[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 19 August 2004 The arrows (see Figure 1) in this July 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image indicate the location of an unconformity in the layered sequence of the martian north polar cap. An unconformity is a geologic term that indicates a break in the depositional record of a sedimentary deposit. In this case, the change is recorded by the presence of a series of polar layers that are truncated (cut off) along the line of arrows. The erosion that cut these layers along a gentle slope were later covered by a new set of layers that occur from the arrow tips upward to the top of the sequence shown here. The image is located near 85.2oN, 7.3oW. The bright features in the lower third of the image are frost-covered sand dunes. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the top/upper right.
This 10.5 by 11 km sub-area in northern Chile was acquired by ASTER on April 7, 2000. Dramatically displayed is a geological angular unconformity: a contact between layers of rock at different angles. On the right side of the image, Cretaceous sediments were tilted upward to an angle of about 50 degrees, then eroded. On this surface volcanic pyroclastic deposits were deposited as a flat sheet. The section of rocks has been eroding from the east, exposing the tilted and flat rock layers. The image is located at 24.8 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
The sub-Lifjell unconformity subdivides the traditional Seljord group of the Telemark supracrustals, south Norway, into the Vindeggen and Lifjell groups. It is defined by an in situ weathering breccia and an angular unconformity above quartzites of the 1155 Ma old Vindeggen group and by a volcaniclastic palaeoregolith developed above the 1155±2 Ma old porphyry of the Brunkeberg formation. Due to the complex deformation of the Vindeggen and Lifjell groups this unconformity has often been shea...
Dwyer, Gary S.; Repetski, John E.
Analysis of well core and cuttings from the Black Warrior Basin in Mississippi reveals the presence of a Middle Ordovician (Whiterockian) erosional unconformity interpreted to be equivalent to the well-known Knox-Beekmantown unconformity in eastern North America. The unconformity occurs at the top of a peritidal dolostone unit known informally as the upper dolostone, whose stratigraphic placement has been the subject of a long-standing controversy. The unconformity, which represents the Sauk-Tippecanoe megasequence boundary on the North American craton, was previously thought to be short-lived or altogether absent in the Black Warrior Basin.
Full Text Available The sub-Lifjell unconformity subdivides the traditional Seljord group of the Telemark supracrustals, south Norway, into the Vindeggen and Lifjell groups. It is defined by an in situ weathering breccia and an angular unconformity above quartzites of the 1155 Ma old Vindeggen group and by a volcaniclastic palaeoregolith developed above the 1155±2 Ma old porphyry of the Brunkeberg formation. Due to the complex deformation of the Vindeggen and Lifjell groups this unconformity has often been sheared or cut by faults, which impedes its use as a lithostratigraphic boundary. Dated porphyries under andabove the Lifjell group define the age of the sub-Lifjell unconformity between 1155±2 Ma and 1145±4 Ma indicating that the part of the unconformity developed above the Brunkeberg formation represents a relatively short time gap (<10 Ma. The part of the unconformity developed above the Vindeggen group represents a substantially larger time gap, for the Vindeggen group was folded before the extrusion of the Brunkeberg porphyry. This time duration cannot be, however, approximated more closely as the ages of the sedimentation and folding of the Vindeggen group are not known. In the terms of sequence stratigraphy, the sub-Lifjell unconformity defines the lower bounding surface of an extensive Mesoproterozoicbeach-shallow self sequence.
Ghienne, Jean-Francois; Moreau, Julien; Degermann, Lionel
The stratigraphic record of the eastern Murzuq Basin has been importantly influenced by deformation resulting in angular and/or deeply erosional unconformities, though the overall context is intracratonic. Major transgressive events and the Ordovician glaciation are nevertheless documented, allow...
In Umbgrove’s “Geological History of the East Indies”, published in 1938 in the Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, we find on page 7 the following remarks about the possible extistence of an Upper Paleozoic unconformity in North Sumatra: “According to Zwierzicky (1929) the
Full Text Available The 1.51 Ga Rjukan group, Telemark, S Norway, is divided into felsic volcanic rocks of the Tuddal formation and mafic rocks of the Vemork formation. It is overlain by the sedimentary rocks of the Vindeggen group (1.50–1.17 Ga, starting with the arkosic Heddersvatnetformation. The contact between the Rjukan and Vindeggen groups has been variably interpreted in the literature. New field data indicate that the contact corresponds to an unconformity, corroborating Wyckoff’s early observations in 1934. The contact is referred to asthe sub-Heddersvatnet unconformity. The nature of the contact varies. Around Lake Heddersvatnet, it most likely represents an angular unconformity with a sharp, erosional surface, whereas near Lake Skjesvatnet a thin in situ palaeoweathering crust developed on a massive Tuddal porphyry defines it. These observations indicate that the sub-Heddersvatnet unconformity represents a deeply weathered land surface cutting diverse folded Tuddal units. How big is the time gap it represents and the nature of the pre-Vindeggen deformation are open questions as the sedimentation age of the Heddersvatnet formation is unknown and the structure of the Rjukan group has not been studied on a regional scale.
Lewis, K. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Rubin, D. M.
Since its departure from the plains of Aeolis Palus, the Curiosity rover has traversed through a number of new geologic units at the base of Mount Sharp in Gale crater. These have included both units inferred to comprise the lower strata of Mount Sharp itself, along with units that appear to superpose Mount Sharp. Over the last 100 sols, Curiosity has documented several occurrences of a stratigraphic contact between fine-grained mudstones of the Murray Formation, and coarser sandstones of the overlying Stimson Unit. Detailed mapping from both orbital and rover image and topographic data suggests an unconformable relationship between the two units. From orbit, inferred exposures of the unconformity span at least several tens of meters, climbing up the lowermost slopes of Mount Sharp. Although the absolute timing of the two units is poorly constrained, this unconformity between likely represents a geologically significant gap in time. Deposition of the overlying Stimson Unit is inferred to post-date the large-scale erosion of Mount Sharp, likely requiring late stage aqueous interaction in the lithification of the Stimson Unit. From the rover, stereo imaging reveals the small-scale topography preserved at the Murray-Stimson contact, and allows the determination of bedding geometries within the units. Where laminations are expressed, the basal Mount Sharp rocks exhibit planar stratification at low angles to horizontal. In contrast, the coarser-grained Stimson Unit exhibits large-scale cross stratification. Three dimensional bedding geometry within this unit indicates a predominant southward transport direction uphill towards Mount Sharp. The observation of rounded calcium sulfate clasts in the lowermost Stimson Unit, interpreted to be reworked veins from the underlying Murray formation, supports the interpretation of an erosional unconformity. Investigations at the boundary between these two distinct units present a unique opportunity to probe the long
Knoll, A. H.; Kaufman, A. J.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Adams, W.
Sedimentary rocks in the western Anabar region, northwestern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolution and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. Carbon isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at 1 to 2 m intervals support correlation of the lower Anabar succession (Staraya Reckha and lower Manykai Formations) with sub-Tommotian carbonates of the Ust'-Yu-doma Formation in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, the upper Manykai and most of the overlying Medvezhya Formation appear to preserve a sedimentary and paleontological record of an evolutionary important time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlation of the Anabar section with other northern Siberian successions that contain well-dated volcanic rocks permits the estimate that the sub-Tommotian unconformity in southeastern Siberia spans approximately 3 to 6 m.y. Diverse small shelly fossils (but not archaeocyathans) previously thought to mark the base of the Tommotian Stage evolved sequentially throughout this earlier interval.
Casas Tuset, Josep Maria; Fernández, Óscar
In recent years, contradictory reports about whether or not an unconformity exists at the base of the Upper Ordovician succession of the Pyrenees have been made. In the Cerdanya area (Central Pyrenees), good outcrop evidence for this unconformity is displayed at the base of the Rabassa conglomerates. In this area, the Upper Ordovician rocks overlie a tilted Cambro-Ordovician sequence, displaying an angular unconformity and indicating a break in the stratigraphic series. Moreover, the existenc...
Casas Tuset, Josep Maria
In recent years, contradictory reports about whether or not an unconformity exists at the base of the Upper Ordovician succession of the Pyrenees have been made. In the Cerdanya area (Central Pyrenees), good outcrop evidence for this unconformity is displayed at the base of the Rabassa conglomerates. In this area, the Upper Ordovician rocks overlie a tilted Cambro-Ordovician sequence, displaying an angular unconformity and indicating a break in the stratigraphic series. Moreover, the existenc...
Heizler, M. T.; Karlstrom, K. E.
The Southwestern USA Precambrian terranes preserve a long and variable exhumation history that can be tracked using thermochronological methods. This exhumation history is controlled on two interrelated scales. At first order, it is recognized that 1.7 to 1.4 Ga mid-crustal (10 km, 2-4 kbar) rocks were ultimately exhumed and reside below unconformities of variable age. In Arizona, Mesoproterozoic Apache Group and Neoproterozoic Supergroup sedimentary rocks lie directly on basement and thus indicate exhumation of some regions relatively soon following the 1.4 Ga events. In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and the Rio Grande rift uplifts of New Mexico, basement is generally overlain by Cambrian to Mississippian strata. The unconformities are useful markers of net exhumation; however do not reveal a time-integrated path. Using published, and hundreds of new 40Ar/39Ar analyses of hornblende, muscovite, biotite and K-feldspar, and a growing U/Pb accessory mineral thermochronology database, we are extracting exhumation information with great detail. The thermochronological data continue to support the claim that relatively low net exhumation occurred following 1.7 to 1.6 Ga accretion of volcanic arc terranes to the southern margin of Laurentia. Mid-crustal (2-4 kbar) rocks stabilized soon after accretion, whereas in some regions like the Upper Granite Gorge, Grand Canyon deeper (6 kbar) metamorphic terranes decompressed to 3 kbar before stabilization. The cooling history of these mid-crustal rocks post 1.65 Ga remains somewhat unknown. Overall slow-cooling models (550 \\deg C to 300 \\deg C from 1.7 to 1.4 Ga) require high geothermal gradients in order to maintain 10 km deep rocks at high temperatures for 100's of Ma. Alternatively, isobaric cooling models to more normal geothermal gradients (i.e. 25 \\deg C/km) at ca. 1.65 Ga require later (1.4 Ga) thermal pulses and/or Mesoproterozoic vertical displacements to explain highly discordant thermochronological data. Either
... the most options. That's where you'll find vegan foods that are made without eggs or egg products. When preparing your own food, you can substitute one of these egg alternatives in your recipes. Each of these replaces one egg (these substitutes ...
... oil and 1 teaspoon (5 milliliters) of baking powder for each egg. When you're cutting out eggs, you'll want to make sure you're still getting protein from other foods. Some good ones are meat, ...
Parcerisa, D.; Thiry, Médard; Schmitt, J. M.
The Carboniferous Morvan Massif, in the northern part of the French Massif Central, consists of granite and some rhyolite. A Triassic erosional unconformity has developed on the massif which is covered by Mesozoic sediments of the Paris Basin. The igneous rocks of the Morvan Massif show a strong alteration with pseudomorphic replacement of the primary plagioclases into albite, pseudomorphic replacement of primary biotite into chlorite and minor precipitation of neogenic minerals like albite, chlorite, apatite, haematite, calcite and titanite. The geometry and arrangement of these alterations give significant constraints about their development. Some of the altered facies develop in a pervasive manner; others are restricted to centimetric to metric-wide joints that imply fluid-flow phenomena. Moreover, the alteration facies are arranged in a clear succession with strongly altered facies at the top and weakly altered facies towards the depth, which point to a genetic relationship with the Triassic unconformity. Regional distribution of the alterations, which affect the Carboniferous igneous and volcanic formations beneath the Jurassic sedimentary cover, also leads to associate these alterations with the Triassic unconformity. Dating of the alterations provides even a further constraint, alterations are of Triassic age, that means the same age as the unconformity. Taking into account all these geological constraints, it is proposed that albitisation of the Morvan Massif was developed under low temperature subsurface conditions in relation to the Triassic palaeosurface.
An ovulated egg of vertebrates is surrounded by unique extracellular matrix, the egg coat or zona pellucida, playing important roles in fertilization and early development. The vertebrate egg coat is composed of two to six zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins that are characterized by the evolutionarily conserved ZP-domain module and classified into six subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses. Interestingly, investigations of biochemical and functional features of the ZP glycoproteins show that the roles of each ZP-glycoprotein family member in the egg-coat formation and the egg-sperm interactions seemingly vary across vertebrates. This might be one reason why comprehensive understandings of the molecular basis of either architecture or physiological functions of egg coat still remain elusive despite more than 3 decades of intensive investigations. In this chapter, an overview of avian egg focusing on the oogenesis are provided in the first section, and unique features of avian egg coat, i.e., perivitelline layer, including the morphology, biogenesis pathway, and physiological functions are discussed mainly on chicken and quail in terms of the characteristics of ZP glycoproteins in the following sections. In addition, these features of avian egg coat are compared to mammalian zona pellucida, from the viewpoint that the structural and functional varieties of ZP glycoproteins might be associated with the evolutionary adaptation to their reproductive strategies. By comparing the egg coat of birds and mammals whose reproductive strategies are largely different, new insights into the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate egg-sperm interactions might be provided.
Full Text Available Several stratigraphic breaks and unconformities exist in the Mesoproterozoic successions in the northern margin of the North China Block. Geologic characters and spatial distributions of five of these unconformities, which have resulted from different geological processes, have been studied. The unconformity beneath the Dahongyu Formation is interpreted as a breakup unconformity, representing the time of transition from continental rift to passive continental margin. The unconformities beneath the Gaoyuzhuang and the Yangzhuang formations are considered to be the consequence of regional eustatic fluctuations, leading to the exposure of highlands in passive margins during low sea-level stands and transgressive deposition on coastal regions during high sea-level stands. The unconformity atop the Tieling Formation might be caused by uplift due to contractional deformation in a back-arc setting, whereas the uplift after the deposition of the Xiamaling Formation might be attributed to a continental collision event. It is assumed that the occurrences of these unconformities in the Mesoproterozoic successions in the northern margin of the North China Block had a close bearing on the assemblage and breakup of the Columbia and Rodinia supercontinents.
Full Text Available The supervision of unconformable product is a key problem in the era of globalization. In Poland the supervision of safety product has been entrusted to the President of the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection. The agency supporting its activities is the Trade Inspection. Growing popularity of the quality systems conformable with the ISO 9000 standard caused that they have been included in the EU regulations as criteria of assessment of conformability with requirements. The certificate of the quality management system is indispensable for companies for functioning in many market areas. One should remember that quality management system will help the company to supervise unconformable products only when it really functions and is not just on paper. Only then it will function efficiently.
Massingill, L.M.; Wells, R.H.
Several theories on the origin of the Gulf of Mexico basin have been introduced by various researchers (Beloussov, 1970; Freeland and Dietz, 1971; Malfait and Dinkelman, 1972; Wood and Walper, 1974; Pilger, 1978; Buffler and others, 1980; Dickinson and Coney, 1980; Gose and others, 1980; Schmidt-Effing, 1980; Walper, 1980; Schlager and others, 1984). Although no final agreement has been reached, one prominent geologic feature is generally recognized. The early evolution of the basin ended with a major middle Cretaceous event resulting in a Gulf-wide unconformity referred to as the middle Cretaceous unconformity (MCU). This event represents a major shift from Early Cretaceous shallow-water bank sedimentation to Late Cretaceous deeper water carbonates (Worzel and others, 1973; Mitchum, 1978).
Theoretical points as for definition of “financial-economical security” have been researched and summing up. The present attitude were analyzed as for the financial-economical enterprise security forming in the terms of unconformity and system attitude necessity stipulated for strategy system management by a financial-economical enterprise security. Keywords: financial-economical enterprise security, strategy management, financial security, economical security, financial stability, economical...
Theoretical points as for definition of “financial-economical security” have been researched and summing up. The present attitude were analyzed as for the financial-economical enterprise security forming in the terms of unconformity and system attitude necessity stipulated for strategy system management by a financial-economical enterprise security. Keywords: financial-economical enterprise security, strategy management, financial security, economical security, financial stability, economical...
Full Text Available Theoretical points as for definition of “financial-economical security” have been researched and summing up. The present attitude were analyzed as for the financial-economical enterprise security forming in the terms of unconformity and system attitude necessity stipulated for strategy system management by a financial-economical enterprise security. Keywords: financial-economical enterprise security, strategy management, financial security, economical security, financial stability, economical security, external JEL: M 20
Calvès, Gérôme; Auguy, Constance; de Lavaissière, Léopold; Brusset, Stéphane; Calderon, Ysabel; Baby, Patrice
New 3-D seismic data collected over 4870 km2 in the 3°45'S-12°30'S Peruvian segment of the East Pacific subduction system image seafloor erosional surfaces that can be mapped across the fore-arc basins. Fore-arc basins experience various stresses, from their base where basal tectonic erosion acts to the seafloor which is influenced by aerial, shallow, and deep water currents driven by waves or thermohaline oceanic currents. Previously there has been little interest in stresses on the upper layer and there is a lack of documentation of unconformities and the erosive processes in certain bathymetric domains in fore-arc basins. We address this with the study of examples sourced from 3-D seismic reflection surveys of the seafloor offshore Peru. Unconformities occur in two distinctive bathymetric domains associated with the continental shelf and the upper slope of the margin. Identification and characterization of unconformity surfaces yield estimates of the amount of erosion at the modern seafloor that range from 18 to 100%. Regional physical oceanography allows us to calibrate potential candidates for these two distinctive domains. The first control on erosion is the dynamics of deep to intermediate oceanic currents related to the Humboldt-Peru Chile water masses, while the second is wave action in the shallower erosional surfaces. This study illustrates the unseen landscape of the fore-arc basins of South America and helps to highlight the importance of erosive surficial processes in subduction landscapes.
Wilks, M. E.; Nisbet, E. G.
The Steep Rock Group is exposed 6 km north of Atikokan, 200 km west of Thunder Bay. It is situated on the southern margin of the Wabigoon Belt of the Archaean Superior Province, N. W. Ontario. Reinvestigation of the geology of the Group has shown that the Group lies unconformably on the Tonalite Complex to the east. This unconformity has been previously suspected, from regional and ine mapping but no conclusive outcrop evidence for its existence has as yet been published. The strike of the group, comprised of Basal Conglomerate, Carbonate Member, Ore Zone and Ashrock is generally north-northwest dipping steeply to the southwest. Of the 7 contacts between the Steep Rock Group and the Tonalite Complex, 3 expose the unconformity (The Headland, S. Roberts Pit, Trueman Point), and 4 are faulted. These three outcrops demonstrate unequivocally that the Steep Rock group was laid down unconformably on the underlying Tonalite Complex, which is circa 3 Ga old.
Yameogo, S.T.; Hatley, J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Cameco Corp., McArthur River Operation, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)
Rock mechanics literature has documented the challenges, failures and successes of tunnelling through weak rocks. Cases usually deal with low RMR rock masses or high stresses in a fractured zone. With the combination of 5 MPa water pressure, 14 RMR ground with clay infillings and ground freeze walls, the case of the 510-8225N development drift at McArthur River is certainly much more challenging, especially when high grade uranium production is at stake. The article explains the excavation and the ground control techniques that were used to overcome the challenges of development at the Unconformity in the Athabasca Basin. (author)
Lyon Electric Company, Chula Vista, CA.
The goals of this program include enabling students to learn about the anatomy of an avian egg, egg formation, bird embryo development, and the process of egg incubation. This guide is designed to accompany the hands-on experience of incubation and hatching chicken eggs and is organized in three sections. The teaching materials section includes…
Andrés-Martínez, Miguel; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; Armitage, John; Morgan, Jason P.
Rifting is a regional process which results in thinning of the crust over hundreds of kilometres. However, basins where deposition takes place could have different subsidence histories due to local graben-bounding fault kinetics. A change in the rift dynamics often results in a displacement of the basin depocenters, with subsequent erosion of old sediments and later deposition, creating an unconformity. Unconformities of regional character are typically studied to unveil the overall rift deformation history, and major ones separating syn- and post-kinematic sediments are often associated with break-up of the continental crust. However, evolution of the basement deformation is typically challenging to study since reflection images are usually diffuse at these depths and boreholes are typically scarce, which complicates the dating of the sediments overlying the basement. Consequently, relating the deformation styles and rift evolution to unconformities is not straight forward. We use numerical models in order to approach the meaning of regional unconformities and to study the sedimentation patterns under different modes of extension. Our models solve 2D Stokes flow for rocks treated as non-Newtonian bodies, together with heat conservation equation. Viscosities and densities depend on temperatures. Elasticity and plasticity are plugged-in in the mechanical formulation. We also use strain softening to simulate faulting and shear zones. The top boundary is a free-surface so that tectonics result in topography. Additionally, we update this topography every time step using a sediment transport model, and we store information about depositional times, paleo-depths and erosional events. These models allow for the recovery of the basement deformation during rift evolution simultaneously to the recovery of sedimentation history. Here, we run models with different crustal rheologies to reproduce different extensional modes. This allows us to contrast sedimentation patterns and
Jaimes, Elsa; de Freitas, Mario
The Villeta Group of Colombia and equivalent stratigraphic units of Venezuela and Ecuador comprise marine sequences ranging from Albian to Santonian in age. Deposition of the Villeta Group was presumed to take place entirely in quiet tectonic conditions in a passive margin setting that occupied NW South America. From a large database of 2D/3D seismic, well, surface geology, and biostratigraphic data, we present evidence for intra-Villeta (mostly late Albian-Cenomanian) deformation in parts of the Upper Magdalena Valley and Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, controlled by transpressional fault reactivation, produced by transpressional fault reactivation and thrusting that resulted in an angular unconformity. This event has been largely unnoticed in the literature, but previously scattered evidence supports our observations, suggesting regionally extensive tectonism. Published fission-track age determinations and other geologic evidence from Colombia and Venezuela suggest significant uplifts around 80-100 m.y., which may reflect changes in the subduction regime, with compressional deformation in certain regions and extensional deformation in others. A late Albian onset of compressional deformation along the Colombian and Peruvian segments of the Andes may be related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean at equatorial latitudes. Identification of tectonic activity with development of an unconformity in intra-Villeta times provides new insights into understanding the evolution of the Upper Magdalena Valley and adjacent areas of Colombia and western Venezuela and creates new possibilities for hydrocarbon exploration, with additional trapping phases, better reservoir preservation by early migration and secondary porosity, and ultimately facies changes with stratigraphic potential.
Peters, Shanan E; Gaines, Robert R
The transition between the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic eons, beginning 542 million years (Myr) ago, is distinguished by the diversification of multicellular animals and by their acquisition of mineralized skeletons during the Cambrian period. Considerable progress has been made in documenting and more precisely correlating biotic patterns in the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian fossil record with geochemical and physical environmental perturbations, but the mechanisms responsible for those perturbations remain uncertain. Here we use new stratigraphic and geochemical data to show that early Palaeozoic marine sediments deposited approximately 540-480 Myr ago record both an expansion in the area of shallow epicontinental seas and anomalous patterns of chemical sedimentation that are indicative of increased oceanic alkalinity and enhanced chemical weathering of continental crust. These geochemical conditions were caused by a protracted period of widespread continental denudation during the Neoproterozoic followed by extensive physical reworking of soil, regolith and basement rock during the first continental-scale marine transgression of the Phanerozoic. The resultant globally occurring stratigraphic surface, which in most regions separates continental crystalline basement rock from much younger Cambrian shallow marine sedimentary deposits, is known as the Great Unconformity. Although Darwin and others have interpreted this widespread hiatus in sedimentation on the continents as a failure of the geologic record, this palaeogeomorphic surface represents a unique physical environmental boundary condition that affected seawater chemistry during a time of profound expansion of shallow marine habitats. Thus, the formation of the Great Unconformity may have been an environmental trigger for the evolution of biomineralization and the 'Cambrian explosion' of ecologic and taxonomic diversity following the Neoproterozoic emergence of animals.
Tallamy, Douglas W
Females that place eggs under the care of conspecifics have been labeled egg dumpers. Egg dumping is an effective reproductive alternative that lowers risks for, and has the potential to increase fecundity in, its practitioners. Although insect egg dumpers can be social parasites of the maternal behavior of egg recipients, dumping is more likely to be a viable reproductive alternative when the costs to egg recipients are low and thus the defense by potential hosts against egg dumping intrusions is minimal. These conditions are met in insects that guard only eggs or in insects whose eggs hatch into self-supporting precocial young that need little beyond defense from parents. When this is the case, egg dumping is favored by natural and/or kin selection as a mechanism by which dumpers can avoid parental risks and increase fecundity, and egg recipients can enhance offspring survival by diluting predation.
Thiry, M.; Parcerisa, D.; Ricordel-Prognon, C.; Schmitt, J.-M.
pink stage, with an increase in the amount and size of sericite and hematite inclusions. The latter causes the red coloration of the altered rocks. Regional layout Regional distribution of the alterations which affect the Carboniferous igneous and volcanic formations beneath the Jurassic sedimentary cover lead to associate these alterations to the Triassic unconformity. Besides, albitized facies show generally both topographic and regional arrangements, with more altered facies occurring in the mountain highs and in the external parts of the massifs and unaltered facies occurring in the river valleys and in the central parts of the massifs. Moreover, the haematite associated with these albitized basement rocks has been dated from Early Trias by means of paleomagnetism (Ricordel et al, 2007). From this layout and dating, it is deduced that albitization is related to the development of a deep weathering profile (up to 150 m deep) during a long-lasting exposure of the Triassic erosional unconformity (regolith). Geochemistry and paleoenvironmental setting It has to be highlighted that, this alteration may not behave like an "ordinary" weathering profile and occurred under unusual, or at least very specific, geological settings. The scale of the profiles (over 100 m depth) relates this alteration rather to a groundwater environment. The weak mobility of most chemical elements may point to a groundwater with very low outflows and deep water table. This may occur in very subdued landscape and in arid climatic conditions. It has also to be pointed that this alteration may have lasted for several 10's of Ma. Albite formation at low temperature may be envisioned consequently in alkaline, confined waters with sufficient concentrations of sodium and silica. Early attempts of modeling (Schmitt, 1994) have also indicated that a high Na+/K+ ratio is as well probably required. Petrographic data also indicate an import of sodium by the weathering solutions, without any clear enrichment
Surlyk, Finn; Korstgaard, John
The stratigraphy of successions exposed in footwall crests of tilted fault blocks is commonly highly complex. Crestal stratigraphy and structure are particularly difficult to unravel in the subsurface due to poor seismic resolution across fault zones, footwall collapse, and coalescing syn- and post....... A post-rift unconformity was formed in the late Hauterivian, probably during early post-rift emergence and has an irregular, stratigraphically and structurally controlled erosional topography. The eroded early syn-rift, rift-climax and late syn-rift successions were subsequently draped by deep...
Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna; Agasheva, Mariia
The East Siberian Sea basin (ESSB) one of the most unexplored part of the Russian Arctic shelf, extending for over 1000 km from New Siberian Islands archipelago to Wrangel Island. This region is considered as a region with probable high petroleum potential. Within the ESSB several phases of orogeny are recognized : Elsmerian orogeny in Early Devonian, Early Brooks orogeny in Early Cretaceous, Late Brooks orogeny in Late Cretaceous. Two generations of the basins could be outlined. Both of these generations are controlled by the basement domains : Paleozoic (post-Devonian) to Mesozoic basins preserved north of the Late Mesozoic frontal thrusts; Aptian-Albian to Quaternary basins, postdating the Verkhoyansk-Brookian orogeny, and evolving mainly over the New-Siberian-Chukchi Fold Belt. Basin is filled with siliclastic sediments and in the deepest depocentres sediments thickness exceeds 8-10 km in average. Seismic data was interpreted using methods of seismic stratigraphy. Finally, main seismic horizons were indicated and each horizon follows regional stratigraphic unconformities: mBU - in base of Cenozoic, BU - in base of Upper Cretaceous, LCU - in base of Cretaceous, JU - in middle of Jurassic, F - in top of Basement. In ESSB, we can identify Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene seismic stratigraphy complexes. Perspective structures, investigated in ESSB were founded out by comparing seismogeological cross-sections with explored analogs in other onshore and offshore basins [2, 3, 4]. The majority of structures could be connected with stratigraphic and fault traps. The most perspective prospects are probably connected with grabens and depressions, where thickness of sediments exceed 10 km. Reservoirs in ESSB are proposed by regional geological explorations on New Siberian Islands Archipelago and Wrangel Island. Potential seals are predominantly assigned to Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Thick clinoform units of various geometry and
Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.
Full Text Available Amrita Dosanjh Medical Center, Rady Childrens Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: The use of egg protein preparations in clinical trials to reduce the incidence of egg allergy among infants includes a number of preparations of egg. These include whole egg, egg white protein, and egg yolk preparations. The study of the differential immune responses to these allergenic proteins in comparison is suggested as a future research area of investigation. Keywords: food allergy, egg allergy, clinical trial, atopy
Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi
At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…
Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.
Full Text Available The unconformity surface at the bottom of the Paleogene is one of the most important migration pathways in the Sikeshu Sag of the Junggar Basin, which consists of three layers: upper coarse clastic rock, lower weathering crust and leached zone. The upper coarse clastic rock is characterized by higher density and lower SDT and gamma-ray logging parameters, while the lower weathering crust displays opposite features. The transport coefficient of the unconformity surface is controlled by its position in respect to the basal sandstone; it is higher in the ramp region but lower in the adjacent uplifted and sag areas. The content of saturated hydrocarbons increases with the decrease of the content of non-hydrocarbons and asphaltenes. The content of benzo[c] carbazole decreases as the content of benzo[a] carbazole and [alkyl carbazole]/[alkyl + benzo carbazole] increases. This suggests that the unconformity surface is an efficient medium for the transportation of hydrocarbons.
Skinner, Orion; Canter, Lyn; Sonnenfeld, Mark; Williams, Mark [Whiting Oil and Gas Corp., Denver, CO (United States)
Because classic Laramide compressional structures are relatively rare, the Williston Basin is often considered as structurally simple, but because of the presence of numerous sub-basins, simplistic lithofacies generalization is impossible, and detailed facies mapping is necessary to unravel Middle Bakken paleogeography. The unconformity above the Devonian Three Forks is explained by the infilling and destruction of the Devonian Elk Point basin, prepares the Bakken system, and introduces a Mississippian Williston Basin with a very different configuration. Black shales are too often considered as deposits that can only be found in deep water, but to a very different conclusion must be drawn after a review of stratigraphic geometry and facies successions. The whole Bakken is a 2nd-order lowstand to transgressive systems tract lying below the basal Lodgepole, which represents an interval of maximal flooding. This lowstand to transgressive stratigraphic context explains why the sedimentary process and provenance shows high aerial variability.
Hatching eggs, supplied to hatcheries are originating from different origins varying in breed, strain, and breeder age. These hatching eggs can be different in size, composition and eggshell properties, which might influence nutrient and O2 availability and consequently could affect embryonic
Feminist scholars have critically questioned the practices and ethics of reproductive mobility. While the reproductive mobility of fertility patients has been foregrounded, little is known of egg donor mobility including the experiences of travelling internationally to donate eggs. Based on written...
Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…
Patterson, P H; Koelkebeck, K W; Bell, D D; Carey, J B; Anderson, K E; Darre, M J
Large eggs promoted as having one or more features beyond conventional white or brown shell eggs (specialty eggs) were evaluated for quality and price in a national retail study. Subtypes of specialty eggs included: nutritionally altered eggs, organic eggs, fertile eggs, eggs from welfare-managed hens, or hens fed all-vegetable diets. Extension Poultry Specialists in California (CA), Connecticut, Illinois, North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Texas conducted a survey of egg quality and price and compared 246 dozen specialty eggs with 390 dozen conventional white shell eggs during the summer of 1996. Age of the eggs based on carton dating indicated specialty eggs were older (16.5 d) than white eggs (11.7 d). Average egg weights for specialty compared to white were 60.2 and 59.6 g, respectively. Interior egg quality evaluations including albumen height, Haugh units (HU), and percentage HU 5.0 mm, 67.5, and 10.6%, respectively) compared to specialty eggs (4.7 mm, 63.8, and 16.3%). Although the percentage of cracked eggs was similar between specialty and white eggs (5.4 and 5.7%), the percentage of leakers was threefold higher for the specialty eggs (1.0 vs. 0.3%). Egg price was substantially higher for the specialty eggs, averaging $2.18/dozen with a range from 0.88 to $4.38, compared to white eggs, averaging $1.23/dozen and ranging from 0.39 to $2.35.
Gibson, J. C.; Shillington, D. J.; Sawyer, D. S.; Jordan, B.; Morgan, J. K.; Ranero, C.; Reston, T. J.
In this study we use geophysical methods, stratigraphic relationships, and coring/drilling leg results to assess possible controls on deep-sea channel formation in order to further constrain paleo-channel (PC) and associated unconformity timing/source processes. A series of cut and fill PC are mapped in 3D multi-channel seismic (MCS) data and compared with multi-beam (MB) sonar bathymetry/backscatter data collected during the Galicia 3D survey with the R/V Marcus G. Langseth (2013). The MCS data were collected using four 6 km streamers spaced at 200 m resulting in 25 m x 25 m common mid-point bins within the ~67 km x 20 km 3D volume. The MB data were collected at an average depth of ~4900 m with a constrained swath width of 4.5 km resulting in 11.25x overlap while enabling 25-m bathymetry and 10-m backscatter grids. The PC lie below the mouth of a submarine canyon at the edge of the Galicia abyssal plain and cut pre/syn-rift sediments; they are bound by a rift block to the north and paleo-levees to the south (maximum height of ~180m). From drilling results, the most recent PC is late Miocene in age. In this study, four PC are traced into the basin as unconformities. Several of the PC/unconformities are tentatively correlated with previously interpreted Pyrenean orogeny/compressional Miocene/Oligocene tectonic events. However, one PC/unconformity within this interval has not been previously interpreted. In order test the hypothesis that the unconformities are the result of a significant change in base level indicated by a low shale/sand (SS) ratio, we use seismic surface attributes to calculate the SS ratio and trace the horizontal extent of the unconformities. Additionally, the MB/MCS seafloor morphology reveals sedimentary waves outboard of the canyon mouth. We use backscatter data to compare the extent of recent processes (e.g., Pleistocene glaciation/de-glaciation) with the unconformities by mapping the surface/shallow subsurface SS ratio (volume scattering).
Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z
1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.
In this study dietary boron at different doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg feed) was supplemented to layers from 4 to 64 weeks of age. There was no significant difference between treatments with respect of mortality, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and cracked eggs. Significant increases were observed in body ...
Phenotypic correlations between egg weight and other egg quality traits for each variety were also determined. Mean egg weight was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the Brown variety (10.53g) than in the Black and White varieties. Likewise the Brown variety was significantly higher (P<0.05) in egg width, yolk weight, yolk ...
Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.
In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.
Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...
Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk
Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blodgett, Robert B.; Sralla, Bryan
A major angular unconformity separates carbonates and shales of the Upper Triassic Kamishak Formation from an underlying unnamed sequence of Permian agglomerate, volcaniclastic rocks (sandstone), and limestone near Puale Bay on the Alaska Peninsula. For the first time, we photographically document the angular unconformity in outcrop, as clearly exposed in a seacliff ~1.3 mi (2.1 km) west of Cape Kekurnoi in the Karluk C?4 and C?5 1:63,360-scale quadrangles. This unconformity is also documented by examination of core chips, ditch cuttings, and (or) open-hole electrical logs in two deep oil-and-gas-exploration wells (Humble Oil & Refining Co.?s Bear Creek No. 1 and Standard Oil Co. of California?s Grammer No. 1) drilled along the Alaska Peninsula southwest of Puale Bay. A third well (Richfield Oil Corp.?s Wide Bay Unit No. 1), south of and structurally on trend with the other two wells, probed deeply into the Paleozoic basement, but Triassic strata are absent, owing to either a major unconformity or a large fault. Here we briefly review current and newly acquired data on Permian and Triassic rocks of the Puale Bay-Becharof Lake-Wide Bay area on the basis of an examination of surface and subsurface materials. The resulting reinterpretation of the Permian and Triassic stratigraphy has important economic ramifications for oil and gas exploration on the Alaska Peninsula and in the Cook Inlet basin. We also present a history of petroleum exploration targeting Upper Triassic reservoirs in the region.
Andersen, Laura Mørch
This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...
Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca
Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.
Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders
PURPOSE: Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X......-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT......-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...
Von Baer and Haeckel provided the basis of what came to be known as the phylotypic egg timer: during their development vertebrate embryos pass through a period in which they show the archetype of the vertebrate body plan. During this period vertebrate embryos are similar, in both form and
Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete
Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.
