, U.S.A. The morphology of the new diatom species is documented by light and scanning electron micrographs and discussed in detail, including a comparison with related species in

  2. Effectiveness of sustainable land management measures in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickama, Juma; Okoba, Barrack; Sterk, Geert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/157276465

    2014-01-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem that affects food security and social livelihoods in the highlands of East Africa. Sustainable land management (SLM) measures have been widely promoted to reduce erosion and increase crop yield, but the adoption of SLM measures has remained low. In order to

  3. 77 FR 68854 - Highland Associates, Inc. and Financial Investors Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... shareholders, and does not involve a conflict of interest from which the Adviser or the Affiliated Subadviser... shareholder approval. Applicants: Highland Associates, Inc. (the ``Adviser'') and Financial Investors Trust... be issued unless the Commission orders a hearing. Interested persons may request a hearing by writing...

  4. DECISION TOOL FOR RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM MANAGMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Canaan Valley Highlands of the Mid-Atlantic, riparian zone restoration has been identified as a critical watershed management practice not only for the ecosystem services provided but also for the potential socioeconomic growth from environmental investment and job creatio...

  5. Miners, peasants and entrepreneurs : Regional development in the Central Highlands of Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.; Roberts, B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume traces the development of the central highlands, one of Peru's major mining regions. It draws on extensive fieldwork carried out in Peru between 1970 and 1982, spanning a reforming military government, reaction and a return to civilian politics under Belaunde. Through historical material

  6. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  7. Drought is a major yield loss factor for rainfed East African highland banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.; Asten-Fermont, van A.M.; Taulya, G.

    2011-01-01

    Although drought stress has been identified among the production constraints of East African highland bananas (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome), no quantitative data were available to support this assumption. This study uses data from three on-station fertilizer trials (5–6 cycles) in Central and Southwest

  8. Site factors influencing oak decline in the interior highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Poole; Eric Heitzman; James M. Guldin

    2006-01-01

    Oak decline is affecting the forests in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. In 2002 and 2003, field plots were established throughout the region to evaluate the influence of topographic position and aspect on oak decline. Density and basal area of dead and dying oaks did not significantly differ by either topographic position or aspect. Lack of...

  9. Stability of diameter distributions in a managed uneven-aged oak forest in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiming Wang; Paul S. Johnson; H. E. Garrett; Stephen R. Shifley

    1997-01-01

    We studied a privately owned 156,000-acre oak-dominated forest in the Ozark Highlands of southern Missouri. The forest has been managed by the single-tree selection method since 1952. Using 40 years of continuous forest inventory records, we analyzed the stability of the shape of tree diameter distributions at the forest-wide scale. Results show that for trees ...

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria among children in southern highland Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahutu, J.B.; Steininger, C.; Shyirambere, C.; Zeile, I.; Cwinya-Ay, N.; Danquah, I.; Larsen, C.H.; Eggelte, T.A.; Uwimana, A.; Karema, C.; Musemakweri, A.; Harms, G.; Mockenhaupt, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increased control has produced remarkable reductions of malaria in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Rwanda. In the southern highlands, near the district capital of Butare (altitude, 1,768 m), a combined community-and facility-based survey on Plasmodium infection was conducted

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria among children in southern highland Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Steininger, Christian; Shyirambere, Cyprien; Zeile, Irene; Cwinya-Ay, Neniling; Danquah, Ina; Larsen, Christoph H.; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Uwimana, Aline; Karema, Corine; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

    2011-01-01

    Increased control has produced remarkable reductions of malaria in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Rwanda. In the southern highlands, near the district capital of Butare (altitude, 1,768 m), a combined community-and facility-based survey on Plasmodium infection was conducted early in

  12. Persistence of Allegheny woodrats Neotoma magister across the mid-Atlantic Appalachian Highlands landscape, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Steven B. Castleberry; Michael T. Mengak; Jane L. Rodrigue; Daniel J. Feller; Kevin R. Russell

    2006-01-01

    We examined a suite of macro-habitat and landscape variables around active and inactive Allegheny woodrat Neotoma magister colony sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the mid-Atlantic Highlands of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia using an information-theoretic modeling approach. Logistic regression analyses suggested that Allegheny woodrat presence was related...

  13. Balsam fir conservation and red spruce ecosystem restoration initiatives in the West Virginia highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey A. Bonasso; David W. Saville

    2010-01-01

    The West Virginia Highlands Conservancy has been working for more than a decade to protect, conserve, and restore the spruce-fir forests in West Virginia. Beginning in the mid 1990s an effort was initiated to conserve balsam fir in West Virginia where it reaches its southern most extent in North America. This work led to further efforts which have focused on the...

  14. Incorporating Scottish Highland Games and Activities into Your Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Brusseau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a potentially new and exciting group of activities that can be taught in physical education. Activities based on Scottish Highland Games can be an interesting way to incorporate history and literature into the curriculum, as well as introduce students to a variety of unique physical activities. This…

  15. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, an analysis of century scale climate trends in the central highlands of Sri Lanka is presented. Monthly rainfall and temperature records of the period 1869–2006 from five climatological stations were analyzed. The trend is calculated by the least square regression analysis and the significance of the observed ...

  16. Does meat come from animals? A multispecies approach to classification and belonging in highland Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Guatemalan highlands, distinctions between human and animal are often irrelevant to the treatment of an object as meat. I draw from my ethnographic fieldwork on eating practices in that region to suggest that if the recent social science turn to species is to be a departure from the

  17. Climate change as an amplifier of health risks: highland malaria in Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynen, Maud; Martens, Pim

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between climate and non-climate factors are of vital importance in shaping human vulnerability to global warming. In this chapter, this is illustrated for an important health risk induced by climate change, namely highland malaria in Africa. Despite the known causal links between

  18. Evaluation of the LISEM soil erosion model in two catchments in the East African Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, R.; Bosch, van den R.; Vigiak, O.

    2006-01-01

    Under increasing population pressure, soil erosion has become a threat in the East African Highlands, and erosion modelling can be useful to quantify this threat. To test its applicability for this region, the LISEM soil erosion model was applied to two small catchments, one in the Usumbara

  19. Continuous miner and friction bolts play key roles in Highland's move underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.J.; Jackson, D.

    1977-01-01

    Exxon has added underground mining operations to the open pits at its Highland uranium mine and mill complex 60 mi northeast of Casper in the Powder River Basin and has, in the process, adopted some innovative mining techniques. A continuous shield miner is being used in conjunction with continuous ground support--thought to be the first truly successful combination of these techniques in a US uranium mine. Highland miners are also making extensive use of ''Split Sets,'' a patented friction rock bolt system invented in 1973, which has proven to be a successful cost-saving substitute for timber supports in Highland's soft, water-saturated, extremely unstable sediments. Initial mine production at Highland began in July 1972, and the mill started up the following October. Design capacity at startup was 2,000 tpd, a figure that has since been expanded to 3,000 tpd through mill modifications but without a major construction program. Current production is about 2 million lb per year of U 3 O 8

  20. Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia: the Chemoga watershed case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewket, W.

    2003-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in highland Ethiopia. Past soil and water conservation efforts did not bring about significant results. Hence, there is an urgent need to tackle the problem through new conservation approaches and technologies. This thesis discusses the need for and

  1. Using Eucalyptus for Soil & Water Conservation on the highland Vertisols of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidanu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in the highlands of Ethiopia. With agricultural productivity lingering behind population growth the gap between the availability and the demand for agricultural land continues to grow. This results in severe land-use conflicts. Thus, high potential and more

  2. Disputes over territorial boundaries and diverging valuation languages : The Santurban hydrosocial highlands territory in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Abadía, B.; Boelens, R.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the divergent modes of conceptualizing, valuing and representing the páramo highlands of Santurban, Colombia, as a struggle over hydrosocial territory. Páramo residents, multinational companies, government and scientists deploy territorial representations and valuation languages that

  3. Disputes over territorial boundaries and diverging valuation languages: the Santurban hydrosocial highlands territory in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Abadía, Bibiana; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2016-01-01

    We examine the divergent modes of conceptualizing, valuing and representing the páramo highlands of Santurban, Colombia, as a struggle over hydrosocial territory. Páramo residents, multinational companies, government and scientists deploy territorial representations and valuation languages that

  4. Pesticides and health in highland Ecuadorian potato production: assessing impacts and developing responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, D.; Sherwood, S.G.; Crissman, C.; Barrera, V.H.; Espinosa, E.

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide use in highland Ecuador is concentrated in the high-risk, commercial production of potatoes. Small farm families experience considerable exposure and adverse health consequences. The authors describe a three-pronged strategy to reduce health impacts: 1) a community-based process of

  5. 77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 04008964, NRC-2012-0214] Power Resources, Inc., Smith... available in ADAMS) is provided the first time that a document is referenced. The Smith Ranch Highland... (Smith Ranch Technical Report); Accession No. ML12234A539 (Smith Ranch Environmental Report). In addition...

  6. Epidemic malaria and warmer temperatures in recent decades in an East African highland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, David; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Climate change impacts on malaria are typically assessed with scenarios for the long-term future. Here we focus instead on the recent past (1970-2003) to address whether warmer temperatures have already increased the incidence of malaria in a highland region of East Africa. Our analyses rely on a

  7. Shading by Napier grass reduces malaria vector larvae in natural habitats in western Kenya highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamae, P.M.; Githeko, A.K.; Menya, D.M.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Increased human population in the Western Kenya highlands has led to reclamation of natural swamps resulting in the creation of habitats suitable for the breeding of Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in the region. Here we report on a study to restore the reclaimed swamp and reverse its

  8. Ky’osimba Onaanya: understanding productivity of East African Highland banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taulya, G.

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 million people in East Africa depend on East African highland bananas for food and income. The bananas are grown with limited additions of nutrients and no irrigation, despite widespread poor soil fertility and regular dry seasons. This thesis describes the effect of increasing rainfall

  9. Phosphorus Response and Fertilizer Recommendations for Wheat Grown on Nitisols in the Central Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agegnehu, Getachew; Nelson, Paul N.; Bird, Michael I.; Beek, van Christy

    2015-01-01

    The provision of farmers with proper and balanced fertilizer recommendations is becoming increasingly important, for reasons of crop productivity, food security, and sustainability. Phosphorus (P) response trials with wheat were conducted on Nitisols at 14 sites in the central Ethiopian highlands

  10. The effectiveness of soil conservation measures at a landscape scale in the West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wickama, Juma; Masselink, Rens; Sterk, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) technologies among small holder farmers in the East African highlands is an area which poses many challenges. When adoption occurs across a vast landscape, the locations and effectiveness of the adopted measures are often not adequately known. For

  11. Land management in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia: adoption and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akalu Teshome Firew,; Firew, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Over the last four decades, the government of Ethiopia and various a consortium of donors have been promoting different land management (LM) practices in the highlands of Ethiopia to halt land degradation. However, the adoption rate of these practices has been

  12. Urban and rural risks of Lyme disease in the Scottish Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavin, S; Hopkins, P C; MacLennan, A; Joss, A W L; Ho-Yen, D O

    2009-05-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of Lyme disease testing and infection within the Highland region of Scotland. Data from all Highland samples tested during 2004-2006 were analysed according to result and patient's residence in relation to the eight fold Scottish Executive's urban/rural classification, and distance from woodland. In total, 1602 patients were tested for Lyme disease, 0.71% of the Highland population. From these, 104 (6.5%) were seropositive. There were more patients tested, and seropositive patients from rural than urban locations, 1113 vs 489, and 79 vs 25 respectively. There were also significantly more seropositive patients per patients tested from rural locations (chi2, prural areas become more remote. The likelihood of being tested for Lyme disease also increased as the distance between a patient's residence and woodland decreased. The relative risk of being tested elevated by 74% for those patients living within 200 metres of woodland. Those living in the most rural areas of Highland and those living closest to woodland have an increased risk of being tested and having Lyme disease.

  13. Farmers' indicators for soil erosion mapping and crop yield estimation in central highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoba, B.O.

    2005-01-01

    The central highlands of Kenya is characterised by abundant rainfall and fertile volcanic soils that support agricultural activities but problems of soil erosion are widespread in the region. Past efforts to control the soil erosion problems were through application of regulations that enforced

  14. Economic Determinants of Academic Failure and School Desertion in the Guatemala Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Explores, from an economic perspective, elementary school system adequacy in the rural, indigenous Guatemalan highlands. Estimates least-squares coefficients and elasticities separately for academic failure and school abandonment for each of four indigenous groups. The model explains academic failure better than school desertion. A national policy…

  15. Social and economic factors for adoption of soil and water conservation in West Usambara highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenge, A.J.M.; Graaff, de J.; Hella, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is one of the major constraints to agricultural production in many parts of the Tanzanian highlands. Although several soil and water conservation technologies have been developed and promoted, the adoption of many recommended measures is minimal and soil erosion continues to

  16. Embodying Authentic Leadership through Popular Education at Highlander Research and Education Center: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Griswold, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 and 2014, workshops were held at Highlander Research and Education Center that explored the topics of authentic leadership and popular education. The participants shared their experiences through reflective writing upon completion of the workshops and approximately a year following. These reflections were developed into a case study. This…

  17. Key-socio economic factors influencing sustainable land management investments in the West Usambara Highlands, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, A.W.; Kessler, C.A.; Tenge, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Low investments in sustainable land management (SLM) limit agricultural production in the East African Highlands, leading to increased soil erosion, low productivity of land and food insecurity. Recent studies in the region show that different socio-economic factors influence SLM investments by

  18. 76 FR 80424 - Highland Capital Management, L.P., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Portfolio Securities as a result of the rebalancing of an Underlying Index. A tradable round lot will be the... Highland Senior Loan Portfolio, (``Initial Fund'') whose performance will correspond generally to the price... a portfolio of securities (``Portfolio Securities'') selected to correspond generally to the price...

  19. 78 FR 41891 - Proposed Establishment of the Upper Hiwassee Highlands Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... neither an approval nor an endorsement by TTB of the wine produced in that area. Requirements Section 4.25... gorges. To the west, below the Hiwassee Dam, are a series of lower ridges, mountains, and deep, narrow... Hiwassee Highlands viticultural area also has significantly shallower slope angles. According to the slope...

  20. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Cmdr. David Gray; National Weather Service 5. Cooperation with the Naval Environmental Pacific Region for the startup of 24-hour operatiois at Ponape...0.1 27.7 TOTAL CASES 3 1 1 4 12 27 54 56 30 25 7 1 221 * (GRAY, 1979) TABLE 4-3 ANNUAL VARIATION C SOTR MUSHER TROPICAL CYCLOUZ BY O(EN BASIN SOUTH

  1. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  2. [Tropical sprue (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, C; Chapoy, P; Aubry, P

    1981-01-01

    Tropical sprue is a disease of the small intestine characterized by a malabsorption syndrome with a subtotal or partial mucosal atrophy. It is observed in Asia and Central America. It appears to be rare in Africa but its real frequency is unknown as small bowel biopsys are not routinely done. Bacterial overgrowth as well as giardiasis may be trigger factors of the disease the pathogenesis of which is still incompletely understood. The disease beginning as chronic diarrhea is later on characterized by an aphtoïd stomatitis and a macrocytic anemia. Treatment with antibiotics and folic acid is efficient and has a diagnostic value. If treatment is started lately, vitamin B 12 is then also necessary. In any intestinal syndrome observed in tropical areas without an ascertained etiologic diagnosis, peroral biopsie of the small intestine is requested. However, with the use of pediatric endoscope it will be possible to appreciate the respective incidence of tropical sprue and asymptomatic tropical sprue in Africa South of the Sahara.

  3. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation...... in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...

  4. Tropic Testing of Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    kilometer track running through tropical forest. The track is a combination of a bauxite /dirt base with grades on the road up to 20 percent and log...bridges crossing 11 creeks. The track site is located in a private concession used mainly for gold mining ; however, logging operations are active in the

  5. Retention among ART patients in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea: evaluating the PAPUA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sarthak; Carmone, Andy; Franke, Molly F; Frank, Dale; Kiromat, Hannelly; Kaima, Petronia; Kiromat, Mobumo

    2014-02-01

    Despite more than 10,000 patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), there remains a dearth of operational research in Papua New Guinea related to HIV service delivery. This study examined the effectiveness of a locally developed model of HIV service delivery called PAPUA (Patient and Provider Unified Approach) in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. The model emphasizes coordinated patient and provider support along with decentralized services to rural districts in the Highlands. We conducted a chart review among HIV-infected adults on ART at clinics in Eastern Highlands Province, where the PAPUA model was implemented in addition to the standard of care, and in Western Highlands Province, where the standard of care was implemented. We calculated yearly retention rates and used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to compare retention rates across the provinces. Data for 2457 patients from the 2 provinces were analyzed. Among patients receiving ART under the PAPUA model in Eastern Highlands, the 12-, 24-, 36-, and 48-month retention proportions were 0.79, 0.73, 0.68, and 0.63, respectively. When we compared retention probabilities across the 2 provinces, patients receiving care under the PAPUA model had a 15% lower rate of attrition from care during the first 4 years of ART (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.74 to 0.99; P = 0.03), after adjusting for age, gender, and year of enrollment. The PAPUA model seems to be a promising intervention although it is inextricably linked to the limitations posed by a resource-constrained health system.

  6. Tropical myeloneuropathies: the hidden endemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, G C; Spencer, P S; Schoenberg, B S

    1985-08-01

    Tropical myeloneuropathies include tropical ataxic neuropathy and tropical spastic paraparesis. These disorders occur in geographic isolates in several developing countries and are associated with malnutrition, cyanide intoxication from cassava consumption, tropical malabsorption (TM), vegetarian diets, and lathyrism. TM-malnutrition was a probable cause of myeloneuropathies among Far East prisoners of war in World War II. Clusters of unknown etiology occur in India, Africa, the Seychelles, several Caribbean islands, Jamaica, and Colombia. Treponemal infection (yaws) could be an etiologic factor in the last two. Tropical myeloneuropathies, a serious health problem, are multifactorial conditions that provide unsurpassed opportunities for international cooperation and neurologic research.

  7. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  8. Biogeographic implications of small mammals from Northern Highlands in Tanzania with first data from the volcanic Mount Kitumbeine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabuni, C.; Aghová, Tatiana; Bryjová, Anna; Šumbera, R.; Bryja, Josef

    (2018) ISSN 0025-1461 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : biogeography * Crocidura montis group * cytochrome b * Lophuromys * montane habitats * Northern Highlands of Tanzania Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.805, year: 2016

  9. [Tropical causes of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    Eighty-five percent of all epileptics live in tropical regions. Prenatal risk factors, traumatic brain injuries and different parasitic infestations of the central nervous system (CNS) are the reasons behind the high prevalence of epilepsy. This work reviews the main parasitic infestations causing epilepsy in the tropics. Neurocysticercosis is the main cause of focal epilepsy in early adulthood in endemic areas (30-50%). All the phases of cysticerci (viable, transitional and calcified) are associated with epileptic seizures. Anti-cysticercus treatment helps get rid of cysticerci faster and reduces the risk of recurrence of seizures in patients with viable cysts. Symptomatic epilepsy can be the first manifestation of neuroschistosomiasis in patients without any systemic symptoms. The pseudotumoral form can trigger seizures secondary to the presence of granulomas and oedemas in the cerebral cortex. The eggs of Schistosoma japonicum are smaller, reach the CNS more easily and trigger epileptic seizures more frequently. Toxocariasis and sparganosis are other parasitic infestations that can give rise to symptomatic seizures. The risk factors for suffering chronic epilepsy after cerebral malaria are a positive familial history of epilepsy and a history of episodes of fever and cerebral malaria that began with coma or which progressed with multiple, prolonged epileptic seizures. About 20% of patients with cerebral infarction secondary to Chagas disease present late vascular epilepsy as a complication. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the prognosis, risk of recurrence and modification of the natural course of seizures associated with tropical parasitic infestations, except for the case of neurocysticercosis.

  10. Splenectomy in massive tropical splenomegaly: two-to six-year follow-up in 14 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, W H; Hoffman, S L; Silaban, T; Zaini, M

    1988-10-01

    Between 1978 and 1982, 14 patients underwent splenectomy for disabling massive splenomegaly at the Regency Hospital in Wamena in the highlands of Irian Jaya, Indonesia. All patients were clinically diagnosed as having tropical splenomegaly syndrome (hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly), but in no case was the diagnosis confirmed. In May 1984 nurses and physicians caring for these 14 patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding the patients' conditions. Two to 6 years after splenectomy, 8 of the 14 patients were alive and able to work; at least 6 of the 8 at normal or near normal capacity. One patient died 4 days after surgery and 5 died from 2 to 20 months after surgery. We conclude that splenectomy is beneficial for some highly selected patients with the clinical diagnosis of tropical splenomegaly syndrome.

  11. Distribution of Early, Middle, and Late Noachian cratered surfaces in the Martian highlands: Implications for resurfacing events and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Robbins, Stuart J.

    2013-02-01

    Most of the geomorphic changes on Mars occurred during the Noachian Period, when the rates of impact crater degradation and valley network incision were highest. Fluvial erosion around the Noachian/Hesperian transition is better constrained than the longer-term landscape evolution throughout the Noachian Period, when the highland intercrater geomorphic surfaces developed. We interpret highland resurfacing events and processes using a new global geologic map of Mars (at 1:20,000,000 scale), a crater data set that is complete down to 1 km in diameter, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topography. The Early Noachian highland (eNh) unit is nearly saturated with craters of 32-128 km diameter, the Middle Noachian highland (mNh) unit has a resurfacing age of ~4 Ga, and the Late Noachian highland unit (lNh) includes younger composite surfaces of basin fill and partially buried cratered terrain. These units have statistically distinct ages, and their distribution varies with elevation. The eNh unit is concentrated in the high-standing Hellas basin annulus and in highland terrain that was thinly mantled by basin ejecta near 180° longitude. The mNh unit includes most of Arabia Terra, the Argyre vicinity, highland plateau areas between eNh outcrops, and the Thaumasia range. The lNh unit mostly occurs within highland basins. Crater depth/diameter ratios do not vary strongly between the eNh and mNh units, although crater losses to Noachian resurfacing appear greater in lower lying areas. Noachian resurfacing was spatially non-uniform, long-lived, and gravity-driven, more consistent with arid-zone fluvial and aeolian erosion and volcanism than with air fall mantling or mass wasting.

  12. Tropical Peatland Geomorphology and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, A.; Harvey, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical peatlands cover many low-lying areas in the tropics. In tropical peatlands, a feedback between hydrology, landscape morphology, and carbon storage causes waterlogged organic matter to accumulate into gently mounded land forms called peat domes over thousands of years. Peat domes have a stable morphology in which peat production is balanced by loss and net precipitation is balanced by lateral flow, creating a link between peatland morphology, rainfall patterns and drainage networks. We show how landscape morphology can be used to make inferences about hydrologic processes in tropical peatlands. In particular, we show that approaches using simple storage-discharge relationships for catchments are especially well suited to tropical peatlands, allowing river forecasting based on peatland morphology in catchments with tropical peatland subcatchments.

  13. Estimates of clear night sky emissivity in the Negev Highlands, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Runsheng; Etzion, Y.; Meir, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    A simple method was introduced to estimate the atmospheric emissivity of clear night skies based on the water temperature variation inside an open shallow pond. The method used the pond as an absorber of atmospheric radiation by measuring the water evaporation rate from the pond to ambient air and then calculating the heat loss inside the pond due to the radiative heat exchange between the pond and sky dome. An empirical correlation for the calculations of clear night sky emissivity in the Negev Highlands, Israel, was found. It showed that the emissivity of clear night sky in the Negev Highlands is slightly lower than that expected by Berdahl et al. and Clark's correlations under the climatic conditions during the period of measurements

  14. Poverty and soil conservation efforts among smallholder farmers in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Yirga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the influence of incidence of poverty and plot-level perception of soil degradation, on soil conservation behaviour of small subsistence farmers in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The study results confirm that poverty in assets significantly reduces the probability of soil-conservation efforts as measured by use of stone/soil bund structures in the highlands of Ethiopia. Perception of soil degradation, public assistance with sharing initial costs of constructing soil-conservation structures, improved security of land tenure and farmers’ education and access to information on soil degradation are essential for farmers making long-term investment in conserving soil resources. On the other hand, improved access to short-term credit for the purchase of inorganic fertilizers acts as a disincentive for long-term conservation practices, an important trade-off with serious policy implications that should be carefully evaluated.

  15. Multi-scale Food Energy and Water Dynamics in the Blue Nile Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, B. F.; Simane, B.; Block, P. J.; Foltz, J.; Mueller-Mahn, D.; Gilioli, G.; Sciarretta, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Ethiopian highlands are often called the "water tower of Africa," giving rise to major transboundary rivers. Rapid hydropower development is quickly transforming these highlands into the "power plant of Africa" as well. For local people, however, they are first and foremost a land of small farms, devoted primarily to subsistence agriculture. Under changing climate, rapid national economic growth, and steadily increasing population and land pressures, these mountains and their inhabitants have become the focal point of a multi-scale food-energy-water nexus with significant implications across East Africa. Here we examine coupled natural-human system dynamics that emerge when basin and nation scale resource development strategies are superimposed on a local economy that is largely subsistence based. Sensitivity to local and remote climate shocks are considered, as is the role of Earth Observation in understanding and informing management of food-energy-water resources across scales.

  16. Assessing the impact of model and climate uncertainty in malaria simulations for the Kenyan Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, A. M.; Thomson, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Simulations of the impact of climate variations on a vector-bornedisease such as malaria are subject to a number of sources ofuncertainty. These include the model structure and parameter settingsin addition to errors in the climate data and the neglect of theirspatial heterogeneity, especially over complex terrain. We use aconstrained genetic algorithm to confront these two sources ofuncertainty for malaria transmission in the highlands of Kenya. Thetechnique calibrates the parameter settings of a process-based,mathematical model of malaria transmission to vary within theirassessed level of uncertainty and also allows the calibration of thedriving climate data. The simulations show that in highland settingsclose to the threshold for sustained transmission, the uncertainty inclimate is more important to address than the malaria modeluncertainty. Applications of the coupled climate-malaria modelling system are briefly presented.

  17. Thermal energetics of the New-Guinean moss-forest rat (Rattus niobe) in comparison with other tropical murid rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoud, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The thermal energetics of rodents from cool, wet tropical highlands are poorly known. Metabolic rate, body temperature and thermal conductance were measured in the moss-forest rat, Rattus niobe (Rodentia), a small murid endemic to the highlands of New Guinea. These data were evaluated in the context of the variation observed in the genus Rattus and among tropical murids. In 7 adult R. niobe, basal metabolic rate (BMR) averaged 53.6±6.6mLO2h(-1), or 103% of the value predicted for a body mass of 42.3±5.8g. Compared to other species of Rattus, R. niobe combines a low body temperature (35.5±0.6°C) and a moderately low minimal wet thermal conductance cmin (5.88±0.7mLO2h(-1)°C(-1), 95% of predicted) with a small size, all of which lead to reduced energy expenditure in a constantly cool environment. The correlations of mean annual rainfall and temperature, altitude and body mass with BMR, body temperature and cmin were analyzed comparatively among tropical Muridae. Neither BMR, nor cmin or body temperature correlated with ambient temperature or altitude. Some of the factors which promote high BMR in higher latitude habitats, such as seasonal exposure to very low temperature and short reproductive season, are lacking in wet montane tropical forests. BMR increased with rainfall, confirming a pattern observed among other assemblages of mammals. This correlation was due to the low BMR of several desert adapted murids, while R. niobe and other species from wet habitats had a moderate BMR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional Comparison of White and Red Coccinia Abyssinica (Lam.) Cong. Accessions: An Under-Utilised Edible Tuber of the Ethiopian Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Aditya; Gebre, Bilatu Agza; Legesse, Addisu; Demelash, Yoseph; Fladung, Kirsten; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-08-22

    Anchote ( Coccinia abyssinica ) is an indigenous tuber crop of the Ethiopian Highlands. It is popular in the western Oromia Region of the country. Apart from food, the crop is also used in traditional medicine. Anchote tubers possess two variations in its tissue colour, red and white. In this study, a small market survey and a nutritional comparison of red and white anchote were conducted. White tissue anchote seems to be more popular, due to its soft texture and ease of cooking. However, the red variant was considered for flour making (by dehydration), for use in porridge and soups for various medicinal and supplementary food applications. Red anchote tubers contained significantly higher protein content (16.85 mg/100 g dry matter basis) than the white variant. However, apart from the marginally higher protein content compared to other tropical root and tuber crops, anchote seems to remain a primary source of carbohydrates. In macro minerals, white anchote proves to be a more important source of Ca with 81 mg/100 g edible portion; however, on dry matter basis, the content was similar to the red variant (316 and 309 mg/100 g dry matter, white and red respectively). Further research on vitamin content (especially vitamin A in the red variant) would be useful to understand the full nutrition potential of the crop.

  19. Maize Diversity, Market Access, and Poverty Reduction in the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hellin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The western highlands of Guatemala lie within the area where maize was first domesticated, and maize remains central to farmers' livelihood security. Over 50% of the population in the region are in poverty, and over 48% suffer from chronic malnutrition. Development efforts have focused on improved land management, crop diversification, and improved access to markets, especially for high-value vegetable crops such as snow peas. As a result of successful initiatives worldwide, more attention is being directed at the extent to which farmers can benefit from market opportunities for indigenous crops by receiving a price premium for providing the environmental service of conserving agricultural biodiversity. Such an approach bridges the gap between poverty alleviation and in situ conservation. We explored this potential development pathway through both qualitative and quantitative research. Focus groups were conducted in 5 communities in the maize-growing highlands of Guatemala, followed by a survey of 989 farm households in 59 locations. Our results show that most farmers in the western highlands of Guatemala are severely maize deficient; on average, farm households produce enough maize for only 6.9 months of consumption a year and are forced to purchase maize to meet basic consumption needs. The results are in sharp contrast to research conducted in highland communities in neighboring Mexico, where many farmers are able to sell their maize in relatively lucrative specialty maize markets. In the context of renewed interest in reducing poverty in Central America, our research suggests that rather than focus on market development for local maize varieties, development efforts should target other types of interventions.

  20. Intercultural relations in Northern Peru: the north central highlands during the Middle Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, George

    2014-01-01

    This contribution surveys the emergence and character of the Middle Horizon in Peru’s north highlands. It centers on Ancash department, a region with a rich and unique archaeological record for contextualizing interaction during the period. My discussion begins by detailing the sequence and variability of interregional interaction in Ancash Department during the latter half of the 1st millennium AD. Then I will examine the general implications of the available data – especially architecture, ...

  1. Ky'osimba Onaanya: Understanding Productivity of East African Highland Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Taulya, G.

    2016-01-01

    Over 30 million people in East Africa depend on East African highland bananas for food and income. The bananas are grown with limited additions of nutrients and no irrigation, despite widespread poor soil fertility and regular dry seasons. This thesis describes the effect of increasing rainfall and application of potassium and nitrogen fertilizers on banana growth and yields. In areas that receive less than 1100 mm of rainfall per year, additional rainfall increases yields by 65%. Application...

  2. Population of Aedes sp in Highland of Wonosobo District and Its Competence as A Dengue Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Martini; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Hestiningsih, Retno; Purwantisari, Susiana; Yuliawati, Sri

    2017-02-01

    The increased cases of dengue fever have occurred in the highland of Wonosobo District, and the epidemic taken place in 2009 had 59.3 cases per 100,000 populations. This study aimed to describe of vector competence of the mosquitoes as a dengue vector in the highland of Wonosobo District, Central Java Province. The serial laboratory work was done to measure of vector competence complementary with vector bionomic study. The samples were 20 villages, which were located at Wonosobo sub district. Every village was observed about 15-20 houses. The observed variables were vector competition, bionomic and transovarial infection level, and titer of virus on the mosquitoes after injection. Immunohistochemistry or IHC methods were used to identify transovarial infection status. The number of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were almost similar and both were found indoors or outdoors. Based on HI and OI index, the larvae density in the highland was enough high than standard of the program. Transovarial infection was found on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Environment parameters such as temperature and relative humidity fulfilled the optimum requirement to support the vectors’ life cycle. Transovarial infection has been proven, thus, it indicates that the local transmission has been occurred in this area. Titer of virus was also increasing after day per day. This indicate that the mosquitoes has the ability being vector. As used to do in other area, it is important to conduct breeding places elimination (PSN) indoors as well as outdoors, through active participation of the community in highland area.

  3. A demographic comparison of two black bear populations in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1994-01-01

    The Ozark and Ouachita mountain regions of western Arkansas, collectively known as the Interior Highlands, historically supported large numbers of black bears (Ursus americanus). Indiscriminate killing of bears by early settlers and subsequent habitat reductions due to extensive logging and changes in land use resulted in their decline (Smith et al. 1991). By the late 1940's, bears had been extirpated from both regions (Holder 1951).

  4. Maize Diversity, Market Access, and Poverty Reduction in the Western Highlands of Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Hellin; Rachael Cox; Santiago López-Ridaura

    2017-01-01

    The western highlands of Guatemala lie within the area where maize was first domesticated, and maize remains central to farmers' livelihood security. Over 50% of the population in the region are in poverty, and over 48% suffer from chronic malnutrition. Development efforts have focused on improved land management, crop diversification, and improved access to markets, especially for high-value vegetable crops such as snow peas. As a result of successful initiatives worldwide, more attention is...

  5. Origin and speciation of Picea schrenkiana and Picea smithiana in the Center Asian Highlands and Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lili; Sun, Yongshuai; Zou, Jiabin; Yue, Wei; Wang, Xi; Liu, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary history of current species diversity, especially trees with large effective population sizes and long generation times, is a complicated exercise confounded by gene flow and incomplete lineage sorting. In the present study, we aim to determine the origin and speciation of Picea schrenkiana and Picea smithiana using population genetic data from chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt), and nuclear (nr) genomes. These two species occur in the Central Asian Highlands and...

