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Sample records for sub-energetic grbs notes

  1. Broadband Study of GRB 091127: A Sub-energetic Burst at Higher Redshift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troja, E.; Sakamoto, T.; Guidorzi, C.; Norris, J. P.; Panaitescu, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Omodei, N.; Brown, J. C.; Burrows, D. N.; Evans, P. A.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Mawson, N.; Melandri, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Oates, S. R.; Pal'shin, V.; Preece, R. D.; Racusin, J. L.; Steele, I. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Vasileiou, V.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Yamaoka, K.

    2012-12-01

    GRB 091127 is a bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift at a redshift z = 0.49 and associated with SN 2009nz. We present the broadband analysis of the GRB prompt and afterglow emission and study its high-energy properties in the context of the GRB/SN association. While the high luminosity of the prompt emission and standard afterglow behavior are typical of cosmological long GRBs, its low-energy release (E γ < 3 × 1049 erg), soft spectrum, and unusual spectral lag connect this GRB to the class of sub-energetic bursts. We discuss the suppression of high-energy emission in this burst, and investigate whether this behavior could be connected with the sub-energetic nature of the explosion.

  2. BROADBAND STUDY OF GRB 091127: A SUB-ENERGETIC BURST AT HIGHER REDSHIFT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troja, E.; Sakamoto, T.; Brown, J. C.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Guidorzi, C. [Physics Department, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122, Ferrara (Italy); Norris, J. P. [Physics Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Panaitescu, A. [Space Science and Applications, MS D466, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kobayashi, S.; Mawson, N.; Melandri, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Steele, I. A. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, CH41 1LD Birkenhead (United Kingdom); Omodei, N. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Burrows, D. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Evans, P. A. [X-ray and Observational Astronomy Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Oates, S. R. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Pal' shin, V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Laboratory for Experimental Astrophysics, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Preece, R. D. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); and others

    2012-12-10

    GRB 091127 is a bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift at a redshift z = 0.49 and associated with SN 2009nz. We present the broadband analysis of the GRB prompt and afterglow emission and study its high-energy properties in the context of the GRB/SN association. While the high luminosity of the prompt emission and standard afterglow behavior are typical of cosmological long GRBs, its low-energy release (E{sub {gamma}} < 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 49} erg), soft spectrum, and unusual spectral lag connect this GRB to the class of sub-energetic bursts. We discuss the suppression of high-energy emission in this burst, and investigate whether this behavior could be connected with the sub-energetic nature of the explosion.

  3. Angular Distribution of GRBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Balázs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the complete randomness of the angular distribution of BATSE gamma-ray bursts (GRBs. Based on their durations and peak fluxes, we divided the BATSE sample into 5 subsamples (short1, short2, intermediate, long1, long2 and studied the angular distributions separately. We used three methods to search for non-randomness in the subsamples: Voronoi tesselation, minimal spanning tree, and multifractal spectra. To study any non-randomness in the subsamples we defined 13 test-variables (9 from Voronoi tesselation, 3 from the minimal spanning tree and one from the multifractal spectrum. We made Monte Carlo simulations taking into account the BATSE’s sky-exposure function. We tested therandomness by introducing squared Euclidean distances in the parameter space of the test-variables. We recognized that the short1, short2 groups deviate significantly (99.90%, 99.98% from the fully random case in the distribution of the squared Euclidean distances but this is not true for the long samples. In the intermediate group, the squared Euclidean distances also give significant deviation (98.51%.

  4. Anomalies in the GRBs' distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagoly, Zsolt; Horvath, Istvan; Hakkila, Jon; Toth, Viktor

    2015-08-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous objects known: they outshine their host galaxies making them ideal candidates for probing large-scale structure. Earlier, the angular distribution of different GRBs (long, intermediate and short) has been studied in detail with different methods and it has been found that the short and intermediate groups showed deviation from the full randomness at different levels (e.g. Vavrek, R., et al. 2008). However these result based only angular measurements of the BATSE experiment, without any spatial distance indicator involved.Currently we have more than 361 GRBs with measured precise position, optical afterglow and redshift, mainly due to the observations of the Swift mission. This sample is getting large enough that it its homogeneous and isotropic distribution a large scale can be checked. We have recently (Horvath, I. et al., 2014) identified a large clustering of gamma-ray bursts at redshift z ~ 2 in the general direction of the constellations of Hercules and Corona Borealis. This angular excess cannot be entirely attributed to known selection biases, making its existence due to chance unlikely. The scale on which the clustering occurs is disturbingly large, about 2-3 Gpc: the underlying distribution of matter suggested by this cluster is big enough to question standard assumptions about Universal homogeneity and isotropy.

  5. Long GRBs sources population non-uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskaja, Irene

    Long GRBs observed in the very wide energy band. It is possible to separate two subsets of GRBs with high energy component (E > 500 MeV) presence. First type events energy spectra in low and high energy intervals are similar (as for GRB 021008) and described by Band, power law or broken power law models look like to usual bursts without emission in tens MeV region. For example, Band spectrum of GRB080916C covering 6 orders of magnitude. Second ones contain new additional high energy spectral component (for example, GRB 050525B and GRB 090902B). Both types of GRBs observed since CGRO mission beginning. The low energy precursors existence are typical for all types bursts. Both types of bursts temporal profiles can be similar in the various energy regions during some events or different in other cases. The absence of hard to soft evolution in low energy band and (or) presence of high energy precursors for some events are the special features of second class of GRBs by the results of preliminary data analysis and this facts gives opportunities to suppose differences between these two GRBs subsets sources. Also the results of long GRB redshifts distribution analysis have shown its shape contradiction to uniform population objects one for our Metagalaxy to both total and various redshifts definition methods GRBs sources samples. These evidences allow making preliminary conclusion about non-uniformity of long GRBs sources population.

  6. Study of GRBs Hosts Galaxies Vicinity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, S.; Vasquez, N.; Hoyle, F.

    2017-07-01

    The study of GRBs host galaxies and its vicinity could provide constrains on the progenitor and an opportunity to use these violent explosions to characterize the nature of the highredshift universe. Studies of GRB host galaxies reveal a population of starforming galaxies with great diversity, spanning a wide range of masses, star formation rate, and redshifts. In order to study the galactic ambient of GRBs we used the S. Savaglio catalog from 2015 where 245 GRBs are listed with RA-Dec position and z. We choose 22 GRBs Hosts galaxies from Savaglio catalog and SDSS DR12, with z range 0population characteristics. We calculate the volumetric density populatation of glalaxies around the GRB Hosts within a volume of an sphere whit radius of 10 h-1 Mpc and find a low density compared with a typical group of galaxies. In order to know the galaxies stellar formation state, in regions where GRBs are formed, we made an analysis of color index using SDSS data of μ [λ 3543], r[λ 6231] and calculate the indexes μ-r. We find a value μ-r=2.63, it means that the galactic ambient of GRBs Host regions are statistically redder than void and wall regions on a indirect way (Voids:μ-r=2.043; Walls:μ-r=2.162). Futhermore, we used a inverse concentration index analysis, ICI=R50/R90 and find that galaxies in GRBs Hosts vicinity are also of slightly early type than void and wall galaxies. With this work we provide characteristics on the regions for future works related with highredsift universe that using the GRBs.

  7. The GLAST Mission, LAT and GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omodei, Nicola; INFN, Pisa

    2006-01-01

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the next generation satellite experiment for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It is a pair conversion telescope built with a plastic anticoincidence shield, a segmented CsI electromagnetic calorimeter, and the largest silicon strip tracker ever built. It will cover the energy range from 30 MeV to 300 GeV, shedding light on many issues left open by its predecessor EGRET. One of the most exciting science topics is the detection and observation of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper we present the work done so far by the GRB LAT science group in studying the performance of the LAT detector to observe GRBs.We report on the simulation framework developed by the group as well as on the science tools dedicated to GRBs data analysis. We present the LAT sensitivity to GRBs obtained with such simulations, and, finally, the general scheme of GRBs detection that will be adopted on orbit

  8. Noted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunberg, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Considering how much attention people lavish on the technologies of writing--scroll, codex, print, screen--it's striking how little they pay to the technologies for digesting and regurgitating it. One way or another, there's no sector of the modern world that is not saturated with note-taking--the bureaucracy, the liberal professions, the…

  9. The sub-energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 031203 as a cosmic analogue to the nearby GRB 980425.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, A M; Kulkarni, S R; Berger, E; Fox, D W; Sako, M; Frail, D A; Gal-Yam, A; Moon, D S; Cenko, S B; Yost, S A; Phillips, M M; Persson, S E; Freedman, W L; Wyatt, P; Jayawardhana, R; Paulson, D

    2004-08-05

    Over the six years since the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980425, which was associated with the nearby (distance approximately 40 Mpc) supernova 1998bw, astronomers have debated fiercely the nature of this event. Relative to bursts located at cosmological distance (redshift z approximately 1), GRB 980425 was under-luminous in gamma-rays by three orders of magnitude. Radio calorimetry showed that the explosion was sub-energetic by a factor of 10. Here we report observations of the radio and X-ray afterglow of the recent GRB 031203 (refs 5-7), which has a redshift of z = 0.105. We demonstrate that it too is sub-energetic which, when taken together with the low gamma-ray luminosity, suggests that GRB 031203 is the first cosmic analogue to GRB 980425. We find no evidence that this event was a highly collimated explosion viewed off-axis. Like GRB 980425, GRB 031203 appears to be an intrinsically sub-energetic gamma-ray burst. Such sub-energetic events have faint afterglows. We expect intensive follow-up of faint bursts with smooth gamma-ray light curves (common to both GRB 031203 and 980425) to reveal a large population of such events.

  10. BAT2 GRB Catalog - Prompt Emission Properties of Swift GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Parsons, A.; Tueller, J.; Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. The BAT T 90 duration peaks at 70 s. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT short-duration GRBs are generally harder than those of the long-duration GRBs. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate redshift GRBs. Furthermore, the observed spectra of the BAT high redshift GRBs are similar to or harder than the moderate redshift GRBs.

  11. Scout or Cavalry? Optimal Discovery Strategies for GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Many present and past gamma-ray burst (GRB) detectors try to be not only a 'scout', discovering new GRBs, but also the 'cavalry', simultaneously optimizing on-board science return. Recently, however, most GRB science return has moved out from the gamma-ray energy bands where discovery usually occurs. Therefore a future gamma-ray instrument that is only a scout might best optimize future GRB science. Such a scout would specialize solely in the initial discovery of GRBs, determining only those properties that would allow an unambiguous handoff to waiting cavalry instruments. Preliminary general principles of scout design and cadence are discussed. Scouts could implement observing algorithms optimized for finding GRBs with specific attributes of duration, location, or energy. Scout sky-scanning algorithms utilizing a return cadence near to desired durations of short GRBs are suggested as a method of discovering GRBs in the unexplored short duration part of the GRB duration distribution

  12. Making Preliminary GRBs Real-Time Astronomical Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Castillo-Carrión

    2010-01-01

    analysis and evaluation of GRBs. Recently, analysis and evaluation of GRBs were done without help of semiautomated tools or routines; so the time elapsed from the detection until getting all the information produced (DSS-2 data: Digitized Sky Surveys, elevation diagrams in each observatory, etc. could be 30 minutes. The software presented allows to reduce the time elapsed to 30 seconds, getting an email, web, and sms reports.

  13. Statistical properties of Fermi GBM GRBs' spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, István I.; Balázs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Tóth, L. Viktor; Bagoly, Zsolt

    2018-03-01

    Statistical studies of gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra may result in important information on the physics of GRBs. The Fermi GBM catalogue contains GRB parameters (peak energy, spectral indices, and intensity) estimated fitting the gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of the total emission (fluence, flnc), and during the time of the peak flux (pflx). Using contingency tables, we studied the relationship of the models best-fitting pflx and flnc time intervals. Our analysis revealed an ordering of the spectra into a power law - Comptonized - smoothly broken power law - Band series. This result was further supported by a correspondence analysis of the pflx and flnc spectra categorical variables. We performed a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to find a relationship between categorical (spectral) and model independent physical data. LDA resulted in highly significant physical differences among the spectral types, that is more pronounced in the case of the pflx spectra, than for the flnc spectra. We interpreted this difference as caused by the temporal variation of the spectrum during the outburst. This spectral variability is confirmed by the differences in the low-energy spectral index and peak energy, between the pflx and flnc spectra. We found that the synchrotron radiation is significant in GBM spectra. The mean low-energy spectral index is close to the canonical value of α = -2/3 during the peak flux. However, α is ˜ -0.9 for the spectra of the fluences. We interpret this difference as showing that the effect of cooling is important only for the fluence spectra.

  14. Spectral properties of GRBs observed with BeppoSAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.; Frontera, F.

    2003-01-01

    The BeppoSAX mission has not only significantly improved the Gamma-Ray Burst science through the discovery of the afterglows but is also providing important data on the prompt events. The Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor is building a catalogue of GRBs that, due to a recently achieved, coarse but suitable positioning capabilities, can usefully integrate and extend the BATSE catalogues. We show the good relative calibration of the two experiments. Wide Field Cameras are providing a sample of about 40 GRBs, in an important band so far relatively ill covered. Moreover the combined use of the two instruments is providing a unique information on the spectral evolution of the GRBs. We show some recent spectral results based on these data and discuss the impact on our knowledge of GRB physics

  15. The luminosity function and formation rate history of GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmani, C.; Avila-Reese, V.; Ghisellini, G.; Tutukov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The isotropic luminosity function (LF) and formation rate history (FRH) of long GRBs is by the first time constrained by using jointly both the observed GRB peak-flux and redshift distributions. Our results support an evolving LF and a FRH that keeps increasing after z = 2. We discuss some interesting implications related to these results

  16. Awakening the BALROG: BAyesian Location Reconstruction Of GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J. Michael; Yu, Hoi-Fung; Greiner, Jochen; Mortlock, Daniel J.

    2018-05-01

    The accurate spatial location of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is crucial for both accurately characterizing their spectra and follow-up observations by other instruments. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has the largest field of view for detecting GRBs as it views the entire unocculted sky, but as a non-imaging instrument it relies on the relative count rates observed in each of its 14 detectors to localize transients. Improving its ability to accurately locate GRBs and other transients is vital to the paradigm of multimessenger astronomy, including the electromagnetic follow-up of gravitational wave signals. Here we present the BAyesian Location Reconstruction Of GRBs (BALROG) method for localizing and characterizing GBM transients. Our approach eliminates the systematics of previous approaches by simultaneously fitting for the location and spectrum of a source. It also correctly incorporates the uncertainties in the location of a transient into the spectral parameters and produces reliable positional uncertainties for both well-localized sources and those for which the GBM data cannot effectively constrain the position. While computationally expensive, BALROG can be implemented to enable quick follow-up of all GBM transient signals. Also, we identify possible response problems that require attention and caution when using standard, public GBM detector response matrices. Finally, we examine the effects of including the uncertainty in location on the spectral parameters of GRB 080916C. We find that spectral parameters change and no extra components are required when these effects are included in contrast to when we use a fixed location. This finding has the potential to alter both the GRB spectral catalogues and the reported spectral composition of some well-known GRBs.

  17. ESA Gaia, ultra-low dispersion spectroscopy and GRBs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Šimon, Vojtěch

    -, č. 21 (2012), s. 186-189 ISSN 1824-0178. [GRBs as probes from the progenitors environment to the high redshift Universe. Como, 16.05.2011-20.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : gamma-ray bursts * satellites Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. Fall-Back Disks in Long and Short GRBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizo, John K.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical time-dependent calculations for fall-back disks relevant for GRBs in which the disk of material surrounding the black hole (BH) powering the GRB jet modulates the mass flow, and hence the strength of the jet. Given the initial existence of a small mass appr oximately less than 10(exp -4) M(solar) near the progenitor with a circularization radius approximately 10(exp 10) - 10(exp 11) cm, an una voidable consequence will be the formation of an "external disk" whose outer edge continually moves to larger radii due to angular momentum transport and lack of a confining torque. For long GRBs, if the mass distribution in the initial fall-back disk traces the progenitor envelope, then a radius approximates 10(exp 11) cm gives a time scale app roximately 10(exp 4) s for the X-ray plateau. For late times t > 10(exp 7) s a steepening due to a cooling front in the disk may have obser vational support in GRB 060729. For short GRBs, one expects most of t he mass initially to lie at small radii < 10(exp 8) cm; however the presence of even a trace amount approximately 10(exp -9) M(solar) of hi gh angular material can give a brief plateau in the light curve.

  19. GRBs optical follow-up observation at Lunin observatory, Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K.Y.; Ip, W.H. [Chung-Li Univ., Taiwan (China). Institute of astronomy; Urata, Y. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Physics; Tamagawa, T.; Onda, K. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Makishima, K. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Department of Physics

    2005-07-15

    The Lulin GRB program, using the Lulin One-meter Telescope (LOT) in Taiwan started in July 2003. Its scientific aims are to discover optical counterparts of XRFs and short and long GRBs, then to quickly observe them in multiple bands. Thirteen follow-up observations were provided by LOT between July 2003 and Feb. 2005. One host galaxy was found at GRB 031203. Two optical afterglows were detected for GRB 040924 and GRB 041006. In addition, the optical observations of GRB 031203 and a discussion of the non-detection of the optical afterglow of GRB 031203 are also reported in this article.

  20. GRBs optical follow-up observation at Lunin observatory, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K.Y.; Ip, W.H.; Makishima, K.; Tokyo Univ., Tokyo

    2005-01-01

    The Lulin GRB program, using the Lulin One-meter Telescope (LOT) in Taiwan started in July 2003. Its scientific aims are to discover optical counterparts of XRFs and short and long GRBs, then to quickly observe them in multiple bands. Thirteen follow-up observations were provided by LOT between July 2003 and Feb. 2005. One host galaxy was found at GRB 031203. Two optical afterglows were detected for GRB 040924 and GRB 041006. In addition, the optical observations of GRB 031203 and a discussion of the non-detection of the optical afterglow of GRB 031203 are also reported in this article

  1. Automated detection of optical counterparts to GRBs with RAPTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniak, P. R.; Vestrand, W. T.; Evans, S.; White, R.; Wren, J.

    2006-01-01

    The RAPTOR system (RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response) is an array of several distributed robotic telescopes that automatically respond to GCN localization alerts. Raptor-S is a 0.4-m telescope with 24 arc min. field of view employing a 1k x 1k Marconi CCD detector, and has already detected prompt optical emission from several GRBs within the first minute of the explosion. We present a real-time data analysis and alert system for automated identification of optical transients in Raptor-S GRB response data down to the sensitivity limit of ∼ 19 mag. Our custom data processing pipeline is designed to minimize the time required to reliably identify transients and extract actionable information. The system utilizes a networked PostgreSQL database server for catalog access and distributes email alerts with successful detections

  2. Jetted GRBs, afterglows and SGRs from quark stars birth

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that when cold nuclear matter is compressed to high nuclear densities, diquarks with spin zero and antisymmetric color wave function Bose condensate into a superfluid/superconducting state that is several times as dense. Various astrophysical phenomena may be explained by gravitational collapse of neutron stars (NSs) to (di)quark stars (QSs) as a result of a first order phase transition in NSs within $\\sim 10^{4}$ years after their birth in supernova explosions, when they cooled and spun down sufficiently (by magnetic braking ?). The gravitational energy release drives an explosion which may eject both highly relativistic narrowly collimated jets and a mildly relativistic ``spherical'' shell. The slow contraction/cooling of the remnant QSs can power soft gamma ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), without invoking a huge magnetic energy storage. The jets can produce the observed gamma ray bursts (GRBs) in distant galaxies when they happen to point in our direction and...

  3. Marginally fast cooling synchrotron models for prompt GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniamini, Paz; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have considered synchrotron as the emission mechanism for prompt gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). These works have shown that the electrons must cool on a time-scale comparable to the dynamic time at the source in order to satisfy spectral constraints while maintaining high radiative efficiency. We focus on conditions where synchrotron cooling is balanced by a continuous source of heating, and in which these constraints are naturally satisfied. Assuming that a majority of the electrons in the emitting region are contributing to the observed peak, we find that the energy per electron has to be E ≳ 20 GeV and that the Lorentz factor of the emitting material has to be very large 103 ≲ Γem ≲ 104, well in excess of the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet inferred from GRB afterglows. A number of independent constraints then indicate that the emitters must be moving relativistically, with Γ΄ ≈ 10, relative to the bulk frame of the jet and that the jet must be highly magnetized upstream of the emission region, σup ≳ 30. The emission radius is also strongly constrained in this model to R ≳ 1016 cm. These values are consistent with magnetic jet models where the dissipation is driven by magnetic reconnection that takes place far away from the base of the jet.

  4. Spectral evolution of GRBs with negative spectral lag using Fermi GBM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arundhati; Chaudhury, Kishor; Sarkar, Samir K.; Bhadra, Arunava

    2018-06-01

    The positive spectral lag of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) is often explained in terms of hard-to-soft spectral evolution of GRB pulses. While positive lags of GRBs is very common, there are few GRB pulses that exhibits negative spectral lags. In the present work we examine whether negative lags of GRBs also can be interpreted in terms of spectral evolution of GRB pulses or not. Using Fermi-GBM data, we identify two GRBs, GRB 090426C and GRB 150213A, with clean pulses that exhibit negative spectral lag. An indication of soft to hard transition has been noticed for the negative spectral lag events from the spectral evolution study. The implication of the present findings on the models of GRB spectral lags are discussed.

  5. The feasibility of independent observations/detections of GRBs in X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Skulinova, M.; Pina, L.; Sveda, L.; Semencova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2009-01-01

    According to the observational statistics a large majority of all GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. The wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs and related objects.

  6. The Early Time Properties of GRBs - Canonical Afterglows and the Importance of Prolonged Central Engine Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melandri, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Bersier, D.; Steele, I. A.; Smith, R. J.; Carter, D.; Bode, M. F.; Guidorzi, C.; Gomboc, A.

    2009-01-01

    Using a new, comprehensive multiwavelength survey of 63 Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) with unprecedented temporal coverage, we classify the observed afterglows into four main classes and discuss the underlying physics that can explain them. The presence or absence of temporal breaks in X-ray and optical bands is used to examine the emission in the context of the standard model; a number of GRBs are shown to deviate from the forward shock model even with the inclusion of energy injection or ambient density gradients. We show that additional emission in the early-time X-ray afterglow due to late-time central engine activity is key and may explain both GRBs whose afterglows do not fit the standard model and those GRBs that appear to be optically dark even at early times.

  7. Extending the search for high-energy muon neutrinos from GRBs with ANTARES

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are transient sources, potential sites of cosmic-rays acceleration: they are expected to produce high-energy neutrinos in pγ interactions through the decay of charged mesons, thus they constitute promising targets for neutrino telescopes. A search for muon neutrinos from GRBs using 9 years of ANTARES data is here presented, assuming particle acceleration at internal shocks, as expected in the fireball model.

  8. Spectrum-energy Correlations in GRBs: Update, Reliability, and the Long/Short Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Zhang, C. T.; Zhao, Y. X.; Luo, J. J.; Jiang, L. Y.; Wang, X. L.; Han, X. L.; Terheide, R. K.

    2018-05-01

    Spectrum-energy correlations of peak energy with total prompt γ-ray emission energies, namely {E}p,i-{E}{iso}, {E}p,i-{E}γ , and {E}p,i-{L}p, had been studied for long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) previously by many authors. These energy correlations were proposed to measure the universe and classify GRBs as useful probes. However, most of these relations were built by non-Swift bursts. The spectrum-energy correlations of short bursts have not been systematically established yet; in particular, how the newly found GRB170817A matches these energy relations is unknown to date. We will first refresh the three spectrum-energy relations of Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM long bursts and build the corresponding relations of short bursts. Then, we confirm whether they are commonly available as a discriminator of short and long GRBs. Some potential violators to these relations will be investigated. Combining with the plane of peak energy versus fluence, we select 31 short and 252 long GRBs with well-measured peak energy and redshift to study the issue of GRB classifications connected with the above energy relations statistically. We find that the three energy relations do exist in our new GRB samples and they are marginally consistent with some previous results. We report for the first time that short GRBs hold the three corresponding energy relations having the consistent power-law indices with long GRBs. It is found that these energy relations can be adopted to discriminate GRBs successfully if they are put in the peak energy versus fluence plane. Excitingly, we point out that GRB090510 matches the energy relations of {E}p,i-{E}{iso} and {E}p,i-{L}p, but violates the {E}p,i-{E}γ relation. More excitingly, we find that GRB170817A is an outlier to all the three energy correlations.

  9. Characterizing high-energy light curves of Fermi/Lat GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, Jarred [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-21

    A systematic analysis of the light curves of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRBs) with redshift and detected at high-energy (> 100 MeV) by Fermi/LAT has never been done before our work, because there were only a handful of detections. Now we have 20 of those, which we can use to characterize the GRBs in their rest frame. We compared a characteristic decay times Tc of GRBs with redshifts using the new “Pass 8” data, and used a Crystal Ball function to parametrize GRB characteristics. An unexpected anti-correlation between Tc and the peak flux was observed. This means that brighter peaked GRBs have shorter durations. There is also no correlation between the Tc and the decay index, which makes the anti-correlation with brightness more clear. This results appears to be consistent with the External Shock model, which is one of the competing hypothesis on the origin of the high-energy emission. We did not observe any bimodality, which is seen in GRBs at lower energies.

  10. Wide field x-ray telescopes: Detecting x-ray transients/afterglows related to GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, Rene; Pina, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf; Gorenstein, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The recent discovery of X-ray afterglows of GRBs opens the possibility of analyses of GRBs by their X-ray detections. However, imaging X-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited fields of view. Alternative X-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70's but not constructed and used so far. We review the geometries and basic properties of the wide-field X-ray optical systems based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry and suggest technologies for their development and construction. First results of the development of double replicated X-ray reflecting flats for use in one-dimensional X-ray optics of lobster-eye type are presented and discussed. The optimum strategy for locating GRBs upon their X-ray counterparts is also presented and discussed

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Short GRBs with Fermi GBM and Swift BAT (Burns+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E.; Connaughton, V.; Zhang, B.-B.; Lien, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A.; Pelassa, V.; Troja, E.

    2018-01-01

    Compact binary system mergers are expected to generate gravitational radiation detectable by ground-based interferometers. A subset of these, the merger of a neutron star with another neutron star or a black hole, are also the most popular model for the production of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) trigger on short GRBs (SGRBs) at rates that reflect their relative sky exposures, with the BAT detecting 10 per year compared to about 45 for GBM. We examine the SGRB populations detected by Swift BAT and Fermi GBM. (4 data files).

  12. Correlative Analysis of GRBs detected by Swift and Suzaku-WAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, Hans; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Sugita, Satoshi; Ohno, Masanori; Tashiro, Makoto; Onda, Kaori; Sato, Goro; Sakamoto, Takanori

    2008-01-01

    Since most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have a peak energy (Epeak) above the energy range (15-150 keV) of the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift, a full understanding of the prompt emission from Swift GRBs requires spectral fits over as broad an energy range as possible. This can be done for bursts which are simultaneously detected by Swift BAT and the Suzaku Wide-band All-Sky Monitor (WAM), which covers the energy range from 50-5000 keV. Since the launch of Suzaku in July 2005, there have been 33 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which have triggered both Swift and WAM. A joint BAT-WAM team has cross-calibrated the two instruments using GRBs, and we are now able to perform joint fits on these bursts to determine spectral parameters including Epeak. The results of broad spectral fits allows us to understand the distribution of Epeak for Swift bursts and to calibrate Epeak estimators when Epeak is within the BAT energy range. For those bursts with spectroscopic redshifts, we can calculate the isotropic energy and study various correlations between Epeak and other global burst parameters. Here we present preliminary results of joint Swift/BAT-Suzaku/WAM spectral fits

  13. Search for high-energy neutrinos from bright GRBs with ANTARES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Mathieu, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzocca, A.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are thought to be sites of hadronic acceleration, thus neutrinos are expected from the decay of charged particles, produced in pγ interactions. The methods and results of a search for muon neutrinos in the data of the ANTARES neutrino telescope from four bright GRBs (GRB 080916C,

  14. Afterglow Population Studies from Swift Follow-Up Observations of Fermi LAT GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; McEnery, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    The small population of Fermi LAT detected GRBs discovered over the last year has been providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 5 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into other components of GRB emission structure. We explore the new ability to utilize both of these observatories to study the same GRBs over 10 orders of magnitude in energy, although not always concurrently. Almost all LAT GRBs that have been followed-up by Swift within 1-day have been clearly detected and carefully observed. We will present the context of the lower-energy afterglows of this special subset of GRBs that has > 100 MeV emission compared to the hundreds in the Swift database that may or may not have been observed by LAT, and theorize upon the relationship between these properties and the origin of the high energy gamma-ray emission.