The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate
Liang, Ting; Jones, Brian
On Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac, karst development on the upper surface of the Cayman Formation during the late Miocene lowstand produced the Cayman Unconformity. On Grand Cayman, this led to the development of a deep, atoll-shaped depression on the western part of the island. The ensuing Lower Pliocene transgression buried that unconformity and led to deposition of sediments that now form the Pedro Castle Formation. Today, on Grand Cayman, the dolostones of the Cayman Formation remain largely buried on the western half of Grand Cayman but are widely exposed on the central and eastern parts of the island where they have been subjected to extensive weathering over the last 4.3 Ma. Although the situation is similar on Cayman Brac, uplift of the central core led to removal of the Pedro Castle Formation and much of the Cayman Formation. Karst development on both islands reflects the interplay between Neogene sea-level changes, climate, and tectonic uplift. Today, weathering is further modifying the Cayman Unconformity on the eastern parts of both islands. The Cayman Unconformity on the central and eastern parts of Grand Cayman is characterized by karst landforms, including a peripheral rim, sinkholes, solution-widened joints, and photolineaments (surface traces of joints and/or faults). The westward tilting of Cayman Brac (4.3 Ma to 400 ka) led to more severe weathering of the exposed Cayman Formation that included (1) enhancement of the peripheral rim and karst features on the upslope margin, and (2) higher denudation rates than on Grand Cayman. During the Messinian, the denudation rate on the west end of Grand Cayman was 0.03-0.10 mm yr- 1. In contrast, the denudation rate over the an estimated period of 4.9 to 6.2 Ma for the eastern half of Grand Cayman has been about 0.01 mm yr- 1, whereas on the east end of Cayman Brac it has been 0.03-0.04 mm yr- 1. On both islands, substantial thicknesses of strata have been lost to erosion and the Cayman Unconformity has been
Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.
The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate a variety of aspects related to computer-assisted flooding optimization and history matching. Unfortunately the details of the parameters settings are not always identical and not always fully docu...
Andreeva, O. V.
Mineral transformation of host rocks and localization of orebodies at the unconformity-type uranium deposits are considered for the Karku deposit in the northern Ladoga region. It is shown that the great depth of uranium mineral formation and the peculiar composition of host rocks, along with temperature and chemistry of fluids, played a critical role in variation of lithostatic and fluid pressure, porosity, and permeability. The compaction of quartz sandstone and gravelstone, which are typical host rocks at unconformity-type deposits, the development of microstylolithic sutures, conformal structures, pressure solution and deposition of quartz in free pores gave rise to the closure or constraint of pore space and to increase in pore pressure of fluids in the deep part of the Riphean troughs with approaching lithostatic loading. A transitional zone between hydrostatic and lithostatic pressure controlled localization of orebodies and was decisive for uranium mineral formation. This zone coincided with the Riphean-Paleoproterozoic unconformity and sank somewhat into the crystalline basement. Below this transitional zone, the intergranular fluid was under a pressure that was close to the pressure on solid phases, i.e., P tot ≈ P fl. The reliability of this phenomenon is confirmed by cessation of pressure solution-redeposition of quartz and distinct deceleration of dehydration of hydrous minerals. As is shown for the Karku deposit, the highly hydrated clay minerals of the illite-smectite series are widespread in its subore portion and lacking at the supraore levels along with termination of quartz regeneration. It is suggested that a zone of superhigh fluid pressure in deep parts of sedimentary basins constrains localization of uranium orebodies by structural and stratigraphic unconformity between Riphean and Paleoproterozoic rocks. It is stated that altered wall rocks at the unconformity-type uranium deposits cannot be identified with products of hydrothermal phyllic
Lin, Changsong; Yang, Haijun; Liu, Jingyan; Rui, Zhifeng; Cai, Zhenzhong; Zhu, Yongfeng
The distribution and erosional features of the Paleozoic major tectonic unconformities in the Tarim Basin, and their genetic relation to the development of paleo-uplifts as well as the evolution of geodynamic settings, are documented in this paper based on the integral analysis of seismic, drilling, and outcrop data. During the Paleozoic, the Tarim Basin underwent three major tectonic deformation stages, which resulted in three angular unconformities and in significant changes in basin geomorphology and paleogeography. The tectonic deformation at the end of the Middle Ordovician was characterized by development of the southern central paleo-uplift, the northern depression, and the southeastern Tangguzibasi depression in the basin. The thickest denudation belts of the unconformity (Tg5-2) are distributed mainly along the thrust structural highs. A stronger deformation event took place at the end of the Late Ordovician and formed a huge uplift along the southwestern and southeastern basin margins and the western part of the Tabei uplift along the northern basin margin, producing an extensive angular unconformity (Tg5) with maximum erosion thickness of 1500-2000 m. This tectonic event resulted in an abrupt change in overall geography of the basin, from a deepwater marine environment at the late stages of the Late Ordovician to a littoral and neritic basin in the Early Silurian. The deformation that occurred at the end of the Middle Devonian was the strongest in the Paleozoic. It generated the most widespread angular unconformity (Tg3) within the basin and led to extensive erosion, with maximum denudation thickness of 3000-5000 m in the northern and northeastern parts of the basin. The topography of the basin during the late Devonian was characterized by a high in the northeast and a low in the southwest, forming an embayment basin opening to the southwest during the Early Devonian to Carboniferous. The transgression in general from southwest to northeast deposited
Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders; Riise, Ruth; Vorum, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen
Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)(Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Ten "ant-eggs" were extracted; four of these as well as control tissue were analyzed by mass spectrometry (AB Sciex). Proteins were identified and their approximate abundances were determined. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out on the remaining "ant-eggs" for cytokeratin and S100. In anterior OCT-images, the "ant-egg" structures are localized on the iris. Comparative pictures showed that they stayed in the same location for more than 45 years. Mass spectrometry of "ant-eggs" yielded a proteome of 56 different proteins. Eighteen of the 56 "ant-egg" proteins (32 %) were neither present in our controls nor in a known fetal lens proteome. Among these were cytokeratin and Matrix-Gla protein. Immunohistochemical reactions were positive for cytokeratin and S100. This study demonstrates the previously unknown protein composition of the "ant-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location.
Pek, A. A.; Malkovsky, V. I.
In the global production of uranium, 18% belong to the unconformity-type Canadian deposits localized in the Athabasca Basin. These deposits, which are unique in terms of their ore quality, were primarily studied by Canadian and French scientists. They have elaborated the diagenetic-hydrothermal hypothesis of ore formation, which suggests that (1) the deposits were formed within a sedimentary basin near an unconformity surface dividing the folded Archean-Proterozoic metamorphic basement and a gently dipping sedimentary cover, which is not affected by metamorphism; (2) the spatial accommodation of the deposits is controlled by the rejuvenated faults in the basement at their exit into the overlying sedimentary sequence; the ore bodies are localized above and below the unconformity surface; (3) the occurrence of graphite-bearing rocks is an important factor in controlling the local structural mineralization; (4) the ore bodies are the products of uranium precipitation on a reducing barrier. The mechanism that drives the circulation of ore-forming hydrothermal solutions has remained one of the main unclear questions in the general genetic concept. The ore was deposited above the surface of the unconformity due to the upflow discharge of the solution from the fault zones into the overlying conglomerate and sandstone. The ore formation below this surface is a result of the downflow migration of the solutions along the fault zones from sandstone into the basement rocks. A thermal convective system with the conjugated convection cells in the basement and sedimentary fill of the basin may be a possible explanation of why the hydrotherms circulate in the opposite directions. The results of our computations in the model setting of the free thermal convection of fluids are consistent with the conceptual reasoning about the conditions of the formation of unique uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin. The calculated rates of the focused solution circulation through the fault
Faust, Dominik; Meszner, Sascha; Kreutzer, Sebastian; Fuchs, Markus
The Saxonian loess region is located in the transition zone between the Central German Uplands (here Erzgebirge) and the Northern European Lowland. A loess layer on average of 6 m thickness sedimented mainly during Weichselian glaciation causes a characteristically smooth landscape of gently rolling hills. Since 2008 this area is focused for paleoenvironmental research on loess paleosol sequences (Meszner et al. 2011 and Meszner et al. 2012) with the aim to establish a new, high resoluted stratigraphical stack of all units found in the Weichselian loess sequences. The authors subdivide this new standard profile in five units. Unit IV and V represent pre-Eemian and Early Weichselian sediments with intercalated Eemian soil complex. The following unit III is build of several redeposited week interstadial Cambisol-like and trunda gley soils of a period form 30/35 ka to 28 ka. Above, unit II composed of barren and pure Upper Pleniglacial loess follows and reaches a maximum thickness of 7 m (at site Gleina). It is subdivided by several tundra gley soils and shows a stratified loess facies in the lower and non-stratified loess facies in the upper part. The surface near the margin (max 2.5 m thick) of decalcified material within the Holocene/Late Pleistocene interglacial soil is classified as unit I. A conspicuous complex of a reddish-brown substrate from top of unit IV and its overlaid bright grey Gleysol as lowermost part of unit III is called Gleina Complex. Lieberoth (1963) defined it as in important interstadial soil development of younger Middle Weichselian and called it 'Gleina soil development'. New luminescence age estimations indicate a hiatus inside of this complex. Between the brown substrate (lower part), with an OLS-age estimation of app. 60 ka and the upper part (strong Gleysol), with and an age estimation of app. 30-35 ka, an unconformity spanning app. 30 ka is identified. This hiatus, roughly spanning MIS 3, could found in all investigated loess sequences
Pérez-Salinas, P.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Perez, A.; Grande-Grande, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.
Two components of the egg as the albumen and their proteins are used for holographic recorded applying lithography technique. This matrix was composed by albumen-glucose and by protein-glucose. The results obtained for the parameter diffraction efficiency with our matrix albumen-glucose was it from 44.1% and for the matrix protein-glucose were two maximums of diffraction efficiency, reached about the mixture ovoalbumin-glucose (6.2*10 -1%) and avidin-glucose (4.7*10 -1%).
Fertilization is indispensable not only for restoring diploid genomes but also for the initiation of early embryonic cell cycles in sexual reproduction. While most animals exhibit monospermy, which is ensured by polyspermy blocks to prevent the entry of extra sperm into the egg at fertilization, several animals exhibit physiological polyspermy, in which the entry of several sperm is permitted but only one sperm nucleus participates in the formation of a zygote nucleus. Polyspermy requires that the sperm transmit the egg activation signal more slowly, thus allowing the egg to accept several sperm. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induced by the fertilizing sperm is both necessary and sufficient for egg activation in polyspermy. Multiple small Ca(2+) waves induced by several fertilizing sperm result in a long-lasting Ca(2+) rise, which is a characteristic of polyspermic amphibian eggs. We introduced a novel soluble sperm factor for egg activation, sperm-specific citrate synthase, into polyspermic newt eggs to cause Ca(2+) waves. Citrate synthase may perform dual functions: as an enzyme in mitochondria and as a Ca(2+)-inducing factor in egg cytoplasm. We also discuss the close relationship between the mode of fertilization and the Ca(2+) rise at egg activation and consider changes in this process through evolution in vertebrates.
.... While most animals exhibit monospermy, which is ensured by polyspermy blocks to prevent the entry of extra sperm into the egg at fertilization, several animals exhibit physiological polyspermy...
Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A
Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...
Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Ruiz Cruz, M.D.
The age of the emplacement of the Ronda Peridotites has been widely debated during recent decades, and ages ranging from the Palaeozoic to the early Miocene have been proposed, although most of the current interpretations suggest an Oligocene-Miocene age. In this article, we describe two meta-sedimentary formations (the lower one formed by detrital sediments and the upper one by marbles) that were unconformably deposited over the Ronda peridotites and now record low-grade metamorphism. The detrital formation contains layers of acidic rocks with an age of 269±9 Ma and the overlying marbles are assumed to be Triassic. The existence of these unconformable formations over the peridotites is crucial for the dating of the exhumation of the latter. The presence of peridotite clasts in the detrital formation indicates that peridotites were exposed during the Permian and other data suggest that peridotites were exhumed during the late Carboniferous. During the Alpine cycle, the peridotites operated as an element situated at the bottom of the tectonically higher Alpujarride/Sebtide unit (the Jubrique unit) and forming part of it, then being incorporated to the Alpine thrusts of this unit. (Author)
Aghbelagh, Yousef Beiraghdar; Yang, Jianwen
The role of hydrodynamic factors in controlling the formation and location of unconformity-related uranium (URU) deposits in sedimentary basins during tectonically quiet periods is investigated. A number of reactive-flow modeling experiments at the deposit scale were carried out by assigning different dip angles and directions to a fault and various permeabilities to hydrostratigraphic units). The results show that the fault dip angle and direction, and permeability of the hydrostratigraphic units govern the convection pattern, temperature distribution, and uranium mineralization. A vertical fault results in uranium mineralization at the bottom of the fault within the basement, while a dipping fault leads to precipitation of uraninite below the unconformity either away from or along the plane of the fault, depending on the fault permeability. A more permeable fault causes uraninite precipitates along the fault plane, whereas a less permeable one gives rise to the precipitation of uraninite away from it. No economic ore mineralization can form when either very low or very high permeabilities are assigned to the sandstone or basement suggesting that these units seem to have an optimal window of permeability for the formation of uranium deposits. Physicochemical parameters also exert an additional control in both the location and grade of URU deposits. These results indicate that the difference in size and grade of different URU deposits may result from variation in fluid flow pattern and physicochemical conditions, caused by the change in structural features and hydraulic properties of the stratigraphic units involved.
Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.
Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect
A strain of chickens which reaches a mature egg ... Subsequent rates of decline tend to be parallel and so selection for early albumen quality is effective in improving late albumen quality. The difficulty is that, in many markets, the producer is not directly penalized ... maximum total yield - an intermediate is best. If egg income.
Dombre, Clara; Guyot, Nicolas; Moreau, Thierry; Monget, Philippe; Da Silva, Mylène; Gautron, Joël; Réhault-Godbert, Sophie
Twenty-seven serpins belonging to clade A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I serpins are currently referenced in chicken genome databases. Phylogenetic analysis of chicken serpins revealed that ovalbumin (Serpinb14) and its paralogs ovalbumin-related protein Y (Serpinb14b) and ovalbumin-related protein X (Serpinb14c) are found in bird species. These clade B serpins are specifically expressed in reproductive tissues and exported in the egg where they constitute major protein components. These data suggest that these three paralogs have probably appeared in birds to face new environments and ensure the extra-uterine development of an embryo in a shell egg. Twelve other serpins have been identified in the newly produced egg, some of them having a specific distribution in the respective egg structures (eggshell, egg white, vitelline membrane and egg yolk). The physiological role of these egg serpins remain largely unexplored, but there is increasing evidence in literature or by homologies with their mammalian counterparts, that some of them participate in cell proliferation, tissue remodeling and/or angiogenesis associated with folliculogenesis and development of extraembryonic structures, eggshell biomineralization, egg defense and nutrition of the embryo. A better knowledge of the phylogenetic evolution of these 15 serpins in other oviparous species, on their egg distribution, on their regulation during embryonic development (activation/degradation/transfer) and on their functional specificity, is needed to better appreciate their role and their bird-specificity. These review shed light on the multiple possibilities that offer the avian egg model to study the role of serpins in reproduction and developmental biology. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Macaroni and rockhopper penguins lay two eggs but rear only one chick to independence. The eggs are markedly dimorphic in size and, although the smaller A-egg is laid several days before the B-egg, in nests where both eggs are incubated, the B-egg always hatches first. Incubation temperatures and embryonic oxygen ...
Shira C Shafir; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.
Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months.
Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe
with intention to freeze eggs were being single, age under 35 years, childlessness, and a history of infertility. In this group, risk and cost were less important considerations. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that there is widespread awareness and support of the availability of eggs freezing for reproductive...
Bennett, D C; Cheng, K M
Selenium is an essential trace element with a recommended dietary allowance for human adults of 55 μg/d. However, there is evidence that greater dietary intakes may have possible health benefits, including a reduction in the risk of cancer. Several studies have shown the feasibility of enriching eggs using organic Se and that Se-enriched eggs are an effective way to supplement human diets. However, few studies have examined the response of egg Se concentration to high (>1 μg/g) dietary organic Se intake by the laying hens. The objective of the current study is to examine the effect of higher dietary organic Se levels on production, egg mass, and egg Se levels. These were assessed by feeding 3 breeds of laying hens (Barred Plymouth Rock, Lohmann Brown, Lohmann White) a basal diet containing 0.3 μg of Se/g of diet as Na2SeO3. Into this diet, Se yeast (SelenoSource AF 600), an organic source of Se, was added at 1.0, 2.4, or 5.1 μg of Se/g of diet for 4 wk. Feed consumption, egg production, and egg mass were not affected by the dietary Se concentration in all 3 breeds. Within the range of Se levels employed in the laying hens' diet, egg Se content increased linearly as dietary levels of Se increased. The results of this study indicate that feeding up to 5.1 µg/g of Se will not affect egg production and the welfare of the laying hen and is a practical way of producing Se-enriched eggs for the consumers.
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar; Kroløkke, Charlotte
While Denmark is widely known as a global exporter of cryopreserved sperm, Danish women’s eggs follow very different trajectories. This paper combines legal and rhetorical analyses with the concept of sociotechnical imaginaries (Jasanoff, 2015). In establishing the genealogy of the sociotechnical...... imaginaries that shaped the Danish regulation on the cryopreservation of eggs, we analyze the relevant Acts, Bills, preparatory work and readings in Parliament along with the concurrent public and ethical debates that in time relaxed the legal limit for the cryopreservation of eggs to the current 5 years...
Full Text Available The Hala'alat Mountains are located at the transition between the West Junggar and the Junggar Basin. In this area, rocks are Carboniferous, with younger strata above them that have been identified through well data and high-resolution 3D seismic profiles. Among these strata, seven unconformities are observed and distributed at the bases of: the Permian Jiamuhe Formation, the Permian Fengcheng Formation, the Triassic Baikouquan Formation, the Jurassic Badaowan Formation, the Jurassic Xishanyao Formation, the Cretaceous Tugulu Group and the Paleogene. On the basis of balanced sections, these unconformities are determined to have been formed by erosion of uplifts or rotated fault blocks primarily during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. In conjunction with the currently understood tectonic background of the surrounding areas, the following conclusions are proposed: the unconformities at the bases of the Permian Jiamuhe and Fengcheng formations are most likely related to the subduction and closure of the Junggar Ocean during the late Carboniferous–early Permian; the unconformities at the bases of the Triassic Baikouquan and Jurassic Badaowan formations are closely related to the late Permian–Triassic Durbut sinistral slip fault; the unconformities at the bases of the middle Jurassic Xishanyao Formation and Cretaceous Tugulu Group may be related to reactivation of the Durbut dextral slip fault in the late Jurassic–early Cretaceous, and the unconformity that gives rise to the widely observed absence of the upper Cretaceous in the northern Junggar Basin may be closely related to large scale uplift. All of these geological phenomena indicate that the West Junggar was not calm in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic and that it experienced at least four periods of tectonic movement.
Netting, Merryn; Donato, Adaweyah; Makrides, Maria; Gold, Michael; Quinn, Patrick; Penttila, Irmeli
Oral food challenges for diagnosis and management of egg allergy using fresh egg are common; however, to limit the risk of foodborne infection, many allergy units use pasteurized raw egg. Pasteurization and drying processes have the potential to affect the structure of egg proteins in egg powder and thus the allergenicity when compared to fresh egg. Our aim was to compare the binding of serum IgE from egg-allergic children to in vitro digested and undigested pasteurized whole raw egg powder with unpasteurized fresh whole raw egg. Egg proteins from in vitro digested or undigested pasteurized whole raw egg powder, fresh whole egg, egg white and egg yolk were separated by SDS-PAGE, transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane and incubated overnight with pooled sera from egg-allergic children. In both the raw egg samples and the pasteurized whole egg powder, protein bands corresponding to known molecular weights of the major egg allergens were present. Pasteurized whole raw egg powder was bound by serum IgE in a similar manner to unpasteurized whole raw egg and was unaffected by in vitro digestion. Serum IgE also bound egg yolk, indicating sensitization to both egg yolk and egg white proteins. The main egg allergens are present in pasteurized whole raw egg powder, and serum IgE of egg-allergic children binds to them in a similar pattern to those in fresh whole raw egg. Pasteurized whole raw egg powder is a suitable substitute for raw egg in clinical practice for oral food challenges. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E
Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...
Lobo, F. J.; García, M.; Luján, M.; Mendes, I.; Reguera, M. I.; Van Rooij, D.
The main aim of this study is to explore the spatial patterns of the shelf-scale erosional unconformity related to the last glacial maximum (LGM), particularly in terms of the role of underlying geology and the presumed primary influence of sea-level changes. This involved a detailed mapping of the most recent and widespread erosional shelf surface in a sector of the northern margin of the Gulf of Cádiz (northeast Atlantic Ocean) located adjacent to a major fluvial source. A dense network of high-resolution seismic profiles collected in the 1990s and 2013 off the Guadiana River revealed two distinct geomorphological domains on the LGM shelf-scale subaerial surface. The outer domain exhibits a widespread occurrence of erosional truncations, with a rugged, erosional pattern over the most distal shelf setting that evolves landward into a planar unconformity. The inner domain is more extensive and is characterized by the common occurrence of highly reflective, localized mounded seismic facies that laterally evolve into an irregular surface and in places may develop a channelized morphology. Significant fluvial incision is limited to a major straight valley and a secondary distributary channel. A distinct partition of the lowstand surface is documented, and attributed to a well-marked lithological change. A coarse-grained inner shelf comprises underlying lithified coastal deposits, whereas a fine-grained outer shelf is regarded as the uppermost expression of regressive prodeltaic wedges. The influence of regional indurated surfaces is also expressed in (1) the pattern of erosion, this being more patchy on the inner shelf due to lateral changes of erodibility, whereas on the outer shelf it shows laterally continuous bands, owing to different modes of transgressive ravinement; (2) the spatial and temporal variability of fluvial incision. Inner shelf armoring by indurated deposits prevents reoccupation of previously incised valleys.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the regional stratigraphy around the Alps-Apennines junction during late Eocene-Miocene. The basin-fill architecture and its relation to changes in structural style were deciphered through the integration of subsurface and outcrop data on the basis of seismic- and sequence-stratigraphy principles, respectively.During late Eocene-Oligocene, the study area hosted a mosaic of partially interconnected sub-basins, and the Torino Hill area marked the junction towards the western apex of the Southern Alps foredeep (Gonfolite Basin. Since the latest Oligocene, the uplift of the north-verging Monferrato arc provided the separation from the adjacent Gonfolite Basin and the Tertiary Piedmont Basin behaved as a larger and more regularly subsiding thrust-top basin.The upper Eocene-Miocene successions record a long-term, major transgressive-regressive cycle, consisting of seven large-scale unconformity-bounded stratigraphic units, whose stacking pattern was controlled by changes in the rate of tectonic subsidence and whose boundaries were generated by basin-modification phases. During the Oligocene-lower Miocene deepening-upward sequence set, the marginal marine systems show a marked diachronism associated with the SW-ward change of coastal onlap, punctuated by drowning-platform unconformities generated in relation to basinward tilting and high-angle synsedimentary faults. The maximum transgression coincides with the late Burdigalian tectonic space creation phase, when a basinwide, highly efficient turbidite system was deposited. The middle-upper Miocene progradation, punctuated by forced regression pulses, was driven by the inversion and uplift of the southern basin margin, so that a northward shift and progressive narrowing of the turbidite depocentre occurred.
Quality of Eggs Under Varying Storage Periods, Conditions and Seasons in ... and egg weight on external and internal characteristics of chicken eggs. ... Storage time did not affect (p>0.05) shell weight, shape index, egg length and egg width.
Lemon-Mulé, Heather; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Shreffler, Wayne G; Noone, Sally; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna
Prior studies have suggested that heated egg might be tolerated by some children with egg allergy. We sought to confirm tolerance of heated egg in a subset of children with egg allergy, to evaluate clinical and immunologic predictors of heated egg tolerance, to characterize immunologic changes associated with continued ingestion of heated egg, and to determine whether a diet incorporating heated egg is well tolerated. Subjects with documented IgE-mediated egg allergy underwent physician-supervised oral food challenges to extensively heated egg (in the form of a muffin and a waffle), with tolerant subjects also undergoing regular egg challenges (in a form of scrambled egg or French toast). Heated egg-tolerant subjects incorporated heated egg into their diets. Skin prick test wheal diameters and egg white, ovalbumin, and ovomucoid IgE levels, as well as ovalbumin and ovomucoid IgG4 levels, were measured at baseline for all subjects and at 3, 6, and 12 months for those tolerant of heated egg. Sixty-four of 117 subjects tolerated heated egg, 23 tolerated regular egg, and 27 reacted to heated egg. Heated egg-reactive subjects had larger skin test wheals and greater egg white-specific, ovalbumin-specific, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels compared with heated egg- and egg-tolerant subjects. Continued ingestion of heated egg was associated with decreased skin test wheal diameters and ovalbumin-specific IgE levels and increased ovalbumin-specific and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels. The majority of subjects with egg allergy were tolerant of heated egg. Continued ingestion of heated egg was well tolerated and associated with immunologic changes that paralleled the changes observed with the development of clinical tolerance to regular egg.
... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.105 Dried... recognized as safe within the meaning of section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The... food for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section is “Dried eggs” or...
Turner, P J; Kumar, K; Fox, A T
Most children with egg allergy tolerate egg in baked foods, such as cake, but tolerance cannot be predicted with conventional allergy testing. We hypothesized that the skin prick test (SPT) wheal to unprocessed raw egg might predict tolerance of baked egg at formal oral food challenge (OFC). We conducted a retrospective chart review to assess the utility of SPT wheal to egg extract (EE), raw egg (RE), and the ratio of EE:RE in predicting outcome of baked-egg OFC in children presenting to our tertiary referral centers with a physician diagnosis of egg allergy and following complete egg avoidance in their diet, between 2009 and 2013. OFC were performed following a standardized protocol using baked egg in cake, to a total dose equivalent to 3g egg protein. Data were analyzed from 186 completed challenges: OFC was positive in 64 (34%) children and negative in 122 (66%). Six children experienced anaphylaxis at OFC. Children tolerant to baked egg were more likely to have a lower SPT to egg extract/raw egg and EE:RE (median 0.56) than their allergic counterparts (0.70, p raw egg and EE:ER equal to 0.71, 0.63 and 0.60, respectively. EE:RE was not helpful in predicting outcome of baked-egg OFC. Indeed, SPT to egg extract was slightly better at predicting outcome than either SPT to raw egg or EE:RE. Unfortunately, tolerance to baked egg can only be predicted from previous history or through controlled exposure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tarek M. Shafey
Full Text Available Measurements of 174 eggs from meat-type breeder flock (Ross at 36 weeks of age were used to study the problem of multicollinearity (MC instability in the estimation of egg components of yolk weight (YKWT, albumen weight (ALBWT and eggshell weight (SHWT. Egg weight (EGWT, egg shape index (ESI=egg width (EGWD*100/egg length (EGL and their interaction (EGWTESI were used in the context of un-centred vs centred data and principal components regression (PCR models. The pairwise phenotypic correlations, variance inflation factor (VIF, eigenvalues, condition index (CI, and variance proportions were examined. Egg weight had positive correlations with EGWD and EGL (r=0.56 and 0.50, respectively; P<0.0001 and EGL had a negative correlation with ESI (r=-0.79; P<0.0001. The highest correlation was observed between EGWT and ALBWT (r=0.94; P<0.0001, while the lowest was between EGWD and SHWT (r=0.33; P<0.0001. Multicollinearity problems were found in EGWT, ESI and their interaction as shown by VIF (>10, eigenvalues (near zero, CI (>30 and high corresponding proportions of variance of EGWT, ESI and EGWTESI with respect to EGWTESI. Results from this study suggest that mean centring and PCR were appropriate to overcome the MC instability in the estimation of egg components from EGWT and ESI. These methods improved the meaning of intercept values and produced much lower standard error values for regression coefficients than those from un-centred data.
Sanz de Galdeano, C.
Full Text Available The age of the emplacement of the Ronda Peridotites has been widely debated during recent decades, and ages ranging from the Palaeozoic to the early Miocene have been proposed, although most of the current interpretations suggest an Oligocene-Miocene age. In this article, we describe two meta-sedimentary formations (the lower one formed by detrital sediments and the upper one by marbles that were unconformably deposited over the Ronda peridotites and now record low-grade metamorphism. The detrital formation contains layers of acidic rocks with an age of 269±9 Ma and the overlying marbles are assumed to be Triassic. The existence of these unconformable formations over the peridotites is crucial for the dating of the exhumation of the latter. The presence of peridotite clasts in the detrital formation indicates that peridotites were exposed during the Permian and other data suggest that peridotites were exhumed during the late Carboniferous. During the Alpine cycle, the peridotites operated as an element situated at the bottom of the tectonically higher Alpujarride/Sebtide unit (the Jubrique unit and forming part of it, then being incorporated to the Alpine thrusts of this unit.La edad del emplazamiento de las peridotitas de Ronda ha sido discutida ampliamente en las últimas décadas, con hipótesis que van desde el Paleozoico al Mioceno inferior, aunque la mayoría de las interpretaciones actuales sugiere una edad oligo-miocena. En este artículo, describimos la existencia de dos formaciones meta-sedimentarias (la inferior formada originalmente por sedimentos detríticos y la superior por carbonatos que se depositaron en discordancia sobre las peridotitas de Ronda y ahora registran un grado bajo de metamorfismo. La formación detrítica contiene capas de rocas ácidas con una edad de 269±9 Ma y los mármoles situados encima se atribuyen al Trías. La existencia de esas dos formaciones es crucial para la datación de la exhumación de las
Catherine J. Andersen
Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.
This study explores denaturing kinetics of egg white using high resolution calorimetric technique. Fresh egg was scanned fro heating and cooling to see the thermodynamics 10circ; C to 100circ; C at different heating ramp rates varying from 1 to 20circ; C/min. An endothermic peak was found on heating scan showing denaturing of protein which was found absent at the cooling indicating the absence of any residue after heating. The denature peak shifted towards higher temperature as ramp rate increases following Arrhenius behavior and shows an activated denaturing kinetics of the egg protein. This peak was also compared with the water to avoid water effects. Behavior of denaturing peak can be explained in terms of Arrhenius theory.
T.R. Morris. Department of Agriculture and Horticulture, University of Reading, England. In this article the contribution which geneticists can make to egg quality i.e. eggmass, shell thickness, and albumen height is examined. Factors which the poultryman can manipulate on the farm such as the choice of a lighting system ...
Honkatukia, Mervi; Tuiskula-Haavisto, Maria; Arango, Jesus; Tabell, Jonna; Schmutz, Matthias; Preisinger, Rudolf; Vilkki, Johanna
A fresh, good quality egg has a firm and gelatinous albumen that anchors the yolk and restricts growth of microbiological pathogens. As the egg ages, the gel-like structure collapses, resulting in thin and runny albumen. Occasionally thin albumen is found in a fresh egg, giving the impression of a low quality product. A mapping population consisting of 1599 F2 hens from a cross between White Rock and Rhode Island Red lines was set up, to identify loci controlling albumen quality. The phenotype for albumen quality was evaluated by albumen height and in Haugh units (HU) measured on three consecutive eggs from each F2 hen at the age of 40 weeks. For the fine-mapping analysis, albumen height and HU were used simultaneously to eliminate contribution of the egg size to the phenotype. Linkage analysis in a small population of seven half-sib families (668 F2) with 162 microsatellite markers spread across 27 chromosomes revealed two genome-wide significant regions with additive effects for HU on chromosomes 7 and Z. In addition, two putative genome-wide quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions were identified on chromosomes 4 and 26. The QTL effects ranged from 2 to 4% of the phenotypic variance. The genome-wide significant QTL regions on chromosomes 7 and Z were selected for fine-mapping in the full set composed of 16 half-sib families. In addition, their existence was confirmed by an association analysis in an independent commercial Hy-Line pure line. We identified four chicken genomic regions that affect albumen quality. Our results also suggest that genes that affect albumen quality act both directly and indirectly through several different mechanisms. For instance, the QTL regions on both fine-mapped chromosomes 7 and Z overlapped with a previously reported QTL for eggshell quality, indicating that eggshell membranes may play a role in albumen quality.
... Eggs are among the most nutritious foods on earth and can be part of a healthy diet. ... undercooked eggs? Infants, young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems are particularly ...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inviable eggs from the nests of Florida bald eagles and ospreys were collected opportunistically from 1987 through 1989. Egg contents were analyzed for...
Bernstein, J A; Kraut, A; Bernstein, D I; Warrington, R; Bolin, T; Warren, C P; Bernstein, I L
A 26-year-old man employed in a company which manufactured hen egg white derived lysozyme for use in the pharmaceutical industry was evaluated for occupational asthma. The worker began to experience immediate-onset asthmatic symptoms two months after starting to work with egg lysozyme powder. The work process involved the production of approximately 1,000 kg of purified dried lysozyme powder per week. Prick skin testing was positive to egg lysozyme (50 mg/ml) and other egg protein components, but negative to whole egg white and egg yolk reagents. Serum specific IgE to egg lysozyme was documented. Decrements in serial peak expiratory flow rates were associated with lysozyme exposure at work. A specific bronchoprovocation challenge to lysozyme powder was positive demonstrating an isolated immediate asthmatic response (48 percent decrease from baseline FEV1). This is the first reported case of lysozyme-induced asthma specifically caused by inhalational exposure to egg lysozyme.
Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.
Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. The Egg with Two Yellows. M K Chandrashekaran. Book Review Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 979-987. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/10/0979-0987 ...
Once upon a time, eggs were considered a "breakfast of champions." Just about every active, hard-working person enjoyed them fried, scrambled, poached, or even raw in eggnog and protein drinks. Then, Americans became cholesterol-conscious and began to substitute bagels, cereal, and other high-carbohydrate, low-cholesterol breakfast foods.
Edwards, J H; McConnochie, K; Trotman, D M; Collins, G; Saunders, M J; Latham, S M
The use of a spray system to coat meat rolls with egg solution resulted in the development of asthmatic type symptoms in eight of thirteen workers exposed to the spray. Symptoms were severe in five workers, less severe in two, and one worker experienced vague symptoms. Even though precipitins were present in nine of the workers there were no pyrexial episodes nor influenza-like symptoms occurring some hours after inhaling the egg material to suggest extrinsic allergic alveolitis. All sera with precipitins reacted against an antigen in egg yolk, two sera only to this antigen but no precipitins to ovalbumin were detected. Lung function, X-ray and haematology provided no evidence that the inhalation of egg had lasting detrimental effects. There was no correlation between clinical response, skin testing, IgE levels and precipitins, hence, for each individual none of these parameters is predictive. However, collectively the results show sensitization and this has been confirmed by lack of symptoms when a different method of coating the pastry was adopted.
Doscherholmen, A; McMahon, J; Ripley, D
The assimilation of 57Co B12 from in vivo labeled eggs was much inferior to that of a comparable amount of crystalline 57Co B12. Furthermore, the absorption varied with the form in which the eggs were served. Judged by the urinary excretion test and the plasma absorption of radioactivity the average absorption from boiled and fried eggs was more than twice that from scrambled whole eggs, but less than half that absorbed from crystalline 57Co B12.
... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the albumen... shell membranes missing and with egg meat adhering to or in contact with the outside of the shell. (3... membranes. (4) Liquid egg recovered from shell egg containers and leaker trays. (5) Open leakers made in the...
Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.
In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3
Lourens, A.; Molenaar, R.; Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.
It has been reported that during incubation, large eggs produce more heat than small eggs (Rahn et al., 1974; Hoyt, 1987; Vleck et al., 1980; Vleck and Vleck, 1987; Meijerhof and Van Beek, 1993). Large eggs also face more difficulties to remove the surplus heat from the egg (French, 1997), as a
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official plants. 590.35 Section 590.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any State...
A description is given of a diagnostic method for the staining of eggs and larvae of intestinal helminth in smears of both fresh and fixed stool samples. The contents of the eggs and larvae stain red, the background various shades of blue. The most contrasting staining was obtained with thin-walled eggs.
EGGS: CLEARING THE CHARGES, EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL! Of all the different kinds of foods, an egg is special for its combination of all essential food nutrients in one item. Chicken eggs have an average weight of (~50g) with two distinct parts that have distinct nutritional values: the yolk (17g); and white (33g).
Huang, Chi-Yue; Shea, Kai-Hsuan; Li, Qianyu
Taiwan is situated in the SE Asian continental margin where lower Cenozoic strata are well exposed. Its geological and tectonic setting provides a unique opportunity to study the time constraint of the break-up unconformity relevant to the opening of the South China Sea. A detailed foraminiferal study on four land sections and a deep core across the boundary between the Upper and Lower Wulai Groups in the Hsüehshan Range, northern Taiwan, was conducted. Results show remarkable changes of depositional environment and lithology from the amalgamated fluvial dominant sandstones (>2000 m) of Middle Eocene in the Lower Wulai Group to the overlying inner neritic shales and siltstones (>2000 m) of Oligocene in the Upper Wulai Group. Integrated sedimentological and foraminiferal data further suggest an occurrence of a depositional hiatus between 32 ∼33 and 40 Ma across the boundary between the Kankou Formation of the Upper Wulai Group and the Szeleng Sandstone of the Lower Wulai Group in the northern Hsüehshan Range, as same as the scenario seen in the Western Foothills (25-39 Ma) of central Taiwan and the Penghu Basin (25-40 Ma) in the Taiwan Strait. This stratigraphic hiatus in the Taiwan mountain belt marks a regional break-up unconformity between the Middle Eocene syn-rift strata and the overlying Oligocene post-rift sequences in the NE South China Sea. The break-up unconformity can be correlated with those commonly recognized in the seismic profiles of the Pearl River Mouth Basin and drilling of the IODP site U1435 (Expedition 349) in the northern shelf-slope of the South China Sea. The upper time limit of the breakup unconformity 32 Ma could mark the tectonic change from rifting to depression in the Paleogene Asian continental margin which eventually led to opening of the deep South China Sea in the Early Oligocene (∼33 Ma).