  6. Water balance and irrigation water pumping of Lake Merdada for potato farming in Dieng Highland, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlillah, Lintang N; Widyastuti, M

    2016-08-01

    Lakes provide water resources for domestic use, livestock, irrigational use, etc. Water availability of lakes can be estimated using lake water balance. Lake water balance is calculated from the water input and output of a lake. Dieng Highland has several volcanic lakes in its surroundings. Lake Merdada in Dieng Highland has been experiencing extensive water pumping for several years more than other lakes in the surrounding area. It provides irrigation water for potato farming in Dieng Highland. The hydrological model of this lake has not been studied. The modeled water balance in this research uses primary data, i.e., bathymetric data, soil texture, and outflow discharge, as well as secondary data, i.e., rainfall, temperature, Landsat 7 ETM+ band 8 image, and land use. Water balance input components consist of precipitation on the surface area, surface (direct) runoff from the catchment area, and groundwater inflow and outflow (G net), while the output components consist of evaporation, river outflow, and irrigation. It shows that groundwater is the dominant input and output of the lake. On the other hand, the actual irrigation water pumping plays the leading role as human-induced alteration of outflow discharge. The maximum irrigation pumping modeling shows that it will decrease lake storage up to 37.14 % per month and may affect the ecosystem inside the lake.

  7. Composition of soil microbiome along elevation gradients in southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam I; Khan, Imran; Bibi, Fehmida; Baabdullah, Rnda; Al-Zahrani, Ibrahim A; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K

    2015-03-14

    Saudi Arabia is mostly barren except the southwestern highlands that are susceptible to environmental changes, a hotspot for biodiversity, but poorly studied for microbial diversity and composition. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable region V6 was used to analyze soil bacterial community along elevation gradients of the southwestern highlands. In general, lower percentage of total soil organic matter (SOM) and nitrogen were detected in the analyzed soil samples. Total 33 different phyla were identified across the samples, including dominant phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. Representative OTUs were grouped into 329 and 508 different taxa at family and genus level taxonomic classification, respectively. The identified OTUs unique to each sample were very low irrespective of the altitude. Jackknifed principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed, overall differences in the bacterial community were more related to the quantity of specific OTUs than to their diversity among the studied samples. Bacterial diversity and soil physicochemical properties did not show consistent changes along the elevation gradients. The large number of OTUs shared between the studied samples suggest the presence of a core soil bacterial community in the southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

  8. The interbelic Germans from the Banat Highland. Coal, steel, mines and forges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, C.; Micliuc, D. M.; Nedeloni, M. D.; Birtarescu, E.; Varga, A.

    2018-01-01

    The difficulties of the reconstruction era, following World War I had been increased by the cessation of some activities in the industrial centres of the Banat Highland. For instance, the copper mines were closed in 1921, the Romanian state forbidding the extraction of this ore. Only in Ocna de Fier a special dispensation had been given. The copper mines from Moldova Nouă, Sasca Montană, Ciclova, Dognecea had also been shut down. This fact caused the acid reaction of some writers. We recall that one of the main ways for improving the material condition, embraced by the ethnic Germans, was working abroad. Many German workers of the Banat Highland had emigrated, taking up an offer of well-paid work during the crisis years: 1929-1933. The miners of the Banat Highland, especially those of German origin, travelled to the areas rich in iron ore and coal of France, namely Alsace and Loraine. Considering that German was spoken there by a significant percentage of the population, the integration into the new working environment did not represent a problem.

  9. Agricultural Commercialisation, Diversification, and Conservation of Renewable Resources in Northern Thailand Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Trébuil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of commercialisation-diversification in the highlands of upper northern Thailand and the accompanying dismissal of self-subsistence are documented based on the findings from seven case studies carried out in different agricultural and social situations during the past decade. The characteristics of the key driving forces powering this agrarian transition such as rapid economic growth, decrease in the share of labour employed in the agriculture, urbanization and changes in food consumption patterns, and improved communication infrastructures, are presented in the Thai context. The environmental impact of these profound agrarian transformations on the degradation of key renewable resources, particularly soil erosion, is assessed. Their socio-economic consequences on an extensive differentiation among farming households and equity issues are also discussed. Finally the authors draw several lessons from this Thai experience that illustrate the very strong adaptive capacity of small highland farmers. They could be useful in similar agro-ecological zones of neighbouring countries that are presently experiencing the same kind of agricultural transition in the Montane Mainland Southeast Asia ecoregion. Particularly, the article underlines the need for more holistic and integrated approaches to agricultural development and the management of renewable resources in highland agro-ecosystems to alleviate poverty while conserving the resource base.

  10. Two new species of shrews (Soricidae) from the western highlands of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The broad-clawed shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae: Cryptotis) encompass a clade of 5 species—Cryptotis alticolus (Merriam), C. goldmani (Merriam), C. goodwini Jackson, C. griseoventris Jackson, and C. peregrinus (Merriam)—that is known collectively as the Cryptotis goldmani group and is characterized by broadened forefeet, elongated and broadened fore claws, and broadened humeri. These shrews are distributed in highland regions from central Mexico to Honduras. Two broad-clawed shrews, C. goodwini and C. griseoventris, occur in southern Mexico and Guatemala and are presumed sister species whose primary distinguishing feature is the larger size of C. goodwini. In an investigation of variation within and between these 2 species, I studied characteristics of the postcranial skeleton. Statistical analyses of a variety of character suites indicate that the forelimb morphology in this group exhibits less intraspecific variation and greater interspecific variation than cranio-mandibular morphology, although most skull characters support groupings based on forelimb characters. Together, these characters define 4 distinct groups among the specimens examined. C. griseoventris is restricted to the northern highlands of Chiapas, Mexico, and C. goodwini occurs in the southern highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala. Herein, I describe 2 new species of broad-clawed shrews from the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, Guatemala.

  11. Characteristics of soils in selected maize growing sites along altitudinal gradients in East African highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Njuguna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the main staple crop in the East African Mountains. Understanding how the edaphic characteristics change along altitudinal gradients is important for maximizing maize production in East African Highlands, which are the key maize production areas in the region. This study evaluated and compared the levels of some macro and micro-elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and P and other soil parameters (pH, organic carbon content, soil texture [i.e. % Sand, % Clay and % Silt], cation exchange capacity [CEC], electric conductivity [EC], and water holding capacity [HC]. Soil samples were taken from maize plots along three altitudinal gradients in East African highlands (namely Machakos Hills, Taita Hills and Mount Kilimanjaro characterized by graded changes in climatic conditions. For all transects, pH, Ca, K and Mg decreased with the increase in altitude. In contrast, % Silt, organic carbon content, Al and water holding capacity (HC increased with increasing altitude. The research provides information on the status of the physical–chemical characteristics of soils along three altitudinal ranges of East African Highlands and includes data available for further research.

  12. Assessing Future Ecosystem Services: a Case Study of the Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry D. Peterson

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin is in transition from a sparsely settled region to a more densely populated one. Expected changes offer benefits to northern Wisconsin residents but also threaten to degrade the ecological services they rely on. Because the future of this region is uncertain, it is difficult to make decisions that will avoid potential risks and take advantage of potential opportunities. We adopt a scenario planning approach to cope with this problem of prediction. We use an ecological assessment framework developed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment to determine key social and ecological driving forces in the Northern Highlands Lake District. From these, we describe three alternative scenarios to the year 2025 in which the projected use of ecological services is substantially different. The work reported in this paper demonstrates how scenarios can be developed for a region and provides a starting point for a participatory discussion of alternative futures for northern Wisconsin. Although the future is unknowable, we hope that the assessment process begun in this paper will help the people of the Northern Highlands Lake District choose the future path of their region.

  13. Diversification of African tree frogs (genus Leptopelis) in the highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Manthey, Joseph D; Freilich, Xenia; Boissinot, Stéphane

    2018-05-01

    The frog genus Leptopelis is composed of ~50 species that occur across sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of these frogs are typically arboreal; however, a few species have evolved a fossorial lifestyle. Most species inhabit lowland forests, but a few species have adapted to high elevations. Five species of Leptopelis occupy the Ethiopian highlands and provide a good opportunity to study the evolutionary transition from an arboreal to a fossorial lifestyle, as well as the diversification in this biodiversity hot spot. We sequenced 14 nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and generated thousands of SNPs from ddRAD sequencing to study the evolutionary relationships of Ethiopian Leptopelis. The five species of highland Leptopelis form a monophyletic group, which diversified during the late Miocene and Pliocene. We found strong population structure in the fossorial species L. gramineus, with levels of genetic differentiation between populations similar to those found between arboreal species. This could indicate that L. gramineus is a complex of cryptic species. We propose that after the original colonization of the Ethiopian highlands by the ancestor of the L. gramineus group, episodes of vicariance fragmented the ancestral populations of this group. We also report the re-evolution of arboreality in L. susanae, which evolved from a fossorial ancestor, a rare ecological switch in frogs that had previously been reported only once. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Rust and schreibersite in Apollo 16 highland rocks - Manifestations of volatile-element mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R. H.; Taylor, L. A.

    Rust is a manifestation of halogen and volatile-metal mobility in the lunar environment. Schreibersite is stable as the primary phosphorus-bearing phase in the highland rocks, a consequence of the inherently low oxygen fugacity within impact-generated melts. Apatite and whitlockite are subordinate in these rocks. The partitioning of P into phosphide in impact-generated melts, and the failure of phosphate to crystallize, effects a decoupling of the halogens and phosphorus. Of the Apollo 16 rocks, 63% contain rust, 70% contain schreibersite, and 52% contain both phases, thereby establishing the pervasiveness of volatile-elements throughout the highland rocks. The major portion of these volatile-bearing phases occur in impact melt-rocks or in breccia matrices. Rhabdites of schreibersite in some of the FeNi grains indicate that there is a meteoritic contribution to the phosphorus in these rocks. Cl/P2O5 ratios in lunar highland rocks are a function of secondary effects, with any apparent Cl-P correlations being coincidential. The present observations preclude the validity of models based on such elemental ratios in these rocks. The presence of rust in the clast laden matrices of pristine rocks indicates fugitive element localization. Pristine clasts may have been contaminated. The basis for a pristine volatile chemistry is questioned.

  15. Agrobiodiversity of cactus pear (Opuntia, Cactaceae in the Meridional Highlands Plateau of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Reyes-Agüero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is characterized by a remarkable richness of Opuntia, mostly at the Meridional Highlands Plateau; it is also here where the greatest richness of Opuntia variants occurs. Most of these variants have been maintained in homegardens; however, the gathering process which originated these homegardens has been disrupted over the past decades, as a result of social change and the destruction of large wild nopaleras. If the variants still surviving in homegardens are lost, these will be hard to recover, that is, the millenary cultural heritage from the human groups that populated the Mexican Meridional Highland Plateau will be lost forever. This situation motivated the preparation of a catalogue that records the diversity of wild and cultivated Opuntia variants living in the meridional Highlands Plateau. To this end, 379 samples were obtained in 29 localities, between 1998 and 2003. The information was processed through Twinspan. All specimens were identified and preserved in herbaria. Botanical keys and descriptions were elaborated. The catalogue includes information on 126 variants comprising 18 species. There were species with only one variant (Opuntia atropes, O. cochinera, O. jaliscana, O. leucotricha, O. rzedowskii and O. velutina, two (O. durangensis, O. lindheimeri, O. phaeacantha and O. robusta, five (O. joconostle and O. lasiacantha, seven (O. chavena, 12 (O. hyptiacantha and O. streptacantha, 15 (O. ficus-indica, 22 (O. albicarpa, and up to 34 (O. megacantha. Additionally, 267 common cactus pear names were related to those variants.

  16. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  17. Tropical Cyclone Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. Peggy; Knosp, Brian W.; Vu, Quoc A.; Yi, Chao; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Infor ma tion System (TCIS) is a Web portal (http://tropicalcyclone.jpl.nasa.gov) that provides researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane parameters together with large-scale and convection resolving model outputs. It provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution satellite (see figure), airborne, and in-situ observations in both image and data formats. Large-scale datasets depict the surrounding environmental parameters such as SST (Sea Surface Temperature) and aerosol loading. Model outputs and analysis tools are provided to evaluate model performance and compare observations from different platforms. The system pertains to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storm, the air-sea interaction processes, and the larger-scale environment as depicted by ocean heat content and the aerosol loading of the environment. Currently, the TCIS is populated with satellite observations of all tropical cyclones observed globally during 2005. There is a plan to extend the database both forward in time till present as well as backward to 1998. The portal is powered by a MySQL database and an Apache/Tomcat Web server on a Linux system. The interactive graphic user interface is provided by Google Map.

  18. Late Cenozoic Samtskhe-Javakheti Volcanic Highland, Georgia:The Result of Mantle Plumes Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrostsvaridze, Avtandil

    2017-04-01

    Late Cenozoic Samtskhe-Javakheti continental volcanic highland (1500-2500 m a.s.l) is located in the SW part of the Lesser Caucasus. In Georgia the highland occupies more than 4500 km2, however its large part spreads towards the South over the territories of Turkey and Armenia. One can point out three stages of magmatic activity in this volcanic highland: 1. Early Pliocene activity (5.2-2.8 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when a large part of the highland was built up. It is formed from volcanic lava-breccias of andesite-dacitic composition, pyroclastic rocks and andesite-basalt lava flow. The evidences of this structure are: a large volume of volcanic material (>1500 km3); big thickness (700-1100 m in average), large-scale of lava flows (length 35 km, width 2.5-3.5 km, thickness 30-80 m), big thickness of volcanic ash horizons (300 cm at some places) and big size of volcanic breccias (diameter >1 m). Based on this data we assume that a source of this structure was a supervolcano (Okrostsvaridze et al., 2016); 2. Early Pleistocene activity (2.4 -1.6 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when continental flood basalts of 100-300 m thickness were formed. The flow is fully crystalline, coarse-grained, which mainly consist of olivine and basic labradorite. There 143Nd/144Nd parameter varies in the range of +0.41703 - +0.52304, and 87Sr/88Sr - from 0.7034 to 0.7039; 3. Late Pleistocene activity (0.35-0.021 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) - when intraplate Abul-Samsari linear volcanic ridge of andesite composition was formed stretching to the S-N direction for 40 km with the 8-12 km width and contains more than 20 volcanic edifices. To the South of the Abul-Samsari ridge the oldest (0.35-0.30 Ma; zircons U-Pb age) volcano Didi Abuli (3305 m a.s.l.) is located. To the North ages of volcano edifices gradually increase. Farther North the youngest volcano Tavkvetili (0.021-0. 030 Ma) is located (2583 m a.s.l.). One can see from this description that the Abul-Samsari ridge has all signs characterizing

  19. Tropical Rainforest Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillero, Peter

    This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…

  20. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Major factors that constrain tropical soil fertility and sustainable agriculture are low nutrient capital, moisture stress, erosion, high P fixation, high acidity with aluminium toxicity, and low soil biodiversity. The fragility of many tropical soils limits food production in annual cropping

  1. Budgeting suspended sediment fluxes in tropical monsoonal watersheds with limited data: the Lake Tana basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimale Fasikaw A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion decreases soil fertility of the uplands and causes siltation of lakes and reservoirs; the lakes and reservoirs in tropical monsoonal African highlands are especially affected by sedimentation. Efforts in reducing loads by designing management practices are hampered by lack of quantitative data on the relationship of erosion in the watersheds and sediment accumulation on flood plains, lakes and reservoirs. The objective of this study is to develop a prototype quantitative method for estimating sediment budget for tropical monsoon lakes with limited observational data. Four watersheds in the Lake Tana basin were selected for this study. The Parameter Efficient Distributed (PED model that has shown to perform well in the Ethiopian highlands is used to overcome the data limitations and recreate the missing sediment fluxes. PED model parameters are calibrated using daily discharge data and the occasionally collected sediment concentration when establishing the sediment rating curves for the major rivers. The calibrated model parameters are then used to predict the sediment budget for the 1994-2009 period. Sediment retained in the lake is determined from two bathymetric surveys taken 20 years apart whereas the sediment leaving the lake is calculated based on measured discharge and observed sediment concentrations. Results show that annually on average 34 t/ha/year of sediment is removed from the gauged part of the Lake Tana watersheds. Depending on the up-scaling method from the gauged to the ungauged part, 21 to 32 t/ha/year (equivalent to 24-38 Mt/year is transported from the upland watersheds of which 46% to 65% is retained in the flood plains and 93% to 96% is trapped on the flood plains and in the lake. Thus, only 4-7% of all sediment produced in the watersheds leaves the Lake Tana Basin.

  2. Multi year aerosol characterization in the tropical Andes and in adjacent Amazonia using AERONET measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Daniel; Andrade-Flores, Marcos; Eck, Thomas F.; Stein, Ariel F.; O'Neill, Norman T.; Lyamani, Hassan; Gassó, Santiago; Whiteman, David N.; Veselovskii, Igor; Velarde, Fernando; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of columnar aerosol properties in the complex geophysical tropical region of South America within 10-20° South and 50-70° West. The region is quite varied and encompasses a significant part of Amazonia (lowlands) as well as high mountains in the Andes (highlands,∼4000 m a.s.l.). Several AERONET stations were included to study the aerosol optical characteristics of the lowlands (Rio Branco, Ji Parana and Cuiaba in Brazil and Santa Cruz in Bolivia) and the highlands (La Paz, Bolivia) during the 2000-2014 period. Biomass-burning is by far the most important source of aerosol in the lowlands, particularly during the dry season (August-October). Multi-annual variability was investigated and showed very strong burning activity in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. This resulted in smoke characterized by correspondingly strong, above-average AODs (aerosol optical depths) and homogeneous single scattering albedo (SSA) across all the stations (∼0.93). For other years, however, SSA differences arise between the northern stations (Rio Branco and Ji Parana) with SSAs of ∼0.95 and the southern stations (Cuiaba and Santa Cruz) with lower SSAs of ∼0.85. Such differences are explained by the different types of vegetation burned in the two different regions. In the highlands, however, the transport of biomass burning smoke is found to be sporadic in nature. This sporadicity results in highly variable indicators of aerosol load and type (Angstrom exponent and fine mode fraction) with moderately significant increases in both. Regional dust and local pollution are the background aerosol in this highland region, whose elevation places it close to the free troposphere. Transported smoke particles were generally found to be more optical absorbing than in the lowlands: the hypothesis to explain this is the significantly higher amount of water vapor in Amazonia relative to the high mountain areas. The air-mass transport to La Paz was investigated using

  3. Micro-organisms behind the pollination scenes: microbial imprint on floral nectar sugar variation in a tropical plant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, A; Herrera, C M

    2012-11-01

    Variation in the composition of floral nectar reflects intrinsic plant characteristics as well as the action of extrinsic factors. Micro-organisms, particularly yeasts, represent one extrinsic factor that inhabit the nectar of animal-pollinated flowers worldwide. In this study a 'microbial imprint hypothesis' is formulated and tested, in which it is proposed that natural community-wide variation in nectar sugar composition will partly depend on the presence of yeasts in flowers. Occurrence and density of yeasts were studied microscopically in single-flower nectar samples of 22 animal-pollinated species from coastal xeric and sub-humid tropical habitats of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Nectar sugar concentration and composition were concurrently determined on the same samples using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. Microscopical examination of nectar samples revealed the presence of yeasts in nearly all plant species (21 out of 22 species) and in about half of the samples examined (51·8 % of total, all species combined). Plant species and individuals differed significantly in nectar sugar concentration and composition, and also in the incidence of nectar yeasts. After statistically controlling for differences between plant species and individuals, nectar yeasts still accounted for a significant fraction of community-wide variance in all nectar sugar parameters considered. Significant yeast × species interactions on sugar parameters revealed that plant species differed in the nectar sugar correlates of variation in yeast incidence. The results support the hypothesis that nectar yeasts impose a detectable imprint on community-wide variation in nectar sugar composition and concentration. Since nectar sugar features influence pollinator attraction and plant reproduction, future nectar studies should control for yeast presence and examine the extent to which microbial signatures on nectar characteristics ultimately have some influence on

  4. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Balslev, Henrik

    that involved Germany, Britain and France, until independence, which was brightened by exemplary collaboration. Muasya focussed on South Africa, which is the most developed country in sub-Saharan Africa with a well-functioning network of herbaria that covers widely different biota. Sanjappa outlined the history...... crisis. Friis gave a broad overview of the history of herbaria and botanical gardens and the changing conceptual frameworks behind their existence. Baldini talked about early Italian botanical collectors and the fate of their collections. Baas accounted for the Golden Age of Dutch botany during pre......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...

  5. Landscape determinants and remote sensing of anopheline mosquito larval habitats in the western Kenya highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushinzimana, Emmanuel; Munga, Stephen; Minakawa, Noboru; Li, Li; Feng, Chen-Chieng; Bian, Ling; Kitron, Uriel; Schmidt, Cindy; Beck, Louisa; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2006-02-16

    In the past two decades the east African highlands have experienced several major malaria epidemics. Currently there is a renewed interest in exploring the possibility of anopheline larval control through environmental management or larvicide as an additional means of reducing malaria transmission in Africa. This study examined the landscape determinants of anopheline mosquito larval habitats and usefulness of remote sensing in identifying these habitats in western Kenya highlands. Panchromatic aerial photos, Ikonos and Landsat Thematic Mapper 7 satellite images were acquired for a study area in Kakamega, western Kenya. Supervised classification of land-use and land-cover and visual identification of aquatic habitats were conducted. Ground survey of all aquatic habitats was conducted in the dry and rainy seasons in 2003. All habitats positive for anopheline larvae were identified. The retrieved data from the remote sensors were compared to the ground results on aquatic habitats and land-use. The probability of finding aquatic habitats and habitats with Anopheles larvae were modelled based on the digital elevation model and land-use types. The misclassification rate of land-cover types was 10.8% based on Ikonos imagery, 22.6% for panchromatic aerial photos and 39.2% for Landsat TM 7 imagery. The Ikonos image identified 40.6% of aquatic habitats, aerial photos identified 10.6%, and Landsate TM 7 image identified 0%. Computer models based on topographic features and land-cover information obtained from the Ikonos image yielded a misclassification rate of 20.3-22.7% for aquatic habitats, and 18.1-25.1% for anopheline-positive larval habitats. One-metre spatial resolution Ikonos images combined with computer modelling based on topographic land-cover features are useful tools for identification of anopheline larval habitats, and they can be used to assist to malaria vector control in western Kenya highlands.

  6. FAQ HURRICANES, TYPHOONS, AND TROPICAL CYCLONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ? A6) What is a sub-tropical cyclone? A7) What is an extratropical cyclone ? A8) What is storm surge easterly wave and what causes them? A5) What is a tropical disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm and how is it different from storm tide ? A9) What is a "CDO" ? A10) What is a TUTT ? A11

  7. Glucose intolerance associated with hypoxia in people living at high altitudes in the Tibetan highland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumiya, Kiyohito; Sakamoto, Ryota; Ishimoto, Yasuko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Ishikawa, Motonao; Suwa, Kuniaki; Imai, Hissei; Chen, Wenling; Kato, Emiko; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kasahara, Yoriko; Fujisawa, Michiko; Wada, Taizo; Wang, Hongxin; Dai, Qingxiang; Xu, Huining; Qiao, Haisheng; Ge, Ri-Li; Norboo, Tsering; Tsering, Norboo; Kosaka, Yasuyuki; Nose, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Takayoshi; Tsukihara, Toshihiro; Ando, Kazuo; Inamura, Tetsuya; Takeda, Shinya; Ishine, Masayuki; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2016-02-23

    To clarify the association between glucose intolerance and high altitudes (2900-4800 m) in a hypoxic environment in Tibetan highlanders and to verify the hypothesis that high altitude dwelling increases vulnerability to diabetes mellitus (DM) accelerated by lifestyle change or ageing. Cross-sectional epidemiological study on Tibetan highlanders. We enrolled 1258 participants aged 40-87 years. The rural population comprised farmers in Domkhar (altitude 2900-3800 m) and nomads in Haiyan (3000-3100 m), Ryuho (4400 m) and Changthang (4300-4800 m). Urban area participants were from Leh (3300 m) and Jiegu (3700 m). Participants were classified into six glucose tolerance-based groups: DM, intermediate hyperglycaemia (IHG), normoglycaemia (NG), fasting DM, fasting IHG and fasting NG. Prevalence of glucose intolerance was compared in farmers, nomads and urban dwellers. Effects of dwelling at high altitude or hypoxia on glucose intolerance were analysed with the confounding factors of age, sex, obesity, lipids, haemoglobin, hypertension and lifestyle, using multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of DM (fasting DM)/IHG (fasting IHG) was 8.9% (6.5%)/25.1% (12.7%), respectively, in all participants. This prevalence was higher in urban dwellers (9.5% (7.1%)/28.5% (11.7%)) and in farmers (8.5% (6.1%)/28.5% (18.3%)) compared with nomads (8.2% (5.7%)/15.7% (9.7%)) (p=0.0140/0.0001). Dwelling at high altitude was significantly associated with fasting IHG+fasting DM/fasting DM (ORs for >4500 and 3500-4499 m were 3.59/4.36 and 2.07/1.76 vs intolerance. Socioeconomic factors, hypoxaemia and the effects of altitudes >3500 m play a major role in the high prevalence of glucose intolerance in highlanders. Tibetan highlanders may be vulnerable to glucose intolerance, with polycythaemia as a sign of poor hypoxic adaptation, accelerated by lifestyle change and ageing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  8. Accounting for user expectations in the valuation of reliable irrigation water access in the Ethiopian highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassahun, Habtamu Tilahun; Nicholson, Charles F.; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reliable access to irrigation water for a sample of farmers in a watershed of the Ethiopian highlands who do not have prior experience with irrigation. To address the lack of previous irrigation experience, we account for underlying expectations...... of future irrigation productivity using an Integrated Choice and Latent Variable (ICLV) econometric model. We then compare the ICLV estimates with alternative models that do not account for expectations regarding productivity increases with irrigation. Our results indicate that both the ICLV and alternative...

  9. Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Williams, K. K.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a continuing study to understand the relationship between valleys and highland resurfacing through geologic mapping, we are continuing to map seven MTM quads in portions of the Margaritifer, Arabia, and Noachis Terrae. Results from this mapping will also help constrain the role and extent of past water in the region. The MTMs are grouped in two different areas: a 4-quadrangle area (-20002, -20007, -25002, -25007) and an L-shaped area (-15017, -20017, -20022) within the region [1-5]. This abstract focuses on the geologic units and history from mapping in the 4-quadrangle area, but includes a brief update on the L-shaped map area.

  10. Post-Grampian top-to-WNW Caledonian ductile shear in the Grampian Highlands [abstract only

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, Graham; Campbell, Seumas

    2008-01-01

    The Glendoe Hydro Scheme involves construction of an 4.6 m diameter bored tunnel, extending 8.6 km SSE-ward from Fort Augustus and the Great Glen, through mainly Grampian Group Dalradian rocks deformed in the Grampian orogeny. The great prize though is access to an 8 km long borehole driven perpendicular to regional strike through the footwall and hanging wall of the Eilrig Shear Zone. The Eilrig Shear Zone is unique in the geology of the Grampian Highland ‘terrane’ and is reve...

  11. Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieli Harrysone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. Methods A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using χ2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the

  12. Highland Summer Pastures Play a Fundamental Role for Dairy Systems in an Italian Alpine Region

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Zendri; Enrico Sturaro; Maurizio Ramanzin

    2013-01-01

    In the Alps, summer farms are temporary units where the livestock herds are moved during summer to graze on highland pastures. This study aimed to analyze the role of summer farms in the dairy farming systems of the Trento province, in the eastern Italian Alps. Data on the structures and management of the 395 active summer farms were collected from the veterinarian services of the province: 345 summer farms keep dairy cattle (83 only replacement, and 262 also lactating cows). Almost all the r...

  13. Management of organic and inorganic soil fertility inputs in indigenous agricultural communities in the Bolivian Highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Javier; Miranda, R.; Motavalli, Peter P.; Tangara, E.; Herrera, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Bolivian highland plateau region (Altiplano) is a semi-arid region in the Andes Mountains that has a range in elevation of between 3600 and 4300 m above sea level. The region's climate is characterized by high diurnal temperature variations, frost risks, low and irregular precipitation and high risks of drought during the growing season (Garcia et al., 2007). Recent research has indicated that the Andes region will experience temperature increases of up to 6 degrees C by the end of the ce...

  14. Determination of Sediment Profile for 210Pb, Pb, U and Th from Sultan Abu Bakar Dam Due to Soil Erosion from Highland Agriculture Area, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zaini Hamzah; Seh D. Riduan; Ahmad Saat

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in Cameron Highlands act as a catchments to accumulate all eroded soil carried by the run off flow through Bertam River, the main river that passes through the highland agriculture area. All suspended solid that carried out by the river contain various kind of hazard potential to the environment. U, Th and Pb are the potential hazard elements carried out by water and accumulate at the dam. Approach: Five sampling point were selected where five 30cm core...

  15. Volume Tables and Point-Sampling Factors for Shortleaf Pines in Plantation on Abandoned Fields in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon W. Smalley; David R. Bower

    1968-01-01

    The tables and equations published here provide ways to estimate total and merchantable cubic-foot volumes, both inside and outside bark, of shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill.) planted on abandoned fields in the Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau, Eastern Highland Rim, and Western Highland Rim regions of Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia (fig. 1). There already are...

  16. Ground truth assessments of forests affected by oak decline and red oak borer in the interior highlands of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri: preliminary results from overstory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Edward A. Poole; Eric Heitzman; John M. Kabrick; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2006-01-01

    Forests of the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri are being affected by oak decline and an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle called the red oak borer. On average, Interior Highlands stands contained 236 trees per acre, of which 32 trees per acre (13.4 percent) were dead or dying. Stands averaged 97 square feet per acre of basal area, of...

  17. Effect of Deforestation and Land Use Changes on Mosquito Productivity and Development in Western Kenya Highlands: Implication for Malaria Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Kimaro, Epiphania E; Munga, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    African highlands were known to be free of malaria for the past 50 years. However, the ever growing human population in the highlands of Africa has led to the deforestation and land coverage changes to create space for more land for cultivation, grazing, and house construction materials needs. This has lead to the creation of suitable breeding habitats, which are in open places. Decrease of canopy and forest cover has led to increased temperature both in outdoors and indoors in deforested areas. This increased temperature has resulted in the shortening of developmental stages of aquatic stages of mosquitoes and sporogony development in adult mosquitoes. Assessment of the effects of deforestation and land coverage changes (decrease), which leads to temperature changes and subsequently increases survivorship of adults and sporogony development in adult mosquitoes' body was gathered from previous data collected from 2003 to 2012 using different analysis techniques. Habitats productivity, species dynamics and abundance, mosquitoes feeding rates, and sporogony development are presented in relation to temperature changes. The effects of temperature rise due to land cover changes in highlands of western Kenya on larval developmental rates, adult sporogony developments, and malaria risk in human population were derived. Vector species dynamics and abundance in relation to land use changes have been found to change with time. This study found that, land cover changes is a key driver for the temperature rise in African highlands and increases the rate of malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae ssp., An. Funestus , and An. arabiensis colonizing the highlands. It has also significantly enhanced sporogony development rate and adult vector survival and therefore the risk of malaria transmission in the highlands.

  18. Tropical Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tropical Journal of Health Sciences (TJHS) is an international journal which ... of ideas to those engaged in work in the Health Sciences and related fields. The journal intends to publish high quality papers on original research, case ...

  19. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 6 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) brings together satellite and in situ data sets from various sources to help you find information for a particular...

  1. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We seek to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical and ... and related disciplines (including biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, drug ... with ibrutinib reduces proliferation, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells ...

  2. Geology of the Terra Cimmeria-Utopia Planitia Highland Lowland Transitional Zone: Final Technical Approach and Scientific Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    The southern Utopia highland-lowland transitional zone extends from northern Terra Cimmeria to southern Utopia Planitia and contains broad, bench-like platforms with depressions, pitted cones, tholi, and lobate flows. The locally occurring geologic units and landforms contrast other transitional regions and record a spatially partitioned geologic history. We systematically delineated and described the geologic units and landforms of the southern Utopia-Cimmeria highland-lowland transitional zone for the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map (MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247). Herein, we present technical and scientific results of this mapping project.

  3. Tropical forests. Nettai no shinrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, I [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    1991-11-05

    It was in 1950s when felling of tropical forests started in earnest, in 1970s felling of forest trees in Southeast Asia reached its peak and the destnation of exportation of most of them was Japan. Besides, among the present overseas development assistance projects (ODA) of Japan, her role to be played in connection with tropical forests is not small and its funds, which surpass by far the budget for forestry of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), are aiding cooperation projects on forestry in many places in the world. Nevertheless, in Japan, the understanding of tropical forests is insufficient and its realities have not been known. In this article, based on the experience and knowledge of the author who stayed in Kalimantan, various kinds of problems concerning tropical forests are explained, the realities are introduced on information, well trained people, funds and philosophy which are far short in pursuance of the problems of tropical forests. Furthermore, as the issues hereafter, such proposals on tropical forests are made as protection of natural forests, planned operation in respecting self renewal ability of the secondary forests and afforestation of alang-alang grassy plains resulted from the failure of burning felled trees and grasses for making the land arable. 1 ref..

  4. Pasture degradation modifies the water and carbon cycles of the Tibetan highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Babel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau has a significant role with regard to atmospheric circulation and the monsoon in particular. Changes between a closed plant cover and open bare soil are one of the striking effects of land use degradation observed with unsustainable range management or climate change, but experiments investigating changes of surface properties and processes together with atmospheric feedbacks are rare and have not been undertaken in the world's two largest alpine ecosystems, the alpine steppe and the Kobresia pygmaea pastures of the Tibetan Plateau. We connected measurements of micro-lysimeter, chamber, 13C labelling, and eddy covariance and combined the observations with land surface and atmospheric models, adapted to the highland conditions. This allowed us to analyse how three degradation stages affect the water and carbon cycle of pastures on the landscape scale within the core region of the Kobresia pygmaea ecosystem. The study revealed that increasing degradation of the Kobresia turf affects carbon allocation and strongly reduces the carbon uptake, compromising the function of Kobresia pastures as a carbon sink. Pasture degradation leads to a shift from transpiration to evaporation while a change in the sum of evapotranspiration over a longer period cannot be confirmed. The results show an earlier onset of convection and cloud generation, likely triggered by a shift in evapotranspiration timing when dominated by evaporation. Consequently, precipitation starts earlier and clouds decrease the incoming solar radiation. In summary, the changes in surface properties by pasture degradation found on the highland have a significant influence on larger scales.