  15. The binary progenitors of short and long GRBs and their gravitational-wave emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have sub-classified short and long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs into seven families according to the binary nature of their progenitors. Short GRBs are produced in mergers of neutron-star binaries (NS-NS or neutron star-black hole binaries (NS-BH. Long GRBs are produced via the induced gravitational collapse (IGC scenario occurring in a tight binary system composed of a carbon-oxygen core (COcore and a NS companion. The COcore explodes as type Ic supernova (SN leading to a hypercritical accretion process onto the NS: if the accretion is sufficiently high the NS reaches the critical mass and collapses forming a BH, otherwise a massive NS is formed. Therefore long GRBs can lead either to NS-BH or to NS-NS binaries depending on the entity of the accretion. We discuss for the above compact-object binaries: 1 the role of the NS structure and the nuclear equation of state; 2 the occurrence rates obtained from X and gamma-rays observations; 3 the predicted annual number of detections by the Advanced LIGO interferometer of their gravitational-wave emission.

  16. Low-resolution VLT spectroscopy of GRBs 991216, 011211 and 021211

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, P.M.; Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.S.; Palazzi, E.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kaper, L.; Pian, E.; Masetti, N.; Frontera, F.; Hjorth, J.; Gorosabel, J.; Piro, L.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Jakobsson, P.; Watson, D.; O'Brien, P.T.; Ledoux, C.

    2006-01-01

    We present low-resolution VLT spectroscopy of the afterglow of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) 991216, 011211 and 021211. Our spectrum of GRB 991216 is the only optical spectrum for this afterglow. It shows two probable absorption systems at z=0.80 and z=1.02, where the highest redshift most likely

  17. The binary progenitors of short and long GRBs and their gravitational-wave emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, J. A.; Ruffini, R.; Rodriguez, J. F.; Muccino, M.; Aimuratov, Y.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Becerra, L.; Bianco, C. L.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.; Kovacevic, M.; Moradi, R.; Pisani, G. B.; Wang, Y.

    2018-01-01

    We have sub-classified short and long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) into seven families according to the binary nature of their progenitors. Short GRBs are produced in mergers of neutron-star binaries (NS-NS) or neutron star-black hole binaries (NS-BH). Long GRBs are produced via the induced gravitational collapse (IGC) scenario occurring in a tight binary system composed of a carbon-oxygen core (COcore) and a NS companion. The COcore explodes as type Ic supernova (SN) leading to a hypercritical accretion process onto the NS: if the accretion is sufficiently high the NS reaches the critical mass and collapses forming a BH, otherwise a massive NS is formed. Therefore long GRBs can lead either to NS-BH or to NS-NS binaries depending on the entity of the accretion. We discuss for the above compact-object binaries: 1) the role of the NS structure and the nuclear equation of state; 2) the occurrence rates obtained from X and gamma-rays observations; 3) the predicted annual number of detections by the Advanced LIGO interferometer of their gravitational-wave emission.

  18. Constraining the Type of Central Engine of GRBs with Swift Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wu, Xue-Feng; Lei, Wei-Hua; Dai, Zi-Gao; Lian, En-Wei; Ryde, Felix

    2018-06-01

    The central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is poorly constrained. There exist two main candidates: a fast-rotating black hole and a rapidly spinning magnetar. Furthermore, X-ray plateaus are widely accepted to be the energy injection into the external shock. In this paper, we systematically analyze the Swift/XRT light curves of 101 GRBs having plateau phases and known redshifts (before 2017 May). Since a maximum energy budget (∼2 × 1052 erg) exists for magnetars but not for black holes, this provides a good clue to identifying the type of GRB central engine. We calculate the isotropic kinetic energy E K,iso and the isotropic X-ray energy release E X,iso for individual GRBs. We identify three categories based on how likely a black hole harbors a central engine: “Gold” (9 out of 101; both E X,iso and E K,iso exceed the energy budget), “Silver” (69 out of 101; E X,iso less than the limit but E K,iso greater than the limit), and “Bronze” (23 out of 101; the energies are not above the limit). We then derive and test the black hole parameters with the Blandford–Znajek mechanism, and find that the observations of the black hole candidate (“Gold” + “Silver”) samples are consistent with the expectations of the black hole model. Furthermore, we also test the magnetar candidate (“Bronze”) sample with the magnetar model, and find that the magnetar surface magnetic field (B p ) and initial spin period (P 0) fall into reasonable ranges. Our analysis indicates that if the magnetar wind is isotropic, a magnetar central engine is possible for 20% of the analyzed GRBs. For most GRBs, a black hole is most likely operating.

  19. LOBSTER EYE: New approach to monitor GRBs in X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Hudcova, V.; Inneman, A.; Pina, L.

    2003-01-01

    The detection of X-ray afterglows for the large majority of GRBs allows a novel X-ray experiment to be considered to monitor and to detect GRBs based on their X-ray emission. Such an experiment could provide not only a superior localization accuracy if compared with gamma ray instruments, but probably also a higher rate based on the theoretical assumption that the beaming in gamma rays is narrower if compared with lower energies. We describe and discuss the LOBSTER EYE X-ray telescope project including results of the development and tests of the telescope prototype. Considerations for a space experiment on a small scientific satellite of a Nadezhda type are also presented and discussed. The scientific aspects of such experiment regarding the GRB study and statistics are addressed

  20. Results of a search for a new class of GRBS in the SMM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.; Dennis, B. R.; Orwig, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a search for the soft and short Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the data of the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) are presented. Data for four events are presented, including their time profiles and spectral characteristics. In one case the instrument time resolution reveals a total burst duration of 55 ms with rise and decay times of less than about 5 ms.

  1. Modeling The GRB Host Galaxy Mass Distribution: Are GRBs Unbiased Tracers of Star Formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocevski, Daniel; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; West, Andrew A.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /MIT, MKI; Modjaz, Maryam; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.

    2009-08-03

    We model the mass distribution of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies given recent results suggesting that GRBs occur in low metallicity environments. By utilizing measurements of the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationship for galaxies, along with a sharp host metallicity cut-off suggested by Modjaz and collaborators, we estimate an upper limit on the stellar mass of a galaxy that can efficiently produce a GRB as a function of redshift. By employing consistent abundance indicators, we find that sub-solar metallicity cut-offs effectively limit GRBs to low stellar mass spirals and dwarf galaxies at low redshift. At higher redshifts, as the average metallicity of galaxies in the Universe falls, the mass range of galaxies capable of hosting a GRB broadens, with an upper bound approaching the mass of even the largest spiral galaxies. We compare these predicted limits to the growing number of published GRB host masses and find that extremely low metallicity cut-offs of 0.1 to 0.5 Z{sub {circle_dot}} are effectively ruled out by a large number of intermediate mass galaxies at low redshift. A mass function that includes a smooth decrease in the efficiency of producing GRBs in galaxies of metallicity above 12+log(O/H){sub KK04} = 8.7 can, however, accommodate a majority of the measured host galaxy masses. We find that at z {approx} 1, the peak in the observed GRB host mass distribution is inconsistent with the expected peak in the mass of galaxies harboring most of the star formation. This suggests that GRBs are metallicity biased tracers of star formation at low and intermediate redshifts, although our model predicts that this bias should disappear at higher redshifts due to the evolving metallicity content of the universe.

  2. MODELING THE GRB HOST GALAXY MASS DISTRIBUTION: ARE GRBs UNBIASED TRACERS OF STAR FORMATION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocevski, Daniel; West, Andrew A.; Modjaz, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    We model the mass distribution of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies given recent results suggesting that GRBs occur in low-metallicity environments. By utilizing measurements of the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relationship for galaxies, along with a sharp host metallicity cutoff suggested by Modjaz and collaborators, we estimate an upper limit on the stellar mass of a galaxy that can efficiently produce a GRB as a function of redshift. By employing consistent abundance indicators, we find that subsolar metallicity cutoffs effectively limit GRBs to low-stellar mass spirals and dwarf galaxies at low redshift. At higher redshifts, as the average metallicity of galaxies in the Universe falls, the mass range of galaxies capable of hosting a GRB broadens, with an upper bound approaching the mass of even the largest spiral galaxies. We compare these predicted limits to the growing number of published GRB host masses and find that extremely low-metallicity cutoffs of 0.1 to 0.5 Z sun are effectively ruled out by a large number of intermediate mass galaxies at low redshift. A mass function that includes a smooth decrease in the efficiency of producing GRBs in galaxies of metallicity above 12+log(O/H) KK04 = 8.7 can, however, accommodate a majority of the measured host galaxy masses. We find that at z ∼ 1, the peak in the observed GRB host mass distribution is inconsistent with the expected peak in the mass of galaxies harboring most of the star formation. This suggests that GRBs are metallicity-biased tracers of star formation at low and intermediate redshifts, although our model predicts that this bias should disappear at higher redshifts due to the evolving metallicity content of the universe.

  3. A deceleration search for magnetar pulsations in the X-ray plateaus of short GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlinson, A.; Patruno, A.; O'Brien, P. T.

    2017-11-01

    A newly formed magnetar has been proposed as the central engine of short GRBs to explain ongoing energy injection giving observed plateau phases in the X-ray light curves. These rapidly spinning magnetars may be capable of emitting pulsed emission comparable to known pulsars and magnetars. In this paper we show that, if present, a periodic signal would be detectable during the plateau phases observed using the Swift/X-Ray Telescope recording data in Window Timing mode. We conduct a targeted deceleration search for a periodic signal from a newly formed magnetar in 2 Swift short GRBs and rule out any periodic signals in the frequency band 10-285 Hz to ≈15-30 per cent rms. These results demonstrate that we would be able to detect pulsations from the magnetar central engine of short GRBs if they contribute to 15-30 per cent of the total emission. We consider these constraints in the context of the potential emission mechanisms. The non-detection is consistent with the emission being reprocessed in the surrounding environment or with the rotation axis being highly aligned with the observing angle. As the emission may be reprocessed, the expected periodic emission may only constitute a few per cent of the total emission and be undetectable in our observations. Applying this strategy to future observations of the plateau phases with more sensitive X-ray telescopes may lead to the detection of the periodic signal.

  4. A CORRELATED STUDY OF OPTICAL AND X-RAY AFTERGLOWS OF GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liang; Ryde, Felix [Department of Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Wu, Xue-Feng [Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Huang, Yong-Feng; Tang, Qing-Wen; Geng, Jin-Jun [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Xiang-Gao; Liang, En-Wei [GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanjing 530004 (China); Liang, Yun-Feng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang, Bin-Bin [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Wang, Yu [Dip. di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universit di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Wei, Jian-Yan [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: fryde@kth.se, E-mail: liang.li@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2015-05-20

    We study an extensive sample of 87 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) for which there are well-sampled and simultaneous optical and X-ray light curves. We extract the cleanest possible signal of the afterglow component and compare the temporal behaviors of the X-ray light curve, observed by Swift XRT, and optical data, observed by UVOT and ground-based telescopes for each individual burst. Overall we find that 62% of the GRBs are consistent with the standard afterglow model. When more advanced modeling is invoked, up to 91% of the bursts in our sample may be consistent with the external-shock model. A large fraction of these bursts are consistent with occurring in a constant interstellar density medium (61%) while only 39% of them occur in a wind-like medium. Only nine cases have afterglow light curves that exactly match the standard fireball model prediction, having a single power-law decay in both energy bands that are observed during their entire duration. In particular, for the bursts with chromatic behavior, additional model assumptions must be made over limited segments of the light curves in order for these bursts to fully agree with the external-shock model. Interestingly, for 54% of the X-ray and 40% of the optical band observations, the end of the shallow decay (t{sup ∼−0.5}) period coincides with the jet-break (t{sup ∼−p}) time, causing an abrupt change in decay slope. The fraction of the burst that is consistent with the external-shock model is independent of the observational epochs in the rest frame of GRBs. Moreover, no cases can be explained by the cooling frequency crossing the X-ray or optical band.

  5. Batse/Sax and Batse/RXTE-ASM Joint Spectral Studies of GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciesas, William S.

    2002-01-01

    We proposed to make joint spectral analysis of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the BATSE data base that are located within the fields of view of either the BeppoSAX wide field cameras (WFCs) or the RXTE all-sky monitor (ASM). The very broad-band coverage obtained in this way would facilitate various studies of GRB spectra that are difficult to perform with BATSE data alone. Unfortunately, the termination of the CGRO mission in June 2000 was not anticipated at the time of the proposal, and the sample of common events turned out to be smaller than we would have liked.

  6. Searching for Short GRBs in Soft Gamma Rays with INTEGRAL/PICsIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodi, James; Bazzano, Angela; Ubertini, Pietro; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Savchenko, V.; Kuulkers, E.; Ferrigno, Carlo; Bozzo, Enrico; Brandt, Soren; Chenevez, Jerome; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Diehl, R.; Domingo, A.; Hanlon, L.; Jourdain, E.; von Kienlin, A.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Lutovinov, A.; Martin-Carrillo, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Roques, J.-P.; Sunyaev, R.

    2018-01-01

    With gravitational wave (GW) detections by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration over the past several years, there is heightened interest in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), especially “short” GRBs (T90 soft gamma-ray, all-sky monitor for impulsive events, such as SGRBs. Because SGRBs typically have hard spectra with peak energies of a few hundred keV, PICsIT with its ~ 3000 cm2 collecting area is able to provide spectral information about these sources at soft gamma-ray energies.We have begun a study of PICsIT data for faint SGRBs similar to the one associated with the binary neutron star (BNS) merger GW 170817, and also are preparing for future GW triggers by developing a real-time burst analysis for PICsIT. Searching the PICsIT data for significant excesses during ~30 min-long pointings containing times of SGRBs, we have been able to differentiate between SGRBs and spurious events. Also, this work allows us to assess what fraction of reported SGRBs have been detected by PICsIT, which can be used to provide an estimate of the number of GW BNS events seen by PICsIT during the next LIGO/Virgo observing run starting in Fall 2018.

  7. VLT/X-shooter GRBs: Individual extinction curves of star-forming regions★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, T.; Watson, D.; Møller, P.; Selsing, J.; Fynbo, J. PU; Schady, P.; Wiersema, K.; Levan, A. J.; Heintz, K. E.; Postigo, A. de Ugarte; D'Elia, V.; Jakobsson, P.; Bolmer, J.; Japelj, J.; Covino, S.; Gomboc, A.; Cano, Z.

    2018-05-01

    The extinction profiles in Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are usually described by the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)-type extinction curve. In different empirical extinction laws, the total-to-selective extinction, RV, is an important quantity because of its relation to dust grain sizes and compositions. We here analyse a sample of 17 GRBs (0.34a single or broken power-law together with a parametric extinction law is used to model the individual SEDs. We find 10 cases with significant dust, where the derived extinction, AV, ranges from 0.1-1.0 mag. In four of those, the inferred extinction curves are consistent with the SMC curve. The GRB individual extinction curves have a flat RV distribution with an optimal weighted combined value of RV = 2.61 ± 0.08 (for seven broad coverage cases). The `average GRB extinction curve' is similar to, but slightly steeper than the typical SMC, and consistent with the SMC Bar extinction curve at ˜95% confidence level. The resultant steeper extinction curves imply populations of small grains, where large dust grains may be destroyed due to GRB activity. Another possibility could be that young age and/or lower metallicities of GRBs environments are responsible for the steeper curves.

  8. A time-dependent search for high-energy neutrinos from bright GRBs with ANTARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celli Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrophysical point-like neutrino sources, like Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs, are one of the main targets for neutrino telescopes, since they are among the best candidates for Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR acceleration. From the interaction between the accelerated protons and the intense radiation fields of the source jet, charged mesons are produced, which then decay into neutrinos. The methods and the results of a search for high-energy neutrinos in spatial and temporal correlation with the detected gamma-ray emission are presented for four bright GRBs observed between 2008 and 2013: a time-dependent analysis, optimised for each flare of the selected bursts, is performed to predict detailed neutrino spectra. The internal shock scenario of the fireball model is investigated, relying on the neutrino spectra computed through the numerical code NeuCosmA. The analysis is optimized on a per burst basis, through the maximization of the signal discovery probability. Since no events in ANTARES data passed the optimised cuts, 90% C.L. upper limits are derived on the expected neutrino fluences.

  9. On the X-ray lines in the afterglows of GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; De Rújula, Alvaro; Dar, Arnon; Dado, Shlomo

    2003-01-01

    The observation of X-ray lines in the afterglow of GRB 011211 has been reported, and challenged. The lines were interpreted as blue-shifted X-rays characteristic of a set of photoionized ``metals'', located in a section of a supernova shell illuminated by a GRB emitted a couple of days after the supernova explosion. We show that the most prominent reported lines coincide with the ones predicted in the ``cannonball'' model of GRBs. In this model, the putative signatures are Hydrogen lines, boosted by the (highly relativistic) motion of the cannonballs (CBs). The corresponding Doppler boost can be extracted from the fit to the observed I-, R- and V-band light-curves of the optical afterglow of GRB 011211, so that, since the redshift is also known, the line energies are --in the CB model-- absolute predictions. We also discuss other GRBs of known redshift which show spectral features generally interpreted as Fe lines, or Fe recombination edges. The ensemble of results is very encouraging from the CB-model's poin...

  10. On the physical processes which lie at the bases of time variability of GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffini, R.; Bianco, C. L.; Fraschetti, F.; Xue, S-S.

    2001-01-01

    The relative-space-time-transformation (RSTT) paradigm and the interpretation of the burst-structure (IBS) paradigm are applied to probe the origin of the time variability of GRBs. Again GRB 991216 is used as a prototypical case, thanks to the precise data from the CGRO, RXTE and Chandra satellites. It is found that with the exception of the relatively inconspicuous but scientifically very important signal originating from the initial proper gamma ray burst (P-GRB), all the other spikes and time variabilities can be explained by the interaction of the accelerated-baryonic-matter pulse with inhomogeneities in the interstellar matter. This can be demonstrated by using the RSTT paradigm as well as the IBS paradigm, to trace a typical spike observed in arrival time back to the corresponding one in the laboratory time. Using these paradigms, the identification of the physical nature of the time variability of the GRBs can be made most convincingly. It is made explicit the dependence of a) the intensities of the afterglow, b) the spikes amplitude and c) the actual time structure on the Lorentz gamma factor of the accelerated-baryonic-matter pulse. In principle it is possible to read off from the spike structure the detailed density contrast of the interstellar medium in the host galaxy, even at very high redshift

  11. What can BeppoSAX tell us about short GRBs: An update from the subsecond GRB project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandolfi, G.; Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Piro, L.; Smith, M.J.S.; Muller, J.M.; Coletta, A.; Celidonio, G.; Di Ciolo, L.; Paolino, A.; Tarei, G.; Tassone, G.; Frontera, F.

    2000-01-01

    We present some statistical considerations on the BeppoSAX hunt for subsecond GRBs at the Scientific Operation Center. Archival analysis of a BATSE/SAX sub-sample of bursts indicates that the GRB Monitor is sensitive to short (≤2 sec) events, that are in fact ≅22% of the total. The non-detection of corresponding prompt X-ray counterparts to short bursts in the Wide Field Cameras, in about 3 years of operations, is discussed: with present data no implications on the X-to-γ-ray spectra of short vs. long GRBs may be inferred. Finally, the status of searching procedures at the SOC is reviewed

  12. Research Note:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behuria, Pritish; Buur, Lars; Gray, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    its core conceptual and methodological features. This Research Note starts by setting out our understanding of political settlements and provides an overview of existing political settlements literature on African countries. The note then explores how the key concept of ‘holding power’ has been...

  13. THE ELECTROMAGNETIC MODEL OF SHORT GRBs, THE NATURE OF PROMPT TAILS, SUPERNOVA-LESS LONG GRBs, AND HIGHLY EFFICIENT EPISODIC ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutikov, Maxim [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Many short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) show prompt tails lasting up to hundreds of seconds that can be energetically dominant over the initial sub-second spike. In this paper we develop an electromagnetic model of short GRBs that explains the two stages of the energy release, the prompt spike and the prompt tail. The key ingredient of the model is the recent discovery that an isolated black hole can keep its open magnetic flux for times much longer than the collapse time and thus can spin down electromagnetically, driving the relativistic wind. First, the merger is preceded by an electromagnetic precursor wind with total power L{sub p} Almost-Equal-To (((GM{sub NS}){sup 3}B{sub NS}{sup 2})/c{sup 5}R){proportional_to}(-t){sup - Vulgar-Fraction-One-Quarter }, reaching 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} for typical neutron star masses of 1.4 M{sub Sun} and magnetic fields B {approx} 10{sup 12} G. If a fraction of this power is converted into pulsar-like coherent radio emission, this may produce an observable radio burst of a few milliseconds (like the Lorimer burst). At the active stage of the merger, two neutron stars produce a black hole surrounded by an accretion torus in which the magnetic field is amplified to {approx}10{sup 15} G. This magnetic field extracts the rotational energy of the black hole and drives an axially collimated electromagnetic wind that may carry of the order of 10{sup 50} erg, limited by the accretion time of the torus, a few hundred milliseconds. For observers nearly aligned with the orbital normal this is seen as a classical short GRB. After the accretion of the torus, the isolated black hole keeps the open magnetic flux and drives the equatorially (not axially) collimated outflow, which is seen by an observer at intermediate polar angles as a prompt tail. The tail carries more energy than the prompt spike, but its emission is de-boosted for observers along the orbital normal. Observers in the equatorial plane miss the prompt spike

  14. Evidence of deterministic components in the apparent randomness of GRBs: clues of a chaotic dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, G; Rosa, R; Beskin, G; Karpov, S; Romano, L; Guarnieri, A; Bartolini, C; Bedogni, R

    2011-01-01

    Prompt γ-ray emissions from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibit a vast range of extremely complex temporal structures with a typical variability time-scale significantly short - as fast as milliseconds. This work aims to investigate the apparent randomness of the GRB time profiles making extensive use of nonlinear techniques combining the advanced spectral method of the Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) with the classical tools provided by the Chaos Theory. Despite their morphological complexity, we detect evidence of a non stochastic short-term variability during the overall burst duration - seemingly consistent with a chaotic behavior. The phase space portrait of such variability shows the existence of a well-defined strange attractor underlying the erratic prompt emission structures. This scenario can shed new light on the ultra-relativistic processes believed to take place in GRB explosions and usually associated with the birth of a fast-spinning magnetar or accretion of matter onto a newly formed black hole.

  15. RESEARCH NOTE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    RESEARCH NOTE. CDKN2A and MC1R ... Department of Pharmacy and Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Frederick. University, Nicosia ..... Appears with highest frequency in African, Asian-Indian, and Papua. New Guinean ...

  16. Editorial note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Ahlbäck

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note of the Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis, vol. 21, Postmodern Spirituality, based on papers read at the symposium on Postmodern Spirituality held at Åbo, Finland, on 11–13 June 2008.

  17. Project Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  18. SAFETY NOTES

    CERN Document Server

    TIS Secretariat

    2001-01-01

    Please note that the revisions of safety notes no 3 (NS 3 Rev. 2) and no 24 (NS 24 REV.) entitled respectively 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR ENCLOSED SPACES IN LARGE HALLS' and 'REMOVING UNBURIED ELV AND LVA ELECTRIC CONDUITS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322811&version=1&filename=version_francaise.pdf http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322861&version=2&filename=version_francaise.pdf Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email tis.secretariat@cern.ch

  19. Technical Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    In this report on four patients, we did not use any of these techniques. The existence and the site of the fistulas was clearly demonstrated using basic but important preoperative detailed assessment and two intraoperative findings. The preoperative referral note that indicated the site of technical difficulty during the previous ...

  20. Please note

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Thank you for your understanding. (Version française la semaine prochaine.)

  1. Editor's Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On another note: the editor and the editorial team acknowledge the financial support of the Carnegie Corporation of New York through the University of Ghana Building A New Generation of Academics in Africa (BANGA-Africa) Project. We also use this platform to express our gratitude for the support of various stakeholders, ...

  2. Implications of the Early X-Ray Afterglow Light Curves of Swift GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, Jonathan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Konigl, Arieh; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Chicago U., EFI; Piran, Tsvi; /Hebrew U.

    2006-01-17

    According to current models, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced when the energy carried by a relativistic outflow is dissipated and converted into radiation. The efficiency of this process, {epsilon}{sub {gamma}}, is one of the critical factors in any GRB model. The X-ray afterglow light curves of Swift GRBs show an early stage of flattish decay. This has been interpreted as reflecting energy injection. When combined with previous estimates, which have concluded that the kinetic energy of the late ({approx}> 10 hr) afterglow is comparable to the energy emitted in {gamma}-rays, this interpretation implies very high values of {epsilon}{sub {gamma}}, corresponding to {approx}> 90% of the initial energy being converted into {gamma}-rays. Such a high efficiency is hard to reconcile with most models, including in particular the popular internal-shocks model. We re-analyze the derivation of the kinetic energy from the afterglow X-ray flux and re-examine the resulting estimates of the efficiency. We confirm that, if the flattish decay arises from energy injection and the pre-Swift broad-band estimates of the kinetic energy are correct, then {epsilon}{sub {gamma}} {approx}> 0.9. We discuss various issues related to this result, including an alternative interpretation of the light curve in terms of a two-component outflow model, which we apply to the X-ray observations of GRB 050315. We point out, however, that another interpretation of the flattish decay--a variable X-ray afterglow efficiency (e.g., due to a time dependence of afterglow shock microphysical parameters)--is possible. We also show that direct estimates of the kinetic energy from the late X-ray afterglow flux are sensitive to the assumed values of the shock microphysical parameters and suggest that broad-band afterglow fits might have underestimated the kinetic energy (e.g., by overestimating the fraction of electrons that are accelerated to relativistic energies). Either one of these possibilities implies a

  3. New relativistic particle-in-cell simulation studies of prompt and early afterglows from GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken-Ichi Nishikawa

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the collisionless relativistic shock particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electrons' transverse deflection behind the jet head. The '' jitter '' radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. (author)

  4. Canonical correlation between the gamma and X-ray data of Swift GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, L. G.; Horvath, I.; Meszaros, P.; Tusnady, G.; Veres, P.

    2009-01-01

    We used the canonical correlation analysis of the multivariate statistics to study the interrelation between the gamma (Fluence, 1 sec Peakflux, duration) and X-ray (early X flux, 24 hours X flux, X decay index, X spectral index, X HI column density) data. We computed the canonical correlations and variables showing that there is a significant interrelation between the gamma and X-ray data. Using the canonical variables resulted in the analysis we computed their correlations (canonical loadings) with the original ones. The canonical loadings revealed that the gamma-ray fluence and the early X-ray flux give the strongest contribution to the correlation in contrast to the X-ray decay index and spectral index. An interesting new result appears to be the strong contribution of the HI column density to the correlation. Accepting the collapsar model of long GRBs this effect may be interpreted as an indication for the ejection of an HI envelope by the progenitor in the course of producing the GRB.

  5. Magnetized Reverse Shock: Density-fluctuation-induced Field Distortion, Polarization Degree Reduction, and Application to GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Wei; Zhang Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Li Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stone, James M., E-mail: deng@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: hli@lanl.gov, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The early optical afterglow emission of several gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) shows a high linear polarization degree (PD) of tens of percent, suggesting an ordered magnetic field in the emission region. The light curves are consistent with being of a reverse shock (RS) origin. However, the magnetization parameter, σ , of the outflow is unknown. If σ is too small, an ordered field in the RS may be quickly randomized due to turbulence driven by various perturbations so that the PD may not be as high as observed. Here we use the “Athena++” relativistic MHD code to simulate a relativistic jet with an ordered magnetic field propagating into a clumpy ambient medium, with a focus on how density fluctuations may distort the ordered magnetic field and reduce PD in the RS emission for different σ values. For a given density fluctuation, we discover a clear power-law relationship between the relative PD reduction and the σ value of the outflow. Such a relation may be applied to estimate σ of the GRB outflows using the polarization data of early afterglows.