Full Text Available The Valdelsa Basin is one of the widest post-collisional basins developed in central Tuscany (Italy since the late Miocene. More than 2,000 m of upper Miocene-Quaternary deposits fill the basin and1,000 of which, ascribed to the Pliocene, crop out extensively. In previous studies these deposits have been included in poorly defined lithostratigraphic schemes, and also a detailed chronologic calibration via biostratigraphic analysis has produced few results due to the paucity of biomarkers. In this study the Pliocene deposits have been subdividedinto eleven lithofacies associations, in turn included in five unconformity-bounded stratigraphic units (synthems spanning in age from the uppermost Zanclean to most part of Piacenzian. Lithofacies associations, defined as the recurring vertical alternance of several basic lithofacies, are in fact recognized based on both the lithologic features and the sedimentary/bio-(marine to continental molluscs facies content which formedin specific environments. Several depositional systems activated in the basin, from alluvial to fluvio-deltaic to paralic and inner shelf systems, in response to change of sediment supply and accommodation space. The Pliocene paleogeography of the portion of the basin considered in this study was characterized by the occurrence of a structural high that separated two distinctdepositional areas in theearly stage of the basin fill. A marine (delta front to inner shelf area developed in the central part (Certaldo-Castelfiorentino area, while an alluvial plain was forming eastward (in the S. Casciano area. During the Piacenzian the basin was characterized by the progressive filling of a shallow marine area (central part due to the southwestward progradation of fluvio deltaic systems.
Getz, Joseph Edward
The Middleton Place Summerville Seismic Zone (MPSSZ) near Summerville, South Carolina was the site of renewed extensive investigation, beginning in the 1970's, for the source of the 1886 Charleston earthquake. Reactivation of faults associated with a putative fault-bounded Triassic rift basin through analysis of seismic reflection, seismic refraction, and well data has since become the favored interpretation for the source of MPSSZ seismicity. Critical to this interpretation is the association of continental redbed sedimentary rocks with Triassic basins identified throughout the North American Atlantic margin. Reanalysis of 18 seismic reflection profiles and 25 seismic refraction profiles within the MPSSZ suggests that the red beds found here are a thin, sub-horizontal, regionally extensive, generally unbroken subsurface stratigraphic sequence distinct from the sedimentary architecture observed in analog Triassic rift systems. In addition, this sequence appears to unconformably overly a structural depression (the Jedberg basin) previously interpreted as a Triassic rift basin in the vicinity of the MPSSZ. In addition to the geometries observed on seismic reflection profiles, seismic refraction velocities ranging from 4.2 to 6.1 km/s can be correlated with (1) Jurassic basalt flows, (2) the newly proposed Summerville Formation, and (3) the Basement (B) sequences respectively. The current study maps the Summerville red bed section and its bounding reflectors. In addition to mapping the regional extent of the newly proposed Summerville Formation, refraction velocities and changes in reflection character, the lateral extent of the basalt flows can be changed to a more localized flow rather than a regionally extensive flow of which was previously thought. Reanalysis of data in the MPSSZ suggests that the area may not be part of the Triassic South Georgia Rift system due to the sub-horizontal geometry of the red bed reflections, the apparent lack of faulting, and their
Commercial production of eggs and egg products requires the washing of eggs to remove urinary / fecal material and broken egg residue. In the case of one Ohio farming facility, 1.6 million birds produce 1.4 million eggs per day, using ~50mL of wash water / egg or ~ 70,000 liters per day. The aqueo...
Dec 21, 2011 ... egg 2 (w-2) has the same phenotypes as white egg 1 and white egg 3 mutants with white egg color, but its mechanism is more complicated than white egg 1 and white egg 3 mutants based on recent report (Tatematsu et al., 2011) which suggest that the silkworm w-2 locus existed multi-allelic mutations.
Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira
A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to diatomite at pH6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30°C was about 100-fold larger than that of nativ...
Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Roncalli, Gianluca; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego
Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula) as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process) and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject), while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched) non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental eggs are not
Full Text Available Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject, while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental
reduce oxygen uptake by the mix. Par-cooking was also tested as a means of developing the cooked-scrambled egg flavor in the retorted product. In this...carbon. It was then instantaneously frozen by plunging into a “ nitrogen slurry”. The frozen sample was first sublimated to remove any ice or nitrogen on...choice of oil had large impact on flavor depending on whether soy, corn, sunflower , olive or canola was used. Standard vegetable oil performed
Fuertes García, Antonio
Diet, along with exercise, is the determining factor in primary prevention –and secondary– of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This disease remains the leading cause of death in our country, as well as neighboring countries. After the publication of the results of the study of the Seven Countries in 1980, egg consumption was discouraged because it was thought falsely that the consumption of it had the same harmful effect as saturated fats increasing CVD risk. This idea, that was proved wrong later, was in general accepted by the medical profession as much as the general population. Simultaneously numerous clinical studies were performed and they clearly contradict that belief, concluding that egg intake do not increase CVD risk. In conclusion, although the literature on this topic is abundant, we cite the works that seem most significant in this regard. Consequently and following the recommendations of the American Heart Association Guidelines, since 2000, we can conclude that intake of up to one egg a day does not modify the risk for CVD in healthy adults.
Olsen, R.; Kudirkiene, E.; Thofner, I.
was to characterize the microbiome and aerobic bacterial load of hatching eggs before disinfection and during the subsequent disinfection steps. The study included a group of visibly clean and a group of visibly dirty eggs. For dirty eggs, an initial wash in chlorine was performed, hereafter all eggs were submitted...... aerobic conditions was established for each disinfection step. The disinfection procedure reduced the bacterial load from more than 104 cfu (initially visibly clean eggs) and 105 cfu (initially visibly dirty eggs) to less than 10 cfu per sample after disinfection for both groups of eggs. The microbiome....... In conclusion, the investigated disinfection procedure is effective in reducing the bacterial load, and by adding a chlorine wash for initially visibly dirty eggs, the microbiome of initially visibly clean and initially visibly dirty eggs had a highly similar microflora after the final disinfection step....
Ahnonkitpanit, V; White, D; Suwajanakorn, S; Kan, F W; Namking, M; Wells, G; Kamolvarin, N; Tanphaichitr, N
We have shown that sperm sulfolipidimmobilizing protein 1 (SLIP1, molecular mass of 68 kDa), a sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG)-binding protein, is significant in sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) interaction. The objective of this study was to localize SLIP1 on the egg and determine its role in gamete interaction. Immunofluorescence and immunoprotein A gold electron microscopy localized SLIP1 to the egg plasma membrane. In vitro gamete binding, using zona-free eggs preincubated with antiSLIP1 Fab before coincubation with sperm, showed a significant, dose-dependent decrease in sperm-egg plasma membrane binding. Similar results were obtained when affinity-purified antiSLIP1 IgG was used for egg pretreatment. The significance of egg SLIP1 in sperm-egg plasma membrane binding was further demonstrated by a decrease (36-52%) in in vitro fertilization when zona-intact eggs were pretreated with antiSLIP1 IgG. Since SLIP1 has been shown to bind SGG in vitro, we investigated the possibility that sperm SGG may participate in sperm-egg plasma membrane binding through egg SLIP1. Pretreatment of sperm with antiSGG Fab prior to coincubation with zona-free eggs resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in sperm-egg plasma membrane binding. Collectively, these findings strongly suggest a role for egg SLIP1 in sperm-egg plasma membrane interaction, which may be through its binding to sperm SGG.
Héctor A. Leanza
las distintas unidades formacionales genéticamente relacionadas comprendidas entre ellas, empleando la clásica categorización litoestratigráfica de Grupos, que básicamente coinciden con el concepto de unidades tectosedimentarias (UTS. Los resultados obtenidos llevan a esbozar algunas nuevas ideas con respecto a la evolución de la Cuenca Neuquina y llamar la atención sobre problemas nomenclaturales todavía abiertos.A general summary of the main unconformities which produced major order break-ups during the evolution of the Mesozoic sedimentary infill of the Neuquén Basin is offered in this paper. Based on its hierarchy, they are categorized in three groups, as follows: 1 key unconformities widely spread along the whole basin; 2 "Intracuyan" unconformities related to the Dorsal de Huincul, and 3 "Intraprecuyan" unconformities restricted to isolated depocentres. Having into account tectonic, eustatic, paleoclimatic and/or paleontological aspects of the sedimentites situated below- and above of each unconformity, precisions about their ages are given. The number of the recognized key unconformities sums 10, as follows: Huarpican (Intratriassic, Rioatuelican (Intraliassic, Lotenican (Intracallovian, Araucanican (ca. Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian boundary, Huncalican (Intravalanginian, Coihuequican (Intrahauterivian, Pampatrilican (Intrabarremian, Pichineuquenican (Intraaptian, Patagonidican (ca. Albian/Cenomanian boundary and Huantraiquican (Intracampanian. In relationship with the area realated with the Dorsal de Huincul, three "intracuyan" unconformities were identified, as follows: the Intratoarcian, only recognized at subsurface, the Seguelican (Intrabajocian 1 and the Lohanmahuidican (Intrabajocian 2. However, the influence of these unconformities diminish towards northern areas of the basin, as the distance increase with regard to the cited morphostructural element. The "intraprecuyan" unconformities recorded in the Cordillera del Viento and Chachil depocentres are
Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira
A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.05 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto diatomite at pH 6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30 degrees C was about 100-fold larger than that of native egg albumin; however, the adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin decreased to about 1/100 with temperature decreasing from 30 to 6 degrees C. The saturated adsorption amount of egg albumin was also increased by the methylation. The flocculating ability of methylated egg albumin was examined with a diatomite suspension at 6 and 30 degrees C in the pH range from pH 2 to 11. The diatomite suspension was effectively flocculated by the addition of small amounts of methylated egg albumin (only 0.5-1 wt% against diatomite) over a wide pH range from pH 3 to 10.
Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.
Zibra, I.; Korhonen, F. J.; Peternell, M.; Weinberg, R. F.; Romano, S. S.; Braga, R.; De Paoli, M. C.; Roberts, M.
During the Neoarchean, the dominant tectonic style progressively changed from an episodic-overturn/stagnant-lid regime to modern-style plate tectonics. The Neoarchean strengthening of continental lithosphere changed the style of deformation of orogenic belts. The case study presented here provides insights into how such transition in tectonic style occurred, a matter that is generally controversial. We present structural and metamorphic data from the c. 2660 Ma Waroonga Shear Zone (WSZ) in the Neoarchean Yilgarn orogen (Western Australia). The WSZ contains a syntectonic pluton and older, high-grade greenstones. The tectonic fabric in the pluton developed during melt-present thrusting, followed by syn-cooling wrench-dominated transpression. Mafic greenstones preserve three metamorphic assemblages. The M1 assemblage (Grt-Cpx-Qtz) records peak P-T conditions of 12 ± 1 kbar and 800 ± 50 °C, followed by isothermal decompression to 9 kbar (M2). These anhydrous assemblages might predate the WSZ. Greenstones then underwent decompression at c. 2660 Ma (3-4 kbar; 600-650 °C), defined by the amphibole-rich M3 assemblage, synkinematic with the tectonic fabric in the WSZ. We show that shearing along the WSZ exhumed these greenstones by at least 10 km, inducing major uplift and erosion. Archean accretionary orogens developed on weak lithosphere, where deformation suppressed crustal thickening, orogenic relief and synorogenic exhumation of orogenic roots. However, our study indicates a genetic link between (i) strain localization along contractional structures, inducing large-scale uplift; (ii) exhumation of high-grade greenstones; (iii) development of inverse metamorphic gradients; (iv) establishment of a regional unconformity, with clastic sediments fed by the uplifted terrane; (v) incorporation of portions of the newly-formed orogenic basins into the footwall of the WSZ. These features imply that the Yilgarn orogenic lithosphere at c. 2660 Ma was stiff enough to allow
Netting, Merryn; Gold, Michael; Quinn, Patrick; El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Penttila, Irmeli; Makrides, Maria
Consumption of baked egg by raw egg allergic children is associated with immune changes suggesting development of tolerance. However, causation has not been tested using a double blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). We aimed to compare clinical and immunological outcomes after baked egg (BE) consumption in young BE tolerant egg allergic children. In a double blind RCT, BE tolerant egg allergic children consumed 10 g BE (1.3 g protein) 2 to 3 times per week for 6 months (n = 21 intervention group) or similar egg free baked goods (n = 22 control group) while maintaining an otherwise egg free diet. The final assessment was a raw egg oral food challenge (OFC) 1 month after ceasing the intervention product. Egg specific IgE and IgG4 were assessed at baseline and 7 months. After the intervention there was no difference in raw egg tolerance between groups, (23.5% (4/17) intervention group and 33.3% (6/18) control group). This was independent of age and amount of BE consumed (aOR 0.50 CI 0.11-2.40 p = 0.39). Both groups demonstrated decreased egg specific serum IgE titres and decreased whole egg specific IgE/IgG4 ratios. We conducted this trial because inclusion of baked egg protein in the diet of egg allergic children appears to move children towards a more tolerant immune profile. Strengths of our study include design of the blinded intervention, the consistent dosing protocol and the regular monitoring of symptoms and intake. However, the study was limited by small sample size resulting in insufficient power to show statistically significant results. Our study suggests that short term, regular consumption of BE by BE tolerant 1 to 5 year old children with IgE mediated raw egg allergy may not induce, accelerate or slow development of tolerance to raw egg in this selected population. Trials with larger sample sizes are required to further test this hypothesis. The trial was registered on 7th February 2012 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials
Polačiková, Lenka; Takasu, Fugo; Stokke, Bård G; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš
In birds, the colour, maculation, shape, and size of their eggs play critical roles in discrimination of foreign eggs in the clutch. So far, however, no study has examined the role of egg arrangement within a clutch on host rejection responses. We predicted that individual females which maintain consistent egg arrangements within their clutch would be better able to detect and reject foreign eggs than females without a consistent egg arrangement (i.e. whose eggs change positions more often across incubation). We tested this "egg arrangement hypothesis" in blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrush (T. philomelos). Both species are suitable candidates for research on egg rejection, because they show high inter-individual variation and individual repeatability in egg rejection responses. As predicted, using our custom-defined metrics of egg arrangement, rejecter females' clutches showed significantly more consistent patterns in egg arrangement than acceptor females' clutches. Only parameters related to blunt pole showed consistent differences between rejecters and acceptors. This finding makes biological sense because it is already known that song thrush use blunt pole cues to reject foreign eggs. We propose that a disturbance of the original egg arrangement pattern by the laying parasite may alert host females that maintain a consistent egg arrangement to the risk of having been parasitized. Once alerted, these hosts may shift their discrimination thresholds to be more restrictive so as to reject a foreign egg with higher probability. Future studies will benefit from experimentally testing whether these two and other parasitized rejecter host species may rely on the use of consistent egg arrangements as a component of their anti-parasitic defence mechanisms.
Donald J. McNamara
Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
Goddard, Ellen W.; Boxall, Peter C.; Emunu, John Paul; Boyd, Curtis; Asselin, Andre; Neall, Amanda
The Canadian egg industry has introduced a number of specialty eggs, including Omega-3, organic, free run/range, vitamin enhanced and vegetarian over the past few decades. These eggs are generally sold at prices higher than the ‘normal’ egg and there has been little analysis of the consumer awareness of and interest in purchasing these eggs. All previous econometric analysis of the Canadian egg market has assumed eggs and consumers are homogeneous. This study makes use of Stated preference an...
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.
Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique
Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.
Full Text Available The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.
Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.
Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Art...
Igic, Branislav; Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E; Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E
The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin's brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins' rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.
Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L
Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
KRAAK, SBM; GROOTHUIS, TGG; Kraak, Sarah B.M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.
In many fish species of which males care for eggs in a nest, including Aidablennius sphynx, females prefer to mate with males that already guard eggs. In this paper we present two aquarium experiments with this Mediterranean blenny to determine whether the females actually use the presence of eggs
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of location in an incubator on the hatching characteristics of eggs obtained from Bronze turkeys of different ages, viz. at the ages of 8, 10 and 12 months. In the study 330 eggs were placed in each of six locations within an incubator, totalling 1 980 eggs from each age ...
Reijrink, I.A.M.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.
Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may
Robertson, John A
With the development of rapid freezing of human oocytes, many programs have reported IVF success rates comparable to those achieved with fresh eggs and thawed frozen embryos. Egg freezing is now gaining professional and regulatory acceptance as a safe and effective technique for women who wish to avoid discarding excess embryos, who face fertility-threatening medical treatments, or who want to preserve their eggs for use when they are better situated to have a family. This article focuses on the uses of and justification for egg freezing, the path to professional acceptance, the variability in success rates, and the controversy over freezing eggs for social rather than medical reasons. It also addresses the emergence of egg banking as a separate sector in the infertility industry, the regulatory issues that it poses, and its effect on egg donation. Key here is the legal control of stored eggs by banking women and their options when they wish to dispose of those eggs. The analysis is framed around empowerment and alienation. Egg freezing is generally empowering for women, but the donation or sale of unused eggs to infertile women, egg bankers, and researchers also raises issues of alienation.
Van Dyke, James U; Beck, Michelle L; Jackson, Brian P; Hopkins, William A
In oviparous vertebrates, trace elements transfer from mother to offspring during egg production. For animals that produce eggs slowly, like turtles, the trace element concentration of each egg reflects an integration of dietary and stored accumulation over the duration of vitellogenesis. Because turtles also produce eggs synchronously, all eggs within a clutch should exhibit uniform trace element concentrations. In contrast, for animals that produce eggs in sequence and primarily from current dietary resources, like many birds, the trace element concentrations of eggs should be less uniform within a clutch, and likely reflect short-term changes in dietary exposure. We tested the hypothesis that stinkpot turtle (Sternotherus odoratus) clutches exhibit lower variability and higher repeatability in barium, selenium, strontium, and thallium concentrations than those of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from a site impacted by a recent coal ash spill. All four trace elements exhibited significantly lower variability and significantly higher repeatability in stinkpot clutches than in swallow clutches. Mean trace element concentrations of stinkpot eggs were also significantly higher than those of swallow eggs although both species feed primarily on aquatic invertebrates. Variability in swallow egg trace element concentrations was partially due to significant laying order effects. Our results support the hypothesis that interspecific variation in the source of resources and in the synchronicity and rate of egg production can lead to interspecific differences in the variability of egg trace element concentrations.
Thomas J. Maier; Richard M. DeGraaf
Nest predation studies frequently use eggs such as Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) to identify potential predators of Neotropical migrants' eggs, but such eggs may be too large or thick-shelled to identify the full complement of potential predators. We compared predation events and predators of Japanese Quail and smaller House Sparrow (
Ground-nesting birds, particularly larids, are known to include a variety of items in their nests as pseudo-eggs, as well as to adopt the eggs of conspecifics or other species. Three hypotheses have been put forward to explain this phenomenon: incubation stimulus, mistaken-food, and mistaken-egg hypotheses. Of 382 Kelp ...
Marco-Jiménez, F; Puchades, S; Mocé, E; Viudes-de-Cartro, M P; Vicente, J S; Rodriguez, M
Egg yolk is a common additive to sperm cryopreservation diluents. Because of its animal origin, however, it also represents a potential risk of microbiological contamination in the diluent. This potential contamination can be avoided by using powdered egg yolk, instead of fresh egg yolk, as it is pasteurized. This study was conducted to determine ram sperm cryosurvival was affected by the type of egg yolk used (powdered egg yolk or fresh egg yolk) and by yolk concentration (10, 15 or 20%) in the diluent. Microbiological analyses were also performed to quantify the microbiological contamination in the diluents containing the two types of egg yolk. Sperm cryosurvival was determined by motility and morphology analyses after thawing. Motility parameters were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system, and the percentage of sperm with a normal apical ridge was evaluated using a differential interference contrast microscope. No significant differences were observed between diluents in the percentage of sperm with normal apical ridge. However, higher percentages of total motile cells were observed for samples containing powdered egg yolk (69%) compared to samples containing fresh egg yolk (60%). However, sperm in diluents containing fresh egg yolk, exhibited higher values for average-path velocity, straight-line velocity and beat cross frequency and lower values for amplitude of lateral head displacement (p diluents containing powdered egg yolk. Microbiological contamination was similar (diluents, and no bacterial growth was observed in either, when antibiotics were added. Therefore, powdered egg yolk can be effective used in diluents for the freezing of ram semen. However, the in vivo fertility of sperm frozen in diluents containing powdered egg yolk should be tested, as some motility parameters were different for sperm treated with powdered egg yolk compared to fresh egg yolk.
Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul...
Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.
Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain
Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.
Horne, van P.L.M.
Egg producers in the EU have to comply with legislation dealing with environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. From 1 January 2012 keeping hens in conventional cages was prohibited and egg producers had to change to either enriched cages or alternative housing systems. The result of
Ji, Qiang; Ji, Shu-An; Cheng, Yen-Nien; You, Hai-Lu; Lü, Jun-Chang; Liu, Yong-Qing; Yuan, Chong-Xi
The recent discovery of a pterosaur egg with embryonic skeleton and soft tissues from the Yixian Formation confirmed that the flying pterosaurs were oviparous. Here we describe another pterosaur egg whose exquisite preservation indicates that the shell structure was soft and leathery.
variety) obtained from 60 eight weeks old Japanese quails of three different plumage colour varieties: Pharaoh Quail (Black), A & M white (White) and Manchurian Gold (Brown) at 8-14 weeks of age were used in this study. Eggs were examined for both internal and external egg quality traits.Data obtained were subjected to ...
They make no nest but lay their eggs in a depression in the ground where it is dry, on the beds of cultivated land, on the high dams between plantations, on the bare rocks up the rivers, and on the savannahs in the They lay two or three eggs.
Burrell, A.M.; Vrieze, G.
This paper analyses a representative sample of 356 Dutch egg consumers in order to measure the extent to which ethical principles concerning the welfare of hens in different rearing systems are translated into egg purchasing intentions, and the extent to which declared intentions are expressed in
Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.
The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve
Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.
Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little
Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S
Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little
Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.
Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture
order to maximise the recycling opportunities for egg shells, the material could be incinerated independently of ... used for skin grafts, dental implants, angioplasty sleeves, cornea repair, plastic surgery, treatment of ... of biodegradable plastics from egg shell membrane proteins; altering of food-borne bacterial pathogen heat ...
This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved.
Schou, Mads Fristrup
When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini......When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....
Johanna Y Navarro
Full Text Available Although egg color is generally consistent within individual birds and robust to environmental variation, recent evidence suggests a degree of susceptibility to environmental perturbation or modulation of egg color. Most of this variation manifests via the physiology of the laying female, but some direct impacts of the environment on laid eggs have also been discovered. Here we test whether light changes bird egg color and we quantify its effect, by subjecting variable blue-green eggs of Rüppell's weaver (Ploceus galbula to a broad-spectrum light source under laboratory conditions, and measuring egg reflectance every few hours. Eggshells gradually decreased in reflectance across the entire measured wavelength spectrum of 250-800 nm. Reflectance peaks were disproportionately affected, such that the height decreased of both the blue-green peak and the smaller UV peak typical of blue-green eggs. The reflectance of lighter eggs was affected slightly more than that of darker eggs. These changes are similar to previous results for changes over long periods of time in darkness, suggesting that light might hasten the same process of pigment degradation that proceeds even without light. Comparison between the experimental light source and both sunlight and typical artificial lighting situations raises the possibility that significant color change might occur during incubation in some birds, but indicates that eggshell illumination in museums for short periods of study is unlikely to affect their color to a detectable extent. Additional research should be performed on eggs of other species and in other light environments, with an eye to an eventual generalized model of the effect of light on eggshell color.
Navarro, Johanna Y; Lahti, David C
Although egg color is generally consistent within individual birds and robust to environmental variation, recent evidence suggests a degree of susceptibility to environmental perturbation or modulation of egg color. Most of this variation manifests via the physiology of the laying female, but some direct impacts of the environment on laid eggs have also been discovered. Here we test whether light changes bird egg color and we quantify its effect, by subjecting variable blue-green eggs of Rüppell's weaver (Ploceus galbula) to a broad-spectrum light source under laboratory conditions, and measuring egg reflectance every few hours. Eggshells gradually decreased in reflectance across the entire measured wavelength spectrum of 250-800 nm. Reflectance peaks were disproportionately affected, such that the height decreased of both the blue-green peak and the smaller UV peak typical of blue-green eggs. The reflectance of lighter eggs was affected slightly more than that of darker eggs. These changes are similar to previous results for changes over long periods of time in darkness, suggesting that light might hasten the same process of pigment degradation that proceeds even without light. Comparison between the experimental light source and both sunlight and typical artificial lighting situations raises the possibility that significant color change might occur during incubation in some birds, but indicates that eggshell illumination in museums for short periods of study is unlikely to affect their color to a detectable extent. Additional research should be performed on eggs of other species and in other light environments, with an eye to an eventual generalized model of the effect of light on eggshell color.
From the results, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed only in the egg number, egg length, egg width and yolk weight. Egg number recorded 10, 16, 18 and 11 for 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% respectively. Egg length and egg width respectively were reported to be 29.54mm, 29.60mm, 23.14mm and 23.45mm; ...
Xin, H; Gates, R. S; Green, A. R; Mitloehner, F. M; Moore, P. A; Wathes, C. M
ABSTRACT As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified...
Soft-sediment deformation related to syntectonic intraformational unconformity in the early Palaeocene alluvial-fan deposits of Kuşcular Formation in the Elazığ sector of Tauride foreland, eastern Turkey
Koç Taşgın, Calibe
The Kuşçular Formation was deposited in the early Palaeocene in a tectonically-controlled foreland basin in front of the southwards-advancing nappes of the Tauride orogen in eastern Turkey. This lithostratigraphic unit consists of alluvial-fan deposits, including distal mudflat-playa facies association. The proximal to middle fan deposits are composed of clastic sediments, whereas the distal deposits represent both clastic and evaporitic sedimentation. Compressional synsedimentary deformation caused development of an intraformational unconformity in the distal fan deposits of the Kuşçular Formation. Slump features and overturned beds were formed as a result of the oversteepening and recumbent folding of deposits due to the orogen thrust-wedge movement. Load casts, flame structures, intrusion features, sand dykes, interpenetrative cusps and synsedimentary faults were formed as a result of sediment liquefaction and remobilization. It is suggested that such levels of soft-sediment deformation in foreland terrestrial molasse deposits should be carefully studied as they may be related to 'hidden' unconformities and represent an important record of syndepositional tectonic and seismic activity in the basin.
Vleck, Carol Masters
Incubating hummingbirds adjust nest attentiveness patterns in different habitats to permit both regulation of egg temperatures for embryonic development and foraging of the adult for positive energy balance. Anna's (Calype anna) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri) Hummingbirds nesting in California chaparral left the nest six to nine times during each daylight hour. Eggs usually cooled only 3-6°C during absences but sometimes cooled up to 20°C during long absences. One Anna's Hummingbird became torpid for 4.5 h at night following a rainy day; the eggs survived cooling to 11°C and hatched two days later. A Costa's Hummingbird (Calypte costae) nesting in the California desert also left the nest several times per hour in early morning and late afternoon, but shaded the eggs almost continuously during the middle of the day. A Purple-crowned Fairy (Heliothryx barroti) in the warm lowland tropics of Panama left her eggs unattended for a few relatively long periods each day rather than many short periods as do temperate zone species. This pattern is typical of other tropical hummingbirds as well probably because equable ambient temperatures mean thermoregulation of eggs is not as critical a problem as it is in other habitats. In the temperate zone, hummingbirds exhibit behavioral adaptations (timing of reproduction, segmented foraging pattern) and physiological adaptations (torpor and hypothermia) for successful incubation. Embryonic development is successful even when egg temperatures fluctuate widely.
Moran, A L; McAlister, J S; Whitehill, E A G
Marine organisms exhibit substantial life-history diversity, of which egg size is one fundamental parameter. The size of an egg is generally assumed to reflect the amount of energy it contains and the amount of per-offspring maternal investment. Egg size and energy are thought to scale isometrically. We investigated this relationship by updating published datasets for echinoderms, increasing the number of species over those in previous studies by 62%. When we plotted egg energy versus egg size in the updated dataset we found that planktotrophs have a scaling factor significantly lower than 1, demonstrating an overall trend toward lower energy density in larger planktotrophic eggs. By looking within three genera, Echinometra, Strongylocentrotus, and Arbacia, we also found that the scaling exponent differed among taxa, and that in Echinometra, energy density was significantly lower in species with larger eggs. Theoretical models generally assume a strong tradeoff between egg size and fecundity that limits energetic investment and constrains life-history evolution. These data suggest that the evolution of egg size and egg energy content can be decoupled, possibly facilitating response to selective factors such as sperm limitation which could act on volume alone.
Shaffer, Scott A; Clatterbuck, Corey A; Kelsey, Emma C; Naiman, Alex D; Young, Lindsay C; VanderWerf, Eric A; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C
Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1)) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1)) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.
Scott A Shaffer
Full Text Available Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1 turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1 than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common, (2 displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1 despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3 demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.
Mirsky, A E
1. The same number of SH groups reduces ferricyanide in surface films of egg albumin as in albumin denatured by urea, guanidine hydrochloride, Duponol, or heat, provided the ferricyanide reacts with films while they still are at the surface and with the denatured proteins while the denaturing agent (urea, heat, etc.) is present. 2. The SH groups of a suspension of egg albumin made by clumping together many surface films react with ferricyanide in the same sluggish and incomplete manner as do the groups in egg albumin denatured by concentrated urea when the urea is diluted or in albumin denatured by heat when the solution is allowed to cool off. 3. The known change in configuration of the egg albumin molecule when it forms part of a surface film explains why SH groups in the film react with ferricyanide whereas those in native egg albumin do not. In the native egg albumin molecule groups in the interior are inaccessible to certain reagents. A film is so thin that there are no inaccessible groups. 4. Because of the marked resemblance in the properties of egg albumin in surface films and of egg albumin after denaturation by the recognized denaturing agents, it may be supposed that the same fundamental change takes place in denaturation as in film formation-indeed, that film formation is one of the numerous examples of denaturation. This would mean that in general the SH groups of denatured egg albumin reduce ferricyanide and react with certain other reagents because they are no longer inaccessible to these reagents.
Ackerman, Joshua T; Hartman, C Alex; Herzog, Mark P
We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6-10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R 2 = 0.97) and tree swallows (R 2 = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R 2 = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%-107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15-1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R 2 mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs
Ackerman, Josh; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark
We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6–10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R2 = 0.97) and tree swallows (R2 = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R2 = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%–107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15–1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R2 mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs (and
Alsaati, Hytham A; Ditzler, Danielle; Burapatana, Vorakan; Tanner, Robert D
...) away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents...
Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter
Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages
Wang, De-He; Li, Ya-Jie; Liu, Long; Liu, Jing-Shou; Bao, Man; Yang, Ning; Zhuo-Cheng, Hou; Ning, Zhong-Hua
Translucent eggshells negatively affect the appearance of eggs and decrease their economic value. Translocation and accumulation of water from the contents to the shells of eggs are frequent occurrences. Causes of translucent eggshell formation have been investigated, but the primary reason is uncertain. In previous studies, scientists have found that the thickness of the eggshell membrane was significantly different between translucent and opaque eggs. However, there are some conflicts among studies. We performed 2 experiments with 3 breeding flocks of chickens to target the reasons for egg translucence. In experiment 1, eggs of 1,024 Brown-Egg Dwarf Layers (DWL) were used. Approximately 1,600 eggs were collected over 2 consecutive days. They were stored for 3 days, and then 120 translucent and 120 opaque eggs were selected for measurement of egg quality traits and weight loss over several weeks. In experiment 2, we used DWL and White Leghorn pure line (WLL) for assessment of eggshell ultrastructure and membrane traits. We chose 120 translucent and 120 opaque eggs from 3,500 DWL eggs and 125 translucent and 125 opaque eggs from 5,028 WLL eggs. The results are as follows: (1) translucent eggs had greater eggshell strength and lower ultimate failure stress of shell membrane than opaque eggs in both DWL and WLL groups, (2) translucent eggs had thicker shells and thinner shell membranes than opaque eggs in DWL, (3) no significant differences were found in either gas pore or bubble pore traits between translucent and opaque eggs in either line, and (4) no significant differences were detected in internal egg quality or weight loss between translucent and opaque eggs in either line. In summary, the present study suggests that variations in both eggshells and shell membrane structures are implicated in the formation of translucent eggs. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Kemp, Andrew Stewart; Allen, Clare Wendy; Campbell, Dianne Elisabeth
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an oral egg challenge in egg sensitized children on parental perceptions relating to their child's allergy. A questionnaire was completed by parents for 167 children attending a tertiary paediatric clinic with egg sensitization. The questionnaires included 10 questions concerning parental perceptions of their child's egg allergy. Parental perceptions of those children who had not had an egg challenge (n = 83) were compared with those whose children had a positive (n = 27) and those with a negative (n = 57) egg challenge. A significant difference (p = parents in the CN group expected little or no future inconvenience for the child. The responses of parents whose child had undergone an egg challenge differed significantly (p = expectation of little or no future discomfort for the child and whether others treated the child differently. The performance of an egg challenge was associated with reduced adverse parental concerns. For 6/10 parameters, expectations concerning egg allergy in children who had been challenged were significantly better than those who had never been challenged irrespective of the challenge outcome. The greater certainty provided by the performance of a food challenge may be a positive outcome in both CP and CN children.
Full Text Available The research objective was to evaluate the effects on the eggs quality in two farming systems (bed + nest and cages for the laying hens brown-egg pullets were used 132 eggs, with six replicates for each treatment and 11 eggs each repetition, picked randomly from sheds both with 2000 DeKalb strain of laying hens housed in two sheds Brown, to create a nest bed + tubular feeders, the other one in cage system, all birds at approximately thirty weeks of age, which evaluated the following variables: weight of whole egg, egg weight without shell, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk and albumen percentages, weight and thickness, color gem, the albumen pH and yolk, egg and classification according to RIISPOA. All collected data were analyzed by the statistical program SISVAR (2000 by Tukey test at 5% of probability. There were significant differences in the treatments studied in relation to the weight of whole egg, shelled egg weight, albumen%, skin thickness and coloration of the yolk, these results more significant to the breeding system in cages. However it can be concluded that in both systems when properly designed and managed can achieve good results and production performance of birds.
... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried... generally recognized as safe within the meaning of section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...) The name of the food for which a definition and standard of identity is prescribed by this section is...
Oct 4, 2016 ... Potentially viable eggs included undeveloped eggs (at different cell stages), ... A single piece of cellulose sponge cloth was soaked in each ..... one-celled stage. Figure 2. Morphology of Ascaris eggs after exposure to Products A and B for one hour (400×): (A) Partially decorticated egg with larva, PV, treated.
Faris A. Al-Obaidi; Shahrazad M. Al-Shadeedi
This study was carried out to determine egg morphology characteristics and component of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus) in Iraq. Freshly Pygmy Cormorant eggs without developed embryo were collected from Al- Tarmiya lakes north of Baghdad city to determined egg morphology characteristics including egg shape dimensions: weight, volume, specific gravity, shell, yolk, albumin weight as well as percentage of shell, yolk and albumin. Result...
Area and length measurements related to exterior and interior egg quality were determined by digital image analysis. In general, excluding the outer thin albumen area, all of the area measurements such as total egg content area and inner thick albumen area were larger in stored eggs than in fresh eggs (52.28 vs.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dried egg storage. 590.549 Section 590.549 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG..., and Facility Requirements § 590.549 Dried egg storage. Dried egg storage shall be sufficient to...
Increase in the quantity of biodegraded PKM resulted in significant differences in the values determined for feed intake, hen-day production, and average egg weight; but for egg length, yolk index, egg/yolk ratio and egg shell thickness, there was no significant difference. Despite the significantly lower hen-day production of ...
Eggs laid by Isa-brown layers were used in this study to investigate the effect of partial substitution of biodegraded brewers' dried grains (BDG) for maize on egg quality parameters of laying hens. A total of 1,728 eggs were used for this study which spanned over a period of 84 days. Eggs were collected from laying birds fed ...
D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen
How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However......, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might...... become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such "cue scrambling" does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker...