  5. Stable isotope study of serpentinization and metamorphism in the Highland Border Suite, Scotland, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikin, N.P. (University Coll., Cardiff (UK)); Harmon, R.S. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1983-02-01

    D/H and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratios have been measured for whole-rock samples and mineral separates from the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Cambro-Ordovician Highland Border Suite. The H- and O-isotopic compositions of these rocks record individual stages in a relatively complex 500 Myr old hydrothermal/ metamorphic history. Lizardite serpentinites record a premetamorphic history and indicate that parent harzburgites, dunites, and pyroxenites were serpentinized through low-temperature interaction with meteoric waters during cooling. The other rocks of the Highland Border Suite record subsequent interaction with metamorphic fluids. Amphibolite facies hornblende schists were produced through thrust-related metamorphism of spilitic pillow lavas. During dehydration, D-enriched fluids were driven off from the spilites thus leaving the hornblende schists to equilibrate with a relatively D-depleted internal fluid reservoir. The expelled D-enriched fluids may have mixed with more typical Dalradian metamorphic waters which then exchanged with the remaining mafic rocks and lizardite serpentinites during greenschist facies regional metamorphism to produce antigorite serpentinites and greenschist metaspilites with similar H- and O-isotopic compositions. Serpentinites which have been only partially metamorphosed show intermediate H-isotopic compositions between that of metamorphic antigorite and non-metamorphic lizardite end members.

  6. A stable isotope study of serpentinization and metamorphism in the Highland Border Suite, Scotland, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikin, N.P.; Harmon, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    D/H and 18 O/ 16 O ratios have been measured for whole-rock samples and mineral separates from the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Cambro-Ordovician Highland Border Suite. The H- and O-isotopic compositions of these rocks record individual stages in a relatively complex 500 Myr old hydrothermal/ metamorphic history. Lizardite serpentinites record a premetamorphic history and indicate that parent harzburgites, dunites, and pyroxenites were serpentinized through low-temperature interaction with meteoric waters during cooling. The other rocks of the Highland Border Suite record subsequent interaction with metamorphic fluids. Amphibolite facies hornblende schists were produced through thrust-related metamorphism of spilitic pillow lavas. During dehydration, D-enriched fluids were driven off from the spilites thus leaving the hornblende schists to equilibrate with a relatively D-depleted internal fluid reservoir. The expelled D-enriched fluids may have mixed with more typical Dalradian metamorphic waters which then exchanged with the remaining mafic rocks and lizardite serpentinites during greenschist facies regional metamorphism to produce antigorite serpentinites and greenschist metaspilites with similar H- and O-isotopic compositions. Serpentinites which have been only partially metamorphosed show intermediate H-isotopic compositions between that of metamorphic antigorite and non-metamorphic lizardite end members. (author)

  7. Doctors and retribution: the hospitalisation of compensation claims in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amstel, Hans; van der Geest, Sjaak

    2004-11-01

    The cultures in the Papua New Guinea Highlands are characterised by a tradition of retribution. Compensation is part of an elaborate system of exchanging gifts, goods and services. Compensation is paid to those who have suffered some kind of loss for which others are held responsible. Such incidents include death or injury caused by fighting, a road accident or domestic violence, theft, rape, gossip, and property damage. Fear of revenge is an important motive for paying compensation. The hospital has become an increasingly important institution for retribution. It provides medical reports to support compensation claims of physical damage in cases involving violence or an accident. Case material, collected by one of the authors who conducted fieldwork in a hospital in the Southern Highlands, shows that the hospital has established itself as an authoritative actor in the local compensation culture. Doctors spend about one afternoon per week writing medical reports for compensation claims. These reports have become an attractive extra source of income for the hospital. The article describes and analyses a number of cases to illustrate the hospital's role in the production and legitimisation of retribution.

  8. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable tourism planning in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminu, M; Yusof, K W; Matori, A N

    2014-01-01

    The study describes a methodological approach based on an integrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) of Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) to determine nature conservation and tourism development priorities among the highland areas. A set of criteria and indicators were defined to evaluate the highlands biodiversity conservation and tourism development. Pair wise comparison technique was used in order to support solution of a decision problem by evaluating possible alternatives from different perspectives. After the weights have been derived from the pairwise comparison technique, the next step was to compute the unweighted supermatrix, weighted supermatrix and the limit matrix. The limit matrix was normalized to obtain the priorities and the results transferred into GIS environment. Elements evaluated and ranked were represented by criterion maps. Map layers reflecting the opinion of different experts involved were summed using the weighted overlay approach of GIS. Subsequently sustainable tourism development scenarios were generated. The generation of scenarios highlighted the critical issues of the decision problem because it allows one to gradually narrow down a problem

  9. Childbirth in a rural highlands community in Papua New Guinea: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Vallely, Andrew; Homer, Caroline S E; Whittaker, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    to explore men's and women's experiences, beliefs and practices surrounding childbirth in a rural highlands community in Papua New Guinea. a qualitative study comprising focus group discussions, key informant and in depth interviews. the study was undertaken in a rural community in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. 51 women and 26 men participated in 11 focus group discussions. Key informant and in depth interviews were undertaken with 21 women and five men. both women and men recognised the importance of health facility births, linking village births with maternal and newborn deaths. Despite this, many women chose to give birth in the community in circumstances influenced by cultural and customary beliefs and practices. Women giving birth in the community frequently gave birth in an isolated location. Traditional beliefs surrounding reasons for difficult births, including spiritual beliefs were reported along with the use of traditional methods used to help prolonged and difficult births. while the importance of health facility births is recognised in this rural community many women continue to give birth in the village. Identifying and understanding local customs, beliefs and practices, particularly those that may be harmful to women and their newborn infants, is critical to the development of locally-appropriate community-based strategies for improving maternal and infant health in rural communities in PNG and other resource-limited, high burden settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of sedimentation using integration of RS, RUSLE model and GIS in Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, A. H. A.; Lihan, T.; Rahim, S. A.; Musthapha, M. A.; Idris, W. M. R.; Rahman, Z. A.

    2013-11-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are strongly affected by land use change. Spatially distributed erosion models are of great interest to predict soil erosion loss and sediment yield. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine sediment yield using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model in Geographical Information System (GIS) environment at Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia. Sediment yield at the study area was determined using RUSLE model in GIS environment The RUSLE factors were computed by utilizing information on rainfall erosivity (R) using interpolation of rainfall data, soil erodibility (K) using soil map and field measurement, vegetation cover (C) using satellite images, length and steepness (LS) using contour map and conservation practices using satellite images based on land use/land cover. Field observations were also done to verify the predicted sediment yield. The results indicated that the rate of sediment yield in the study area ranged from very low to extremely high. The higher SY value can be found at middle and lower catchments of Cameron Highland. Meanwhile, the lower SY value can be found at the north part of the study area. Sediment yield value turned out to be higher close to the river due to the topographic characteristic, vegetation type and density, climate and land use within the drainage basin.

  11. Practices related to postpartum uterine involution in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoff, K A; Thompson, Lisa M; Bly, K C; Romero, Carolina

    2013-03-01

    Guatemala has the third highest level of maternal mortality in Latin America. Postpartum haemorrhage is the main cause of maternal mortality. In rural Guatemala, most women rely on Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) during labour, delivery, and the postpartum period. Little is known about current postpartum practices that may contribute to uterine involution provided by Mam- and Spanish-speaking TBAs in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. a qualitative study was conducted with 39 women who participated in five focus groups in the San Marcos Department of Guatemala. Questions regarding postpartum practices were discussed during four focus groups of TBAs and one group of auxiliary nurses. three postpartum practices believed to aid postpartum uterine involution were identified: use of the chuj (Mam) (Spanish, temazcal), a traditional wood-fired sauna-bath used by Mam-speaking women; herbal baths and teas; and administration of biomedicines. TBAs provide the majority of care to women during childbirth and the postpartum period and have developed a set of practices to prevent and treat postpartum haemorrhage. Integration of these practices may prove an effective method to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Claw size of Scottish Highland Cows after pasture and housing periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, K; Kolp, E; Braun, U; Weidmann, E; Hässig, M

    2014-09-01

    The claws of pastured Scottish Highland Cattle are large and this may raise the question if regular claw trimming is necessary. Therefore, the claws of the right thoracic and pelvic limbs were measured in 22 Scottish Highland cows 4 times 8 weeks apart. The cows were kept on various alpine pastures before the first measurement, on a two-hectare low-land pasture before the second measurement, in a welfare-compliant straw-bedded free stall before the third measurement and on alpine pasture before the fourth measurement. Housing conditions significantly affected claw dimensions. The claws were composed of dry, hard horn during pasture periods, and had prominent weight-bearing hoof-wall borders and soles with a natural axial slope. Long dorsal walls and heels and a greater symmetry were common. Claw lesions were absent. In contrast, free-stall housing was associated with shorter toes and steeper toe angles, but white line deterioration, heel horn erosion, wearing of the axial slope and hoof wall edges were common.

  13. Presence of Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in sylvatic habitats in the southern highlands (Loja Province) of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, M J; Villacis, A G

    2009-05-01

    The main vectors of Chagas disease in Ecuador are Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. The latter species occupies domestic and peridomestic habitats, as well as sylvatic ecotopes--particularly associated with Phytelephas aequatorialis palm trees--in the western coastal region of Ecuador. In the southern highlands, however, such palm tree habitats are uncommon, and sylvatic populations of R. ecuadoriensis have not previously been reported to date. This study was carried out in five rural communities in Loja Province in southern Ecuador, where manual triatomine searches were conducted in various sylvatic habitats. A total of 81 squirrel nests (Sciurus stramineus) and > 200 bird nests and other habitats were searched. One hundred three R. ecuadoriensis individuals were found in 11 squirrel nests (infestation index = 13.6%, density = 2 bugs per nest searched, crowding = 9.5 bugs per infested nest, colonization index = 72.7% of infested nests with nymphs). No triatomines were found in bird nests or other sylvatic habitats. The presence of sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis in the southern highlands of Ecuador has important implications for the long-term control of Chagas disease in the region because of the possibility of reinfestation of dwellings after insecticide-based control interventions.

  14. A spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable tourism planning in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu, M.; Matori, A. N.; Yusof, K. W.

    2014-02-01

    The study describes a methodological approach based on an integrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) of Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE) to determine nature conservation and tourism development priorities among the highland areas. A set of criteria and indicators were defined to evaluate the highlands biodiversity conservation and tourism development. Pair wise comparison technique was used in order to support solution of a decision problem by evaluating possible alternatives from different perspectives. After the weights have been derived from the pairwise comparison technique, the next step was to compute the unweighted supermatrix, weighted supermatrix and the limit matrix. The limit matrix was normalized to obtain the priorities and the results transferred into GIS environment. Elements evaluated and ranked were represented by criterion maps. Map layers reflecting the opinion of different experts involved were summed using the weighted overlay approach of GIS. Subsequently sustainable tourism development scenarios were generated. The generation of scenarios highlighted the critical issues of the decision problem because it allows one to gradually narrow down a problem.

  15. Assessment of Nitrate in Wells and Springs in the North Central Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adugnaw T. Akale

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the auspices of the UN Millennium Development Goals, access to safe drinking water in the developing world, including the Ethiopian highlands, has improved greatly. However, in many cases, it is not known how safe the water is. With the intensification of agriculture and increasing applications of fertilizers, high levels of nitrate are a concern. The objective of this study is to assess the nitrate levels in drinking water supply systems. To assess nitrate levels, we sampled 213 water supply points in a 4880 km2 area in the northwest Ethiopian highlands. The results show that the average concentration was below the World Health Organization (WHO health standard of 10 mg N-NO3/L. The average concentration in wells was 3.3 mg N-NO3/L and in springs was 1.8 mg N-NO3/L. Only in three wells, that were in agricultural cropped areas, was the WHO standard exceeded. Wells in the agricultural fields had an average nitrate concentration of 3.6 mg N-NO3/L, which was almost twice that on grazing land and four times that in upland wells. Spatially, the groundwater nitrate concentrations were greater in the moderately sloped parts of the study area where agriculture was intensive and denitrification limited. Thus, although current nitrate levels are safe, in the future, the nitrate concentration could exceed the WHO health standard when fertilizer use increases.

  16. K-Ar chronological study of the quaternary volcanic activity in Shin-etsu Highland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Takayuki; Shimizu, Satoshi; Itaya, Tetsumaru.

    1989-01-01

    In order to clarify the temporal and spatial patterns in arc volcanism, 55 K-Ar ages of volcanic rocks from 17 volcanoes in Shin-etsu Highland, central Japan were determined. In addition, life spans, volume of erupted materials and eruption rates of each volcano were estimated. Graphical analysis demonstrates that volume of ejecta varies proportionately with both life span and eruption rate, and that there is no significant correlation between eruption rate and distance from the volcanic front. The life span of each volcano in this Highland is less than 0.6 m.y. In the central Shiga and southern Asama area, the volcanism started at 1 Ma and is still active. However the former had a peak in the activity at around 0.5 Ma, while the latter is apparently most intense at present. Northern Kenashi area has the volcanism without peak in 1.7 - 0.2 Ma, though the activity within a volcanic cluster or chain in central Japan lasts generally for 1 m.y. or less with a peak. (author)

  17. Photogeology: Part D: Descartes highlands: possible analogs around the Orientale Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Carroll Ann

    1972-01-01

    The Descartes highlands are adjacent to the terra plain on which the Apollo 16 lunar module landed (fig. 29-13). A variety of volcanic origins was proposed for the highlands before the mission (refs. 29-4, 29-21, and 29-35 to 29-37), but the returned samples of the area consist almost exclusively of nonvolcanic breccias. The breccias obtained from Stone Mountain have not been identified conclusively as sample materials of the Descartes Mountains (ref. 29-35). A volcanic origin is thus not yet precluded (sec. 6 of this report), but a review of possible impact-related origins seems to be appropriate. The orbital photography acquired during the Apollo 16 mission provides excellent imagery on which geomorphic interpretations may be based. No obvious local crater is a plausible source of the material, but there may be a relation to either the Nectaris or Imbrium Basin. The less degraded Orientale Basin (fig. 29-24) provides a model by which these comparisons can be made (part F of this section).

  18. The Effect of Community-Based Soil and Water Conservation Practices on Abundance and Diversity of Soil Macroinvertebrates in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Welemariam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water conservation (SWC practices in the northern highlands of Ethiopia have important implications for land restoration and biodiversity recovery. The present study determined soil macroinvertebrate (SMI abundance and diversity in response to spatial conditions i.e., generated by different conservation practices, soil depth, and temporal seasonality with the wet and dry season. The SWC practices considered were exclosure + terrace, exclosure alone, terraces, and non-conserved grazing lands. Each SWC measure was selected in three sites that were considered as replications due to low heterogeneity in terms of human and livestock disturbances and biophysical factors. Soil macroinvertebrates were collected using a monolith according to tropical soil biology and fertility (TSBF method. The highest density (55% of SMI was found in exclosures followed by terraces 26%. Non-conserved communal grazing lands account for only 19% of the total. Shannon diversity index was significantly (P < 0.05 higher (1.21 in the exclosures supported with terraces and the lowest (0.9 was observed in the non-conserved communal grazing lands. Diversity was also significantly (P < 0.05 higher (1.26 in wet than dry season (0.70. The highest (41% Sorensen similarity index among SMI was found between exclosures with terraces and exclosures alone during the wet season. The lowest (20% Sorensen similarity index was found between terraces alone and exclosures with terraces in dry season. Soil macroinvertebrate abundance was higher in upper (0–10 cm than lower (10–20 and 20–30 cm soil depth. Soil macroinvertebrate abundance was positively and strongly correlated with soil moisture (R2 = 0.85 and soil organic carbon stock (R2 = 0.95. However, it was negatively (R2 = −0.71 correlated with bulk density. Generally, the abundance and diversity of SMI increased as exclosures and communal grazing lands are supported with terraces.

  19. Tropical Cyclogenesis in a Tropical Wave Critical Layer: Easterly Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerton, T. J.; Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside.

  20. Beyond the drip-line: a high-resolution open-air Holocene hunter-gatherer sequence from highland Lesotho

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mitchell, P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available the drip-line: a high-resolution open-air Holocene hunter-gatherer sequence from highland Lesotho Peter Mitchell1, Ina Plug2, Geoff Bailey3, Ruth Charles4, Amanda Esterhuysen5, Julia Lee Thorp6, Adrian Parker7 & Stephan Woodborne8 The activities...

  1. Median nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the New Jersey Highlands Region estimated using regression models and land-surface characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Chepiga, Mary M.; Cauller, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate-concentration data are used in conjunction with land-use and land-cover data to estimate median nitrate concentrations in groundwater underlying the New Jersey (NJ) Highlands Region. Sources of data on nitrate in 19,670 groundwater samples are from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and the NJ Private Well Testing Act (PWTA).

  2. A multi-century analysis of disturbance dynamics in pine-oak forests of the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad King; Rose-Marie. Muzika

    2013-01-01

    Using dendrochronology and growth release approaches, we analyzed the disturbance history of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mich.) white oak (Quercus alba L.) forests in the Missouri Ozark Highlands. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify growth release events using living and remnant shortleaf pine and white oak, (2)...

  3. Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration over an age sequence of Pinus patula plantations in Zimbabwean Eastern Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujuru, L.; Gotora, T.; Velthorst, E.J.; Nyamangara, J.; Hoosbeek, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests play a major role in regulating the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations creating a need to investigate the ability of exotic plantations to sequester atmospheric CO2. This study examined pine plantations located in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe

  4. Determinants of adoption and continued use of stone terraces for soil and water conservation in an Ethiopian highland watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsalu, A.; Graaff, de J.

    2007-01-01

    In the Ethiopian highlands, land degradation resulting from soil erosion and nutrient depletion is a serious environmental and socio-economic problem. Although soil and water conservation techniques have extensively been introduced over the past decades, sustained use of the measures was not as

  5. Risk factors of oak decline and regional mortality patterns in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Zhaofei Fan; Xiuli Fan; Hong He; Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, oak decline and mortality have plagued Midwestern-upland oak-hickory forests, particularly species in the red oak group (Quercus Section Lobatae) across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma (Dwyer and others 1995). Drought is a common inciting factor in oak decline, while advanced tree age is considered a...

  6. A remote sensing-assisted risk rating study to predict oak decline and recovery in the Missouri Ozark Highlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuizhen Wang; Hong S. He; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    Forests in the Ozark Highlands underwent widespread oak decline affected by severe droughts in 1999-2000. In this study, the differential normalized difference water index was calculated to detect crown dieback. A multi-factor risk rating system was built to map risk levels of stands. As a quick response to drought, decline in 2000 mostly occurred in stands at low to...

  7. A Matrix Transition Model for an Uneven-Aged, Oak-Hickory Forest in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Lootens; David R. Larsen; Edward F. Loewenstein

    1999-01-01

    We present a matrix growth model for an uneven-aged, oak-hickory forest in the Ozark Highlands of Missouri. The model was developed to predict ingrowth, growth of surviving trees, and mortality by diameter class for a five-year period. Tree removal from management activities is accounted for in the model. We evaluated a progression of models from a static, fixed-...

  8. Caring for the land : best practice in soil and water conservation in Beressa watershed, highlands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsalu Taye, A.

    2006-01-01

    Land degradation in the form of soil erosion and nutrient loss is a major constraint to farming activities and agricultural development in the highlands of Ethiopia. Though large-scale conservation projects have been initiated and carried out by the government during the past few decades, the

  9. Mineral fertilizer response and nutrient use efficiencies of East African highland banana (Musa spp., AAA-EAHB, cv. Kisansa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Corbeels, M.; Taulya, G.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    Poor yields of East African highland bananas (Musa spp., AAA-EAHB) on smallholder farms have often been attributed to problems of poor soil fertility. We measured the effects of mineral fertilizers on crop performance at two sites over two to three crop cycles; Kawanda in central Uganda and Ntungamo

  10. East African highland bananas (Musa spp. AAA-EA) 'worry' more about potassium deficiency than drought stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taulya, G.

    2013-01-01

    Drought stress, potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) deficiencies are major constraints to rain-fed East African highland banana (EAHB) production in Uganda. It was hypothesised that the reduction in fresh bunch mass and increase in dry matter (DM) allocation to corms with drought stress, K and N

  11. Norms for multivariate diagnosis of nutrient imbalance in the East African highland bananas (musa spp.aaa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wairegi, L.; Asten, van P.

    2011-01-01

    Despite low yields and soil fertility problems, fertilizer use in the East African Highland banana (AAA-EA) production is absent. High fertilizer costs increase the need for site-specific fertilizer recommendations that address deficiencies. This study aimed to derive and compare norms for AAA-EA

  12. Effects of soil bunds on runoff, soil and nutrient losses, and crop yield in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adimassu Teferi, Z.; Mekonnen, K.; Yirga, C.; Kessler, A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of soil bunds on runoff, losses of soil and nutrients, and crop yield are rarely documented in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. A field experiment was set up consisting of three treatments: (i) barley-cultivated land protected with graded soil bunds (Sb); (ii) fallow land (F); and

  13. Smallholders' soil fertility management in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia: implications for nutrient stocks, balances and sustainability of agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haileslassie, A.; Priess, J.A.; Veldkamp, E.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Low agricultural productivity caused by soil degradation is a serious problem in the Ethiopian Highlands. Here, we report how differences in soil fertility management between farming systems, based either on enset (Ensete ventricosum) or on teff (Eragrostis tef) as the major crops, affect the extent

  14. Reactivation of mass movements in Dessie graben, the example of an active landslide area in the Ethiopian Highlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vařilová, Z.; Kropáček, J.; Zvelebil, J.; Šťastný, Martin; Vilímek, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2015), s. 985-996 ISSN 1612-510X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Dessie graben * Ethiopian highlands * human impact * landslides * natural hazards Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2015

  15. Poder es Saber. Workshop: Developing a Bilingual Curriculum (New Mexico Highlands University, Las Vegas, New Mexico, June 1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass de Martinez, Bernice

    Bilingual teachers and program directors of northern New Mexico attended a workshop at New Mexico Highlands University to examine the curriculum designed to meet the needs of students within the bilingual bicultural setting. Participants were asked to redefine curriculum within the "workshop" setting. Consultants assisted the group in…

  16. Building climate resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: Part II-arole for earth system sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands of Ethiopia are characterized by significant interannual climate variability, dissected topography and associated local climate contrasts, erosive rains and erodible soils, and intense land pressure due to an increasing population and an economy that is almost entirely...

  17. Effects of tropical ecosystem engineers on soil quality and crop performance under different tillage and residue management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulleman, Mirjam; Paul, Birthe; Fredrick, Ayuke; Hoogmoed, Marianne; Hurisso, Tunsisa; Ndabamenye, Telesphore; Saidou, Koala; Terano, Yusuke; Six, Johan; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Feeding a future global population of 9 billion will require a 70-100% increase in food production, resulting in unprecedented challenges for agriculture and natural resources, especially in Sub-saharan Africa (SSA). Agricultural practices that contribute to sustainable intensification build on beneficial biological interactions and ecosystem services. Termites are the dominant soil ecosystem engineers in arid to sub-humid tropical agro-ecosystems. Various studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of termites for rehabilitation of degraded and crusted soils and plant growth in semi-arid and arid natural ecosystems. However, the contribution of termites to agricultural productivity has hardly been experimentally investigated, and their role in Conservation Agriculture (CA) systems remains especially unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the effects of termites and ants on soil physical quality and crop productivity under different tillage and residue management systems in the medium term. A randomized block trial was set up in sub-humid Western Kenya in 2003. Treatments included a factorial combination of residue retention and removal (+R/-R) and conventional and reduced tillage (+T/-T) under a maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glyxine max. L.) rotation. A macrofauna exclusion experiment was superimposed in 2005 as a split-plot factor (exclusion +ins; inclusion -ins) by regular applications of pesticides (Dursban and Endosulfan) in half of the plots. Macrofauna abundance and diversity, soil aggregate fractions, soil carbon contents and crop yields were measured between 2005 and 2012 at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. Termites were the most important macrofauna species, constituting between 48-63% of all soil biota, while ants were 13-34%, whereas earthworms were present in very low numbers. Insecticide application was effective in reducing termites (85-56% exclusion efficacy) and earthworms (87%), and less so ants (49-81%) at 0-15 cm soil depth

  18. Maize, tropical (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assem, Shireen K

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the diet; 95 % of the maize grown is consumed directly as human food and as an important source of income for the resource-poor rural population. The biotechnological approach to engineer biotic and abiotic traits implies the availability of an efficient plant transformation method. The production of genetically transformed plants depends both on the ability to integrate foreign genes into target cells and the efficiency with which plants are regenerated. Maize transformation and regeneration through immature embryo culture is the most efficient system to regenerate normal transgenic plants. However, this system is highly genotype dependent. Genotypes adapted to tropic areas are difficult to regenerate. Therefore, transformation methods used with model genotypes adapted to temperate areas are not necessarily efficient with tropical lines. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the method of choice since it has been first achieved in 1996. In this report, we describe a transformation method used successfully with several tropical maize lines. All the steps of transformation and regeneration are described in details. This protocol can be used with a wide variety of tropical lines. However, some modifications may be needed with recalcitrant lines.

  19. Precipitation-centered Conceptual Model for Sub-humid Uplands in Lampasas Cut Plains, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. R.; Tu, M.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2011-12-01

    Conceptual understandings of dominant hydrological processes, system interactions and feedbacks, and external forcings operating within catchments often defy simple definition and explanation, especially catchments encompassing transition zones, degraded landscapes, rapid development, and where climate forcings exhibit large variations across time and space. However, it is precisely those areas for which understanding and knowledge are most needed to innovate sustainable management strategies and counter past management blunders and failed restoration efforts. The cut plain of central Texas is one such area. Complex geographic and climatic factors lead to spatially and temporally variable precipitation having frequent dry periods interrupted by intense high-volume precipitation. Fort Hood, an army post located in the southeast cut plain contains landscapes ranging from highly degraded to nearly pristine with a topography mainly comprised of flat-topped mesas separated by broad u-shaped valleys. To understand the hydrology of the area and responses to wet-dry cycles we analyzed 4-years of streamflow and rainfall from 8 catchments, sized between 1819 and 16,000 ha. Since aquifer recharge/discharge and surface stream-groundwater interactions are unimportant, we hypothesized a simple conceptual model driven by precipitation and radiative forcings and having stormflow, baseflow, ET, and two hypothetical storage components. The key storage component was conceptualized as a buffer that was highly integrated with the ET component and exerted controls on baseflow. Radiative energy controlled flux from the buffer to ET. We used the conceptual model in making a bimonthly hydrologic budget, which included buffer volumes and a deficit-surplus indicator. Through the analysis, we were led to speculate that buffer capacity plays key roles in these landscapes and even relatively minor changes in capacity, due to soil compaction for example, might lead to ecological shifts. The model led us to other hypotheses concerning stormflow mechanisms and controls on baseflow, which we then tested against observations. It was instructive that such a simple model could lead to interesting new theories.

  20. Changes in Fire-Derived Soil Black Carbon Storage in a Sub-humid Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. D.; Yao, J.; Murray, D. B.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Fire-derived black carbon (BC) in soil, including charcoal, represents a potentially important fraction of terrestrial carbon cycling due to its presumed long persistence in soil. Interpretation of site BC retention is important for assessing feedbacks to ecosystem processes including nutrient and water cycling. However, interaction between vegetation disturbance, BC formation, and off site transport may exist that complicate interpretation of BC addition to soils from wildfire or prescribed burns directly. To investigate the relationship between disturbance and site retention on soil BC, we determined BC concentrations for a woodland in central Texas, USA, from study plots in hilly terrain with a fire scar dendrochronology spanning 100 years. BC values were determined from 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Estimated values showed mean BC concentration of 2.73 ± 3.06 g BC kg-1 (0.91 ± 0.51 kg BC m-2) for sites with fire occurrence within the last 40 years compared with BC values of1.21 ± 1.70 g BC kg-1 soil (0.18 ± 0.14 kg BC m-2) for sites with fire 40 - 100 years ago. Sites with no tree ring evidence of fire during the last 100 years had the lowest mean soil BC concentration of 0.05 ± 0.11 g BC kg-1 (0.02 ± 0.03 kg BC m-2). Molecular proxies of stability (lignin/N) and decomposition (Alkyl C/O-Alky C) showed no differences across the sites, indicating that low potential for BC mineralization. Modeled soil erosion and time since fire from fire scar data showed that soil BC concentrations were inversely correlated. A modified the ecosystem process model, Biome-BGC, was also used simulate the effects of fire disturbance with different severities and seasonality on C cycling related to the BC production, effect on soil water availability, and off-site transport. Results showed that BC impacts on ecosystem processes, including net ecosystem exchange and leaf area development, were predominantly related to fire frequency. Site BC loss rates were affected by initial slope-affected erosion, fire severity, vegetation type, and rate of vegetation recovery. The simulation results showed that fire types, such as high severity, was generally associated with low site BC retention related to low vertical transfer of BC into soils, buoyancy of BC particles, and surface runoff from unvegetated soils.

  1. Nitrogen Cycling in Agroforestry Systems of Sub-humid Zimbabwe: Closing the loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikowo, R.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: improved fallows, biological N 2 -fixation, nitrogen cycling, nitrate leaching, oxide emissions, N mineralization -immobilization, granitic sandsThis thesis focuses on nitrogen: its

  2. Overland flow generation processes in sub-humid Mediterranean forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A. J. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Shakesby, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    Forest soils in north and central Portugal have suffered and continue to suffer major structural changes as a result of forest management techniques, such as clear-felling and as a result of wildfire and rip-ploughing, which is carried out to prepare the ground for planting tree seedlings. In soils that have undergone these changes, the characteristics tend to be different for coniferous plantations, where the root system tends to die when the trees are cut following fire and subsequently may be consumed by fire to form a macropore network, and other types of tree plantations where the root system remains alive and allows regrowth from the sawn tree stumps. Overland flow thresholds decrease sharply as a result of rip-ploughing and forest fires and increase following clear-felling. The time taken for trees to reach maturity after wildfire differs markedly betwen the two main species (Pinus pinaster Aiton and Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) stands. In this paper, overland flow is considered in relation to rainfall, throughfall and throughflow, both in terms of hydrology and hydrochemistry in an attempt to understand overland flow generation mechanisms for a variety of forest land uses (mature pine and eucalyptus, pine seedling regrowth and eucalyptus regrowth from tree stumps, eucalyptus plantations and burned pine). Overland flow generation processes change sharply, even within a single rainfall event, as reflected in the soil hydrological processes and the hydrochemical fingerprints. These effects result from the different contact times for water and soil, which cause differences in the absorption and exhudation processes for the two species

  3. the sequence of wet and dry days at ibadan and onne (sub-humid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Management, University of Bonn,. D53113 ... *Present Address: Dept of Ecology and Natural Resources Management, Center for Development ... rainfall dependent events such as rainfed and ... physical motivation and continuous memory.

  4. Partial Root-Zone Drying (PRD) Feasibility on Potato in a Sub-Humid Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Jensen, C R; Liu, F

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy, within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to test the feasibility of partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation management in potatoes and to compare the PRD irrigation strategy with regulated deficit irrigation (RDI). PRD increased total...

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegayehu Teklu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Results Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9% were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%, followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%, Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%, hookworm 42(4.9%, Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%, Taenia species 18(2.1%, Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9% and highland dwellers (42.3% (P = 0.185. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8% than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481. No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228 but it was higher in reproductive age group. Conclusions The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Tsalla, Tsegaye; Seifu, Belete; Teklu, Takele

    2013-02-18

    Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9%) were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%), followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%), hookworm 42(4.9%), Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%), Taenia species 18(2.1%), Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9%) and highland dwellers (42.3%) (P = 0.185). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8%) than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481). No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228) but it was higher in reproductive age group. The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public health problems. Thus, infection control measures and the

  7. The origin of water in the primitive Moon as revealed by the lunar highlands samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; McCubbin, Francis M.; Franchi, Ian A.; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.