  6. SUB-PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM RELATIVISTIC RADIATION MEDIATED SHOCKS IN GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberg, Omer; Mikolitzky, Ziv; Levinson, Amir

    2011-01-01

    It is proposed that the prompt emission observed in bursts that exhibit a thermal component originates from relativistic radiation mediated shocks (RRMS) that form below the photosphere of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) outflow. It is argued that such shocks are expected to form in luminous bursts via collisions of shells that propagate with moderate Lorentz factors Γ ∼< 500. Faster shells will collide above the photosphere to form collisionless shocks. We demonstrate that in events like GRB 090902B a substantial fraction of the explosion energy is dissipated below the photosphere, in a region of moderate optical depth τ ∼< 300, whereas in GRB 080916C the major fraction of the energy dissipates above the photosphere. We show that under conditions anticipated in many GRBs, such RRMS convect enough radiation upstream to render photon production in the shock transition negligible, unlike the case of shock breakout in supernovae. The resulting spectrum, as measured in the shock frame, has a relatively low thermal peak, followed by a broad, nonthermal component extending up to the Klein-Nishina limit.

  7. Collapsing supra-massive magnetars: FRBs, the repeating FRB121102 and GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Patrick Das; Saini, Nidhi

    2018-02-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) last for ˜ few milli-seconds and, hence, are likely to arise from the gravitational collapse of supra-massive, spinning neutron stars after they lose the centrifugal support (Falcke & Rezzolla 2014). In this paper, we provide arguments to show that the repeating burst, FRB 121102, can also be modeled in the collapse framework provided the supra-massive object implodes either into a Kerr black hole surrounded by highly magnetized plasma or into a strange quark star. Since the estimated rates of FRBs and SN Ib/c are comparable, we put forward a common progenitor scenario for FRBs and long GRBs in which only those compact remnants entail prompt γ -emission whose kick velocities are almost aligned or anti-aligned with the stellar spin axes. In such a scenario, emission of detectable gravitational radiation and, possibly, of neutrinos are expected to occur during the SN Ib/c explosion as well as, later, at the time of magnetar implosion.

  8. Application note :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  9. Testing the E(sub peak)-E(sub iso) Relation for GRBs Detected by Swift and Suzaku-WAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Yamaoka, K.; Sugita, S.; Ohno, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Hara, R.; Onda, K.; Sato, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    One of the most prominent, yet controversial associations derived from the ensemble of prompt-phase observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the apparent correlation in the source frame between the peak energy (E(sub peak)) of the nuF(nu) spectrum and the isotropic radiated energy, E(sub iso). Since most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have E(sub peak) above the energy range (15-150 keV) of the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift, determining accurate E(sub peak) values for large numbers of Swift bursts has been difficult. However, by combining data from Swift/BAT and the Suzaku Wide-band All-Sky Monitor (WAM), which covers the energy range from 50-5000 keV, for bursts which are simultaneously detected ; one can accurately fit E(sub peak) and E(sub iso) and test the relationship between them for the Swift sample. Between the launch of Suzaku in July 2005 and the end of March 2009, there were 45 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which triggered both Swift/BAT and WAM and an additional 47 bursts which triggered Swift and were detected by WAM, but did not trigger. A BAT-WAM team has cross-calibrated the two instruments using GRBs, and we are now able to perform joint fits on these bursts to determine spectral parameters. For those bursts with spectroscopic redshifts.. we can also calculate the isotropic energy. Here we present the results of joint Swift/BAT-Suzaku/WAM spectral fits for 86 of the bursts detected by the two instruments. We show that the distribution of spectral fit parameters is consistent with distributions from earlier missions and confirm that Swift, bursts are consistent with earlier reported relationships between Epeak and isotropic energy. We show through time-resolved spectroscopy that individual burst pulses are also consistent with this relationship.

  10. Go Long, Go Deep: Finding Optical Jet Breaks for Swift-Era GRBs with the LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, X.; Garnavich, P. M.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Bechtold, J.; Bouche, N.; Buschkamp, P.; Diolaiti, E.; Fan, X.; Giallongo, E.; Gredel, R.; Hill, J. M.; Jiang, L.; McClelland, C.; Milne, P.; Pedichini, F.; Pogge, R. W.; Ragazzoni, R.; Rhoads, J.; Smareglia, R.; Thompson, D.; Wagner, R. M.

    2008-08-01

    Using the 8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope, we observed six GRB afterglows from 2.8 hr to 30.8 days after the burst triggers to systematically probe the late-time behaviors of afterglows including jet breaks, flares, and supernova bumps. We detected five afterglows with Sloan r' magnitudes ranging from 23.0 to 26.3 mag. The depth of our observations allows us to extend the temporal baseline for measuring jet breaks by another decade in timescale. We detected two jet breaks and a third candidate, all of which are not detectable without deep, late-time optical observations. In the other three cases, we do not detect the jet breaks either because of contamination from the host galaxy light, the presence of a supernova bump, or the intrinsic faintness of the optical afterglow. This suggests that the basic picture that GRBs are collimated is still valid and that the apparent lack of Swift jet breaks is due to poorly sampled afterglow light curves, particularly at late times. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; the Ohio State University; and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Virginia.

  11. Pulsar-driven Jets In Sne, Grbs, Lmxbs, Ss 433, And The Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleditch, John

    2011-05-01

    The model of pulsar emission through superluminally induced polarization currents, (SLIP), predicts that pulsations produced by such currents at many light cylinder radii by a rotating, magnetized body, will drive pulsations close to the axis of rotation. In SN 1987A, the possible Rosetta Stone for 99% of SNe, GRBs, ms pulsars, and SS 433, such highly collimated (>1 in 10,000) 2.14 ms pulsations, and the similarly collimated jets of particles which they drove, including 1e-6 solar masses with velocities 0.95 c, were responsible for its very early light curve (days 3-20), its "Mystery Spot," observed slightly later (0.5 to 0.3 c, at days 30-50 and after), and still later, in less collimated form, its bipolarity. The axially driven pulsations enforce a toroidal geometry onto all early SNRs, rendering even SNe Ia unsuitable as standard candles. The numbers for Sco X-1's jet are identical, while those for SS 433 are lower (0.26 c), because of the absence of velocity "boosting" via collisions of heavy elements with lighter ones, due to the nearly pure hydrogen content of the supercritical accretion. SLIP also drives positrons from SNe to high energies, possibly accounting for the excess seen by PAMELA at scores of GeV, and predicts that almost all pulsars with very sharp single pulses have been detected because the Earth is in a favored direction where their fluxes diminish only as 1/distance, and this has been verified in the laboratory as well as for the Parkes Multibeam Survey. SLIP also predicts that GRB afterglows will be 100% pulsed at 500 Hz in their proper frame. Finally, SLIP jets from SNe of the first stars may allow galaxies to form without the need for dark matter. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Directed Research Grant DR20080085.

  12. PHOTOSPHERE EMISSION FROM A HYBRID RELATIVISTIC OUTFLOW WITH ARBITRARY DIMENSIONLESS ENTROPY AND MAGNETIZATION IN GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, He [Current address: Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: gaohe@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: hug18@psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    In view of the recent Fermi observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission spectra, we develop a theory of photosphere emission of a hybrid relativistic outflow with a hot fireball component (defined by dimensionless entropy η) and a cold Poynting-flux component (defined by magnetization σ{sub 0} at the central engine). We consider the scenarios both without and with sub-photospheric magnetic dissipations. Based on a simplified toy model of jet dynamics, we develop two approaches: a 'bottom-up' approach to predict the temperature (for a non-dissipative photosphere) and luminosity of the photosphere emission and its relative brightness for a given pair of (η, σ{sub 0}); and a 'top-down' approach to diagnose central engine parameters (η and σ{sub 0}) based on the observed quasi-thermal photosphere emission properties. We show that a variety of observed GRB prompt emission spectra with different degrees of photosphere thermal emission can be reproduced by varying η and σ{sub 0} within the non-dissipative photosphere scenario. In order to reproduce the observed spectra, the outflows of most GRBs need to have a significant σ, both at the central engine and at the photosphere. The σ value at 10{sup 15} cm from the central engine (a possible non-thermal emission site) is usually also greater than unity, so that internal-collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence (ICMART) may be the mechanism to power the non-thermal emission. We apply our top-down approach to GRB 110721A and find that the temporal evolution behavior of its blackbody component can be well interpreted with a time-varying (η, σ{sub 0}) at the central engine, instead of invoking a varying engine base size r {sub 0} as proposed by previous authors.

  13. Editors' note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Carsten; Feller, Alex; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2012-11-01

    This topical issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes is a collection of reference articles covering the GREGOR solar telescope, its science capabilities, its subsystems, and its dedicated suite of instruments for high-resolution observations of the Sun. Because ground-based telescopes have life spans of several decades, it is only natural that they continuously reinvent themselves. Literally, the GREGOR telescope builds on the foundations of the venerable Gregory-Coudé Telescope (GCT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. Acknowledging the fact that new discoveries in observational solar physics are driven by larger apertures to collect more photons and to scrutinize the Sun in finer detail, the GCT was decommissioned and the building was made available to the GREGOR project.

  14. Editorial note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Hrymak, A.; Lee, J.

    2009-01-01

    industrial and educational applications. These articles will highlight theory, models, algorithms and applications with respect to value preservation and/or value creation or growth within the chemical product supply chain. To highlight and motivate research in the emerging challenges in PSE, we plan...... components of PSE—modeling, numerical analysis, optimization, systems and control theory, computer science, and, management science will be highlighted through the published articles (full-length papers, perspective papers, review papers, short notes and letters to the editor). They will cover...... and intelligent systems, integrated approaches to design, control and data analysis, systematic techniques for managing complexity, etc.), PSE emerging domains (product-process design, enterprise-wide optimization, energy and sustainability, biological engineering, pharmaceutical engineering, etc.) and novel...

  15. Editorial Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, F.; Ommen Kloeke, E.

    2015-07-01

    With this editorial note we would like to update you on the performance of the International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (JAG) and inform you about changes that have been made to the composition of the editorial team. Our Journal publishes original papers that apply earth observation data for the management of natural resources and the environment. Environmental issues include biodiversity, land degradation, industrial pollution and natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods and landslides. As such the scope is broad and ranges from conceptual and more fundamental work on earth observation and geospatial sciences to the more problem-solving type of work. When I took over the role of Editor-in-Chief in 2012, I together with the Publisher set myself the mission to position JAG in the top-3 of the remote sensing and GIS journals. To do so we strived at attracting high quality and high impact papers to the journal and to reduce the review turnover time to make JAG a more attractive medium for publications. What has been achieved? Have we reached our ambitions? We can say that: The submissions have increased over the years with over 23% for the last 12 months. Naturally not all may lead to more papers, but at least a portion of the additional submissions should lead to a growth in journal content and quality.

  16. Note & Recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available VolumiVito Campanelli, Web Aesthetics. How Digital Media Affect Culture and Society; Id., Remix It Yourself. Analisi socio-estetica delle forme comunicative del Web [Emanuele Crescimanno] • Jean-François Bordron, Image et vérité. Essais sur les dimensions iconiques de la connaissance [Veronica Estay Stange] • Stéphane Dumas, Les peaux créatrices – Esthétique de la sécrétion [Marc-Vincent Howlett]NoteQuidam veritatis effectus. A proposito di A Plea for Balance in Philosophy. Essays in honour of Paolo Parrini [Fabrizio Desideri] • A Single Face to Capture the Whole World: Literary Shapes and Shadows. An Interview With Tolm Coibin [Fabrizia Abbate] •Convegno Le sensible a l’oeuvre: savoirs du corps entre esthetique et neurosciences, Parigi, 15 Maggio 2014 [Jessica Murano] 

  17. A Proposal to Localize Fermi GBM GRBs Through Coordinated Scanning of the GBM Error Circle via Optical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Linnemann, J. T.; Tollefson, K.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Bhat, P. N.; Sonbas, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of implementing a system that will coordinate ground-based optical telescopes to cover the Fermi GBM Error Circle (EC). The aim of the system is to localize GBM detected GRBs and facilitate multi-wavelength follow-up from space and ground. This system will optimize the observing locations in the GBM EC based on individual telescope location, Field of View (FoV) and sensitivity. The proposed system will coordinate GBM EC scanning by professional as well as amateur astronomers around the world. The results of a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the feasibility of the project are presented.

  18. Pair creation by very high-energy photons in gamma-ray bursts a unified picture for the energetics of GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Totani, T

    1999-01-01

    The extreme energetics of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) 990123 have revealed that some GRBs emit quite a large amount of energy, and the total energy release from GRBs seems to change from burst to burst by a factor of 10/sup 2/-10/sup $9 3/ as E/sub gamma , iso/~10/sup 52-55/ erg, where E/sub gamma , iso/ is the observed GRB energy when the radiation is isotropic. If all GRBs are triggered by similar events, such a wide dispersion in energy release seems odd. The $9 author proposes a unified picture for the energetics of GRBs, in which all GRB events release roughly the same amount of energy E/sub iso/~10 /sup 55-56/ erg relativistic motion, with the baryon load problem almost resolved. A mild $9 dispersion in the initial Lorentz factor ( Gamma ) results in a difference of E/sub gamma , iso/ by up to a factor of m/sub p//m/sub e/~10/sup 3/. Protons work as `a hidden energy reservoir' of the total GRB energy, and E/sub gamma , $9 iso/ depends on the energy transfer efficiency from protons into electrons (or posit...

  19. Note Taking and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Judith L.; Harris, Mary B.

    1974-01-01

    To study the effect of note taking and opportunity for review on subsequent recall, 88 college students were randomly assigned to five treatment groups utilizing different note taking and review combinations. No treatment effects were found, although quality of notes was positively correlated with free recall an multiple-choice measures.…

  20. 1. On note taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Alfred B J

    2005-02-01

    In this paper the author explores the theoretical and technical issues relating to taking notes of analytic sessions, using an introspective approach. The paper discusses the lack of a consistent approach to note taking amongst analysts and sets out to demonstrate that systematic note taking can be helpful to the analyst. The author describes his discovery that an initial phase where as much data was recorded as possible did not prove to be reliably helpful in clinical work and initially actively interfered with recall in subsequent sessions. The impact of the nature of the analytic session itself and the focus of the analyst's interest on recall is discussed. The author then describes how he modified his note taking technique to classify information from sessions into four categories which enabled the analyst to select which information to record in notes. The characteristics of memory and its constructive nature are discussed in relation to the problems that arise in making accurate notes of analytic sessions.

  1. A note on notes: note taking and containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard B

    2007-07-01

    In extreme situations of massive projective identification, both the analyst and the patient may come to share a fantasy or belief that his or her own psychic reality will be annihilated if the psychic reality of the other is accepted or adopted (Britton 1998). In the example of' Dr. M and his patient, the paradoxical dilemma around note taking had highly specific transference meanings; it was not simply an instance of the generalized human response of distracted attention that Freud (1912) had spoken of, nor was it the destabilization of analytic functioning that I tried to describe in my work with Mr. L. Whether such meanings will always exist in these situations remains a matter to be determined by further clinical experience. In reopening a dialogue about note taking during sessions, I have attempted to move the discussion away from categorical injunctions about what analysis should or should not do, and instead to foster a more nuanced, dynamic, and pair-specific consideration of the analyst's functioning in the immediate context of the analytic relationship. There is, of course, a wide variety of listening styles among analysts, and each analyst's mental functioning may be affected differently by each patient whom the analyst sees. I have raised many questions in the hopes of stimulating an expanded discussion that will allow us to share our experiences and perhaps reach additional conclusions. Further consideration may lead us to decide whether note taking may have very different meanings for other analysts and analyst-patient pairs, and whether it may serve useful functions in addition to the one that I have described.

  2. On that Note...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Harry

    1988-01-01

    Provides suggestions for note-taking from books, lectures, visual presentations, and laboratory experiments to enhance student knowledge, memory, and length of attention span during instruction. Describes topical and structural outlines, visual mapping, charting, three-column note-taking, and concept mapping. Benefits and application of…

  3. Making Notes, Making Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Introduces notetaking tools used successfully with English-as-a-second-language students and low-achieving high school freshmen. Provides an overview of each tool and explains how students use them to take notes when reading textbooks and articles. Notes these tools and academic habits have helped students succeed in their mainstream academic…

  4. A note on Fukui’s note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Cheng-Yu Edwin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary relates Fukui’s (2015 note on weak vs. strong generation to two aspects of quantification in Chinese: quantifier scope and the syntactic licensing conditions of noninterrogative wh-expressions. It is shown that the phenomena under discussion echo Fukui’s (2015 view that only strong generation allows for a deeper understanding of natural language and that dependencies are to be distinguished structurally.

  5. MixedNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokela, Tero; Lucero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Affinity Diagramming is a technique to organize and make sense of qualitative data. It is commonly used in Contextual Design and HCI research. However, preparing notes for and building an Affinity Diagram remains a laborious process, with a wide variety of different approaches and practices....... In this paper, we present MixedNotes, a novel technique to prepare physical paper notes for Affinity Diagramming, and a software tool to support this technique. The technique has been tested with large real-life Affinity Diagrams with overall positive results....

  6. Lagos Notes and Records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Lagos Notes and Records is an annual, interdisciplinary journal of the humanities. ... Insuring the Nation: Europeans and the Emergence of Modern Insurance Business in Colonial Nigeria ...

  7. Notes on Contributors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS. Samuel AMOAKO, Associate Researcher, South African Research Unit in Social Change. Contact Details: C/o Lucinda Bercony, Humanities Research Village (House No. 3). University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 524. Bunting Road Campus, Auckland Park, 2006.

  8. NCEP Internal Office Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have produced internal publications, known as Office Notes, since the mid-1950's. In...

  9. Writing a Condolence Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the eyes of others. For example, a mother whose son had died found out that her ... few suggestions on ending your condolence note: “Our love and support will always be here for you.” “ ...

  10. Analytical dynamics course notes

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenbaum, Samuel D

    1994-01-01

    This book comprises a set of lecture notes on rational mechanics, for part of the graduate physics curriculum, delivered by the late Prof. Shirley L. Quimby during his tenure at Columbia University, New York. The notes contain proofs of basic theorems, derivations of formulae and amplification of observations, as well as the presentation and solution of illustrative problems. Collateral readings from more than 50 source references are indicated at appropriate places in the text.

  11. Note Taking and Note Sharing While Browsing Campaign Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Scott P.; Vatrapu, Ravi; Abraham, George

    2009-01-01

    Participants were observed while searching and browsing the internet for campaign information in a mock-voting situation in three online note-taking conditions: No Notes, Private Notes, and Shared Notes. Note taking significantly influenced the manner in which participants browsed for information...

  12. THE NEEDLE IN THE 100 deg{sup 2} HAYSTACK: UNCOVERING AFTERGLOWS OF FERMI GRBs WITH THE PALOMAR TRANSIENT FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Leo P. [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena CA 91101 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley; Cucchiara, Antonino; Gehrels, Neil [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Perley, Daniel A.; Cao, Yi [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Anderson, Gemma E.; Fender, Rob P. [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Anupama, G. C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Arcavi, Iair [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bhalerao, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Bue, Brian D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Connaughton, Valerie [CSPAR and Physics Department, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Corsi, Alessandra [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Fox, Derek B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Goldstein, Adam [Astrophysics Office, ZP12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Gorosabel, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Horesh, Assaf, E-mail: leo.p.singer@nasa.gov [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); and others

    2015-06-10

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has greatly expanded the number and energy window of observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, the coarse localizations of tens to a hundred square degrees provided by the Fermi GRB Monitor instrument have posed a formidable obstacle to locating the bursts’ host galaxies, measuring their redshifts, and tracking their panchromatic afterglows. We have built a target-of-opportunity mode for the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory in order to perform targeted searches for Fermi afterglows. Here, we present the results of one year of this program: 8 afterglow discoveries out of 35 searches. Two of the bursts with detected afterglows (GRBs 130702A and 140606B) were at low redshift (z = 0.145 and 0.384, respectively) and had spectroscopically confirmed broad-line Type Ic supernovae. We present our broadband follow-up including spectroscopy as well as X-ray, UV, optical, millimeter, and radio observations. We study possible selection effects in the context of the total Fermi and Swift GRB samples. We identify one new outlier on the Amati relation. We find that two bursts are consistent with a mildly relativistic shock breaking out from the progenitor star rather than the ultra-relativistic internal shock mechanism that powers standard cosmological bursts. Finally, in the context of the Zwicky Transient Facility, we discuss how we will continue to expand this effort to find optical counterparts of binary neutron star mergers that may soon be detected by Advanced LIGO and Virgo.

  13. Physicians’ Progress Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...... format is uniquely adequate for the pivotal epistemic aspect of cooperative clinical work: the narrative format enables physicians to not only record ‘facts’ but also—by filtering, interpreting, organizing, and qualifying information—to make sense and act concertedly under conditions of uncertainty...

  14. Grouping Notes Through Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    , both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-ItTM notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-ItTM note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  15. Grouping Notes Through Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2017-01-01

    , both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-ItTM notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-ItTM note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  16. Writing a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K H; Peh, W C G

    2010-02-01

    A technical note is a short article giving a brief description of a specific development, technique or procedure, or it may describe a modification of an existing technique, procedure or device applicable to medicine. The technique, procedure or device described should have practical value and should contribute to clinical diagnosis or management. It could also present a software tool, or an experimental or computational method. Technical notes are variously referred to as technical innovations or technical developments. The main criteria for publication will be the novelty of concepts involved, the validity of the technique and its potential for clinical applications.

  17. Notes on Piezoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    These notes provide a pedagogical discussion of the physics of piezoelectricity. The exposition starts with a brief analysis of the classical (continuum) theory of piezoelectric phenomena in solids. The main subject of the notes is, however, a quantum mechanical analysis. We first derive the Frohlich Hamiltonian as part of the description of the electron-phonon interaction. The results of this analysis are then employed to derive the equations of piezoelectricity. A couple of examples with the zinc blende and and wurtzite structures are presented at the end

  18. Note by Note: a New Revolution in Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Roisin; Danaher, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Note by note cooking is an application of Molecular Gastronomy. It was first proposed by French Physical Chemist and Molecular Gastronomy Co-founder, Hervé This. Note by Note dishes are being created as part of Ph.D. research in the Dublin Institute of Technology, Cathal Brugha Street.

  19. Black Hole Universe Model for Explaining GRBs, X-Ray Flares, and Quasars as Emissions of Dynamic Star-like, Massive, and Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-01-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach’s principle, governed by Einstein’s general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, and acceleration of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates the emissions of dynamic black holes according to the black hole universe model and provides a self-consistent explanation for the observations of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flares, and quasars as emissions of dynamic star-like, massive, and supermassive black holes. It is shown that a black hole, when it accretes its ambient matter or merges with other black holes, becomes dynamic. Since the event horizon of a dynamic black hole is broken, the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation leaks out. The leakage of the inside hot blackbody radiation leads to a GRB if it is a star-like black hole, an X-ray flare if it is a massive black hole like the one at the center of the Milky Way, or a quasar if it is a supermassive black hole like an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The energy spectra and amount of emissions produced by the dynamic star-like, massive, and supermassive black holes can be consistent with the measurements of GRBs, X-ray flares, and quasars.

  20. CONNECTING GRBs AND ULIRGs: A SENSITIVE, UNBIASED SURVEY FOR RADIO EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST HOST GALAXIES AT 0 < z < 2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Perley, R. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Michałowski, M. J. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Krühler, T. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R., E-mail: dperley@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-10

    Luminous infrared galaxies and submillimeter galaxies contribute significantly to stellar mass assembly and provide an important test of the connection between the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate and that of overall cosmic star formation. We present sensitive 3 GHz radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of 32 uniformly selected GRB host galaxies spanning a redshift range from 0 < z < 2.5, providing the first fully dust- and sample-unbiased measurement of the fraction of GRBs originating from the universe's most bolometrically luminous galaxies. Four galaxies are detected, with inferred radio star formation rates (SFRs) ranging between 50 and 300 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Three of the four detections correspond to events consistent with being optically obscured 'dark' bursts. Our overall detection fraction implies that between 9% and 23% of GRBs between 0.5 < z < 2.5 occur in galaxies with S {sub 3GHz} > 10 μJy, corresponding to SFR > 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 1 or >250 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at z ∼ 2. Similar galaxies contribute approximately 10%-30% of all cosmic star formation, so our results are consistent with a GRB rate that is not strongly biased with respect to the total SFR of a galaxy. However, all four radio-detected hosts have stellar masses significantly lower than IR/submillimeter-selected field galaxies of similar luminosities. We suggest that the GRB rate may be suppressed in metal-rich environments but independently enhanced in intense starbursts, producing a strong efficiency dependence on mass but little net dependence on bulk galaxy SFR.

  1. Note Taking for Geography Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneale, Pauline E.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses geography students' questions about why, when, and how to take notes. Outlines a step-by-step process for taking notes from written sources and from class lectures. Discusses what types of notes are appropriate for various types of sources. Suggests some ideas for making notes useful for individual learning styles. (DSK)

  2. OpenLabNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    be advantageous if an ELN was Integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to Open......LabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively Closes the gap between research documentation and sample management......, thus making Open-Lab Framework more attractive for laboratories that seek to increase productivity through electronic data management....

  3. A note on Marx

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Finn; Jensen, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Throughout all his life Karl Marx wrote angrily about capitalism. By use of a dialectic approach he was convinced that the working class had to unite and make a social revolution and thereby free them selves from exploitation. Marx himself was in many ways a dialectic person as we try to show in the note. So in some sense he became one with his scientific methodology.

  4. Notes on Laser Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    2008-01-01

    This note intends to motivate our effort toward the advent of new methods of particle acceleration, utilizing the fast rising laser technology. By illustrating the underlying principles in an intuitive manner and thus less jargon-clad fashion, we seek a direction in which we shall be able to properly control and harness the promise of laser acceleration. First we review the idea behind the laser wakefield. We then go on to examine ion acceleration by laser. We examine the sheath acceleration in particular and look for the future direction that allows orderly acceleration of ions in high energies

  5. MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL NOTES 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.G.H KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1.   Durio  cupreus Ridley is considered to  represent a  distinct  species.2.   Durio wyatt-smithii Kosterm. is reported from Borneo.3.   Machilus nervosa Merr. represents Meliosma bontoeensis Merr.4.   Beilschmiedia brassii Allen represents Vavaea brassii (Allen Kosterm.5.   The author of the generic name Heritiera is Aiton.6.   Heritiera macrophylla (non Wall. Merr. is conspecific with H. ungus-tata Pierre.7.   Some specimens from N. Celebes, attributed formerly to H. sylvatica Merr., belong to H. arafurensis Kosterm.8.   Additional note on Heritiera littoralis Ait. and H. macrophylla Wall, ex Kurz.9.   Heritiera   montana   Kosterm.,   nov.   spec,   from   New   Guinea   and H. khidii Kosterm., nov. spec, from Northern Siam.10.   Additional note on Heritiera, novoguineensis Kosterm. and H. pereo-riacea Kosterm. and an undescribed species.11.   Heritiera acuminata Wall, ex Kurz represents a distinct species.12.   Heritiera  solomonensis  Kosterm.,  nov.  spec,  from the  Solomon  Isl.13.   A note on Firmiana bracteata A. DC.14.   Firmiana fulgens (Wall, ex King  Corner is based on a mixtum com-positum and has been the source of constant confusion. For the element, which occurs in Malaysia a new name is coined: F. malayana Kosterm. It does not occur in Tenasserim.15.   A revised bibliography of Firmiana colorata R. Br., F. pallens Stearn and F. malayana Kosterm. is presented.16.   Additional note on Firmiana hainanensis Kosterm.17.   Firmiana kerrii (Craib Kosterm., comb, nov., based on Sterculia kerrii Craib.18.   Additional specimens of Firmiana papuana Mildbr.19.   Cryptocarya hintonii Allen is referred to Primus as Primus hintonii (Allen  Kosterm.20.   Beilschmiedia wallichiana (G. Don   Kosterm., based on Sideroxylon wallichianum, G. Don, is described. Formerly it was relegated to Litsea by Kurz.21.   New species in Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia aborensis Kosterm., B

  6. Notes on functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    These notes are a record of a one semester course on Functional Analysis given by the author to second year Master of Statistics students at the Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi. Students taking this course have a strong background in real analysis, linear algebra, measure theory and probability, and the course proceeds rapidly from the definition of a normed linear space to the spectral theorem for bounded selfadjoint operators in a Hilbert space. The book is organised as twenty six lectures, each corresponding to a ninety minute class session. This may be helpful to teachers planning a course on this topic. Well prepared students can read it on their own.