Anson, M L
1. 1 cc. of 0.001 M ferricyanide, tetrathionate, or p-chloromercuribenzoate is required to abolish the SH groups of 10 mg. of denatured egg albumin in guanidine hydrochloride or Duponol PC solution. Both the nitroprusside test and the ferricyanide reduction test are used to show that the SH groups have been abolished. 2. 1 cc. of 0.001 M ferrocyanide is formed when ferricyanide is added to 10 mg. of denatured egg albumin in neutral guanidine hydrochloride or urea solution. The amount of ferricyanide reduced to ferrocyanide by the SH groups of the denatured egg albumin is, within wide limits, independent of the ferricyanide concentration. 3. Ferricyanide and p-chloromercuribenzoate react more rapidly than tetrathionate with the SH groups of denatured egg albumin in both guanidine hydrochloride solution and in Duponol PC solution. 4. Cyanide inhibits the oxidation of the SH groups of denatured egg albumin by ferricyanide. 5. Some samples of guanidine hydrochloride contain impurities which bring about the abolition of SH groups of denatured egg albumin and so interfere with the SH titration and the nitroprusside test. This interference can be diminished by using especially purified guanidine hydrochloride, adding the titrating agent before the protein has been allowed to stand in guanidine hydrochloride solution, and carrying out the nitroprusside test in the presence of a small amount of cyanide. 6. The SH groups of egg albumin can be abolished by reaction of the native form of the protein with iodine. It is possible to oxidize all the SH groups with iodine without oxidizing many of the SH groups beyond the S-S stage and without converting many tyrosine groups into di-iodotyrosine groups. 7. p-chloromercuribenzoate combines with native egg albumin either not at all or much more loosely than it combines with the SH groups of denatured egg albumin or of cysteine. 8. The compound of mercuribenzoate and SH, like the compound of aldehyde and SH and like the SH in native
Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.
Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by <2% of volume on average from host eggs, whereas randomly paired eggs in random nests differed by nearly 8%. The precision with which parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.
Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares
PCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between......Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (q...... the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate...
Jager, TD; Hulscher, JB; Kersten, M.
We investigated the relationship between egg size and composition and their subsequent effects on hatching and fledging success in Eurasian Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on the island of Schiermonnikoog (53 degrees 30'N, 06 degrees 10'E) in the Dutch Wadden Sea between 1986 and 1990. Egg size
Ayadi, M A; Khemakhem, M; Belgith, H; Attia, H
Dried egg and egg-derived proteins have a range of applications in baking, dressings, and confectionery products. Egg powder was produced under high time-temperature scales (approximately 160 degrees C), which led to many changes in egg components, resulting in different functional properties of eggs after reconstitution. In this study, moderate operating conditions were selected to dry egg white and whole egg using a pilot-scale spray dryer. Functional properties changes were evaluated with an appropriate statistical technique. Major finding supports that spray drying of egg white at moderate conditions (air inlet temperature ranged from 110 to 125 degrees C) resulted in a product that enhanced considerably the water holding capacity of produced gels. Moreover, gel prepared with the dried samples was firmer than that of the fresh samples. Drying at a moderate scale allowed not only the increasing of the foaming capacity and the stability of foam but also an increase in their emulsifying capacity and stability of the emulsions.
Oct 4, 2014 ... with an electronic balance at the same time every day to calculate hen-day egg production (HDEP) and henhouse ... short diameters of albumen, and diameter of yolk with a digital calliper (± 0.001 mm). ..... Albumen quality of eggs from five commercial strains of white leghorn hens during one year of lay.
Graded levels of dietary inclusions of oyster shell and bone meal were used as calcium sources to determine their influence on egg weight and egg thickness for laying chicken in cages, under tropical conditions. Birds were allocated at random to 8% oyster shell and 2% bone meal in treatment 1; 7% and 3% in treatment II; ...
Keywords: Egg location, hatchability, incubation, egg size, turkey. # Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Introduction. One of the main objectives in turkey breeder production is to increase the number of poults .... the shell and dried, or hatched but adhered to the shell) death rates were determined.
The birds were randomly assigned to five treatment groups: control group with no FPLE; 30ml FPLE/litre of drinking water; 60ml FPLE; 90ml FPLE and 120ml/litre FPLE respectively at 3 day intervals. Feed was given ad libitum. Eggs were collected at 2 week interval to determine external and internal egg qualities.
Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M
This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic
South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 3 (1985) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The manipulation of egg size and egg quality. TR Morris. Abstract.
Full Text Available Protoporphyrin (PP and biliverdin (BV give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selection pressure for the evolution of colored or cryptic eggs should be present in all open nesting birds and relatives. Many birds are open-nesting, but protect their eggs by continuous brooding, and thus exhibit no or minimal eggshell pigmentation. Their closest extant relatives, crocodiles, protect their eggs by burial and have unpigmented eggs. This phylogenetic pattern led to the assumption that colored eggs evolved within crown birds. The mosaic evolution of supposedly avian traits in non-avian theropod dinosaurs, however, such as the supposed evolution of partially open nesting behavior in oviraptorids, argues against this long-established theory. Using a double-checking liquid chromatography ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry routine, we traced the origin of colored eggs to their non-avian dinosaur ancestors by providing the first record of the avian eggshell pigments protoporphyrin and biliverdin in the eggshells of Late Cretaceous oviraptorid dinosaurs. The eggshell parataxon Macroolithus yaotunensis can be assigned to the oviraptor Heyuannia huangi based on exceptionally preserved, late developmental stage embryo remains. The analyzed eggshells are from three Late Cretaceous fluvial deposits ranging from eastern to southernmost China. Reevaluation of these taphonomic settings, and a consideration of patterns in the porosity of completely preserved eggs support an at least partially open nesting behavior for oviraptorosaurs. Such a nest arrangement corresponds
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of addition pinneapple peel meal in diet on total egg and egg quality duck. Materials of the research were 60 mojosari ducks at seven months old. The treatment of pineapple peel meal addition in diet were treatment on level of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Variable were numbers of egg, egg shell thickness, fat and cholesterol egg yolk. The datas were analyzed using ANOVA from Randomized Block Design (RBD, if the result had significant effect, would be continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result showed that an addition pineapple peel meal in duck diet had no effect (P>0,05 on numbers of egg and thick of egg shell, however, it had highly significant effect (P<0,01 on fat and cholesterol egg yolk . The concluded showed that the addition of pineaple peel meal in ducks diet can be decreasing fat and cholesterol egg yolk and can not decreasing numbers of egg and egg shell tick. Keywords: Mojosari ducks, total egg, egg shell thick, egg yolk fat, and egg yolk cholesterol
Vaibhav C Gole
Full Text Available Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, causing an estimated 11,992 cases of infection in Australia per year. Egg or egg product related salmonellosis is a major concern for the egg industry. Worldwide, S. Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars identified in Salmonella food poisoning cases. The current study investigated the ability of five S. Typhimurium strains to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods. All S. Typhimurium strains were able to penetrate eggshells and survive in egg albumen (at 20°C according to whole egg penetration results. Polymerase Chain Reaction results demonstrated that S. Typhimurium strain 2 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL, and strain 5 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL egg penetration was significantly higher (p<0.05 in washed eggs when compared to unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis of the agar penetration experiment indicated that S. Typhimurium was able to penetrate washed eggs at a significantly higher rate when compared to unwashed eggs (p<0.05. When compared to unwashed eggs, washed eggs also had significantly damaged cuticles. Statistical analysis also indicated that eggshell penetration by S. Typhimurium was related to various eggshell ultrastructural features such as cap quality, alignment, erosion, confluence, Type B bodies and cuticle cover.
Full Text Available Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.
Full Text Available Egg-oil (Charismon© is known for its beneficial action in wound healing and other skin irritancies and its antibacterial activity. The physiological basis for these actions has been investigated using cells in culture: HaCaT-cells (immortalized human keratinocytes, human endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC, peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes (PBML and a full thickness human skin model (FTSM. Emphasis was on the influence of egg-oil on cell migration and IL-8 production in HaCaT cells, respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen (ROS production and proliferation in HUVEC and HaCaT cells, cytokine and interleukin production in PBML and UV-light induced damage of FTSM. IL-8 production by HaCaT cells is stimulated by egg-oil whilst in phythemagglutinin-activated PBMLs production of the interleukins IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ and TFN-α is reduced. ROS-production after H2O2 stimulation first is enhanced but later on reduced. Respiration becomes activated due to partial uncoupling of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and proliferation of HaCaT and HUVEC is reduced. Recovery of human epidermis cells in FTSM after UV-irradiation is strongly supported by egg-oil. These results support the view that egg-oil acts through reduction of inflammatory processes and ROS production. Both these processes are equally important in cellular aging as in healing of chronic wounds.
Lawrence, Kurt C.; Yoon, Seung Chul; Jones, Deana R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Park, Bosoon; Windham, William R.
One aspect of grading table eggs is shell checks or cracks. Currently, USDA voluntary regulations require that humans grade a representative sample of all eggs processed. However, as processing plants and packing facilities continue to increase their volume and throughput, human graders are having difficulty matching the pace of the machines. Additionally, some plants also have a problem with micro-cracks that the graders often miss because they are very small and hard to see immediately post-processing but grow and become readily apparent before they reach market. An imaging system was developed to help the grader detect these small micro-cracks. The imaging system utilized one image captured at atmospheric pressure and a second at a slight negative pressure to enhance the crack and make detection much easier. A simple image processing algorithm was then applied to the ratio of these two images and the resulting image, containing both cracked and/or intact eggs were color-coded to simplify identification. The imaging system was capable of imaging 15 eggs in about 3/4 second and the algorithm processing took about another 10 seconds. These times could easily be reduced with a dedicated, multi-threaded computer program. In analyzing 1000 eggs, the system was 99.6% accurate overall with only 0.3% false positives compared to 94.2% accurate overall for the human graders with 1.2% false positives. An international patent on the system was filed and further automation of the system is needed.
Shirakawa, Hideki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Ito, Masahiko
The innovation and development of live-cell fluorescence imaging methods have revealed the dynamic aspects of intracellular Ca2+ in a wide variety of cells. The fertilized egg, the very first cell to be a new individual, has long been under extensive investigations utilizing Ca2+ imaging since its early days, and spatiotemporal Ca2+ dynamics and underlying mechanisms of Ca2+ mobilization, as well as physiological roles of Ca2+ at fertilization, have become more or less evident in various animal species. In this article, we illustrate characteristic patterns of Ca2+ dynamics in mammalian gametes and molecular basis for Ca2+ release from intracellular stores leading to the elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and describe the identity and properties of sperm-borne egg-activating factor in relation to the induction of Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ oscillations, referring to its potential use in artificial egg activation as infertility treatment. In addition, a possible Ca2+ influx-driven mechanism for slow and long-lasting Ca2+ oscillations characteristic of mammalian eggs is proposed, based on the recent experimental findings and mathematical modeling. Cumulative knowledge about the roles of Ca2+ in the egg activation leading to early embryogenesis is summarized, to emphasize the diversity of functions that Ca2+ can perform in a single type of cell.
Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds.
Full Text Available AbstractTicks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri,was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennenseeggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases.
H. J. Wilms
Full Text Available The egg apparatus of Spinacia was studied from the time the embryo sac reaches its maximal size to just before fertilization, i.e., until about 8-9 hours after pollination. At maturity each synergid has a large elongated nucleus and prominent chalazal vacuoles, Numerous mitochondria, plastids, dictyosomes, free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER, and lipid bodies are present. The cell wall exists only around the micropylar half of the synergids and each cell has a distinct, striated filiform apparatus. In general, degeneration of one synergid starts after pollination. The egg cell has a spherical nucleus and nucleolus and a large micropylar vacuole. Numerous mitochondria, some plastids with starch grains, dictyosomes, free ribosomes, and HER are present. A continuous cell wall is absent around the chalazal end of the egg cell.
Manuela Grčević Grčević
Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical quality indicators of table eggs available on the Croatian market. The research was carried out on eggs produced by two manufacturers, marked as A and B, on the 7th and 28th day of egg storing. According to the Regulations on egg quality (OJ 115/06, Art. 9, eggs are classified as class A or fresh eggs and class B or eggs for industrial processing. Referring to the weight of the eggs, the eggs of class A are divided into four grades: XL, L, M and S. Our research focused on the M weight grade eggs, because they are the most represented ones in our conditions. The following external indicators of egg quality were analyzed: shape index (%, egg weight (g, shell weight (g, shell strength (kg/cm2 and thickness (mm. Furthermore, the following indicators of inner egg quality were tested: weight of albumen and yolk (g, yolk colour, Haugh units (HU, albumen height (mm, pH of albumen and pH of yolk. Results of our research provided the following conclusions: based on evaluation of energy and protein value, eggs of the manufacturer B had better nutritive value than eggs of the manufacturer A. The results of research into quality of eggs on the 7th day of storage proved that there was statistically significant difference (P<0.001 between the A and B egg manufacturer if referring to the egg weight, shape index, shell thickness, shell weight and strength, as well as albumen weight. After the 28th day of egg storage, there was statistically significant difference (P<0.001 determined for albumen height, HU, pH values of albumen and yolk, and yolk colour (P=0.003. Based on the analysis of nutritive values and physical and chemical properties of eggs during storage, it was confirmed that eggs produced by the manufacturer B were of better quality than eggs of the manufacturer A. Eggs of both manufacturers met the requirements defined by the Croatian Regulations on egg quality.
Full Text Available The present study was based on the examination of the natural egg laying habits of domestic geese. The authors studied Grey Landes geese during the summer laying period. On the day of arrival of the birds a TyniTalk II artificial egg was placed in each nest. These eggs contain a microchip which detects and records data on the temperature of the surroundings. The results obtained demonstrate that after laying a certain number of eggs females laying under natural conditions sit on the nest not only when laying new eggs, but also to warm the eggs in it. The time devoted to warming increases with the laying period.
Schrøder, H D; Nissen, S H
The ultrastructure of the ant-egg cataractous lens has been studied. Comparison of tissue demineralized by means of EDTA with untreated tissue showed the calcium salts in the ant-eggs to be mostly crystalline. A laminar appearance of the ant-egg seen in EDTA treated material suggested an intermit......The ultrastructure of the ant-egg cataractous lens has been studied. Comparison of tissue demineralized by means of EDTA with untreated tissue showed the calcium salts in the ant-eggs to be mostly crystalline. A laminar appearance of the ant-egg seen in EDTA treated material suggested...
I. S. Mityay
Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Keywords: oology, geometrical parameters of eggs, bird systematics
Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar; Mohanty, Jyotirmaya; Hemaprasanth; Kar, Banya; Mohanty, Bikash Ranjan; Garnayak, Sushil Kumar; Jena, Joy Krushna
Argulus siamensis is the most damaging fish parasite prevalent in the freshwater aquaculture systems of India. In an attempt to further understand the behavior of this economically important parasite, the means of biological transmission, egg laying strategies and effect of temperature on development of eggs was studied. A. siamensis showed opportunistic egg laying behavior where in it used both living and non-living substrata for egg laying. It was marked that the parasites used the shells of freshwater snails of the family Viviparidae, the runners of the water weeds of genus Nymphoides and dead fish in the culture ponds for laying of eggs. This study confirmed that the maximum eggs were laid by the parasite in the habitat usage zone of the host fish. The optimum temperature for development of the eggs of A. siamensis into the infective naupliar stage and hatching was found to be 28 °C. These new insights into the behavior of A. siamensis would be helpful to devise biological control methods against the parasite.
Full Text Available A conducted research analyzes two systems of egg production, the conventional, commercial egg production and the egg production with a higher nutritive value - PUFA n-3 enriched eggs. Financial result of eggs production with PUFA n-3 is significantly higher than that of the conventional production - profitability of the conventional production was 19.29% and the one with PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 36.10%. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the efficiency of the use of capital based on the profitability of capital that is in the conventional egg production 23.9%, and in the production of PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 56.1%. According to the results of investigation, it is necessary to produce 258 eggs in the conventional egg production, whereas in the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 breakeven point (BEP is lower and amounts 204 eggs per laying hen per year. A higher cover rate with a difference of 10% (42.99±53.07 confirms that the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 is economically more efficient.
Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.
Eighty pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed an uncontaminated diet until each female had laid 15 eggs. After each female had laid her 15th egg, the pair was randomly assigned to a control diet or diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ?g/g mercury as methylmercury until she had laid a second set of 15 eggs. There were 20 pairs in each group. After the second set of 15 eggs, the pair was returned to an uncontaminated diet, and the female was permitted to lay another 30 eggs. For those pairs fed the mercury diets, the even-numbered eggs were incubated and the odd-numbered eggs were saved for possible mercury analysis. Mercury in the even-numbered eggs was estimated as the average of what was in the neighboring odd-numbered eggs. Neurological signs of methylmercury poisoning were observed in ducklings that hatched from eggs containing as little as 2.3 ?g/g estimated mercury on a wet-weight basis, and deformities were seen in embryos from eggs containing about 1 ?g/g estimated mercury. Although embryo mortality was seen in eggs estimated to contain as little as 0.74 ?g/g mercury, there were considerable differences in the sensitivity of mallard embryos, especially from different parents, with some embryos surviving as much as 30 or more ?g/g mercury in the egg.
Jones, M; Skidmore, A; Glozier, N; Welch, J; Hunter, A S; Cullinan, P
Hen and quail eggs are commonly used in embryological research. While immunoglobin E (IgE)-associated allergy to hens' egg proteins is recognized in employees in the food industry, there are no previous reports from workers in embryological research. Two newly identified cases prompted us to examine the extent of this problem in a university laboratory. To determine the prevalence and determinants of sensitization to egg among a group of workers in an embryological research laboratory. Following the identification of egg sensitization in two research workers, we surveyed 116 employees from a single embryology research laboratory in 2005. Sensitization to egg was assessed by skin prick tests and/or specific IgE measurement and examined in relation to a number of potential determinants, including the extent of appropriate control measures. Four employees were sensitized to egg, each with digestive symptoms of egg allergy. All had worked directly with eggs, giving a prevalence of specific sensitization in that group of 6.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.7%, 14.8%]). There was a statistically significant trend for those sensitized to report a shorter duration of exposure to eggs and less frequent use of hygiene control measures to reduce exposure. Sensitization to eggs among those occupationally exposed to egg protein in research work occurs more commonly than in the general population. The presence of digestive symptoms after eating eggs may be indicative of sensitization to egg and should be incorporated into health evaluation of exposed workers.
D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.
How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such “cue scrambling” does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker-laid eggs. Chemical analyses also showed that the surface hydrocarbon profile of these eggs was unchanged. Policing, therefore, is stable against this potential cheating mechanism probably because queen-laid eggs are made chemically distinct using chemicals, that are not easily transferred by physical contact.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on the internal quality (Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk hardness and yolk springiness of eggs when stored at either 4 or 28°C for 28 d. A total of 288 laying hens (32 wk of age were randomly allotted to 6 treatment groups (4 replicates per treatment and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM as the protein ingredient(s. A 6 × 2 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage temperatures (4 and 28°C as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 216 eggs was collected for egg internal quality determination. The results showed as follows: 1 lower egg quality was observed in the DRM group compared with the other groups when stored at 4 and 28°C for 28 d (P < 0.05, while there was no difference in egg internal quality among the other groups. 2 The CSP diet resulted in higher yolk hardness compared with the other diets when eggs were stored at 4°C for 28 d (P < 0.05. Lower Haugh unit was observed in the DRM and SBM-DRM groups compared with the other groups when eggs were stored for 28 d at 4°C (P < 0.05. 3 Yolk breakage occurred in the DRM group and eggs could not be analyzed for egg internal quality when stored at 28°C for 28 d. The overall results indicated that CSP or DRM as the sole dietary protein source for laying hens may adversely affect the internal quality of stored eggs as compared with the SBM diet, and half replacement of CSP combined with SBM may maintain similar egg quality to SBM diet alone for eggs stored under refrigerated conditions.
Jones, D. R; Musgrove, M. T
.... The current study was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the Enterobacteriaceae present on vacuum loader cups used in shell egg processing to transfer nest run eggs to the processing line...
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Salmonella and Eggs Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... can I reduce my chance of getting a Salmonella infection? Consider buying and using pasteurized eggs and ...
Investigation of the cause of the low percentage of fertilized walleye eggs experienced in a hatchery showed the low initial fertilization was due primarily to operational procedure rather than defective eggs or sperm...
Martill, David M.
Pterosaur fossils are among the rarest and their eggs are even rarer. How then can we get an insight into the lifestyle of these flying reptiles? A wealth of new pterosaur fossils, including eggs, from China now provides exactly that.
OTA, Mari; TOYOFUKU, Chiharu; THAMMAKARN, Chanathip; SANGSRIRATANAKUL, Natthanan; YAMADA, Masashi; NAKAJIMA, Katsuhiro; KITAZAWA, Minori; HAKIM, Hakimullah; ALAM, Md. Shahin; SHOHAM, Dany; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki
Calcinated egg shell (Egg-CaO), of which the main component is calcium oxide, was evaluated in the forms of powder and aqueous solutions for their efficacies as disinfectants against avian influenza virus (AIV...
H Mohammadi Emarat
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.
Full Text Available The quail raising in Brazil has increased through the last years and the incubation procedures are important to maintenance and improvement of quail egg production. To obtain a sufficient number of eggs to fill an incubator, eggs are usually accumulated in storage over a period from 1 day up to 3 weeks before incubation. The objective of this research was to verify the effect of egg storage on hatchability and egg weight loss for two lineages of Japanese quails. Sixty four Japanese quails were divided in two groups: G1 (n=32 for meat production and G2 (n=32 for egg production. They were used for serial egg collections that were performed every day, during 15 consecutively days, totaling 600 eggs. After collection they were placed in refrigerated room (20°C and 60% of relative humidity and submitted to different periods of storage, from 0 day until 14 days, according to their collection day. The incubation occurred at 37.6°C and 60% RH. The weight measurements were done during storage, incubation and hatching. The results showed that for Meat type and Egg type quails, the egg hatchability was around 84% until 10 days of storage, and then this rate decreased significantly. Both types of quail eggs presented similar weight loss during storage and incubation. The research showed that quail eggs present great hatchability until 10 days of storage and that eggs submitted to storage present a reduced weight loss during incubation.
Gosden, Roger G; Gosden, Lucinda L Veeck
Eggs can be 'forever'. A longstanding goal in assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been realized at last, namely, cryopreservation of oocytes by vitrification technology. This breakthrough heralds benefits for infertility treatment, fertility preservation, and even postponement of reproduction but, as so often with ARTs, new waves of technology draw ethical and societal concerns in their wake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
free enterprise. The purpose of this paper is to examine and evaluate the options available and the actions necessary in structuring a viable and dynamic egg industry for the future. Structural Evolution. Earlier, chickens and other ... physiology, husbandry, business management, shorten- ing marketing channels and food ...
Neil, E; Marsh, G
Anyone who has made scrambled eggs will have had cause to praise the properties of Teflon. Teflon's highly chemically inert and nonstick nature derives from the perfluorinated polymer polytetrafluoroethylene. Perfluorocarbons have unique and valuable physical properties not found in nature. By incorporating fluorine into proteins, it might be possible to produce biological molecules with novel and useful properties.
Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.
A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…
There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...
Background: Eggshells, which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of m...
Dec 31, 2008 ... not exerted in the mushroom body, a site previously asso- ciated with PKA action on sleep. These results suggest the existence of a novel pathway by which octopamine might regulate circadian rhythms in sleep/wake and egg-laying be- haviour. The ability of octopamine to regulate oviduct con-.
Aslam, M. Aamir; Hulst, Marcel; Hoving-Bolink, Rita A. H.; Smits, Mari A.; de Vries, Bonnie; Weites, Ilse; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Woelders, Henri
Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion
Aslam, M.A.; Hulst, M.M.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Smits, M.A.; Vries, de B.; Weites, I.; Groothuis, T.G.; Woelders, H.
Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion
Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Hald, Mie
industries having a large consumption of natural resources (water and energy) and produces significantly amounts of residue (waste water, carbon dioxide and biodegradable waste). As such it is only natural that the food industry is governed by environmental regulation. In this book the Egg...
In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...
Young, R. S.
The effects of subgravity (much less than unit gravity) on fertilization, cell division, differentiation, and growth of a relatively simple biological system (eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata) were considered. The experiment was flown on Gemini 3 and recovered as scheduled. However, the experiment objectives were not achieved, primarily for mechanical reasons.
Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer
to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed...
Apr 26, 2010 ... through the eggshell if the egg is contaminated with fecal ... through the eggshell upon contact with contaminated ... synthetic pesticides. One such method involves the use of plant-derived-products, such as plant essential oils, having antimicrobial effect. Keeping all these points in consideration, an attempt.
Todd, E C
In 1992, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) amended its Egg Regulations to restrict movement of Canada C eggs (cracks) to federally registered processed egg stations for pasteurization. This was questioned by egg producers and some provinces on economic grounds. It was also in conflict with long-standing practices of marketing eggs in some provinces to retail stores, bakeries, restaurants and institutions or at the farm gate. In order to determine how much of a risk these eggs were to human health, AAFC requested that the Health Protection Branch (HPB) of Health Canada (HC) conduct a risk assessment. On the basis of outbreak data, the main hazard in these eggs was identified as Salmonella. Salmonellae may occasionally be present on shell eggs even after washing, and any Salmonella reaching the membranes can be transferred to an egg mixture through breaking, and will rapidly grow under improper storage conditions. A Relative Risk analysis showed that cracked eggs are 3 to 93 times more likely than uncracked shell eggs to cause outbreaks. A probability of illness of 1 in 3800 was derived from the 40 million cracked eggs produced in Canada and not pasteurized and the probable 10,500 illnesses arising from these. This was for the general population, but this would be greater for those who consume many shell eggs or would do so in an unsafe manner, or are more likely to be infected (5% of consumers who eat raw or lightly cooked eggs daily, rural communities with more opportunities for obtaining cracked eggs, and those who are immunocompromised and in institutions). Even though it is not possible to precisely determine the risk of salmonellosis through cracked eggs, this assessment indicated that there was enough of a concern that a management strategy was needed. Eight options for managing the risk were considered and ranked for acceptability by both HC and AAFC. Ideally, all cracked eggs should be broken and pasteurized, but this is impractical in certain regions
Liu, Yu-Chi; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wu, Ying-Chen; Lee, Yi-Chain; Tan, Fa-Jui
This study investigated the quality of washed and unwashed eggs stored at 7°C (WC and UC for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) and 25°C (WR and UR for washed and unwashed eggs, respectively) for 4weeks. The results show that the Haugh unit, albumin pH, thick albumin ratio, yolk index, air cell size, and S-ovalbumin content of UC were significantly the most superior, followed by those of WC, WR, and UR, in that order. Scanning electron microscopy and cuticle staining confirmed the damages and decreased cuticle coverage caused by washing and extended storage. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that cuticle composition changed significantly after washing and storage (Pegg quality, and egg washing reduced cuticle coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaviarasan, T; Siva, Sankar R; Yogamoorthi, A
Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last three decades for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological active compounds. Even though all marine organisms have the potential to produce antimicrobial secondary metabolites, the gastropod has the vital sources of secondary metabolites particularly their egg capsule which has the promising antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In the present review, we intend to focus on marine secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsule. The following compounds i.e. Kabiramid C, Aplysianin E, Aplysianin A, Thisaplysianin E and Tyrian purple have been documented in egg capsule of various gastropod and most of the antimicrobial secondary metabolites have not been isolated from the egg capsule because of the odious, and complex chemical structure. Stability of the compounds is unknown.
Fazlollahi, Mina; Chun, Yoojin; Grishin, Alexander; Wood, Robert A; Burks, A Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Jones, Stacie M; Leung, Donald Y M; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Bunyavanich, Supinda
Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multi-center Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected and clinical evaluation, egg specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Analyses for the primary outcome of egg allergy at enrollment, and the secondary outcomes of egg sensitization at enrollment and resolution of egg allergy by age 8 years, were performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME), Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt), and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP). Compared to controls, increased alpha diversity and distinct taxa (PERMANOVA P=5.0x10 -4 ) characterized the early-life gut microbiome of children with egg allergy. Genera from the Lachnospiraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families were differentially abundant in children with egg allergy. Predicted metagenome functional analyses showed differential purine metabolism by the gut microbiota of egg allergic subjects (Kruskal Wallis P adj =0.021). Greater gut microbiome diversity and genera from Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with egg sensitization (PERMANOVA P = 5.0x10 -4 ). Among those with egg allergy, there was no association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy resolution by age 8 years. The distinct early-life gut microbiota in egg allergic and egg-sensitized children identified by our study may point to targets for preventive or therapeutic intervention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Manijeh Mahdavi; Mohammad Jalali; Hjieh Ghasemian Safaei; Ehsan Shamloo
Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and colifor...
Ribeiro, M.; S. N. G. Socoloski; Komiyama, C M [UNESP; M. S. Lemos; J. C. O. Silva; Ribeiro,R.P.; M. B. Vendramel; E. C. Reginato; Vieira, T. B.
The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells...
Renata Russo Frasca Candido
Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION Immunogenicity of Schistosoma mansoni egg surface was examined to determine whether intact eggshells have lower antigenicity than ruptured eggs. METHODS: Swiss Webster mice were inoculated with intact or ultrasonicated S. mansoni eggs isolated from infected human feces. Mice were separated into four groups of six animals each and immunizations were performed approximately every 20 days during a 60-day period. Groups 1-4 were administered with saline solution, sonicated eggs with Freund’s adjuvant, sonicated eggs without Freund’s adjuvant, and intact eggs, respectively. IgG humoral immune response was assessed by ELISA using Soluble Egg Antigen produced from eggs isolated from the livers of infected mice. RESULTS Sonicated eggs co-administered with adjuvant induced the highest humoral response at 58 days, which was 11.9-fold (95% CI 6.2-17.5 greater than the response induced by saline solution. Sonicated eggs without adjuvant induced a 4.3-fold stronger response (95% CI 2.4-6.2 than normal saline. Intact eggs induced humoral response that was nominally twice stronger (95% CI 0.8-3.2 than that induced by normal saline but the effect did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS Soluble antigens are not abundant on the surface of S. mansoni eggs and/or are not secreted in sufficient quantities to induce a significant immune response to intact eggs. Assuming that isolation procedures had not damaged the eggs used for inoculation, our observations suggest that intact eggs either do not induce a significant immune response or, if they do, the mechanism involves insoluble antigens from the egg surface.
There were also significantly higher values for the internal and external egg quality traits (egg weight, egg width, yolk index, Haugh unit, albumen height, albumen %, and yolk width) in T1, T2 and T3 compare to T4(10.00, 2.11, 0.17, 75.42, 1.55, 49.01and 37.3,). Key words: Egg quality, Japanese quail, laying characteristics, ...
De Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Nunes Vieira, Juliana; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Stoll, Franciele Elisa; Da Silva Nascente, Patricia; Pötter, Luciana; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel
Visceral toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxocara canis. The prevalence of this parasite in dogs, soil contamination and the resistance of eggs increase human exposure to the disease. Moreover, the difficulties of the control measures justify the need for alternative ones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal activity of fungi isolated from soils from public places in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on Toxocara canis. Samples of soil from ten localities were inoculated onto Petri dishes with 2% water-agar (WA) that contained antibiotics, and incubated at 25°C/21 days. Isolated fungi were tested in vitro for ovicidal activity, with five replicates. One mL of an embryonated Toxocara canis egg suspension (10(3) eggs) was poured over the fungal cultures after 10 days of growth. At intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days, 100 eggs were removed from each plaque and evaluated by optical microscopy. Acremonium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Mucor and Trichoderma were isolated from the soil. A significant ovicidal type 3 effect was observed in Trichoderma, Fusarium solani complex and Acremonium. Those isolates from the genus Trichoderma showed their ovicidal effect on the 14th day of fungus-egg interaction. The other fungal genera tested showed a type 2 effect. These results suggest that the use of Trichoderma and Fusarium solani complex in biological control of T. canis is promising; however, further studies should be performed. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Reijrink, I A M; van Duijvendijk, L A G; Meijerhof, R; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H
Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may reduce negative effects of prolonged egg storage because it may prevent changes in the embryo and in egg characteristics. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of high CO(2) concentrations or a low O(2) concentration in the storage air on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality. Eggs were stored for 14 d in 4 different storage air compositions: normal air (control; 20.9% O(2), 0.05% CO(2), 78.1% N(2)), 0.74% CO(2) treatment (20.8% O(2), 0.74% CO(2), 77.5% N(2)), 1.5% CO(2) treatment (20.6% O(2), 1.5% CO(2), 77.0% N(2))(,) or 3.0% O(2) treatment (3.0% O(2), 0.04% CO(2), 96.0% N(2)). The storage temperature was 16 degrees C and the RH was 75%. Results showed that the change in albumen pH and albumen height between oviposition and the end of storage was less in the 0.74 and 1.5% CO(2) treatments than in the control and 3.0% O(2) treatments (P storage air had a positive effect on albumen height and albumen pH, it is concluded that the storage air compositions, studied in the current study, do not affect embryonic development, hatchability, or chick quality when eggs are stored for 14 d at a storage temperature of 16 degrees C.
Three hundred (300) Fulani Ecotype (FE) chicken eggs collected from free ranged Fulani Ecotype chicken were used to study the effect of egg weight on hatch weight and subsequent body weight. Eggs were grouped into two according to their weight (small and medium) and incubated. Body weight of the chicks was ...
Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and coliform counts in the egg contents were 3.95 × 10 4 CFU/g and 4.94 × 10 3 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not found on the shell or content of eggs. Enterobacteriaceae families were found in 357 of 525 (68.28% and 276 of 525 (52.44% of egg shell and egg content samples, respectively. Moreover, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 175 (33.41% and 144 (25.37% of egg shell and egg content, respectively. The isolated Enterobacteriaceae were included: Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Buttiauxella agrestis, Cedecea lapagei, Cedecea davisae and Erwinia herbicola. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate although Salmonella and Listeria were not found in egg samples; however, there is an urgent need to improve the hygienic level of consumed eggs.
which may accumulate in the egg and cause public health hazards. Microbial contamination of eggs in the process of production, handling and marketing has also been of a major public health concern. This paper reviews some of the ways table eggs can get contaminated and become unsafe for human consumption, ...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... mortgage as defined in this part. If the owner states there is a mortgage, the owner and each person...
This study aimed at evaluating egg traits, hatchability, fertility, chick hatch weight, and chick survivability of commercial Rhode Island Red (RIR), local, and crossbred chickens. A total of 6752 local chicken eggs were collected to obtain breeding stock and to study egg traits. RIR breeding stock was obtained from raising 250 ...
Egg weight, diameter and mean number per gram were determined for fertilized eggs from broodfish of Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus longifilis and F1, hybrid broodfish (C. gariepinus x H. longifilis). Mean egg weight was least in C. gariepinus (1.30 mg) followed by H. longifilis (1.80 mg) and highest in the F1 hybrid ...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Eggs in commerce. (a)(1) For eggs that moved or are moving in interstate or foreign commerce, no State...
Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.
In this report the impact of reducing or removing import levies on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied, for both shell eggs and whole egg powder. As a result of the costs of transportation, import levies and the effects on product quality and safety, there will barely be imports of
Aquaculture holds the potential to supplement catches as well as produce seed for restocking purposes. However, seed production of O.karongae in artificial ... of O.karongae eggs in a re-circulating system. Key words: Egg, disinfectants, incubation, recirculation, hatchability, egg treatment, mortality, Oreochromis karongae ...
... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG... decharacterized product shall be labeled as required in §§ 57.840 and 57.860. (3) By processing for industrial use... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...
Shell eggs are on the top of the list of the 10 riskiest foods regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and 352 outbreaks from 1990 to 2006 were linked to eggs. The goals of this study were to design and assemble an apparatus to apply RF energy to shell eggs and to develop a process for pasteur...
Dec 3, 2008 ... electric table-type incubator to ensure minimal egg weight loss. Different types of poultry egg incubators have been recommended for small-scale hatchery operations. Irtwange (2003) designed and constructed a passive solar powdered poultry eggs incubator to provide free energy from the sun. Because ...
Results from studies by Deeming (1995), Ar (1996) and Blood et al. (1998) showed that the optimal water loss for artificially incubated ostrich eggs amounts to approximately 15% but, like other birds, ostriches show some latitude in the amount of water loss at which eggs will still hatch successfully. Eggs which lost less than ...
common-sense approach to diet and lifestyle. In the light of the findings of the present ... weeks for those producing winter eggs and from 49 to. 68 weeks for those producing ... Nutrient composition of South African eggs - values for whole raw eggs (as analysed) produced in winter and summer. 1990, compared with values ...
Eggs are one of nature's most nutritious and economical foods, but you must take special care when handling and preparing fresh eggs and egg products to avoid food poisoning. Created: 8/19/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases (NCEZID/DFWED). Date Released: 8/19/2010.
... legislation, on the chemical and nutritional quality of table eggs. The biological material consisted of eggs laid by 1200 Lohmann Brown hens, aged 27 weeks, fed similarly (a corn-wheat-soymeal diet). Conventional AOAC methods were used to analyse the eggs, and gross energy was calculated based on organic matter ...
A simple method of keeping laying hens has been developed with the aim of improving family nutrition through the provision of high quality egg protein at low cost. A unit is kept at a family's home and provides on average six eggs per day for daily household consumption after a number of eggs have been sold to cover the ...
The main and interactive effects of hatching egg weight and length of storage on hatching time, apparent fertility, and hatchability of total and fertile eggs are shown in Table 2. The hatching time of chicks was significantly influenced by length of storage period and hatching egg weight (P < 0.05). Observations started at 396 h ...