    2014-03-01

    The recent discoveries of hydrogen (H) bearing species on the lunar surface and in samples derived from the lunar interior have necessitated a paradigm shift in our understanding of the water inventory of the Moon, which was previously considered to be a ‘bone-dry’ planetary body. Most sample-based studies have focused on assessing the water contents of the younger mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses, which are partial-melting products of the lunar mantle. In contrast, little attention has been paid to the inventory and source(s) of water in the lunar highlands rocks which are some of the oldest and most pristine materials available for laboratory investigations, and that have the potential to reveal the original history of water in the Earth-Moon system. Here, we report in-situ measurements of hydroxyl (OH) content and H isotopic composition of the mineral apatite from four lunar highlands samples (two norites, a troctolite, and a granite clast) collected during the Apollo missions. Apart from troctolite in which the measured OH contents in apatite are close to our analytical detection limit and its H isotopic composition appears to be severely compromised by secondary processes, we have measured up to ˜2200 ppm OH in the granite clast with a weighted average δD of ˜ -105±130‰, and up to ˜3400 ppm OH in the two norites (77215 and 78235) with weighted average δD values of -281±49‰ and -27±98‰, respectively. The apatites in the granite clast and the norites are characterised by higher OH contents than have been reported so far for highlands samples, and have H isotopic compositions similar to those of terrestrial materials and some carbonaceous chondrites, providing one of the strongest pieces of evidence yet for a common origin for water in the Earth-Moon system. In addition, the presence of water, of terrestrial affinity, in some samples of the earliest-formed lunar crust suggests that either primordial terrestrial water survived the aftermath

  8. Attitudes of GPs towards Older Adults Psychology Services in the Scottish Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, Jonathan P F; Law, Jim; MacDougall, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The mental health of older adults is of increasing concern in an aging population and GPs are frequently the gatekeepers to specialist mental health services. Psychotherapy, social interventions and bibliotherapy all have an evidence-base for treating depression and anxiety in the elderly, as does pharmacological treatment. However, the referral rate from GPs for an Older Adults Clinical Psychology service in the Scottish Highlands in the months prior to the study had been very low and the reasons for this were not clear. General practitioners may have felt that depression and anxiety are 'understandable' in older adults and are therefore unsuitable for treatment, or they may have felt that psycho-pharmacotherapy treatments are more effective than the psychotherapy treatment options. Alternatively, local issues associated with the remote location of many NHS Highland GP practices and patients may have prevented them referring. Therefore, the current study aimed to elicit the therapeutic preferences of Highland GPs, the perceived availability of these options and an estimate of the prevalence of older adults in the area suffering from mild or moderate mental health problems. Questionnaires including brief quantitative and qualitative questions were sent to all 284 GPs in the area with 119 (46%) were completed and returned. Responses from GPs suggested that many patients with depression or anxiety may not be referred. The GPs indicated that social therapeutic options are seen to be as effective as pharmacological options and more effective than other psychological and bibliotherapy options. However, GPs indicated that they were substantially more likely to prescribe pharmacological options than other forms of therapy. The GPs suggested that lower waiting times and a more localised service would increase the likelihood of a referral being made. The current study suggests that low awareness of psychological service provision among GPs may have resulted in fewer

  9. The utilization of alfalfa that planted at Tobasa highland, North Sumatra for growing Boerka goat feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniar Sirait

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a herbaceus legume which is potential to be used as goat feed for it’s high production and nutritive value. This research was aimed to study the adaptation of alfalfa planted at highland-moderate climate and it’s utilization for goat feed. This research concists of two activities, ie 1 Agronomy of alfalfa that adapted to highland as a goat feed resource, and 2 The alfalfa usage technology as goat feed. On the first activity alfalfa was planted on highland-moderate climate Gurgur, Tobasa District, North Sumatra Province. Data was collected included: growth percentage, morphology and production aspects, and nutritive value. The harvesting was conducted for three times, where the first cutting had done at 100 days after planting. Investigation of morphology characterirtics was done before alfalfa harvesting. The utilization of alfalfa as goat feed was carried out on the second activity which was arranged in a completely randomized design. Twenty male Boer x Kacang crossbred (Boerka goats of 5-6 months of age with average body weight 14.2±0.8 kg were randomly assigned to four feed treatments where each treatment consited of five replications. The four feed treatments were: P1 = 100% grass + 0% alfalfa; P2 = 90% grass + 10% alfalfa, P3 = 80% grass + 20% alfalfa, and P4 = 70% grass + 30% alfalfa. Data observation included dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and income over feed cost. Results showed that alfalfa growth percentage was 65% with good growth and high either production or nutritive value. The average shoot dry matter production was 438.6 g/m2 which was equivalent to 26.3 t/ha/yr. The crude protein content of alfalfa on the first, second and third harvesting were 17.93; 21.89 and 17.73 per cent, respectively. The utilization of alfalfa that had been processed to be crude-meal can be applied as goat feed. Supplementation of 70% grass and 30% alfalfa meal showed the best results: ADG 59

  10. Three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis of talar morphology in extant gorilla taxa from highland and lowland habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, Ryan P; Tocheri, Matthew W; Orr, Caley M; Mcnulty, Kieran P

    2015-01-01

    Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are known to climb significantly more often than eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei), a behavioral distinction attributable to major differences in their respective habitats (i.e., highland vs. lowland). Genetic evidence suggests that the lineages leading to these taxa began diverging from one another between approximately 1 and 3 million years ago. Thus, gorillas offer a special opportunity to examine the degree to which morphology of recently diverged taxa may be "fine-tuned" to differing ecological requirements. Using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics, we compared talar morphology in a sample of 87 specimens including western (lowland), mountain (highland), and grauer gorillas (lowland and highland populations). Talar shape was captured with a series of landmarks and semilandmarks superimposed by generalized Procrustes analysis. A between-group principal components analysis of overall talar shape separates gorillas by ecological habitat and by taxon. An analysis of only the trochlea and lateral malleolar facet identifies subtle variations in trochlear shape between western lowland and lowland grauer gorillas, potentially indicative of convergent evolution of arboreal adaptations in the talus. Lastly, talar shape scales differently with centroid size for highland and lowland gorillas, suggesting that ankle morphology may track body-size mediated variation in arboreal behaviors differently depending on ecological setting. Several of the observed shape differences are linked biomechanically to the facilitation of climbing in lowland gorillas and to stability and load-bearing on terrestrial substrates in the highland taxa, providing an important comparative model for studying morphological variation in groups known only from fossils (e.g., early hominins). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Year 2001 Tropical Cyclones of the World

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Year 2001 Tropical Cyclones of the World poster. During calendar year 2001, fifty tropical cyclones with sustained surface winds of at least 64 knots were observed...

  12. Year 2000 Tropical Cyclones of the World

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Year 2000 Tropical Cyclones of the World poster. During calendar year 2000, forty-five tropical cyclones with sustained surface winds of at least 64 knots were...

  13. Archives: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 97 ... Archives: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home > Archives: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Tropical rain forest: a wider perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldsmith, F. B

    1998-01-01

    .... Barbier -- Can non-market values save the tropical forests? / D. Pearce -- The role of policy and institutions / James Mayers and Stephen Bass -- Modelling tropical land use change and deforestation...

  15. Radiocesium accumulation in mosses from highlands of Serbia and Montenegro: chemical and physiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragovic, S.; Nedic, O.; Stankovic, S.; Bacic, G.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was (i) to determine the activity levels of 137 Cs in mosses from highland ecosystems of Serbia and Montenegro, (ii) to find out if radiocesium is associated with essential biomacromolecules, and (iii) to investigate 137 Cs distribution among intracellular compartments. It was found that biomolecules of mosses do not bind significant amounts of radiocesium (2.3-3.3% of the absorbed 137 Cs), a behavior that was independent of the moss species. Cellular fractionation of mosses showed that membranes are the primary 137 Cs-binding sites at the cellular level. They contained 26.1-43.1% of the initial radiocesium activity. It seems that 137 Cs-binding molecules in different mosses are of similar chemical nature, and their distribution between various cellular compartments is not species specific

  16. Economic and institutional incentives for managing the Ethiopean highlands of the Upper Blue Nile Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassahun, Habtamu Tilahun; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies incentives that motivate land users to participate in the management of private and communal lands in the Ethiopian highlands of the Upper Blue Nile Basin, where on-farm and offfarm impacts of soil erosion are threatening the livelihoods of millions of farmers and damaging...... water infrastructure across the Blue Nile River System. A choice experiment was set up requiring farmers to contribute with labour and to implement specific watershed management (WM) activities in exchange for subsidised credit facilities, better opportunities for livestock production in the form...... of grazing land reform, and an additional extension service. Thus, we address farmers’ combined choice of management of private and communal lands. We use a latent class model with attribute non-attendance for one class to accommodate the preferences of farmers who always select the status quo option without...

  17. Ethnomedical treatment of children's diarrheal illnesses in the highlands of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L

    1987-01-01

    In rural communities in the Ecuadorian Highlands, gastrointestinal disease is the leading cause of death. This paper proposes a model of the world view that specifies the factors that condition illness or health and a traditional taxonomy that relies on certain criteria to categorize three classes of diarrhea. These determine whether ethnomedical or medical treatment will be used to 'cure' a child. The three illness classes: diarrhea produced by supernatural forces, by humoral imbalances, and by 'infection' differ etiologically. The ambient air and its temperatures, the constitution, humoral state and overt personality characteristics (character) of the individual, and the predelictions of the evil spirits that seek to sap their vital essence all figure in the origins of illness. The model of the world view is related to a folk taxonomy, which, it is asserted, provides a charter for families' responses to child illness, that more often than not, are appropriate under the economic conditions they suffer.

  18. Retinal vessel diameters in relation to hematocrit variation during acclimatization of highlanders to sea level altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine variations in retinal vessel diameters during acclimatization of native highlanders to normobaric normoxia at sea level. METHODS: Fifteen healthy residents of the greater La Paz region in Bolivia (3600 m above sea level) were examined thrice over a 72-day period, after having...... traveled by airplane to Copenhagen, Denmark, near sea level. RESULTS: In the study subjects, hematocrit decreased from 49.6% (day 2) to 45.9% (P = 0.0066, day 23) and 41.7% (P ... diameters were indistinguishable from baseline after 72 days. No funduscopic signs of retinopathy were observed. Arterial blood pressure remained stable throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Although a 16% reduction in hematocrit occurred between days 2 and 72 after arrival at sea level, the only significant...

  19. Geochemistry of the lunar highlands as revealed by measurements of thermal neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplowski, Patrick N; Beck, Andrew W; Lawrence, David J

    2016-03-01

    Thermal neutron emissions from the lunar surface provide a direct measure of bulk elemental composition that can be used to constrain the chemical properties of near-surface (depth lunar materials. We present a new calibration of the Lunar Prospector thermal neutron map, providing a direct link between measured count rates and bulk elemental composition. The data are used to examine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the lunar surface, with an emphasis on constraining the plagioclase concentration across the highlands. We observe that the regions of lowest neutron absorption, which correspond to estimated plagioclase concentrations of >85%, are generally associated with large impact basins and are colocated with clusters of nearly pure plagioclase identified with spectral reflectance data.

  20. Indications for Caesarean sections in a rural hospital in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Terence B; Radcliffe, Jim; Laman, Moses

    2014-07-01

    We retrospectively documented indications for Caesarean sections in a rural district level hospital in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Over a 53-month study period, 745 Caesarean sections were performed. Prolonged labour, previous history of Caesarean section, cephalopelvic disproportion, malpresentation and fetal distress accounted for over 88% of Caesarean sections performed. In older mothers (aged >30 years), antepartum haemorrhage (Fisher exact test, P = 0.05) and multiple indications (P = 0.001) were leading reasons for Caesarean sections while cephalopelvic disproportion (P = 0.005) was the leading indication in younger mothers. Further prospective studies incorporating perinatal and maternal mortality rates are required to optimise the value of Caesarean sections at district level hospitals in Papua New Guinea. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Highland Saintliness – a Tale of Kundusia from Siwcówka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kalniuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple highland girl, who lived until the mid-20th century in one of the Lesser Poland’s villages, namely Stryszawa, has become a permanent element of the local iconosphere. Stryszawa has always been an important centre of folk sculpture and toy-making. Nowadays, the village is famous for an autochthonic mystic, Kunegunda Siwiec (diminutive: Kundusia. Websites connected with Stryszawa, apart from advertisements for agrotourism and multi-coloured birds for sale at the Beskid Centre of Wooden Toy, provide information about the mystic. Memories of her, both those written down and those that can be heard from local inhabitants, point to the increased interest in Kundusia and positive changes in people’s attitude towards her.

  2. Genetic differences in hemoglobin function between highland and lowland deer mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storz, Jay F.; Runck, Amy M.; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    In high-altitude vertebrates, adaptive changes in blood–O2 affinity may be mediated by modifications of hemoglobin (Hb) structure that affect intrinsic O2 affinity and/or responsiveness to allosteric effectors that modulate Hb–O2 affinity. This mode of genotypic specialization is considered typical...... of mammalian species that are high-altitude natives. Here we investigated genetically based differences in Hb–O2 affinity between highland and lowland populations of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a generalist species that has the broadest altitudinal distribution of any North American mammal....... The results of a combined genetic and proteomic analysis revealed that deer mice harbor a high level of Hb isoform diversity that is attributable to allelic polymorphism at two tandemly duplicated -globin genes and two tandemly duplicated β-globin genes. This high level of isoHb diversity translates...

  3. Integrated action planning for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of highland aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunting, Stuart W.; Luo, S.; Cai, K.

    2016-01-01

    The need for enhanced environmental planning and management for highland aquatic resources is described and rationale for integrated action planning presented. Past action planning initiatives for biodiversity conservation and wetland management are reviewed. A reflective account is given...... of integrated action planning from five sites in China, India and Vietnam. Eight planning phases are described encompassing: stakeholder assessment and partner selection; rapport building and agreement on collaboration; integrated biodiversity, ecosystem services, livelihoods and policy assessment; problem...... analysis and target setting; strategic planning; planning and organisation of activities; coordinated implementation and monitoring; evaluation and revised target-setting. The scope and targeting of actions was evaluated using the DPSIR framework and compatibility with biodiversity conservation and socio...

  4. Bread wheat selection against abiotic and biotic stresses in highland Balochistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, I.; Afzal, J.; Afzal, J.

    2008-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) lines were screened in multi-location trials in highland Balochistan, Pakistan from 1982 (F2) to 1990 (fixed lines). Objective of the study was to select and evaluate desirable genotypes for winter planting, Of 816 entries, only four successfully passed through the observation nurseries and yield trials. After nine years of testing only genotype ICW81.1471 was selected for wide-scale agronomic testing. Although the yield potential of this genotype was not significantly higher than that of the local check, it had the important advantage of possessing good resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West) The results showed that exposure of segregating population to the prevailing environmental stresses of cold and drought was an effective selection procedure for identifying genotypes which are resistant to such stresses. Effective selection can be made for other desirable attributes such as disease and pest resistance, plant height and time to maturity. (author)

  5. Responses to dry season supplementation by dairy cows on the highland zones of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasambainarivo, J.H.; Razafindraibe, H.; Rabehanitriniony, M.; Rasoloarison, R.; Rafalimanantsoa, E.; Barsona, M.R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of different feed supplements on the productivity of dairy cows. The trials were conducted in 49 farms located in the Highland zones of Madagascar and comprised of 143 crossbred cows. Milk yield was recorded daily and live weight was measured at the beginning and end of each experiment. Progesterone concentration was measured in milk samples taken regularly for investigating post partum ovarian function. Milk production estimates were evaluated through regression analysis. The daily consumption of 0.6 kg urea-molasses minerals blocks (UMMB) resulted in an additional 30 to 55% milk production during the dry season. The nature of the supplemental feeds had no major effect on the onset of ovarian activity, which ranged from 28 to 95 days after calving. An economic analysis showed that the use of UMMB in addition to the usual concentrates was profitable to the dairy farmers. (author)

  6. Recovery of nitrogen fertilizer by traditional and improved rice cultivars in the Bhutan Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of soil derived nitrogen (NDFS) and fertilizer N (NDFF) was investigated in highland rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Bhutan, characterized by high inputs of farmyard manure (FYM). The effect of 60 kg N ha-1 (60 N) applied in two splits to a traditional and an improved cultivar......% respectively, with no difference between cultivars, but REN decreased with increasing FYM inputs. Fertilizer N recommendations that allow for previous FYM inputs combined with applications timed to coincide with maximum crop demand (45 DAT), and the use of improved cultivars, could enhance N fertilizer......, popular among the farmers, was investigated using the 15N isotope dilution technique. No differences were found between cultivars with respect to the uptake of NDFS and NDFF, but the improved cultivar yielded 27% more (P¿=¿0.05) grain compared with the traditional cultivar. This was largely due to its...

  7. Development of an integrated and sustainable rural service for people with diabetes in the Scottish Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Geoffrey J

    2006-01-01

    The number of people with diabetes is increasing leading to a greater burden on health care services. The impact of the growing prevalence is accentuated by remote and rural demographic and geographic characteristics. Highland is a sparsely populated remote and rural area in the north of Scotland, characterised by poor access to health-care services and pockets of marked deprivation. Centralised policy developments demanding local implementation compounded the pressures on a system that already had waiting times of over 90 weeks for some people with diabetes. A regional review of services, engaging stakeholders from all disciplines and geographical locations was required to develop acceptable and sustainable solutions. This article describes the extensive mapping process involved, how solutions were derived, and suggests a new service structure to encompass remote health-care issues. Health-care professionals with an interest in diabetes were identified and workshops were organised to include the remote areas of Highland. Patient and carers views were ascertained through workshops and supplemented by written submissions. Using the redesign methodology the patient pathway was mapped, noting service deficiencies and good practice. The information gathered was constructed into a service-level map representing the patient journey. A conference was organised to develop solutions to the issues raised during the mapping process. From these solutions a new service configuration was constructed. Over 300 health-care professionals patients and carers contributed. Fourteen workshops were held across the region including the remote areas, providing 15 local maps of the patient pathways subsequently amalgamated into a service-level map. The current patient pathway in Highland follows a traditional and dichotomous cycle of care in the primary and secondary care setting, partly reflecting the rural nature of healthcare in the Highlands. Four main areas for service improvement

  8. Changing Subjects: The Gallery at Cleveland House and the Highland Clearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Nellis Richter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1812, a porter named William Cantrill published a small volume of etchings dedicated to his employer, the Marchioness of Stafford. Cantrill characterized his reproductions of a select group of small Netherlandish pictures from the art gallery at the Marchioness’s London residence, Cleveland House, as “first attempts from an untutored hand”, calling attention to his status as a servant and untrained artist. In this article, I examine this idiosyncratic volume in light of the reception of small subject pictures in the early nineteenth century, and also within the context of the Marchioness of Stafford’s involvement in the Highland Clearances. At a moment when the Marchioness and her husband were under scrutiny for the heavy-handed tactics used against their Scottish tenants, this book used the category of genre painting to smooth over the gaps between landowner and tenant that the Clearances had made evident.

  9. Restoration of groundwater after solution mining at the Highland Uranium Project, Wyoming, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, J. [Waste Technology Group, British Nuclear Fuels PLC, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Huffman, L. [Power Resources Inc., Highland Uranium Mine, Glenrock, Wyoming (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The Highland Project, located in Converse County, Wyoming, has had a successful 11 year history of in-situ leach mining of Tertiary roll-front uranium deposits. The uranium ore is oxidized and solubilized by circulating native groundwater, containing additional dissolved O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, within confined fluvial aquifers at depths of 200 - 250 m. The changing chemistry of this groundwater during leaching is discussed, as are the various treatment techniques that have been used to restore this fluid at the end of mining. Examples are provided which demonstrate the varying effectiveness of each technique for the reduction of elevated concentrations of different groundwater parameters. The complications arising from the proximity of the earliest wellfields to abandoned, conventional mine workings, as well as unexpected side effects from each restoration method, have combined to make an interesting case history from this long established mining operation. (author)

  10. Lake trout demographics in relation to burbot and coregonine populations in the Algonquin Highlands, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that lake trout populations change in relation to cisco, lake whitefish, round whitefish and burbot populations in lakes in the Algonquin Highlands region of Ontario. Lake trout population change is greatest where cisco and lake whitefish are present. Lake trout populations in lakes without either coregonine tend to have small adults and many juveniles. Where cisco or lake whitefish are present, adult lake trout are large, juvenile abundance is low, and the stock-recruit relationship appears to be uncoupled likely due to a larval bottleneck. Lake trout populations in these lakes may be sensitive to overfishing and recruitment failure. Lake trout populations do not appear to change in relation to round whitefish. There appears to be an indirect positive change on juvenile lake trout abundance through reductions in the density of benthic coregonines in the presence of large, hypolimnetic burbot. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Possible climatic impact of tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, G L; Ellsaesser, H W; MacCracken, M C; Luther, F M

    1975-12-25

    A computer model of climate changes resulting from removal of tropical rain forests to increase arable acreage is described. A chain of consequences is deduced from the model which begins with deforestation and ends with overall global cooling and a reduction in precipitation. A model of the global water budget shows that the reduction in precipitation is accompanied by cooling in the upper tropical troposphere, a lowering of the tropical tropopause, and a warming of the lower tropical stratosphere. (HLW)

  12. The earliest evidence for Upper Paleolithic occupation in the Armenian Highlands at Aghitu-3 Cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Andrew W; Gasparyan, Boris; Allué, Ethel; Bigga, Gerlinde; Bruch, Angela A; Cullen, Victoria L; Frahm, Ellery; Ghukasyan, Robert; Gruwier, Ben; Jabbour, Firas; Miller, Christopher E; Taller, Andreas; Vardazaryan, Varduhi; Vasilyan, Davit; Weissbrod, Lior

    2017-09-01

    With its well-preserved archaeological and environmental records, Aghitu-3 Cave permits us to examine the settlement patterns of the Upper Paleolithic (UP) people who inhabited the Armenian Highlands. We also test whether settlement of the region between ∼39-24,000 cal BP relates to environmental variability. The earliest evidence occurs in archaeological horizon (AH) VII from ∼39-36,000 cal BP during a mild, moist climatic phase. AH VI shows periodic occupation as warm, humid conditions prevailed from ∼36-32,000 cal BP. As the climate becomes cooler and drier at ∼32-29,000 cal BP (AH V-IV), evidence for occupation is minimal. However, as cooling continues, the deposits of AH III demonstrate that people used the site more intensively from ∼29-24,000 cal BP, leaving behind numerous stone artifacts, faunal remains, and complex combustion features. Despite the climatic fluctuations seen across this 15,000-year sequence, lithic technology remains attuned to one pattern: unidirectional reduction of small cores geared towards the production of bladelets for tool manufacture. Subsistence patterns also remain stable, focused on medium-sized prey such as ovids and caprids, as well as equids. AH III demonstrates an expansion of social networks to the northwest and southwest, as the transport distance of obsidian used to make stone artifacts increases. We also observe the addition of bone tools, including an eyed needle, and shell beads brought from the east, suggesting that these people manufactured complex clothing and wore ornaments. Remains of micromammals, birds, charcoal, pollen, and tephra relate the story of environmental variability. We hypothesize that UP behavior was linked to shifts in demographic pressures and climatic changes. Thus, by combining archaeological and environmental data, we gain a clearer picture about the first UP inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Results of environmental monitoring in the Kinta Valley and Cameron Highland areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoste, V.

    1994-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity of the Kinta Valley and the Cameron Highlands show relative high values of gamma and alpha radiation. Both types of radiation are strongly related to meteorological conditions. In the Kinta Valley the average environmental values for Ra-222 are I 00 Bq/m sup 3 air. The monitoring chart shows a sinus shaped curve of the Radon 222 daughter concentration (EER = energy equivalent radon concentration). The concentration levels differ by I 0 times from a low in the late afternoon (around 18:00) and a high with the sunrise in the early morning (around 7:00). In the Kinta Valley and at the Pangkor island the observed interval is 24-hours. In the Kinta Valley three different surveys each of one week length showed, that the daily fluctuations exists over the whole year and doe not depend on rainy or dry seasons.. In the Cameron Highlands the outdoor radioactivity varies much faster than in the valley. There wash-out and building up periods during and between rain falls control external gamma and alpha concentration. Immediately after wash-out local gamma values can rise to 10 μSv/hour near the ground. It is concluded that the radioactivity concentration in the air is controlled by the building up time of the Rn 222 (around two hours) and the Rn 220 progeny (around 12 hours). An equilibrium factor of around 0.2 to 0.3 shows that full equilibrium is never reached in the air system. The calculation of the yearly external exposure is only possible with the knowledge of the local monitored concentration curve. A first calculation of the external dose rate for the persons living in the Kinta Valley was made. The calculations suggest dose rates between 5 and 15 mSv per year. High effective doses rates are expected film inhalation of indoor Radon progeny concentrations and from ingestion of contaminated food. (author)

  14. Hydrops associated with chondrodysplasia of the fetus in a miniature Scottish Highland cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Cabrera, L; McNabb, Bret R; Woods, Sarah E; Cartoceti, Andrew N; Busch, Rosie C

    2016-03-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old primiparous miniature Scottish Highland cow with an unknown breeding date was evaluated for suspected hydrops. CLINICAL FINDINGS Transabdominal and transrectal ultrasonographic examination identified a large amount of hypoechoic fluid within an enlarged uterus; the fetus could not be identified. Presence of a severely distended uterus and concerns regarding associated health risks to the cow led to the decision to induce labor. Although fluids were expelled, parturition did not progress further over the following 48 hours. Vaginal examination revealed a partially dilated cervix and an abnormally shaped fetus that was too large to pass vaginally. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Supportive care was provided to the cow, and a stillborn bull calf was delivered by cesarean section. Grossly evident chondrodystrophic dwarfism with hydrocephalus, compatible with so-called bulldog calf malformations, was confirmed by diagnostic imaging and histopathologic evaluation. The cow recovered from surgery uneventfully and was discharged from the hospital the following day. Genetic analysis of DNA from hair roots collected from the sire and dam confirmed both were carriers of an aggrecan-1 gene mutation (bulldog dwarfism1) previously associated with dwarfism and bulldog calf malformations in Dexter cattle. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bulldog calf malformations associated with an aggrecan-1 gene mutation in miniature Scottish Highland cattle, confirming that at least 1 genetic mutation associated with this condition is found in cattle breeds other than Dexter. The findings highlighted the clinical importance of testing for known genetic diseases in breeding cattle, particularly among miniature breeds.

  15. Cattle productivity on smallholder farms in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njoya, A.; Mbanya, N.J.; Nguemdjom, A.; Kamga, P.; Ndi, C.; Kameni, A.; Nfi, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the traditional cattle production systems in the Western Highlands of Cameroon was carried out between August 1994 and September 1997. Fifty two cows selected from 14 farms in 4 locations were monitored monthly. Data were collected on calf and dam weight, dam's body condition, milk offtake and forage quality. Reproductive performance was monitored by measuring progesterone levels in milk sampled weekly. Crude protein content of grazed pastures rose from 12.5% in July to 14.5% in October and declined steadily to reach 4.5% in February. With such a decline in forage quality during the dry season, cows are unable to obtain their nutrient needs, thus productivity was low. Body condition score declined from medium (5.6) at calving to upper low (4.5) 4 months after the initiation of milk offtake. Body weight of cows decreased by nearly 14% during the same period. The interval between calving to first progesterone rise, calving to conception, and inter-calving intervals were 172 ± 116, 185 ± 106 and 448 ± 86 days, respectively. Milk offtake averaged 1.29 ± 0.44 kg/cow/day for a lactation length of 10.5 months. A significant effect of season was detected in milk offtake (P <0.001), body condition score (P <0.05), body weight of cows (P <0.05), intervals from calving to first progesterone rise (P <0.05), calving to conception (P <0.05) and inter-calving interval (P <0.01). Supplementary feeding during the dry season and early lactation to cover the nutrient requirements of the cows in the traditional production system of Western Highlands of Cameroon is recommended and forms the purpose of the second part of this study which is now underway. (author)

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria among children in southern highland Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karema Corine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased control has produced remarkable reductions of malaria in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Rwanda. In the southern highlands, near the district capital of Butare (altitude, 1,768 m, a combined community-and facility-based survey on Plasmodium infection was conducted early in 2010. Methods A total of 749 children below five years of age were examined including 545 randomly selected from 24 villages, 103 attending the health centre in charge, and 101 at the referral district hospital. Clinical, parasitological, haematological, and socio-economic data were collected. Results Plasmodium falciparum infection (mean multiplicity, 2.08 was identified by microscopy and PCR in 11.7% and 16.7%, respectively; 5.5% of the children had malaria. PCR-based P. falciparum prevalence ranged between 0 and 38.5% in the villages, and was 21.4% in the health centre, and 14.9% in the hospital. Independent predictors of infection included increasing age, low mid-upper arm circumference, absence of several household assets, reported recent intake of artemether-lumefantrine, and chloroquine in plasma, measured by ELISA. Self-reported bed net use (58% reduced infection only in univariate analysis. In the communities, most infections were seemingly asymptomatic but anaemia was observed in 82% and 28% of children with and without parasitaemia, respectively, the effect increasing with parasite density, and significant also for submicroscopic infections. Conclusions Plasmodium falciparum infection in the highlands surrounding Butare, Rwanda, is seen in one out of six children under five years of age. The abundance of seemingly asymptomatic infections in the community forms a reservoir for transmission in this epidemic-prone area. Risk factors suggestive of low socio-economic status and insufficient effectiveness of self-reported bed net use refer to areas of improvable intervention.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria among children in southern highland Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Steininger, Christian; Shyirambere, Cyprien; Zeile, Irene; Cwinya-Ay, Neniling; Danquah, Ina; Larsen, Christoph H; Eggelte, Teunis A; Uwimana, Aline; Karema, Corine; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2011-05-18

    Increased control has produced remarkable reductions of malaria in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Rwanda. In the southern highlands, near the district capital of Butare (altitude, 1,768 m), a combined community-and facility-based survey on Plasmodium infection was conducted early in 2010. A total of 749 children below five years of age were examined including 545 randomly selected from 24 villages, 103 attending the health centre in charge, and 101 at the referral district hospital. Clinical, parasitological, haematological, and socio-economic data were collected. Plasmodium falciparum infection (mean multiplicity, 2.08) was identified by microscopy and PCR in 11.7% and 16.7%, respectively; 5.5% of the children had malaria. PCR-based P. falciparum prevalence ranged between 0 and 38.5% in the villages, and was 21.4% in the health centre, and 14.9% in the hospital. Independent predictors of infection included increasing age, low mid-upper arm circumference, absence of several household assets, reported recent intake of artemether-lumefantrine, and chloroquine in plasma, measured by ELISA. Self-reported bed net use (58%) reduced infection only in univariate analysis. In the communities, most infections were seemingly asymptomatic but anaemia was observed in 82% and 28% of children with and without parasitaemia, respectively, the effect increasing with parasite density, and significant also for submicroscopic infections. Plasmodium falciparum infection in the highlands surrounding Butare, Rwanda, is seen in one out of six children under five years of age. The abundance of seemingly asymptomatic infections in the community forms a reservoir for transmission in this epidemic-prone area. Risk factors suggestive of low socio-economic status and insufficient effectiveness of self-reported bed net use refer to areas of improvable intervention.

  18. Tracking paraglacial sediment with cosmogenic 10Be using an example from the northwest Scottish Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fame, Michelle L.; Owen, Lewis A.; Spotila, James A.; Dortch, Jason M.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2018-02-01

    Beryllium-10 concentrations in samples of sediment and bedrock from five study sites across the Scottish Highlands trace paraglacial sediment sources and define the nature of glacial erosion for the late Quaternary. Exposure ages derived from 10Be concentrations in ridge and lower elevation bedrock range from 10 to 33 ka, which suggest that polythermal ice and warm based ice were primarily responsible for producing glacial sediment. Comparisons of 10Be concentrations between catchment-wide sediment (2.06 ± 0.34 × 104 to 11.24 ± 1.54 × 104 atoms g-1 SiO2; n = 33), near surface deposits (2.71 ± 0.33 × 104 to 3.48 ± 0.49 × 104 atoms g-1 SiO2; n = 6), 4-m-thick deep till (0.68 × 10410Be atoms g-1 SiO2; n = 1), ridge bedrock (8.93 ± 0.47 × 104 to 34.05 ± 1.66 × 104 atoms g-1 SiO2; n = 20), and lower elevation polished bedrock (6.74 ± 0.67 × 104 to 12.65 ± 0.7 × 104 atoms g-1 SiO2, n = 5) indicate that most sand fluxing through catchments in the Scottish Highlands is sourced from the remobilization and vertical mixing of near surface deposits. These findings indicate that glaciogenic material continues to dominate paraglacial sediment budgets more than 11 ka after deglaciation.

  19. Service contacts prior to death in people dying by suicide in the Scottish Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Cameron R; Vaughan, Susan; Huc, Sara; O'Neill, Noelle

    2012-01-01

    Many people who die by suicide have been in contact with health services prior to their death. This study examined service contacts in people in urban and rural areas of the Scottish Highlands. Highland residents dying by suicide or undetermined intent in 2001-2004 were identified using routine death records. Health service databases were searched to identify general hospital, mental health and general practice notes. 177 residents died in the time period (136 males). At least one type of record was identified on 175 people, including general practice records (167 people, 94.4%), psychiatric hospital records (n=87, 49.2%) and general hospital records (n=142, 80.2%). Of these, 52.5% had been in contact with at least one health service in the month before their death, including 18.6% with mental health services, and 46.4% with general practice. In total, 68.9% had a previous diagnosis of mental illness, 52.5% of substance misuse problems, and 40.1% of self-harm. The commonest mental illness diagnosis was depression (n=97, 54.8%). There was no difference in rates of GP contact in rural and urban areas. Of those dying in urban areas, 32% had been in contact with mental health services in the previous month, compared with 21% in Accessible Rural/Accessible Small Towns, and 11% in Remote Rural/Remote Small Towns (prural areas were less likely to have had contact with mental health services in the year before their death (prural than urban areas, and this finding increased with greater rurality.

  20. A decade of rapid change: Biocultural influences on child growth in highland Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oths, Kathryn S; Smith, Hannah N; Stein, Max J; Lazo Landivar, Rodrigo J

    2018-03-01

    In the past decade many areas of Peru have been undergoing extreme environmental, economic, and cultural change. In the highland hamlet of Chugurpampa, La Libertad, climate change has ruined harvests and led to frequent periods of migration to the coast in search of livelihood. This biocultural research examines how the changes could be affecting the growth of children who maintain residence in the highlands. Clinical records from the early 2000s were compared to those from the early 2010s. Charts were randomly selected to record anthropometric data, netting a sample of 75 children ages 0-60 months of age. Analysis of covariance was run to compare mean stature, weight, and BMI between cohorts. Percentage of children who fall below the -2 threshold for z-scores for height and weight were compared by age and cohort. A significant secular trend in growth was found, with children born more recently larger than those born a decade before. The effect is most notable in the first year of life, with the growth advantage attenuated by the age of 3 for height and age 4 for weight. While children were unlikely to be stunted from 0 to 3 years of age, 44% of the later cohort were stunted and 11% were underweight from 4 to 5 years of age. Three possible explanations for the rapid shift are entertained: more time spent on the coast during gestation and early childhood, which may attenuate the effect of hypoxia on child growth; dietary change; and increased use of biomedicine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Phenotypic plasticity in blood–oxygen transport in highland and lowland deer mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Danielle M.; Revsbech, Inge G.; Cheviron, Zachary A.; Weber, Roy E.; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In vertebrates living at high altitude, arterial hypoxemia may be ameliorated by reversible changes in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood (regulated by erythropoiesis) and/or changes in blood–oxygen affinity (regulated by allosteric effectors of hemoglobin function). These hematological traits often differ between taxa that are native to different elevational zones, but it is often unknown whether the observed physiological differences reflect fixed, genetically based differences or environmentally induced acclimatization responses (phenotypic plasticity). Here, we report measurements of hematological traits related to blood–O2 transport in populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) that are native to high- and low-altitude environments. We conducted a common-garden breeding experiment to assess whether altitude-related physiological differences were attributable to developmental plasticity and/or physiological plasticity during adulthood. Under conditions prevailing in their native habitats, high-altitude deer mice from the Rocky Mountains exhibited a number of pronounced hematological differences relative to low-altitude conspecifics from the Great Plains: higher hemoglobin concentrations, higher hematocrits, higher erythrocytic concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (an allosteric regulator of hemoglobin–oxygen affinity), lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations and smaller red blood cells. However, these differences disappeared after 6 weeks of acclimation to normoxia at low altitude. The measured traits were also indistinguishable between the F1 progeny of highland and lowland mice, indicating that there were no persistent differences in phenotype that could be attributed to developmental plasticity. These results indicate that the naturally occurring hematological differences between highland and lowland mice are environmentally induced and are largely attributable to physiological plasticity during adulthood. PMID

  2. Origin and speciation of Picea schrenkiana and Piceasmithiana in the Center Asian Highlands and Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Sun, Yongshuai; Zou, Jiabin; Yue, Wei; Wang, Xi; Liu, Jianquan

    Elucidating the evolutionary history of current species diversity, especially trees with large effective population sizes and long generation times, is a complicated exercise confounded by gene flow and incomplete lineage sorting. In the present study, we aim to determine the origin and speciation of Picea schrenkiana and Picea smithiana using population genetic data from chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt), and nuclear (nr) genomes. These two species occur in the Central Asian Highlands and Himalayas, respectively, where they are isolated from other Asian congeneric species by the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) or adjacent deserts. Previous studies based on both morphological and molecular evidence suggest that they have contrasting phylogenetic relationships with Picea likiangensis or Picea wilsonii which are closely related and both located in the QTP. We examined genetic variation among 16 loci of three genomes from 30 populations of these four species. At both cpDNA loci and mtDNA loci, P. schrenkiana appeared to be closely related to P. likiangensis , although statistical support for this was weak. However, phylogenetic analyses and speciation tests based on the nuclear data from 11 loci provided evidence that P. schrenkiana and P. smithiana are sister species. These two species diverged around five million years ago (Mya) while the divergence between them and the P. likiangensis - P. wilsonii clade occurred about 18.4 Mya. We also detected gene flow accompanying these speciation events. Our results highlight the complex speciation histories of these alpine conifers due to interspecific gene flow and/or incomplete lineage sorting, and the importance of the early QTP uplifts in promoting the origin of these important conifer species in the Asian highlands.