  7. Note e Recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a cura di Mariagrazia Portera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Volumi Winfried Menninghaus, La promessa della bellezza, [Fabrizio Desideri, p. 272] • David Rothenberg, Survival of the Beautiful. Art, Science and Evolution [Danae Crocchiola, p. 274] • Lev Manovich, Software Takes Command [Angela Maiello, p. 277]. Note Method in Aesthetics: Philosophy, Evolution and the Cognitive Sciences [Aaron Meskin, Matthew Kieran, Gregory Currie, p. 280] • L’Abitare possibile. Estetica, Architettura e New Media, Ravello, Auditorium Oscar Niemeyer, 28-30 maggio 2013 [Sara Matetich, p. 282] • Copenhagen Summer School in Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind, University of Copenhagen, 12-16 Agosto 2013 [Raoul Frauenfelder, p. 289] • Ciò che è vivo e ciò che è morto nell’estetica di Archibald Ali- son. Nota a margine del convegno: Neoestetica ed emozione. Archibald Alison e l’estetica con- temporanea, Palermo, 4-5 ottobre 2013 [Giuseppe Pucci, p. 294

  8. Notes in Colombian Herpetology, II Notes in Colombian Herpetology, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Emmett Reid

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lizard Genus Echinosaura (Teiidae in Colombia / Notes on the habits of the Tadpole-Carrying Frog Hyloxalus granuliventris / A New Marsupian Frog (Gastrotheca from Colombia The Lizard Genus Echinosaura (Teiidae in Colombia / Notes on the habits of the Tadpole-Carrying Frog Hyloxalus granuliventris / A New Marsupian Frog (Gastrotheca from Colombia.

  9. A note on axial symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetle, Christopher; Wilder, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    This note describes how to characterize and normalize an axial Killing field on a general Riemannian geometry or four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. No global assumptions are necessary, such as that the orbits of the Killing field all have period 2π. Rather, any Killing field that vanishes at at least one point necessarily has the expected global properties. (note)

  10. The Anatomy of a Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Herb

    1986-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn the physics of a musical note by learning how to synthesize sounds on a computer. Discusses ADSR (attack, decay, sustain, and release of a note) and includes a program (with listing) which students can use to examine ADSR on a Commodore 64 microcomputer. (JN)

  11. Note on the ABC Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Carella, N. A.

    2006-01-01

    This note imparts heuristic arguments and theorectical evidences that contradict the abc conjecture over the rational numbers. In addition, the rudimentary datails for transforming this problem into the doimain of equidistribution theory are provided.

  12. Lecture notes on quantum statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    These notes are meant to form the material for an introductory course on quantum statistics at the graduate level aimed at mathematical statisticians and probabilists No background in physics quantum or otherwise is required They are still far from complete

  13. Alcune Note di Analisi Matematica

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2011-01-01

    Lectures notes (in italian) of some arguments of classical analysis, with exercises. A particular emphasis to functional analysis and elementary operator algebra theory is given, by means of exercises and examples.

  14. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  15. Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kullman, Mikael; Campillo, Javier; Dahlquist, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Globally, more than 50% of all people are living in cities today. Enhancing sustainability and efficiency of urban energy systems is thus of high priority for global sustainable development. The European research project PLEEC (Planning for Energy Efficient Cities) focuses on technological...

  16. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......, where rainwater and sewage is transported in the same pipe, and a separate system where the two types of water are transported in individual pipe. This note will only focus on the separate rain/stormwater system, however, if domestic sewage should be included in the dimensioning procedure, it......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  17. Gaz de France. Operation note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  18. Churchill on Stalin: A note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to draw attention to two limitations of Churchill's war memoirs as a source of accurate information about Stalin, his views ans actions. they concern, first Stalin's alleged remarks in 1942 about collectivisation, and second Stalin's allleged response to Churchill's

  19. Lecture notes on ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedbloed, J.P.

    1983-03-01

    Notes, prepared for a course of lectures held at the Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil (June-August 1978). An extensive theoretical treatment of the behaviour of hot plasmas caught in equations and mathematical models is presented in 12 chapters

  20. Developing INDCs: a guidance note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim; Bee, Skylar; Naswa, Prakriti

    needs and low capability, would need means of implementation (MoI) for adaptation and to take ambitious mitigation actions. Developing countries would include MoI needs in the context of mitigation and adaptation. The note explains briefly how countries can identify their unconditional contributions....

  1. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  2. Notes on instrumentation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, G J

    2013-01-01

    Notes on Instrumentation and Control presents topics on pressure (i.e., U-tube manometers and elastic type gauges), temperature (i.e. glass thermometer, bi-metallic strip thermometer, filled system thermometer, vapor pressure thermometer), level, and flow measuring devices. The book describes other miscellaneous instruments, signal transmitting devices, supply and control systems, and monitoring systems. The theory of automatic control and semi-conductor devices are also considered. Marine engineers will find the book useful.

  3. Notes on modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    These notes present a high-level overview of how modeling and simulation are carried out by practitioners. The discussion is of a general nature; no specific techniques are examined but the activities associated with all modeling and simulation approaches are briefly addressed. There is also a discussion of validation and verification and, at the end, a section on why modeling and simulation are useful.

  4. Revising Lecture Notes: How Revision, Pauses, and Partners Affect Note Taking and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Linlin; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Samuelson, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Note taking has been categorized as a two-stage process: the recording of notes and the review of notes. We contend that note taking might best involve a three-stage process where the missing stage is revision. This study investigated the benefits of revising lecture notes and addressed two questions: First, is revision more effective than…

  5. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein's mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented

  6. Notes on elementary particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Muirhead, William Hugh

    1972-01-01

    Notes of Elementary Particle Physics is a seven-chapter text that conveys the ideas on the state of elementary particle physics. This book emerged from an introductory course of 30 lectures on the subject given to first-year graduate students at the University of Liverpool. The opening chapter deals with pertinent terminologies in elementary particle physics. The succeeding three chapters cover the concepts of transition amplitudes, probabilities, relativistic wave equations and fields, and the interaction amplitude. The discussion then shifts to tests of electromagnetic interactions, particul

  7. Debriefing Note Secondary Education Support Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, Neil; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen; Thomsen, Thomas J.

    Debriefing note regarding joint programming for the Secondary Education Support Programme (2003- 2007). The note specifies preparation of SIP Physical Guidelines; Training needs assessment for Physical School Status and Rapid Technical Assessments; SIP/DEP preparation; Selection criteria...

  8. Note-Making in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    Note-making is one excellent method for helping students retain important points made by the teacher. Techniques that elementary and secondary social studies teacher can use to teach note-making skills are described. (RM)

  9. Taking notes as an interactive process

    OpenAIRE

    Hornig, Wolfgang

    1984-01-01

    Taking notes as an interactive process : how to improve students´ notes / Hornig W. ; Nowak, J. - In: Nowak, Johann: Textverstehen und Textrekonstruktion in Vorlesungen. - Augsburg : HDZ, 1984. - S. 227-253. - (Augsburger Studien zur Hochschuldidaktik ; 12)

  10. The new bank note distribution system

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrit Bilkes

    1997-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines the recent changes made to the way Canada's bank notes are distributed. The new system allows financial institutions to exchange notes directly with one another at designated points across the country, rather than through Bank of Canada agencies, as was previously the case. The institutions communicate with the Bank of Canada through a computerized inventory-management system. Two Bank of Canada operations centres monitor note quality and supply new notes ...

  11. What Predicts Skill in Lecture Note Taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peverly, Stephen T.; Ramaswamy, Vivek; Brown, Cindy; Sumowski, James; Alidoost, Moona; Garner, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of good lecture notes to test performance, very little is known about the cognitive processes that underlie effective lecture note taking. The primary purpose of the 2 studies reported (a pilot study and Study 1) was to investigate 3 processes hypothesized to be significantly related to quality of notes: transcription…

  12. Lecture notes on diophantine analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zannier, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes originate from a course delivered at the Scuola Normale in Pisa in 2006. Generally speaking, the prerequisites do not go beyond basic mathematical material and are accessible to many undergraduates. The contents mainly concern diophantine problems on affine curves, in practice describing the integer solutions of equations in two variables. This case historically suggested some major ideas for more general problems. Starting with linear and quadratic equations, the important connections with Diophantine Approximation are presented and Thue's celebrated results are proved in full detail. In later chapters more modern issues on heights of algebraic points are dealt with, and applied to a sharp quantitative treatment of the unit equation. The book also contains several Supplements, hinted exercises and an Appendix on recent work on heights.

  13. Lecture notes on wavelet transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic exposition of the basic ideas and results of wavelet analysis suitable for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers alike. The primary goal of this text is to show how different types of wavelets can be constructed, illustrate why they are such powerful tools in mathematical analysis, and demonstrate their use in applications. It also develops the required analytical knowledge and skills on the part of the reader, rather than focus on the importance of more abstract formulation with full mathematical rigor.  These notes differs from many textbooks with similar titles in that a major emphasis is placed on the thorough development of the underlying theory before introducing applications and modern topics such as fractional Fourier transforms, windowed canonical transforms, fractional wavelet transforms, fast wavelet transforms, spline wavelets, Daubechies wavelets, harmonic wavelets and non-uniform wavelets. The selection, arrangement, and presentation of the material in these ...

  14. Notes on the quantum tetrahedron

    CERN Document Server

    Coquereaux, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This is a set of notes describing several aspects of the space of paths on ADE Dynkin diagrams, with a particular attention paid to the graph E6. Many results originally due to A. Ocneanu are here described in a very elementary way (manipulation of square or rectangular matrices). We define the concept of essential matrices for a graph and describe their module properties with respect to right and left actions of fusion algebras. In the case of the graph E6, essential matrices build up a right module with respect to its fusion algebra but a left module with respect to the fusion algebra of A11. We present two original results: 1) We show how to recover the Ocneanu graph of quantum symmetries of the Dynkin diagram E6 from the natural multiplication defined in the tensor square of its fusion algebra (the tensor product should be taken over a particular subalgebra); this is the Cayley graph for the two generators of the twelve dimensional algebra (E6 \\otimes_A3 E6); here A3 and E6 refer to the commutative fusion...

  15. Revisiting convergence: A research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rob

    2015-09-01

    A number of recent studies show that income inequality is declining between countries. In this research note, I question the significance of this trend by examining the role of initial conditions in producing convergence. An important (but neglected) property of inequality dynamics is the tendency for extreme distributions to become more moderate. When income disparities are large, the subsequent trend is biased toward convergence. Conversely, when initial conditions approach parity, divergence becomes the more likely long-term outcome. I apply this principle to trends in GDP PC across 127 countries during the 1980-2010 period. Using counterfactual analysis, I manipulate the initial level of inequality in GDP PC while holding constant each country's observed growth rate during the sample period. I find that the growth dynamics of GDP PC produce either convergence or divergence based simply on the initial distribution of income. The point of transition occurs at a moderate level of inequality, whether using population weights (Gini=.365) or not (Gini=.377). I conclude that the recent convergence observed in GDP PC is primarily a function of large income gaps between countries and would not have materialized at more moderate levels of initial inequality. By contrast, an examination of the pre-1950 period reveals divergent growth patterns that are not sensitive to initial conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Notes on the Spatial Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Grgas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ever-mounting evidence, amongst which is the “zone” problematic of the Zadar conference that occassioned these notes, it can be concluded that the spatial turn has insinuated itself as an all-pervading heuristic tool throughout the humanities and the social sciences. The extent to which space and spatiality have usurped the central stage in the various branches of reasearch can be gauged by admonishments that what we are witnessing is a new fundamentalism that has simply inverted the terms of the dualism of time and space (May and Thrift 2001: “Introduction”. According to Michael Dear the sway of space is manifested in multifold ways: in the ubiquity of spatial analysis in social theories and practices; in the explosion of publications devoted to the exploration of the interface of the social and the spatial; in the reintegration of human geography into various domains of knowledge; in the focus given to difference and the consequent diversification of theoretical and empirical practices; in a theoretically informed exploration of the relation between geographical knowledge and social action; and, finally, in the unprecedented proliferation of research agendas and publications pertaining to these isuuses (Dear 2001: 24. Two recent collections of papers are indicative of the ubiquity of spatial issues in scholarly work.

  17. Open Oncology Notes: A Qualitative Study of Oncology Patients' Experiences Reading Their Cancer Care Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Neha; Pollak, Kathryn I; LeBlanc, Thomas W

    2018-04-01

    Electronic medical records increasingly allow patients access to clinician notes. Although most believe that open notes benefits patients, some suggest negative consequences. Little is known about the experiences of patients with cancer reading their medical notes; thus we aimed to describe this qualitatively. We interviewed 20 adults with metastatic or incurable cancer receiving cancer treatment. The semistructured qualitative interviews included four segments: assessing their overall experience reading notes, discussing how notes affected their cancer care experiences, reading a real note with the interviewer, and making suggestions for improvement. We used a constant comparison approach to analyze these qualitative data. We found four themes. Patients reported that notes resulted in the following: (1) increased comprehension; (2) ameliorated uncertainty, relieved anxiety, and facilitated control; (3) increased trust; and (4) for a subset of patients, increased anxiety. Patients described increased comprehension because notes refreshed their memory and clarified their understanding of visits. This helped mitigate the unfamiliarity of cancer, addressing uncertainty and relieving anxiety. Notes facilitated control, empowering patients to ask clinicians more questions. The transparency of notes also increased trust in clinicians. For a subset of patients, however, notes were emotionally difficult to read and raised concerns. Patients identified medical jargon and repetition in notes as areas for improvement. Most patients thought that reading notes improved their care experiences. A small subset of patients experienced increased distress. As reading notes becomes a routine part of the patient experience, physicians might want to elicit and address concerns that arise from notes, thereby further engaging patients in their care.

  18. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  19. Employers' views on the fit note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, E

    2014-12-01

    The fit note replaced the sick note in 2010. The statement of fitness for work (fit note) is expected to benefit the British economy by helping more people stay in work and prevent long-term sickness absence. Understanding and responding to employers' views on the fit note is key, in order for this goal to be achieved. To explore employers' views on the fit note. A qualitative study was undertaken and face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants representing employers from a variety of industries. There were 21 participants who were mainly human resources officers and line managers. Employers welcomed the introduction of the fit note and felt that it was an improvement on the sick note. The majority of employers felt the fit note had the potential to promote an earlier return to work, if used properly. The main problems reported were the completion of the fit notes and quality of advice received from general practitioners. Employers felt that the most helpful advice came from fit notes with information on the functional effects of the medical condition. Some employers found return to work decisions problematic. The fit note has the potential to promote an earlier return to work. In order for the fit note to achieve its aim, further understanding of the difficulties employers are having when making return to work decisions is important, in order to develop guidance to enable them to provide the practical support employees need to return to work sooner. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Clinical Note Creation, Binning, and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Deliberato, Rodrigo Oct?vio; Celi, Leo Anthony; Stone, David J

    2017-01-01

    The creation of medical notes in software applications poses an intrinsic problem in workflow as the technology inherently intervenes in the processes of collecting and assembling information, as well as the production of a data-driven note that meets both individual and healthcare system requirements. In addition, the note writing applications in currently available electronic health records (EHRs) do not function to support decision making to any substantial degree. We suggest that artifici...

  1. Notes on Loricata (Mollusca) 11-14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.

    1985-01-01

    Four new species of chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) are described, viz Leptochiton (L.) dispersus and L. (L.) permodestus from Transkei, L. (L.) meiringae from the eastern Cape Province, S Africa (note 11) and Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) vanbellei from the Mediterranean Sea (note 14). New records

  2. Suicide Notes in Hong Kong in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Yeung, April W. M.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Yip, Paul S. F.; Tang, Arthur K. H.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide notes have been regarded as one of the most informative data sources to understand the reasons why people commit suicide. However, there is a paucity of suicide note studies, leaving researchers with an assumption that this phenomenon remains static over time. This study examines this assumption by comparing the characteristics of…

  3. Stalin and Marxism: a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    1997-01-01

    This article concerns the research done by the author in Stalin‘s private library. The notes made in the works of Marx, Engels and Lenin suggest that until the end of his life Stalin felt himself in general agreement with these "classics." The choice of books and the notes support the thesis that,

  4. Children's note taking as a mnemonic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskritt, Michelle; McLeod, Kellie

    2008-09-01

    When given the opportunity to take notes in memory tasks, children sometimes make notes that are not useful. The current study examined the role that task constraints might play in the production of nonmnemonic notes. In Experiment 1, children played one easy and one difficult memory game twice, once with the opportunity to make notes and once without that opportunity. More children produced functional notations for the easier task than for the more difficult task, and their notations were beneficial to memory performance. Experiment 2 found that the majority of children who at first made nonmnemonic notations were able to produce functional notations with minimal training, and there was no significant difference in notation quality or memory performance between spontaneous and trained note takers. Experiment 3 revealed that the majority of children could transfer their training to a novel task. The results suggest that children's production of nonmnemonic notes may be due in part to a lack of knowledge regarding what task information is important to represent or how to represent it in their notes rather than to an inability to make functional notes in general.

  5. Observing professionals taking notes on screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study 38 participants wrote a piece of advice based on reading and annotating information from an extensive Web site. Half of the participants took notes in a separate window, the other half used an advanced annotation tool. In text annotations were far more used than separate notes. The

  6. Mysore study: A study of suicide notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namratha, P; Kishor, M; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Raman, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. The aim was to study the themes in suicide notes that might be useful in prevention strategies. A descriptive study of all suicide notes of those individuals who committed suicide between 2010 and 2013 available with Police Department, Mysore district was obtained and analyzed. A total of 22 suicide note were available. A majority of suicide note was in age group of 16-40 years (86%) and most were men (59%). All suicide notes were handwritten, the majority (70%) in regional language Kannada. Length of notes varied from just few words to few pages. Contents of suicide notes included apology/shame/guilt (80%), love for those left behind (55%) and instruction regarding practical affairs (23%). Most have blamed none for the act (50%). 23% mentioned that they are committing suicide to prove their innocence. 32% mentioned a last wish. The majority of suicidal note contained "guilt" which is a strong indicator of possible depression in deceased. Creating awareness about suicide among public and ensuring access to professionals trained in suicide prevention is need of the hour in this part of the world.

  7. Suicide note themes and suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to determine if suicide note themes might inform suicide prevention strategies. The themes of 42 suicide notes from the Northern Ireland Suicide Study (major psychological autopsy study) were examined. The commonest themes were "apology/shame" (74%), "love for those left behind" (60%), "life too much to bear" (48%), "instructions regarding practical affairs post-mortem" (36%), "hopelessness/nothing to live for" (21%) and "advice for those left behind" (21%). Notes of suicides with major unipolar depression were more likely than notes of suicides without major unipolar depression to contain the themes "instructions regarding practical affairs post-mortem" (67% versus 19%, p = 0.005) and "hopelessness/nothing to live for" (40% versus 11%, p = 0.049). Notes of suicides with a previous history of deliberate self-harm were less likely than notes of suicides without a history of deliberate self-harm to contain the theme "apology/shame" (58% versus 87%, p = 0.04). Notes of elderly suicides were more likely than non-elderly notes to contain the theme "burden to others" (40% versus 3%, p = 0.03). The fact that three quarters of suicide notes contained the theme "apology/shame" suggests that the deceased may have welcomed alternative solutions for their predicaments. Scrutiny of suicide note themes in the light of previous research findings suggests that cognitive therapy techniques, especially problem solving, may have an important role to play in suicide prevention and that potential major unipolar depressive (possibly less impulsive) suicides, in particular, may provide fertile ground for therapeutic intervention (physical and psychological). Ideally all primary care doctors and mental health professionals working with (potentially) suicidal people should be familiar with basic cognitive therapy techniques, especially problem solving skills training.

  8. Note Taking on Trial: A Legal Application of Note-Taking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about note taking, but it is not an exhaustive review of note-taking literature. Instead, it portrays the application of note-taking research to an unusual and important area of practice--the law. I was hired to serve as an expert witness on note taking in a legal case that hinged, in part, on the completeness and accuracy of…

  9. Bank note recognition for the vision impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, A; Preston, P; Suaning, G J; Lovell, N H

    2006-06-01

    Blind Australians find great difficulty in recognising bank notes. Each note has the same feel, with no Braille markings, irregular edges or other tangible features. In Australia, there is only one device available that can assist blind people recognise their notes. Internationally, there are devices available; however they are expensive, complex and have not been developed to cater for Australian currency. This paper discusses a new device, the MoneyTalker that takes advantage of the largely different colours and patterns on each Australian bank note and recognises the notes electronically, using the reflection and transmission properties of light. Different coloured lights are transmitted through the inserted note and the corresponding sensors detect distinct ranges of values depending on the colour of the note. Various classification algorithms were studied and the final algorithm was chosen based on accuracy and speed of recognition. The MoneyTalker has shown an accuracy of more than 99%. A blind subject has tested the device and believes that it is usable, compact and affordable. Based on the devices that are available currently in Australia, the MoneyTalker is an effective alternative in terms of accuracy and usability.

  10. Open notes: doctors and patients signing on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan; Darer, Jonathan D; Elmore, Joann G; Feldman, Henry J; Leveille, Suzanne G; Ralston, James D; Ross, Stephen E; Vodicka, Elisabeth; Weber, Valerie D

    2010-07-20

    Few patients read their doctors' notes, despite having the legal right to do so. As information technology makes medical records more accessible and society calls for greater transparency, patients' interest in reading their doctors' notes may increase. Inviting patients to review these notes could improve understanding of their health, foster productive communication, stimulate shared decision making, and ultimately lead to better outcomes. Yet, easy access to doctors' notes could have negative consequences, such as confusing or worrying patients and complicating rather than improving patient-doctor communication. To gain evidence about the feasibility, benefits, and harms of providing patients ready access to electronic doctors' notes, a team of physicians and nurses have embarked on a demonstration and evaluation of a project called OpenNotes. The authors describe the intervention and share what they learned from conversations with doctors and patients during the planning stages. The team anticipates that "open notes" will spread and suggests that over time, if drafted collaboratively and signed by both doctors and patients, they might evolve to become contracts for care.

  11. EndNote 7.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eapen Bell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EndNote is a useful software for online literature search and efficient bibliography management. It helps to format the bibliography according to the citation style of each journal. EndNote stores references in a library file, which can be shared with others. It can connect to online resources like PubMed and retrieve search results as per the search criteria. It can also effortlessly integrate with popular word processors like MS Word. The Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology website has a provision to import references to EndNote.

  12. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  13. A study of actions in operative notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report 'procedure description' section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes.

  14. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status......, on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...

  15. A NOTE ON THE POCHHAMMER FREQUENCY EQUATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    A note on the Pochhammer frequency equation. ),,,,(. ),,,,(;/. 2 zwura. ZWURA. tT ρω. µ. = ω= , where ωis the angular frequency of the wave, which is considered to be imposed in this problem. We also introduce a material parameter α defined by. )2. /(. µ+λµ=α , which is related to Poisson's ratio ν by n- n-. =a. 22. 21 . We note ...

  16. Electronic health records improve clinical note quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Harry B; Sessums, Laura L; Hoang, Albert; Becher, Dorothy A; Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Stephens, Mark; Pangaro, Louis N; O'Malley, Patrick G; Baxi, Nancy S; Bunt, Christopher W; Capaldi, Vincent F; Chen, Julie M; Cooper, Barbara A; Djuric, David A; Hodge, Joshua A; Kane, Shawn; Magee, Charles; Makary, Zizette R; Mallory, Renee M; Miller, Thomas; Saperstein, Adam; Servey, Jessica; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2015-01-01

    The clinical note documents the clinician's information collection, problem assessment, clinical management, and its used for administrative purposes. Electronic health records (EHRs) are being implemented in clinical practices throughout the USA yet it is not known whether they improve the quality of clinical notes. The goal in this study was to determine if EHRs improve the quality of outpatient clinical notes. A five and a half year longitudinal retrospective multicenter quantitative study comparing the quality of handwritten and electronic outpatient clinical visit notes for 100 patients with type 2 diabetes at three time points: 6 months prior to the introduction of the EHR (before-EHR), 6 months after the introduction of the EHR (after-EHR), and 5 years after the introduction of the EHR (5-year-EHR). QNOTE, a validated quantitative instrument, was used to assess the quality of outpatient clinical notes. Its scores can range from a low of 0 to a high of 100. Sixteen primary care physicians with active practices used QNOTE to determine the quality of the 300 patient notes. The before-EHR, after-EHR, and 5-year-EHR grand mean scores (SD) were 52.0 (18.4), 61.2 (16.3), and 80.4 (8.9), respectively, and the change in scores for before-EHR to after-EHR and before-EHR to 5-year-EHR were 18% (pquality scores significantly improved over the 5-year time interval. The EHR significantly improved the overall quality of the outpatient clinical note and the quality of all its elements, including the core and non-core elements. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the EHR significantly improves the quality of clinical notes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  17. Remedial action programs annual meeting: Meeting notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office was pleased to host the 1987 Remedial Action programs Annual Meeting and herein presents notes from that meeting as prepared (on relatively short notice) by participants. These notes are a summary of the information derived from the workshops, case studies, and ad hoc committee reports rather than formal proceedings. The order of the materials in this report follows the actual sequence of presentations during the annual meeting

  18. Lecture Notes in Statistics. 3rd Semester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The lecture note is prepared to meet the requirements for the 3rd semester course in statistics at the Aarhus School of Business. It focuses on multiple regression models, analysis of variance, and log-linear models.......The lecture note is prepared to meet the requirements for the 3rd semester course in statistics at the Aarhus School of Business. It focuses on multiple regression models, analysis of variance, and log-linear models....

  19. Note-taking Strategies and Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Haghverdi, Hamid; Biria, Reza; Karimi, Lotfollah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is two fold. That is, revealing the significance, underlying theory and findings concerning note-taking in the literature related and exploring, through a survey study, the Iranian professors‘ and students‘ attitudes towards the effect of teaching note-taking strategies on the students‘ academic achievement. To this end, many previous studies were reviewed and we knew that many scholars, conducting empirical studies, surveys and interviews, have highlighted ...

  20. Note taking, review, memory, and comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohay, Mark; Blakely, Daniel P; Tamplin, Andrea K; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2011-01-01

    In previous work assessing memory at various levels of representation, namely the surface form, textbase, and situation model levels, participants read texts but were otherwise not actively engaged with the texts. The current study tested the influence of active engagement with the material via note taking, along with the opportunity to review such notes, and the modality of presentation (text vs. spoken). The influence of these manipulations was assessed both immediately and 1 week later. In Experiment 1 participants read a text, whereas in Experiment 2 participants watched a video recording of the material being read as a lecture. For each experiment the opportunity to take notes was manipulated within participants, and the opportunity to review these notes before the test was manipulated between participants. Note taking improved performance at the situation model level in both experiments, although there was also some suggestion of benefit for the surface form. Thus, active engagement with material, such as note taking, appears to have the greatest benefit at the deeper levels of understanding.

  1. An Information Foraging Analysis of Note Taking and Note Sharing While Browsing Campaign Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Robertson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental study of political information foraging in the context of e-voting. Participants were observed while searching and browsing the internet for campaign information in a mock-voting situation in three online note-taking conditions: No Notes, Private Notes...... with lack of scent, low value perception, and value depletion of information. Implications for the voter centered design of e-voting portals are discussed....

  2. What happens when patients can see their doctors' note? - the Open Notes movement

    OpenAIRE

    Mende, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:  The Open Notes movement represents a culture change, enabling patients’ access to their providers’ notes, thereby increasing transparency and patient engagement.Policy context, objective and highlights:  OpenNotes involves allowing patients on-line or hard copy access to their providers’ notes. The one-year initial pilot began in 2010 with twenty thousand patients and one hundred primary care physicians at three medical centers in the United States.  The pilot’s evaluation foun...