The egg incubator system with temperature sensor can measure the state of the incubator and automatically change to the suitable condition for the egg. The health of the egg is very important for the development of embryo. The status condition in the incubator system will appear on the liquid crystal display (LCD) screen.
Proximate analyses and vitamin, mineral, fatty acid and amino acid detenninations were carried out on all the samples. When the analysed values obtained for whole eggs, egg yolks and egg whites were compared with values listed in the Research Institute for Nutritional Diseases food tables, a number of differences were ...
Results indicated an increase in egg production with increasing levels of CSM in the diet up to 10 per cent level of inclusion. The addition of CSM to the diets had no significant effects on egg weight, Haugh unit values (HUV), yolk index, and yolk colour scores. However, egg yolk colour tended to improve with increasing ...
eggs from the diet should be weighed against the effect of deprivation of these nutrients. Dietary cholesterol, serum cholesterol and CHD. Metabolic ward and controlled studies have demonstrated that an increase in dietary cholesterol as the only dietary variable, taken either as crystalline cholesterol, egg yolk or whole egg ...
Flocks under study are located in the suburbs of Nairobi province and Machakos district. They belonged to smallholder farmers. Twenty seven clutches of eggs given to indigenous chickens to seat on, and 10 clutches of eggs given to ducks to seat on were investigated for six months. The number of eggs in each clutch ...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at frequent...
Some reproductive disorders in poultry which include peritonitis, salpingitis and impaction of oviduct are described as 'egg peritonitis\\' (Jordan, 1990). Egg peritonitis can occur as a severe flock problem and when it does it is usually associated with poor management (Jordan, 1990). Flock egg peritonitis outbreaks are often ...
... inspection by an appropriate U.S. Government official, an official of an approved meat, poultry, or egg... applicable laws and regulations for importation into the United States. Refrigeration of Shell Eggs ...
Gradman, Josefine; Mortz, Charlotte G; Eller, Esben
, ovalbumin, conalbumin, lysozyme, and egg yolk could improve the specificity of the diagnostic workup and aid in the decision when to rechallenge egg-allergic children. METHODS: The outcome of oral food challenges with hen's egg and corresponding specific IgE levels were evaluated in children referred......BACKGROUND: The majority of egg-allergic children develop tolerance over time. However, it may take numerous of consecutive egg challenges to get there as no good indices to predict tolerance exist. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serial measurements of specific IgE to egg white, ovomucoid...... to The Allergy Center within an 8-year period. The egg-allergic children were rechallenged and had specific IgE levels measured once a year. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 26 months, 287 challenges and corresponding 287 serum analyses were performed in 130 children. Of the 130 children, 99 were egg...
Massoni, V.; Reboreda, J. C.
Parasitic cowbirds and cuckoos generally reduce the clutch size of the hosts they parasitize by removing or destroying some of their eggs. Shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis) puncture their hosts' eggs both when parasitizing the nests and also when they do not parasitize them. We propose that, by puncturing the host's eggs, shiny cowbirds gain an informational benefit. They assess the degree of development of the host's embryos and so avoid laying in nests that would not provide enough incubation time for the parasitic eggs to hatch. Two predictions follow: (i) punctures should occur in advance or immediately before parasitic events, and (ii) the occurrence of parasitism should depend on the degree of development of the host's embryos when punctures occurred, i.e. on the stage of incubation. Both predictions are supported by our data of shiny cowbirds parasitizing yellow-winged blackbirds (Agelaius thilius). Egg punctures are not used to reset the host's nesting attempt when shiny cowbirds do not parasitize the nests. We discuss the potential mechanisms implicated in egg development assessment and propose a critical experiment to test this hypothesis.
de Boissieu, D; Dupont, C
Clinical adverse reactions to egg may occur in infants or children who have never eaten egg. They may be sensitized or even react at first egg ingestion. Few studies are available concerning the reality of egg white allergy in such sensitized children, the natural evolution of this condition and the appropriate decisions to make. To analyze the actuality and natural course of egg allergy in children sensitized without previous of hen's egg ingestion. We set up a clinical decision tree based on clinical history and specific egg white IgE to manage patients who had never ingested egg but were sensitized as demonstrated by a positive SPT and report a cohort of 30 such children The mean level of egg white specific IgE at first analysis, i.e. before 12 months, was high, 28.3 KU(A) /L, with a large range, from 0.6 to >100 KU(A) /L, below 6 KU(A) /L in only 8 patients. In 6 children ("no challenge" group), IgE values remained >8 KU(A) /L by the end of the survey and the oral challenge with egg was always denied. Their mean + SD IgE level was at 51.7 + 38 KU(A) /L at 1 year and 19.7 + 13 KU(A) /L at a mean age of 34 + 5 months. All had an associated anaphylactic reaction with milk and 5 were still allergic to milk by the end of the survey. In the remaining 24 infants, egg was given for the first time at a mean age of 30 + 9 months, by error in 4 cases, all exhibiting an immediate reaction, and in a hospital setting in 20, among whom 14 reacted. Among those 18, with a specific IgE level at 9.1 + 10 KU(A) /L at 28 + 9 months, 4 became tolerant between 3 and 4 years, with specific IgE levels below 1.3 KU(A) /L and a 5th one with specific IgE >100 KU(A) /L at 6 months tolerated scrambled eggs at age 7 year, with specific IgE at 2.6 KU(A) /L. In the 6 others, labeled "non allergic", egg white specific IgE levels were significantly lower, whatever the age, than in the "no challenge" group. The age at challenge was 35 + 8 months, with a mean specific IgE level at 1.0 + 0.9 KU
Devney, C.A.; Kondrad, S.L.; Stebbins, K.R.; Brittingham, K.D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.
Field studies on nesting birds sometimes involve questions related to nest initiation dates, length of the incubation period, or changes in parental incubation behavior during various stages of incubation. Some of this information can be best assessed when a nest is discovered before the eggs have undergone any incubation, and this has traditionally been assessed by floating eggs in freshwater. However, because the freshwater method is not particularly accurate in identifying unincubated eggs, we developed a more reliable saltwater flotation method. The saltwater method involves diluting a saturated saltwater solution with freshwater until a salt concentration is reached where unincubated eggs sink to the bottom and incubated eggs float to the surface. For Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 39.0% (N = 251) of eggs that were subsequently found by candling to have undergone incubation prior to collection. By contrast, in a separate collection of gull eggs, no eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 225) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. For Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 15.6% (N = 250) of eggs that had undergone incubation prior to collection, whereas in a separate collection, none of the eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 85) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. Immersion of eggs in saltwater did not affect embryo survival. Although use of the saltwater method is likely limited to colonial species and requires calibrating a saltwater solution, it is a faster and more accurate method of identifying unincubated eggs than the traditional method of floating eggs in freshwater.
Hakalahti, T; Pasternak, A F; Valtonen, E T
Substrate preferences, spatial aggregation patterns and seasonal dynamics in the egg laying of ectoparasitic Argulus coregoni were studied at a commercial fish farm in Finland. Pilot experiments showed that A. coregoni females selected specific types of substrates for egg laying. Significantly more A. coregoni eggs were laid on dark substrates than on light ones suggesting the use of visual cues. Therefore, egg-laying plates of dark colour were constructed for further experiments. Most A. coregoni eggs were deposited in locations in shadow and in the deepest water in a 2 m deep farming canal. Relatively more eggs were laid on bottom stones situated near each egg-laying trap than on artificial egg-laying plates indicating a preference for irregular stones in the deeper locations in the canal. The plates were located 20 cm above the bottom. However, a total of 5,863 A. coregoni egg clutches, corresponding approximately to 1.5 million unhatched metanauplii, were successfully destroyed with the plates indicating that egg-laying traps can be used as an ecological control method against argulids in certain situations. For traps to be effective, ponds should not contain stones or any other hard substrata attracting female lice. The egg laying of A. coregoni in this study started on 5 July in 2001 and extended over 3.5 months up to mid-October. The egg-laying pattern of A. coregoni population was unimodal, supporting the view that only a single A. coregoni generation occurred annually in Central Finland.
Prompt refrigeration of eggs to prevent the multiplication of Salmonella Enteritidis to high levels during storage is an important practice for reducing the risk of egg-transmitted human illness. The efficacy of egg refrigeration for achieving this goal depends on the location of contamination, the ...
Recommendations about consuming eggs have evolved over the past few years resulting in some confusion. This article reports on changes to egg consumption recommendations with respect to heart disease risk, and reviews the evidence for the nutritional benefits and potential health outcomes associated with regular egg consumption. Data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey are used to highlight how eggs can best be incorporated into a healthy diet. Suggestions are given on the safe cooking and use of eggs in vulnerable groups of patients.
Rybalova, Natalya B.; Vasiljeva, Ludmilia T.; Zamorskaja, Tatjana; Bychajev, Al.
This work concerns luminescence of egg shell and chick down and livability and egg production of hens. It was established that the best layers showed orange color of egg shell luminescence at the beginning of the laying period. Yellow color of chick down luminescence indicates on the chicken's good development especially concerning its digestive and circulatory systems, and connects with its future high livability and egg production. So the use of the color of luminescence is advisable as an additional characteristic providing good possibility to forecast the development of a chicken, its resistance for stressors, its livability and egg production afterwards.
Lyu, B; Chen, D W; Li, J G; Zhou, S; Zhao, Y F
Objective: To compare the residual distribution of fipronil and its metabolites in white and yellow egg, and to analyze the residual changes of fipronil and its metabolites in raw and cooked samples, regarding the risk assessment of fipronil and its metabolites via consuming egg for different age groups. Methods: The white egg and yellow egg were isolated from 10 egg samples containing fipronil residues. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified, and determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The chromatographic analysis was performed on a BEH C(18) column with 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase with gradient elution, and external standard calibration was used for quantification. The negative ion acquisition mode was applied and quantitative analysis was carried out by using Full Scan/ddms2 model. Results: The results showed that fipronil sulfone was the main residue detected in eggs; The content of fipronil sulfone in white egg was between 2.5 and 59.9 μg/kg, the median was 16.1 μg/kg; and the content of fipronil sulfone in yellow egg ranged from 81.5 and 1 526.0 μg/kg, with a median of 390.0 μg/kg. The ratio of fipronil sulfone in yellow egg to white egg ranged from 8.0 and 14.6. Compared with that observed in fresh egg, after heating or cooking, the content ratio of fipronil sulfone residue between cooked samples and raw samples from yellow egg was between 0.80 and 0.96, the median was 0.90; and the ratio from white egg ranged from 0.65 to 1.06, the median was 0.83. The conversion coefficient of fipronil sulfone (f) between white egg and yellow egg was 3.1. Conclusion: Yellow egg is a major intake source of fipronil and metabolites residues, and there is no obvious change for fipronil sulfone residue in eggs after heating or cooking. The conversion coefficient of fipronil sulfone (f) between white egg and yellow egg lays the foundation for assessing the health risks of fipronil and metabolites residues
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with
Iowa egg producers recalled nearly 500 million eggs in August 2010. The typical effect of a recall is to cause a decline in the demand for the affected product, yielding a decrease in the price. In the case of August 2010 egg recall, the price of eggs increased in the following weeks. This essay investigates the market effects of the egg recall. I estimate a system of simultaneous equations that includes supply and demand equations for the two main segments of the US industry. This essay offe...
Jones, D R; Anderson, K E
Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P Eggs from conventional cages had significantly different (P eggs with significantly different (P Enterobacteriaceae among housing systems with conventional caged eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.
Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha
To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides.
Kiff, L.F.; Peakall, David B.; Morrison, M.L.; Wilbur, S.R.; Wilbur, Sanford R.; Jackson, Jerome A.
Post-DDT (post-1947) eggshell thickness was examined in samples of Turkey Vulture, Black Vulture, and Crested Caracara eggs from several parts of the United States. Highly significant post-DDT decreases in eggshell thickness indices of at least 10 percent were found in Turkey Vulture eggs from California, Florida, and Texas and in Black Vulture eggs from Texas and Florida. Over one-third of the Black VUlture eggs and about 30 percent of the Turkey Vulture eggs from Texas showed thinning exceeding 20 percent, a level associated with reproductive failure and population decline in other species. A strong negative correlation was found between eggshell thickness indices and DDE residues extracted from eggshell membranes in California and Texas samples of Turkey Vulture eggs and in Texas Black Vulture eggs. Crested Caracara eggs from Texas and Florida showed mean changes in eggshell thickness indices of only -5.6 and -8.2 percent, respectively, although thinning in a few eggs from both states exceeded 20 percent. Most of the post-DDT Old World vulture eggs examined appeared to be of normal thickness, with low DDE residue levels in eggshell membranes; but single eggs of Egyptian Vulture from India, Cinereous Vulture from Spain, and White-headed Vulture from Zambia showed apparent thinning. Further monitoring of vulture populations in tropical regions, where DDT use is still increasing, is recommended.
Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini
Full Text Available Chemical and physical characteristics of game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg were studied and compared with domesticfowl (Gallus gallus domesticus’s egg. The birds were housed in individual cages in a environmentally controlled room(T=18÷20°C; 16L:8D and fed ad libitum standard breeder diet. A sample of thirty eggs was analysed for each phase of thelaying period (beginning, peak and end. The following chemico-physical parameters: egg, albumen, yolk and shell weight;yolk colour; egg and shell dry matter (DM; shell thickness (blunt end, pointed end and middle part were measured. Theprotein, lipid, and cholesterol content was evaluated; the fatty acid (FA profile analysed. We observed: egg weight averageof 34.5g ; a high proportion of yolk (37% in the whole egg (Y/E, consequently, a high lipid content of 13.9%; a protein contentDM of 44.3%; the fatty acid composition was similar to that of chicken egg and the oleic acid (36.4% was the majorproportion of the total fatty acids, as in the domestic fowl. The rearing pheasant’s egg has a high nutritive concentration, dueto high ratio yolk/whole egg, with biological and nutritional characteristics similar to domestic fowl’s egg.
Full Text Available Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides. In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.
Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.
Nimalaratne, Chamila; Wu, Jianping
Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides). In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.
Yamahama, Yumi; Onitake, Kazuo
We investigated the mechanism of egg transport in the newt not only by inserting various conditioned eggs into the recipient's body but also by placing them on the coelomic epithelia of the opened body cavity in the adult female newt. Most of the inserted coelomic eggs were oviposited, while 4 of 14 inserted de-jellied uterine eggs and 3 of 10 inserted de-jellied fertilized eggs were oviposited. The coelomic eggs placed on the coelomic epithelia were transported toward the ostium and entered the ostium. The de-jellied uterine eggs and the de-jellied fertilized eggs were transported to the ostium as well. Of all the eggs examined, the coelomic egg was transported the fastest. The transport speeds of coelomic eggs treated with periodic acid and the speed of boiled coelomic eggs were less than those of untreated coelomic eggs. In contrast, the transport speeds of coelomic eggs treated with trypsin and the speed of coelomic eggs removed from their vitelline envelopes (naked eggs) were faster than those of untreated coelomic eggs. Other experiments were carried out in order to ascertain the dependence of sexual activity on egg transport. The speed of coelomic egg transport in artificially sexually activated females was faster than in sexually inactive females, although the ciliary movement could always be observed in both sexually active females and sexually inactive females. This suggests that the speed of egg transport on the coelomic epithelia is controlled by the sexual activity of the female.
Poisbleau, Maud; Dehnhard, Nina; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Eens, Marcel
Phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic stability are major components of the adaptive evolution of organisms to environmental variation. The invariant two-egg clutch size of Eudyptes penguins has recently been proposed to be a unique example of a maladaptive phenotypic stability, while their egg mass is a plastic trait. We tested whether this phenotypic plasticity during reproduction might result from constraints imposed by migration (migratory carry-over effect) and breeding (due to the depletion of female body reserves). For the first time, we examined whether these constraints differ between eggs within clutches and between egg components (yolk and albumen). The interval between colony return and clutch initiation positively influenced the yolk mass, the albumen mass, and the subsequent total egg mass of first-laid eggs. This time interval had only a slight negative influence on the yolk mass of second-laid eggs and no influence on their albumen and subsequent total masses. For both eggs, female body mass at laying positively influenced albumen and total egg masses. Female investment into the entire clutch was not related to the time in the colony before laying but increased with female body mass. These novel results suggest that the unique intraclutch egg size dimorphism exhibited in Eudyptes penguins, with first-laid eggs being consistently smaller than second-laid eggs, might be due to a combination of constraints: a migratory carry-over effect on the first-laid egg and a body reserve depletion effect on the second-laid egg. Both these constraints might explain why the timing of reproduction, especially egg formation, is narrow in migratory capital breeders.
Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt
Eggs of chicken ascarids (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) are believed to be hardy and survive for long periods. However, this has not been evaluated quantitatively and our study therefore aimed to determine development and recovery of chicken ascarid eggs after burying in pasture soil....... Unembryonated eggs were mixed with soil, placed in sealed nylon bags and buried at 7 cm depth in pasture plots April (spring, n = 72) and December 2014 (winter, n = 72). Eight randomly selected bags per season were used to estimate pre-burial egg recovery [0 week post-burial (wpb)]. Eight random bags were...... removed at 5, 12, 23, 38, 52, 71 wpb per season and additionally at 104 wpb for spring burial. The content of each bag was analysed for numbers and development stages of eggs. Eggs buried in spring were fully embryonated within 12 wpb. In contrast, eggs buried in winter were developing between 23 and 38...
Mayani-Parás, Fernando; Kilner, Rebecca M; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh
When animals potentially occupy diverse microhabitats, how can camouflage be achieved? Here we combine descriptive and experimental methods to uncover a novel form of phenotypic plasticity in the camouflage of bird eggs that may be present in other avian taxa. Soil from the bare substrate adheres to the blue-footed booby's (Sula nebouxii's) pale eggs, which parents manipulate both under and on top of their webs. Analysis of digital images confirmed that dirtiness increases progressively during the first 16 days of the incubation period, making eggs more similar to the nest substrate. Observations of 3,668 single-egg clutches showed that the probability of egg loss declines progressively over the same time frame and then remains low for the rest of the 41-day incubation period. An experiment showed that when chicken eggs are soiled and exposed in artificial booby nests, they are less likely to be taken by Heermann's gulls (Larus heermanni) than clean eggs.
Carroll, Katherine; Kroløkke, Charlotte
The promise of egg freezing for women's fertility preservation entered feminist debate in connection with medical and commercial control over, and emancipation from, biological reproduction restrictions. In this paper we explore how women negotiate and make sense of the decision to freeze their eggs. Our analysis draws on semi-structured interviews with 16 women from the Midwest and East Coast regions of the USA who froze their eggs. Rather than freezing to balance career choices and 'have it all', the women in this cohort were largely 'freezing for love' and in the hope of having their 'own healthy baby'. This finding extends existing feminist scholarship and challenges bioethical concerns about egg freezing by drawing on the voices of women who freeze their eggs. By viewing egg freezing as neither exclusively liberation nor oppression or financial exploitation, this study casts egg freezing as an enactment of 'responsible' reproductive citizenship that 'anticipates coupledom' and reinforces the genetic relatedness of offspring.
Linley, J R; Duzak, D
In laboratory experiments, third and early fourth instar larvae of Toxorhynchites amboinensis, Tx. splendens and Tx. brevipalpis, previously starved 24 h, rapidly cannibalized eggs of their own species, or ate the eggs of other species present on the water surface in small containers. Toxorhynchites amboinensis and Tx. splendens larvae of either instar cannibalized eggs somewhat more rapidly than Tx. brevipalpis, probably because brevipalpis eggs distributed themselves around the edge of the container and were less accessible. When offered heterospecific eggs, fourth instar larvae of all three species ate them as efficiently as they cannibalized their own except that eggs of Tx. brevipalpis were eaten very slowly. Toxorhynchites amboinensis larvae were offered conspecific hatched eggs, and these also were consumed.
Foltz, Kathy R; Adams, Nikki L; Runft, Linda L
The protocols outlined here hopefully will provide researchers with healthy, beautiful echinoderm oocytes, eggs, and embryos for experimental use. The large size of echinoderm oocytes and eggs, the ease with which they can be manipulated, and (in many species) their optical clarity, make them an ideal model system for studying not only the events specific to oocyte maturation and fertilization, but also for investigating more general questions regarding cell cycle regulation in an in vivo system. The quick rate at which development proceeds after fertilization to produce transparent embryos and larva makes the echinoderm an advantageous organism for studying deuterostome embryogenesis. Continued use of the echinoderms as model systems will undoubtedly uncover exciting answers to questions regarding fertilization, cell cycle regulation, morphogenesis, and how developmental events are controlled.
Powell, Sean; Forslund, Kristoffer; Szklarczyk, Damian Milosz
levels compared with 41 in eggNOGv3, (iii) identification and annotation of particularly closely related orthologous groups, facilitating analysis of related gene families, (iv) improvements of the clustering and functional annotation approach, (v) adoption of a revised tree building procedure based......) from complete genomes, and then applies a comprehensive characterization and analysis pipeline to the resulting gene families. Compared with the previous version, we have more than tripled the underlying species set to cover 3686 organisms, keeping track with genome project completions while...... on the multiple alignments generated during the process and (vi) implementation of quality control procedures throughout the entire pipeline. As in previous versions, eggNOGv4 provides multiple sequence alignments and maximum-likelihood trees, as well as broad functional annotation. Users can access the complete...
Landsteiner, K.; van der Scheer, J.
Experiments are presented on the cross reactions of hen egg albumin immune sera with egg albumins of other species by means of exhaustion with heterologous proteins and by inhibition tests. From the results it can be concluded that the sera contain multiple, qualitatively distinct antibodies. For this, two not mutually exclusive explanations come into consideration: the presence in proteins of a number of different, perhaps similar, complex determinants, and the fact, established by previous results, that one antigenic grouping can call forth the formation of diverse antibodies. It is inferred that cross reactions between proteins of kindred species are ascribable, in general, to similarity in determinant structures, and not to the distribution of identical determinant groups among the related proteins. PMID:19870974
McCaughrean, M. J.; Andersen, M.
We present a deep, high spatial resolution (0.35 arcsec FWHM), near-infrared (1-2.5 mu m) imaging survey of the Eagle Nebula, M 16, made with the VLT, centred on the famous elephant trunks. We compare these data with the existing HST optical images to search for evidence of ongoing or recent star formation in the trunks, and in particular in the 73 small evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs) on their surface. We find that two of the three HST trunks have relatively massive YSOs in their tips. Most of the EGGs appear to be empty, but some 15% of them do show evidence for associated young low-mass stars or brown dwarfs: in particular, there is a small cluster of such sources seen at the head of the largest trunk.
Tânia Regina Oliveira Ramos
Full Text Available The title, in its ambiguity, comes from a song in tribute to mothers, “Mommy, Mommy. I remember slipper in hand, all of the apron dirty egg,” The purpose of this essay is to show contemporary narratives that seek to represent by the writting the sense of passion of the modern urban woman, her experiences of morality, what is left of what was called archetypally respectability and domestic responsibility.
Richard, T; Hauzeur, C; Vanhaeverbeek, M
We report a 76 years-old female patient who consults for left flank pain and inflammatory biology, due to the presence of an egg-shaped 5 cm diameter macro-lithiasis. Because of the presence of a Proteus bacteriuria, the patient receives a 7 days levofloxacin treatment, before a laparoscopic resection of the kidney stone is performed. The analysis reveals a struvite lithiasis with a disorganized radial-section nuclear structure (type IVc).
Televisi-televisi swasta di Indonesia bekerja menggunakan frekuensi yang berbeda-beda. Dilakukan analisa menggunakan antena UWB dengan bentuk egg terhadap berbagai macam dimensi untuk mengetahui kemampuan antena dalam menangkap frekuensi televisi-televisi swasta tersebut. Analisa terhadap Perubahan dimensi antena pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan bantuan program simulasi pada komputer. Antena disimulasikan dengan 9 macam dimensi. Bahan yang digunakan adalah konduktor alumunium. Untuk menge...
Rath, N C; Liyanage, R; Makkar, S K; Lay, J O
Eggshells which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of microbial and environmental origins. As feed supplements, during post hatch growth, the hatchery egg shell membranes (HESM) have shown potential for imparting resistance of chickens to endotoxin stress and exert positive health effects. Considering that these effects are mediated by the bioactive proteins and peptides present in the membrane, the objective of the study was to identify the protein profiles of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM). Hatchery egg shell membranes were extracted with acidified methanol and a guanidine hydrochloride buffer then subjected to reduction/alkylation, and trypsin digestion. The methanol extract was additionally analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The tryptic digests were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify the proteins. Our results showed the presence of several proteins that are inherent and abundant in egg white such as, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-116, and lysozyme, and several proteins associated with cytoskeletal, cell signaling, antimicrobial, and catalytic functions involving carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. There were some blood derived proteins most likely originating from the embryos and several other proteins identified with different aerobic, anaerobic, gram positive, gram negative, soil, and marine bacterial species some commensals and others zoonotic. The variety of bioactive proteins, particularly the cell signaling and enzymatic proteins along with the diverse microbial proteins, make the HESM suitable for nutritional and biological application to improve post hatch immunity of poultry.
Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Dixon, Heather; Vergara, Pablo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Fargallo, Juan A.
How colouration provides information about individuals in birds has been a central issue in recent decades. Although much information has been derived, little is known about the adaptive significance of egg colouration in birds. A recent idea suggests that biliverdin- and porphyrin-pigmented eggs may act as a post-mating sexual signal for males to assess female quality. In birds, it is common for males to influence prelaying female condition by courtship feeding. Using Eurasian kestrels, a species that lays protoporphyrin-pigmented eggs, we descriptively assessed the influence of male feeding on egg pigmentation by considering female phenotype, condition, breeding parameters and male body condition. We found that older females and females with greyer tails (an index of individual quality) produce highly pigmented eggs. However, male body condition was the only variable that explained egg colouration when considered together with the female-related variables. Therefore, females that mated with males in better condition laid highly pigmented eggs. With the same species, we also explored the cost of producing protoporphyrin-pigmented eggs using a food-supply experiment before the laying period. Food supplementation did not increase egg pigmentation, but hatching success and egg mass were positively related to egg colouration only in food supplied pairs. We suggest that egg colouration might be costly to produce and probably suggests egg quality. However, this cost cannot be explained by female quality, but by male condition instead. In general, our results do not support the theory that egg colouration is a post-mating sexual signal in species where males determine female condition at the time of laying.
Garibaldi, J A; Straka, R P; Ijichi, K
The heat-resistance characteristics of Salmonella typhimurium Tm-1, a reference strain in the stationary phase of growth, were determined at several temperatures in the major types of products produced by the egg industry. The time required to kill 90% of the population (D value) at a given temperature in specific egg products was as follows: at 60 C (140 F), D = 0.27 min for whole egg; D = 0.60 min for whole egg plus 10% sucrose; D = 1.0 min for fortified whole egg; D = 0.20 min for egg white (pH 7.3), stabilized with aluminum; D = 0.40 min for egg yolk; D = 4.0 min for egg yolk plus 10% sucrose; D = 5.1 min for egg yolk plus 10% NaCl; D = 1.0 min for scrambled egg mix; at 55 C (131 F), D = 0.55 min for egg white (pH 9.2); D = 1.2 min for egg white (pH 9.2) plus 10% sucrose. The average Z value (number of degrees, either centigrade or fahrenheit, for a thermal destruction time curve to traverse one logarithmic cycle) was 4.6 C (8.3 F) with a range from 4.2 to 5.3 C. Supplementation with 10% sucrose appeared to have a severalfold greater effect on the heat stabilization of egg white proteins than on S. typhimurium Tm-1. This information should be of value in the formulation of heat treatments to insure that all egg products be free of viable salmonellae.
Rahman, Mohammad Anisur; Baoyindeligeer; Iwasawa, Atsushi; Yoshizaki, Norio
The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of chalaza formation in eggs of the Japanese quail Coturnix japonica and to determine the production site of chalaza materials in the oviduct. Electrophoretic profiles of the chalaza materials showed six bands of 480, 320, 210, 180, 96, and 58 kDa following Coomassie Blue staining and one band of 600 kDa after immunoblotting. An antiserum was produced against the 180-kDa band. This antiserum and an antiserum generated against the 600-kDa protein were used as probes to detect chalaza materials. Immunofluorescent and immunoelectron-microscopic observations revealed that chalazae and chalaziferous layers overlaid to approximately 40 microm upon the vitelline membrane of the ovum were composed of the same materials as those produced by both types of secretory cells in the luminal and glandular epithelia at the infundibulum. We propose that the mechanism of chalaza formation is as follows: (1) chalazae first appear as fine filaments at the presumptive sharp and blunt ends of the ovum at the infundibulum; (2) these filaments are twisted into a lead fiber while the ovum is rotating and descending in the magnum; (3) at the posterior end of the magnum, the lead fiber is anchored to the thick egg white and lifted outward with the chalaziferous sublayers when the inner egg white is liquefied by absorbing water; (4) the lead fiber and chalaziferous sublayers are twisted further into the chalaza in the uterus.
S Ahmad*1, Ahsan-ul-Haq2, M Yousaf2, Z Kamran1, Ata-ur-Rehman3, MU Suhail1 and HA Samad1
Full Text Available Canola oil and vitamin A were evaluated for their effects on egg characteristics, egg cholesterol and egg triglycerides (TG in laying hens prone to heat-stress during summer months. Four levels of canola oil (0, 2, 3 and 4% of diet in combination with two levels of vitamin A (3,000 or 10,000 IU/kg of diet were fed to laying hens for a period of 12 weeks. Various egg-quality parameters were measured on weekly basis while, serum TG, egg cholesterol and TG contents were analyzed during the last week of the trial. The results of the study showed that the egg weight, egg mass, yolk weight, Haugh unit score, shell thickness, shell weight and egg breaking-strength were similar (P>0.05 for all canola oil levels supplemented to the laying hens. Higher egg weight and egg mass (P0.05 by increasing canola oil or vitamin A levels in the diet of laying hens. It might be concluded from the results of the present study that canola oil as a source of omega-3 fatty acids can be included in the diet of laying hens without compromising the quality characteristics of the eggs.
Trendelenburg, V; Tschirner, S; Niggemann, B; Beyer, K
Environmental exposure to food allergens may be a risk factor for cutaneous sensitization. Previous studies could detect peanut allergen in house dust. In this pilot study, we wanted to investigate whether hen's egg allergen is detectable in house dust collected from different household areas and whether levels are increased after intentional hen's egg consumption. Hen's egg protein levels of dust samples were measured using ELISA. In 8 of 8 households, hen's egg was detectable in dust samples of eating area and bed. Forty-eight hours after intentional hen's egg consumption, hen's egg protein levels were significantly increased in both. Still, further research is necessary to investigate whether hen's egg allergen in house and bed dust plays a role in sensitization via skin. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Saerang, JLP; Manalu, W; Soesanto, IRH; Mardiastuti, A
The objective of this study was to examine the size (weight, length, and width) of Maleo egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park.Physical characteristics that measure are : egg weight, egg shell, egg index , yolk, and albumen. Physical characteristics measured were: egg weight, egg shell thickness, egg index, yolk, and albumen. Two fresh eggs were weighed to the electric ohause balance with 400 g the scale 0.01. Two fresh egg were weighed with an electric balance. Length and width off egg ...
Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin concentrations in the eggs of commercial laying hens. A total of 1,800 25-week-old Lohman pink-shell hens were randomly assigned to four dietary vitamin treatments as follows: NRC(1994 level, NRC (1994 level with Hy.D® (25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol, Local level (current average industry level in China and OVN® level (optimum vitamin nutrition level, with 10 replicates per treatment and 45 layers per replicate. Hens were housed in commercial laying cages with three birds per cage and given ad libitum access to feed. Results showed the hens that received the fortified vitamin levels in the OVN® treatment had a significantly (p<0.05 lower number of cracked (.47% and dirty eggs (.27%, and increased egg deposition of vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, 25-OH-D3, vitamin E, vitamin B1, biotin and pantothenate (p<0.05. Treatments had no significant effect on egg-shape index, egg specific gravity, Haugh units and eggshell thickness. Hens fed the NRC-Hy.D® combination also experienced a significant decrease in cracked and dirty eggs (.70% and .44%, respectively and an increased deposition of 25-OH-D3 in comparison with the NRC treatment. Results of the present study suggest that that the Local treatment was able to improve egg quality parameters of laying hens, but resulted in more cracked and dirty eggs. OVN® reduced the number of cracked eggs and dirty eggs, and improved the deposition of several vitamins in eggs. With the addition of Hy.D®, eggshell strength and 25-OH-D3 deposition in eggs were also improved, and cracked and dirty egg rates declined.
Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely.
Gao, Dan; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu
Physical changes such as chicken egg white thinning and egg yolk flattening occur during storage, implying a decline in egg quality. To reveal the deteriorative process related to chicken egg internal quality, a comparative proteomic method was used in this study to analyze the alterations in egg yolk plasma proteins at different storage times (0, 20 and 40 days) under an ambient temperature of 22 ± 2 °C. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, 33 protein spots representing 12 proteins were identified with significant (P albumin, vitellogenin fragments, IgY chains, ovalbumin, ovoinhibitor, α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like, hemopexin, transthyretin, apolipoprotein A-I and β 2 -glycoprotein I precursor. Accelerating degradation for most egg yolk plasma proteins was observed after prolonged storage (from day 20 to day 40). It is likely that the increased degradation of protease inhibitors such as ovoinhibitor and α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like during prolonged storage lead to an imbalance of protease and antiprotease in egg yolk, which may play a key role in the degradation of egg yolk proteins. These findings will provide an insight into the effects of storage on egg yolk protein changes and give a deeper understanding of the deteriorative process of chicken egg yolk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Jailane de Souza Aquino
Full Text Available Approximately 20% of ostrich eggs are infertile and can be consumed by humans, however, its high volume and perishability indicate the need of appropriate technological processes. Thus, this study aimed to determine the chemical composition of in natura ostrich eggs, as well as physical, chemical and microscopic parameters of ostrich egg products after dehydration. The chemical composition of in natura ostrich and chicken eggs was determined. Ostrich egg whites, yolks and whole eggs were fermented and dried in mini spray-dryer. After dehydration, yield, composition and particle diameter of egg products collected in the cyclone and spray-dryer chamber were evaluated. In natura ostrich egg white and yolk showed higher protein (respectively 15.21% and 11.54% and fat (respectively 38.48% and 0.34% contents, when compared to chicken eggs. Samples collected from the cyclone showed a lower moisture content and better particle diameter uniformity. The ostrich egg products presented satisfactory yield, uniformity and nutritional value, demonstrating that the spray-dryer technique is another alternative for conservation and use of this food for human consumption.
Full Text Available The main focus of this research is to evaluate the factors thought to influence the monthly egg production of Konsoni Poultry Company. The linear regression employing different variables of interest is used to predict the future monthly egg production of the largest poultry farm in Kosovo. The general purpose of multiple regressions (the term was first used by Pearson, 1908 is to learn more about the relationship between egg price, local competitors and egg imports as independent or predictor variables (xi and dependent or criterion variable, egg production (y. Y = B0 + B1*X1 + B2*X2 + …Bn*XnThe results of the research come from the observed fluctuations in egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company during the period of 24 months. Many factors that effect egg production are poorly understood from managers of Konsoni Poultry Company. This study examines the statistical results and identifies the relationships between depended and independent variables. The study shows that there is a strong relationships between depend variably (y and independent variables (xi. and low correlations among independent variables The adjusted R2 of the multiple linear regression model is 0.48 which tells us that 48% of variation in egg production are explained by evaluated variables.Konsoni Poultry Company covers 20% of the market share for eggs in Kosovo. In general, multiple regression is used to answer the general question what is the best predictor of Konsoni egg production.
Hoff, G R
Predation on skate eggs by snails was examined for three skate species at seven nursery sites in three regions (north, middle and south) of the eastern Bering Sea. Mean predation levels were 6.46% for the Alaska skate Bathyraja parmifera, 2.65% for the Aleutian skate Bathyraja aleutica and 22.25% for the Bering skate Bathyraja interrupta. Predation levels were significantly higher at the middle and north sites than the south sites for all species combined. Predation levels decreased with increasing egg-case densities at all nursery sites, and the highest predation levels occurred where egg-case densities were very low. Predated egg-case density increased with increasing snail densities across all nursery sites examined. The Oregon triton Fusitriton oregonensis was the most abundant snail species at all nursery sites and displayed ability to drill holes in the egg case of B. parmifera. Holes left by predatory snails in egg cases of B. parmifera were significantly larger, and of different shape at the middle site compared to the south site. Holes in B. parmifera were also significantly larger than those in egg cases of B. interrupta across all sites examined. Egg cases of B. aleutica possess surface spines that cover the egg case and may inhibit predation by snails at a greater rate than that of the B. parmifera and B. interrupta, which have a smoother egg-case surface.
Keerthirathne, Thilini Piushani; Ross, Kirstin; Fallowfield, Howard; Whiley, Harriet
Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. However, each decontamination procedure has different effects on the properties and constituents of the egg. The pasteurization processes are the most widely used and best understood; however, they influence the coagulation, foaming and emulsifying properties of the egg. Future studies are needed to explore combinations of different decontamination methods to produce safe eggs without impacting the protein structure and usability. Currently, eggs which have undergone decontamination processes are primarily used in food prepared for vulnerable populations. However, the development of a decontamination method that does not affect egg properties and functionality could be used in food prepared for the general population to provide greater public health protection.