  3. Asymptomatic only at first sight: malaria infection among schoolchildren in highland Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifft, Kevin C; Geus, Dominik; Mukampunga, Caritas; Mugisha, Jean Claude; Habarugira, Felix; Fraundorfer, Kira; Bayingana, Claude; Ndoli, Jules; Umulisa, Irenee; Karema, Corine; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, George; Aebischer, Toni; Martus, Peter; Sendegeya, Augustin; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2016-11-14

    Plasmodium infection and malaria in school children are increasingly recognized as a relevant public health problem, but data on actual prevalence and health consequences are insufficient. The present study from highland southern Rwanda aimed at estimating infection prevalence among children attending school, at identifying associated factors and at assessing the clinical consequences of these infections. In a survey including 12 schools in the Huye district of Rwanda, 1089 children aged 6-10 years were clinically and anthropometrically examined, malaria parasites were diagnosed by microscopy and PCR, haemoglobin concentrations were measured, and socio-economic and behavioural parameters as well as medical histories were obtained. Upon examination, the vast majority of children was asymptomatic (fever 2.7%). Plasmodium infection was detected in 22.4% (Plasmodium falciparum, 18.8%); 41% of these were submicroscopic. Independent predictors of infection included low altitude, higher age, preceding antimalarial treatment, and absence of electricity or a bicycle in the household. Plasmodium infection was associated with anaemia (mean haemoglobin difference of -1.2 g/dL; 95% CI, -0.8 to -1.5 g/dL), fever, underweight, clinically assessed malnutrition and histories of fever, tiredness, weakness, poor appetite, abdominal pain, and vomiting. With the exception of underweight, these conditions were also increased at submicroscopic infection. Malaria infection is frequent among children attending school in southern highland Rwanda. Although seemingly asymptomatic in the vast majority of cases, infection is associated with a number of non-specific symptoms in the children´s histories, in addition to the impact on anaemia. This argues for improved malaria surveillance and control activities among school children.

  4. Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.O. Hunter; M. Keller; D. Vitoria; D.C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests account for approximately half of above-ground carbon stored in global vegetation. However, uncertainties in tropical forest carbon stocks remain high because it is costly and laborious to quantify standing carbon stocks. Carbon stocks of tropical forests are determined using allometric relations between tree stem diameter and height and biomass....

  5. Natural and near natural tropical forest values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel H. Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes some of the values associated with tropical rain forests in their natural and near-natural conditions. Tropical rain forests are moist forests in the humid tropics where temperature and rainfall are high and the dry season is short. These closed (non-logged) and broad-leaved forests are a global resource. Located almost entirely in...

  6. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  7. Tropical Animal Tour Packet. Metro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro Washington Park Zoo, Portland, OR. Educational Services Div.

    This packet is designed to assist teachers in creating a tropical animals lesson plan that centers around a visit to the zoo. A teacher packet is divided into eight parts: (1) goals and objectives; (2) what to expect at the zoo; (3) student activities (preparatory activities, on-site activities, and follow-up activities); (4) background…

  8. Tropical Journal of Medical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Medical Research publishes original research work, review articles, important case report, short communications, and innovations in medicine and related fields. Vol 16, No 2 (2012). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles ...

  9. Copepoda endoparasitic of tropical holothurians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1968-01-01

    A number of Copepoda of the family Lichomolgidae, all endoparasitic in tropical holothurians, has been described. All belong to the group of genera related to Paranthessius, as borne out by the structure of their appendages, although the body-shape often has undergone modifications due to the

  10. Progress in tropical isotope dendroclimatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. N.; Schrag, D. P.; Poussart, P. F.; Anchukaitis, K. J.

    2005-12-01

    The terrestrial tropics remain an important gap in the growing high resolution proxy network used to characterize the mean state and variability of the hydrological cycle. Here we review early efforts to develop a new class of proxy paleorainfall/humidity indicators using intraseasonal to interannual-resolution stable isotope data from tropical trees. The approach invokes a recently published model of oxygen isotopic composition of alpha-cellulose, rapid methods for cellulose extraction from raw wood, and continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry to develop proxy chronological, rainfall and growth rate estimates from tropical trees, even those lacking annual rings. Isotopically-derived age models may be confirmed for modern intervals using trees of known age, radiocarbon measurements, direct measurements of tree diameter, and time series replication. Studies are now underway at a number of laboratories on samples from Costa Rica, northwestern coastal Peru, Indonesia, Thailand, New Guinea, Paraguay, Brazil, India, and the South American Altiplano. Improved sample extraction chemistry and online pyrolysis techniques should increase sample throughput, precision, and time series replication. Statistical calibration together with simple forward modeling based on the well-observed modern period can provide for objective interpretation of the data. Ultimately, replicated data series with well-defined uncertainties can be entered into multiproxy efforts to define aspects of tropical hydrological variability associated with ENSO, the meridional overturning circulation, and the monsoon systems.

  11. The future of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Five anthropogenic drivers--land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change, climate change--will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation (approximately 64,000 km(2) yr(-1) for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (approximately 21,500 km(2) yr(-1) with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace old-growth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests. This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of nature--a commitment that is only matched poleward of 40 degrees S and 70 degrees N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among these mechanisms.

  12. Podoconiosis, a neglected tropical disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, D. A.; Visser, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    Podoconiosis or 'endemic non-filarial elephantiasis' is a tropical disease caused by exposure of bare feet to irritant alkaline clay soils. This causes an asymmetrical swelling of the feet and lower limbs due to lymphoedema. Podoconiosis has a curable pre-elephantiasic phase. However, once

  13. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical

  14. Ozone in the Tropical Troposphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the research presented here is to acquire knowledge of the past, present, and future composition, stability, sensitivity, and variability of the troposphere. We focus mostly on the tropical regions because it has received little attention so far, measurements here are scarce, and large

  15. 1987 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    as calculated for all tro ical cyclones in each year, is shown in fTa le 5-2A. Table 5-2B includes along-track and cross-track errors for 1987. A...so that the ATCM can maintain the tropical storm circulation during the forecast. Also, sensitivity experiments are being conducted to fmd the best

  16. Tropical Cyclone Ensemble Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    the global system. The improvement is almost uniform in the extratropics , while in the tropics clear improvements tend to occur in the immediate...surrounding of storms . The latter result suggests that the limited area analysis provides a better representation of the interactions between the...circulation of the storm and the wind field in its immediate vicinity. 2

  17. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. We seek to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical and international relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and the healthcare professionals. We publish articles in pharmaceutical sciences and related ...

  18. Ecology: The Tropical Deforestation Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ken

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation is a significant cause of global carbon emissions and biodiversity loss. A new study shows that deforestation today leaves a carbon and biodiversity debt to be paid over subsequent years. This has potentially profound implications for forest conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: easterly waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Dunkerton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside. The critical layer equatorward of the easterly jet axis is important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i a region of

  20. From The Mountain To The Sea: Exchange Between The South-Central Highlands And The South Coast During The Early Horizon Period

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence of the exchange of obsidian and cinnabar, highly coveted resources that traveled in prehistoric Peru from the south-central highlands to the Paracas culture area. The evidence for exchange of these materials is compared with evidence of cultural exchange between the coast and the south-central highlands, focusing on ceramic materials uncovered from excavations at the archaeological site Atalla, located in the region of Huancavelica, Peru. The article argues t...

  1. A cusp catastrophe model of mid-long-term landslide evolution over low latitude highlands of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yun; Cao, Jie; Hu, Jinming; Dai, Zhicheng

    2013-04-01

    Based on a model describing a certain landslide case and catastrophe theory, we derived a cusp catastrophe model and corresponding inversion method to study mid-long-term landslide evolution. According to data of landslides, precipitation, and socioeconomic development from 1976 to 2008, the cusp catastrophe model describing this landslide evolution across a low-latitude highland area in China is obtained with the least squares method. Results of the model indicate that human activity determines landslide intensity. Local precipitation also impacts yearly landslide intensity to some extent, and controls the time when a strong and abrupt change in landslides occurs. During the period 1976-2008, there was an abrupt decrease of landslide intensity during 1994-1995, and an abrupt increase during 1995-1996. Since then, there have been frequent landslides in the low-latitude highland, with greater intensity. All these factors provide a scientific basis for formulating a contingency plan regarding landslide disasters.

  2. [Retaining and transformation of incoming soil N from highland to adjacent terrestrial water body in riparian buffer zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-cheng; Yu, Hong-li; Yao, Qin; Han, Zhuang-xing; Qiao, Shu-liang

    2007-11-01

    Highland soil nitrogen can enter adjacent water body via erosion and leaching, being one of the important pollutants in terrestrial water bodies. Riparian buffer zone is a transitional zone between highland and its adjacent water body, and a healthy riparian buffer zone can retain and transform the incoming soil N through physical, biological, and biochemical processes. In this paper, the major pathways through which soil nitrogen enters terrestrial water body and the mechanisms the nitrogen was retained and transformed in riparian buffer zone were introduced systematically, and the factors governing the nitrogen retaining and transformation were analyzed from the aspects of hydrological processes, soil characters, vegetation features, and human activities. The problems existing in riparian buffer zone study were discussed, and some suggestions for the further study in China were presented.

  3. Sustaining the rural primary healthcare workforce: survey of healthcare professionals in the Scottish Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Helen M; Farmer, Jane; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam

    2005-01-01

    Many westernised countries face ongoing difficulties in the recruitment and retention of health professionals in remote and rural communities. Predictors of rural working have been identified by the international literature, and include: the individual having been born or educated in a rural location; exposure to rural healthcare during training; access to continuing professional education; good relationships with peers; spousal contentedness; adoption of a rural 'lifestyle'; successful integration into local communities; and educational opportunities for children. However, those themes remain unverified in the UK. The present study aimed to ascertain whether the internationally identified determinants of recruitment and retention of the rural health workforce apply in the Highlands of Scotland, which includes the most sparsely populated area of the UK mainland, as well as an urban area. In 2003, a questionnaire was sent to all 2070 primary healthcare professionals working in the Highlands (which makes up one-third of Scotland's land area (9800 square miles) and has just 4% of the country's population (209,000)). Approximately one-quarter of the Highland's population live in Inverness. The area is ideal for investigating the rural workforce due to its population sparsity and the inclusion of small towns and Inverness, allowing urban/rural comparisons. The questionnaire asked about places of birth and education; intentions to stay/leave current location; professional isolation; access to amenities; and perceptions of belonging to the local community. The response rate was 53%. Compared with respondents working in urban areas, those working in rural areas were more likely to have been born in rural areas. Professionals living in rural areas were more likely to have been born outside Scotland and to have completed their secondary education and professional training outside Scotland, compared with those living in urban areas. Approximately one-third (34%) had lived in

  4. Impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands in 1706–1889 as derived from taxation records

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 4 (2015), s. 465-488 ISSN 1212-0014 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : historical climatology * ice-age * documentary * vulnerability * temperatures * europe * winter * hydrometeorological extremes * taxation records * damage * impacts * Bohemian-Moravian Highlands Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2015

  5. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    OpenAIRE

    Lamria Sidauruk; Darma Bakti; Retna Astuti Kuswardani; Chairani Hanum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato mon...

  6. Microrefugia and species persistence in the Galápagos highlands: A 26,000-year paleoecological perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron F Collins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Galápagos Islands are known to have experienced significant drought during the Quaternary. The loss of mesophytic upland habitats has been suggested to underlie the relatively lower endemism of upland compared with lowland plant assemblages. A fossil pollen record spanning the last 26,000 years from an upland bog on Santa Cruz Island, revealed the persistent presence of highland pollen and spore types during the last glacial maximum and a millennial-scale series of droughts in the mid Holocene. The absence of lowland taxa and presence of mesic taxa led to the conclusion that the highland flora of the Galápagos persisted during both these periods. The resiliency of the highland flora of the Galápagos to long-term drought contradicts an earlier hypothesis that an extinction of highland taxa occurred during the last glacial maximum and that rapid Holocene speciation created the modern plant assemblage within the last 10,000 years. Based on the palynological data, we suggest that, even during the height of glacial and Holocene droughts, cool sea-surface temperatures and strong trade-wind activity would have promoted persistent ground level cloudiness that provided the necessary moisture inputs to maintain microrefugia for mesophytic plants. Although moist conditions were maintained, the lack of precipitation caused the loss of open water habitat during such events, and accounts for the known extinctions of species such as Azolla sp., and Elatine sp., while other moisture dependent taxa, i.e. Cyathea weatherbyana, persisted.

  7. Lunar feldspathic meteorites: Constraints on the geology of the lunar highlands, and the origin of the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Juliane; Treiman, Allan H.; Mercer, Celestine N.

    2014-02-01

    The composition of the lunar crust provides clues about the processes that formed it and hence contains information on the origin and evolution of the Moon. Current understanding of lunar evolution is built on the Lunar Magma Ocean hypothesis that early in its history, the Moon was wholly or mostly molten. This hypothesis is based on analyses of Apollo samples of ferroan anorthosites (>90% plagioclase; molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)=Mg#Moon's surface, and remote sensing data, show that ferroan anorthosites are not globally distributed and that the Apollo highland samples, used as a basis for the model, are influenced by ejecta from the Imbrium basin. In this study we evaluate anorthosites from all currently available adequately described lunar highland meteorites, representing a more widespread sampling of the lunar highlands than Apollo samples alone, and find that ∼80% of them are significantly more magnesian than Apollo ferroan anorthosites. Interestingly, Luna mission anorthosites, collected outside the continuous Imbrium ejecta, are also highly magnesian. If the lunar highland crust consists dominantly of magnesian anorthosites, as suggested by their abundance in samples sourced outside Imbrium ejecta, a reevaluation of the Lunar Magma Ocean model is a sensible step forward in the endeavor to understand lunar evolution. Our results demonstrate that lunar anorthosites are more similar in their chemical trends and mineral abundance to terrestrial massif anorthosites than to anorthosites predicted in a Lunar Magma Ocean. This analysis does not invalidate the idea of a Lunar Magma Ocean, which seems a necessity under the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the moon. However, it does indicate that most rocks now seen at the Moon's surface are not primary products of a magma ocean alone, but are products of more complex crustal processes.

  8. Comparative study of endophytic and endophytic diazotrophic bacterial communities across rice landraces grown in the highlands of northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rangjaroen, C.; Rerkasem, B.; Teaumroong, N.; Sungthong, R.; Lumyong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Communities of bacterial endophytes within the rice landraces cultivated in the highlands of northern Thailand were studied using fingerprinting data of 16S rRNA and nifH genes profiling by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The bacterial communities' richness, diversity index, evenness, and stability were varied depending on the plant tissues, stages of growth, and rice cultivars. These indices for the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria within the landrace rice ...

  9. Unthinkable Rebellion and the Praxis of the Possible: Ch'orti' Campesin@ Struggles in Guatemala's Eastern Highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Casolo, Jennifer Jean

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the production of rural struggle in Guatemala' indigenous eastern highlands, a place where after decades of silence, 36 years of civil war and two centuries of marginalization, the seemingly unthinkable--organized resistance and alternative proposals--became palpable. In the face of crisis, attempts to turn rural producers, into neoliberal subjects of credit resurrected the historical specter of dispossession and catalyzed an unlikely alliance to oppose unjust agrar...

  10. Service user preferences for diabetes education in remote and rural areas of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jenny; Skinner, Fiona; Tilley, Phil; MacRury, Sandra

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes prevalence in Scotland is 5.3%, with type 2 diabetes accounting for 86.7% of all cases in the National Health Service Highlands health board area and 85.7% in the Western Isles. Structured education is a key component in the management of this chronic disease. However, current group session models are less feasible in lower-population non-urban environments due to distance, participant numbers and access to appropriately trained healthcare professionals. Group sessions may also be a less attractive option in small communities, where people tend to have close day-to-day personal contact. This study assesses the access and delivery preferences of remote and rural service users in the Highlands and Western Isles to structured diabetes education programs. The study used a mixed methods approach of focus groups and questionnaires with people with type 2 diabetes in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. Both modes of participation were designed to explore perception of diabetes knowledge, diabetes education and use of technology. One-to-one delivery was the delivery method of choice; however, there was a preference for a digital approach over group education sessions. Service users expressed a strong desire to be able to learn at their own pace, when and where they wanted to, and with no requirement to travel. To address these requirements an online resource, providing access to both learning sessions and trusted sources of information, was the preferred mode of delivery. People with type 2 diabetes living in remote and rural areas of the Scottish Highlands and Islands who already use the internet are receptive to the use of digital technology for delivery of diabetes education and are interested in learning more about management of their condition through this medium. They believe that a technology approach will provide them with more control over the pace of learning, and where and when this learning can take place.

  11. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies

    OpenAIRE

    Cavasini, R; Buschini, MLT; Machado, LPB; Mateus, RP

    2014-01-01

    Flies from the Drosophilidae family are model organisms for biological studies and are often suggested as bioindicators of environmental quality. The Araucaria Forest, one of Atlantic Forest phyto-physiognomy, displays a highly fragmented distribution due to the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the drosophilid assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, one a conservation unit (PMA – Parque Municipal das Araucárias) and the...

  12. Cycad diversification and tropical biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rull, V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent unexpected discovery that living Cycadales are not Jurassic-Cretaceous (200– 65 Mya relicts, as all their extant genera began to diversify during the Late Miocene (12 Mya, has challenged a classical evolutionary myth. This brief note shows how this finding may also provide new clues on the shaping of the high tropical biodiversity

    El reciente e inesperado descubrimiento de que las Cycadales actuales no son relictos Jurásico-Cretácicos (200-65 Mya, ya que todos sus géneros iniciaron su diversificación durante el Mioceno Tardío (12 Mya, ha puesto en entredicho un mito evolutivo clásico. En esta nota se expone como este hallazgo puede, además, proporcionar nuevas pistas sobre el origen de la elevada biodiversidad tropical.

  13. Tropical savannas and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Rowland, Lucy M

    2018-05-07

    In the tropics, research, conservation and public attention focus on rain forests, but this neglects that half of the global tropics have a seasonally dry climate. These regions are home to dry forests and savannas (Figures 1 and 2), and are the focus of this Primer. The attention given to rain forests is understandable. Their high species diversity, sheer stature and luxuriance thrill biologists today as much as they did the first explorers in the Age of Discovery. Although dry forest and savanna may make less of a first impression, they support a fascinating diversity of plant strategies to cope with stress and disturbance including fire, drought and herbivory. Savannas played a fundamental role in human evolution, and across Africa and India they support iconic megafauna. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tropical Wetlands as Carbon Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation focuses on the tropical wetlands of sub-Saharan Africa. These are an understudied ecosystem in which large emergent grasses and sedges normally dominate and which have the potential to sequester significant amounts of carbon. Measurements of Net Primary Production of these wetlands show that they are some of the highest values recorded for any ecosystem. We have used eddy covariance to measure Net Ecosystem Exchange of pristine and disturbed wetlands and show that pristine systems can have sink strengths as strong as tropical forests while disturbed systems that have been reclaimed for agricultural purposes have a very much reduced carbon sink activity and may be net carbon sources. The management issues surrounding the use of these wetlands illustrate a direct conflict between the production of food crops for the local population and the maintenance of carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service.

  15. Organic Carbon Stocks, Dynamics and Restoration in Relation to Soils of Agroecosystems in Ethiopia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getaneh Gebeyehu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils represent the largest carbon pool and play important roles for carbon storage for prolonged periods in agroecosystems. A number of studies were conducted to quantify soil organic carbon (SOC worldwide. The objective of this review was to evaluate organic carbon stocks, dynamics and restoration in soils of agroecosystems in Ethiopia. Soil data from 32 different observations, representing four different agroecosystems, were analysed. The mean SOC stocks in the four agroecosystems varied and ranged from 25.66 (sub-humid agroecosystem to 113.17 (humid mid-highland agroecosystems Mg C ha-1 up to one meter depth. The trend of mean SOC followed (in descending order: humid mid-highland (113.17 Mg C ha-1 > per-humid highland (57.14 Mg C ha-1 > semi-arid (25.77 Mg C ha-1 > sub-humid (25.66 Mg C ha-1. Compared with soils of tropical countries, those in Ethiopian agroecosystems contained low SOC storage potential. This might be associated with differences in measurement and analysis methods as 53.1% of the studies employed the Walkley-Black Method, which is known to underestimate carbon stocks in addition to ecological and management effects. However, shifts of land management from rain-fed to irrigation farming systems exhibited progress in the improvement of mean SOC storage potential. The analyses showed that farming systems involving irrigation sequestered more carbon than rain-fed farm systems. The mean SOC in the various agricultural land uses followed the following trend (in descending order: agroforestry (153.57 Mg C ha-1 > grazing land (34.61 Mg C ha-1 > cereal cultivation (24.18 Mg C ha-1. Therefore, the possible solutions for improvement of organic carbon stocks would be implementation of appropriate restoration strategies based on agroecosystems.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 1-22 

  16. Impact of glaciers retreat on highland Andean wetlands and communities: lessons from the upper Cachi catchment (Ayacucho, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Oscar; Biévre Bert, De

    2017-04-01

    The vulnerability of water resources under climate change scenarios in Peru is generally regarded to be connected to a diminished availability of water due to retreating glaciers. However, the impact of glacier retreat goes much beyond a decline of glacial water reserves. This article argues that another important impact is the extreme erosion in areas where glaciers have recently melted, as well as the accumulation of erosion material in highland wetlands located downslope. As a direct consequence of these changes highland Andean communities which depend on these ecosystems are affected in socio-economic terms as they find themselves forced to alter ancestral dynamics and traditional practices of land and water use. This quickly leads to a vicious cycle of risks and threats. In such a context a possibility to adapt to glacial retreat should be to protect areas affected by glacial melt in order to enable a rapid development of protective vegetation cover. In the upper catchment of the Cachi River interesting experiences of protection and water harvesting exist that could be extended to other high vulnerability areas for the benefit of highland populations as well as downstream water users, such as the irrigation system of Cachi and the city of Ayacucho.

  17. The distribution and hydrogeological controls of fluoride in the groundwater of central Ethiopian rift and adjacent highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayenew, Tenalem

    2008-05-01

    Occurrence of fluoride (F) in groundwater has drawn worldwide attention, since it has considerable impact on human health. In Ethiopia high concentrations of F in groundwaters used for community water supply have resulted in extensive dental and skeletal fluorosis. As a part of a broader study, the distribution of F in groundwater has been investigated, and compared with bedrock geology and pertinent hydrochemical variables. The result indicates extreme spatial variations. High F concentration is often associated with active and sub-active regional thermal fields and acidic volcanics within high temperature rift floor. Variations in F can also be related to changes in calcium concentration resulting from dissolution of calcium minerals and mixing with waters of different chemical composition originated from variable hydrogeological environment across the rift valley. The concentration of F dramatically declines from the rift towards the highlands with the exception of scattered points associated with thermal springs confined in local volcanic centers. There are also interactions of F-rich alkaline lakes and the surrounding groundwater. Meteoric waters recharging volcanic aquifers become enriched with respect to F along the groundwater flow path from highland recharge areas to rift discharge areas. Locally wells drilled along large rift faults acting as conduits of fresh highland waters show relatively lower F. These areas are likely to be possible sources of better quality waters within the rift. The result of this study has important implications on site selection for water well drilling.

  18. The ecology of Anopheles mosquitoes under climate change: case studies from the effects of deforestation in East African highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrane, Yaw A; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2012-02-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to latitudinal and altitudinal temperature increases. High-elevation regions such as the highlands of Africa and those that have temperate climate are most likely to be affected. The highlands of Africa generally exhibit low ambient temperatures. This restricts the distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of malaria, filariasis, and O'nyong'nyong fever. The development and survival of larval and adult mosquitoes are temperature dependent, as are mosquito biting frequency and pathogen development rate. Given that various Anopheles species are adapted to different climatic conditions, changes in climate could lead to changes in species composition in an area that may change the dynamics of mosquito-borne disease transmission. It is important to consider the effect of climate change on rainfall, which is critical to the formation and persistence of mosquito breeding sites. In addition, environmental changes such as deforestation could increase local temperatures in the highlands; this could enhance the vectorial capacity of the Anopheles. These experimental data will be invaluable in facilitating the understanding of the impact of climate change on Anopheles. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. The Challenges of Bottom-up Approach of Natural-Social Integration in China Highland Pasture Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Likun

    2017-04-01

    The pasture land covers two fifth of total Chinese land area, which is mainly distributed in western highland of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan Provinces. China pasture land is not only in charge of providing food resource to regional people, but also plays important role in highland ecosystem services and biodiversity. Along with global warming and enhanced grazing activity, 90% of China pasture land is facing the threat of land degradation. From middle 1990's, Chinese government has released a series of pasture land conservation policies to prevent further environmental degradation. In the same time, lots of pasture ecosystem and environment change researches are supported by national and regional funding agencies. In this study, by monitoring and investigating this top-down approach of pasture land research and policy making processes, we would like to find out the gaps and problems of current research and policy making on China pasture land conservation, especially focusing on the possibility of establishing the bottom-up approach of natural-social sciences integration to support the pasture land conservation and sustainable pasture land management in highland China.

  20. Topography and malaria transmission heterogeneity in western Kenya highlands: prospects for focal vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndenga Bryson A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent resurgence of malaria in the highlands of Western Kenya has called for a more comprehensive understanding of the previously neglected complex highland vector ecology. Besides other drivers of malaria epidemiology, topography is likely to have a major effect on spatial vector and parasite distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of topography on malaria spatial vector distribution and parasite prevalence. Methodology Indoor resting adult malaria vectors and blood parasites were collected in three villages along a 4 km transect originating from the valley bottom and ending at the hilltop for 13 months. Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were identified by PCR. Blood parasites were collected from children 6–13 years old and densities categorized by site of home location and age of the children. Results Ninety eight percent (98% of An. gambiae s.s. and (99% Anopheles funestus were collected in houses located at the edge of the valley bottom, whereas 1% of An. gambiae s.s. were collected at mid hill and at the hilltop respectively. No An. funestus were collected at the hilltop. Malaria prevalence was 68% at the valley bottom, 40.2% at mid hill and 26.7% at the hilltop. Children aged six years and living at the edge of the valley bottom had an annual geometric mean number of 66.1 trophozoites for every 200 white blood cells, while those living at mid-hill had a mean of 84.8, and those living at hilltop had 199.5 trophozoites. Conclusion Malaria transmission in this area is mainly confined to the valley bottom. Effective vector control could be targeted at the foci. However, the few vectors observed at mid-hill maintained a relatively high prevalence rate. The higher variability in blood parasite densities and their low correlation with age in children living at the hilltop suggests a lower stability of transmission than at the mid-hill and valley bottom.

  1. Clinical malaria case definition and malaria attributable fraction in the highlands of western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrane, Yaw A; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2014-10-15

    In African highland areas where endemicity of malaria varies greatly according to altitude and topography, parasitaemia accompanied by fever may not be sufficient to define an episode of clinical malaria in endemic areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of malaria interventions, age-specific case definitions of clinical malaria needs to be determined. Cases of clinical malaria through active case surveillance were quantified in a highland area in Kenya and defined clinical malaria for different age groups. A cohort of over 1,800 participants from all age groups was selected randomly from over 350 houses in 10 villages stratified by topography and followed for two-and-a-half years. Participants were visited every two weeks and screened for clinical malaria, defined as an individual with malaria-related symptoms (fever [axillary temperature≥37.5°C], chills, severe malaise, headache or vomiting) at the time of examination or 1-2 days prior to the examination in the presence of a Plasmodium falciparum positive blood smear. Individuals in the same cohort were screened for asymptomatic malaria infection during the low and high malaria transmission seasons. Parasite densities and temperature were used to define clinical malaria by age in the population. The proportion of fevers attributable to malaria was calculated using logistic regression models. Incidence of clinical malaria was highest in valley bottom population (5.0% cases per 1,000 population per year) compared to mid-hill (2.2% cases per 1,000 population per year) and up-hill (1.1% cases per 1,000 population per year) populations. The optimum cut-off parasite densities through the determination of the sensitivity and specificity showed that in children less than five years of age, 500 parasites per μl of blood could be used to define the malaria attributable fever cases for this age group. In children between the ages of 5-14, a parasite density of 1,000 parasites per μl of blood could be used to define the

  2. Evaluation of two methods of estimating larval habitat productivity in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munga Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector intervention and control programs require reliable and accurate information about vector abundance and their seasonal distribution. The availability of reliable information on the spatial and temporal productivity of larval vector habitats can improve targeting of larval control interventions and our understanding of local malaria transmission and epidemics. The main objective of this study was to evaluate two methods of estimating larval habitat productivity in the western Kenyan highlands, the aerial sampler and the emergence trap. Methods The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Aerial samplers and emergence traps were set up for sixty days in each season in three habitat types: drainage ditches, natural swamps, and abandoned goldmines. Aerial samplers and emergence traps were set up in eleven places in each habitat type. The success of each in estimating habitat productivity was assessed according to method, habitat type, and season. The effect of other factors including algae cover, grass cover, habitat depth and width, and habitat water volume on species productivity was analysed using stepwise logistic regression Results Habitat productivity estimates obtained by the two sampling methods differed significantly for all species except for An. implexus. For for An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus, aerial samplers performed better, 21.5 and 14.6 folds, than emergence trap respectively, while the emergence trap was shown to be more efficient for culicine species. Seasonality had a significant influence on the productivity of all species monitored. Dry season was most productive season. Overall, drainage ditches had significantly higher productivity in all seasons compared to other habitat types. Algae cover, debris, chlorophyll-a, and habitat depth and size had significant influence with respect to species. Conclusion These findings suggest that the aerial sampler is the

  3. Chemoprophylaxis of Tropical Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. H. McBride

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Travelers to tropical countries are at risk for a variety of infectious diseases. In some cases effective vaccinations are available, but for other infections chemoprophylaxis can be offered. Malaria prevention has become increasingly complex as Plasmodium species become resistant to available drugs. In certain high risk settings, antibiotics can be used to prevent leptospirosis, scrub typhus and other infections. Post-exposure prophylaxis is appropriate for selected virulent infections. In this article the evidence for chemoprophylaxis will be reviewed.

  4. Lagrangian cobordism and tropical curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, Nick; Smith, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    We study a cylindrical Lagrangian cobordism group for Lagrangian torus fibres in symplectic manifolds which are the total spaces of smooth Lagrangian torus fibrations. We use ideas from family Floer theory and tropical geometry to obtain both obstructions to and constructions of cobordisms; in particular, we give examples of symplectic tori in which the cobordism group has no non-trivial cobordism relations between pairwise distinct fibres, and ones in which the degree zero fibre cobordism gr...

  5. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Solomon; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Teklu, Takele; Mengesha, Tesfaye; Petros, Beyene

    2011-06-07

    In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December) showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082) (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7%) malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0%) of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5%) were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6%) of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3%) of males and 23(2.1%) of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3%) and 10 (2.7%) of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l) and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l), respectively which was statistically significant (X2=3.72, P0.05). The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3%) and in the second (35.4%) surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%). The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3%) than Misrak-Meskan (41.7%) (Prisk of malaria and its control programme in the area must be given adequate attention to minimize potential epidemics. In addition, the current study should be

  6. Fermentation of enset (Ensete ventricosum) in the Gamo highlands of Ethiopia: Physicochemical and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andeta, A F; Vandeweyer, D; Woldesenbet, F; Eshetu, F; Hailemicael, A; Woldeyes, F; Crauwels, S; Lievens, B; Ceusters, J; Vancampenhout, K; Van Campenhout, L

    2018-08-01

    Enset (Ensete ventricosum) provides staple food for 15 million people in Ethiopia after fermentation into kocho. The fermentation process has hardly been investigated and is prone to optimization. The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and microbial dynamics of fermentation practices in the Gamo highlands. These practices show local variation, but two steps were omnipresent: scraping of the pseudostem and fermenting it in a pit or a bamboo basket. Enset plants were fragmented and fermented for two months in order to investigate the physicochemical (temperature, moisture content, pH and titratable acidity) and microbial dynamics (total viable aerobic counts, counts of Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds and Clostridium spores counts, and Illumina Miseq sequencing). Samples were taken on days 1, 7, 15, 17, 31 and 60. The pH decreased, whereas the titratable acidity increased during fermentation. Of all counts those of lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium spores increased during fermentation. Leuconostoc mesenteroides initiated the fermentation. Later on, Prevotella paludivivens, Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium minimum dominated. These three species are potential candidates for the development of a starter culture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Livestock Predation by Puma (Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma (Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33% of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26% suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19% stated that there was no appropriate action, 17% favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51%), followed by cattle (28%), sheep (17%), and goats (4%); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4% of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  8. Hydro-chemical cycle of forest ecosystem in the Norikura Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Michiko; Nara, Maiko; Asari, Tomoko; Suzuki, Keisuke

    Because of precipitation serves as a major vehicle of nutrient input into the forest ecosystem, the accurate measurement of its volume and ion concentration is of prime importance in an evaluation of any bio-geochemical cycle. Therefore, chemistry of the precipitation and throughfall of forest ecosystem was investigated in the Norikura Highlands. The investigation period was from January, 2003 to October, 2006. The throughfall volume in growing season and dormant season were 86 % and 93 % of the precipitation volume. Throughfall pH increased with increasing K+ concentration showed that H+ was held within the canopy by cation exchange reaction. And the concentration level of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in the throughfall was much higher than that in the precipitation. It was the cause of canopy leaching. In growing season, proportions of canopy leaching of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were 95 %, 70 % and 43 % of the throughfall deposition respectively. At Coniferous site, the flux of dry deposition was higher in dormant season than growing season. It is suggested that aerosol of the atmosphere and leaf area might be influenced.