  3. Clinical Note Creation, Binning, and Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliberato, Rodrigo Octávio; Celi, Leo Anthony; Stone, David J

    2017-08-03

    The creation of medical notes in software applications poses an intrinsic problem in workflow as the technology inherently intervenes in the processes of collecting and assembling information, as well as the production of a data-driven note that meets both individual and healthcare system requirements. In addition, the note writing applications in currently available electronic health records (EHRs) do not function to support decision making to any substantial degree. We suggest that artificial intelligence (AI) could be utilized to facilitate the workflows of the data collection and assembly processes, as well as to support the development of personalized, yet data-driven assessments and plans. ©Rodrigo Octávio Deliberato, Leo Anthony Celi, David J Stone. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 03.08.2017.

  4. VA OpenNotes: exploring the experiences of early patient adopters with access to clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L; Klein, Dawn M; Hogan, Timothy P; Woods, Susan S

    2015-03-01

    To explore the experience of early patient adopters who accessed their clinical notes online using the Blue Button feature of the My HealtheVet portal. A web-based survey of VA patient portal users from June 22 to September 15, 2013. 33.5% of respondents knew that clinical notes could be viewed, and nearly one in four (23.5%) said that they had viewed their notes at least once. The majority of VA Notes users agreed that accessing their notes will help them to do a better job of taking medications as prescribed (80.1%) and be better prepared for clinic visits (88.6%). Nine out of 10 users agreed that use of visit notes will help them understand their conditions better (91.8%), and better remember the plan for their care (91.9%). In contrast, 87% disagreed that VA Notes will make them worry more, and 88.4% disagreed that access to VA Notes will be more confusing than helpful. Users who had either contacted their provider or healthcare team (11.9%) or planned to (13.5%) primarily wanted to learn more about a health issue, medication, or test results (53.7%). Initial assessment of the patient experience within the first 9 months of availability provides evidence that patients both value and benefit from online access to clinical notes. These findings are congruent with OpenNotes study findings on a broader scale. Additional outreach and education is needed to enhance patient awareness. Healthcare professionals should author notes keeping in mind the opportunity patient access presents for enhanced communication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Xyce parallel electronic simulator release notes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Hoekstra, Robert John; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. Specific requirements include, among others, the ability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms, improved numerical performance and object-oriented code design and implementation. The Xyce release notes describe: Hardware and software requirements New features and enhancements Any defects fixed since the last release Current known defects and defect workarounds For up-to-date information not available at the time these notes were produced, please visit the Xyce web page at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/xyce.

  6. Application Note: Power Grid Modeling With Xyce.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This application note describes how to model steady-state power flows and transient events in electric power grids with the SPICE-compatible Xyce TM Parallel Electronic Simulator developed at Sandia National Labs. This application notes provides a brief tutorial on the basic devices (branches, bus shunts, transformers and generators) found in power grids. The focus is on the features supported and assumptions made by the Xyce models for power grid elements. It then provides a detailed explanation, including working Xyce netlists, for simulating some simple power grid examples such as the IEEE 14-bus test case.

  7. Applying Lessons from SN Studies to GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, Chris L.

    2009-01-01

    Supernovae and Gamma-Ray bursts display many similarities, both in their observational qualities and in the engines behind these powerful explosions. Although not identical, there is a strong synergy in the study of these two objects. There is much the gamma-ray burst field can learn from the lessons of the more-developed supernova field, but the supernova field can also learn from new techniques developed for gamma-ray burst studies. Here I review some of the 'lessons learned' from these fields to help foster this synergy.

  8. GRBOX: A New Online Catalog of GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perley, Daniel; Kemper, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    With Swift detecting close to 100 new gamma-ray bursts each year, cataloging past bursts is more important than ever. To this end, we present a new online database (GRBOX: Gamma Ray Burst Online IndeX) indexing properties of every well-localized GRB since 1997. Unlike existing resources, the information in the catalog is presented to the user in the form of a sortable, filterable table and derives information for each burst from published catalogs as well as the GCN circulars and refereed publications. Short text summaries and links to other resources are also provided for every event

  9. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY,...

  10. NOTES: issues and technical details with introduction of NOTES into a small general surgery residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavic, Michael S; Mirza, Brian; Horne, Walter; Moskowitz, Jesse B

    2008-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a development of recent origin. In 2004, Kalloo et al first described NOTES investigation in an animal model. Since then, several investigators have pursued NOTES study in animal survival and nonsurvival models. Our objectives for this project included studying NOTES intervention in a laboratory environment using large animal (swine) models and learning to do so in a safe, controlled manner. Ultimately, we intend to introduce NOTES methodology into our surgical residency training program. The expertise of an experienced laparoscopic surgeon, fellowship-trained laparoendoscopic surgeon, and veterinarian along with a senior surgical resident was utilized to bring the input of several disciplines to this study. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Pharmacy (NEOUCOM/COP) approved this study. A series of 5 laboratory sessions using mixed breed farm swine varying in weight from 37 kg to 43.1 kg was planned for the initial phase of NOTES introduction into our residency program. Animals were not kept alive in this investigation. All animals were anesthetized using a standard swine protocol and euthanized following guidelines issued by the American Veterinary Medical Association Panel on Euthanasia. Equipment included a Fujinon EVE endoscope 0.8 cm in diameter with a suction/irrigation channel and one working channel. Initially, a US Endoscopy gastric overtube, 19.5 mm OD and 50 cm in length, was used to facilitate passage of the endoscope. However, this device was found to have insufficient length. Subsequently, commercially available 5/8" diameter clear plastic tubing, 70 cm to 80 cm in length, was adapted for use as an overtube. Standard endoscopic instruments included Boston Scientific biopsy forceps, needle-knife, papillotome, endoscopic clip applier, and Valley Lab electrosurgical unit. A Karl Storz laparoscope and tower were used for

  11. Grouping Notes Through NodesThe Functions of Post-It™ Notes in Design Team Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    The Post-It™ note is a frequently used, and yet seldom studied, design material. We investigate the functions Post-It™ notes serve when providing cognitive support for creative design team practice. Our investigation considers the ways in which Post-It™ notes function as design externalisations......, both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-It™ notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-It™ note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  12. Some notes about the nuclear data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panini, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The paper gives a short description of the main nuclear data collections. The features which are particular of each source are enhanced and compared. Notes about the Nuclear Data Processing are also outlined. The paper is intended as a preliminary approach for people interested in the Nuclear Data management

  13. A note on totally normal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zougdani, H.K.

    1990-10-01

    In this note we give the necessary and sufficient condition for a topological space X such that the product space X x Y is totally normal for any (non discrete) metric space Y, and we show that a totally normal p-space need not be a perfectly normal in general, which makes Theorem 2 doubtful. (author). 6 refs

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS Record of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    50. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND. REPORTS. Record of Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus from Mukundara Hills Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan,. India. Sailaja Nayak1*, Sunny Shah2 and Jimmy Borah2 .... Prey status and abundance in Mukundara Hills Tiger. Reserve. Technical Report, WWF-India. Rao, J.P. ...

  15. Botswana - Accrual Accounting Policy Note and Guide

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This paper comprises two volumes: volume one, this concise policy and guidance note that deals with the request as outlined, and a volume two which provides more detailed technical guidance on the implementation of International Public Sector accounting Standards (IPSAS) accrual based standards. Recommended reforms directly relevant to this paper include: 1) fiscal reforms on both the reve...

  16. Additional notes on the Rubiaceae of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1936-01-01

    Since the appearance of my „Notes on the Rubiaceae of Surinam” (in Rec. d. Trav. bot. néerl. XXXI, 1934, 248; also in Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Utrecht no. 11, 1934) a number of species and varieties new to the flora of that country have come to light. The majority have been collected by Mr. Rombouts

  17. CIFSRF Concept Notes Call 2013 Instructions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Cc: (the other principal investigators and third-party organisations). Subject: CultiAF 2013 Call for Concept Notes Submitted by (names of all principal ..... clerical, accounting, or secretarial help, general office expenses, office rental and utility ... Please provide the details of financial contributions that will be made to the ...

  18. Modern systematics, a further botanical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1948-01-01

    As noted in Dr L.G.M. Baas Becking’s Postscript to Mr van Bemmel’s article in Chronica Naturae Vol. 104, part 4, the new systematics has not been entirely neglected by botanists. I would like to put a further botanical vieuwpoint on this subject. Firstly, I suggest that there is no sharp distinction

  19. NOTE receives the prestigious ALICE Industrial Award

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "NOTE Lund has been given the ALICE Industrial Award due to good co-operation, great capacity for innovation and high quality of work, as a PCB manufacturer in the CERN project ALICE. Only a small number of awards have so far been conferred to a select number of companies."

  20. Note from TS/FM Group

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Renovation work at Restaurant no. 1 Please note that starting from 5 March and for one week, the men's toilets in Bldg. 500 (underground) will be closed because of the renovation work at Restaurant No. 1. The women's toilets in the same place will exceptionally be open to men and women during the same period. We apologize for the inconvenience and we are at your disposal for further information. Shuttle requests Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, shuttle requests: for official visits or bidders' conferences on the CERN site; to/from the airport or the centre of Geneva; for long distances, must be made via Fm.Support@cern.ch or by calling 77777. The radio taxi will still be reachable on 76969. Please note that starting from 1st of March, requests for the transport of PCs from your office to the PC store (Bldg. 513) and vice-versa, must be made the 'transport request' form on EDH under the field 'removals'). Mail distribution Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, mail distrib...

  1. [Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Chul Young; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2008-03-01

    Recently, the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy is developing rapidly. Once limited to the gastroinstestinal lumen, the endoscopic technology is now breaking the barriers and extending its boundary to peritoneal and pleural space. In 2004, Dr. Kalloo, a gastroenterologist, observed intraperitoneal organs of a pig using a conventional endoscope through the stomach wall. Since then, new endoscopic technique of intraperitoneal intervention with transluminal approach named the Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery or NOTES has been introduced. NOTES reaches the target organ by inserting the endoscope through a natural orifice (e.g. mouth, anus, vagina, urethra) and entering the peritoneal lumen by means of making an incision on the luminal wall. After a series of successful experiences in animal studies, NOTES are now being tried on human subjects. There are still many obstacles to overcome, but bright future for this new technology is expected because of its proposed advantages of less pain, lower complication rate, short recovery time, and scarless access. In this review, we plan to learn about NOTES.

  2. Note from the Goods Reception services

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Goods Reception Services

  3. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish, on the ot...... in the interpreting task, i.e. whether it functions as the source or the target language. Drawing on the concept of processing capacity and the Effort Model of consecutive, a tentative explanation of these findings is suggested......., on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status...

  4. European Science Notes. Volume 41, Number 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    management system and of the following: Secretaria de la Revista the inference engine. de Psicologia Social , Facultad de Psico- Application of Knowledge-Based...Notes NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Social and Environmental Psychology .................... William D. Crano 519 Applied Artificial Intelligence...An International Journal ................................. William D. Crano 520 New Spanish Journal of Social Psychology ................. William D

  5. Lecture notes for Advanced Time Series Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Holst, Jan

    1997-01-01

    A first version of this notes was used at the lectures in Grenoble, and they are now extended and improved (together with Jan Holst), and used in Ph.D. courses on Advanced Time Series Analysis at IMM and at the Department of Mathematical Statistics, University of Lund, 1994, 1997, ...

  6. Note Taking in Multi-Media Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kelly; Yao, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    We provide a preliminary exploration into the use of note taking when combined with video examples. Student volunteers were divided into three groups and asked to perform two problems. The first problem was explored in a classroom setting and the other problem was a novel problem. The students were asked to complete the two questions. Furthermore,…

  7. The impact of note taking style and note availability at retrieval on mock jurors' recall and recognition of trial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig; Baxter, Rebecca E; Lorek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Jurors forget critical trial information and what they do recall can be inaccurate. Jurors' recall of trial information can be enhanced by permitting them to take notes during a trial onto blank sheets of paper (henceforth called freestyle note taking). A recent innovation is the trial-ordered-notebook (TON) for jurors, which is a notebook containing headings outlining the trial proceedings and which has space beneath each heading for notes. In a direct comparison, TON note takers recalled more trial information than freestyle note takers. This study investigated whether or not note taking improves recall as a result of enhanced encoding or as a result of note access at retrieval. To assess this, mock jurors watched and freely recalled a trial video with one-fifth taking no notes, two-fifths taking freestyle notes and two-fifths using TONs. During retrieval, half of the freestyle and TON note takers could access their notes. Note taking enhanced recall, with the freestyle note takers and TON note takers without note access performing equally as well. Note taking therefore enhances encoding. Recall was greatest for the TON note takers with note access, suggesting a retrieval enhancement unique to this condition. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Using Guided Notes to Enhance Instruction for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Moira; Joseph, Laurice M.; Itoi, Madoka

    2011-01-01

    Taking notes from lectures or reading material can be challenging, especially for those who have learning disabilities. An alternative to traditional note-taking is a method called "guided notes," which has been found to improve the accuracy of students' notes, increase the frequency of student responses, and improve students' quiz and test…

  9. DigiMemo: Facilitating the Note Taking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Serhat

    2009-01-01

    Everyone takes notes daily for various reasons. Note taking is very popular in school settings and generally recognized as an effective learning strategy. Further, note taking is a complex process because it requires understanding, selection of information and writing. Some new technological tools may facilitate the note taking process. Among such…

  10. LLW notes. Volume 11, No.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    'LLW Notes' is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  11. LLW notes. Vol. 11, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    'LLW Notes' is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  12. LLW notes. Vol. 11, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    `LLW Notes` is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive `LLW Notes`. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  13. Writing and Music: Album Liner Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Leonard Biron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A deceptive aspect of the ‘writing about music is like dancing about architecture’ cliché is the function of the preposition ‘about’. Literature and music, dance and architecture, painting and film – all are discrete aesthetic forms that nonetheless simultaneously feed off and provide nourishment for each other as part of art’s perpetual drive toward diversity and innovation. Nowhere is the aptness of the association between writing and music more obvious than in the phenomenon of album liner notes. Rather than merely an attempt at describing or translating musical experience, liner notes contribute to the dialogue between composer and listener and are a significant part of the culture of contemporary music.

  14. LLW notes, Vol. 11, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    `LLW Notes` is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  15. Flatland an edition with notes and commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Edwin A; Banchoff, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Flatland, Edwin Abbott Abbott's story of a two-dimensional universe, as told by one of its inhabitants who is introduced to the mysteries of three-dimensional space, has enjoyed an enduring popularity from the time of its publication in 1884. This fully annotated edition enables the modern-day reader to understand and appreciate the many "dimensions" of this classic satire. Mathematical notes and illustrations enhance the usefulness of Flatland as an elementary introduction to higher-dimensional geometry. Historical notes show connections to late-Victorian England and to classical Greece. Citations from Abbott's other writings as well as the works of Plato and Aristotle serve to interpret the text. Commentary on language and literary style includes numerous definitions of obscure words. An appendix gives a comprehensive account of the life and work of Flatland's remarkable author.

  16. Teaching Furlow palatoplasty: the sticky note method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mona Mengyue; Kim, JeeHong; Jabbour, Noel

    2014-11-01

    The double-opposing Z-plasty (Furlow palatoplasty) procedure is a well-established method for palate repair in children. We propose a simple and easily accessible sticky note model to demonstrate the lengthening in palatal anatomy afforded by this technically challenging procedure. Our model involves creating a lengthened three-dimensional representation of the Z-plasty through making specified incisions and rearrangements of the palatal layers. The sticky note model was made a total of 20 times and length of the palate model pre and post Z-plasty was measured. The average length of the palate pre-procedure was 72 mm. The average length of the palate post procedure was 78.9 mm, showing an increase of 6.9 mm (9.6%). Our model provides an accurate and valuable educational tool that will aid in the visualization and understanding of the Furlow palatoplasty procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. LLW notes, Vol. 11, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    'LLW Notes' is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  18. Molecular gastronomy is a scientific discipline, and note by note cuisine is the next culinary trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    This Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the past two decades, there has been much confusion about molecular gastronomy. This confusion has arisen because people ignore that the word gastronomy does not mean cuisine, it means knowledge about food. Similar to ‘molecular biology’, molecular gastronomy is a scientific discipline that looks for the mechanisms of phenomena occurring during dish preparation and consumption. As with any other scientific discipline, it can have many applications. One of the first was ‘molecular cuisine’ but since 1994, ‘note by note cuisine’ has also been promoted. The latter involves preparing dishes using pure compounds, or more practically mixture of compounds obtained by fractioning plant or animal tissues, instead of using these tissues themselves. Note by note cuisine raises issues in various fields: science, technology, nutrition, physiology, toxicology and politics.

  19. Notes on HTR applications in methanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, B.; Barnert, H.

    1997-01-01

    Notes on the study of HTR applications are presented. The study in particular should be directed toward the most feasible applications of HTR for process heat generation. A prospective study is the conversion of CO 2 gas from Natuna to methanol or formic acid. Further studies needs to be deepened under the auspices of IAEA and countries that have similar interest. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs

  20. Political Investment in Economic Protection: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenio M. Balisacan

    1987-01-01

    This note presents some aspects of the neoclassical political economy of economic protection. It develops a conceptual framework which focuses on the costs and benefits of investment in political in?uence to certain conditions in the society and how the benefit-cost structure may affect the level of economic protection and the amount of what Bhagwati called "directly unproductive profit-seeking" activities.

  1. Mission climate note n.7, November 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominicis, A. de

    2005-01-01

    The year 2005 was the year of the implementing of the CO 2 quotas market and the implementing of the kyoto protocol after the ratification by Russia. This context confirmed the presence of a 'carbon finance' based on new financial products: the CO 2 actives or carbon credits which materialize the emissions reductions and exist on the new markets. This note presents the main points of these markets: the purchase funds implementing, the investments and the purchase mechanisms management. (A.L.B.)

  2. Note: How Does Product Proliferation Affect Responsiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Diwakar Gupta; Mandyam M. Srinivasan

    1998-01-01

    In this note we consider some strategies that a manufacturing firm may use to deal with an increase in the variety of products it offers. We indicate how alternate strategies for dealing with product proliferation impact the firm's responsiveness, measured in terms of average production lead time and average work-in-process inventory. Focusing on the make-to-order environment and using queueing models, we derive conditions under which an increase in product variety can improve both individual...

  3. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-28

    noted that the alleged Symptom-limited exercise testing is gen- immunity of marathon runners to coronary erally accepted as an integral part of any...marathon runners out of coronary patients. risk, and the motivation pf both physician and Wenger emphasized that there is no fixed dose patient...never 45 ESN 36-2 (1982) RESCUE KITE The accuracy of addition of columns of 2-digit numbers was significantly worse at In emergencies at sea, detection

  4. A note on Ramsey numbers for fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Broersma, Haitze J.; Chen, Yaojun

    For two given graphs G1 and G2, the Ramsey number R(G1,G2) is the smallest integer N such that, for any graph G of order N, either G contains G1 as a subgraph or the complement of G contains G2 as a subgraph. A fan Fl is l triangles sharing exactly one vertex. In this note, it is shown that R(Fn,

  5. Optimization for Guitar Fingering on Single Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Masaru; Hayashida, Takumi

    This paper presents an optimization method for guitar fingering. The fingering is to determine a unique combination of string, fret and finger corresponding to the note. The method aims to generate the best fingering pattern for guitar robots rather than beginners. Furthermore, it can be applied to any musical score on single notes. A fingering action can be decomposed into three motions, that is, a motion of press string, release string and move fretting hand. The cost for moving the hand is estimated on the basis of Manhattan distance which is the sum of distances along fret and string directions. The objective is to minimize the total fingering costs, subject to fret, string and finger constraints. As a sequence of notes on the score forms a line on time series, the optimization for guitar fingering can be resolved into a multistage decision problem. Dynamic programming is exceedingly effective to solve such a problem. A level concept is introduced into rendering states so as to make multiple DP solutions lead a unique one among the DP backward processes. For example, if two fingerings have the same value of cost at different states on a stage, then the low position would be taken precedence over the high position, and the index finger would be over the middle finger.

  6. Energy and greenhouse effect. Twelve short notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, Henri

    2013-12-01

    The author proposes twelve brief notes aimed at discussing the reduction of fossil energy consumption in order to reduce CO 2 emissions and to improve the French energy supply security, without any useless expense. These notes address the reason for energy savings, the cost and price of a CO 2 ton, the issue of thermal regulation for buildings (it's not in compliance with the law, and results in higher expenses and increased CO 2 emissions), the introduction of a carbon tax to incite investments for energy saving, the status and health of the CO 2 European market, the support of actions aimed at reducing fossil energy consumption, the fact that bio-heat is ten times more efficient than bio-fuel and that therefore car holders should finance bio-heat, the development of hybrid uses of energy to avoid the difficulty of energy storage, the reduction of CO 2 emissions at low cost (by consuming as much renewable energy as nuclear energy but without wind or photovoltaic energy), the cost of less CO 2 , less fossil energy and less nuclear, and the interest of France to act on its own to reduce CO 2 emissions. The author proposes a brief synthesis of these notes and some proposals regarding thermal regulation for buildings, taxes, the European CO 2 market, the forest biomass, electricity production, and the European and word dimensions of these issues

  7. Understanding Digital Note-Taking Practice for Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Wesley; Goffin, Pascal; Isenberg, Petra

    2015-05-13

    We present results and design implications from a study of digital note-taking practice to examine how visualization can support revisitation, reflection, and collaboration around notes. As digital notebooks become common forms of external memory, keeping track of volumes of content is increasingly difficult. Information visualization tools can help give note-takers an overview of their content and allow them to explore diverse sets of notes, find and organize related content, and compare their notes with their collaborators. To ground the design of such tools, we conducted a detailed mixed-methods study of digital note-taking practice. We identify a variety of different editing, organization, and sharing methods used by digital note-takers, many of which result in notes becoming "lost in the pile''. These findings form the basis for our design considerations that examine how visualization can support the revisitation, organization, and sharing of digital notes.

  8. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alonso-Izquierdo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  9. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Garcia Fuertes, W., E-mail: wifredo@uniovi.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J., E-mail: guilarte@usal.es [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-02-10

    In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  10. Notes on human error analysis and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1978-11-01

    The notes comprise an introductory discussion of the role of human error analysis and prediction in industrial risk analysis. Following this introduction, different classes of human errors and role in industrial systems are mentioned. Problems related to the prediction of human behaviour in reliability and safety analysis are formulated and ''criteria for analyzability'' which must be met by industrial systems so that a systematic analysis can be performed are suggested. The appendices contain illustrative case stories and a review of human error reports for the task of equipment calibration and testing as found in the US Licensee Event Reports. (author)

  11. A note on the microeconomics of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, K

    1983-11-01

    "The purpose of this note is to demonstrate in a simple model that an individual's migration from a small town to a large city may be rationalized purely by a consumption motive, rather than the motive of obtaining a higher income. More specifically, it is shown that in a large city an individual may derive a higher utility from spending a given amount of income than in a small town." A formal model is first developed that includes the principal forces at work and is then illustrated using a graphic example. The theoretical and empirical issues raised are considered in the concluding section. excerpt

  12. A note on oblique water entry

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.

    2012-10-02

    A minor error in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) obscured the fact that the points at which the free surface turns over in the solution of the Wagner model for the oblique impact of a two-dimensional body are directly related to the turnover points in the equivalent normal impact problem. This note corrects some of the earlier results given in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) and discusses the implications for the applicability of the Wagner model. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. European Science Notes. Volume 40, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry mers and copolymers of polyacrylate salt series edited by Professor J.F.J. Todd latex) rather than an inorganic or or- (University...changes in the popu- cy with two potassium dihydrogen phos- lation of a vibrational manifold were phate (KDP) crystals. Following a fil- determined by...AD-A162 235 EUROPEAN SCIENCE NOTES VOLUME 48 NUMBER I(U) OFFICE OF i/1 NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON (ENGLAND) L E SHAFFER JAN 86 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 5/2

  14. Note about socio-economic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Salling, Kim Bang

    2006-01-01

    these effects must be described qualitatively. This note describes the socio-economic evaluation based on market prices and not factor prices which has been the tradition in Denmark till now. This is due to the recommendation from the Ministry of Transport to start using calculations based on market prices...... alternative. In socio-economic evaluations it is intended to describe the effects in economic terms whenever possible (”+” is used when it is positive for the society, and ”–” when it is negative for the society). However, not all the effects for the society can be described in economic terms, and instead...

  15. A note on Jauch-Piron states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pták, Pavel

    1986-04-01

    A state s on a logic L is called Jauch-Piron if the equality s( a)= s( b)=1 for a,b∈ L implies the existence of such an element c∈ L that c⩽ a, c⩽ b and s( c)=1. If L is a lattice then the present definition coincides with Jauch-Piron states as defined in [7], [9] and [13]. A logic is called Jauch-Piron if its every state is Jauch-Piron. In this note we investigate the size of the class of Jauch-Piron logics.

  16. A note on simultaneous Monte Carlo tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ute

    In this short note, Monte Carlo tests of goodness of fit for data of the form X(t), t ∈ I are considered, that reject the null hypothesis if X(t) leaves an acceptance region bounded by an upper and lower curve for some t in I. A construction of the acceptance region is proposed that complies to a...... to a given target level of rejection, and yields exact p-values. The construction is based on pointwise quantiles, estimated from simulated realizations of X(t) under the null hypothesis....

  17. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.

    2004-01-01

    and program reactive systems. This note provides a comprehensive introduction to the background for and central notions from the theory of tccp. Furthermore, it surveys recent results on a particular tccp calculus, ntcc, and it provides a classification of the expressive power of various tccp languages.......A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  18. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  19. The Husting dilemma: A methodological note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Hepp, G.R.; Pollock, K.H.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, Gill (1985) discussed the interpretation of capture history data resulting from his own studies on the red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens , and work by Husting (1965) on spotted salamanders, Ambystoma maculatum. Gill (1985) noted that gaps in capture histories (years in which individuals were not captured, preceded and followed by years in which they were) could result from either of two very different possibilities: (1) failure of the animal to return to the fenced pond to breed (the alternative Husting (1965) favored), or (2) return of the animal to the breeding pond, but failure of the investigator to capture it and detect its presence. The authors agree entirely with Gill (1985) that capture history data such as his or those of Husting (1965) should be analyzed using models that recognize the possibility of 'census error,' and that it is important to try to distinguish between such 'error' and skipped breeding efforts. The purpose of this note is to point out the relationship between Gill's (1985:347) null model and certain capture-recapture models, and to use capture-recapture models and tests to analyze the original data of Husting (1965).

  20. Gaz de France. Operation note; Gaz de France. Note d'operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  1. 29 CFR Appendix to Subpart B of... - Reporter's Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Part 18—Reporter's Notes Reporter's Introductory Note The Rules of Evidence for the United States... contained in its files, such as the revenue statistics contained in the reports submitted to it by a...

  2. Notes on the IMACON 500 streak camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The notes provided are intended to supplement the instruction manual for the IMACON 500 streak camera system. The notes cover the streak analyzer, instructions for timing the streak camera, and calibration

  3. A Pedagogic Cycle for EFL Note-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    More attention has been given to note-taking in EFL classrooms in recent years, probably due to growing numbers of EFL students who attend lectures given in English and the importance of note-taking during language proficiency tests. While textbooks and materials for note-taking practice are readily available, classroom techniques for teaching EFL…

  4. Insights regarding the Usefulness of Partial Notes in Mathematics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardetti, Fabiana; Khamsemanan, Nirattaya; Orgnero, M. Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Note-taking is a widespread practice used by college students to record information from lectures. Unfortunately, even successful students' notes are incomplete and, therefore, may lack the potential to positively impact their academic performance. Research suggests that instructors can help students improve their note-taking skills by using…

  5. Grouping notes through nodes: The functions of Post-It notes in design team cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the way Post-It notes support creative design team practice, focusing on how they function as cognitive externalisations that, through grouping activities, support categorisation qualities associated with semantic long-term memory. We use a multimodal approach, drawing...