Thilini Piushani Keerthirathne
Full Text Available Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. However, each decontamination procedure has different effects on the properties and constituents of the egg. The pasteurization processes are the most widely used and best understood; however, they influence the coagulation, foaming and emulsifying properties of the egg. Future studies are needed to explore combinations of different decontamination methods to produce safe eggs without impacting the protein structure and usability. Currently, eggs which have undergone decontamination processes are primarily used in food prepared for vulnerable populations. However, the development of a decontamination method that does not affect egg properties and functionality could be used in food prepared for the general population to provide greater public health protection.
Full Text Available The double-yolked (DY egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s. Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification.
Yalçin, Sakine; Yalçin, Suzan; Cakin, Kemal; Eltan, Onder; Dağaşan, Levent
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary yeast autolysate on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens during a 16 week period. A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age, were allocated equally to one control group and four treatment groups. Yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, InteWall) was used at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) in the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake and egg traits. Yeast autolysate supplementation increased egg production (P Yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) decreased egg yolk cholesterol level as mg g(-1) yolk (P yeast autolysate supplementation. Dietary yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) had beneficial effects on performance, egg cholesterol content and humoral immune response. It is concluded that 2 g kg(-1) yeast autolysate will be enough to have beneficial effects in laying hens. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
Lambert, C; Goudeau, H; Franchet, C; Lambert, G; Goudeau, M
Many ascidians live in clumps and usually release sperm before the eggs. Consequently, eggs are often spawned into dense clouds of sperm. Because fertilization by more than a single sperm is lethal, ascidians have evolved at least two successive blocks to polyspermy: the rapid release of a glycosidase that inhibits sperm binding to the vitelline coat (VC) and a subsequent change in membrane potential that prevents supernumerary sperm-egg fusion. This paper shows that (1) these two blocks can be uncoupled by the use of suramin, and (2) most of the glycosidase appears to be from the follicle cells, which are accessory cells on the outside of the egg VC. Phallusia mammillata eggs initially bind numerous sperm but, after the glycosidase is released, only a few additional sperm bind. Intact eggs in 20 microM suramin release glycosidase, but the electrical response is inhibited; sperm swim actively and bind to the VC but fail to penetrate. Suramin treatment is completely reversible; intact eggs exhibit the electrical response an average of 11 minutes after the drug is washed out. Sperm must contact the follicle cells before passing through the VC; eggs with the VC removed and fertilized in the presence of 20 microM suramin show the electrical response 35% of the time, thus VC removal enhances sperm entry. Like the intact eggs, 100% of the naked eggs respond electrically to fertilization after the drug is washed out. Follicle cells that are isolated by calcium magnesium free seawater and then returned to complete seawater release N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in response to sperm. Thus, these eggs have two blocks to polyspermy that operate in sequence: an early first block resulting from enzymatic modification of the VC by N-acetylglucosaminidase released primarily from follicle cells and a second electrical block operating at the egg plasma membrane level and requiring sperm-egg fusion.
Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.; Custer, T.W.
The laying order of tree swallow eggs was identified from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA, and eggs were chemically analyzed individually to document possible effects of laying order on organic contaminant and inorganic element concentrations. Effects of laying order on other parameters such as egg weight, size, and lipid and moisture content also were assessed. Some effects of egg order on total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected, but the effect was not uniform across individual females or between years. In 2004, clutches with higher total PCBs tended to have concentrations decline across egg order, whereas clutches with lower concentrations of PCBs tended to increase across egg order. In contrast, in 2005, there was a tendency for concentrations to increase across egg order. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations were highly variable within and among clutches in both years. The directionality of egg order associations (i.e., slopes) for trace elements was element dependent, was positive for Mn and Zn, was negative for B, and had no slope for Cr. Whole egg weight increased across egg order. Percentage lipid was variable within a clutch, with no pattern common across all females. Percentage lipid was also correlated with organic contaminant concentration. In highly contaminated environments, higher lipid content could have the unanticipated corollary of having higher concentrations of lipophilic contaminants such as PCBs. To reduce the effect of high variation within a clutch when assessing contamination exposure, it is recommended that two eggs per clutch be collected and pooled for chemical analysis. We further recommend that, as long as the two eggs are randomly collected, the additional effort needed to identify and collect specific eggs is not warranted. ?? 2009 SETAC.
Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Kiørboe, Thomas; Brun, Philipp Georg
Marine free living copepods can survive harsh periods and cope with seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions using resting eggs (embryonic dormancy). Laboratory experiments show that temperature is the common driver for resting egg production. Hence, we hypothesize (i) that seasonal...... temperature variation, rather than variation in food abundance is the main driver for the occurrence of the resting eggs strategy in marine and estuarine copepod species; and (ii) that the thermal boundaries of the distribution determine where resting eggs are produced and whether they are produced to cope...... with warm or cold periods. We compile literature information on the occurrence of resting egg production and relate this to spatio-temporal patterns in sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration obtained from satellite observations. We find that the production of resting eggs has been reported...
Fritz, G N; Washino, R K
Anopheles punctipennis (Say), collected in October from resting sites in Illinois, deposited two morphologically distinct types of egg batches. One type was similar to the seasonal "winter" egg of Anopheles walkeri Theobald, with an extensive exochorion that covered all except the tip of the egg. Laboratory rearing of isofemale lines, under two different light-dark and temperature cycles, demonstrated that both types of eggs were intraspecific variants. F1 females from all "winter" egg batches deposited only normal eggs when reared under a 12:12 (L:D) cycle and at 25 degrees C. Most An. punctipennis reared under a 8:16 (L:D) cycle with variable temperature exhibited gonotrophic dissociation or accumulated fat body.
Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia
Quantitative studies focusing on the collection of semibuoyant fish eggs, which are associated with a pelagic broadcast-spawning reproductive strategy, are often conducted to evaluate reproductive success. Many of the fishes in this reproductive guild have suffered significant reductions in range and abundance. However, the efficiency of the sampling gear used to evaluate reproduction is often unknown and renders interpretation of the data from these studies difficult. Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a modified Moore egg collector (MEC) using field and laboratory trials. Gear efficiency was assessed by releasing a known quantity of gellan beads with a specific gravity similar to that of eggs from representatives of this reproductive guild (e.g., the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi) into an outdoor flume and recording recaptures. We also used field trials to determine how discharge and release location influenced gear efficiency given current methodological approaches. The flume trials indicated that gear efficiency ranged between 0.0% and 9.5% (n = 57) in a simple 1.83-m-wide channel and was positively related to discharge. Efficiency in the field trials was lower, ranging between 0.0% and 3.6%, and was negatively related to bead release distance from the MEC and discharge. The flume trials indicated that the gellan beads were not distributed uniformly across the channel, although aggregation was reduced at higher discharges. This clustering of passively drifting particles should be considered when selecting placement sites for an MEC; further, the use of multiple devices may be warranted in channels with multiple areas of concentrated flow.
The Australian egg industry is facing adjustment pressures including from animal welfare developments. Production and consumption of free-range eggs are rising in response. However, considerations have been given to banning the dominant conventional cage production as in Switzerland. Consideration has also been given to compulsory labelling eggs by their form of production. A focus of the research is to develop possible future scenarios and to value any associated animal welfare benefits agai...
Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spec...
Zhang, Haiyan; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Tan, Xue; Lei, Chao; Long, Wei; Liu, Hongling; Zhang, Yandi; Xu, Yinying; Wu, Jinxin; Gu, Jianjian; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping
Ommochromes are major pigments involved in coloration of eggs, eyes, wings, and epidermis of insects. Bombyx mori (silkworm) eggs contain a mixture of ommochrome pigments and their precursors. Here, we analyzed the pigment composition of every egg color strain using egg color mutants (w-2, pe, and re) and wild-type strains (dazao and C108) by using full wavelength scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography. We identified ommochrome pigments and their precursors in pigment extracts from non-diapause eggs and diapause eggs, and found that the quantities of ommochrome precursor 3-hydroxy-kynurenine were much higher in the diapause eggs. Ommochrome pigments were absent in the non-diapause eggs. We analyzed the pigment composition of every egg color strain and found an accumulation of 3-hydroxy-kynurenine and absence of ommochromes in the yellow eggs (w-2 and pe), suggesting that the essential factors for ommochrome biosynthesis are high levels of 3-hydroxy-kynurenine, enzymes for ommochrome synthesis and transferase, and spermatiation. Moreover, we confirmed that both decarboxylated xanthommatin and xanthommatin are major ommochrome pigments, and the quantity of decarboxylated xanthommatin is much higher than that of xanthommatin in silkworm eggs. Since ommochrome pigments can change color under oxidative/reductive conditions and the egg color mutant re turns crimson when preserved at a low temperature for a few weeks, we used an oxidation-reduction reaction in vitro to explore mechanisms behind the pigment-based color change. Specifically, during diapause, the contents of decarboxylated xanthommatin and xanthommatin are increased, and the ommochrome pigments convert into their reduced forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Powell, S.; Trachana, K.; Letunic, I.
Orthologous relationships form the basis of most comparative genomic and metagenomic studies and are essential for proper phylogenetic and functional analyses. The third version of the eggNOG database (http://eggnog.embl.de) contains non-supervised orthologous groups constructed from 1133 organisms...... and KOGs, respectively, to include all 1133 organisms. At the universal level, covering all three domains of life, 101,208 orthologous groups are available, while the others are applicable at 40 more limited taxonomic ranges. Each group is amended by multiple sequence alignments and maximum...
The study evaluated the performance of egg type chickens fed diets where Cottonseed cake (CSC) replaced Soybean cake (SBC) in five experimental rations such that 0% (control), 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% of CSC replaced SBC. The design of the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD). Chemical analysis ...
Letícia Abaker Bertipaglia
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using lipid sources of plant and animal origin in diets for Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica on production performance and internal egg quality. Japanese quails (n = 160 were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replications of five birds each. Lipid sources evaluated were: soybean oil, from poultry slaughterhouse, fish waste and grape seed. The characteristics of performance and internal egg quality were measured every 21 days for a total period of 84 days. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey’s test. There was no effect of treatments on the production performance of birds, except for feed intake, which was higher for birds fed grape seed oil in the diet. Lipid sources evaluated had no influence on the internal egg quality. It can be concluded that the lipid sources evaluated here in can be used as alternative energy in feed for laying quails, without affecting the performance and internal egg quality.
contained a coiled snake and the observer swiftly withdrew his fingers, at which the'bird hopped on to a nearby branch. The nest was found to ,contain only the snake which had an egg bulge in its throat. The observers then withdrew a short distance and the bulbul immediately returned. looked into the nest cup and settled ...
Mar 20, 2009 ... and egg shell quality of hens after peak laying period. Ozturk Ergin*, Coskun Isa, Ocak Nuh and Erener Guray. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ondokuz Mayis, Samsun, Turkey. Accepted 3 January, 2008. Ninety Isa Brown layers from 51 to 61 weeks of age were allocated ...
Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.
Musgrove, Michael T; Jones, Deana R; Northcutt, Julie K; Cox, Nelson A; Harrison, Mark A
To evaluate the effect of processing on the safety and quality of retail shell eggs, a storage study was conducted with unwashed and commercially washed eggs. This work demonstrated that commercial processing decreased microbial contamination of eggshells. To know which species persisted during storage on washed or unwashed eggs, Enterobacteriaceae isolates were selected and identified biochemically. For each of three replications, shell eggs were purchased from a commercial processing plant, transported back to the laboratory, and stored at 4 degrees C. Once a week for 6 weeks, 12 eggs for each treatment (washed and unwashed control) were rinsed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. A 1-ml aliquot of each sample was plated onto violet red bile glucose agar with overlay and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Following incubation, plates were observed for colonies characteristic of the family Enterobacteriaceae. A maximum of 10 isolates per positive sample were streaked for isolation before being identified to the genus or species level using commercially available biochemical strips. Although most of the isolates from the unwashed control eggs belonged to the genera Escherichia or Enterobacter, many other genera and species were identified. These included Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Kluyvera, Pantoea, Providencia, Rahnella, Salmonella, Serratia, and Yersinia. Non-Enterobacteriaceae also recovered from the unwashed egg samples included Xanthomonas and Flavimonas. Very few washed egg samples were contaminated with any of these bacteria. These data provide useful information on the effectiveness of processing in removing microorganisms from commercial shell eggs.
Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of these analyses showed that all four families of GAGs were detected in all egg components. Keratan sulfate was found in egg whites (thick and thin) and shell matrix (calcified shell matrix supernatant and deposit) with high level. Chondroitin sulfates were much more plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane. Hyaluronan was plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane, but was only present in a trace of quantities in the yolk. Heparan sulfate was plentiful in the shell matrix deposit but was present in a trace of quantities in the egg content components (yolk, thick and thin egg whites). Most of the chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharides were present in the GAGs found in chicken eggs with the exception of chondroitin and heparan sulfate 2,6-disulfated disaccharides. Both CS and HS in the shell matrix deposit contained the most diverse chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharide compositions. Eggs might provide a potential new source of GAGs.
Marques, Gisela R A Monteiro; Chaves, Leonardo Suveges Moreira; Serpa, Lígia Leandro Nunes; Arduíno, Marylene de Brito; Chaves, Francisco José Moreira
To evaluate the effect of the quality of publicly supplied water in domestic water tanks on egg laying by female Aedes aegypti. Laboratory study on immature Ae. aegypti, collected from water-tanks in the municipality of Potim, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Each cage contained three types of water in which eggs could be laid: Three choice per test were simultaneously used to deposit the eggs, ovipositor (A) with water collected from a water tank in Taubaté, ovipositor (B) with distilled water (control) and ovipositor (C) water collected from a water tank in the municipality of Potim. Physiochemical parameters were analyzed. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to analyze the mean number of eggs in each water sample and the Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner test was used in making comparisons. To evaluate egg laying, an ovipositional activity index was adopted. A significant difference in the number of eggs was found between the liquid solutions tested (H = 45; p water tank samples originating from deep wells (C), was statistically superior to water samples from water tanks originating from superficial wells (A) (p water (A). In all three tests, the first position was the most productive in all tested solutions. Only water sample (C) produced a positive index (0.54), i.e., attractive to egg laying. Water quality influences egg laying by Aedes aegypti. The high concentrations of ammonium nitrate in public water supplies suggest that this chemical component was responsible for attracting pregnant female Aedes aegypti to lay eggs in these environments.
Nilsson, Sven G; Björkman, Christer; Forslund, Pär; Höglund, Jacob
To examine if differences in egg predation rates could explain differences in bird community composition, egg predation was studied in two years on small islands in a South Swedish lake and on the nearby mainland using both natural and artificial nests.In plots with similar vegetation, the combined density of ground- and tree-nesting bird species did not differ between the islands and the mainland. Egg predation rates were similar on islands and the mainland for natural Turdus nests in two years, and for artificial Turdus and Phylloscopus nests. Unmarked and unvisited experimental nests suffered similar rate of egg predation as marked and visited nests. Egg predation rates were higher on natural nests when artificial nests were also put out, increasing the total nest density. Initial egg predation rates in artificial nests were also higher than later when nest density had decreased by 75%.The egg predators involved differed for artificial Phylloscopus nests between the islands and the mainland. Small mammals were apparently responsible for 29% of the predation on the mainland, but none on the islands. Artificial Turdus nests near crow nests suffered from a higher egg predation rate than nests further away from crow nests. Daily survival rates of Turdus nests increased from the laying to the incubation and further to the fledging state.Egg predation can not explain differences in bird community composition between islands and mainland in the present case.
Full Text Available An unusual finding of Sepietta oweniana egg clutch at 544 m depth is described within an updating study of the reproductive aspects of the species in Sardinian waters. Egg species identity was determined by genetic analysis and morphological and biometrical data of the eggs, embryos and one newly hatched specimen are reported and discussed. Illustrations of the eggs, spermatophores and spermatangia by photographic material are also included. Data on bathymetric distribution and sexual maturity are reported and compared with data already available for the species in other geographical areas of distribution.
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.
Geiker, N R W; Larsen, M Lytken; Dyerberg, J
as eggs. In conclusion, up to seven eggs per week can safely be consumed, but in patients with established CVD or T2D only with special emphasis on a healthy lifestyle.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 27 September 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.153.......Eggs are rich in nutrients and a source of essential fatty- and amino acids, and the food item with highest cholesterol content. Since the 1970s dietary recommendations have advised limiting egg intake to 2-4 a week for the healthy population, and in those diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD...
Full Text Available Many proteins of food reveal biological activity. In the sequence of these proteins also numerous biologically active peptides are encrypted. These peptides are released during proteolysis naturally occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, food fermentation or during designed enzymatic hydrolysis in vitro. Biopeptides may exert multiple activities, affecting the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous and immune systems. An especially rich source of bioactive proteins and biopeptides is egg. Bioactive peptides released from egg white proteins have been well described, whereas egg yolk proteins as precursors of biopeptides are less well characterized. This manuscript describes biologically active proteins and peptides originating from egg yolk and presents their potential therapeutic role.
Coghlan, Megan L; White, Nicole E; Parkinson, Liza; Haile, James; Spencer, Peter B S; Bunce, Michael
Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are charismatic birds, their plumage and capacity for learning make them highly sought after pets. The illegal trade in parrots and cockatoos poses a serious threat to the viability of native populations; in addition, species transported to non-endemic areas may potentially vector disease and genetically 'pollute' local native avifauna. To reduce the logistical difficulties associated with trafficking live birds, smugglers often transport eggs. This creates a problem for authorities in elucidating accurate species identification without the laborious task of incubation and hand rearing until a morphological identification can be made. Here, we use 99 avian eggs seized from carriers coming into and within Australia, as a result of suspected illegal trade. We investigate and evaluate the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to accurately identify eggs to family, genus or species level. However, Identification of a species based on percentage mtDNA similarities is difficult without good representations of the inter- and intra-levels of species variation. Based on the available reference database, we were able to identify 52% of the eggs to species level. Of those, 10 species from eight genera were detected, all of which belong to the parrot (Psittacidae) and cockatoo (Cacatuidae) families. Of the remaining 48%, a further 36% of eggs were identified to genus level, and 12% identified to family level using our assignment criteria. Clearly the lack of validated DNA reference sequences is hindering our ability to accurately assign a species identity, and accordingly, we advocate that more attention needs to be paid to establishing validated, multi locus mtDNA reference databases for exotic birds that can both assist in genetic identifications and withstand legal scrutiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.
Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.
The production, fertility and hatchability of 1229 ostrich eggs from a farm outside Harare was recorded from April to November, 1996. The average egg production and egg weight was 27.6 and 1494.6 g per hen, respectively. Egg weight at lay was significantly affected by month of lay and hen (p<0.05). Egg weight and ...
The hatching success of artiﬁcially incubated ostrich eggs can be inﬂuenced by egg management prior to setting the eggs in the incubator. This can include the length of time and conditions to which eggs are exposed in nests prior to collection and the conditions under which eggs are stored prior to incubation.
Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Eero, Margit
, and how predation pressure differs between egg development stages. Cod, sprat and rockling eggs dominated in the ichthyoplankton fraction in herring and sprat diet, whereas flounder and dab eggs occurred only occasionally. In spring, cod eggs at advanced development stages were positively and sprat eggs...
Szafner, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kovacsne, K.; Doka, O.
The front configuration photopyroelectric method has been used to determine, in a nondestructive fashion, thermal effusivity of the yolk and the white of eggs of several bird species as well as of the blends of a single egg yolk and egg white (also called liquid eggs) of different avian eggs.
... hen performance and egg quality. The trial was conducted for 10 weeks. Egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed consumption (FC), and feed efficiency (FE) were criteria of comparison. Others were feed cost/kg egg, shell weight, percentage shell and yolk colour index. Inclusion of 10 and 20% CHM in ...
Guérin-Dubiard, Catherine; Pasco, Maryvonne; Mollé, Daniel; Désert, Colette; Croguennec, Thomas; Nau, Françoise
Hen egg white is an original biological fluid in which major proteins have been widely studied, unlike the minor components. In this study, two-dimensional electrophoresis associated with mass spectrometry enabled the separation of 69 protein spots and their matching with major proteins, which were already known, and with minor proteins. Sixteen proteins were identified, and among them, two had never been previously detected in hen egg white, i.e., Tenp, a protein with strong homology with a bacterial permeability-increasing protein family (BPI), and VMO-1, an outer layer vitelline membrane protein. Thirteen proteins present a very wide polymorphism (ovotransferrin, ovomucoid, clusterin, etc.), some of them up to nine isoforms (ovoinhibitor). Eleven functional protein families were identified (serpin, transferrin, protease inhibitors Kazal, glycosyl hydrolases, lipocalin, bactericidal permeability-increasing protein, clusterin, UPAR/CD59/Ly6/ snake neurotoxin, cysteine protease inhibitor, VMO-1, and folate receptor families). These various biological functions could be interesting for further valorizations. In addition, three spots remain unidentified, probably because these proteins are not yet indexed in the international protein databanks.
Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Meyling, Nicolai V.; Rui, Wang; Dalgaard, Tina S.; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Thapa, Sundar
The microfungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been shown to kill high numbers of chicken ascarid (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) eggs in vitro but it is not known if surviving eggs may be infective. Unembryonated ascarid eggs (predominantly A. galli) were therefore isolated from faeces and added to sterilised (S) or non-sterilised (N) soil in Petri dishes that were either treated with P. chlamydosporia (F) or left untreated (C) during incubation at 22°C for 35 days. Egg recovery was estima...
Blaszkowska, Joanna; Wojcik, Anna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Szwabe, Katarzyna
The in vitro effect of saprotrophic soil fungi on the embryonic development of Ascaris suum was evaluated. The fungi tested were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium oxysporum and Trichothecium roseum, isolated from children's recreation areas in the city of Lodz (Poland). Each species was co-cultured with A. suum egg suspension (6 × 10(3)eggs/ml) at 25 ± 2°C for 60 days. Each day, 100 eggs were randomly collected and their developmental stage was classified macroscopically. Additionally, at days 4, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 60 of incubation, the viability and the percentage of eggs with morphological altered embryo/larva were determined in each sample. Microscopic examination revealed that exposure of eggs to the mycelium of examined fungi inhibited embryogenesis of A. suum. All control culture eggs reached L2 larval stage after 26 days of incubation, while the experimental cultures did so after 32-51 days, depending on the fungal species. Three species were found to exhibit very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development: A. terreus, P. expansum and F. oxysporum. Embryopathies and non-viable embryos/larvae were observed significantly more frequently in the eggs co-cultured with fungal species than in control cultures. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in the early zygotic cleavage, blastula, gastrula and larval stages. After 60 days of incubation with mycelia of P. expansum, A. terreus and F. oxysporum, the mortality of the larvae reached 55.3-60.3%. P. expansum and F. oxysporum showed hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization of A. suum eggs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract. The main egg quality traits were investigated in two autosexing F1 Easter egger crosses. Partridge Araucana roosters were used as carriers of the eggshell biliverdin pigmentation gene. Maternal forms used for obtaining the two experimental crosses were high-producing layer hens carrying the sex-linked S and B genes. Experimental groups comprised F1 crosses of partridge Araucana roosters with white mutational Rhode Island hens or hens with barred colour mutation. The aim of the study was to investigated the quality traits of blue-green eggs produced by autosexing hens. The egg quality was evaluated at 38 weeks of age. Studied traits comprised egg weight (g, shape index, albumen index (AI, Haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI, yolk colour (Roche scale, 2 2 percentages of albumen, yolk and eggshell (%, eggshell surface (cm , eggshell density (mg/cm , average eggshell thickness (µm and eggshell colour. The group W was outlined with the highest egg weight – 61.03±0.47 g, and group A – with the lowest (50.91±0.32 g. The albumen and yolk quality was the best in group A, where albumen index was 0.075±0.002, Haugh units – 76.53±0.8 and yolk index – 0.491±0.009. The analysis of eggshell colour showed that eggs of group A were with the highest lightness (L* value (73.60±0.77, whereas eggs of groups W and AW had egg lightness of 60.45±0.53 and 61.11±0.55 (p<0.001 respectively. The shell colour index (SCI demonstrated a certain overlap of values in eggs with protoporphyrin and biliverdin taints. After introduction of a correction coefficient and recalculation of SCI*, the values of green eggs assumed a negative sign and could be distinguished from brown eggs.
Full Text Available Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies of childhood. There is a lack of information on the immunologic basis of egg allergy beyond the role of IgE.To use transcriptional profiling as a novel approach to uncover immunologic processes associated with different phenotypes of egg allergy.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were obtained from egg-allergic children who were defined as reactive (BER or tolerant (BET to baked egg, and from food allergic controls (AC who were egg non-allergic. PBMCs were stimulated with egg white protein. Gene transcription was measured by microarray after 24 h, and cytokine secretion by multiplex assay after 5 days.The transcriptional response of PBMCs to egg protein differed between BER and BET versus AC subjects. Compared to the AC group, the BER group displayed increased expression of genes associated with allergic inflammation as well as corresponding increased secretion of IL-5, IL-9 and TNF-α. A similar pattern was observed for the BET group. Further similarities in gene expression patterns between BER and BET groups, as well as some important differences, were revealed using a novel Immune Annotation resource developed for this project. This approach identified several novel processes not previously associated with egg allergy, including positive associations with TLR4-stimulated myeloid cells and activated NK cells, and negative associations with an induced Treg signature. Further pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes comparing BER to BET subjects showed significant enrichment of IFN-α and IFN-γ response genes, as well as genes associated with virally-infected DCs.Transcriptional profiling identified several novel pathways and processes that differed when comparing the response to egg allergen in BET, BER, and AC groups. We conclude that this approach is a useful hypothesis-generating mechanism to identify novel immune processes associated with allergy and tolerance to forms
Michereff, M F F; Borges, M; Aquino, M F S; Laumann, R A; Mendes Gomes, A C M; Blassioli-Moraes, M C
During host selection, physical and chemical stimuli provide important cues that modify search behaviours of natural enemies. We evaluated the influence of volatiles released by eggs and egg extracts of the stink bug Euschistus heros and by soybean plants treated with the eggs and egg extracts on Telenomus podisi foraging behaviour. Responses to volatiles were evaluated in Y-tube olfactometers after exposure to (1) one egg cluster for 24 h; (2) plants with eggs laid by the stink bug, tested at 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment; (3) plants with eggs laid artificially, tested at 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment; and (4) plants treated with acetone or hexane extracts of eggs. Telenomus podisi was attracted to volatiles emitted by one egg cluster and to acetone extracts of one egg cluster, but not to air or acetone controls. There were no responses to odours of plants treated with eggs or egg extracts. Analysis of acetone extracts of egg clusters by gas chromatography revealed the major components were saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, including hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. Our results suggest that one egg cluster and the acetone extract of one egg cluster contain volatile compounds that can modify T. podisi foraging behaviour, and that the amounts of these compounds, probably together with some minor compounds, are important for host recognition by T. podisi. Also, the oviposition damage or egg extracts on the plant did not elicit indirect defences that attracted Telenomus podisi.
There is a desired by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A stud...
Musgrove, M T; Jones, D R; Northcutt, J K; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Fletcher, D L; Cox, N A
To successfully implement a hazard analysis critical control point plan, prerequisite programs are essential. Sanitation standard operating procedures are an important part of such a plan and can reduce contamination levels so that food safety and quality are not adversely affected. Noncontact surfaces in the shell egg processing plants can serve as a reservoir of cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of sanitation programs used in a variety of shell egg processing facilities (in-line, off-line, and mixed operations). Fourteen different noncontact surfaces were sampled in nine commercial facilities across the southeastern United States. Non-egg-contact surfaces were defined as those where the shell egg does not come into direct contact with the surface or with the fluid from that surface. Gauze pads soaked in sterile phosphate-buffered saline were used for sampling at the end of a processing day (POST) and again the next morning prior to operations (PRE). Aerobic plate counts (APCs) and numbers of Enterobacteriaceae were determined. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found between POST and PRE counts for either population recovered from the 14 sampling sites. Only samples from the floor under the farm belts, nest-run loader, washers, and packer heads were reduced by 1 log CFU/ml of rinsate for APCs or Enterobacteriaceae counts. APCs of more than 10(4) CFU/ml of rinsate were recovered from many samples. Highest APCs were found on the floor under the farm belt and on shelves of the nest-run carts. High APCs were found on the wheel surface for off-line carts and on the loading dock floor. Highest Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in samples from the floor, drain, and nest-run egg cart shelves. A lack of significant difference between POST and PRE counts indicates that current sanitation programs could be improved. These data suggest that traffic patterns for the movement of eggs and materials through the plant should be
Egg donor agencies are increasingly being used as part of IVF in the US, but are essentially unregulated, posing critical ethical and policy questions concerning how providers view and use them, and what the implications might be. Thirty-seven in-depth interviews of approximately 1 h were conducted - with 27 IVF providers and 10 patients. Clinicians vary in their views and interactions concerning egg donor agencies, ranging widely in whether and how often they use agencies. Agencies may offer egg recipients increased choices, but raise ethical and other concerns regarding respect for donors as individuals (e.g., adequacy of informed consent), potential harms, justice (e.g., concerns about possible eugenics - by encouraging and facilitating selection and marketing of facts for offspring), and donors constituting a vulnerable group. The quality of agencies appears to vary considerably, from acceptable to problematic. Agencies' medical and psychological screenings of donors can range, and be minimal. Not all agencies adequately track donors' prior numbers of donations, or share the relevant records with clinics. Clinics may find that potential donors have genetic mutations and medical problems about which they were unaware. Yet agencies and clinics do not provide care for such donors, generating stress. Dissemination of donors' personal data can potentially threaten confidentiality. Questions emerge of whether increased monitoring/oversight of agencies may be beneficial. These data, the first to examine providers' views and interactions regarding egg donor agencies, suggest wide variations in quality and use of agencies, and have critical implications for practice, policy, education and research. Given the potential limitations of the current model of self-regulation of agencies, the present data suggest needs to consider stronger professional guidelines or possible governmental regulations to establish, require and enforce higher standards for agencies to follow
The study aims to identify the determinants of egg production in. Kwara state. Primary data were collected ... degrees of sustainable farming and economic stability, (FAOt 993). Tewe, (1997), found that, although cattle ... demand for livestock products point to poultry meat and eggs as a quick means of bridging the protein ...
Data on the monthly egg production of a strain of Rhode Island chickens (500 breeder hens) were used to test the goodness of fit of six mathematical models, viz; Exponential, Parabolic exponential, Wood's Gamma type and modified Gamma type by McNally, Inverse polynomial and Linear regression. Egg production was ...
The parameter of egg-production capacity was estimated by the pliability of bones, especially the pubic bone spread and the space between the pubic bone and ... This observation indicates that, with a little extra effort in management and genetic selection, these village birds have a potential of increasing their egg yields.
These pathways were related to amino acid metabolism, sugar metabolism, and series of major physiological metabolism. Our results hopefully shed light on the further study of molecular mechanism of white egg 2 mutant. Key words: Bombyx mori, white egg 2 mutant, microarray, embryo, differentially expressed gene.
This study investigated the possible hepatoprotective effect of quail egg solution on acetaminophen intoxicated rats. Thirty adult rats of mixed sexes were assigned into five groups of six per group. The rats in groups 2, 3, and 4 were pretreated with 30, 15, 7.5 mg/ml ad lib respectively of quail egg solution for 7 days before ...
assistance of Mr. K. Ijichi and Ms. C. A. Hudson. Dr. Maxwell C. Brockmann and Dr. George C. Walker performed as Project Officer and Alternate Project... Gluten bread Oroweat: Whole wheat Or any other firm bread 20 lmt ■— Table II. VeiUm or Denver Egg 12 portions 68 grams egg /portion
Van Overmeire, I; Pussemier, L; Hanot, V; De Temmerman, L; Hoenig, M; Goeyens, L
The elements manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, thallium, lead and mercury, and selected persistent organochlorine compounds (dioxins, marker and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltricholroethane (DDT) and metabolites as well as other chlorinated pesticides) were analysed in Belgian free-range eggs obtained from hens of private owners and of commercial farms. It was found that eggs from private owners were more contaminated than eggs from commercial farms. The ratios of levels in eggs from private owners to the levels in eggs from commercial farms ranged from 2 to 8 for the toxic contaminants lead, mercury, thallium, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and the group of DDT. DDT contamination was marked by the substantial presence of p,p'-DDT in eggs from private owners in addition to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p-DDE) and dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethane (p,p'-DDD). It is postulated that environmental pollution is at the origin of the higher contamination of eggs from private owners. Extensive consumption of eggs from private owners is likely to result in toxic equivalent quantity intake levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake.
An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of turning frequency of chicken eggs on hatchability in hurricane lantern incubator. There were four treatments in which eggs were not turned in treatment one (control), those in treatment two were turned once daily (morning), treatment three turned twice daily ...
Incubation of Spirometra eggs was conducted in the helminthology laboratory Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture during the period July to September, 2012. Spirometra eggs from faeces of naturally infected lions (Panthera leo) from Tarangire National Park, Tanzania were cultured at laboratory ...
Objectives: This study was designated to evaluate the laying performances and egg traits in local barred hens. Sixteen (16) hens and 4 cocks were used, divided into 4 experimental units of 4 hens and 1 cock per unit. Methodology and Results: The following parameters were studied: feed intake (g/bird/day), egg production ...
In order to facilitate the reproduction of African catfish Clarias gariepinus by smallholders who cannot afford hatchery buildings, electricity and pipe-borne water, the hatchability of fertilised eggs was assessed under the conditions of a dry and a rainy season, as well as under artificial conditions to protect incubating eggs ...
Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (CWT). Between ...
Neville and I. Gordont. Aninul and hiry Science Reswch Institute, Irene. Egg trarufer has fascinated scientists throughout the world for rnany years and more recently has received a new impetus from the international trading of "superior ggnes", whereby fertilized eggs may be traruferred from "exotic" brecds to incubator coc/s ...
Peer-reviewed paper: Joint South African Society for Animal Science/Grassland Society of Southern Africa Congress. 19. Reproduction traits were generally positively related to egg and chick weight on a genetic level (Table. 2), although only the correlations involving egg weight were significant. These results accords with ...
Tacken, G.M.L.; Cotteleer, G.; Horne, van P.L.M.
This research examines the competitiveness of the Dutch egg products industry, as well as the consequences of tightening up the laws concerning layer poultry on the competitive position of the Dutch egg production industry. A tightening of the laws has, in fact, the effect of raising the production
ABSTRACT. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of size of brood stock on egg fertilization, hatchability and fry survival rate of Clarias gariepinus in an intensive culture system, for a period of four weeks. Larger brood stock size (1200-1500g) produced larger eggs and bigger fry while moderate brood ...
Sanit, S; Sribanditmongkol, P; Sukontason, K L; Moophayak, K; Klong-Klaew, T; Yasanga, T; Sukontason, K
Fly eggs found in corpses can be used as entomological evidence in forensic investigation. This study aims to investigate the morphology of forensically important fly eggs. Eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Chrysomya nigripes, Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia porphyrina and Musca domestica were examined using 1% potassium permanganate solution for 1 min. Morphometric analysis revealed that the mean length of Hy. tumrasvini (1.63 mm) and C. pinguis (1.65 mm) eggs was the longest, followed by that of L. porphyrina (1.45 mm), C. rufifacies (1.34 mm). The egg length, width of median area and darkness staining of hatching pleats were distinctive features. Four categories of median area were proposed, based on width; (1) distinctly wide (Megaselia scalaris, Synthesiomyia nudiseta); (2) wide (C. nigripes, M. domestica); (3) slightly widening (Hy. tumrasvini, L. cuprina, L. porphyrina); and (4) narrow (C. rufifacies, C. albiceps, C. megacephala, C. pinguis). Four species were examined using SEM, i.e., C. megacephala, C. pinguis, Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina. The eggs of C. megacephala demonstrated swollen hatching pleats. Inside, the hexagon of the chorion appeared as a sponging bumpy feature. The egg of C. pinguis was similar to C. megacephala, except for the sponging bumpy feature on the outer surface of the hatching pleats. Regarding Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina, their island structure was apparent at the inner surface of the upright hatching pleats. The key for identifying these eggs together with other reported species in Thailand has been updated.
, gelatin with AgNPs and it was doped on paper egg trays by using airless spray method. The gelatin and chitosan act as adhesives as well as colloidal stabilizers to fix the AgNPs. The prepared egg trays were characterized based on SEM ...
The monthly egg production data of a strain of Rhode Island chickens were used to compare three mathematical models (the Parabolic exponential, Wood's Gamma and modified Gamma by McNally) on their ability to predict 52 week total egg production from part-production at 16, 20, and 24 weeks, on a hen-housed basis.
CrazyEgg provides an in depth look at visitor behavior on one page. While you can use GA to do trend analysis of your web area, CrazyEgg helps diagnose the design of a single Web page by visually displaying all visitor clicks during a specified time.