  9. Comparison pesticide residue levels in the surface of Bertam River in Cameron Highlands, Pahang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haron, S. H., E-mail: ismail@ukm.edu.my; Ismail, B. S., E-mail: sthumaira@yahoo.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The presence of pesticide residues in the surface water of Bertam River in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Malaysia was monitored from May to October 2014. The sampling sites were located at 10 sampling points along the Bertam River in the vegetable planting areas. The extraction method of the pesticide (organophosphate/pyrethroid) from the river samples used solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography (with electron capture detector, ECD). Insecticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the surface water of Bertam River. High level concentrations of those insecticides in the river were observed during the period from May to October 2014, a period which included both seasons (wet and dry seasons). The highest concentration of 2.66 µg/mL and 1.23 µg/mL of cypermethrin was observed during the wet and dry seasons respectively. This could be due to the frequent usage of the above-mentioned insecticides coupled with contamination that could have originated from the application sites. Meanwhile, the lowest concentration detected in the surface water was chlorpyrifos (0.11 µg/mL and 0.17 µg/mL) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively.

  10. Application of Geomorphologic Factors for Identifying Soil Loss in Vulnerable Regions of the Cameron Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahhoong Kok

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to propose a methodology for identifying vulnerable regions in the Cameron Highlands that are susceptible to soil loss, based on runoff aggregation structure and the energy expenditure pattern of the natural river basin, within the framework of power law distribution. To this end, three geomorphologic factors, namely shear stress and stream power, as well as the drainage area of every point in the basin of interest, have been extracted using GIS, and then their complementary cumulative distributions are graphically analyzed by fitting them to power law distribution, with the purpose of identifying the sensitive points within the basin that are susceptible to soil loss with respect to scaling regimes of shear stress and stream power. It is observed that the range of vulnerable regions by the scaling regime of shear stress is much narrower than by the scaling regime of stream power. This result seems to suggest that shear stress is a scale-dependent factor, which does not follow power law distribution and does not adequately reflect the energy expenditure pattern of a river basin. Therefore, stream power is preferred as a more reasonable factor for the evaluation of soil loss. The methodology proposed in this study can be validated by visualizing the path of soil loss, which is generated from the hillslope process (characterized by the local slope to the valley through a fluvial process (characterized by the drainage area as well as the local slope.

  11. AGROECOSYSTEMS OF FAMILIAR ORCHARDS AT SUBTROPICAL MEXICAN HIGHLANDS. A SYSTEMIC VISION

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    Jesús Gastón Gutiérrez Cedillo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to evaluate the traditional knowledge applied at agroecosystems of familiar orchards in San Nicolas, at southwest of the State of Mexico, in the Subtropical Central Highlands of Mexico generated by the Balsas River Depression; the selection of properties and informers was by means of intention. Were analyzed fourteen systems between march 2011 and april 2012.  Was elaborated the geographic, phyto geographic and agro ecological characterizations; the geographic characterization included physical, biotic and socio cultural aspects, mean by photo interpretation, localization through global positional systems, analysis of social statistics, in field observation about cultural outlines and elaboration of digital cartography. Related to phyto geographic characterization, was realized a floristically inventory, that included from de approach of Ethnobotanics the management and functionality of vegetal resources employed at the familiar orchards agroecosystems, based on the local inhabitants traditional knowledge; were realized collections of wild and cultivated botanical specimens. The agro ecological characterization was elaborated mean by in field work and interviews realized to the terrains owners, the obtained information was processed by means of data bases. The theoretical basis of the study was sustained on Agroecology, Cultural Ecology and Ethno botanical. These allows to evaluate the ecological importance, and to determinate the cultural and socioeconomic impacts of the familiar agroecosystems from a systemic point of view.

  12. Comparison pesticide residue levels in the surface of Bertam River in Cameron Highlands, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haron, S. H.; Ismail, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in the surface water of Bertam River in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Malaysia was monitored from May to October 2014. The sampling sites were located at 10 sampling points along the Bertam River in the vegetable planting areas. The extraction method of the pesticide (organophosphate/pyrethroid) from the river samples used solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography (with electron capture detector, ECD). Insecticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the surface water of Bertam River. High level concentrations of those insecticides in the river were observed during the period from May to October 2014, a period which included both seasons (wet and dry seasons). The highest concentration of 2.66 µg/mL and 1.23 µg/mL of cypermethrin was observed during the wet and dry seasons respectively. This could be due to the frequent usage of the above-mentioned insecticides coupled with contamination that could have originated from the application sites. Meanwhile, the lowest concentration detected in the surface water was chlorpyrifos (0.11 µg/mL and 0.17 µg/mL) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively

  13. Field Plot Techniques for Black Sigatoka Evaluation in East African Highland Bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro, JU.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of plants per experimental unit and number of replications for the efficient and precise assessment of black sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis in East African Highland bananas were determined. Two representative cultivars were used. Host response to black sigatoka infection was measured by recording the youngest leaf with necrotic spots. The number of plants per experimental unit was determined, using the methods of maximum curvature and comparison of variances, while the number of replications was estimated by Hatheway's method. The optimum experimental plot size was 3 plants (18 m2 for the beer banana cultivar 'Igitsiri', and 30 plants (180 m2 for the cooking banana cultivar 'Igisahira Gisanzwe', using the comparison of variances method. However, the optimum plot size was 15 plants (90 m2 for both cultivars using the method of maximum curvature. The latter statistical method was preferred because of the low precision of the estimates in the former method. Unreplicated trials with plots of 15 plants could be adequate to assess black sigatoka response in East African bananas if uniform disease pressure exists.

  14. Assessment of 137Cs Activity Concentration in Soil from Tea Plantation Areas in Cameron Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Seh Datul Riduan; Che Yasmin Amirudin

    2012-01-01

    137 Cs is well known man-made radionuclide produced from nuclear industry. Nuclear weapon tests and nuclear accidents had contributed to presence of 137 Cs into the worldwide environment including Malaysia. It has spread out to the entire world through the air and water current. Since Cameron Highlands is located at high altitude, there is a better chance of the 137 Cs to settle down on the trees and later the soil underneath. In this study, the soil samples were taken at the slopes of two different tea plantation areas namely A and B. The soil samples were oven dried, ground, sieved and packed and sealed properly in plastic containers before measurement. Each plastic container contains around 450 g of sample. The measurement of 137 Cs activity concentration was done using HPGe detector gamma spectrometer. The spectrum was analyzed using Gamma Vision software to calculate the activity concentration of 137 Cs with energy peak of 661.66 keV. The activity concentration of 137 Cs found in the samples ranged from 0.23 to 1.90 and 0.11 to 3.01 Bq/ kg for tea plantation A and tea plantation B, respectively. From the activity concentration of 137 Cs result, it was comparable to the others research regarding to 137 Cs in the soil around Asian. (Author)

  15. Territorial approach to increased energy consumption of water extraction from depletion of a highlands Mexican aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Esteller, María Vicenta; Díaz-Delgado, Carlos

    2013-10-15

    This work proposes a method to estimate increased energy consumption of pumping caused by a drawdown of groundwater level and the equivalent energy consumption of the motor-pump system in an aquifer under intensive exploitation. This method has been applied to the Valley of Toluca aquifer, located in the Mexican highlands, whose intensive exploitation is reflected in a decline in the groundwater level of between 0.10 and 1.6 m/year. Results provide a summary of energy consumption and a map of energy consumption isopleths showing the areas that are most susceptible to increases in energy consumption due to pumping. The proposed method can be used to estimate the effect of the intensive exploitation of the Valley of Toluca aquifer on the energy consumption of groundwater extraction. Finding reveals that, for the year 2006, groundwater extraction in the urban zone required 2.39 times more energy than the conditions observed 38 years earlier. In monetary terms, this reflects an increase of USD$ 3 million annually, according to 2005 energy production costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pacopampa: Early evidence of violence at a ceremonial site in the northern Peruvian highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Tomohito; Uzawa, Kazuhiro; Seki, Yuji; Morales Chocano, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Pacopampa, a ceremonial complex in Peru's northern highlands, reveals early evidence of trauma in the Middle to Late Formative Period coinciding with the emergence of social stratification in the area. We examine the prevalence of trauma in human remains found at the site and present evidence of the circumstances surrounding the deaths of individuals who lived during the early stages of Andean civilization. The materials are the remains of 104 individuals (38 non-adult and 66 adult) from the Middle to Late Formative Periods. We explored trauma macroscopically and recorded patterns based on skeletons' locations, age at death, sex, social class, and chronology. We detected trauma in remains over the Middle to Late Formative Periods. While the prevalence of trauma was minimal in the Middle Formative Period, skeletons from the subsequent era exhibit more severe disturbances. However, all the skeletons show signs of healing and affected individuals experienced a low degree of trauma. Given the archaeological context (the remains were recovered from sites of ceremonial practices), as well as the equal distribution of trauma among both sexes and a lack of defensive architecture, it is plausible that rituals, rather than organized warfare or raids, caused most of the exhibited trauma. Pacopampa was home to a complex society founded on ritual activity in a ceremonial center: this is indicated by the presence of ritual violence in a society that built impressively large, ceremonial architecture and developed social stratification without any political control of surplus agricultural goods.

  17. ASSESSING THE NATURAL REGENERATION OF THREE SPECIES CONIFER NATURAL RANGE IN THE WESTERN HIGHLANDS OF GUATEMALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Miguel Godínez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coniferous forests of the western highlands of Guatemala have been disturbed by human intervention and natural phenomena, which has allowed the occurrence of the phenomenon of natural regeneration. In this scenario the density of natural regeneration of conifers three species evaluated (Pinus oocarpa Schiede, P. pseudostrobus Lindl. and P. tecunumanii Eguiluz & Perry in 60 sites distributed in space and clear edge. The variables evaluated were the source of disturbance that caused its establishment, density variation of the source of seed and distance estimation range scattering adequate regeneration, using sampling units of 25 m2 for natural regeneration and 500 m2 seed source trees. Disturbance sources identified were logging 55%, 24% forest fires, pests 8%, agriculture, avalanche 5% each and hurricane 3%. The variation of the density of natural regeneration on the seed source, corresponds to the inverted J models for edges, and to clear variable subpopulations. Dispersal distances of natural regeneration was established for P.oocarpa 65 m in edges, and 160 m in the clears; P. pseudostrobus 75 m in edges, and 175 m in the clears; and P. tecunumanii was 70 m in edges, and 170 m in the clears. Dispersal distances with acceptable densities according National Forestry Institute-Regional Forestry Programme for Central American, for the three species vary from 65-175 m

  18. The key role of patrilineal inheritance in shaping the genetic variation of Dagestan highlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caciagli, Laura; Bulayeva, Kazima; Bulayev, Oleg; Bertoncini, Stefania; Taglioli, Luca; Pagani, Luca; Paoli, Giorgio; Tofanelli, Sergio

    2009-12-01

    The Caucasus region is a complex cultural and ethnic mosaic, comprising populations that speak Caucasian, Indo-European and Altaic languages. Isolated mountain villages (auls) in Dagestan still preserve high level of genetic and cultural diversity and have patriarchal societies with a long history of isolation. The aim of this study was to understand the genetic history of five Dagestan highland auls with distinct ethnic affiliation (Avars, Chechens-Akkins, Kubachians, Laks, Tabasarans) using markers on the male-specific region of the Y chromosome. The groups analyzed here are all Muslims but speak different languages all belonging to the Nakh-Dagestanian linguistic family. The results show that the Dagestan ethnic groups share a common Y-genetic background, with deep-rooted genealogies and rare alleles, dating back to an early phase in the post-glacial recolonization of Europe. Geography and stochastic factors, such as founder effect and long-term genetic drift, driven by the rigid structuring of societies in groups of patrilineal descent, most likely acted as mutually reinforcing key factors in determining the high degree of Y-genetic divergence among these ethnic groups.

  19. The Artisanal Production of Pulque, a Traditional Beverage of the Mexican Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Bravo-Villa, Griselda; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Velasco-Almendarez, Sandra I; Montville, Thomas J

    2012-06-01

    Pulque is a traditional fermented alcoholic, acidic, viscous drink of the Mexican central highlands. Its production from the "aguamiel" (sap) of agave plants dates back ~1,500 years and continues to be made by artisanal methods. However, the variability of pulque's quality and its instability hamper its widespread distribution and consumption. Microbiological surveys of pulque from three ranches revealed tremendous variability in the types and quantity of the indigenous microbiota. The population of lactic acid bacteria ranged from 6 × 10(7) to 2 × 10(11) CFU/mL. This variability might be attributed to the conditions on the ranches where the pulque was made. In an attempt to identify these sources of variability, the microbial populations of aguamiel and pulque from a single agave plant were determined. Surprisingly, the population size of the "unfermented" aguamiel and the pulque converged by the end of 3 weeks. The potential use of bacteriocinogenic LAB and known starter cultures to improve pulque properties are discussed.

  20. The Sustainability of Community-Based Adaptation Projects in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay Simane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate resilience in subsistence agricultural communities depends strongly on the robustness and effective management of the agricultural natural resource base. For this reason, adaptation planning efforts frequently focus on natural resource conservation as the primary motivation for and primary outcome of adaptation activities. Here, we present an analysis of the sustainability of community based adaptation (CBA activities in 20 community based organizations (CBO that were established in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia in order to promote resilience to climate change. CBA sustainability was assessed through multi-criteria analysis using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Sustainability was considered for social, institutional, technical, financial, and environmental dimensions, with second-order indicators or factors defined for each dimension. According to this analysis, CBA efforts of two thirds of the COBs studied were found to be unsustainable in all dimensions and CBA efforts of the remaining CBOs were found to be at risk of unsustainability. A number of barriers to CBA sustainability were identified, including inadequacies in community participation, training of local community members, local government commitment, farmer capacity, and bureaucratic efficiency. Participatory evaluation of CBA, however, revealed that many of these barriers can be attributed to the decision to use conservation of natural resources as the primary framework for CBA activities. Based on this evaluation, new efforts have been developed that use markets as the entry and exit points for sustainability activities. Lessons learned in this project are relevant for CBA efforts in other agricultural regions of the developing world.

  1. Precipitation, flood- and groundwaters of the Negev highlands. An isotopic study of desert hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.; Issar, A.

    1980-01-01

    Precipitation in the Negev highlands was found to be surprisingly depleted of 18 O and deuterium and generally characterized by ''deuterium excess'' values of d>15per mille. Isotopic compositions are relatively uniform over a wide area on any particular day, but differ appreciably from storm to storm. Thus, they are valuable tools for hydrographic analysis of flood-flows. Flood-flow samples, collected in Nahal-Zin and Nahal-Besor, were often even more depleted in heavy isotopes than the total rainstorm, indicating that run-off is generated selectively by high-intensity rains. The initial rush of the flood flushed away the surface salinity and saline accumulations in surface pools, but apparently does not involve sub-surface salinity to any great extent. Recharge to groundwater appears to be accompanied by a slight evaporative enrichment of the isotopes, more so in the case of waters recharged from flood-flows. Environmental tritium can be used as an indicator of direct flood-water contributions to the aquifers. (author)

  2. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over mountainous region of Cameron Highlands- Batang Padang Catchment of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, L. M.; Mohd Nor, M. D.; Rakhecha, P. R.; Basri, H.; Jayothisa, W.; Muda, R. S.; Ahmad, M. N.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2013-06-01

    The Cameron Highland Batang Padang (CHBP) catchment situated on the main mountain range of Peninsular Malaysia is of large economical importance where currently a series of three dams (Sultan Abu Bakar, Jor and Mahang) exist in the development of water resources and hydropower. The prediction of the design storm rainfall values for different return periods including PMP values can be useful to review the adequacy of the current spillway capacities of these dams. In this paper estimates of the design storm rainfalls for various return periods and also the PMP values for rainfall stations in the CHBP catchment have been computed for the three different durations of 1, 3 & 5 days. The maximum values for 1 day, 3 days and 5 days PMP values are found to be 730.08mm, 966.17mm and 969.0mm respectively at Station number 4513033 Gunung Brinchang. The PMP values obtained were compared with previous study results undertaken by NAHRIM. However, the highest ratio of 1 day, 3 day and 5 day PMP to highest observed rainfall are found to be 2.30, 1.94 and 1.82 respectively. This shows that the ratio tend to decrease as the duration increase. Finally, the temporal pattern for 1 day, 3day and 5 days have been developed based on observed extreme rainfall at station 4513033 Gunung Brinchang for the generation of Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) in dam break analysis.

  3. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) over mountainous region of Cameron Highlands- Batang Padang Catchment of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek, L M; Basri, H; Jayothisa, W; Nor, M D Mohd; Rakhecha, P R; Muda, R S; Ahmad, M N; Razad, A Z Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The Cameron Highland Batang Padang (CHBP) catchment situated on the main mountain range of Peninsular Malaysia is of large economical importance where currently a series of three dams (Sultan Abu Bakar, Jor and Mahang) exist in the development of water resources and hydropower. The prediction of the design storm rainfall values for different return periods including PMP values can be useful to review the adequacy of the current spillway capacities of these dams. In this paper estimates of the design storm rainfalls for various return periods and also the PMP values for rainfall stations in the CHBP catchment have been computed for the three different durations of 1, 3 and 5 days. The maximum values for 1 day, 3 days and 5 days PMP values are found to be 730.08mm, 966.17mm and 969.0mm respectively at Station number 4513033 Gunung Brinchang. The PMP values obtained were compared with previous study results undertaken by NAHRIM. However, the highest ratio of 1 day, 3 day and 5 day PMP to highest observed rainfall are found to be 2.30, 1.94 and 1.82 respectively. This shows that the ratio tend to decrease as the duration increase. Finally, the temporal pattern for 1 day, 3day and 5 days have been developed based on observed extreme rainfall at station 4513033 Gunung Brinchang for the generation of Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) in dam break analysis.

  4. Bee pollen as non-wood forest product in the eastern Andean highlands of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín José Chamorro García

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Andean forests of the Eastern Andean high-lands of Colombia have a high conservation priority given the vulnerable condition of species such as Quercus humboldtii (Fagaceae that inhabit these ecosystems. Beekeeping is regarded as an alternative activity that could play a role in the conservation of Andean forests, but little is known about how the floras of these ecosystems contribute to honey and bee pollen production. We analyzed the contribution of Andean forests to bee pollen production, given the productive potential and commercial importance of this product. Pollen analyses were performed on 25 samples from apiaries near Andean forests located in the states of Cundinamarca, Boyacá and Santander. We found that Q. humboldtii is an important source of pollen with high potential for monofloral bee pollen production. In addition, bees collect pollen from other Andean forests species such as Weinmannia tomentosa, Viburnum spp. and Morella spp. Utilization of bee pollen could lead to incentives to carry out forest conservation practices through beekeeping management.

  5. Changes in farmers' knowledge of maize diversity in highland Guatemala, 1927/37-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Etten Jacob

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Small-scale studies on long-term change in agricultural knowledge might uncover insights with broader, regional implications. This article evaluates change in farmer knowledge about crop genetic resources in highland Guatemala between 1927/37 and 2004. It concentrates on maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L. in one Guatemalan township, Jacaltenango, an area with much ecological and maize diversity. It relies on a particular type of baseline information: lists of farmer-defined cultivars drawn up by ethnographers in the first half of the twentieth century. A questionnaire format based on two independent lists of local farmer cultivars dating from 1927 and 1937 was used to assess changes in maize diversity. Comparisons between attributes given to each cultivar in the past and in 2004 were used as a partial test of the stability of cultivar identity. In farmers' perceptions, cultivar loss was low and limited to certain cultivars adapted to the warmer environments. Crop production problems were mentioned as the main motives for change. No evidence for a loss of cultivars due to the political violence of the 1980s was found. In the lower areas many newly introduced cultivars were found, which reportedly provide solutions for the production problems the older cultivars have. The article contrasts these findings with those of an earlier study which suggested much cultivar loss due to political violence, and draws conclusions about the methodological implications.

  6. A distinction between summer rainy season and summer monsoon season over the Central Highlands of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Thanh, Huong; Ngo-Duc, Thanh; Nguyen-Hong, Hanh; Baker, Peter; Phan-Van, Tan

    2018-05-01

    The daily rainfall data at 13 stations over the Central Highlands (CH) Vietnam were collected for the period 1981-2014. Two different sets of criteria using daily observed rainfall and 850 hPa daily reanalysis wind data were applied to determine the onset (retreat) dates of the summer rainy season (RS) and summer monsoon (SM) season, respectively. Over the study period, the mean RS and SM onset dates were April 20 and May 13 with standard deviations of 17.4 and 17.8 days, respectively. The mean RS and SM retreat dates were November 1 and September 30 with standard deviations of 17.9 and 10.2 days, respectively . The year-to-year variations of the onset dates and the rainfall amount within the RS and SM season were closely linked with the preceding winter and spring sea surface temperature in the central-eastern and western Pacific. It was also found that the onset dates were significantly correlated with the RS and SM rainfall amount.

  7. The extraosseal intrathoracic radiopaque bone cyst in West Highland White Terrier – a case report

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    Valent Ledecký

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report was to present a clinical case and diagnostics of intrathoracic bone cyst as well as successful outcome of the surgical treatment in a male, 3-year-old West Highland White Terrier dog, weighing 6.9 kg. The dog was admitted in a very poor condition with clinical signs of severe dyspnoea that developed during about one month period of time before admission to our clinic. The dog underwent physical examination and further examinations including radiological examination which revealed a radiopaque mass formation in the cranial mediastinum. Ultrasonographic examination showed the presence of fluid; following thoracentesis revealed pseudochylous fluid. The bone cyst was surgically removed and more than 10 months after surgery the dog’s health was very good without any difficulties. Bone cysts in dogs are infrequent; this was the first case at our clinic and presented a successful treatment.

  8. Seroepidemiologic survey of cysticercosis-taeniasis in four central highland districts of Papua, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Lidwina; Ang, Agnes; Handali, Sukwan; Tsang, Victor C W

    2009-03-01

    Cysticercosis and taeniasis are known to be present in Papua, Indonesia. Several small studies have found a high prevalence of cysticercosis (23.5-56.9%) in the central highlands of Papua. A seroepidemiologic survey was carried out in four districts (Jayawijaya, Paniai, Pegunungan Bintang, and Puncak Jaya) of Papua. Anti-cysticercosis and anti-taeniasis antibodies were measured in 2,931 people using recombinant T24 and recombinant ES33 as a measure of cysticercosis and taeniasis exposures, respectively. Prevalence of cysticercosis-taeniasis is high in the Jayawijaya and Paniai districts (20.8% and 29.2% for cysticercosis and 7% and 9.6% for taeniasis, respectively) and lowest in the other two districts (Pegunungan Bintang and Puncak Jaya) (2% and 2% for cysticercosis and 1.7% and 10.7% for taeniasis, respectively). Our data show that the prevalence of cysticercosis and taeniasis are unchanged from that reported nearly 35 years ago at the beginning of cysticercosis-taeniasis epidemics in Papua, Indonesia.

  9. IMPACT OF AGROFORESTRY PARKLAND SYSTEM ON MAIZE PRODUCTIVITY BY SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN EASTERN HIGHLANDS OF KENYA

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    Elton Ndlovu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried on farms at Kyeni South in Eastern highlands of Kenya. The purpose of this study was to investigate on the effects of identified common tree species on growth and yield of maize on farms. The selected tree species found to be prevalently growing on farms were Croton macrostachyus Hochst. Ex Delile, Cordia africana Lam. and Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. Growth in basal diameter, height, leaf chlorophyll content and final grain yield was assessed on maize plants selected from the plots under the trees and control plots (away from trees. The maize plants in G. robusta plots had significantly lower mean basal diameter of 1.67 cm at 6 weeks after crop emergence (WACE and 1.96 cm at 9 WACE. No significant differences were observed in plant height in plots under different tree species. Significant suppression of chlorophyll development in maize (indicated by SPAD readings was observed in all the plots under the identified tree species at 6 WACE (P < 0.01. G. robusta plots had significantly lower grain yield of 1.57 t ha-1 compared to the control plots that had the highest mean yield of 2.21 t ha-1. Proper crown management is necessary in agroforestry systems.

  10. Volatile sulfur compounds in tropical fruits

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    Robert J. Cannon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods

  11. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Mächtle, B.; Schäbitz, F.; Wennrich, V.; Reindel, M.; Eitel, B.

    2015-01-01

    High-altitude peatlands of the Andes still remain relatively unexploited although they offer an excellent opportunity for well-dated palaeoenvironmental records. To improve knowledge about climatic and environmental changes in the western Andes of southern Peru, we present a high-resolution record of the Cerro Llamoca peatland for the last 8600 years. The 10.5 m long core consists of peat and intercalated sediment layers and was examined for all kinds of microfossils. We chose homogeneous peat sections for pollen analysis at decadal to centennial resolution. The inorganic geochemistry was analysed in 2 mm resolution (corresponding >2 years) using an ITRAX X-ray fluorescence core scanner. We interpret phases of relatively high abundances of Poaceae pollen in our record as an expansion of Andean grasslands during humid phases. Drier conditions are indicated by a significant decrease of Poaceae pollen and higher abundances of Asteraceae pollen. The results are substantiated by changes in arsenic contents and manganese/iron ratios, which turned out to be applicable proxies for in situ palaeoredox conditions. The mid-Holocene period of 8.6-5.6 ka is characterised by a series of episodic dry spells alternating with spells that are more humid. After a pronounced dry period at 4.6-4.2 ka, conditions generally shifted towards a more humid climate. We stress a humid/relatively stable interval between 1.8 and 1.2 ka, which coincides with the florescence of the Nasca culture in the Andean foothills. An abrupt turn to a sustained dry period occurs at 1.2 ka, which is contemporaneous with the demise of the Nasca/Wari society in the Palpa lowlands. Markedly drier conditions prevail until 0.75 ka, providing evidence of the presence of a Medieval Climate Anomaly. Moister but hydrologically highly variable conditions prevailed again after 0.75 ka, which allowed re-expansion of tussock grasses in the highlands, increased discharge into the Andean foreland and resettling of the

  12. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

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    Ceccon Eliane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

  13. Further characterization of computed tomographic and clinical features for staging and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in West Highland white terriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Florence; Handel, Ian; Hammond, Gawain; King, Lesley G; Corcoran, Brendan M; Schwarz, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology resulting in progressive interstitial fibrosis, with a known predilection in West Highland white terriers. In humans, computed tomography (CT) is a standard method for providing diagnostic and prognostic information, and plays a major role in the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis staging process. Objectives of this retrospective, analytical, cross-sectional study were to establish descriptive criteria for reporting CT findings and test correlations among CT, clinical findings and survival time in West Highland white terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Inclusion criteria for affected West Highland white terriers were a diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and available CT, bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, echocardiography, and routine blood analysis findings. Clinically normal West Highland white terriers were recruited for the control group. Survival times were recorded for affected dogs. The main CT lung pattern and clinical data were blindly and separately graded as mild, moderate, or severe. Twenty-one West Highland white terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 11 control West Highland white terriers were included. The severity of pulmonary CT findings was positively correlated with severity of clinical signs (ρ = 0.48, P = 0.029) and negatively associated with survival time after diagnosis (ρ = -0.56, P = 0.025). Affected dogs had higher lung attenuation (median: -563 Hounsfield Units (HU)) than control dogs (median: -761 HU), (P idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in West Highland white terriers and providing prognostic information for owners. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  14. Huracanes y biodiversidad costera tropical

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    Sergio I Salazar-Vallejo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available La biodiversidad costera tropical ha sido modulada por las tormentas y huracanes durante mucho tiempo y en nuestros días también está sujeta a severas presiones por actividades antropogénicas. El objetivo de esta revisión fue el compilar la información disponible para mejorar nuestra comprensión sobre el impacto de los huracanes y tratar de incentivar el establecimiento de monitoreos de los cambios del paisaje costero, ya que es la mejor forma de evaluar los impactos de estas tormentas. Aunque el impacto de los ciclones resiste generalizaciones amplias, se incluyen aspectos sobre dinámica histórica y asociación con eventos temporales y se detallan los efectos por resuspensión y traslado de sedimentos, impacto del oleaje y fragmentación de organismos del arrecife coralino. También se presentan brevemente algunos efectos sobre tortugas marinas y bosques costerosTropical coastal biodiversity has been modulated by tropical storms during a long time and it is currently facing a heavy human impact. The purpose of this review is to compile the available information to improve our understanding of hurricane impacts and to promote the establishment of coastal landscape monitoring, because that is the best way to assess these impacts. Although generalizations on hurricane effects are elusive, some historical dynamics and temporal relationships are included and some details are presented on the impacts by resuspension and movement of sediments, storm waves, and breaking off of coral reef organisms. Some effects on marine turtles and coastal forests are also briefly pointed out

  15. Nuclear medicine in tropical diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Francisco Jose Hossri Nogueira

    2002-01-01

    Tropical diseases affect more people in the world than any other kind of disease, but scintigraphic data on that matter are not so frequent in the literature. Since the geographic regions where such diseases occur are normally very poor, scintillation cameras may not be available. We present a resumed summary of part of what has been done on this subject to-date. Leprosy affects circa 12 million people worldwide and has already been studied by means of the following scintigraphic exams: gallium-67, 99mTc-MDP or HMDP, 99mTc-colloid or Dextran, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-WBC. Paracoccidioidomycosis is a deep mycosis and such cases may be evaluated by means of gallium-67, bone scintigraphy, lymphoscintigraphy, hepato-biliary, bone marrow and liver/spleen scintigraphies. Mycetoma is bone and soft tissue mycosis and gallium-67 and bone studies are very useful in the evaluation of such cases. Tuberculosis is the most well studied tropical disease and dozens of radiopharmaceuticals and techniques were described to evaluate such patients. Jorge Lobo disease is a rare mycosis that affects mainly indians from the Amazon region and gallium-67 was shown to accumulate in active disease. Neurocysticercosis is spread worldwide and brain SPECT (99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO) is a very good tool for the functional evaluation of the disease. Patients suffering from cutaneous and mucous leishmaniasis may benefit from gallium-67 scintigraphy. Chagas disease may affect the heart and or the digestive tract and several scintigraphic exams may be helpful in the evaluation of such cases (gated blood pool, heart perfusions tests, pharyngeal transit tests, gastric emptying tests, intestinal transit tests, hepato-biliary scintigraphy, among others). Scintigraphy should be more largely used in the functional evaluation of organs and systems of patients affected y tropical diseases. It is a powerful tool to evaluate both the extent of disease and the efficacy of therapy. (author)

  16. Nuclear medicine in tropical diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Francisco Jose Hossri Nogueira [Centro Oncologico da Regiao de Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: fjbraga@dfm.ffclrp.usp.br

    2002-09-01

    Tropical diseases affect more people in the world than any other kind of disease, but scintigraphic data on that matter are not so frequent in the literature. Since the geographic regions where such diseases occur are normally very poor, scintillation cameras may not be available. We present a resumed summary of part of what has been done on this subject to-date. Leprosy affects circa 12 million people worldwide and has already been studied by means of the following scintigraphic exams: gallium-67, 99mTc-MDP or HMDP, 99mTc-colloid or Dextran, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-WBC. Paracoccidioidomycosis is a deep mycosis and such cases may be evaluated by means of gallium-67, bone scintigraphy, lymphoscintigraphy, hepato-biliary, bone marrow and liver/spleen scintigraphies. Mycetoma is bone and soft tissue mycosis and gallium-67 and bone studies are very useful in the evaluation of such cases. Tuberculosis is the most well studied tropical disease and dozens of radiopharmaceuticals and techniques were described to evaluate such patients. Jorge Lobo disease is a rare mycosis that affects mainly indians from the Amazon region and gallium-67 was shown to accumulate in active disease. Neurocysticercosis is spread worldwide and brain SPECT (99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO) is a very good tool for the functional evaluation of the disease. Patients suffering from cutaneous and mucous leishmaniasis may benefit from gallium-67 scintigraphy. Chagas disease may affect the heart and or the digestive tract and several scintigraphic exams may be helpful in the evaluation of such cases (gated blood pool, heart perfusions tests, pharyngeal transit tests, gastric emptying tests, intestinal transit tests, hepato-biliary scintigraphy, among others). Scintigraphy should be more largely used in the functional evaluation of organs and systems of patients affected y tropical diseases. It is a powerful tool to evaluate both the extent of disease and the efficacy of therapy. (author)

  17. Tropical geometry of statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Lior; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2004-11-16

    This article presents a unified mathematical framework for inference in graphical models, building on the observation that graphical models are algebraic varieties. From this geometric viewpoint, observations generated from a model are coordinates of a point in the variety, and the sum-product algorithm is an efficient tool for evaluating specific coordinates. Here, we address the question of how the solutions to various inference problems depend on the model parameters. The proposed answer is expressed in terms of tropical algebraic geometry. The Newton polytope of a statistical model plays a key role. Our results are applied to the hidden Markov model and the general Markov model on a binary tree.