  6. Lecture Notes on Topics in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex W.

    2002-11-15

    These are lecture notes that cover a selection of topics, some of them under current research, in accelerator physics. I try to derive the results from first principles, although the students are assumed to have an introductory knowledge of the basics. The topics covered are: (1) Panofsky-Wenzel and Planar Wake Theorems; (2) Echo Effect; (3) Crystalline Beam; (4) Fast Ion Instability; (5) Lawson-Woodward Theorem and Laser Acceleration in Free Space; (6) Spin Dynamics and Siberian Snakes; (7) Symplectic Approximation of Maps; (8) Truncated Power Series Algebra; and (9) Lie Algebra Technique for nonlinear Dynamics. The purpose of these lectures is not to elaborate, but to prepare the students so that they can do their own research. Each topic can be read independently of the others.

  7. Lecture Notes on Topics in Accelerator Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Alex W.

    2002-01-01

    These are lecture notes that cover a selection of topics, some of them under current research, in accelerator physics. I try to derive the results from first principles, although the students are assumed to have an introductory knowledge of the basics. The topics covered are: (1) Panofsky-Wenzel and Planar Wake Theorems; (2) Echo Effect; (3) Crystalline Beam; (4) Fast Ion Instability; (5) Lawson-Woodward Theorem and Laser Acceleration in Free Space; (6) Spin Dynamics and Siberian Snakes; (7) Symplectic Approximation of Maps; (8) Truncated Power Series Algebra; and (9) Lie Algebra Technique for nonlinear Dynamics. The purpose of these lectures is not to elaborate, but to prepare the students so that they can do their own research. Each topic can be read independently of the others

  8. A note on migration with borrowing constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, S; Levine, P

    1994-12-01

    "This note examines an important conflict between the theory and evidence on migration in LDCs. While the Harris-Todaro class of models explain the phenomenon of migration mainly by expected income differential between the economically advanced and the backward regions, the actual evidence in some cases suggests that migration could actually rise following a rise in income in backward areas. We resolve this puzzle by analysing migration in the context of the existence of imperfect credit markets in LDCs. We show that under certain plausible conditions, the rate of migration from the rural to the urban areas may actually rise when rural wages rise, as they ease the constraints on borrowing by potential migrants." excerpt

  9. Note on the extended noncommutativity of coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulahoual, Amina; Sedra, My. Brahim

    2001-04-01

    We present in this short note an idea about a possible extension of the standard noncommutative algebra to the formal differential operators framework. In this sense, we develop an analysis and derive an extended noncommutative algebra given by [x a , x b ] * =i(θ+χ) ab where θ ab , is the standard noncommutative parameter and χ ab (x)≡χ ab μ (x)δ μ =1/2(x a θ μ b -x b θ a )δ μ is an antisymmetric non-constant vector-field shown to play the role of the extended deformation parameter. This idea was motivated by the importance of noncommutative geometry framework in the current subject of D-brane and matrix theory physics. (author)

  10. [Nutritional status recording in hospitalized patient notes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, L; Teixeira, M A; Henriques, A; Tavares, M M; Alvares, L; Antunes, A; Amaral, Teresa F

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition (DRM) is described to be of 30-60% on admission to hospital, and of 10% in the community. It has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, namely higher morbidity and mortality as well as higher frequency of health care and its associated costs. The lack of screening and monitoring of nutritional status have been said to be risk factors for the increased prevalence of DRM during hospital stay. The aims of this study were to evaluate the importance given by health care professionals to certain aspects related with nutritional status (weight, food intake) of hospital patients and to see if there were any differences between the under and non undernourished ones. A systematic sample of patients from six hospitals was collected. Pregnancy, paediatric age and critical illness were exclusion criteria as well as incapacity to fulfil nutritional risk screening protocol and length-of-stay less than 24h. Socio-demographic, anthropometric data and clinical notes (e.g. weight, food/nutrient intake) from medical records were collected and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 protocol was applied. A total of 1152 patients were included in this study. The prevalence of nutritional risk varied between 28.5% and 47.3% while undernutrition classified by anthropometrical parameters was considerably lower (6.3% to 14.9%). Two thirds of the patients had their food intake monitored and registered in medical records but only one third were weighted. Undernourished patients had their food intake more frequently monitored but their weight was less frequently measured, than the well-nourished ones. DRM prevalence amongst hospital patients on admission is significantly high. Clinical notes regarding nutritional status is rather infrequent on medical records. This study showed that urges the need to empower health care providers of the importance of the screening and monitoring of weight and food intake, on admission and during hospital stay.

  11. Effects of Note-Taking Instruction and Note-Taking Languages on College EFL Students' Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai-Fu, Tsai; Wu, Yongan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The effect of note-taking has been well-recognized by EFL educators. However, little empirical research has been done to investigate combined effects of note-taking instruction and note-taking language (whether in L1 or L2) in an acquisition-poor environment, where English is used as an instructional language yet the audience is…

  12. EVALUATION OF STUDENT'S NOTES IN A BLENDED LEARNING COURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Minoru Nakayama; Kouichi Mutsuura; Hiroh Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Student’s notes are evaluated to trace their learning process in a blended learning course, and the factors affecting the quality of these notes are discussed. As individual note-taking performance may be based on student’s characteristics, these contributions are also examined. Some factors about per-sonality and the learning experience are sig-nificant, and positively affect the grades given to notes. Lexical features of notes tak-en were extracted using a text analysis tech-nique, and ...

  13. Performance of the diffraction grating on a bank note: the experience with the Australian Commemorative note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Bruce A.

    1990-04-01

    In January 1988, we at the Note Printing Branch first released to the Reserve Bank a polymer based banknote containing an Optically Variable Device (OVD), a diffraction grating. This banknote was the culmination of many years of Research and Development effort, and represented a very significant departure from conventional banknote technology in many ways. It was a test bed. We are very pleased with its performance.

  14. Notes about psychology and art fruition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ferrari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhibition entitled "Forme per il David", which took place at the Accademia of Florence between 2004 and 2005, and the analysis of the spectators’ reactions are the occasion for a series of reflections on psychological dynamics of the reception of art. After some preliminary notes on methodological issues of interdisciplinarity and on the way of empirical research about the attitude of the public in museums, the article (even taking into account the reactions of the audience in front of Michelangelo's David focuses on the erotic-instinctual elements in the enjoyment of arts, and offers some criticism about the use of the sublimation’s concept. It then speaks about the role and "degrees" of the “Uncanny” and about the dynamics of identification processes in the study of art fruition. It also emphasizes the importance of the "context" of use as a preliminary to the understanding of its mechanisms. The last section is devoted to the problem of emotion considered from the point of view of psychology, art and aesthetics.

  15. MCNP Version 6.2 Release Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solomon, C. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McKinney, Gregg Walter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dixon, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martz, Roger Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cox, Lawrence James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zukaitis, Anthony J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Armstrong, J. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forster, Robert Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Casswell, Laura [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-05

    Monte Carlo N-Particle or MCNP® is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation-transport code designed to track many particle types over broad ranges of energies. This MCNP Version 6.2 follows the MCNP6.1.1 beta version and has been released in order to provide the radiation transport community with the latest feature developments and bug fixes for MCNP. Since the last release of MCNP major work has been conducted to improve the code base, add features, and provide tools to facilitate ease of use of MCNP version 6.2 as well as the analysis of results. These release notes serve as a general guide for the new/improved physics, source, data, tallies, unstructured mesh, code enhancements and tools. For more detailed information on each of the topics, please refer to the appropriate references or the user manual which can be found at http://mcnp.lanl.gov. This release of MCNP version 6.2 contains 39 new features in addition to 172 bug fixes and code enhancements. There are still some 33 known issues the user should familiarize themselves with (see Appendix).

  16. Mathematician for all seasons recollections and notes

    CERN Document Server

    Szymaniec, Irena; Weron, Aleksander; Shenitzer, Abe

    2015-01-01

    This book presents, in his own words, the life of Hugo Steinhaus (1887–1972), noted Polish mathematician of Jewish background, educator, and mathematical popularizer. A student of Hilbert, a pioneer of the foundations of probability and game theory, and a contributor to the development of functional analysis, he was one of those instrumental to the extraordinary flowering of Polish mathematics before and after World War I. In particular, it was he who “discovered” the great Stefan Banach. Exhibiting his great integrity and wit, Steinhaus’s personal story of the turbulent times he survived – including two world wars and life postwar under the Soviet heel – cannot but be of consuming interest. His recounting of the fearful years spent evading Nazi terror is especially moving. The steadfast honesty and natural dignity he maintained while pursuing a life of demanding scientific and intellectual enquiry in the face of encroaching calamity and chaos show him to be truly a mathematician for all seasons. ...

  17. Note on specifying and verifying concurrent processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holenderski, L.

    1984-02-28

    To represent sequential processes, sets of finite sequences of symbols from a finite alphabet are used in this approach, alphabet symbols denote events occurring when a process is being executed, a sequence of symbols is a record of one execution of the process, and a set of such sequences represents the process itself by combining all its possible executions together. Although this model turned out adequate for specifying concurrent processes and allows proving their properties, there are two reasons, at least, why this note takes the same subject up again. First, by analogy to shuffle and its closure, which express parallel combination and parallel iteration of non-interacting processes, there is a need for a similar operation describing the behaviour of interaction processes. A new extension of shuffle is proposed as a generalization. The closure of this operation provides a tool for specification of parallelly iterated processes. Moreover, the closure makes mutually recursive specification unnecessary. Second, when this model was used to prove properties of concurrent computations, only flow-of-control schemes were considered (thus, only some general properties were proved). When applied to concrete programs using variables that have values, such schemes had to be interpreted. In contrast to such a schematic approach, the usefulness of the same method for concrete programs is argued. This is shown using an example of a correctness proof of an implementation of unbounded semaphore by binary semaphores. 8 references.

  18. BNL ALARA Center: ALARA Notes, No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    This issue of the Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alara Notes includes the agenda for the Third International Workshop on ALARA and specific instructions on the use of the on-line fax-on-demand service provided by BNL. Other topics included in this issue are: (1) A discussion of low-level discharges from Canadian nuclear plants, (2) Safety issues at French nuclear plants, (3) Acoustic emission as a means of leak detection, (4) Replacement of steam generators at Doel-3, Beaznau, and North Anna-1, (5) Remote handling equipment at Bruce, (6) EPRI's low level waste program, (7) Radiation protection during concrete repairs at Savannah River, (8) Reactor vessel stud removal/repair at Comanche Peak-1, (9) Rework of reactor coolant pump motors, (10) Restoration of service water at North Anna-1 and -2, (11) Steam generator tubing problems at Mihama-1, (12) Full system decontamination at Indian Point-2, (13) Chemical decontamination at Browns Ferry-2, and (14) Inspection methodolody in France and Japan

  19. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  20. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Serrà

    Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  1. July 2016 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first 150 words. The July 2016 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, July 27, 2016 at the Scottsdale Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. This was a dinner meeting with case presentations. There were 14 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and radiology communities. Prior to the case presentations, a discussion was held on 4 issues. First, Dr. Rick Robbins gave a summary of ATS Hill Day. During Hill Day a presentation was given by a representative from the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Their web site lists tobacco company contributions to members of Congress on their web site. Dr. Gary Ewart from the ATS office in Washington gave a presentation on the Traditional Cigar Manufacturing and Small Business Jobs Preservation Act before Congress (aka the Cigar Bill which the ATS opposes. He noted that cosponsors for the bill included several Congressmen from Southwestern states. Dr. Robbins combined the two ...

  2. Looking Deeper into the Galaxy (Note 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J. Loveridge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Li-ion cell designs, component integrity, and manufacturing processes all have critical influence on the safety of Li-ion batteries. Any internal defective features that induce a short circuit, can trigger a thermal runaway: a cascade of reactions, leading to a device fire. As consumer device manufacturers push aggressively for increased battery energy, instances of field failure are increasingly reported. Notably, Samsung made a press release in 2017 following a total product recall of their Galaxy Note 7 mobile phone, confirming speculation that the events were attributable to the battery and its mode of manufacture. Recent incidences of battery swelling on the new iPhone 8 have been reported in the media, and the techniques and lessons reported herein may have future relevance. Here we look deeper into the key components of one of these cells and confirm evidence of cracking of electrode material in tightly folded areas, combined with a delamination of surface coating on the separator, which itself is an unusually thin monolayer. We report microstructural information about the electrodes, battery welding attributes, and thermal mapping of the battery whilst operational. The findings present a deeper insight into the battery’s component microstructures than previously disseminated. This points to the most probable combination of events and highlights the impact of design features, whilst providing structural considerations most likely to have led to the reported incidences relating to this phone.

  3. Notes on Mayer expansions and matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile

    2014-01-01

    Mayer cluster expansion is an important tool in statistical physics to evaluate grand canonical partition functions. It has recently been applied to the Nekrasov instanton partition function of N=2 4d gauge theories. The associated canonical model involves coupled integrations that take the form of a generalized matrix model. It can be studied with the standard techniques of matrix models, in particular collective field theory and loop equations. In the first part of these notes, we explain how the results of collective field theory can be derived from the cluster expansion. The equalities between free energies at first orders is explained by the discrete Laplace transform relating canonical and grand canonical models. In a second part, we study the canonical loop equations and associate them with similar relations on the grand canonical side. It leads to relate the multi-point densities, fundamental objects of the matrix model, to the generating functions of multi-rooted clusters. Finally, a method is proposed to derive loop equations directly on the grand canonical model

  4. Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pestian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25–34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15–25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient’s thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.

  5. Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestian, John; Nasrallah, Henry; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Bennett, Aurora; Leenaars, Antoon

    2010-08-04

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25-34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15-25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient's thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.

  6. Note-taking and Handouts in The Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Elizabeth Moore; Cain, Jeff

    2015-09-25

    Most educators consider note-taking a critical component of formal classroom learning. Advancements in technology such as tablet computers, mobile applications, and recorded lectures are altering classroom dynamics and affecting the way students compose and review class notes. These tools may improve a student's ability to take notes, but they also may hinder learning. In an era of dynamic technology developments, it is important for educators to routinely examine and evaluate influences on formal and informal learning environments. This paper discusses key background literature on student note-taking, identifies recent trends and potential implications of mobile technologies on classroom note-taking and student learning, and discusses future directions for note-taking in the context of digitally enabled lifelong learning.

  7. Digital Note-Taking: Discussion of Evidence and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Jason A

    2016-03-01

    Balancing active course engagement and comprehension with producing quality lecture notes is challenging. Although evidence suggests that handwritten note-taking may improve comprehension and learning outcomes, many students still self-report a preference for digital note-taking and a belief that it is beneficial. Future research is warranted to determine the effects on performance of digitally writing notes. Independent of the methods or software chosen, best practices should be provided to students with information to help them consciously make an educated decision based on the evidence and their personal preference. Optimal note-taking requires self-discipline, focused attention, sufficient working memory, thoughtful rewording, and decreased distractions. Familiarity with the tools and mediums they choose will help students maximize working memory, produce better notes, and aid in their retention of material presented.

  8. Laparotomy operative note template constructed through a modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lolonya; Churley-Strom, Ruth; Singal, Bonita; O'Leary, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    An operative note is indispensable to physician documentation and decision-making; however, there are no accepted standards for operative note content. Our aim was to use a modified Delphi consensus-building method to construct a uniform operative note template for laparotomy. Using Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requirements, literature review, and feedback from 15 medical malpractice defense attorneys, we compiled a draft operative note template of 31 elements. We surveyed 37 Association of Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics/Solvay scholars asking for their input on inclusion of each item as essential content of the operative note. Two iterations of the survey were required to reach a predetermined 75% level of consensus. Nine elements were eliminated from the template: 6 original and 3 expert-suggested elements. We provide an operative note template that was compiled through a Delphi process.

  9. A note on derivations in semiprime rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joso Vukman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove in this note the following result. Let n>1 be an integer and let R be an n!-torsion-free semiprime ring with identity element. Suppose that there exists an additive mapping D:R→R such that D(xn=∑j=1nxn−jD(xxj−1 is fulfilled for all x∈R. In this case, D is a derivation. This research is motivated by the work of Bridges and Bergen (1984. Throughout, R will represent an associative ring with center Z(R. Given an integer n>1, a ring R is said to be n-torsion-free if for x∈R, nx=0 implies that x=0. Recall that a ring R is prime if for a,b∈R, aRb=(0 implies that either a=0 or b=0, and is semiprime in case aRa=(0 implies that a=0. An additive mapping D:R→R is called a derivation if D(xy=D(xy+xD(y holds for all pairs x,y∈R and is called a Jordan derivation in case D(x2=D(xx+xD(x is fulfilled for all x∈R. Every derivation is a Jordan derivation. The converse is in general not true. A classical result of Herstein (1957 asserts that any Jordan derivation on a prime ring with characteristic different from two is a derivation. A brief proof of Herstein's result can be found in 1988 by Brešar and Vukman. Cusack (1975 generalized Herstein's result to 2-torsion-free semiprime rings (see also Brešar (1988 for an alternative proof. For some other results concerning derivations on prime and semiprime rings, we refer to Brešar (1989, Vukman (2005, Vukman and Kosi-Ulbl (2005.

  10. Note on the stability of large cartels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postlewaite, A; Roberts, J

    1977-11-01

    Professor L. Johansen (Econometrica, 45: 1651-(1977)) made a valuable point in raising the issue of the stability of competitive behavior and outcomes, even in large economies composed of many small agents, when these agents can collude in attempting to manipulate price formation. The authors formerly argued that, in most situations involving a large number of small agents, the ability of any individual to manipulate prices by altering his offers to buy and sell from their competitive values would go to zero as the number of agents increases. Correspondingly, the gain he could realize by such non-competitive behavior would vanish asymptotically. Thus, if there are any differential costs involved in such manipulation, there would be no incentive in large economies for agents individually to depart from competitive behavior. Professor Johansen suggests that this argument does not apply if agents collude, and certainly one would expect that usually some group would find forming a cartel to its advantage. However, cartels would seem to present a serious threat to the competitive system in the long run only if they are themselves stable against individuals breaking from the cartel and readopting competitive behavior. The purpose of this note is to show how a minor adaptation of the authors analysis in a former paper, ''Incentives for Price-Taking Behavior in Large Exchange Economies'' (Econometrica, 44: 115(1976)) indicates that instability of this type is pervasive for the case of cartels composed of many small agents. It is believed this serves to highlight the nature of the oligopoly problem.

  11. Note-taking and Handouts in The Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Stacy, Elizabeth Moore; Cain, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Most educators consider note-taking a critical component of formal classroom learning. Advancements in technology such as tablet computers, mobile applications, and recorded lectures are altering classroom dynamics and affecting the way students compose and review class notes. These tools may improve a student’s ability to take notes, but they also may hinder learning. In an era of dynamic technology developments, it is important for educators to routinely examine and evaluate influences on f...

  12. U-Note: Capture the Class and Access it Everywhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malacria, Sylvain; Pietrzak, Thomas; Tabard, Aurélien

    2011-01-01

    We present U-Note, an augmented teaching and learning system leveraging the advantages of paper while letting teachers and pupils benefit from the richness that digital media can bring to a lecture. U-Note provides automatic linking between the notes of the pupils’ notebooks and various events...... on three modules. U-Teach captures the context of the class: audio recordings, the whiteboard contents, together with the web pages, videos and slideshows displayed during the lesson. U-Study binds pupils’ paper notes (taken with an Anoto digital pen) with the data coming from U-Teach and lets pupils...

  13. Financial accounting: an epistemological research note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schiehll

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research note is the result of the authors' reflections on epistemological issues in respect to the financial accounting field. From an epistemological perspective, this document attempts to trace the philosophical, historical, sociological, and discursive research perspectives that have guided academic research in the field of financial accounting. In order to do so, this document explores the distinctions and connections between accounting theory and accounting practice, which we believe is the first step towards understanding accounting as a scientific discipline. We analyze the theories underpinning financial accounting research, discussing its purposes, historic evolution, and scientific methods used. This document also discuss the sociological and discursive contexts of financial accounting in order to demonstrate that, like every other social science, accounting research is based upon assumptions about the nature of it players, or social networks. This document does not have the pretension to cover or close the discussion about all the pitfalls of this complex topic. In this sense, we try to document our analysis and draw some arguments in order to offer evidence for further discussion.Este ensaio teórico é resultado de reflexões dos autores acerca de questões epistemológicas sobre a contabilidade financeira. Através de uma perspectiva epistemológica, este trabalho busca traçar perspectivas filosóficas, históricas, sociológicas e discursivas que guiaram a pesquisa acadêmica na área da contabilidade financeira. Para isso, exploram-se as similaridades e diferenças entre a teoria e a prática contábil, pois esse é o primeiro para a compreensão da contabilidade como disciplina científica. Analisam-se as teorias que suportam a pesquisa em contabilidade financeira, discutindo seu propósito, evolução histórica e métodos científicos utilizados. O presente trabalho também discute os contextos sociológicos e

  14. Notes on SAW Tag Interrogation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    provide guidelines for proper interrogator design, but also provide some insight on the validity of the assumed signal model. It should be noted that the assumption that the impulse response of the tag of interest is known precisely implies that the temperature and range of the tag are also known precisely, which is generally not the case in practice. However, analyzing interrogator performance under this simplifying assumption is much more straightforward and still provides a great deal of insight into the nature of the problem.

  15. The STS-constructivist reform: some discordant notes | Nworgu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It would appear that as many more voices join in the advocacy for STS constructivist Reform in science teaching/learning, more discordant notes are emitted. The purpose of the paper therefore, was to spotlight some of these discordant notes emitted in the course of the on-going reform advocacy. Specifically, three of such ...

  16. 26 CFR 20.2031-4 - Valuation of notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of notes. 20.2031-4 Section 20.2031-4... ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Gross Estate § 20.2031-4 Valuation of notes... of the party or parties liable, or for other cause), and that any property pledged or mortgaged as...

  17. 26 CFR 25.2512-4 - Valuation of notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of notes. 25.2512-4 Section 25.2512-4... GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Transfers § 25.2512-4 Valuation of notes. The fair market... the property, if any, pledged or mortgaged as security is insufficient to satisfy it. ...

  18. 46 CFR 403.120 - Notes to financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notes to financial statements. 403.120 Section 403.120... ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.120 Notes to financial statements. (a) All matters that are not clearly identified in the body of the financial statements of the Association, but which may materially influence...

  19. Note-Taking and Memory in Different Media Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Bigenho, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Through this study the authors investigated undergraduate students' memory recall in three media environments with three note-taking options, following an A x B design with nine experiments. The three environments included no-distraction, auditory-distraction, and auditory-visual-distraction; while the three note-taking options included…

  20. Suicide Notes in Mexico: What Do They Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Hernandez, Ana-Maria; Paramo, Daniel; Leenaars, Antoon A.; Leenaars, Lindsey

    2006-01-01

    According to international and Mexican official statistics, there is a dramatic rise in suicide in Mexico; however, research in this area is severely limited. This is the first study of suicide notes from Mexico in the international literature. From a population of 747 registered suicides, a sample of 106 note-writers and 106 nonnote writers was…

  1. Contamination of Ethiopian paper currency notes from various food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contamination rate of Ethiopian paper currency notes handled by various food handlers with E. coli and antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed. A total of 384 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) notes were randomly sampled from meat handlers at butchers, bread and the related food handlers at cafeteria, fruit and vegetables handlers ...

  2. A note on 'Oriental magic mirrors and the Laplacian image'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesz, Ferenc

    2006-01-01

    Berry has shown (2006 Eur. J. Phys. 27 109-18) that the image of an oriental magic mirror (an essentially flat mirror with small surface relief) is the Laplacian of the surface relief for low-curvature features. In this note, an alternative derivation is presented and the physical meaning of the used approximations is explained. (note)

  3. Lecture Notes and Exercises for Course 21240 (Basic Analytical Chemistry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years.......The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years....

  4. Lecture Notes and Exercises for Course 21240 (Basic Analytical Chemistry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years.......The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years....

  5. The quality of operative notes at a general surgery unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A; Bunting, M; Atherstone, A

    2008-09-01

    With the increasingly litigious nature of medical practice, accurate documentation is critical. This is particularly true for operative procedures, and medical councils have identified this and published guidelines to aid surgeons. However, these remain a frequently cited weakness in their defence in medico-legal cases. This study assessed the accuracy of operative notes in a general surgery unit in order to improve our practice. An audit of 100 consecutive operative notes was performed, and notes were assessed using the Royal College of Surgeons guidelines. The quality of note-taking of trainees was compared with that of consultant surgeons. A series of operation note pro formas was designed in response to the findings. Of the notes, 66% were completed by trainees. The vast majority of notes had no diagram to demonstrate the surgical findings or illustrate the actions. Specialist surgeons were more likely to describe the actions accurately, but less likely to describe wound closure methods or dressings used. They were also less likely to complete adequate postoperative orders. This study identifies key areas of weakness in our operative note-keeping. Pro formas should be introduced and made available for commonly performed procedures, and diagrams should be used wherever possible.

  6. The future of NOTES from the conservative point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Nobuyasu

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the unfamiliar term "natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES)" appeared in my field. Actually, I am hesitant to accept this technique in my surgical practice. In this paper, I will review some references and try to establish my position toward NOTES. The author has been skeptical and ironical about the clinical potentiality of NOTES since hearing the presentation about NOTES for the first time. I have been concerned about making a puncture in the gastrointestinal tract as an old surgeon who believes that intestinal injury must not occur during surgery. However, recent advances in the research of NOTES are changing my stubborn belief. What I have to do is to avoid interrupting or disturbing young surgeons' challenges to develop NOTES. I remember that some senior surgeons were against us when we started laparoscopic surgery around 1990. Senior surgeons and physicians must be generous, considerate, helpful and supportive to our followers. I have been enthusiastic about the development and spread of laparoscopic surgery since 1987 and have been doing various surgical procedures myself, including those involving the biliary tract, pancreas, spleen, upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, adrenal, kidney and gynecologic organs. Recently, the unfamiliar term "NOTES" appeared in my field. Actually, I am hesitant to accept this technique in my surgical practice. In this paper I will review some references and try to establish my position toward NOTES.

  7. How College Science Students Engage in Note-Taking Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Janice M.; Holliday, William G.

    2006-01-01

    A composite theory of college science student note-taking strategies was derived from a periodic series of five interviews with 23 students and with other variables, including original and final versions of notes analyzed during a semester-long genetics course. This evolving composite theory was later compared with Van Meter, Yokoi, and Pressley's…

  8. Analysing playing using the note-time playing path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Deborah L E; Schubert, Emery

    2011-03-01

    This article introduces a new method of data analysis that represents the playing of written music as a graph. The method, inspired by Miklaszewski, charts low-level note timings from a sound recording of a single-line instrument using high-precision audio-to-MIDI conversion software. Note onset times of pitch sequences are then plotted against the score-predicted timings to produce a Note-Time Playing Path (NTPP). The score-predicted onset time of each sequentially performed note (horizontal axis) unfolds in performed time down the page (vertical axis). NTPPs provide a visualisation that shows (1) tempo variations, (2) repetitive practice behaviours, (3) segmenting of material, (4) precise note time positions, and (5) time spent on playing or not playing. The NTPP can provide significant new insights into behaviour and cognition of music performance and may also be used to complement established traditional approaches such as think-alouds, interviews, and video coding.

  9. Intentional forgetting: note-taking as a naturalistic example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskritt, Michelle; Ma, Sierra

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we examined whether note-taking as a memory aid may provide a naturalistic example of intentional forgetting. In the first experiment, participants played Concentration, a memory card game in which the identity and location of pairs of cards need to be remembered. Before the game started, half of the participants were allowed to study the cards, and the other half made notes that were then unexpectedly taken away. No significant differences emerged between the two groups for remembering identity information, but the study group remembered significantly more location information than did the note-taking group. In a second experiment, we examined whether note-takers would show signs of proactive interference while playing Concentration repeatedly. The results indicated that they did not. The findings suggest that participants adopted an intentional-forgetting strategy when using notes to store certain types of information.