The USDA-FSIS estimates that pasteurization of all shell eggs in the U.S. would reduce the annual number of illnesses by more than 110,000, yet less than 1% of shell eggs are commercially pasteurized. One of the main reasons for this is that the current process, hot water immersion, requires approxi...
A significant proportion of human illnesses caused by Salmonella are linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs. Substantial government and industry resources have been committed to comprehensive Salmonella testing and risk reduction programs for commercial egg-laying flocks. The implementation ...
Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implication of alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth...
Morphology of Swift Tern Thalasseus bergii bergii eggs was examined on Robben Island, South Africa. A recently formed colony was found abandoned en masse, probably following human disturbance, and 146 freshly laid eggs were collected. The mean ± SD nest density was 7 ± 2.5 nests m-2 and 3% of nests contained ...
age, were randomly allocated to the three treatments (n = 23) for the determination of various egg production ... Keywords: Lohmann-Silver, feed efficiency, egg weight, eggshell thickness, calcification ... regarding the ideal limestone particle size for layers are under continued investigation and ranged generally between ...
... continuous overflow. Rinse water and chlorine sanitizing rinse may be used as part of the replacement water. Iodine sanitizing rinse may not be used as part of the replacement water. (6) Waste water from the egg... other methods which may be approved by the Administrator. (b) Shell eggs shall not be washed in the...
Soler, Juan J.; Martín-Vivaldi, M.; Peralta-Sánchez, J. M.; Arco, L.; Juárez-García-Pelayo, N.
Uropygial gland secretions are used as cosmetics by some species of birds to color and enhance properties of feathers and teguments, which may signal individual quality. Uropygial secretions also reach eggshells during incubation and, therefore, may influence the coloration of birds' eggs, a trait that has attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists for more than one century. The color of hoopoe eggs typically changes along incubation, from bluish-gray to greenish-brown. Here, we test experimentally the hypothesis that dark uropygial secretion of females is responsible for such drastic color change. Moreover, since uropygial secretion of hoopoes has antimicrobial properties, we also explore the association between color and antimicrobial activity of the uropygial secretion of females. We found that eggs stayed bluish-gray in nests where female access to the uropygial secretion was experimentally blocked. Furthermore, experimental eggs that were maintained in incubators and manually smeared with uropygial secretion experienced similar color changes that naturally incubated eggs did, while control eggs that were not in contact with the secretions did not experience such color changes. All these results strongly support the hypothesis that female hoopoes use their uropygial gland secretion to color the eggs. Moreover, saturation of the uropygial secretion was associated with antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis. Given the known antimicrobial potential of uropygial secretions of birds, this finding opens the possibility that in scenarios of sexual selection, hoopoes in particular and birds in general signal antimicrobial properties of their uropygial secretion by mean of changes in egg coloration along incubation.
Martill, David M
Pterosaur fossils are among the rarest and their eggs are even rarer. How then can we get an insight into the lifestyle of these flying reptiles? A wealth of new pterosaur fossils, including eggs, from China now provides exactly that. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
to the high intensity of artificial selection and the disadvantaged genotype could have been eliminated gradually in the long-term breeding process. In summary, we detected 12 novel SNPs on duck PRL gene, and analyzed the genotype distribution on six native duck breeds. The association with egg production and egg ...
Performance and External Egg Quality of Layers under Varying Stocking ... Study determined the performance and external egg quality of layers in locally fabricated metal-type battery cage at different stocking density. ... Birds stocked at 2/cell gained 15g/birds in weight while birds stocked 3 and 4 ... OTHER RESOURCES.
King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.
No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.
Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr
Roč. 281, č. 1774 (2014), s. 20132665 ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * egg coloration * egg mimicry * great reed warbler Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014
Globally, Salmonella Enterica subsp. enterica is one of the most commonly reported causes of foodborne illness in humans. Contaminated food products of animal origin, particularly egg and egg products are frequently implicated in outbreaks of human salmonellosis. Salmonella Enteritidis is frequently...
Mirsky, A E
1. The reaction between ferricyanide and egg albumin in solutions of urea, guanidine hydrochloride, and Duponol has been investigated. 2. In neutral medium ferricyanide oxidizes all the SH groups of egg albumin that give a color reaction with nitroprusside. In neutral medium ferricyanide appears to react only with the SH groups of egg albumin. The quantity of ferrocyanide formed can accordingly be considered the equivalent of the number of SH groups in egg albumin detectable with nitroprusside. 3. In solutions of urea, guanidine hydrochloride, and Duponol sufficiently concentrated so that all the egg albumin present is denatured, the same number of SH groups are found-equivalent to a cysteine content of 0.96 per cent. 4. In denaturation of egg albumin loss of solubility (solubility not in presence of the denaturing agent, but solubility examined in water at the isoelectric point) and appearance of reactive SH groups are integral parts of the same process. As denaturation proceeds in urea, SH groups are liberated only in the egg albumin with altered solubility and in this albumin the maximum number of SH groups is liberated. In a molecule of egg albumin either all of its SH groups that give a test with nitroprusside are liberated or none of them are.
Full Text Available Egg allergy is a common pediatric allergy, and is usually outgrown by elementary school age. There is, therefore, a need to perform an oral food challenge (OFC to establish the presence of food allergy to egg. In this study, we conducted a retrospective review of 2304 OFCs at a pediatric center and analyzed the severity of reactions during egg OFCs and compared them with other foods. The gastrointestinal system (GI has been reported as more affected in egg food challenge. This study confirmed that 11% of patients undergoing egg OFC had GI symptoms vs. 7% undergoing food challenges for other foods or compared to milk, peanut and tree nut, individually. However, the involvement of lower respiratory tract was less frequent with egg than observed in peanut and tree nut OFC and similar to observed rate in milk. In conclusion, our study confirmed that OFC to egg causes more GI symptoms and less respiratory symptoms compared to other foods, in particular peanuts and tree nuts. However, 27% of children who failed egg OFC had lower respiratory tract reactions and required the use of epinephrine, similarly to children undergoing milk challenge.
The analysis revealed presence of multicollinearity among the explanatory variables. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the influence of multicollinearity and the results obtained showed that the four variables explained ninety per cent variation in egg output. Policy aimed at increasing egg production should ...
Some factors affecting the fertility and hatchability of Japanese quail eggs were studied at the Poultry Unit of the University of Maiduguri Livestock Teaching and Research Farm. A total of 1850 eggs were used for the study and data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance. The mean values of fertility, hatchability of ...
Full Text Available An automated system for incubation of pelagic fish eggs is described. The system has an internal air driven water circulation which separates healthy and dead or strongly infected eggs. A processor controlled, pulsed water exchange provides a strongly reduced water requirement. The equipment has also an automated temperature and salinity control and adjustment.
Parameters measured included daily feed intake, initial and final body weights, hen – day production, mortality rate, feed conversion ratio, feed cost per dozen eggs, egg weight, shell thickness, albumen weight, yolk weight, haugh unit, yolk length and yolk index. Housing system has significant effects (p <0.05) on the ...
The effect of vitamin E supplementation in tris-egg yolk extender on sperm parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was determined. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of vitamin E (2, 4, 6 and 8 mM) were diluted with semen samples. The diluted semen samples were cryopreserved for 30 ...
Igor F. Canisso
Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.
A spectrophotometric method was used to assay for nitrosamines and their precursors in eggs (n=5 from each farm), entailing separate analysis of each egg yolk and albumen. The three compounds measured, were detected in all the samples. The nitrates and nitrites levels were significantly higher in the yolk than in the ...
The analysis of variance revealed significant effect of body weight on production traits investigated (P0.05). The correlation analysis showed that the body weight was positively and non-significantly (P>0.05) correlated with egg length, egg breadth, shell weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, shell ...
Full Text Available As a highly nutritious and inexpensive protein food, chicken eggs are accepted in most cultures. The safety of eggs has become an issue of global concern with the emergence of the pathogen Salmonella enteritidis as a major hazard associated...
Buay, D [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Foong, S K [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Kiang, D [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Kuppan, L [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Centre for Research in Pedagogy and Practice, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Liew, V H [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)
How long does it take to boil an egg? Theoretical prediction, based on a simple adaptation of the solution to the exact thermal diffusion equation for a sphere, is consistent with experiments. The experimental data are also used to estimate an average value for the thermal diffusivity of an egg.
Fatouros, N.E.; Dicke, M.; Mumm, R.; Meiners, T.; Hilker, M.
Female parasitic wasps seek hosts for their offspring often in a dynamic environment. Foraging egg parasitoids rely on a variety of chemical cues originating from the adult host, host products, or the host plant rather than from the attacked host stage¿the insect egg itself. Besides pupae, insect
During the past decade, maternally derived steroid hormones in the egg yolk of oviparous vertebrates have been the focus of attention for their possible role in sex determination and hence, information on the consequences of maternal egg yolk steroids on sex determination has accumulated rapidly in reptiles and birds.
morphology of these eggs is compared to that of described species of ... (1979) used egg morphology as well as other larval ... Australia. They were found in the faeces of L. dominicanus. S.-Afr. Tydskr. Dierl. 1982. )7(4) from the Umgeni estuary and Little Manzimtoti lagoon on the Natal coast and also from Port Elizabeth.
A study was conducted to assess small holder poultry farmers' perspectives on the causes, effects and solution to the cyclical egg glut in Ejigbo, Nigeria using questionnaire for data collection and descriptive data analysis. Farmers interviewed agreed that government policies have a registered effect on drop of egg sales ...
90 female quails for each strain were mated to 30 males at a mating ration of 1 male to 3 females. Daily egg collection commenced as from 6 weeks ... Result obtained indicated variations at all ages (week 2, 6, 10 and 14) in body weight, weight gain and mortality in favor of black strain. Similarly, most of the egg quality traits ...
Yaya Beas, R.E.; Ayala-Limaylla, C.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Lier, van J.B.; Zeeman, G.
This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of beak amputation on performance and egg quality characteristics of egg-type chickens. A total of 132 native layers (Yacon) chickens were obtained from a commercial hatchery for the study. There were four treatments in which upper and lower beaks were amputated at ...
Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Po-Chin; Lee, Ching-Chang
The 2004 food market-basket survey in Taiwan found high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in duck eggs. A subsequent survey in Chang-Hua County, central Taiwan, found nine duck farms for egg production and duck eggs that were highly contaminated by PCDD/Fs in the secondary sampling and analysis during the years 2004 to 2005. Duck-egg farmers eat duck eggs rather than chicken eggs, and the aim of the current study was to evaluate how eating contaminated duck eggs affected serum PCDD/F accumulation and PCDD/F profiles in family members of duck-egg farmers. Forty-two family members of duck-egg farmers and 88 residents living nearby (control group) were recruited. Serum PCDD/F levels were significantly higher in duck-egg farmers than in the control group (28.1 vs 18.6 pg World Health Organization toxic equivalency [TEQ]/g lipid, WHO-TEQ). Significant differences in PCDD/F levels were found for most congeners, especially for 2,3,4,7,8-penta-chlorinated dibenzofurans. Elevated serum PCDD/F levels were positively associated with an increase in monthly duck-egg consumption after adjustments for fish consumption. The current result contradicted results of our previous study, which showed a positive association between fish intake and serum PCDD/F levels. The matter of cultivation in the contaminant area in Chang-Hua County should be considered more seriously. © 2010 SETAC
...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Prerequisites to Packaging...
Effects of dietary oil sources on egg quality, fatty acid composition of eggs and blood lipids ... weight and egg shell quality compared to the other oils tested; fish and soyabean oil increased the omega-3 ...... lipoprotein levels in broiler chickens.
Manini, Ilaria; Trombetta, Claudia Maria; Lazzeri, Giacomo; Pozzi, Teresa; Rossi, Stefania; Montomoli, Emanuele
Vaccination remains the principal way to control seasonal infections and is the most effective method of reducing influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. Since the 1940s, the main method of producing influenza vaccines has been an egg-based production process. However, in the event of a pandemic, this method has a significant limitation, as the time lag from strain isolation to final dose formulation and validation is six months. Indeed, production in eggs is a relatively slow process and production yields are both unpredictable and highly variable from strain to strain. In particular, if the next influenza pandemic were to arise from an avian influenza virus, and thus reduce the egg-laying hen population, there would be a shortage of embryonated eggs available for vaccine manufacturing. Although the production of egg-derived vaccines will continue, new technological developments have generated a cell-culture-based influenza vaccine and other more recent platforms, such as synthetic influenza vaccines.
Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Thompson, P B
The social and political pressure to change egg production from conventional cage systems to alternative systems has been largely driven by the desire to provide more behavioral freedom for egg-laying hens. However, a change of this magnitude can affect other components of the production system and may result in unintended outcomes. To understand this issue, a Socially Sustainable Egg Production project was formed to 1) conduct a holistic and integrated systematic review of the current state of knowledge about various aspects of sustainable egg production, and 2) develop a coordinated grant proposal for future extramural funding based on the research priorities identified from the review. Expert study groups were formed to write evidence-based papers in 5 critical sustainability areas: hen health and welfare, economics, food safety and quality, public attitudes, and environmental impacts. These papers were presented as the PSA Emerging Issues Symposium on Social Sustainability of Egg Production at the 2010 Poultry Science Association meeting.
Bruna M. Favetti
Full Text Available Egg parasitoids of Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius (Pentatomidae in lettuce crop. This study evaluated the occurrence of parasitoids in eggs of the stink bug, Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae found on lettuce crop in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Samples were collected in the vegetable garden "Cheiro Verde", in the municipality of Tangará da Serra, in curly lettuce. A bed of lettuce was selected randomly, where the eggs of E. meditabunda were collected. Five-hundred and seventy eight eggs of E. meditabunda were collected, 86.3% of them parasitized by Telenomus podisi Ashmead, 1893 (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae, Trissolcus urichi Crawford, 1913 (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae and Neorileya albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, representing respectively 57.0%, 38.2% and 4.8% of the emerged individuals. This is the first record of these three species parasitizing eggs of E. meditabunda in lettuce.
Liu, Yiying; de Bruijn, Irene; Jack, Allison L H; Drynan, Keith; van den Berg, Albert H; Thoen, Even; Sandoval-Sierra, Vladimir; Skaar, Ida; van West, Pieter; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; van der Voort, Menno; Mendes, Rodrigo; Mazzola, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jos M
Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs have an immature adaptive immune system and depend on nonspecific innate defences to ward off pathogens. Here, meta-taxonomic analyses revealed that Atlantic salmon eggs are home to diverse fungal, oomycete and bacterial communities. Although virulent Saprolegnia isolates were found in all salmon egg samples, a low incidence of Saprolegniosis was strongly correlated with a high richness and abundance of specific commensal Actinobacteria, with the genus Frondihabitans (Microbacteriaceae) effectively inhibiting attachment of Saprolegniato salmon eggs. These results highlight that fundamental insights into microbial landscapes of fish eggs may provide new sustainable means to mitigate emerging diseases.
Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.
We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 :l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose?response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation
Banas, S.; Schwartzbrod, J. [Lab. de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Nancy (France); Remy, M. [Lhoist, on behalf of the European Lime Assoication (EuLA), Bruessel (Germany); Boehm, R. [Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Verfuerden, M. [Fels-Werke GmbH, im Namen des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Kalkindustrie (BVK), Koeln (Germany)
Most pathogens in the raw sewage are concentrated into the sewage sludge. They can be separated into four categories: viruses, bacteria, protozoa and larger parasites such as human roundworms, tapeworms and liver flukes. Such micro-organisms can cause disease in humans, the transmission occurring in several ways e.g. by inhaling sludge aerosols or dust, by eating vegetables or fruits contaminated by sludge, drinking water contaminated by run-off or by eating meat from livestock infected by grazing pastures fertilised with sludge. The presence of helminth eggs in urban sludge may constitute a sanitary risk when used as agricultural fertiliser. To avoid any contamination, the efficiency of a certain number of sludge hygienization processes must be tested. One of these involves decontamination with quicklime. The Ascaris egg inactivation by liming with lime milk, slaked lime and quicklime is studied in a series of sludges coming from slaughterhouses. (orig.)
Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M
The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall
Voloshin A. P.
Sanitization of eggs is an essential way to fight bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Hatchability of eggs and the safety of day-old chicks are dependent on the quality of eggs processing. Leading scientists of our country have proved high efficacy of ozone application for processing of hatching eggs. To obtain a positive result by this method of sanitizing hatching eggs ozone, it is necessary to create a uniform concentration of ozone around the egg store volume. Decrease in ozone conc...
Primavera, Jurgenne; Posadas, Ruth
Eggs of P. monodon are classified into 5 different types on the basis of morphological criteria and hatching rates: A sub(1) eggs, which undergo normal development with 58% hatching rate; A sub(2) eggs, which show delayed and/or abnormal development with 32% hatching rate; B eggs, which are unfertilized and characterized by irregular cytoplasmic formation; C eggs, which are unfertilized and show no change in appearance; and D eggs, which are unfertilized and show extensive bacterial presence....
Key words: egg storage, embryonic development, albumen quality, hatchability, chick quality It is well known that an increase in the storage duration increases incubation duration and decreases hatchability and chick quality. The negative effects of prolonged egg storage (> 7 days) may be
Liefting, M.; Weerenbeck, M.; van Dooremalen, J.A.; Ellers, J.
Temperature is considered one of the most important mediators of phenotypic plasticity in ectotherms, resulting in predictable changes in egg size. However, the fitness consequences of temperature-induced plasticity in egg size are not well understood and are often assessed at mild temperatures,
A twelve week shelf life study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to correlate the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior eg...
Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.
We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while
Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.; Blem, C.
We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while
Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal
Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistances are isolated from most communities and hospital infections. Treatment of patients with these infections has been difficult. The aim of this study was to detect and extract, the egg yolk immunoglobulin Y as a potential source of anti- S. aureus antibody.Methods: Specific IgY was produced by immunizing hens with formalin-killed S. aureus. The specificity of serum`s antibody was confirmed by ELISA method. The antibodies were extracted from egg yolk by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation. Proteins were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Results: Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY were raised against S. aureus in the serum after injections. Up to 104 dilution specific antibodies were determined in serum. Conclusion: The results of the ELISA indicates the specificity of the immunoglobulin Y to the target antigen. In order to find a viable alternative to antibiotic treatments, more research must be done on the ability of these antibodies to inhibit the growth of S. aureus.
Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal
Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistances are isolatedfrom most communities and hospital infections. Treatment of patients with these infections hasbeen difficult. The aim of this study was to detect and extract, the egg yolk immunoglobulin Y asa potential source of anti- S. aureus antibody.Methods: Specific IgY was produced by immunizing hens with formalin-killed S. aureus. Thespecificity of serum`s antibody was confirmed by ELISA method. The antibodies were extractedfrom egg yolk by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation. Proteins were analysed by sodiumdodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Results: Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY were raised against S. aureus in the serum afterinjections. Up to 104 dilution specific antibodies were determined in serum.Conclusion: The results of the ELISA indicates the specificity of the immunoglobulin Y to thetarget antigen. In order to find a viable alternative to antibiotic treatments, more research must bedone on the ability of these antibodies to inhibit the growth of S. aureus.
Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Greco, Monica; Cuomo, Barbara; Bianchi, Annamaria; Liotti, Lucia; Monaco, Serena; Dello Iacono, Iride
Children with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy (IgE-HEA) often tolerate baked egg within a wheat matrix. To evaluate the influence of wheat matrix and the effects of little standardized cooking procedures on baked egg tolerance. Fifty-four children with IgE-HEA were enrolled. They underwent prick-by-prick (PbP) tests and open oral food challenges (OFC) performed with baked HE within a wheat matrix (a home-made cake, locally called ciambellone), baked HE without a wheat matrix (in the form of an omelet, locally named frittata) and boiled HE. Three months after passing ciambellone OFC, parents were asked to answer a survey. About 88% of children tolerated ciambellone, 74% frittata, and 56% boiled HE. Negative predictive value of PbP performed with ciambellone, frittata, and boiled HE was 100%. No IgE-mediated adverse reactions were detected at follow-up carried out by the survey. Wheat matrix seemed to be relevant only in few cases. If our results will be confirmed by larger studies, a negative PbP with ciambellone, frittata, or boiled HE will allow patients with IgE-HEA to eat these foods without undergoing OFC. Moreover, our study showed that very strict standardized cooking procedures do not seem to be essential, to guarantee tolerance toward baked HE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nugroho Susetya Putra
Full Text Available Oviposition preference of a predatory hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus on the presence of its potential predators, the ladybird larvae which are inflicted serious impacts on its eggs was examined in a non-choice test. Our results revealed that the biggest and the most aggressive species of ladybird, Harmonia axyridis caused the worst impact on hoverfly eggs by attacking and feeding on. The species and developmental stages of ladybird were attributed to the level of predation risk. We correlated the oviposition site selection by hoverfly females to the egg predation risk level inflicted by ladybird larvae. Hoverfly females laid the least number of eggs on the patches attended by the strongest competitor, the larva of H. axyridis, and tended to lay the highest number of eggs on colonies attended by the weakest competitor, the larva of Scymnus posticalis. In addition, the impact of the fourth instar larva of ladybirds was stronger than of the first instar larva.
Full Text Available Examination of 89 egg masses of Sepietta oweniana collected in the Catalan Sea (western Mediterranean showed that 15.8% of them were composed of eggs at different developmental stages laid in more than one spawning bout; 6.7% of them were polyspecific and contained eggs of other sepioline species in addition to S. oweniana. The egg mass size, or number of eggs per egg mass, does not necessarily correspond to the spawning batch size, i.e. the number of eggs laid by a female in one spawning event. Furthermore the egg mass size appears to vary depending on the season.
M. C. Gayer
Full Text Available Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experimentGayer, M.C.1,2;Rodrigues, D.T.1,2; Escoto, D.F.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,21Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, BrazilIntroduction: How to tell if an egg is rotten? How to calculate the volume of an egg? Because the rotten egg float? Why has this characteristic rotten egg smell? Because the gray-green color is formed on the surface of the cooked egg yolk? These issues are commonplace and unnoticed in day-to-day. Our grandmothers know how to tell if an egg is rotten or not, you just put the egg in a glass of water. If it is rotten floating, sinking is good. But why this happens? That they do not know answer. With only one egg chemical reactions work, macromolecules (proteins, density, membranes and conservation of matter. Hydrogen sulphide is responsible for the aroma of a freshly cooked egg. This gas as they break down the molecules of albumin, a protein present in the egg is formed. The color comes from a sulfide precipitation, this time with the Fe2+ ion contained in the yolk (Fe2+ + S2 FeS. The use of simple and easy to perform experiments, correlating various knowledge proves a very useful tool in science education. Objectives: Develop multidisciplinary learning contents through the problem. Materials and methods: The teacher provides students with a boiled egg, salt, a syringe and a cup, a plate and water. The teacher lays the aforementioned issues for students and allows them to exchange information with each other, seeking answers through experimentation. Results and discussion: Students engaged with the activity and interaction of groups in order to solve the proposed problem. Still, through trial and error have sought in various ways to find the answers. This tool takes the student to
Rosypal, Alexa C; Zajac, Anne M; Flick, George J; Bowman, Dwight D; Lindsay, David S
High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is an effective non-thermal treatment used to inactivate pathogens from a variety of food and food products. It has been extensively examined using prokaryotic organisms and protozoan's but has had limited study on metazoans. Treatment using HPP has been shown to be effective in inactivating nematode larvae in food and preventing embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs. We conducted experiments using eggs of the canine whipworm Trichuris vulpis collected from naturally infected dogs and A. suum eggs from naturally infected pigs. We observed a delay in development of eggs of T. vulpis in a preliminary experiment and conducted 2 experiments to test the hypothesis that appropriate HPP levels can induce a delay in embryonation of nematode eggs. In experiment 1, nonembryonated T. vulpis eggs in tap water were packaged in sealable bags and exposed to 138-600 megapascals (MPa; 1 MPa=10 atm=147 psi) for 60s in a commercial HPP unit. In a second experiment, nonembryonated eggs of A. suum were exposed to 138-600 MPa and treated for 60s in the same commercial HPP unit. Embyronation of T. vulpis eggs was delayed by 4 and 5 days for eggs treated with 207 and 241 MPa but eventually eggs developed and the numbers of embryonated eggs was similar to controls on day 55. Embryonation of T. vulpis eggs treated with 345 or 350 MPa was delayed by 9 days and never reached more than 5% of eggs embryonated. On day 55 post treatment, 95% of control nontreated T. vulpis eggs were embryonated, 100-65% of eggs treated with 138-276 MPa were embryonated, a maximum of 5% of eggs treated with 345-350 MPa were embryonated, and 0% of eggs treated with ≥ 400 MPa were embryonated. T. vulpis eggs treated with ≥ 400 MPa did not undergo cell division. Embryrnation of A. suum eggs was delayed by 4, 10, and 16 days for eggs treated with 207, 241, and 250MPa, respectively, compared to nontreated control eggs. A. suum eggs treated with 207 MPa eventually embryonated
Musgrove, Michael T; Jones, Deana R; Northcutt, Julie K; Harrison, Mark A; Cox, Nelson A
Shell egg microbiology has been studied extensively, but little information is available on how modern U.S. processing conditions impact microbial populations. As regulations are being drafted for the industry, such information can be important for determining processing steps critical to product safety. Five different shell egg surface microbial populations (aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella) were monitored at 12 points along the processing line (accumulator, prewash rinse, washer 1, washer 2, sanitizer, dryer, oiler, scales, two packer head lanes, rewash entrance, and rewash exit). Three commercial facilities were each visited three times, a total of 990 eggs were sampled, and 5,220 microbiological samples were subsequently analyzed. Although variations existed in concentrations of microorganisms recovered from each plant, the patterns of fluctuation for each population were similar at each plant. On average, aerobes, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, and E. coli prevalence were reduced by 30, 20, 50, and 30%, respectively, by the end of processing. The microbial concentrations (log CFU per milliliter) in the egg rinse collected from packer head lanes were decreased by 3.3, 1.3, 1.3, and 0.5, respectively, when compared with those of rinses collected from eggs at the accumulator. Salmonella was recovered from 0 to 48% of pooled samples in the three repetitions. Higher concentrations of Salmonella were recovered from preprocessed than from in-process or ready-to-pack eggs. These data indicate that current commercial practices decrease microbial contamination of egg shell surfaces.
Renthlei, Collin Z; Raghuvarman, Arumugam; Kharbuli, Besterwell; Dey, Sudip
The egg of Samia ricini (Donovan), is oval or laterally flattened ellipsoid, freshly laid eggs are candid white while the chorion is colorless and semi-transparent. The surface of the chorion is covered with network patterns of polygons and their shapes are common in the whole surface region. The boundaries between polygons made ridges had distinct acropyles at three-cell junctions. The numbers of aeropyles are variable according to their structures both in the lateral flat and marginal regions. During the course of egg development, no significant structural changes were observed in either the polygonal structures or the overall morphology of the egg. However, the size of the aeropyles kept on changing as the egg matures. The aeropyle increases initially upto day-9 of egg development and then decreases as it approach hatching. Lines of weaknesses were not observed at time of hatching or close to it. Hatching process of the newly emerge larvae are through gnawing. The larva eats their way out through the chorion membrane mostly from the anterior region. Egg buster or spine which aid in hatching are not present in the newly emerge larvae.This article was published online on 25 September 2009. An error was subsequently identified. This notice is included in the online and print versions to indicate that both have been corrected 6 January 2010.
Jang, J-K; Shieh, M-J; Kuo, T-S; Jaw, F-S
Cutaneous electrogastrogram (EGG) recording offers the benefit of non-invasive gastrointestinal diagnosis. With long-term ambulatory recording of signals, researchers and clinicians could have more opportunities to investigate and analyse paroxysmal or acute symptoms. A portable EGG system based on a digital voice recorder (DVR) is designed for long-term recording of cutaneous EGG signals. The system consists of electrodes, an EGG amplifier, a modulator, and a DVR. Online monitoring and off-line acquisition of EGG are handled by software. A special design employing an integrated timer circuit is used to modulate the EGG frequency to meet the input requirements of the DVR. This approach involves low supply voltage and low power consumption. Software demodulation is used to simplify the complexity of the system, and is helpful in reducing the size of the portable device. By using surface-mount devices (SMD) and a low-power design, the system is robust, compact, and suitable for long-term portable recording. As a result, researchers can record an ambulatory EGG signal by means of the proposed circuits in conjunction with an up-to-date voice-recording device.
Tóth, A.; Németh, Cs; Palotás, P.; Surányi, J.; Zeke, I.; Csehi, B.; Castillo, L. A.; Friedrich, L.; Balla, Cs
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment of egg proteins partially limits their sensitivity to pressure. According to the literature, at the 450 MPa level, denaturation of some proteins sets in to the extent that sensory and functional characteristics are impacted. This study involved treating liquid egg (egg white, yolk, and melange) at less than the above-mentioned value, after which the microbiological effect was examined. For the study, pressure pouches were filled with 100ml of raw liquid egg per pouch. Then the samples were treated at 200, 250, 300 and 350 MPa. In each case, the level was reached by increasing pressure at a rate of 100 MPa/min. Measurements were taken at the Corvinus University of Budapest, Faculty of Food Science, Dept. of Refrigeration and Livestock Products Technology RESATO FPU 100-2000 equipment. Denaturation was determined with calorimetric (DSC) tests. From our results, it appears that even at 250 MPa pressure treatment, the viable cell count decreases. Further, it can be said that microbe count went down in the egg white samples at 300-350 MPa, below the impact level. Significant denaturation was not detected during our examinations. In summary, we state that the most HHP-sensitive liquid egg type, egg white, can be pressure treated to reduce microbe count at a level less than that which causes denaturation. Microbe reduction was smaller in yolk and melange, so higher pressure values are appropriate for these products.
Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Kozmér, A.
This report investigates female sizes, egg sizes and egg hatching rates in relation to temperature for the near-shore calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa cultured at 6, 9, 14 and 24°C for several generations to achieve acclimatization. Inverse size relationships of eggs and females were revealed...... with increasing temperature. Eggs produced at 6°C were 85 ± 4 µm in diameter, but decreased to 80 ± 3 µm at 24°C. Female cephalothorax length was 840 ± 52 and 692 ± 39 µm at 9 and 24°C, respectively. Parallel hatching experiments were performed between non-acclimatized and acclimatized cultures across a range...... of temperatures reflecting natural conditions in Danish waters. A greater fraction of eggs enter quiescence as temperature declines. Eggs were able to hatch at temperatures as low as 1.5°C. Final egg hatching success increased with temperature. Acclimatization of the copepods resulted in a lower maximum hatching...
Ergun, Oguz Fatih; Yamak, Umut Sami
The aim of the successful incubation period is to achieve maximum health chicks in each batch. Therefore, all factors affecting incubation have to be investigated in detail. This study investigated the effect of eggshell thickness on hatchability of quail eggs. A total of 1415 eggs were collected from the same flock at the ages of 23 and 41 weeks. Two different incubations were performed at these eggs. Eggshell thicknesses of all eggs were determined with an ultrasonic gauge before incubation. Incubation period was applied as for 18 days. After 15 days of incubation, eggs were transferred to hatching machine. Eggs were classified as thin-, medium-, and thick-shelled according to eggshell thickness values. Eggshell thicknesses were ranged between 0.24 and 0.36 mm, and the differences between the hatching rates of thickness values were not found significant. Hatchability of thin-, medium-, and thick-shelled eggs was found as 69.2%, 69.4%, and 82.4% for Experiment 1. These values were as 87.8%, 89.2%, and 91.9% for Experiment 2, respectively. Similar to eggshell thickness frequencies, the differences between hatching rates of eggshell thickness groups were found insignificant. Results of this study showed that eggshell thickness does not affect hatchability.
W. Lobato Paraense
Full Text Available Contrasting with many populations of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea previously dealt with in this laboratory, which when reared in isolation deposit self-fertilized eggs without apparent restraint, isolated individuals of the former species from São Sebastião do Passé, Bahia state, and of the latter from Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state, show a high degree of self-sterility, laying egg capsules with a few usually abortive, rarely viable egg cells, or just jellylike masses without egg cells. When two individuals are paired they readily copulate, usually withing 24 hr deposit one of more egg capsules containing many eggs, and egg-laying continues up to exhaustion of stored allosperm. So far this aspect of reproductive biology has been only observed in a number of populations of the planorbid species Helisoma duryi, and should be viewed as a populational rather than specific characteristic. Since sterility is not overcome by courtship, copulation and insemination by individuals of a different species, the stimulating factor that causes ovulation in the studied self-sterile individuals is considered to be present in the conspecific allosperm.
Full Text Available Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO2 gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, control group (fresh eggs], with three repetitions (12 eggs each. The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O2 absorbent and CO2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O2 gas absorbent and CO2 gas generator provide an increase in internal egg quality.
Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.
Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.
Stratigraphy of Lower Cambrian and unconformable Lower Carboniferous beds from the Valls unit (Catalonian Coastal Ranges)Stratigraphie des couches du Cambrien inférieur et des calcaires discordants du Carbonifère inférieur de l'unité de Valls (chaînes côtières Catalanes)
Sanz-López, Javier; Melgarejo, Joan-Carles; Crimes, Thomas Peter
The Palaeozoic rocks outcropping around Valls are divided into two stratigraphic units. The boundary between both is an unconformity. The lower unit is composed by nearshore platform sediments and a Lower Cambrian age is indicated according to ichnotaxa content. The upper unit consists of pink nodular limestones and dark limestones, and it is followed by siliciclastic Culm Facies rocks. These limestones contain conodonts of the Uppermost Tournaisian at its base ( anchoralis- latus Zone) and Lower Bashkirian (Namurian B) in the upper part. This condensed carbonate sequence was coeval with the thick siliciclastic Culm sedimentation in the surrounding areas.
Vinicius Ronzani Cerqueira
Full Text Available Eggs of the Southern Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus were obtained through spawning induction and reared in laboratory. The eggs released were free-floating or pelagic. Other important characteristics were: spherical shape, smooth chorion, narrow perivitelline space, and a single oil globule. Egg and oil globule diameter were about 0.792 ± 0.008 mm and 0.114 ± 0.003 mm, respectively. The blastodisc was observed approximately 1 h after fertilization and followed by blastodisc cleavage. Blastula stage started after about 5 h and gastrula stage after 9 h. Approximately 20 h after fertilization, blastopore closure was observed. Neurula or early embryo occurred after 24 h. Cardiac beats and movements of the free embryonic tail were recorded after 40 h of incubation. Hatching occurred after an incubation period of 40-50 h at temperatures ranging from 18 to 20 ºC. Newly hatched larvae were about 2.04 ± 0.024 mm long and quite undeveloped, with a large yolk sac with a posterior oil globule and sparse pigmentation. These results were greatly similar to those obtained by previous studies regarding congener species. This is one of the first steps towards the artificial propagation of this species under controlled conditions.Através do cultivo de ovos do linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus, obtidos de reprodução induzida em laboratório, foram descritos pela primeira vez seus estádios de desenvolvimento. O ovo era livre e flutuante, caracteristicamente pelágico. Além disso, tinha formato esférico, córion liso, espaço perivitelino estreito, vitelo homogêneo, e uma única gota de óleo. Seu diâmetro médio era de 0,792 ± 0,008 mm e o da gota de óleo de 0,114 ± 0,003 mm. Cerca de 1 h após a fecundação observou-se o blastodisco e em seguida a segmentação celular. A blástula iniciou após cerca de 5 h e a gástrula após 9 h. Com aproximadamente 20 h observou-se o fechamento do blastóporo. A nêurula ou embrião na fase inicial
Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Maruyama, Hideo
A new biosorbent, methylated yeast (MeYE), was prepared for the adsorptive separation of proteins from aqueous solutions. Yeast was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 80% of the carboxylic groups of yeast could be methylated within 9 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to MeYE was studied to evaluate the protein adsorption ability of MeYE. At near neutral pH, egg albumin was scarcely adsorbed to unmethylated yeast and the adsorption amount of egg albumin...
Andersen, Dorthe Vestergård; Jørgensen, Inger Merete
Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is part of the Danish Childhood Vaccination Programme. It is known that children may react with anaphylaxis to MMR vaccines containing traces of egg protein. In Denmark, national clinical guidelines recommend that children with egg allergy be referred...... to vaccination at a paediatric ward despite changed recommendations in other countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with egg allergy presented with anaphylactic/allergic reactions to MMR vaccination and to discuss whether Danish recommendations should be upheld....
Møller, Eva Friis; Bohr, Magnus; Kjellerup, Sanne
How the distribution of Calanus finmarchicus and its potential northward expansion will be affected by climate changes depends on the mechanisms and processes constraining their reproduction, recruitment and survival. Here we present measurements of C. finmarchicus egg production rates during...... with lower peak biomass in 2011 and 2012. The models predicted different timing of initialization and development of egg production rates based on phytoplankton biomass and temperature and model performance varied from ‘poor’ to ‘very good’. Phytoplankton biomass controlled the changes in egg production...
Taylor, Gregory T.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Shaffer, Scott A.