  18. Interpretations of education about gene-environment influences on health in rural Ethiopia: the context of a neglected tropical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tora, Abebayehu; Ayode, Desta; Tadele, Getnet; Farrell, David; Davey, Gail; McBride, Colleen M

    2016-07-01

    Misunderstandings of the role of genetics in disease development are associated with stigmatizing behaviors and fatalistic attitudes about prevention. This report describes an evaluation of community understanding of an educational module about genetic and environmental influences on the development of podoconiosis, a neglected tropical disease endemic in highland Ethiopia. A qualitative process assessment was conducted as part of a large prospective intervention trial in August 2013, in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Sixty five participants were purposively selected from 600 households randomized to receive the inherited susceptibility module. The educational module used pictorial representations and oral explanations of the interaction of inherited sensitivity and soil exposure and was delivered by lay health educators in participants' homes. Data were collected using semi-structured individual interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). Qualitative analyses showed that most participants improved their understanding of inherited soil sensitivity and susceptibility to podoconiosis. Participants linked their new understanding to decreased stigma-related attitudes. The module also corrected misconceptions that the condition was contagious, again diminishing stigmatizing attitudes. Lastly, these improvements in understanding increased the perceived value of foot protection. Taken together, these improvements support the acceptability, feasibility and potential benefits of implementing gene-environment education in low and middle income countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. The Role of the Tropics in Abrupt Climate Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, Alexey [Yale University

    2013-12-07

    Topics addressed include: abrupt climate changes and ocean circulation in the tropics; what controls the ocean thermal structure in the tropics; a permanent El Niño in paleoclimates; the energetics of the tropical ocean.

  20. Soil organic matter dynamics at the paramo and puna highlands in the Andean mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles Muñoz, M.; Faz, Ángel; Mermut, Ahmet R.; Zornoza, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    Mountains and uplands represent the most diverse and fragile ecosystems in the world, cover about 20% of the terrestrial surface and are distributed across all continents and major ecoregions. The Andean Plateau is the main mountain range of the American continent and one of the largest in the world with more than 7,500 km. The soil organic matter is a corner stone in the fertility management of the Andean agriculture as well as in the erosion control. However, its role is still much unknown in these ecosystems. Moreover, the influence of current global climatic change on soil organic C reservoirs and dynamics is still not clearly understood. The aim of this work was to review the soil C dynamics and the implication of the soil organic matter in the fertility management, erosion control, conservation of biodiversity and global climate change to improve the knowledge on the mountain Andean highlands. Climate, landscape, soil C pools, biomass and management were studied. In general, the Andean climate is affected by three main factors: ocean currents, winds and orography characterized by an abrupt topography. The entire Andean belt is segmented into the Northern, Central and Southern Andes. Northern Andes are called paramo and are characterized by humid climate while Central and Southern Andes dryer zones are called puna. Most of the region is tectonically and volcanically active. Sedimentary rocks predominated in the paramo while sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic ones prevailed in the puna. The most common soils were Andosols, Regosols, Umbrisols and Histosols. The cold and wet climate and the low atmospheric pressure favored organic matter accumulation in the soil. The accumulation of organic matter is further enhanced by the formation of organomineral complexes strongly resistant to the microbial breakdown mainly in the paramo. High organic C contents were observed in the paramo (10%) oppositely to the low contents found in the dryer puna (1%). The C/N ratio

  1. Nitrous oxide emission from highland winter wheat field after long-term fertilization

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    X. R. Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is an important greenhouse gas. N2O emissions from soils vary with fertilization and cropping practices. The response of N2O emission to fertilization of agricultural soils plays an important role in global N2O emission. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal pattern of N2O fluxes and the annual N2O emissions from a rain-fed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. field in the Loess Plateau of China. A static flux chamber method was used to measure soil N2O fluxes from 2006 to 2008. The study included 5 treatments with 3 replications in a randomized complete block design. Prior to initiating N2O measurements the treatments had received the same fertilization for 22 years. The fertilizer treatments were unfertilized control (CK, manure (M, nitrogen (N, nitrogen + phosphorus (NP, and nitrogen + phosphorus + manure (NPM. Soil N2O fluxes in the highland winter wheat field were highly variable temporally and thus were fertilization dependent. The highest fluxes occurred in the warmer and wetter seasons. Relative to CK, m slightly increased N2O flux while N, NP and NPM treatments significantly increased N2O fluxes. The fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux occurred mainly in the first 30 days after fertilization. The increases were smaller in the relatively warm and dry year than in the cold and wet year. Combining phosphorous and/or manure with mineral N fertilizer partly offset the nitrogen fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux. N2O fluxes at the seedling stage were mainly controlled by nitrogen fertilization, while fluxes at other plant growth stages were influenced by plant and environmental conditions. The cumulative N2O emissions were always higher in the fertilized treatments than in the non-fertilized treatment (CK. Mineral and manure

  2. Predation efficiency of Anopheles gambiae larvae by aquatic predators in western Kenya highlands

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    Nyindo Mramba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current status of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes and the effects of insecticides on non-target insect species have raised the need for alternative control methods for malaria vectors. Predation has been suggested as one of the important regulation mechanisms for malaria vectors in long-lasting aquatic habitats, but the predation efficiency of the potential predators is largely unknown in the highlands of western Kenya. In the current study, we examined the predation efficiency of five predators on Anopheles gambiae s.s larvae in 24 hour and semi- field evaluations. Methods Predators were collected from natural habitats and starved for 12 hours prior to starting experiments. Preliminary experiments were conducted to ascertain the larval stage most predated by each predator species. When each larval instar was subjected to predation, third instar larvae were predated at the highest rate. Third instar larvae of An. gambiae were introduced into artificial habitats with and without refugia at various larval densities. The numbers of surviving larvae were counted after 24 hours in 24. In semi-field experiments, the larvae were counted daily until they were all either consumed or had developed to the pupal stage. Polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the presence of An. gambiae DNA in predator guts. Results Experiments found that habitat type (P P P P An. gambiae DNA was found in at least three out of ten midguts for all predator species. Gambusia affins was the most efficient, being three times more efficient than tadpoles. Conclusion These experiments provide insight into the efficiency of specific natural predators against mosquito larvae. These naturally occurring predators may be useful in biocontrol strategies for aquatic stage An. gambiae mosquitoes. Further investigations should be done in complex natural habitats for these predators.

  3. Stream permanence influences crayfish occupancy and abundance in the Ozark Highlands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarra, Allyson N.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Crayfish use of intermittent streams is especially important to understand in the face of global climate change. We examined the influence of stream permanence and local habitat on crayfish occupancy and species densities in the Ozark Highlands, USA. We sampled in June and July 2014 and 2015. We used a quantitative kick–seine method to sample crayfish presence and abundance at 20 stream sites with 32 surveys/site in the Upper White River drainage, and we measured associated local environmental variables each year. We modeled site occupancy and detection probabilities with the software PRESENCE, and we used multiple linear regressions to identify relationships between crayfish species densities and environmental variables. Occupancy of all crayfish species was related to stream permanence. Faxonius meeki was found exclusively in intermittent streams, whereas Faxonius neglectus and Faxonius luteushad higher occupancy and detection probability in permanent than in intermittent streams, and Faxonius williamsi was associated with intermittent streams. Estimates of detection probability ranged from 0.56 to 1, which is high relative to values found by other investigators. With the exception of F. williamsi, species densities were largely related to stream permanence rather than local habitat. Species densities did not differ by year, but total crayfish densities were significantly lower in 2015 than 2014. Increased precipitation and discharge in 2015 probably led to the lower crayfish densities observed during this year. Our study demonstrates that crayfish distribution and abundance is strongly influenced by stream permanence. Some species, including those of conservation concern (i.e., F. williamsi, F. meeki), appear dependent on intermittent streams, and conservation efforts should include consideration of intermittent streams as an important component of freshwater biodiversity.

  4. Total polyphenols contents in different grapevine varieties in highlands of southern brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brighenti Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are one of the main parameters of wine quality and contribute to the organoleptic characteristics, particularly color, astringency and body. In the highlands of southern Brazil, low temperatures and high accumulation of global solar radiation favor the synthesis of total polyphenols in grapes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of total polyphenols of 10 white varieties and 13 red varieties produced in high altitude regions of southern Brazil. The vineyard is located in the Experimental Station of Santa Catarina State Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Agency (EPAGRI, in the city of São Joaquim (28° 16′30″S, 49° 56′09″W, Altitude 1,400 m, the evaluations occurred in 2015/2016 growing season. The content of total polyphenols was determined as proposed by Singleton & Rossi (1965, using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with spectrophotometer readings. Polyphenol content ranged from 283.56 to 1,387.31 mg/L for white varieties, the varieties with the highest concentrations were Greco di Tufo (1,378.31 mg/L, Trebbiano Toscano (995.59 mg/L and Ribola Gialla (737.48 mg/L. For the red varieties, the total polyphenol content ranged from 523.87 to 4,929.57 mg/L, Ancellotta (4,929.57 mg/L, Uva di Troia (2,722.27 mg/L and Croatina (2,410 mg/L stood out for presenting the highest levels.

  5. Farmers' assessment of the social and ecological values of land uses in central highland Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Lalisa Alemayehu; Hager, Herbert

    2011-05-01

    Often in land use evaluations, especially those in developing countries, only the financial aspect receives serious attention, while the social and ecological values are overlooked. This study compared the social and ecological values of four land use types (small-scale woodlot [SSW], boundary tree and shrub planting [BTP], homestead tree and shrub growing [HTG] and cereal farming [CF]) by a criteria-based scoring approach using a bao game. The impacts of local wealth status and proximity to a forest on the value the community renders to the land use types were also assessed. The value comparison, assessed by relative scoring, was accompanied by farmer's explanations to reveal the existing local knowledge about land use values. It was found that HTG ≥ SSW > BTP > CF for both social and ecological values. Though this trend applies for the medium and rich households, the poor ones chose SSW as the most valuable. With increasing distance from a forest, the social and ecological values of land uses increased. The accompanying scoring justifications indicated the existence of in-depth ecological knowledge, which conform to contemporary scientific reports. Generally, this study showed that social and ecological values, besides financial values, strongly influence farmer's decision in implementing various practices related to the land use types. Thus, such values are worth considering for a holistic understanding of the diverse benefits of land uses. Finally, the strong preference for tree and shrub-based land use types is a good opportunity for enhancing tree and shrub growing to minimize the major environmental problems (e.g., soil degradation, wood shortage and deforestation) in the central highlands of Ethiopia.

  6. Undiagnosed cryptic diversity in small, microendemic frogs (Leptolalax from the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

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    Jodi J L Rowley

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, "cryptic" species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA, acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian

  7. Undiagnosed cryptic diversity in small, microendemic frogs (Leptolalax) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Tran, Dao T A; Frankham, Greta J; Dekker, Anthony H; Le, Duong T T; Nguyen, Truong Q; Dau, Vinh Q; Hoang, Huy D

    2015-01-01

    A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, "cryptic" species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA), acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian diversity based on

  8. Reproductive tract infections in rural women from the highlands, jungle, and coastal regions of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia J; Chavez, Susana; Feringa, Barbara; Chiappe, Marina; Li, Weili; Jansen, Kathrin U; Cárcamo, César; Holmes, King K

    2004-07-01

    To define the prevalences and manifestations of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Peruvian women. During 1997-98, we visited 18 rural districts in coastal, highlands, and jungle regions of Peru. We administered standardized questionnaires and pelvic examinations to members of women's community-based organizations; and collected vaginal fluid for pH, amine odour, Gram stain, microscopy, and culture for Trichomonas vaginalis; cervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; human papilloma virus (HPV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and blood for syphilis serology. The 754 participants averaged 36.9 years of age and 1.7 sex partners ever; 77% reported symptoms indicative of RTIs; 51% and 26% reported their symptoms spontaneously or only with specific questioning, respectively. Symptoms reported spontaneously included abnormal vaginal discharge (29.3% and 22.9%, respectively). One or more RTIs, found in 70.4% of participants, included bacterial vaginosis (43.7%), trichomoniasis (16.5%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (4.5%), chlamydial infection (6.8%), gonorrhoea (1.2%), syphilis seropositivity (1.7%), cervical HPV infection (4.9%), and genital warts or ulcers (2.8%). Of 715 adequate Pap smears, 7 revealed cancer, 4 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and 15 low-grade SIL. Clinical algorithms had very low sensitivity and predictive values for cervical infection, but over half the women with symptoms of malodorous vaginal discharge, signs of abnormal vaginal discharge, or both, had bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Overall, 77% of women had symptoms indicative of RTIs, and 70% had objective evidence of one or more RTIs. Women with selected symptoms and signs of vaginal infection could benefit from standard metronidazole therapy.

  9. Farmers' Assessment of the Social and Ecological Values of Land Uses in Central Highland Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Lalisa Alemayehu; Hager, Herbert

    2011-05-01

    Often in land use evaluations, especially those in developing countries, only the financial aspect receives serious attention, while the social and ecological values are overlooked. This study compared the social and ecological values of four land use types (small-scale woodlot [SSW], boundary tree and shrub planting [BTP], homestead tree and shrub growing [HTG] and cereal farming [CF]) by a criteria-based scoring approach using a bao game. The impacts of local wealth status and proximity to a forest on the value the community renders to the land use types were also assessed. The value comparison, assessed by relative scoring, was accompanied by farmer's explanations to reveal the existing local knowledge about land use values. It was found that HTG ≥ SSW > BTP > CF for both social and ecological values. Though this trend applies for the medium and rich households, the poor ones chose SSW as the most valuable. With increasing distance from a forest, the social and ecological values of land uses increased. The accompanying scoring justifications indicated the existence of in-depth ecological knowledge, which conform to contemporary scientific reports. Generally, this study showed that social and ecological values, besides financial values, strongly influence farmer's decision in implementing various practices related to the land use types. Thus, such values are worth considering for a holistic understanding of the diverse benefits of land uses. Finally, the strong preference for tree and shrub-based land use types is a good opportunity for enhancing tree and shrub growing to minimize the major environmental problems (e.g., soil degradation, wood shortage and deforestation) in the central highlands of Ethiopia.

  10. Geological and engineering analysis of residual soil for forewarning landslide from highland area in northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkhao, Thanakrit; Phantuwongraj, Sumet; Choowong, Montri; Thitimakorn, Thanop; Charusiri, Punya

    2015-11-01

    One devastating landslide event in northern Thailand occurred in 2006 at Ban Nong Pla village, Chiang Klang highland of Nan province after, a massive amount of residual soil moved from upstream to downstream, via creek tributaries, into a main stream after five days of unusual heavy rainfall. In this paper, the geological and engineering properties of residual soil derived fromsedimentary rocks were analyzed and integrated. Geological mapping, electrical resistivity survey and test pits were carried out along three transect lines together with systematic collection of undisturbed and disturbed residual soil samples. As a result, the average moisture content in soil is 24.83% with average specific gravity of 2.68,whereas the liquid limit is 44.93%, plastic limit is 29.35% and plastic index is 15.58%. The cohesion of soil ranges between 0.096- 1.196 ksc and the angle of internal friction is between 11.51 and 35.78 degrees. This suggests that the toughness properties of soil change when moisture content increases. Results from electrical resistivity survey reveal that soil thicknesses above the bedrock along three transects range from 2 to 9 m. The soil shear strength reach the rate of high decreases in the range of 72 to 95.6% for residual soil from shale, siltstone and sandstone, respectively. Strength of soil decreaseswhen the moisture content in soil increases. Shear strength also decreases when the moisture content changes. Therefore, the natural soil slope in the study area will be stable when the moisture content in soil level is equal to one, but when the moisture content between soil particle increases, strength of soil will decrease resulting in soil strength decreasing.

  11. Effect of land use change on water discharge in Srepok watershed, Central Highland, Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Ngoc Quyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Srepok watershed plays an important role in Central Highland in Viet Nam. It impacts to developing social-economic conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to research elements which impact to natural resources in this watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model and Geography Information System (GIS were used to simulate water discharge in the Srepok watershed. The objectives of the research were to apply GIS and SWAT model for simulation water discharge and then, we assessed land use change which impacted on water discharge in the watershed. The observed stream flow data from Ban Don Stream gauge station was used to calibrate for the period from 1981 to 2000 and then validate for the period from 2001 to 2009. After using SWAT-CUP software to calibration, NSI reached 0.63 and R square value achieved 0.64 from 2004 to 2008 in calibration and NSI gained good level at 0.74 and R square got 0.75 from 2009 to 2012 in validation step at Ban Don Station. After that, land cover in 2010 was processed like land cover in 2000 and set up SWAT model again. The simulated water discharge in scenario 1 (land use 2000 was compared with scenario 2 (land use 2010, the simulation result was not significant difference between two scenarios because the change of area of land use was not much enough to affect the fluctuation of water discharge. However, the effect of land cover on water resource could be seen clearly via total water yield. The percentage of surface flow in 2000 was twice times more than in 2010; retard and base flow in 2000 was slightly more than in 2010. Therefore, decreased surface flow, increased infiltration capacity of water and enriched base flow resulted in the growth of land cover.

  12. Hospital admission following induced abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea--a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D L; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.

  13. Hospital Admission following Induced Abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea – A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982

  14. Sims Analysis of Water Abundance and Hydrogen Isotope in Lunar Highland Plagioclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Guan, Yunbin; Chen, Yang; Peslier, Anne H.; Zhang, Youxue; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R.; Eiler, John M.; Neal, Clive R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of indigenous water in mare basaltic glass beads has challenged the view established since the Apollo era of a "dry" Moon. Since this discovery, measurements of water in lunar apatite, olivine-hosted melt inclusions, agglutinates, and nominally anhydrous minerals have confirmed that lunar igneous materials contain water, implying that some parts of lunar mantle may have as much water as Earth's upper mantle. The interpretation of hydrogen (H) isotopes in lunar samples, however, is controversial. The large variation of H isotope ratios in lunar apatite (delta Deuterium = -202 to +1010 per mille) has been taken as evidence that water in the lunar interior comes from the lunar mantle, solar wind protons, and/or comets. The very low deuterium/H ratios in lunar agglutinates indicate that solar wind protons have contributed to their hydrogen content. Conversely, H isotopes in lunar volcanic glass beads and olivine-hosted melt inclusions being similar to those of common terrestrial igneous rocks, suggest a common origin for water in both Earth and Moon. Lunar water could be inherited from carbonaceous chondrites, consistent with the model of late accretion of chondrite-type materials to the Moon as proposed by. One complication about the sources of lunar water, is that geologic processes (e.g., late accretion and magmatic degassing) may have modified the H isotope signatures of lunar materials. Recent FTIR analyses have shown that plagioclases in lunar ferroan anorthosite contain approximately 6 ppm H2O. So far, ferroan anorthosite is the only available lithology that is believed to be a primary product of the lunar magma ocean (LMO). A possible consequence is that the LMO could have contained up to approximately 320 ppm H2O. Here we examine the possible sources of water in the LMO through measurements of water abundances and H isotopes in plagioclase of two ferroan anorthosites and one troctolite from lunar highlands.

  15. The influence of drought on flow‐ecology relationships in Ozark Highland streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Dustin T.; Leasure, D. R.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Drought and summer drying can have strong effects on abiotic and biotic components of stream ecosystems. Environmental flow‐ecology relationships may be affected by drought and drying, adding further uncertainty to the already complex interaction of flow with other environmental variables, including geomorphology and water quality.Environment–ecology relationships in stream communities in Ozark Highland streams, USA, were examined over two years with contrasting environmental conditions, a drought year (2012) and a flood year (2013). We analysed fish, crayfish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages using two different approaches: (1) a multiple regression analysis incorporating predictor variables related to habitat, water quality, geomorphology and hydrology and (2) a canonical ordination procedure using only hydrologic variables in which forward selection was used to select predictors that were most related to our response variables.Reach‐scale habitat quality and geomorphology were found to be the most important influences on community structure, but hydrology was also important, particularly during the flood year. We also found substantial between‐year variation in environment–ecology relationships. Some ecological responses differed significantly between drought and flood years, while others remained consistent. We found that magnitude was the most important flow component overall, but that there was a shift in relative importance from low flow metrics during the drought year to average flow metrics during the flood year, and the specific metrics of importance varied markedly between assemblages and years.Findings suggest that understanding temporal variation in flow‐ecology relationships may be crucial for resource planning. While some relationships show temporal variation, others are consistent between years. Additionally, different kinds of hydrologic variables can differ greatly in terms of which assemblages they affect and how they affect

  16. EVALUATION OF RAINFALL-RUNOFF EROSIVITY FACTOR FOR CAMERON HIGHLAND, PAHANG, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Taofeeq Sholagberu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-runoff is the active agent of soil erosion which often resulted in land degradation and water quality deterioration. Its aggressiveness to induce erosion is usually termed as rainfall erosivity index or factor (R. R-factor is one of the factors to be parameterized in the evaluation of soil loss using the Universal Soil Loss Equation and its reversed versions (USLE/RUSLE. The computation of accurate R-factor for a particular watershed requires high temporal resolution rainfall (pluviograph data with less than 30-minutes intensities for at least 20 yrs, which is available only in a few regions of the world. As a result, various simplified models have been proposed by researchers to evaluate R-factor using readily available daily, monthly or annual precipitation data. This study is thus aimed at estimating R-factor and to establish an approximate relationship between R-factor and rainfall for subsequent usage in the estimation of soil loss in Cameron highlands watershed. The results of the analysis showed that the least and peak (critical R-factors occurred in the months of January and April with 660.82 and 2399.18 MJ mm ha-1 h-1year-1 respectively. Also, it was observed that erosivity power starts to increase from the month of January through April before started falling in the month of July. The monthly and annual peaks (critical periods may be attributed to increased rainfall amount due to climate change which in turn resulted to increased aggressiveness of rains to cause erosion in the study area. The correlation coefficient of 0.985 showed that there was a strong relationship rainfall and R-factor.

  17. Environmental Cesium-137 as tracer of soil erosion: applied to cases of Malagasy Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonjara, A.F.

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion phenomenon is main problem in the world. In Madagascar, it was the lavaka who predominated in highlands. The studies have been done by researchers to seek this phenomenon. Some methods and techniques were yet used (USLE, RUSLE, EuroSEM, etc.). "1"3"7Cs Technique has been chosen in despite of the low concentration in southern hemisphere. It is one of the fallout radionuclides (FRNs) techniques. This technique permits to convert the mass activities into erosion and deposition rates of the study sites comparing them to reference activity using conversion models. This work was done in fokontany Talatakely-Sambaina, Manjakandriana district, Analamanga region on 2009 and 2010. Two study sites were chosen : one terrace site and one slope site. Proportional model, simplified mass-balance model and improved mass-balance model are the model used. Obtained results permit to observe that each model presented different estimating results. For proportional model, erosion rates vary between 2.8 t.ha"-"1.yr"-"1. For mass-balance model 1, theses rates vary 3.0 t.ha"-"1yr"-"1 to 47.1 t.ha.yr"-"1. For mass balance model 2, they vary between 1.8 t.ha"-"1.yr"-"1 to 28.4 t.ha"-"1. For deposition rates, they vary between 3.3 t ha"-"1"yyr"-"1to 16.6 t ha"-"1yr"-"1, 3.8 t ha"-"1 yr"-"1 to 21.9 t ha"-"1yr"-"1 and between 2.1 t ha"-"1 yr"-"1 to 12.6 t ha"-"1 yr "-"1 respectively. For all modes used. eroded area predominated in the study sites (terrace and slope). Reduced cost of the studies and the rapidity of the results give important advantages to this new technique. [fr

  18. Land Cover Classification in Complex and Fragmented Agricultural Landscapes of the Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eggen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is a largely agrarian country with nearly 85% of its employment coming from agriculture. Nevertheless, it is not known how much land is under cultivation. Mapping land cover at finer resolution and global scales has been particularly difficult in Ethiopia. The study area falls in a region of high mapping complexity with environmental challenges which require higher quality maps. Here, remote sensing is used to classify a large area of the central and northwestern highlands into eight broad land cover classes that comprise agriculture, grassland, woodland/shrub, forest, bare ground, urban/impervious surfaces, water, and seasonal water/marsh areas. We use data from Landsat spectral bands from 2000 to 2011, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and its temporal mean and variance, together with a digital elevation model, all at 30-m spatial resolution, as inputs to a supervised classifier. A Support Vector Machines algorithm (SVM was chosen to deal with the size, variability and non-parametric nature of these data stacks. In post-processing, an image segmentation algorithm with a minimum mapping unit of about 0.5 hectares was used to convert per pixel classification results into an object based final map. Although the reliability of the map is modest, its overall accuracy is 55%—encouraging results for the accuracy of agricultural uses at 85% suggest that these methods do offer great utility. Confusion among grassland, woodland and barren categories reflects the difficulty of classifying savannah landscapes, especially in east central Africa with monsoonal-driven rainfall patterns where the ground is obstructed by clouds for significant periods of time. Our analysis also points out the need for high quality reference data. Further, topographic analysis of the agriculture class suggests there is a significant amount of sloping land under cultivation. These results are important for future research and environmental monitoring in

  19. Animal Health in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Jainudeen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developing countries in Africa and Asia are located in the tropics (23° north and south of the equator. The poor productivity of ruminants in these countries is mostly due to inadequate nutrition, infectious diseases, low rates of reproduction, poor genotype, high ambient temperatures and socioeconomic constraints. In addition to infectious diseases which have long since been eradicated or brought under control in developed countries, there are diseases unique to the tropical environment. In the past, the diagnosis of most diseases was based on serological tests. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, a rapid method of identifying viral and bacterial infections, is contributing to the eradication or control of most epidemic diseases which inflict high mortality. Less attention has; however, been given to subclinical diseases which adversely affect reproduction, growrh rates and reduced performance (draught power, milk and meat. The interaction of veterinary epidemiology and agricultural economics has helped epidemiologists and veterinarians to focus on the economic importance of animal diseases. The emerging trends in animal health include new diagnostic methods using DNA probes, new vaccines, sustainable parasite control schemes and herd health monitoring. The study of infectious diseases of veterinary importance will continue to he supported by modern techniques of molecular biology. Veterinary curricula should emphasis both animal health and production in the context of current national development occurring in the livestock sector.

  20. Neglected tropical diseases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindoso, José Angelo L; Lindoso, Ana Angélica B P

    2009-01-01

    Poverty is intrinsically related to the incidence of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). The main countries that have the lowest human development indices (HDI) and the highest burdens of NTDs are located in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Among these countries is Brazil, which is ranked 70th in HDI. Nine out of the ten NTDs established by the World Health Organization (WHO) are present in Brazil. Leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, dengue fever and leprosy are present over almost the entire Brazilian territory. More than 90% of malaria cases occur in the Northern region of the country, and lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis occur in outbreaks in a particular region. The North and Northeast regions of Brazil have the lowest HDIs and the highest rates of NTDs. These diseases are considered neglected because there is not important investment in projects for the development of new drugs and vaccines and existing programs to control these diseases are not sufficient. Another problem related to NTDs is co-infection with HIV, which favors the occurrence of severe clinical manifestations and therapeutic failure. In this article, we describe the status of the main NTDs currently occurring in Brazil and relate them to the HDI and poverty.

  1. Strategies for global monitoring of tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1994-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is conducting a global assessment of tropical forest resources, which will be accomplished by mid-1992. This assessment requires, in part, estimates of the total area of tropical forest cover in 1990 and the rate of change in forest cover between 1980 and 1990. The following are described here: (1) the...

  2. Estimation of leaf area in tropical maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.

    2000-01-01

    Leaf area development of six tropical maize cultivars grown in 1995 and 1996 in several tropical environments in Mexico (both favourable and moisture-and N-limited) was observed and analysed. First, the validity of a bell-shaped curve describing the area of individual leaves as a function of leaf

  3. Supplementation of dairy weaners grazing tropical pastures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tropical pastures for growth of dairy replacement heifers, and to assess the need for ... restricted by intake of digestible nutrients. Tropical pastures ... 1983, 13(l). Table 1 Effect of rnaize or maize plus cotton seed meal on the growth of weaner calves. Level. Wean wt wean ro ll0 kg ll0- 130 kg. Wean ro 130 kg. Supplements.

  4. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology (JTMB) formerly Journal of Tropical Microbiology gives preeminence to the central role of modern biotechnology and microorganisms as tools and targets in current research, which is largely multidisciplinary. JTMB covers a broad range of topics, such as disease ...

  5. Use of ancient sedimentary DNA as a novel conservation tool for high-altitude tropical biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; McGlynn, Gayle; Epp, Laura S; Taylor, David; Pimentel, Manuel; Gizaw, Abel; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Brochmann, Christian; Popp, Magnus

    2014-04-01

    Conservation of biodiversity may in the future increasingly depend upon the availability of scientific information to set suitable restoration targets. In traditional paleoecology, sediment-based pollen provides a means to define preanthropogenic impact conditions, but problems in establishing the exact provenance and ecologically meaningful levels of taxonomic resolution of the evidence are limiting. We explored the extent to which the use of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) may complement pollen data in reconstructing past alpine environments in the tropics. We constructed a record of afro-alpine plants retrieved from DNA preserved in sediment cores from 2 volcanic crater sites in the Albertine Rift, eastern Africa. The record extended well beyond the onset of substantial anthropogenic effects on tropical mountains. To ensure high-quality taxonomic inference from the sedaDNA sequences, we built an extensive DNA reference library covering the majority of the afro-alpine flora, by sequencing DNA from taxonomically verified specimens. Comparisons with pollen records from the same sediment cores showed that plant diversity recovered with sedaDNA improved vegetation reconstructions based on pollen records by revealing both additional taxa and providing increased taxonomic resolution. Furthermore, combining the 2 measures assisted in distinguishing vegetation change at different geographic scales; sedaDNA almost exclusively reflects local vegetation, whereas pollen can potentially originate from a wide area that in highlands in particular can span several ecozones. Our results suggest that sedaDNA may provide information on restoration targets and the nature and magnitude of human-induced environmental changes, including in high conservation priority, biodiversity hotspots, where understanding of preanthropogenic impact (or reference) conditions is highly limited. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengesha Tesfaye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. Methods For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. Results The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082 (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7% malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0% of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5% were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6% of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3% of males and 23(2.1% of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3% and 10 (2.7% of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l, respectively which was statistically significant (X2 = 3.72, P Plasmodium species declined from October to December, the trend was non-significant (X2 for trend = 0.49, P > 0.05. The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3% and in the second (35.4% surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%. The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3% than Misrak-Meskan (41.7% (P Conclusion

  7. [Tropical chronic pancreatitis in a young patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J; Ginard, D; Barranco, L; Riera, J; Obrador, A

    2001-11-01

    Tropical chronic pancreatitis is a form of idiopathic chronic pancreatitis that has not previously been described in Spain. Typically it is related to dietary factors and malnutrition, although genetic factors may also play a significant role in the development of the disease. We report a case of chronic tropical pancreatitis in a 27-year-old woman from the Dominican Republic domiciled in Spain since 1992. The patient was admitted to our hospital for acute pancreatitis that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria (clinical and radiological) for chronic tropical pancreatitis. This case has led us to review this uncommon entity. Because of the increasing number of immigrants from tropical countries, chronic tropical pancreatitis will probably need to be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis in our patients.

  8. Ecological Assessment of Two Species of Potamonautid Freshwater Crabs from the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe, with Implications for Their Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatenda Dalu

    Full Text Available The spatial ecology of freshwater crabs and their conservation status is largely understudied in Africa. An ecological assessment was conducted at 104 localities in 51 rivers and/or streams in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe whereby the distribution and abundances of freshwater crab species were mapped and the possible drivers of the observed trends in population structure explored. In addition, information on crab utilisation as a food resource by local communities was assessed via face to face interviews across the region. Finally, the conservation status of each species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria. Only two crab species Potamonautes mutareensis and Potamonautes unispinus were recorded within the region of study. Potamonautes mutareensis was largely restricted to less impacted environments in the high mountainous river system, whereas P. unispinus was found in low laying areas. In stretches of river where both species were found to co-occur, the species were never sampled from the same site, with P. mutareensis occurring in shallower, faster flowing environments and P. unispinus in deeper, slow flowing sites. Interview results revealed that the local communities, particularly in the southern part of the Eastern Highlands around the Chipinge area, had a considerable level of utilisation (55% of households on the harvesting of crabs for household consumption during the non-agricultural season (May to September. Results from the IUCN Red List assessment indicate that both species should be considered as "Least Concern". Threats to freshwater crabs in the Eastern Highlands, however, include widespread anthropogenic impacts such as habitat destruction associated with gold and diamond mining, inorganic and organic pollution and possibly exploitation for human consumption. The current study provides important information and insight towards the possible development of a freshwater crab conservation action plan within the region.

  9. Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: First Year Results and Second Year Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.; Hare, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    The southern Utopia highland-lowland boundary (HLB) extends >1500 km westward from northern Nepenthes Mensae to the topographic saddle that separates Isidis and Utopia Planitiae. It contains bench-like platforms that contain depressions, pitted cones (some organized into arcuate chains and thumbprint terrain), isolated domes, lineated depressions, buried circular depressions, ring fractures, polygonal fractures, and other locally- to regionally-dispersed landforms [1]. The objective of our mapping project is to clarify the geologic evolution of the southern Utopia Planitia HLB by identifying the geologic, structural, and stratigraphic relationships of surface materials in MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247.

  10. Siltation and Pollution of Rivers in the Western Highlands of Cameroon: a Consequence of Farmland Erosion and Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Djoukeng, Henri Grisseur; Tankou, Christopher Mubeteneh; Degré, Aurore

    2015-01-01

    In the Western Highlands agro-ecological zone of Cameroon, rivers are constantly silted and polluted with eroded sediment and waste from cultivated land. This study characterizes and quantifies the amount of material coming from plots cultivated in the Méloh Watershed. In a natural rocky-bottomed well measuring 0.90 m deep, 3 m long, and 2.5 m wide, for a period of three years we performed the collection, differentiation, and measurement of trapped sediment in the cultivated part of river tha...

  11. Intermediate Cutting in Mixed Upland Oak Stands on the Western Highland Rim, Tennessee, After a Quarter of a Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienne N. Hall; John C. Rennie; Glendon W. Smalley

    2004-01-01

    In 1973 and 1974, a study was established at Stewart State Forest (SSF) and Lewis State Forest (LSF) to evaluate Roach and Gingrich’s “Even-Aged Silviculture for Upland Central Oaks” on the Western Highland Rim. Harvesting to the “B-level” of the stocking guide primarily removed cull and low-quality stems. Basal area was reduced from 110 to 80 square feet per acre at...

  12. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, Southern Coast Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    The Monterey-Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit covers approximately 7,820 square kilometers (km2) in Santa Cruz, Monterey, and San Luis Obispo Counties in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California. The study unit was divided into four study areas—Santa Cruz, Pajaro Valley, Salinas Valley, and Highlands. More than 75 percent of the water used for drinking-water supply in the Central Coast Hydrologic Region of California is groundwater, and there are more than 8,000 well driller’s logs for domestic wells (California Department of Water Resources, 2013).