  10. The Impact of Novice Counselors' Note-Taking Behavior on Recall and Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chu-Ling; Wadsworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of note-taking on novice counselors' recall and judgment of interview information in four situations: no notes, taking notes, taking notes and reviewing these notes, and reviewing notes taken by others. Method: The sample included 13 counselors-in-training recruited from a master's level training program in…

  11. Melanie Klein and countertransference: a note on some archival material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshelwood, R D

    2008-01-01

    Five pages of notes were found in the Melanie Klein Archives at the Wellcome Library that concern her views on countertransference in 1953. Because of the paucity of references to countertransference in Klein's published writings these Notes fill in out knowledge. Her views were provoked by the work her students were doing in their experimental analyses of schizophrenic patients. Apocryphal stories suggest that Klein remained aligned with Freud's view of countertransference as simply interference. The Notes confirm that, whilst there is some truth to that, she did have a more sophisticated and nuanced view of the unconscious relations between analyst and analysand.

  12. The Minnesota notes on Jordan algebras and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Walcher, Sebastian

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains a re-edition of Max Koecher's famous Minnesota Notes. The main objects are homogeneous, but not necessarily convex, cones. They are described in terms of Jordan algebras. The central point is a correspondence between semisimple real Jordan algebras and so-called omega-domains. This leads to a construction of half-spaces which give an essential part of all bounded symmetric domains. The theory is presented in a concise manner, with only elementary prerequisites. The editors have added notes on each chapter containing an account of the relevant developments of the theory since these notes were first written.

  13. 7 CFR 1980.333 - Promissory notes and security instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... promissory notes, real estate mortgages, including deeds of trust and similar instruments, and security... Interest Assistance Agreement, assure that the closing agent properly records a junior mortgage or deed of...

  14. Improvement noted after a multifaceted approach to diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guidelines by clinicians was also noted in other studies carried out in the United States of ... Health Ethics Review (UHERB) and the Biomedical Research. Ethics Committee ..... results of feasibility study. The DCCT ... there a gap? The South ...

  15. Call for concept notes for research on gender equality and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-07

    Aug 7, 2017 ... Call for concept notes for research on gender equality and decentralization in Myanmar ... address gender inequality in political participation; and; improve gender-sensitive ... ROSSA's latest bulletin puts a focus on women.

  16. Research Note: Comparative antibacterial activities of oil-palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note: Comparative antibacterial activities of oil-palm Elaeis ... The antimicrobial activities liquid pyrolysates (obtained by destructive distillation), their ... respective chloroform fractions which showed higher activities than the crude ...

  17. Technical note An investigation of the franchising option for water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note An investigation of the franchising option for water services operation ... of water services, and outlines the need to formulate a franchise model that ... made available to emerging entrepreneurs as the basis of a viable business.

  18. Editorial Notes: Exhibition Complex: Displaying People, Identity, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Cymbala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Editorial Notes on section relating to submissions from the symposium Exhibition Complex: Displaying People, Identity, and Culture held October 18-20, 2012 at the Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  19. Comparison of Inflammatory Response to Transgastric and Transcolonic NOTES

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hucl, T.; Beneš, M.; Kočík, M.; Šplíchalová, Alla; Malušková, J.; Krak, M.; Lánská, V.; Heczková, M.; Kieslichová, E.; Oliverius, M.; Špičák, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, MAY (2016), s. 7320275 ISSN 1687-6121 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : TRANSLUMINAL ENDOSCOPIC SURGERY * NOTES TRANSVAGINAL CHOLECYSTECTOMY * PORCINE SURVIVAL MODEL Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.863, year: 2016

  20. Preliminary notes on the decapod larvae of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menon, M.K.; Menon, P.G.; Paulinose, V.T.

    The note presents some general facts regarding the distribution of some of the larger groups of decapod larvae in the Arabian Sea Their relative numbers and the families and subfamilies, so far as can be recognized, represented within each group...

  1. Environmental accounting and reporting of energy utility companies. Research notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiskanen, E.; Heininen, M.; Heurlin, E.; Lovio, R.; Paenkaelaeinen, M.

    1997-09-01

    The research note consists of articles written by a number of authors. The aim of the articles is to describe general development trends of environmental accounting and reporting from the point of view of the energy sector

  2. St. Thomas and the Divine Origin of Law: Some Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Dewan, O.P.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a series of notes on the concept of Law and itsrelationship to God in Classical Antiquity, specifically taking into account the viewpoints of Aristotle and Saint Thomas Aquinas.

  3. Online access to doctors' notes: patient concerns about privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodicka, Elisabeth; Mejilla, Roanne; Leveille, Suzanne G; Ralston, James D; Darer, Jonathan D; Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan; Elmore, Joann G

    2013-09-26

    Offering patients online access to medical records, including doctors' visit notes, holds considerable potential to improve care. However, patients may worry about loss of privacy when accessing personal health information through Internet-based patient portals. The OpenNotes study provided patients at three US health care institutions with online access to their primary care doctors' notes and then collected survey data about their experiences, including their concerns about privacy before and after participation in the intervention. To identify patients' attitudes toward privacy when given electronic access to their medical records, including visit notes. The design used a nested cohort study of patients surveyed at baseline and after a 1-year period during which they were invited to read their visit notes through secure patient portals. Participants consisted of 3874 primary care patients from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (Boston, MA), Geisinger Health System (Danville, PA), and Harborview Medical Center (Seattle, WA) who completed surveys before and after the OpenNotes intervention. The measures were patient-reported levels of concern regarding privacy associated with online access to visit notes. 32.91% of patients (1275/3874 respondents) reported concerns about privacy at baseline versus 36.63% (1419/3874 respondents) post-intervention. Baseline concerns were associated with non-white race/ethnicity and lower confidence in communicating with doctors, but were not associated with choosing to read notes or desire for continued online access post-intervention (nearly all patients with notes available chose to read them and wanted continued access). While the level of concern among most participants did not change during the intervention, 15.54% (602/3874 respondents, excluding participants who responded "don't know") reported more concern post-intervention, and 12.73% (493/3874 respondents, excluding participants who responded "don't know") reported less

  4. Technical specifications (replaces note T.62). Irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature, Note T. 76; Specification technique, (Annule et remplace la note T. 62), Irradiation de graphite a temperature ambiante, Note T. 76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reseau, R A [Services des grandes piles experimentales, Section ' Physique et Experimentation, Saclay (France)

    1962-12-15

    The objective is to study the effects of fast neutron irradiation of different graphite samples. The irradiation conditions should be as follows: integral fast neutron flux should be higher than 10{sup 20} neutrons/cm{sup 2}, the reactor should operate at steady state for 15 days, the temperature od samples should not be higher than 100 deg C, preferably 80 deg C. Note T. 62 which is replaced by this Note is attached.

  5. Notes on black holes and three dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banados, Maximo

    1999-01-01

    In these notes we review some relevant results on 2+1 quantum gravity. These include the Chern-Simons formulation and its affine Kac-Moody symmetry, the asymptotic algebra of Brown and Henneaux, and the statistical mechanics description of 2+1 black holes. A brief introduction to the classical and semiclassical aspects of black holes is also included. The level of the notes is basic assuming only some knowledge on Statistical Mechanics, General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory

  6. The concept of disclosure in the notes to financial statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ozeran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The notes to Financial Statements are one of the most powerful sources of information for management decisions concerning a business entity. The tendency to overload informative notes causes rethinking of their role and content. The aim of the study is to discuss a number of ideas that set the requirements for disclosure in the notes to financial statements in order to prevent duplication of information in financial reporting as a whole and eliminate irrelevant disclosure to achieve clarity, consistency and effectiveness of the information contained in the notes. Based on the proposed clarified definition of «the notes to financial statements», we concluded that the notes should: a provide details and explanations of primary financial statements; b apply only to transactions and events existing at the reporting date; c focus on the needs of specific users and reflect reporting information specific to each entity. The development of the paper concepts will help strengthen the usefulness of company financial statements and increase their transparency.

  7. Needs analysis for developing a virtual-reality NOTES simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Matthes, Kai; Nemani, Arun; Ahn, Woojin; Kato, Masayuki; Jones, Daniel B; Schwaitzberg, Steven; De, Suvranu

    2013-05-01

    INTRODUCTION AND STUDY AIM: Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging surgical technique that requires a cautious adoption approach to ensure patient safety. High-fidelity virtual-reality-based simulators allow development of new surgical procedures and tools and train medical personnel without risk to human patients. As part of a project funded by the National Institutes of Health, we are developing the virtual transluminal endoscopic surgery trainer (VTEST) for this purpose. The objective of this study is to conduct a structured needs analysis to identify the design parameters for such a virtual-reality-based simulator for NOTES. A 30-point questionnaire was distributed at the 2011 National Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research meeting to obtain responses from experts. Ordinal logistic regression and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used for analysis. A total of 22 NOTES experts participated in the study. Cholecystectomy (CE, 68 %) followed by appendectomy (AE, 63 %) (CE vs AE, p = 0.0521) was selected as the first choice for simulation. Flexible (FL, 47 %) and hybrid (HY, 47 %) approaches were equally favorable compared with rigid (RI, 6 %) with p virtual NOTES simulator in training and testing new tools for NOTES were rated very high by the participants. Our study reinforces the importance of developing a virtual NOTES simulator and clearly presents expert preferences. The results of this analysis will direct our initial development of the VTEST platform.

  8. Improving operation notes to meet British Orthopaedic Association guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David; Fisher, Noel; Ahmad, Aman; Alam, Fazle

    2009-04-01

    Operation notes are an important part of medical records for clinical, academic and medicolegal reasons. This study audited the quality of operative note keeping for total knee replacements against the standards set by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA). A prospective review of all patients undergoing total knee replacement at a district general hospital over 8 months. Data recorded were compared with those required by the BOA good-practice guidelines. Change in practice was implemented and the audit cycle completed. Data were statistically analysed. A total of 129 operation notes were reviewed. There was a significant improvement in the mean number of data points recorded from 9.6 to 13.1. The least well recorded data were diagnosis, description of findings, alignment and postoperative flexion range. All had a significant improvement except description of findings. The operating surgeon writing the note improved from 56% to 67%. Detailed postoperative instructions also improved in quality. Surgeon education and the use of a checklist produce better quality total knee replacement operation notes in line with BOA guidelines. Further improvements may be made by making the data points part of the operation note itself.

  9. Diagnostic pure transgastric NOTES in an intensive therapy unit patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Michalik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES is a natural consequence of evolution in minimally invasivesurgery. It allows one to reduce surgical trauma and the number of complications and to improve cosmetic outcomes.It also shortens the patient’s recovery time. So far there have been only nine NOTES procedures performed in Polandand around 200 NOTES interventions performed worldwide. In this paper a transgastric diagnostic NOTES procedurein a critically ill patient is described. A 60-year-old male patient with multi-organ failure (circulatory, respiratory andrenal insufficiency, with co-morbid hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus hospitalized in the intensive therapy unit(ITU with unknown cause of his condition was qualified for transgastric diagnostic NOTES procedure. This interventionrevealed the diagnosis of metastatic neoplastic disease and allowed persistent therapy to be avoided. DiagnosticNOTES in selected patients seems to be a very useful. It provides fast diagnosis with relatively small perioperativetrauma. It is an easy procedure that requires a regular or operative endoscope, one surgeon and an endoscopic nurse.It can be done anywhere, including at the patient’s bedside. It provides specimens for histopathology and speeds updiagnostics and decision making, especially in terminally ill patients.

  10. Colecistectomía transvaginal (NOTES combinada con minilaparoscopia Transvaginal cholecystectomy (NOTES combined with minilaparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dolz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comunicar la primera colecistectomía transvaginal realizada en humanos en nuestro país. Pacientes y métodos: mujer de 35 años de edad con historia de cólicos hepáticos de repetición de etiología litiásica. La intervención la realizó un equipo multidisciplinar constituido por cirujanos, gastroenterólogos y ginecólogos. Consistió en crear un neumoperitoneo mediante una aguja de Veres colocada en el fondo umbilical con posterior colocación de un trócar de 5 mm. Se colocó un segundo trócar de 3 mm en el hipocondrio derecho. Se realizó una colpotomía y colocación de un trócar vaginal de 12 mm que permitió el paso de un videogastroscopio que alcanzó el hilio hepático. Resultados: se realizó la colecistectomía mediante la acción conjunta de instrumentos de trabajo que pasaron por las puertas de entrada de la minilaparoscopia y por el videogastroscopio. La extracción de la vesícula se realizó por vía transvaginal mediante el videogastroscopio. No aparecieron complicaciones postoperatorias siendo la paciente dada de alta al cabo de 24 horas. Conclusiones: la colecistectomía transvaginal mediante la acción conjunta de un equipo multidiscliplinar es posible y segura. La cirugía endoscópica transluminal a través de orificios naturales (NOTES, es una modalidad emergente que intenta ser menos invasiva, mejor tolerada y más respetuosa con el daño estético que la cirugía laparoscópica y probablemente será la puerta de entrada de innovaciones médicas y tecnológicas de gran trascendencia durante los próximos años.Objective: to report on the first transvaginal cholecystectomy performed on a human being in Spain. Patients and methods: a 35-year-old female with a history of recurrent bouts of biliary pain resulting from gallstones. A surgical procedure was performed by a multidisciplinary team composed of surgeons, gastroenterologists, and gynecologists. It involved creating a pneumoperitoneum by placing a

  11. Characteristics of suicide notes of children and young adolescents: an examination of the notes from suicide victims 15 years and younger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuchen, Anne; Grøholt, Berit

    2015-04-01

    By analysing the suicide notes from suicide victims 15 years and younger, we attempt to gain insight into the process leading to youth suicide and explore the characteristics of the note writers. During a psychological autopsy on 42 youths, we were entrusted with 23 suicide notes in which we explored the themes and compared the note writers to the non-note writers. The key messages were as follows: explain the reason for suicide, declare love and give instructions. The note writers had showed suicidal behaviour more frequently than non-note writers. In the notes from youth suicide victims they present themselves as fully responsible and without confusion or overwhelming despair. The notes are likely equally informative as the notes of older victims. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. How is adult patient adherence recorded in orthodontists’ clinical notes? A mixed-method case-note study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shammary N

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nawaf Al Shammary,1 Koula Asimakopoulou,1 Fraser McDonald,2 Jonathon T Newton,1 Sasha Scambler1 1Division of Population and Patient Health, 2Craniofacial Development and Stem Cell Biology Department, King’s College London Dental Institute, London, UKBackground: Patient adherence in orthodontic treatment is extremely important as it is linked with better treatment outcomes. Despite its importance, however, there is no shared definition of the concept. This makes the recording of adherence-related behaviors in patient notes difficult. The current study explored how, and to what extent adherence is recorded in adult patients’ medical records by orthodontists working in a large National Health Service (NHS London hospital.Materials and methods: A mixed-methods approach was used. A total of 17 clinicians with a mean age of 31 years (SD =4.87 provided N=20 case notes spanning N=324 appointments with patients they judged to be non-adherent. The notes were inspected for evidence of recording of patient adherence using adherence indicators identified in the literature.Results: The term “adherence” did not feature in any notes. The quantitative analysis showed that the three most frequent adherence-related behaviors recorded in notes were “oral hygiene,” “appointment attendance” and “breakages of appliances.” Qualitative analysis not only confirmed these factors but also showed that 1 the clinical aspects of treatment, 2 clinician–patient interaction factors and 3 patient attitudes also featured. This part of the analysis also highlighted inconsistencies across case notes in terms of the amount of information being recorded.Conclusion: Adherence as a term does not feature in the clinical case notes of clinician-identified non-adherent adult patients, while predictors of adherence are recorded with varying degrees of consistency. Keywords: adherence, adults, orthodontic treatment

  13. Research Note: Inside an Indonesian Online Library for Radical Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haniff Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This Research Note provides a review of an Indonesian online library for radical materials. The objective of this review is to compile data and information that will contribute to the understanding of the online radicalisation phenomenon as well as the extremists themselves. Based on data found on the online library, this Research Note reports findings on the influence of Al-Maqdisi’s website; the emphasis on translation work of Arabic materials to Indonesian language by radicals and the value of Arabic materials to them. It also covers influential thinkers and ideologues and the use of the Wikipedia modus operandi to hasten the development of the website and effect mobilisation and recruitment, among others things. Based on the data found, this Research Note concludes that ideas matter to radicals.

  14. LLW Notes, vol. 9, no. 1. February/March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    LLW Notes is published ten times each year and is distributed to Low- Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of representatives of states and compacts established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies

  15. Note on off-shell relations in nonlinear sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang; Du, Yi-Jian; Li, Shuyi; Liu, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we investigate relations between tree-level off-shell currents in nonlinear sigma model. Under Cayley parametrization, all odd-point currents vanish. We propose and prove a generalized U(1) identity for even-point currents. The off-shell U(1) identity given in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2014)061 is a special case of the generalized identity studied in this note. The on-shell limit of this identity is equivalent with the on-shell KK relation. Thus this relation provides the full off-shell correspondence of tree-level KK relation in nonlinear sigma model.

  16. Lecture Notes for the Course in Water Wave Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    knowledge. The course is at the same time an introduction to the course in coastal hydraulics on the 8th semester. The notes cover the following five lectures: 1. Definitions. Governing equations and boundary conditions. Derivation of velocity potential for linear waves. Dispersion relationship. 2. Particle...... paths, velocities, accelerations, pressure variation, deep and shallow water waves, wave energy and group velocity. 3. Shoaling, refraction, diffraction and wave breaking. 4. Irregular waves. Time domain analysis of waves. 5. Wave spectra. Frequency domain analysis of waves. The present notes are based...

  17. GOSPEL MOTIVES IN THE DYING NOTES OF NIKOLAI GOGOL

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Dmitrievich Denisov

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses several notes made by Nikolai Gogol shortly before his death in the light of their links to his other works and the Gospel text. The author seems to have understood that he was dying and was preparing to meet his death as a Christian should, to an extent matching the events around him with those in the Gospel. His artistic eye and hand did not fail him. His dying notes feature a brief sketch of a man in a cab and a profile of a man being shut by a closing book. Calligraph...

  18. Deterrence and the New Global Security Environment - Lecture note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This lecture note makes an analysis of a collective publication entitled 'Deterrence and the New Global Security Environment', edited by Ian Kenyon and John Simpson (Routledge, New York, 2006). This collection of papers rigorously examines the current place of deterrence in international security relations, delivering the best of contemporary thinking. This is a special issue of the leading journal 'Contemporary Security Policy'. The present Lecture note emphasises a particular deterrence situation mentioned in this publication which is the one involving terrorist actors

  19. A cautionary note on the rank product statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, James A

    2016-06-01

    The rank product method introduced by Breitling R et al. [2004, FEBS Letters 573, 83-92] has rapidly generated popularity in practical settings, in particular, detecting differential expression of genes in microarray experiments. The purpose of this note is to point out a particular property of the rank product method, namely, its differential sensitivity to over- and underexpression. It turns out that overexpression is less likely to be detected than underexpression with the rank product statistic. We have conducted both empirical and exact power studies that demonstrate this phenomenon, and summarize these findings in this note. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. Evaluating the impact of patients' online access to doctors' visit notes: designing and executing the OpenNotes project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leveille Suzanne G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providers and policymakers are pursuing strategies to increase patient engagement in health care. Increasingly, online sections of medical records are viewable by patients though seldom are clinicians' visit notes included. We designed a one-year multi-site trial of online patient accessible office visit notes, OpenNotes. We hypothesized that patients and primary care physicians (PCPs would want it to continue and that OpenNotes would not lead to significant disruptions to doctors' practices. Methods/Design Using a mixed methods approach, we designed a quasi-experimental study in 3 diverse healthcare systems in Boston, Pennsylvania, and Seattle. Two sites had existing patient internet portals; the third used an experimental portal. We targeted 3 key areas where we hypothesized the greatest impacts: beliefs and attitudes about OpenNotes, use of the patient internet portals, and patient-doctor communication. PCPs in the 3 sites were invited to participate in the intervention. Patients who were registered portal users of participating PCPs were given access to their PCPs' visit notes for one year. PCPs who declined participation in the intervention and their patients served as the comparison groups for the study. We applied the RE-AIM framework to our design in order to capture as comprehensive a picture as possible of the impact of OpenNotes. We developed pre- and post-intervention surveys for online administration addressing attitudes and experiences based on interviews and focus groups with patients and doctors. In addition, we tracked use of the internet portals before and during the intervention. Results PCP participation varied from 19% to 87% across the 3 sites; a total of 114 PCPs enrolled in the intervention with their 22,000 patients who were registered portal users. Approximately 40% of intervention and non-intervention patients at the 3 sites responded to the online survey, yielding a total of approximately 38

  1. Gender Dimensions of Trade Facilitation and Logistics : A Guidance Note

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Gender equality is a vital instrument for development. In trade related interventions, taking gender equality into account not only spurs country competitiveness, but also helps obtain better outcomes. The World Bank's international trade department and the gender and development unit in the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management network are collaborating to produce guidance notes in or...

  2. Technical note: New table look-up lossless compression method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note: New table look-up lossless compression method based on binary index archiving. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... This paper intends to present a common use archiver, made up following the dictionary technique and using the index archiving method as a simple and ...

  3. Note: Additionally refined new possibilities of plasma probe diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaby, V. A.; Savinov, V. P.; Masherov, P. E.; Yakunin, V. G.

    2018-03-01

    In two previous Notes published in this journal, a method of measuring probe sheath thickness and ion mass was described using Langmuir probe diagnostics in low pressure xenon plasma close to Maxwellian substance. According to the first Note, this method includes two stages: (i) in a special experiment with known ion mass, the Bohm and Child-Langmuir-Boguslavsky (CLB) equations for cylindrical Langmuir probes used in this xenon plasma were solved jointly to determine the probe sheath thicknesses and Bohm coefficient CBCyl ≈ 1.13; and (ii) in a general experiment, with known CBCyl, the same equations could be solved to obtain the probe sheath thicknesses and the mean ion mass. In the second Note, the (i) stage of this method was refined: the results of the CLB probe sheath model application, which were termed "evaluations," were corrected using the step-front probe sheath model, which was closer to reality in the special experiment with the xenon plasma. This process resulted in a Bohm coefficient of CBCyl ≈ 1.23 for the cylindrical probe. In the present Note, corrected xenon plasma parameters without the influence of the bare probe protective shield were used for the (i) stage of this diagnostic method. This action also refined the Bohm coefficient, lowering it to CBCyl ≈ 0.745 for cylindrical probes. This advance makes the new diagnostics method more objective and reliable.

  4. A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam enumerating 26 species belonging to 15 genera and eight families are provided.  Four species viz., Bacidina apiahica, Byssoloma chlorinum, Calopadia fusca and Strigula nitidula are reported for the first time from Assam.  A number of rare species are present, including Aulaxina uniseptata, Calenia aspidota and Psorotheciopsis patellarioides. 

  5. A note on intrinsic conditional autoregressive models for disconnected graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Freni-Sterrantino, Anna; Ventrucci, Massimo; Rue, Haavard

    2018-01-01

    In this note we discuss (Gaussian) intrinsic conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disconnected graphs, with the aim of providing practical guidelines for how these models should be defined, scaled and implemented. We show how these suggestions can be implemented in two examples, on disease mapping.

  6. Studies in Annonaceae. XI. Monograph of Rollinia: preliminary notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    1988-01-01

    In this precursory paper to the forthcoming Flora Neotropica monograph of Rollinia 12 new species are described. One new combination is made, and there is a note on the correct author citation for Rollinia dolabripetala. Mr. E. J. van Marle, a former student at the University of Utrecht, contributed

  7. Technical note: Development of a Linear Flow Channel Reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note: Development of a Linear Flow Channel Reactor for sulphur removal ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... 000 mg∙ℓ-1 Na2SO4 solution) and the Liner Flow Channel Reactors (surface area ...

  8. Valorization of agroforest crops for biomass utilization. Editorial Note

    OpenAIRE

    Río Andrade, José Carlos del

    2010-01-01

    Editorial Note. Special issue on "Valorization of Agroforest Crops for Biomass Utilization", The Open Agriculture Journal. José C. del Río (Guest Editor) Department of Plant Biotechnology Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Seville (IRNAS-CSIC) Seville, Spain E-mail:

  9. New chorological data and floristic notes for Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, L.; Malo, Sadik; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    Twelve taxa belonging to fi ve families are reported based on fi eldwork in Albania from 2007 to 2010. Eleven have not been recorded for the country in the relevant volumes of Flora Europaea, Flora of Albania or the Med-Checklist. Notes on ecology and distribution are provided and all the taxa ar...

  10. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairacan Augusto Pereira da Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$ notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or “feiras” in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  11. note on variable incubation period within a clutch of eggs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compo Biochem. Physiol. 53A: 1-6. MENDELSOHN, 1. M., BIGOS, H. C. & LEDGER, 1. A. In press. The biology of the black-shouldered. NOTE ON VARIABLE. INCUBATION PERIOD WITHIN A. CLUTCH OF EGGS OF THE. LEOPARD TORTOISE. (GEOCHELONE P ARDALIS). (CHELONIA: CRYPTODIRA: TESTUDINIDAE).

  12. A note on clique-web facets for multicut polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2002-01-01

    In this note we provide a previously undiscovered necessary condition for the facet-defining property of clique-web inequalities for the multicut polytope. This condition imposes a minimum cardinality requirement on the node set of the clique, thus implying, in general, that clique-web inequaliti...

  13. Notes on Some aspects of unsteady hydraulics of watercourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2018-01-01

    of the notes is to prepare the reader for the use of the advanced commercial computer models available for solving hydraulic problems in watercourses and open channels. It is definitely not the intention to present the complete hydraulic theory behind those computer models. The specific details can be found...

  14. 24 CFR 232.525 - Note and security form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED... Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.525 Note and security form. The lender shall...

  15. Y-Notes; Introductory Sessions on Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This chapter is divided into next parts: What is 'Y-Notes ; Young generation opening session; Nuclear education and transfer of know-how; Nuclear technology; Other applications of nuclear technology; Nuclear programs and technical cooperation; Political aspects; Environment and safety; Communication and public perception; Economics; Fuel cycle challenges; Video

  16. Thoughts & Views on the Gulf War. Facilitators Notes and Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollings, Rick; Berghoff, Beth K.

    This document presents a workbook and facilitator's notes designed for use with small groups or with individual students in secondary schools to help them cope with troubling events related to the Gulf War. The material contained in the workbook is designed to help students deal with each of seven stages that the mastery model sees individuals…

  17. A Note on the Correlated Random Coefficient Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe

    In this note we derive the bias of the OLS estimator for a correlated random coefficient model with one random coefficient, but which is correlated with a binary variable. We provide set-identification to the parameters of interest of the model. We also show how to reduce the bias of the estimator...

  18. The Giffen Effect: A Note on Economic Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, William D.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Giffen effect: demand for a commodity increases as price increases. Explains how applying control theory eliminates the paradox that the Giffen effect presents to classic economics supply and demand theory. Notes the differences in how conventional demand theory and control theory treat consumer behavior. (CH)

  19. Notes on Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Chloris divaricata R. Br. var. cynodontoides (Bal. Lazarides, Boerhavia coccinea Mill., and Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit. are recently found naturalized in Taiwan. The present study gives the taxonomic description and line drawings of the three species. In addition, their distribution and notes on ecology and taxonomy are provided.

  20. A note on the Stokes operator and its powers

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc; Salgado, Abner

    2010-01-01

    The so-called Stokes operator is an important tool in the analysis of the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and their numerical approximation. The aim of this note is to clarify certain properties of the fractional powers of this operator which are sometimes misused. © 2010 Korean Society for Computational and Applied Mathematics.

  1. Remediating a Design Tool: Implications of Digitizing Sticky Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rädle, Roman; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2018-01-01

    digital sticky notes setup. The paper contributes with a nuanced understanding of what happens when remediating a physical design tool into digital space, by emphasizing focus shifts and breakdowns caused by the technology, but also benefits and promises inherent in the digital media. Despite users...... their use and understanding, yielding new concerns regarding cross-device transfer and collaboration....

  2. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 12. Types of the Alaudidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.; Eck, S.; Somadikarta, S.; Kalyakin, M.; Loskot, V.; Morioka, H.; Violani, C.; Voisin, C.