Egg turning behavior is an important determinant of egg hatchability, but it remains relatively understudied. Here, we examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri). We used artificial eggs containing a data logger with a 3-D accelerometer, a magnetometer, and a temperature thermistor to monitor parental incubation behavior of 131 tern nests. Overall, adults turned their eggs an average (±SD) of 3.8 ± 0.8 turns h-1, which is nearly two times higher than that of other seabirds. Egg turning rates increased with nest initiation date. We also examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in relation to egg mercury contamination. Mercury contamination has been shown to be associated with reduced egg hatchability, and we hypothesized that mercury may decrease egg hatchability via altered egg turning behavior by parents. Despite the high variability in egg turning rates among individuals, the rate of egg turning was not related to mercury concentrations in sibling eggs. These findings highlight the need for further study concerning the potential determinants of egg turning behavior.
Hoffmann Klaus H
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects. We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this
Full Text Available The aim of our experiment was to evaluate the influence of probiotic preparation based on lactobacillus, probiotic preparation based on enterococci or humic acid on egg production and selected internal egg quality parameters of laying hens hybrid Lohman Brown Lite. For housing hens (n = 60 three storey enriched battery cage was used in which hens were divided in groups (n = 15. In the control group of hens complete feed mixtures without any additions were fed. In the first experimental group complete feed mixture was enriched with probiotic lactobacilli based preparation in a dose of 0.5 g.kg-1. In the second experimental group probiotic enterococci based preparation was added to the feed mixture at a dose of 0.5 g.kg-1. The third experimental group was enriched with 0.5% concentration of humic acid. All groups were fed ad libitum. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily. Complete analysis of the table egg quality was used to evaluate quality parameters: yolk weight (g, yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR, albumen weight (g, Haugh Units (HU, albumen index. The results show that supplementation of feed mixture with both kind probiotics as well as humic acid increased egg production (P>0.05 (values of average intensity of laying in the order of the groups: 90.5; 91.9; 91.6 and 92.3 %. The addition of probiotics also positively influenced egg weight (P>0.05. The qualitative parameters of egg internal content were with probiotics or humic acids addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05. Doses of supplements used in this study did not significant negatively influenced monitored egg quality parameters. Based on these findings and the beneficial effects of substances on the poultry health confirmed by other authors we recommend use of these substances as supplements to the feed mixtures for laying hens.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of genetic algorithms (GA in the design and implementation of fuzzy logic controllers (FLC for incubating egg. What is the best to determine the membership function is the first question that has been tackled. Thus it is important to select the accurate membership functions, but these methods possess one common weakness where conventional FLC use membership function generated by human operators. The membership function selection process is done with trial and error, and it runs step by step which takes too long in solving the problem. This paper develops a system that may help users to determine the membership function of FLC using the GA optimization for the fastest processing in solving the problems. The data collection is based on the simulation results, and the results refer to the transient response specification which is maximum overshoot. From the results presented, we will get a better and exact result; the value of overshot is decreasing from 1.2800 for FLC without GA to 1.0081 with GA (FGA.
Gray, Claudia L; Levin, Michael E; du Toit, George
Egg allergy is the most common food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis (AD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of egg allergy, component patterns and predictive values of screening tests in egg allergy in South African children with AD. This was a prospective, observational study in a paediatric university hospital in Cape Town. Children with AD, aged 6 months to 10 years, were recruited randomly. They were assessed for sensitization and allergy to egg by questionnaire, skin prick tests (SPT), Immuno Solid Phase Allergen Chip (ISAC 103 ® ) test, ImmunoCAP component tests to egg and ovomucoid (Gal d 1) and incremental food challenges. Hundred participants (59 Black Africans and 41 of mixed ethnicity) were enrolled, median age 42 months. There was a high rate of egg sensitization of 54% and prevalence of confirmed egg allergy of 25%. History and screening laboratory tests overestimated egg allergy significantly. SPT to fresh egg white was significantly more sensitive in diagnosing egg allergy than SPT to the commercial egg white extract and produced the highest area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of all the screening tests in predicting true egg allergy. In those participants sensitized to egg, the component ovomucoid was best at differentiating true egg allergy from tolerance. Commonly used 95% positive predictive values (PPVs) for SPT to egg and ImmunoCAP egg white produced low PPV of 57% and 74%, respectively, in this population overall, with generally poorer predictive values amongst the Black Africans than the mixed ethnicity participants. A SPT to fresh egg of 17 mm and ImmunoCAP egg white of 13 kU/l produced the best PPV for egg allergy in this population. The prevalence of egg allergy is high in African children with AD, but history of egg allergy and sensitization to egg significantly overestimate the true egg allergy rate. SPT to fresh egg white was more sensitive than that to commercial egg white extract; hence, fresh
Libbers, L; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van der Heide, S; van der Meulen, G N; Kukler, J; Kerkhof, M; Dubois, A E J
Diagnostic and accidental food allergic reactions may be modified by the matrix containing the allergenic food. Previous studies of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with peanut found an effect of the fat content of the challenge matrix on the severity of the challenge reactions. The aim of this study was to examine whether the fat content of the food matrix is related to eliciting dose and reaction severity in DBPCFCs with heated hen's egg. Sensitized egg allergic children (n = 59) undergoing DBPCFCs with egg as a routine diagnostic procedure in our tertiary care centre were evaluated retrospectively. Three different recipes were used for the food matrix: vanilla pudding, pancake and minced meat, containing 22.8%, 31.9% and 52.7% fat (weighted average), respectively. The eliciting dose (i.e. the highest cumulative dose to which the child reacted) was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier log-rank statistic and by Cox regression. Reaction severity was quantified by using an index (range 1-12) and was analysed by multiple linear regression analysis. The overall influence of type of recipe on eliciting dose was not significant (P = 0.12). The rate of response to minced meat (with the highest fat content) was not significantly different from pudding [HR = 0.61 (0.26-1.45, P = 0.26) or pancake (HR = 1.41 (0.50-3.99), P = 0.52] after adjustment for confounders. The type of recipe did not influence the severity of the challenge reaction. The severity of the challenge reaction for minced meat compared to pudding and pancake was 1.06 (0.52-2.16), P = 0.87 and 0.81 (0.32-2.01), P = 0.64, respectively, after correction for confounders. In contrast to similar research with peanut, no significant influence of the fat content of the matrix was found on the eliciting dose or severity of the reaction in 59 DBPCFCs with hen's egg. Matrix fat content differences comparable to those reported here may not be an important co-determinant of reaction severity for all
Uroz, Victoria; Guerra, Lucia
In Spain, there exists an increasing amount of advertising for the donation of eggs for assisted reproduction. This study attempts to assess: (1) scientific evidence available about adverse effects of egg donation; (2) characteristics of the information given in the informed consent to donors; and (3) the legality of this advertising. The main results are: (1) Many severe problems are associated with induction of ovulation, as ovarian hyperstimulation (reported frequencies from 5.9 to 15%), thromboembolism, hepatic failure and increased risk of ovarian, breast, endometrial and colon cancer. (2) Informed consent for egg donors is very incomplete, according to the Spanish law 41/2002 on Patient's Information. (3) Current advertising to promote egg donation does not respect, among others, law 14/2006 about Assisted Human Reproduction, as it includes reference to economic compensation or benefits but no information about the risks. Deontological and judicial disciplinary procedures should be initiated to protect donors' rights.
Aug 31, 2011 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals. Full Length ... reproductive performance of broiler breeder (50 to 64 weeks of age). ... Nutrition of broiler breeder hens can influence egg quality ..... books, Guelph, ontario.
Wang, C L; Thomas, F
This study aimed to determine whether metacercariae of Microphallus papillorobustus (Trematoda: Microphallidae) produce eggs by self-fertilization when their intermediate host, the gammarid Gammarus insensibilis, dies before being eaten by predatory definitive hosts. Such a mechanism would allow the parasite to reproduce even if transmission fails. The percentage of metacercariae that produced eggs and the mean number of eggs were significantly higher in metacercariae placed in a Ringer's solution compared with those in salt water or metacercariae remaining inside the dead gammarid. The lack of egg production in metacercariae removed from dead gammarids in the field supported the idea that self-fertilization is not, for this parasite, a mechanism of reproductive insurance when establishment in the definitive hosts fails.
Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples collected using the Continuous Underway Fish-Egg Sampler, known as CUFES. The data include numbers of anchovy, sardine, jack mackerel, squid, hake, and...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pelagic eggs collected using the CUFES during cruises conducted by the SWFSC Fisheries Resources Division from 1996 to present. Data are typically collected every 30...
Full Text Available One of the binding agent which could be used in the production of chicken nuggets is egg white. The different frying temperature and time will result in different physical, chemical and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of addition egg white to the nuggets' quality. This research consisted of one level of experiment was designed in Fully Randomized Design. The experiment result showed that the best product was produced by adding 10 % egg white. This product had hardness value of 30.10 N, Cutting stress: of 5.13 N, elasticity of 0.333 s/g, and the organoleptic score for texture and taste were 6.50 and 6.44 respectively. Keywords: Chicken nuggets, egg white
Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Herman, Marta; Starostecka, Ewa
The aim of this article is to show current knowledge concerning valuable substances biologically active present in hen eggs and underline important nutritive role of hen eggs. Hen egg is a good source of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins (A, B2, B6, B12, D, E, K), minerals and lipids. The significant part of lipids is a group of unsaturated phospholipids, which are components of cell membranes, act protectively on the cardiovascular system and contribute to a decrease of cholesterol level and blood pressure. Therefore, the consumption of unsaturated phospholipids is recommended especially in patients suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. Another important substance is egg cystatin, which has a wide spectrum of biological functions, for example the ability to stimulate cell growth, inhibit inflammatory processes and has antibacterial and antiviral properties. Other substance presented in the egg white which helps fight bacteria is lysozyme. It is used in medicine as an aid in antibiotic therapy and analgesic in the course of infection, as well as in tumor malignancies. Among the components contained in the egg yolk there is also immunoglobulin Y which due to its therapeutic importance deserves special attention. Its use offers the possibility of replacing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of bacterial infections of digestive system, as well as an opportunity for the development of medicine associated with passive immunization of patients. The egg is a rich source of retinol which gradual depletion in the organism causes many eye pathologies. A very important and useful part of the egg, used in medicine is a shell and its membranes, due to the high collagen content relevant in the treatment of connective tissue diseases.
A study was conducted to determine the influence of different particle size limestone in layer diets on egg production and eggshell quality during the later stages of egg production (>54 weeks of age). Calcitic limestone (360 g Ca/kg), consisting of small (<1.0 mm), medium (1.0 - 2.0 mm) and large (2.0 - 3.8 mm) particles ...
The d15N excess and 15N atom % excess in meat and eggs of hens fed diets containing 15N-CCC, were higher than in the control diet after 11 days of treatment and seven days after withdrawal of 15N-CCC, except for the egg yolk values of hens fed 5 mg 15N-CCC /kg feed. The d15N excess and 15N atom % excess of ...
Ruth, van S.M.; Koot, A.H.; Brouwer, S.E.; Boivin, N.; Carcea, M.; Zerva, C.N.; Haugen, J.E.; Hohl, A.; Koroglu, D.; Mafra, I.; Rom, S.
Many consumers are willing to pay a higher price for organic eggs. Since these eggs retail at a higher price than conventional eggs and their identity is difficult to verify, they are susceptible to fraud. For the authentication of Dutch eggs RIKILT developed an analytical test method based on
A total of 2160 images of candled, incubated ostrich eggs were digitized to determine the percentage of egg volume occupied by the air cell at different stages of incubation. The air cell on average occupied 2.5% of the volume of fresh eggs. For eggs that hatched successfully, this volume increased to an average of 24.4% ...
Brand, van den H.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.
1. Effects of two housing systems (cages vs outdoor) on external and internal egg characteristics were investigated. 2. In total 785 eggs from three different lines in cages and 268 eggs from outdoor-housed layers were examined for egg weight, albumen, yolk and shell content, albumen height and pH,
Shell eggs with microcracks are often undetected during egg grading processes. In the past, a modified pressure imaging system was developed to detect eggs with microcracks without adversely affecting the quality of normal intact eggs. The basic idea of the modified pressure imaging system was to ap...
Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne
In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...
Ishimatsu, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yu; Itoki, Naoko; Takeda, Tatsusuke; Lee, Heather J; Graham, Jeffrey B
Intertidal mudflats are highly productive ecosystems that impose severe environmental challenges on their occupants due to tidal oscillations and extreme shifts in habitat conditions. Reproduction on mudflats requires protection of developing eggs from thermal and salinity extremes, O(2) shortage, dislodgement by currents, siltation and predation. Mudskippers are air-breathing, amphibious fishes, and one of few vertebrates that reside on mudflats. They lay their eggs in mud burrows containing extremely hypoxic water, raising the question of how the eggs survive. We found that the Japanese mudskipper Periophthalmus modestus deposits its eggs on the walls of an air-filled chamber within its burrow. To ensure adequate O(2) for egg development, the burrow-guarding male mudskipper deposits mouthfuls of fresh air into the egg chamber during each low tide, a behaviour that can be upregulated by egg-chamber hypoxia. When egg development is complete the male, on a nocturnal rising tide, removes the egg-chamber air and releases it outside the burrow. This floods the egg chamber and induces egg hatching. Thus, P. modestus has developed a reproductive strategy that allows it to nurture eggs in this severe habitat rather than migrating away from the mudflat. This requires that mudskipper eggs be specialized to develop in air and that the air-breathing capacity of the egg-guarding male be integrated in a complex behavioural repertoire that includes egg guarding, ferrying air to and from the egg chamber, and sensing O(2) levels therein, all in concert with the tidal cycle.
A total of 147 freshly laid eggs of domestic chicken, duck and guinea fowl were collected from reputable poultry farms. Seven fresh egg samples for each species were measured within 2 hours at day 0 of being laid. Each egg was weighed and broken, and the height of the albumen and egg yolk was measured. Forty-two ...
Both the egg white and yolk antibodies coexisted in 35 (58.3%) patients. Conclusion: Sensitization against hen's egg was higher compared to the chicken meat. Egg white sensitization higher than the egg yolk particularly in Saudi children with food related allergic disorders. Key words: Allergy, atopic dermatitis, chicken ...
A total of 135 eggs (50 chicken, 50 duck and 35 goose eggs) were collected from farmers' doors from adjoining rural areas of Bhubaneswar for egg quality traits and chemical analysis. The mean values of quality traits of egg weight, volume, albumin weight, yolk weight, shell weight, shell thickness, shape index, albumin ...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. 56.37... Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. Shell eggs identified with the grademarks shown in § 56.36 shall be legibly lot numbered on either the individual egg, the carton, or the consumer package...
Garcia, Tatiana; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Marcelo H.
The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) is a three-dimensional Lagrangian model that simulates the movement and development of Asian carp eggs until hatching based on the physical characteristics of the flow field and the physical and biological characteristics of the eggs. This tool provides information concerning egg development and spawning habitat suitability including: egg plume location, egg vertical and travel time distribution, and egg-hatching risk. A case study of the simulation of Asian carp eggs in the Lower Saint Joseph River, a tributary of Lake Michigan, is presented. The river hydrodynamic input for FluEgg was generated in two ways — using hydroacoustic data and using HEC-RAS model data. The HEC-RAS model hydrodynamic input data were used to simulate 52 scenarios covering a broad range of flows and water temperatures with the eggs at risk of hatching ranging from 0 to 93% depending on river conditions. FluEgg simulations depict the highest percentage of eggs at risk of hatching occurs at the lowest discharge and at peak water temperatures. Analysis of these scenarios illustrates how the interactive relation among river length, hydrodynamics, and water temperature influence egg transport and hatching risk. An improved version of FluEgg, which more realistically simulates dispersion and egg development, is presented. Also presented is a graphical user interface that facilitates the use of FluEgg and provides a set of post-processing analysis tools to support management decision-making regarding the prevention and control of Asian carp reproduction in rivers with or without Asian carp populations.
Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Maruyama, Hideo
A new biosorbent, methylated yeast (MeYE), was prepared for the adsorptive separation of proteins from aqueous solutions. Yeast was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 80% of the carboxylic groups of yeast could be methylated within 9 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto MeYE was studied to evaluate the protein adsorption ability of MeYE. At near neutral pH, egg albumin was scarcely adsorbed onto unmethylated yeast and the adsorbed amount of egg albumin increased with increasing methylation degree. The amount of egg albumin adsorbed onto MeYE increased with increasing pH from 4 to 7 and steeply decreased above pH 7. The Langmuir isotherm was applied to determine the apparent adsorption constant and the saturated adsorbed amount of egg albumin on MeYE. Both the apparent adsorption constant and the saturated adsorbed amount increased with the degree of methylation. The saturated adsorbed amount of egg albumin onto MeYE having methylation degree 77% was 8.41 x 10(-6) mol g(-1) or 0.378 gg(-1) at near neutral pH.
Ma, Shuang; Zhao, Songning; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo; Xu, Menglei
Spray drying is a useful method for developing egg process and utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects on spray drying condition of egg white. The optimized conditions were spraying flow 22 mL/min, feeding temperature 39.8 °C and inlet-air temperature 178.2 °C. Results of sulfydryl (SH) groups measurement indicated conformation structure have changed resulting in protein molecule occur S-S crosslinking phenomenon when heating. It led to free SH content decreased during spray drying process. There was almost no change of differential scanning calorimetry between fresh egg white and spray-drying egg white powder (EWP). For a given protein, the apparent SH reactivity is in turn influenced by the physico-chemical characteristics of the reactant. The phenomenon illustrated the thermal denaturation of these proteins was unrelated to their free SH contents. Color measurement was used to study browning level. EWP in optimized conditions revealed insignificant brown stain. Swelling capacity and scanning electron micrograph both proved well quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. Results suggested spray drying under the optimized conditions present suitable and alternative method for egg processing industrial implementation. Egg food industrialization needs new drying method to extend shelf-life. The purpose of the study was to provide optimal process of healthy and nutritional instant spray-drying EWP and study quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP.
Evans, Darren M; Redpath, Stephen M; Evans, Sharon A; Elston, David A; Dennis, Peter
Livestock grazing is a major driver of ecosystem change, and has been associated with significant declines in various bird species worldwide. In Britain, there is particular concern that severe grazing pressure is deleteriously affecting vegetation and birds in upland regions. However, the mechanism by which grazing affects birds is unclear. Here, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that sheep grazing pressure affects the egg size of a common upland passerine: the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis. We manipulated sheep stocking densities in a replicated field experiment, and found that plots with the highest stocking density contained nests with the smallest eggs, and that plots with low stocking density contained nests with the largest eggs. However, eggs laid in ungrazed plots were also small, suggesting that either too many sheep or their removal from upland areas might have a detrimental effect on pipit egg size. We found no significant effect on fledging success but the reduced post-fledging survival of young from smaller eggs, as seen in other studies, could partly explain declines in upland birds.
Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Peretyagin, Vladimir S.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Arbuzova, Evgeniia A.
The urgency of the task of analyzing the foodstuffs quality is determined by the strategy for the formation of a healthy lifestyle and the rational nutrition of the world population. This applies to products, such as chicken eggs. In particular, it is necessary to control the chicken eggs quality at the farm production prior to incubation in order to eliminate the possible hereditary diseases, as well as high embryonic mortality and a sharp decrease in the quality of the bred young. Up to this day, in the market there are no objective instruments of contactless express quality control as analytical equipment that allow the high-precision quality examination of the chicken eggs, which is determined by the color parameters of the eggshell (color uniformity) and yolk of eggs, and by the presence in the eggshell of various defects (cracks, growths, wrinkles, dirty). All mentioned features are usually evaluated only visually (subjectively) with the help of normalized color standards and ovoscopes. Therefore, this work is devoted to the investigation of the application opportunities of contactless express control method with the help of technical vision to implement the chicken eggs' quality analysis. As a result of the studies, a prototype with the appropriate software was proposed. Experimental studies of this equipment on a representative sample of eggs from chickens of different breeds have been carried out (the total number of analyzed samples exceeds 300 pieces). The correctness of the color analysis was verified by spectrophotometric studies of the surface of the eggshell.
Shu, Longfei; Suter, Marc J-F; Räsänen, Katja
One central goal of evolutionary biology is to explain how biological diversity emerges and is maintained in nature. Given the complexity of the phenotype and the multifaceted nature of inheritance, modern evolutionary ecological studies rely heavily on the use of molecular tools. Here, we show how molecular tools help to gain insight into the role of egg coats (i.e. the extracellular structures surrounding eggs and embryos) in evolutionary diversification. Egg coats are maternally derived structures that have many biological functions from mediating fertilization to protecting the embryo from environmental hazards. They show great molecular, structural and functional diversity across species, but intraspecific variability and the role of ecology in egg coat evolution have largely been overlooked. Given that much of the variation that influences egg coat function is ultimately determined by their molecular phenotype, cutting-edge molecular tools (e.g. proteomics, glycomics and transcriptomics), combined with functional assays, are needed for rigorous inferences on their evolutionary ecology. Here, we identify key research areas and highlight emerging molecular techniques that can increase our understanding of the role of egg coats in the evolution of biological diversity, from adaptation to speciation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available A key determinant of the relationship between diet and longevity is the balance of protein to carbohydrate in the diet. Eating excess protein relative to carbohydrate shortens lifespan in solitary and social insects. Here we explored how lifespan and behavior in ants was affected by the quality of protein ingested and the presence of associated antinutrients (i.e. compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. We tested diets prepared with either egg white protein only or a protein mixture. Egg white contains an anti-nutrient called avidin. Avidin binds to the B vitamin biotin, preventing its absorption. First, we demonstrate that an egg-white diet was twice as deleterious as a protein-mixture diet. Second, we show that ingestion of egg-white diet drastically affected social behavior, triggering elevated levels of aggression within the colony. Lastly, we reveal that by adding biotin to the egg white diet we were able to lessen its detrimental effects. This latest result suggests that ants suffered biotin deficiency when fed the egg white diet. In conclusion, anti-nutrients were known to affect health and performance of animals, but this is the first study showing that anti-nutrients also lead to severe changes in behavior.
Poissonnier, Laure-Anne; Simpson, Stephen J.; Dussutour, Audrey
A key determinant of the relationship between diet and longevity is the balance of protein to carbohydrate in the diet. Eating excess protein relative to carbohydrate shortens lifespan in solitary and social insects. Here we explored how lifespan and behavior in ants was affected by the quality of protein ingested and the presence of associated antinutrients (i.e. compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients). We tested diets prepared with either egg white protein only or a protein mixture. Egg white contains an anti-nutrient called avidin. Avidin binds to the B vitamin biotin, preventing its absorption. First, we demonstrate that an egg-white diet was twice as deleterious as a protein-mixture diet. Second, we show that ingestion of egg-white diet drastically affected social behavior, triggering elevated levels of aggression within the colony. Lastly, we reveal that by adding biotin to the egg white diet we were able to lessen its detrimental effects. This latest result suggests that ants suffered biotin deficiency when fed the egg white diet. In conclusion, anti-nutrients were known to affect health and performance of animals, but this is the first study showing that anti-nutrients also lead to severe changes in behavior. PMID:25392989
Poissonnier, Laure-Anne; Simpson, Stephen J; Dussutour, Audrey
A key determinant of the relationship between diet and longevity is the balance of protein to carbohydrate in the diet. Eating excess protein relative to carbohydrate shortens lifespan in solitary and social insects. Here we explored how lifespan and behavior in ants was affected by the quality of protein ingested and the presence of associated antinutrients (i.e. compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients). We tested diets prepared with either egg white protein only or a protein mixture. Egg white contains an anti-nutrient called avidin. Avidin binds to the B vitamin biotin, preventing its absorption. First, we demonstrate that an egg-white diet was twice as deleterious as a protein-mixture diet. Second, we show that ingestion of egg-white diet drastically affected social behavior, triggering elevated levels of aggression within the colony. Lastly, we reveal that by adding biotin to the egg white diet we were able to lessen its detrimental effects. This latest result suggests that ants suffered biotin deficiency when fed the egg white diet. In conclusion, anti-nutrients were known to affect health and performance of animals, but this is the first study showing that anti-nutrients also lead to severe changes in behavior.
Natal'ya Anatol'evna Alekseeva
Full Text Available The current state of regional markets development and the production of eggs and egg products for a long period — from 1990 to 2009 — is reviewed in this paper. The main research method is the method of statistical groupings. The variable amount of egg production was chosen as the grouping characteristic, since this figure fits well into research goals and has the property of the prevalence in the aggregate / total. To analyze the trends of the Russian regional markets involved into egg production, official statistics on consumer prices was used as well as producer prices, the volume of egg production per capita based on food import and export products. This allowed to group regions for comparison with average values of indicators carried out by different criteria, and to draw conclusions about trends in the development of regional markets. The most relevant factors influencing the development of egg production, among which the factor of vertical integration of production was especially noticed: building own plants and feed mills, joining the land in order to ensure the needs for higher quality raw materials and other activities were identified.
Anyan, William K; Seki, Takenori; Kumagai, Takashi; Obata-Ninomiya, Kazushige; Furushima-Shimogawara, Rieko; Kwansa-Bentum, Bethel; Akao, Nobuaki; Bosompem, Kwabena M; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D; Karasuyama, Hajime; Ohta, Nobuo
Granuloma formation around parasite eggs during schistosomal infection is considered to be controlled by Th2 cytokines. However, it is still controversial which cell populations are responsible for the host Th2 cytokine-dependent granuloma formation. Basophils have recently attracted attention because of their ability to produce large amounts of IL-4. Therefore, we investigated whether basophils play an essential role in the induction of granuloma formation induced by Schistosoma mansoni eggs. Together with our previous observation that basophil numbers increased markedly in the spleen at 7 weeks postinfection, immunohistochemical staining using anti-mMCP8 monoclonal antibody (mAb) showed basophil infiltration in the granulomatous lesions formed around parasite eggs. To examine the roles of basophils more directly, we treated mice with anti-CD200R3 mAb to deplete basophils. Depletion of basophils resulted in a reduction of basophil number with concomitant downregulation of egg granuloma formation at 7 weeks postinfection. Moreover, we observed a significant reduction in the size of egg granulomas formed in basophil-depleted mice in the pulmonary granuloma model. Taken together, these findings indicated that basophils are essential for S. mansoni egg-induced granuloma formation, and this may serve as a novel therapeutic target in ameliorating the pathology of schistosomiasis. © 2013.
This paper examines the relatively recent practice of non-medical egg freezing, in which women bank their eggs for later use in conceiving a child. Non-medical egg freezing has only been available for about the last five years, as new vitrification techniques have made the success rates for actual conception more reliable than the earlier method of slow freezing. I draw on interviews with both clinicians and women who have banked their eggs to consider how this novel practice articulates with broader issues about the relationship between sexuality, reproduction and the political economy of household formation. Non-medical egg-freezing provides a technical solution to a number of different problems women face with regard to the elongation of the life course, the extension of education, the cost of household establishment and the iterative nature of relationship formation, thematised by the ubiquity of internet dating among the interviewees. I focus on the ways women used egg freezing to manage and reconcile different forms of time.
Wang, Xiaolin; Kellner, Alexander W A; Jiang, Shunxing; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Yingxia; Paidoula, Yahefujiang; Cheng, Xin; Rodrigues, Taissa; Meng, Xi; Zhang, Jialiang; Li, Ning; Zhou, Zhonghe
The pterosaur record is generally poor, with little information about their populations, and pterosaur eggs are even rarer, with only four isolated and flattened eggs found to date. We report here a population of a new sexually dimorphic pterosaur species (Hamipterus tianshanensis gen. et sp. nov.), with five exceptionally well-preserved three-dimensional eggs, from the Early Cretaceous deposit in northwestern China. About 40 male and female individuals in total were recovered, but the actual number associated might be in the hundreds. All of the discovered skulls have crests, which exhibit two different morphologies in size, shape, and robustness. The eggs show pliable depressions with cracking and crazing on the outer surface. The eggshell, observed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy, comprises a thin calcareous external hard shell followed by a soft membrane. These fossils shed new light on the reproductive strategy, ontogeny, and behavior of pterosaurs. The cranial crests show sexually dimorphic morphologies, with presumed males and females differing in crest size, shape, and robustness. Ontogenetic variation is reflected mainly in the expansion of the rostrum. The eggs have some external rigidity of the general pliable eggshell, and the microstructure of the eggshell is similar to that of some modern "soft" snake eggs. We suggest that this new pterosaur nested in colonies and thus exhibited gregarious behavior, a possible general trend for at least derived pterodactyloid pterosaurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan
to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four...... and FLOTAC). A modified concentration McMaster technique showed the highest egg recovery rate from bags. Two of the four diluted detergents (benzethonium chloride 0.1% and 7X 1%) also showed a higher egg recovery rate and were then compared with de-ionized water for recovery of helminth eggs from hands...
Knight, Adina Kay; Shreffler, Wayne G; Sampson, Hugh A; Sicherer, Scott H; Noone, Sally; Mofidi, Shideh; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna
Levels of IgE antibody to egg white of greater than 7 kIU/L are highly predictive of clinical reactivity to egg, and lower levels often require evaluation with oral food challenge (OFC) to establish definitive diagnosis. OFCs have inherent risks, and diagnostic criteria indicating high likelihood of passing would be clinically useful. We sought to determine whether the size of the skin prick test (SPT) to egg white adds diagnostic utility for children with low egg white-specific IgE antibody levels. A retrospective analysis of clinical history, egg white-specific IgE antibody levels, SPT responses, and egg OFC outcomes was performed. Children who passed (n = 29) egg OFCs and those who failed (n = 45) did not differ significantly in age, clinical characteristics, or egg white-specific IgE levels. There were, however, significant differences between both egg white SPT wheal response size and egg/histamine SPT wheal index. Children who failed egg OFCs had a median wheal of 5.0 mm; those who passed had a median wheal of 3.0 mm (P = .003). Children who failed egg OFCs had a median egg/histamine index of 1.00; those who passed had a median index of 0.71 (P = .001). For egg white-specific IgE levels of less than 2.5 kIU/L, an SPT wheal of 3 mm or an egg/histamine index of 0.65 was associated with a 50% chance of passing. In children with low egg white-specific IgE levels, those with smaller SPT wheal responses to egg were more likely to pass an egg OFC than those with larger wheal responses. The size of the egg white SPT response might provide additional information to determine the timing of egg OFC. The size of the egg white SPT wheal response might provide the clinician with additional information to determine the timing of egg OFC in children with low egg white-specific IgE antibody levels.
Petereit, C.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Franke, A.
Vertical distribution is an important feature of pelagic fish eggs and yolk sac larvae impacting their survival and dispersal, especially in heterogeneous and highly variable estuarine environments like the Baltic Sea. Egg densities determining the vertical distribution pattern were experimentally...... ascertained for cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the western Baltic Sea. Plaice eggs floated at lower mean (± standard deviation) density range (1.0136 ± 0.0007 g cm-3) compared to cod (1.0146 ± 0.0009 g cm-3) and flounder eggs (1.0160 ± 0.0015 g cm-3......), which floated on the highest density level. In flounder egg diameter was significantly related to egg density and in cod a weak correlation could be found between egg dry weight and density. All other relationships between female size, egg size, egg dry weight and egg density were not significant...
Sasaki, Y; Tsujiyama, Y; Asai, T; Noda, Y; Katayama, S; Yamada, Y
We examined 20 300 raw shell chicken eggs sold at retail stores in Japan for Salmonella outside and inside eggs. The eggs were purchased at 220 retail stores throughout Japan between August 2007 and January 2008. Of 2030 pooled egg samples (10 eggs/sample), Salmonella was isolated from five shell samples (0.25%), but not from any of egg-content samples. The serovars of the isolates were Salmonella Enteritidis (2), S. Derby, S. Livingstone and S. Cerro. The samples positive for Salmonella originated from five different egg grading and packaging (GP) centres. All the GP centres washed their egg shells according to government guidelines for hygienic practice in GP centres. Thus, practical control measures at GP centres need to be reviewed and implemented to diminish Salmonella prevalence of egg shells because Salmonella contamination on eggs is a potential hazard for foodborne salmonellosis in Japan.
Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Meyling, Nicolai V.
to sterilised (S) or non-sterilised (N) soil in Petri dishes that were either treated with P. chlamydosporia (F) or left untreated (C) during incubation at 22°C for 35 days. Egg recovery was estimated before (day 0) and after (day 35) treatment. Thereafter, each of four groups of parasite-free egg-laying hens...... was exposed to the soil from one of the four treatments in the feed over 12 days. The hens were necropsied day 42 post first exposure. The number of surviving eggs was most substantially reduced in SF soil and SF hens had statistically lower worm burdens (both parasites) compared to SC, NC and NF hens....... However, adult A. galli were primarily found in SF hens while the other groups mainly harboured immature A. galli. Accordingly, SF hens also had the highest ascarid faecal egg counts and lowest serum A. galli IgY titre. Overall, A. galli recovery increased with increasing exposure, but contrastingly...
Campbell, D L M; Lee, C; Hinch, G N; Roberts, J R
Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha). Hen-day production was tracked from 21 through 35 weeks with eggs visually graded daily for external deformities. All eggs laid on one day were weighed each week. Eggs were collected from each pen at 25, 30, and 36 weeks and analyzed for egg quality. There were no effects of outdoor stocking density on average hen-day percentage production (P = 0.67), egg weight (P = 0.09), percentages of deformed eggs (P = 0.30), shell reflectivity (P = 0.74), shell breaking strength (P = 0.07), shell deformation (P = 0.83), or shell thickness (P = 0.24). Eggs from hens in the highest density had the highest percentage shell weight (P = 0.004) and eggs from the lowest density had the highest yolk color score (P < 0.001). The amount of cuticle present did not differ between densities (P = 0.95) but some aspects of shell colors (P ≤ 0.01) and location of protoporphyrin IX (P = 0.046) varied. Hen age affected the majority of measurements. Stocking density differences may be related to hen diet as previous radio-frequency identification tracking of individual hens in these flocks showed birds used the range for longer in the lowest density and the least in the highest density, including depleting the range of vegetation sooner in the smaller ranges. An additional study assessing the relationship between individual hen range use, nutrition, and egg
Full Text Available Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and
Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Tomás, Gustavo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martín-Gálvez, David; Soler, Juan José
Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus) of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor) at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and geographically
Sookwong, Phumon; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Nakajima, Shin-Ichi; Amano, Yoshikazu; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Miyazawa, Teruo
Tocotrienol (T3) is an unsaturated vitamin E having health benefits (e.g., anti-angiogenesis). We measured T3 in commercial eggs, and developed T3-fortified eggs by adding rice bran scum oil (RBO, containing 1.3% T3) to the feed. Commercial eggs contained about 0.11 mg of T3/egg, while the T3 content was improved to 0.62 mg/egg after RBO supplementation to the feed of hens for 7 d.
Basilici, G; Hechenleitner, EM; Fiorelli, LE; Bó, PFD; Mountney, NP
Studies of the palaeobiology of titanosaur eggs are significantly more common than studies of titanosaur-egg-bearing strata. Nevertheless, the latter provide significant insight into palaeoenvironmental conditions associated with the egg-laying behaviour. This study examines titanosaur-egg-bearing strata of the Upper Cretaceous Los Llanos Formation (La Rioja, Argentina) and relates them to the laying and preservation of titanosaur egg clutches. Los Llanos Formation is a predominantly sandston...
Hafez, Y.S.; Kratzer, F.H.
The addition of 100 ppm of vanadium to a ration for White Leghorn laying hens caused a significant increase (p < 0.01) in the egg shell thickness, but did not cause any significant change in the egg production, egg weight or egg yolk cholesterol content. The addition of 300 ppm of vanadium caused a severe depression in the egg production which was the only symptom of vanadium toxicity to be observed. The addition of 50, 100, 200 or 300 ppm vanadium to the ration of laying coturnix did not cause any significant change in egg production, egg weight or egg yolk cholesterol content. The addition of the same levels of vanadium to one-day old male coturnix chicks did not cause any significant growth depression or mortality. The authors suggest that coturnix may be more resistant to vanadium toxicity than chickens. 8 references, 5 tables.
Gürtin, Zeynep B; Ahuja, Kamal K; Golombok, Susan
This paper presents finding from a study of the emotional and relational aspects of egg-sharing, exploring egg-share donors' and recipients' thoughts and feelings about each other, about each other's...
X. Y. Guo
Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of single or multi-particle size limestone on the egg shell quality, egg production, egg quality and feed intake in laying hens. A total of 280 laying hens (ISA brown were used in this 10-wk trial. Laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 14 replications per treatment and 5 adjacent cages as a replication (hens were caged individually. The experimental treatments were: i L, basal diet+10% large particle limestone; ii LS1, basal diet+8% large particle limestone+2% small particle limestone; iii LS2, basal diet+6% large particle limestone+4% small particle limestone; iv S, basal diet+10% small particle limestone. The egg production was unaffected by dietary treatments. The egg weight in S treatment was lighter than other treatments (p<0.05. The egg specific gravity in S treatment was lower than other treatments (p<0.05. The eggshell strength and eggshell thickness in S treatment were decreased when compared with other dietary treatments (p<0.05. The laying hens in LS1 and LS2 treatment had a higher average feed intake than the other two treatments (p<0.05. Collectively, the dietary multi-particle size limestone supplementation could be as efficient as large particle size limestone.