  13. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Monterey Bay, Salinas Valley, and adjacent highland areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen

    2018-05-30

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the groundwater basins around Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the highlands adjacent to the Salinas Valley constitute one of the study units.

  14. Transmission tower classification based on landslide risk map generated by Geographical Information System (GIS) at Cameron Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazwani N K; Rohayu C O; Fathoni U; Baharuddin, Inz

    2013-01-01

    Transmission tower is usually locates at remote area which is covered by hilly topography. Landslide is mainly occurring at hilly area and causing failure to the tower structure. This phenomenon subsequently will affect the national electricity supply. A landslide risk hazard map is generated using Geographical Information System (GIS). Risk classification is introduced to initiate the monitoring process along Jor-Bintang transmission line, Cameron Highland, Pahang. The classification has been divided into three categories, which are low, medium and high. This method can be applied in slope monitoring activities since all towers have been classified based on their risk level. Therefore, maintenance schedule can be planned smoothly and efficiently.

  15. Transmission tower classification based on landslide risk Map generated by Geographical Information System (GIS) at Cameron Highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazwani N K; Rohayu C O; Fathoni U; Baharuddin, I N Z; Azwin Z A

    2013-01-01

    Transmission tower is usually locates at remote area which is covered by hilly topography. Landslide is mainly occurring at hilly area and causing failure to the tower structure. This phenomenon subsequently will affect the national electricity supply. A landslide risk hazard map is generated using Geographical Information System (GIS). Risk classification is introduced to initiate the monitoring process along Jor-Bintang transmission line, Cameron Highland, Pahang. The classification has been divided into three categories, which are low, medium and high. This method can be applied in slope monitoring activities since all towers have been classified based on their risk level. Therefore, maintenance schedule can be planned smoothly and efficiently.

  16. How can tropical cyclones survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi

    2013-04-01

    How can tropical cyclones survive? It is important for understanding the development of tropical cyclones to be able to quantify the exchange of enthalpy and momentum between air and water. Air-sea fluxes are often formulated as drag CD and enthalpy CK exchange coefficients. Emanuel, 1986, derived an expression for potential intensity that depends on local environment parameters and is proportional to the ratio of enthalpy and drag coefficients. This ratio should be larger than 0.75 for a cyclone to develop. There are no direct surface measurements of CK/ CD under hurricane conditions and extrapolation from most open-ocean measurements at 25 m/s gives values of CK/ CD0.75 is in accordance with Emanuel's prediction. The high CK values are observed during situations when there is a regime shift of the structure of turbulence in the boundary layer. From spectral analysis it was found that as the boundary layer approaches neutral stratification, smaller-scale eddies become increasingly important in the turbulent transport of humidity and sensible heat and thus enhance the exchange coefficient CK. This turbulence regime is called the UVCN regime and require high wind speed, small temperature difference between air and water, sufficiently strong wind gradients and growing sea condition ( Smedman et al., 2007, Sahlee et al., 2008). What is the difference between world oceans and enclosed seas? The answer is the waves. The wave field over the open oceans is swell dominated but in enclosed seas and coastal areas swell is restricted mainly to low wind speed conditions, and swell is short lived because of short distances to the shores. When swell is present the MABL will be dominated by large eddies of zi size creating weak gradients of wind, temperature and humidity and thus small scale eddies cannot be formed leading to reduced CK-values. However, during hurricane condition the waves are expected to be young, stratification is close to neutral and gradients are sufficiently

  17. Equational theories of tropical sernirings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Esik, Zoltan; Ingolfsdottir, Anna

    2003-01-01

    examples of such structures are the (max,+) semiring and the tropical semiring. It is shown that none of the exotic semirings commonly considered in the literature has a finite basis for its equations, and that similar results hold for the commutative idempotent weak semirings that underlie them. For each......This paper studies the equational theories of various exotic semirings presented in the literature. Exotic semirings are semirings whose underlying carrier set is some subset of the set of real numbers equipped with binary operations of minimum or maximum as sum, and addition as product. Two prime...... of these commutative idempotent weak semirings, the paper offers characterizations of the equations that hold in them, decidability results for their equational theories, explicit descriptions of the free algebras in the varieties they generate, and relative axiomatization results. Udgivelsesdato: APR 11...

  18. Simulation of Tropical Rainfall Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, J.; Latif, M.

    2002-12-01

    The impact of sea surface temperature (SST) - especially the role of the tropical Atlantic meridional SST gradient and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation - on precipitation is investigated with the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM4/T42. Ensemble experiments - driven with observed SST - show that Atlantic SST has a significant influence on precipitation over West Africa and northeast Brazil. SST sensitivity experiments were performed in which the climatological SST was enhanced or decreased by one Kelvin in certain ocean areas. Changing SST in the eastern tropical Atlantic caused only significant changes along the Guinea Coast, with a positive anomaly (SSTA) increasing rainfall and a negative SSTA reducing it. The response was nearly linear. Changing SST in other ocean areas caused significant changes over West Africa, especially in the Sahel area. The response is found to be non linear, with only negative SSTA leading to significant reduction in Sahel rainfall. Also, the impact of the SSTAs from the different ocean regions was not additive with respect to the rainfall. The influence of SST on precipitation over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) was also investigated. Three experiments were performed in which the climatological SST was enhanced/decreased or decreased/enhanced by one Kelvin in the North/South Atlantic and increased by two Kelvin in the Nino3 ocean area. All experiments caused significant changes over Nordeste, with an enhanced/reduced SST gradient in the Atlantic increasing/reducing rainfall. The response was nearly linear. The main effect of the Atlantic SST gradient was a shift of the ITCZ, caused by trade wind changes. The ''El Nino'' event generates a significant reduction in Nordeste rainfall. A significant positive SLP anomaly occurs in northeast Brazil which may be associated with the descending branch of the Walker circulation. Also a significant positive SLP over the Atlantic from 30S to 10N north occurs. This results in a reduced SLP

  19. Highlands of the upper Jequitinhonha valley, Brazil: I - characterization and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique Alves Bispo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the upper Jequitinhonha valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazi, there are large plane areas known as "chapadas", which are separated by areas dissected by tributaries of the Jequitinhonha and Araçuaí rivers. These dissected areas have a surface drainage system with tree, shrub, and grass vegetation, more commonly known as "veredas", i.e., palm swamps. The main purpose of this study was to characterize soil physical, chemical and morphological properties of a representative toposequence in the watershed of the Vereda Lagoa do Leandro, a swamp near Minas Novas, MG, on "chapadas", the highlands of the Alto Jequitinhonha region Different soil types are observed in the landscape: at the top - Typic Haplustox (LVA, in the middle slope - Xanthic Haplustox (LA, at the footslope - Xanthic Haplustox, gray color, here called "Gray Haplustox" ("LAC" and, at the bottom of the palm swamp - Typic Albaquult (GXbd. These soils were first morphologically described; samples of disturbed and undisturbed soils were collected from all horizons and subhorizons, to evaluate their essential physical and chemical properties, by means of standard determination of Fe, Al, Mn, Ti and Si oxides after sulfuric extraction. The contents of Fe, Al and Mn, extracted with dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and oxalate treatments, were also determined. In the well-drained soils of the slope positions, the typical morphological, physical and chemical properties of Oxisols were found. The GXbd sample, from the bottom of the palm swamp, is grayish and has high texture gradient (B/A and massive structure. The reduction of the proportion of crystalline iron compounds and the low crystallinity along the slope confirmed the loss of iron during pedogenesis, which is reflected in the current soil color. The Si and Al contents were lowest in the "LAC" soil. There was a decrease of the Fe2O3/TiO2 ratio downhill, indicating progressive drainage restriction along the toposequence. The genesis

  20. ANFIS modeling for the assessment of landslide susceptibility for the Cameron Highland (Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Sezer, Ebru; Gokceoglu, Candan; Buchroithner, Manfred F.

    2010-05-01

    Landslides are one of the recurrent natural hazard problems throughout most of Malaysia. In landslide literature, there are several approaches such as probabilistic, bivariate and multivariate statistical models, fuzzy and artificial neural network models etc. However, a neuro-fuzzy application on the landslide susceptibility assessment has not been encountered in the literature. For this reason, this study presents the results of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) using remote sensing data and GIS for landslide susceptibility analysis in a part of the Cameron Highland areas in Malaysia. Landslide locations in the study area were identified by interpreting aerial photographs and satellite images, supported by extensive field surveys. Landsat TM satellite imagery was used to map vegetation index. Maps of topography, lineaments, NDVI and land cover were constructed from the spatial datasets. Seven landslide conditioning factors such as altitude, slope angle, curvature, distance from drainage, lithology, distance from faults and NDVI were extracted from the spatial database. These factors were analyzed using an ANFIS to produce the landslide susceptibility maps. During the model development works, total 5 landslide susceptibility models were constructed. For verification, the results of the analyses were then compared with the field-verified landslide locations. Additionally, the ROC curves for all landslide susceptibility models were drawn and the area under curve values were calculated. Landslide locations were used to validate results of the landslide susceptibility map and the verification results showed 97% accuracy for the model 5 employing all parameters produced in the present study as the landslide conditioning factors. The validation results showed sufficient agreement between the obtained susceptibility map and the existing data on landslide areas. Qualitatively, the model yields reasonable results which can be used for preliminary land

  1. Effect of urbanization activities towards the formation of urban heat island in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. H.; Latiff, N. A. A.; Ismail, K.; Isa, N. K. M.

    2018-04-01

    This study carried out to study the effect of urbanization activities towards the formation of Urban Heat Islands (UHI) in Cameron Highlands (CH).The aim of this study is to identify the formation of UHI in CH following the urbanization activities. This study also involved two main data that are primary through field survey and secondary data from collection data. In addition, this study was used qualitative and quantitative method. The data was taken two times a day, at a day and night between the hours of 12:00 to 14:00 and 19:00 to 21:00. Data in this study analyzed by using correlation analysis and analysis of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which known as interpolation. Result found the formation of UHI in CH was concentrated at city centre namely in Pekan Tanah Rata. From the whole average value, city centre was recorded the highest reading of temperatures which is 30.5°C, while reading of temperature for subtown and suburban was recorded 28.6°C and 23.8°C. Average of humidity in CH during the day was recorded as highest reading in the suburban area namely Tringkap Bee Farm (station 11) which is 58.4%. Then, average of humidity in CH at night was recorded highest reading in the suburban area namely Habu Mini Market 91 (station 9) which the value is 83.2%. The reading of wind speed in CH during the day recorded the highest reading day at the suburban namely Tringkap Bee Farm (station 11) which the value is 2.3 m/s. While, following the reading of wind speed in CH at night, suburban namely Habu Mini Market 91(station 9) was recorded the highest reading which is 0.8 m/s. The Intensity of Urban Heat Island in CH during the day was recorded 2.8°C, while at night intensity of UHI was recorded 1.4°C. Overall, the urbanization activities in CH had caused the formation of UHI. Therefore, measures of legislation such as protect forest from development by control the urbanization activities need to be implemented so that the formation of UHI can be reduced and

  2. Diversity and abundance of littoral cladocerans and copepods in nine Ecuadorian highland lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia E Torres

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and abundance of littoral cladocerans and copepods were studied in nine lakes at Reserva Ecológica Cayambe-Coca (Páramo de Guamaní, Ecuador. Six samples were taken in the littoral zone of each lake using a 500 µm mesh plankton conic net. One species of cladocerans (Ephemeroporus acanthoides is reported for the first time in Ecuador. The diversity (H’ and evenness (E of the lakes were determined and correlated with PCA axes based on their environmental variables. The principal parameters that distinguished these lakes were altitude and pH, an unexpected finding considering that the altitudinal range was very small. Lake size is of secondary importance for this group of lakes. None of the environmental axes correlated with H’ or E; nevertheless, a larger than expected species richness was found in a small oligotrophic lake with a high level of DO. Based on our results, we hypothesize that altitude and pH are important factors determining the zooplankton diversity (directly or indirectly in highland lakes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1: 131-137. Epub 2006 Mar 31.La diversidad y abundancia de cladóceros y copépodos de la zona litoral de nueve lagos fue estudiada en la Reserva Ecológica Cayambe-Coca (Páramo de Guamaní, Ecuador. Seis muestras fueron tomadas en la zona litoral de cada lago utilizando una red conica para plancton de 500 µm de apertura. Una especie de cladócero (Ephemeroporus acanthoides es informada por primera vez en Ecuador. La diversidad (H’ y equitatividad (E fueron determinadas y correlacionadas con los ejes del PCA basado en variables ambientales de los lagos. Los principales parámetros que distinguen estos lagos fueron la altitud y el pH, hallazgo inesperado dado el estrecho ámbito altitudinal. El tamaño parece ser secundario en importancia para este grupo de lagos. No se encontró una correlación significativa entre ninguno de los ejes ambientales y los indices H’ o E; sin embargo, la riqueza de

  3. Thermoregulation and rhythmicity in Eliomys melanurus from the Negev Highlands, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Haim

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oxygen consumption (VO2 and body temperature (Tb were measured in the Asian Garden Dormouse, Eliomys melanurus, from a population inhabiting the semi-arid steppe habitats of the Negev Highlands in Israel. Prior to measurements, the animals were acclimated for at least three weeks to an ambient temperature of 24°C with a photoperiod regime of 12L:12D. The results of this study reveal that the resting metabolic rates of this species are relatively low and that even at Ta=25°C they may enter daily periods of torpor which can save up to 65% of the average daily energy expenditure of a normothermic individual under the same conditions. The emergence from torpor is accompanied by an overshoot in VO2. Both normothermic dormice and those in torpor show a daily rhythm of VO2 and Tb with a clear pattern of a nocturnal species. Riassunto Termoregolazione e ritmicità di Eliomys melanurus della regione montuosa del Negev, Israele - Il consumo di ossigeno (VO2 e la temperatura corporea (Tb sono stati misurati nel topo quercino asiatico, Eliomys melanurus, proveniente da una popolazione che in Israele abita ambienti steppici semi-aridi della regione montuosa del Negev. Prima delle misurazioni, gli animali sono stati acclimatati per almeno tre settimane ad una temperatura ambiente di 24°C con un fotoperiodo di 12L:12D. I risultati di questo studio rivelano che i tassi metabolici di questa specie in condizioni di riposo sono relativamente bassi e che anche a Ta=25°C possono entrare in periodi di torpore giornalieri che permettono di salvare fino a1 65% del consumo medio energetico giornaliero di un individuo normotermico alle stesse condizioni. Il risveglio dal torpore è accompagnato da un aumento di VO2. Sia i Mioxidi normotermici che quelli in torpore mostrano

  4. Simulation of malaria epidemiology and control in the highlands of western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuckey Erin M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of Plasmodium falciparum malaria epidemiology that provide realistic quantitative predictions of likely epidemiological outcomes of existing vector control strategies have the potential to assist in planning for the control and elimination of malaria. This work investigates the applicability of mathematical modelling of malaria transmission dynamics in Rachuonyo South, a district with low, unstable transmission in the highlands of western Kenya. Methods Individual-based stochastic simulation models of malaria in humans and a deterministic model of malaria in mosquitoes as part of the OpenMalaria platform were parameterized to create a scenario for the study area based on data from ongoing field studies and available literature. The scenario was simulated for a period of two years with a population of 10,000 individuals and validated against malaria survey data from Rachuonyo South. Simulations were repeated with multiple random seeds and an ensemble of 14 model variants to address stochasticity and model uncertainty. A one-dimensional sensitivity analysis was conducted to address parameter uncertainty. Results The scenario was able to reproduce the seasonal pattern of the entomological inoculation rate (EIR and patent infections observed in an all-age cohort of individuals sampled monthly for one year. Using an EIR estimated from serology to parameterize the scenario resulted in a closer fit to parasite prevalence than an EIR estimated using entomological methods. The scenario parameterization was most sensitive to changes in the timing and effectiveness of indoor residual spraying (IRS and the method used to detect P. falciparum in humans. It was less sensitive than expected to changes in vector biting behaviour and climatic patterns. Conclusions The OpenMalaria model of P. falciparum transmission can be used to simulate the impact of different combinations of current and potential control interventions to help plan

  5. Geological mapping of lunar highland crater Lalande: Topographic configuration, morphology and cratering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Ling, Zongcheng; Zhang, Jiang; Chen, Jian; Liu, ChangQing; Bi, Xiangyu

    2018-02-01

    Highland crater Lalande (4.45°S, 8.63°W; D = 23.4 km) is located on the PKT area of the lunar near side, southeast of the Mare Insularum. It is a complex crater in Copernican era and has three distinguishing features: high silicic anomaly, the highest Th abundance and special landforms on its floor. There are some low-relief bulges on the left of Lalande's floor with regular circle or ellipse shapes. They are ∼250-680 m wide and ∼30-91 m high with maximum flank slopes >20°. There are two possible scenarios for the formation of these low-relief bulges which are impact melt products or young silicic volcanic eruptions. We estimated the absolute model ages of the ejecta deposits, several melt ponds and the hummocky floor and determined the ratio of diameter and depth of the crater Lalande. In addition, we found some similar bugle features within other Copernican-aged craters and there were no volcanic source vents on Lalande's floor. Thus, we hypothesized that these low-relief bulges were most consistent with an origin of impact melts during the crater formation instead of small and young volcanic activities occurring on the floor. Based on Kaguya Terrain Camera (TC) ortho-mosaic and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) data produced by TC imagery in stereo, geological units and some linear features on the floor and wall of Lalande have been mapped. Eight geological units are organized by crater floor units: hummocky floor, central peak and low-relief bulges; and crater wall units: terraced walls, channeled and veneered walls, interior walls, mass wasting areas, blocky areas, and melt ponds. These geological units and linear features provided us a chance to understand some details of the cratering process and elevation differences on the floor. We proposed that subsidence due to melt cooling, late-stage wall collapse and rocks uplifted from beneath the surface could be the possible causes of the observed elevation differences on Lalande's floor.

  6. Tropical Pacific Observing for the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, David M.; Hill, Katherine

    2014-06-01

    More than 60 scientists and program officials from 13 countries met at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography for the Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS) 2020 Workshop. The workshop, although motivated in part by the dramatic decline of NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) buoy reporting from mid-2012 to early 2014 (see http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-03-07/aging-el-nino-buoys-getting-fixed-as-weather-forecasts-at-risk.html), evaluated the needs for tropical Pacific observing and initiated efforts to develop a more resilient and integrative observing system for the future.

  7. Termites community as environmental bioindicators in highlands: a case study in eastern slopes of Mount Slamet, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDHAM SAKTI HARAHAP

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pribadi T,Raffiudin R,HarahapIS (2011Termites community as environmental bioindicators in highlands: a case study in eastern slopes of Mount Slamet, Central Java. Biodiversitas 12: 235-240. Termites ecological behaviour is much affected by land use change and disturbance level. Their variation in diversity can be used as bioindicator of environmental quality. However, termite community response to land use changes and habitat disturbance in highland ecosystems remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate the response of termite community to land use intensification and to explore their role as environmental bioindicator in Mount Slamet. A standard survey protocol was used to collect termites in five land use typesof various disturbance levels,i.e. protected forest, recreation forest, production forest,agroforestry, and urban area. It was found two termite families i.e. Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae with seven species, i.e Schedorhinotermes javanicus, Procapritermes sp, Pericapritermes semarangi, Macrotermes gilvus, Microtermes insperatus, Nasutitermes javanicus, and N. matanganensis. Termite species’ richness and evenness, Shannon-Wiener index, relative abundance, and biomass of termite were declined along with the land use types and disturbance level from protected forest to urban area. Habitat disturbance was the main declining factor of termite diversity. Termite composition changed along with the land use disturbance level. Soil feeding termites were sensitive to the disturbance – they were not found in urban area. Hence, their presence or absence can be used as environmental bioindicator to detect habitat disturbance.

  8. Methamphetamine use and correlates in two villages of the highland ethnic Karen minority in northern Thailand: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono-Kihara Masako

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of methamphetamine use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence are high in lowland Thai society. Despite increasing social and cultural mixing among residents of highland and lowland Thai societies, however, little is known about methamphetamine use among ethnic minority villagers in the highlands. Methods A cross-sectional survey examined Karen villagers from a developed and a less-developed village on February 24 and March 26, 2003 to evaluate the prevalence and social correlates of methamphetamine use in northern Thailand. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Results The response rate was 79.3% (n = 548. In all, 9.9% (males 17.6%, females 1.7% of villagers reported methamphetamine use in the previous year. Methamphetamine was used mostly by males and was significantly related to primary or lower education; to ever having worked in town; to having used opium, marijuana, or heroin in the past year; and to ever having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Conclusion Since labor migration to towns is increasingly common among ethnic minorities, the prevention of methamphetamine use and of HIV/STI infection among methamphetamine users should be prioritized to prevent HIV in this minority population in Thailand.

  9. Effects of highway construction on stream water quality and macroinvertebrate condition in a mid-atlantic highlands watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Viadero, Roger C; Wei, Xinchao; Fortney, Ronald; Hedrick, Lara B; Welsh, Stuart A; Anderson, James T; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2009-01-01

    Refining best management practices (BMPs) for future highway construction depends on a comprehensive understanding of environmental impacts from current construction methods. Based on a before-after-control impact (BACI) experimental design, long-term stream monitoring (1997-2006) was conducted at upstream (as control, n = 3) and downstream (as impact, n = 6) sites in the Lost River watershed of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region, West Virginia. Monitoring data were analyzed to assess impacts of during and after highway construction on 15 water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate condition using the West Virginia stream condition index (WVSCI). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified regional primary water quality variances, and paired t tests and time series analysis detected seven highway construction-impacted water quality parameters which were mainly associated with the second principal component. In particular, impacts on turbidity, total suspended solids, and total iron during construction, impacts on chloride and sulfate during and after construction, and impacts on acidity and nitrate after construction were observed at the downstream sites. The construction had statistically significant impacts on macroinvertebrate index scores (i.e., WVSCI) after construction, but did not change the overall good biological condition. Implementing BMPs that address those construction-impacted water quality parameters can be an effective mitigation strategy for future highway construction in this highlands region.

  10. One century sedimentary record of lead and zinc pollution in Yangzong Lake, a highland lake in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enlou; Liu, Enfeng; Shen, Ji; Cao, Yanmin; Li, Yanling

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of trace metal pollution histories and sources may help us to regulate current pollutant discharge. This is especially important for the highland lakes in southwestern China, which are facing trace metals pollution. We present sedimentary records of 11 metals accumulated in Yangzong Lake since the 1870's, a highland lake in southwestern China. Pollution of lead and zinc (Pb and Zn) was differentiated based on principal component analysis, geochemical normalization, and lead isotope ratios. Nearly all the metals as well as grain size composition show generally constant values before the mid-1980's, denoting stable detrital input in the catchment. Fluctuations in the concentrations of the metals as well as grain size composition since the mid-1980's indicate an increase in soil erosion with strengthened human disturbance in the catchment. After geochemical normalization, Pb and Zn showed constant values before 1990 AD and then a gradual increase in parallel with the variations in 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios, indicating that Pb and Zn pollution occurred. Combining the data of 208pb/206Pb and 207Pb/6Pb ratios in the sediments of Yangzong Lake, leaded gasoline, Pb-Zn ore and coal, and consumption or production historical trends, we deduced that the enhanced Pb and Zn pollution in Yangzong Lake is caused primarily by ore mining and refining.

  11. Fascioliasis and Eosinophilia in the Highlands of Cuzco, Peru and Their Association with Water and Socioeconomic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Goodrich, Mary R.; Graham, Brittany; Villanueva-Meyer, Pablo G.; Lopez, Martha; Arque, Eulogia; White, A. Clinton

    2014-01-01

    There are limited data about the epidemiology of fascioliasis in Cuzco, Peru. We studied children 3–12 years old from six communities in the highlands of Cuzco to evaluate the epidemiology of fascioliasis; 227 children were included, one-half were female, the mean age was 7.5 (±2.6) years, and 46.2±% had one or more parasites, including Fasciola (9.7%), Ascaris (12.8%), Hymenolepis (9.3%), Trichuris (1.3%), hookworm (1.8%), Strongyloides (0.9%), and Giardia (27.8%). Fasciola was associated with the number of siblings in the household, drinking untreated water, and giardiasis. Eosinophilia was encountered in 21% of children and more common in those drinking untreated water at home and those infected with a parasite, but the differences were not significant. Eating water plants was not associated with Fasciola or eosinophilia. Fascioliasis and eosinophilia were common in the highlands of Cuzco. Fascioliasis was associated with socioeconomic factors and drinking water. PMID:25200257

  12. Strategies for Improving Enterprise Standardization Management of Tropical Crop Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are two categories of tropical crop machinery. One comprises operation machinery that is used for planting, managing and harvesting tropical crops, while the other comprises process machinery for processing tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery is distinguished from other agricultural machinery by the special crops that such machinery cultivates and processes.

  13. Applications of NASA TROPICS Data for Tropical Cyclone Analysis, Nowcasting, and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, B.; Dunion, J. P.; Blackwell, W. J.; Braun, S. A.; Green, D. S.; Velden, C.; Adler, R. F.; Cossuth, J.; Murray, J. J.; Brennan, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation structure and storm Intensity with a Constellation of Smallsats (TROPICS) mission is a constellation of state-of-the-science observing platforms that will measure temperature and humidity soundings and precipitation with spatial resolution comparable to current operational passive microwave sounders but with unprecedented temporal resolution. TROPICS is a cost-capped ($30M) Venture-class mission funded by the NASA Earth Science Division. The mission is comprised of a constellation of 3 unit (3U) SmallSats, each hosting a 12-channel passive microwave spectrometer based on the Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite 2 (MicroMAS-2) developed at MIT LL. TROPICS will provide imagery near 91 and 205 GHz, temperature sounding near 118 GHz, and moisture sounding near 183 GHz. Spatial resolution at nadir will be around 27 km for temperature and 17 km for moisture and precipitation. The swath width is approximately 2000 km. TROPICS enables temporal resolution similar to geostationary orbit but at a much lower cost, demonstrating a technology that could impact the design of future Earth-observing missions. The TROPICS satellites for the mission are slated for delivery to NASA in 2019 with potential launch opportunities in 2020. The primary mission objective of TROPICS is to relate temperature, humidity, and precipitation structure to the evolution of tropical cyclone (TC) intensity. This abstract summarizes the outcomes of the 1st TROPICS Applications Workshop, held from May 8-10, 2017 at the University of Miami. At this meeting, a series of presentations and breakout discussions in the topical areas of Tropical Cyclone Dynamics, Tropical Cyclone Analysis and Nowcasting, Tropical Cyclone Modeling and Data Assimilation, and Terrestrial Impacts were convened to identify applications of the mission data and to begin to establish a community of end-users who will be able to

  14. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is an international Open Access ... drug events, medical and other life sciences, and related engineering fields). ... Studies on synthesis of new compounds should only be considered if they ...

  15. Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slik, J.W.F.; Franklin, Janet; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Field, Richard; Aguilar, Salomon; Aguirre, Nikolay; Ahumada, Jorge; Aiba, Shin Ichiro; Alves, Luciana F.; Anitha, K.; Avella, Andres; Mora, Francisco; Aymard, Gerardo A.C.; Báez, Selene; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L.; Bastin, Jean François; Bellingham, Peter J.; Berg, Van Den Eduardo; Conceição Bispo, Da Polyanna; Boeckx, Pascal; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Brambach, Fabian; Brearley, Francis Q.; Brown, Sandra; Chai, Shauna Lee; Chazdon, Robin L.; Chen, Shengbin; Chhang, Phourin; Chuyong, George; Ewango, Corneille; Coronado, Indiana M.; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, H.S.; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J.; Din, Hazimah; Drake, Donald R.; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; Enoki, Tsutomu; Ensslin, Andreas; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Fischer, Markus; Forshed, Olle; Garcia, Queila Souza; Garkoti, Satish Chandra; Gillespie, Thomas W.; Gillet, Jean Francois; Gonmadje, Christelle; Granzow-De La Cerda, Iñigo; Griffith, Daniel M.; Grogan, James; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Harris, David J.; Harrison, Rhett D.; Hector, Andy; Hemp, Andreas; Homeier, Jürgen; Hussain, M.S.; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo; Hanum, I.F.; Imai, Nobuo; Jansen, Patrick A.; Joly, Carlos Alfredo; Joseph, Shijo; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L.; Kessler, Michael; Killeen, Timothy J.; Kooyman, Robert M.; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan G.; Laurance, William F.; Lawes, Michael J.; Letcher, Susan G.; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lovett, Jon; Lozada, Jose; Lu, Xinghui; Lykke, Anne Mette; Mahmud, Bin Khairil; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana; Mansor, Asyraf; Marshall, Andrew R.; Martin, Emanuel H.; Matos, Darley Calderado Leal; Meave, Jorge A.; Melo, Felipe P.L.; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre; Metali, Faizah; Medjibe, Vincent P.; Metzger, Jean Paul; Metzker, Thiago; Mohandass, D.; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A.; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Nurtjahy, Eddy; Oliveira, De Eddie Lenza; Onrizal,; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, N.; Paudel, Ekananda; Perez, Rolando; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Pommer, Ulf; Poorter, Lourens; Qi, Lan; Piedade, Maria Teresa F.; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Poulsen, John R.; Powers, Jennifer S.; Prasad, Rama Chandra; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe; Rangel, Orlando; Reitsma, Jan; Rocha, Diogo S.B.; Rolim, Samir; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Rutten, Gemma; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam; Saiter, Felipe Z.; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio; Santos, Dos João Roberto; Sarker, Swapan Kumar; Schmitt, Christine B.; Schoengart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Sheil, Douglas; Sist, Plinio; Souza, Alexandre F.; Spironello, Wilson Roberto; Sposito, Tereza; Steinmetz, Robert; Stevart, Tariq; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji; Sukri, Rahayu; Sultana, Aisha; Sukumar, Raman; Sunderland, Terry; Supriyadi, S.; Suresh, H.S.; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jianwei; Tanner, Ed V.J.; Targhetta, Natalia; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan; Timberlake, Jonathan; Morisson Valeriano, De Márcio; Valkenburg, Van Johan; Do, Van Tran; Sam, Van Hoang; Vandermeer, John H.; Verbeeck, Hans; Vetaas, Ole Reidar; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A.; Webb, Campbell O.; Webb, Edward L.; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge; Williams, John; Wiser, Susan; Wittmann, Florian; Yang, Xiaobo; Yao, C.Y.A.; Yap, Sandra L.; Zahawi, Rakan A.; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern

  16. Human Influence on Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Adam H.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Hall, Timothy M.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K.; Wing, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity.We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Although greenhouse gas-driven warming increases potential intensity, climate model simulations suggest that aerosol cooling has largely canceled that effect over the historical record. Large natural variability complicates analysis of trends, as do poleward shifts in the latitude of maximum intensity. In the absence of strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, future greenhouse gas forcing of potential intensity will increasingly dominate over aerosol forcing, leading to substantially larger increases in tropical cyclone intensities.

  17. Homological mirror symmetry and tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Kontsevich, Maxim; Pantev, Tony; Soibelman, Yan; Zharkov, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Tropical Geometry and Mirror Symmetry goes back to the work of Kontsevich and Y. Soibelman (2000), who applied methods of non-archimedean geometry (in particular, tropical curves) to Homological Mirror Symmetry. In combination with the subsequent work of Mikhalkin on the “tropical” approach to Gromov-Witten theory, and the work of Gross and Siebert, Tropical Geometry has now become a powerful tool. Homological Mirror Symmetry is the area of mathematics concentrated around several categorical equivalences connecting symplectic and holomorphic (or algebraic) geometry. The central ideas first appeared in the work of Maxim Kontsevich (1993). Roughly speaking, the subject can be approached in two ways: either one uses Lagrangian torus fibrations of Calabi-Yau manifolds (the so-called Strominger-Yau-Zaslow picture, further developed by Kontsevich and Soibelman) or one uses Lefschetz fibrations of symplectic manifolds (suggested by Kontsevich and further developed by Seidel). Tropical Ge...

  18. [Profile of tropical diseases in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, F A

    1996-01-01

    The increased incidence of Imported Tropical Diseases in Portugal is correlated to a recent higher standard of living, influence of media and a consequent expansion of tourism, and above all to the close relationship existing between Portugal and Africa. The number and pathology (parasitic diarrhoeas, protozoal and helminthic infections) of in-patients with Tropical Diseases at the Unidade de Doenças Infecciosas, Parasitárias e de Medicina Tropical (UDIP-MT) were described, with special emphasis on Malaria (155 in-patients during the period from 1989 to 1993) and on Sleeping Sickness, where Eflornitin (DFMO) was for the first time used in Portugal. Finally, the impact of HIV epidemic on incidence and different clinical presentations of parasitic and other tropical pathology was also evaluated.

  19. Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... minimum printing cost of about 150 copies for authors and advertising organization ... Nonmembers: Please send change of address information to subscriptions@ ... The entire contents of the Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ...

  20. Orographic effects on tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Hideki

    Large-scale mountain modifies the atmospheric circulation directly through dynamic and thermodynamic process, and also indirectly through the interaction with the ocean. To investigate orographic impacts on tropical climate, a fully coupled general circulation model (CGCM) is developed by coupling a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model and an ocean general circulation model. With realistic boundary conditions, the CGCM produces a reasonable climatology of sea surface temperature (SST), surface winds, and precipitation. When global mountains are removed, the model climatology displays substantial changes in both the mean-state and the seasonal cycle. The equatorial eastern Pacific SST acquires a semi-annual component as inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) flips and flops across the equator following the seasonal migration of the sun. Without the Andes, wet air flows into the southeastern tropical Pacific from the humid Amazon, which weakens the meridional asymmetry during the Peruvian warm season (February-April). In addition, the northeasterly trade winds are enhanced north of the equator without the orographic blocking of Central American mountains and cools SST. Triggered by the SST cooling north and moistening south of the equator, the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback further weakens the meridional asymmetry and prolongs the southern ITCZ. In the Atlantic Ocean, the equatorial cold tongue is substantially strengthened and develops a pronounced annual cycle in the absence of mountains. The easterly winds are overall enhanced over the equatorial Atlantic without orographic heating over the African highlands, developing a zonal asymmetry strengthened by the Bjerknes feedback. In the Indian Ocean, the thermocline shoals eastward and an equatorial cold tongue appears twice a year. During boreal summer, the Findlater jet is greatly weakened off Somalia and SST warms in the western Indian Ocean, forcing the equatorial easterly winds amplified