    2001-01-01

    A list is provided of the 165 names applied to identifiable Asian forms of species of lark (family Alaudidae). This list summarises our collective knowledge on the whereabouts of types for these names; where our information does not include reliable data we provide notes relating to the deficit and

  3. The Effect of Speed Alterations on Tempo Note Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Clifford K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the tempo note preferences of 100 randomly selected college-level musicians using familiar orchestral music as stimuli. Subjects heard selections at increased, decreased, and unaltered tempi. Results showed musicians were not accurate in estimating original tempo and showed consistent preference for faster than actual tempo.…

  4. Historical note: Drumine--a new Australian local anaesthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R J

    1977-02-01

    An article in the Australiasian Medical Gazette of October, 1886 indicates the method of extraction, experimentation and therapeutic application of an active principle, prepared from Euphorbia Drummondii. Further correspondence is noted, refining the method of extraction, reporting cases, answering criticisms, and announcing eventually, drumine's commercial preparation. Despite enthusiastic support, the drug soon disappears from the therapeutic scene.

  5. Notes on Japanese Rhizocephala, with description of two new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1935-01-01

    The following notes are based upon material of parasites on two Crustaceans from Japan, viz., Pachygrapsus crassipes Randall and Petrolisthes japonicus de Haan 1). Each of these two species may be infested by two different species of Rhizocephala: on Pachygrapsus crassipes occur the parasites

  6. Reducing Bias: Research Notes on Racism in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbutt, Richard

    This paper highlights recent developments in research on racism in the United States, and notes several conceptual issues of significance for the long-range planning work of those interested in reducing racism in America and particularly in Idaho. Growth in the number of minority researchers has resulted in increased attention toward racism as it…

  7. Research Note On New Limits of the Coefficient of Gravitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Note. On New Limits of the Coefficient of Gravitation Shielding. Michele Caputo. Physics Department, University La Sapienza, Piazzale A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy. and. Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station TX, 77843,. USA. e-mail: mcaputo@g24ux.phys.uniroma1.it.

  8. A WORK-NOTE on OSCILLATORS - LEARNING by DOING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work-note is to give insight in computer aided design of electronic oscillators by means of a study of a number of circuits given as figures - equivalent schemes - or as net-list files for electronic circuit analysis programs - "SPICE FILES". For each figure or net-list a number...

  9. Resonance strategies revealed in recorded tenor high notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, HK; Miller, DG; Duijnstee, M

    2005-01-01

    With careers that depend to a large extent on the amplitude and sonorous beauty of their voices, opera singers must pay special attention to high notes, where the wide spacing of the harmonics of the voice source intensifies the critical importance of the tuning of the resonances of the vocal tract.

  10. A note on intrinsic conditional autoregressive models for disconnected graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Freni-Sterrantino, Anna

    2018-05-23

    In this note we discuss (Gaussian) intrinsic conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disconnected graphs, with the aim of providing practical guidelines for how these models should be defined, scaled and implemented. We show how these suggestions can be implemented in two examples, on disease mapping.

  11. Abstract: Notes from the Field: Establishing Baseline Data for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Notes from the Field: Establishing Baseline Data for Pressure Ulcers in a Rwandan Intensive Care Unit. Gedeon Mutabazi, Jessie Silver. Abstract. Abstract. Background Pressure ulcers are a common iatrogenic medical problem. Pressure ulcers increase the morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients as well as ...

  12. A Note on TI-Subgroups of Finite Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A subgroup of a finite group is called a TI-subgroup if H ∩ H x = 1 or for any x ∈ G . In this short note, the finite groups all of whose nonabelian subgroups are TI-subgroups are classified. Author Affiliations. Jiakuan Lu1 Linna Pang1. Department of Mathematics, Guangxi Normal University, Guangxi, Guilin 541004, ...

  13. Adjusting Wages to Living Costs: A Historical Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Henry

    1974-01-01

    The significant historical developments of the cost of living wage adjustments are summarized. Since the concept of cost of living took effect in 1919, developments that are noted are: World War II, the GM contract 1948, the GM Contract 1950, and the impact of the agreements. (DS)

  14. Integrator backstepping using contraction theory: a brief technological note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Lottin, Jacques

    While the use of Lyapunov function candidates for integrator backstepping has been extensively studied in the literature, little research has been conducted regarding the applicability of the so-called incremental stability approaches. This note addresses the problem of the use of an incremental ...

  15. Technical Note: Application of Decision Theory Based Criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical Note: Application of Decision Theory Based Criteria for Structural Appraisal of a Building during Construction. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... reliability of concrete in a structure during construction, a case study of laboratory block for College of Continuing Education, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State.

  16. Note Launchers: Promoting Active Reading of Mathematics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Josh W.; Helms, Kimberly Turner

    2010-01-01

    Note launchers, an instructor-designed reading guide, model how to select, decide, and focus upon what textbook material is important to learn. Reading guides are specially-designed study aids that can steer students through difficult parts of assigned readings (Bean, 1996) while encouraging advance preparation. As an example of a reading guide,…

  17. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-11-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market.

  18. A note on neighborhood total domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [1] Arumugam S and Sivagnanam C, Neighborhood total domination in graphs, Opuscula. Mathematica 31 (2011) 519–531. [2] Chellali M and Haynes T W, A note on the total domination number of a tree, J. Combin. Math. Combin. Comput. 58 (2006) 189–193. [3] Haynes T W, Hedetniemi S T and Slater P J, Fundamentals ...

  19. A note on cryptorchidism in Angora goats | Skinner | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (1972) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. A note on cryptorchidism in Angora goats.

  20. 22 CFR 231.09 - No acceleration of Eligible Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 231.09 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11... have the right to pay any amounts in respect of the Eligible Notes other than in accordance with the...

  1. A computational note on finite groups with two generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed-ul-Islam, M.

    1983-12-01

    Finite groups with two independent generators attracted the attention of mathematicians during 1940-1959. These groups are subgroups of SU(n) and an interest is now being shown in these groups by particle physicists. In this note we give a brief history of these groups and announce some of the computations done by using a computer. (author)

  2. John Lyons' Chomsky: A Review Essay | Eleshin | Lagos Notes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lagos Notes and Records. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  3. Notes Inégales: Pynt eller princip?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierød, Lea Maria Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Notes inégales (den ulige udførelse af de lige noterede toner på underdelingsplan) var en i de 17. og 18. århundreder bredt anvendt praksis i Frankrig, og også andre europæiske landes kilder fra denne periode taler om lignende artikulationsformer. Flere forskere har iagttaget ligheder mellem denn...

  4. Spanish Literature and Spectrality : Notes on a Haunted Canon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdivia, Pablo

    In Spanish Literature, Crisis and Spectrality: Notes on a Haunted Canon, Prof. Dr. Pablo Valdivia analyses the contradictions and complexities of the Spanish traditional canon from a transnational approach. Valdivia explores this particular canon as a 'haunted house' by focusing on the specific

  5. Research Note Nutritional evaluation of Ficus thonningii Blume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Nutritional evaluation of Ficus thonningii Blume leaves as ruminant livestock feed in the Ahferom district of Tigray, Ethiopia. ... Data on foliar nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), digestible crude protein (DCP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF), ash content and ...

  6. PRELIMINARY NOTES ON mE SUNI, NESOTRAGUS MOSCHATUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRELIMINARY NOTES ON mE SUNI, NESOTRAGUS MOSCHATUS ~'lD. RED DUIKER, CEPHALOPHUS ... it as being "not uncommon at Mkuzi river, but very shy, taking refuge in the tangled scrub of the flats and only coming into the .... The one chased the other, while making a "tchie-tchie" sound, but louder and more ...

  7. Identification of documented medication non-adherence in physician notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, Alexander; Wheeler, Holly I; Labreche, Matthew; Chu, Julia T; Pendergrass, Merri L; Einbinder, Jonathan S; Einbinder, Jonathan Seth

    2008-11-06

    Medication non-adherence is common and the physicians awareness of it may be an important factor in clinical decision making. Few sources of data on physician awareness of medication non-adherence are available. We have designed an algorithm to identify documentation of medication non-adherence in the text of physician notes. The algorithm recognizes eight semantic classes of documentation of medication non-adherence. We evaluated the algorithm against manual ratings of 200 randomly selected notes of hypertensive patients. The algorithm detected 89% of the notes with documented medication non-adherence with specificity of 84.7% and positive predictive value of 80.2%. In a larger dataset of 1,000 documents, notes that documented medication non-adherence were more likely to report significantly elevated systolic (15.3% vs. 9.0%; p = 0.002) and diastolic (4.1% vs. 1.9%; p = 0.03) blood pressure. This novel clinically validated tool expands the range of information on medication non-adherence available to researchers.

  8. Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in the veld condition of Lambert's Bay Strandveld, South Africa. ... from which a minimum number of species necessary to monitor trends in the condition of the veld were determined, making it user-friendly for land-users, extension officers and others. The key ...

  9. Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note The formulation of synthetic domestic wastewater sludge medium to study anaerobic biological treatment of acid mine drainage in the laboratory. ... Journal Home > Vol 42, No 2 (2016) > ... Domestic wastewater sludge is however highly variable in its composition, making laboratory experimentation difficult.

  10. The Gospel of Foreign Aid: A Theoretical Note | Byusa | Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Gospel of Foreign Aid: A Theoretical Note. ... Journal Home > Vol 26 (2012) > ... USD 1 trillion in aid packages – including charitable giving – to Africa over the last fifty years, only few countries are registering modestly improved Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and are making some headway in reducing poverty.

  11. Taxonomy of Lecture Note-Taking Skills and Subskills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musalli, Alaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Note taking (NT) in lectures is as active a skill as listening, which stimulates it, and as challenging as writing, which is the end product. Literature on lecture NT misses an integration of the processes involved in listening with those in NT. In this article, a taxonomy is proposed of lecture NT skills and subskills based on a similar list…

  12. Learning How to Learn: Cornell Notes as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoo, Jenni

    2010-01-01

    A literacy coach collaborates with a new teacher to incorporate structured note-taking and summarizing into a science class. Many students struggle with these skills and require explicit instruction before they are able to work independently. Using the gradual release of responsibility framework, the literacy coach begins by modeling how to choose…

  13. Noteworthy observations about note-taking by professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, M.S.; van der Geest, Thea; Steehouder, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we focus on professional readers who have to write recommendations in an online environment. We address the question whether taking notes on screen influences the reading process and the quality of the recommendations in terms of applicability, completeness, and persuasiveness. Seven

  14. A note on the Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, Ferdinand D

    1980-01-01

    In his book (“Lie Algebras,” Interscience, 1962) Jacobson proves the Campbell-Hausdorff formula for formal power series in Lie algebras. In this short note we shall prove it for finite-dimensional Lie groups making use of parts of Jacobson's proof.

  15. A note on the Campbell-Hausdorff formula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, F.D.

    In his book (“Lie Algebras,” Interscience, 1962) Jacobson proves the Campbell-Hausdorff formula for formal power series in Lie algebras. In this short note we shall prove it for finite-dimensional Lie groups making use of parts of Jacobson's proof.

  16. New methods of magnet-based instrumentation for NOTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdeburg, Richard; Hauth, Daniel; Kaehler, Georg

    2013-12-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has displaced open surgery as the standard of care for many clinical conditions. NOTES has been described as the next surgical frontier with the objective of incision-free abdominal surgery. The principal challenge of NOTES procedures is the loss of triangulation and instrument rigidity, which is one of the fundamental concepts of laparoscopic surgery. To overcome these problems necessitates the development of new instrumentation. material and methods: We aimed to assess the use of a very simple combination of internal and external magnets that might allow the vigorous multiaxial traction/counter-traction required in NOTES procedures. The magnet retraction system consisted of an external magnetic assembly and either small internal magnets attached by endoscopic clips to the designated tissue (magnet-clip-approach) or an endoscopic grasping forceps in a magnetic deflector roll (magnet-trocar-approach). We compared both methods regarding precision, time and efficacy by performing transgastric partial uterus resections with better results for the magnet-trocar-approach. This proof-of-principle animal study showed that the combination of external and internal magnets generates sufficient coupling forces at clinically relevant abdominal wall thicknesses, making them suitable for use and evaluation in NOTES procedures, and provides the vigorous multiaxial traction/counter-traction required by the lack of additional abdominal trocars.

  17. A Note on Dynamic Programming with Unbounded Rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo); J. Wessels

    1978-01-01

    textabstractIn a recent paper, Lippman presents sufficient conditions for Denardo's N-stage contraction in discounted semi-Markov decision processes with unbounded rewards. In this note it is demonstrated that Lippman's conditions may be replaced by weaker conditions which even imply l-stage

  18. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira da Fonseca, Tairacan Augusto; Pessôa, Rodrigo; Sanabani, Sabri Saeed

    2015-10-22

    Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$) notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or "feiras" in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  19. A Note on Information-Directed Sampling and Thompson Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    This note introduce three Bayesian style Multi-armed bandit algorithms: Information-directed sampling, Thompson Sampling and Generalized Thompson Sampling. The goal is to give an intuitive explanation for these three algorithms and their regret bounds, and provide some derivations that are omitted in the original papers.

  20. Lecture Note on Discrete Mathematics: Predicates and Quantifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    This lecture note supplements the treatment of predicates and quantifiers given in standard textbooks on Discrete Mathematics (e.g.: [1]) and introduces the notation used in this course. We will present central concepts that are important, when predicate logic is used for specification...

  1. note: The least square nucleolus is a general nucleolus

    OpenAIRE

    Elisenda Molina; Juan Tejada

    2000-01-01

    This short note proves that the least square nucleolus (Ruiz et al. (1996)) and the lexicographical solution (Sakawa and Nishizaki (1994)) select the same imputation in each game with nonempty imputation set. As a consequence the least square nucleolus is a general nucleolus (Maschler et al. (1992)).

  2. A note on the Stokes operator and its powers

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2010-04-28

    The so-called Stokes operator is an important tool in the analysis of the solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and their numerical approximation. The aim of this note is to clarify certain properties of the fractional powers of this operator which are sometimes misused. © 2010 Korean Society for Computational and Applied Mathematics.

  3. 31 CFR 342.0 - Offering of notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offering of notes. 342.0 Section 342.0 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... or greater denomination. This offering was effective from May 1, 1967 until the close of business...

  4. Note: Primer Amysat 001; Fragment size is 211bp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renuka

    Bhandara : Lanes 1–14 represent different strains of Bhandara Ecorace. Note: Primer Amysat 001; Fragment size is 211bp. Fig. 1. SSR profiles generated from genomic DNA of 16 strains from different individuals of (A.L, D. TV, D. BV, Modal, Sukinda, Raily, Bhandara) ecoraces of tasar silk worm, Antheraea mylitta using the.

  5. Note Passing and Gendered Discipline in Vietnamese Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    While researchers agree that note passing is predominantly an activity engaged in by girls, there has been relatively little consideration of why this is the case. In this article, I argue that gendered expectations about the appropriate characters of boys and girls in Vietnam are incorporated into the disciplinary framework of schools, and that…

  6. Short Note Some additional breeding records for birds in Angola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Note Some additional breeding records for birds in Angola. W Richard J Dean, Suzanne J Milton. Abstract. No abstract. Ostrich 2007, 78(3): 645–647. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/OSTRICH.2007.78.3.13.324.

  7. Identification of possible adverse drug reactions in clinical notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warrer, Pernille; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Aagaard, Lise

    2015-01-01

    and stomach ulcer associated with liraglutide. Of the unlabeled ADRs, 13 (87%) were associated with "other blood glucose lowering medications," the remaining 2 (13%) with "DDP-4 inhibitors." Conclusion: Clinical notes could potentially reveal unlabeled ADRs associated with prescribed medicines and sufficient...

  8. 17 CFR 242.100 - Preliminary note; definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with the distribution participant, issuer, or selling security holder that direct, effect, or recommend... course of its business. Distribution means an offering of securities, whether or not subject to... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary note; definitions...

  9. A note on mental content in the Causal Theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A note on mental content in the Causal Theory. JP Smit. Department of Philosophy, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, 7600 Matieland, South Africa. E-mail: jps@sun.ac.za. Kripke's causal theory requires that downstream users of a name must have the intention to use the name in the same way that upstream users ...

  10. Notes from the Lost Property Department. Bridget Pitt. Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as a loss of motor-skills and memory, and changes in behaviour. Bridget Pitt's Notes from the Lost Property Department (2015) is primarily concerned with the ways in which these invisible wounds cause dis- junctions in personal identity and fissures in relationships. ... together her cracked sense of self, all the time keeping ...

  11. Note on Integer-Valued Bilinear Time Series Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, F.C.; van den Akker, R.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary. This note reconsiders the nonnegative integer-valued bilinear processes introduced by Doukhan, Latour, and Oraichi (2006). Using a hidden Markov argument, we extend their result of the existence of a stationary solution for the INBL(1,0,1,1) process to the class of superdiagonal INBL(p; q;

  12. A note on the interplay between symmetries, reduction and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A note on the interplay between symmetries, reduction and conservation laws of Stokes' first problem for third-grade rotating fluids ... Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi ...

  13. Note-taking in the employment interview: effects on recall and judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middendorf, Catherine Houdek; Macan, Therese Hoff

    2002-04-01

    Although note-taking in the employment interview is highly recommended, little research has examined its effects. This study investigated the effects of note-taking styles, review of the notes, and content of the notes on participants' cued recall of information and decisions made from videotaped employment interviews. Note-taking increased recall accuracy but not judgment accuracy. Being able to review notes resulted in increased judgment accuracy for those taking conventional-style notes. The content of the notes also had important implications for conventional note-takers, suggesting some benefits of recording notes using the key-points style. The findings suggest that the act of note-taking may be more important for memory and legal reasons than for improving the decisions made by interviewers.

  14. Medical students' note-taking in a medical biochemistry course: an initial exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Elizabeth H; McLaughlin, Calvin; Rucker, Lloyd

    2002-04-01

    Beginning medical students spend numerous hours every week attending basic science lectures and taking notes. Medical faculty often wonder whether they should give students pre-printed instructors' notes before lectures. Proponents of this strategy argue that provided notes enhance learning by facilitating the accurate transmission of information, while opponents counter that provided notes inhibit students' cognitive processing or even discourage students from attending lectures. Little if any research has directly addressed medical students' note-taking or the value of providing instructors' notes. The educational literature does suggest that taking lecture notes enhances university students' learning. University students perform best on post-lecture testing if they review a combination of provided notes and their own personal notes, particularly if the provided notes follow a 'skeletal' format that encourages active note-taking.

  15. Profiling Chilean Suicide Note-Writers through Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ceballos-Espinoza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicides account for 2000 deaths in Chile each year. With a suicide rate of 11.3, it is classified as a country with high suicide risk. Aims: to identify personality and cognitive characteristics of the group of Chilean suicides that left suicide notes, through a content analysis. Methods: descriptive field study with an ex post facto design. All suicides registered between 2010 and 2012 by the Investigations Police of Chile were analyzed, obtaining 203 suicide notes from 96 cases. The Darbonne categories for content analysis were used with the inter-judge method. Results: The mean age of the suicides was 44.2 (SD = 18.53. Most of the notes were addressed to family members (51.7%. The most expressed reasons were marital- or interpersonal-related (24.6%; another 23.6% expressed a lack of purpose or hopelessness (including depression, wish to die, low self-esteem. The most frequent content expressed were instructions (about money, children, and funeral. All of the notes showed logical thinking and were written with coherence and clarity. Notably 42% of the notes were marked by affections of fondness, love or dependence of others. Regarding attitudes, the most common were of escape or farewell (42.4%, followed by fatalism, hopelessness, frustration or tiredness (40%. 24 statistically significant differences were found throughout the categories of analysis, according to cohorts of age, marital status and sex. Conclusions: the findings contribute to the profiling of Chilean suicides and to the implementation of suicide prevention programs

  16. GOSPEL MOTIVES IN THE DYING NOTES OF NIKOLAI GOGOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dmitrievich Denisov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses several notes made by Nikolai Gogol shortly before his death in the light of their links to his other works and the Gospel text. The author seems to have understood that he was dying and was preparing to meet his death as a Christian should, to an extent matching the events around him with those in the Gospel. His artistic eye and hand did not fail him. His dying notes feature a brief sketch of a man in a cab and a profile of a man being shut by a closing book. Calligraphic handwriting Gogol had developed by mid-1840s differs from both the large scribble of the draft text of Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka in the 1830s and the small hand of his historical notes, articles and novellas of the mid-1830s. His new hand was that of a man who knew the value of words, and not of a copyist working with government papers. Overall, the notes are permeated with the mood of contrition and humility. Gogol writes that Satan has already entered the world and the last days are approaching when man is abandoned by God and considers solitude the highest good. He sees his actions as the only true way and takes pride in his sins and ignorance as if they were virtues. The decay of “the temple of his soul” leaves no chance for love and harmony, disconnecting people and ruining the world. Gogol wants to prevent this by uniting people in the Gospel. The longest of his dying notes is addressed to his friends. Every true Christian can be viewed as such.

  17. Implications of observing and writing field notes through different lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellesø R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ragnhild Hellesø,1 Line Melby,1 Solveig Hauge21Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, NorwayBackground: From a philosophy of science perspective, the literature has posited that different research approaches influence field studies. Studies addressing interdisciplinary research have focused on the challenges of organizing and running interdisciplinary teams, cultural differences between and within disciplines, and constraints in conducting interdisciplinary research. Studies exploring and discussing the process and outcome of transferring observations to notes from an interdisciplinary point of view are not identified. The aim of this paper is to explore the characteristics of field notes created by researchers representing different disciplines and experiences.Methods: A case study using a modified dynamic observation method was employed. The analyses were initiated by a researcher who had not been involved in the data collection. The field notes were analyzed using three main steps.Results: The structures of both researchers' field notes were characterized by similarities in their descriptions, but the notes' foci and analytical levels differed.Conclusion: The findings contribute new insights concerning the execution of interdisciplinary observational studies. Our findings demonstrate that entering the field with different lenses produced richer and more varied data, providing a broader platform from which to discuss and interpret a study's findings. From a theoretical point of view, the findings enable a more nuanced discussion and a conceptual elaboration regarding how observational approaches should be pursued in future studies. On a practical level, the findings show that even if the researchers agree on what the overall focus in the observations should be, differences can occur in

  18. The Effects of Guided Notes on Pre-Lecture Quiz Scores in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glodowski, Kathryn; Thompson, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Guided notes covering lectures have been shown to improve note quality and increase scores on quizzes covering lecture material. We sought to determine whether guided notes would also be beneficial in helping students prepare for quizzes covering assigned readings. We evaluated the efficacy of guided notes for reading assignments on…

  19. Improving the quality of orthopaedic elective and trauma operative notes: A completed audit loop study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Arvind Shah

    2016-01-01

    Discussion: This study showed that the quality of elective operative notes was improved through surgeon education and the circulation of a guideline based electronic operative note. We have further plans to implement procedure specific notes for the most common types of trauma cases to help improve the quality of trauma operative notes.

  20. Exploring the Effects of Digital Note Taking on Student Comprehension of Science Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Mark A.; Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Terra, Fatima

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of text notes and voice notes on the comprehension of science texts by fifth grade students. The study was conducted to determine whether digital note taking was an effective reading strategy, and whether one form of digital note taking was more effective than the other. Results revealed that general education…

  1. Parallel Note-Taking: A Strategy for Effective Use of Webnotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Eleanor A.; Domizi, Denise P.; Forbes, Daniel A.; Pettis, Gretchen V.

    2005-01-01

    Many instructors supply online lecture notes but little attention has been given to how students can make the best use of this resource. Based on observations of student difficulties with these notes, a strategy called parallel note-taking was developed for using online notes. The strategy is a hybrid of research-proven strategies for effective…

  2. The Effects of Note-Taking Skills Instruction on Elementary Students' Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wan-Chen; Ku, Yu-Min

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of a 5-week note-taking skills instructional program on note-taking and reading comprehension performance of elementary students. The participants included 349 fourth-grade students from 2 elementary schools in Taiwan. The Note-Taking Instruction group received approximately 40 min of note-taking skills…

  3. 36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... personal notes into the research room. In research rooms that permit taking in your notes, a NARA or... computer, other equipment, and notes? 1254.12 Section 1254.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.12 Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? (a...

  4. Lecture notes: string theory and zeta-function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toppan, Francesco [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: toppan@cbpf.br

    2001-11-01

    These lecture notes are based on a revised and LaTexed version of the Master thesis defended at ISAS. The research part being omitted, they included a review of the bosonic closed string a la Polyakov and of the one-loop background field method of quantisation defined through the zeta-function. In an appendix some basic features of the Riemann zeta-function are also reviewed. The pedagogical aspects of the material here presented are particularly emphasized. These notes are used, together with the Scherk's article in Rev. Mod. Phys. and the first volume of the Polchinski book, for the mini-course on String Theory (16-hours of lectures) held at CBPF. In this course the Green-Schwarz-Witten two-volumes book is also used for consultative purposes. (author)

  5. LLW Notes, volume 9, No. 7. November and December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    LLW Notes is distributed to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  6. Country plan Zeeland, predesign. Policy note reactions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    In this note of the provincial executive of Zeeland the timely entered reactions on the predesign-country plan Zeeland, concerning the location of additional nuclear power plants in Borssele are elaborated. The relevance of the policy can be related to the character of the reactions on the predesign-country plan, as well as to the character of the answers and conclusions associated with them. The answers in this note may be important as explanations of the contents of the predesign-country plan. The remarks are arranged, summarized and answered as much as possible according to the arrangement of the predesign-country plan. By subject, in each case, first the corresponding reactions are summarized, next the reactions are answered. From the conclusions it appears if and to what extent reactions may give motivations for modifications in the predesign

  7. LLW Notes, vol.9, no. 5. August/September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    LLW Notes is distributed to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  8. A note on the preconditioner Pm=(I+Sm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Toshiyuki; Niki, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    Kotakemori et al. [H. Kotakemori, K. Harada, M. Morimoto, H. Niki, A comparison theorem for the iterative method with the preconditioner (I+Smax), Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 145 (2002) 373-378] have reported that the convergence rate of the iterative method with a preconditioner Pm=(I+Sm) was superior to one of the modified Gauss-Seidel method under the condition. These authors derived a theorem comparing the Gauss-Seidel method with the proposed method. However, through application of a counter example, Wen Li [Wen Li, A note on the preconditioned GaussSeidel (GS) method for linear systems, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 182 (2005) 81-91] pointed out that there exists a special matrix that does not satisfy this comparison theorem. In this note, we analyze the reason why such a to counter example may be produced, and propose a preconditioner to overcome this problem.

  9. Kepler Data Release 25 Notes (Q0-Q17)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, Susan E.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Barclay, Thomas Stewart; Barentsen, Geert; Clarke, Bruce Donald; Bryson, Stephen T.; Burke, Christopher James; Campbell, Jennifer Roseanna; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; Christiansen, Jessie; hide

    2016-01-01

    These Data Release Notes provide information specific to the current reprocessing and re-export of the Q0-Q17 data. The data products included in this data release include target pixel files, light curve files, FFIs,CBVs, ARP, Background, and Collateral files. This release marks the final processing of the Kepler Mission Data. See Tables 1 and 2 for a list of the reprocessed Kepler cadence data. See Table 3 for a list of the available FFIs. The Long Cadence Data, Short Cadence Data, and FFI data are documented in these data release notes. The ancillary files (i.e., cotrending basis vectors, artifact removal pixels, background, and collateral data) are described in the Archive Manual (Thompson et al., 2016).

  10. Universality in the tail of musical note rank distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán del Río, M.; Cocho, G.; Naumis, G. G.

    2008-09-01

    Although power laws have been used to fit rank distributions in many different contexts, they usually fail at the tails. Languages as sequences of symbols have been a popular subject for ranking distributions, and for this purpose, music can be treated as such. Here we show that more than 1800 musical compositions are very well fitted by the first kind two parameter beta distribution, which arises in the ranking of multiplicative stochastic processes. The parameters a and b are obtained for classical, jazz and rock music, revealing interesting features. Specially, we have obtained a clear trend in the values of the parameters for major and minor tonal modes. Finally, we discuss the distribution of notes for each octave and its connection with the ranking of the notes.

  11. A note on the L-fuzzy Banach's contraction principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Moreno, J.; Roldan, A.; Roldan, C.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Alaca et al. [Alaca C, Turkoglu D, Yildiz C. Fixed points in intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;29:10738] proved fuzzy Banach fixed point theorem in intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces and Saadati [Saadati R. Notes to the paper 'fixed points in intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces' and its generalization to L-fuzzy metric spaces. Chaos, Solitions and Fractals 2008;35:80-176] extended it in generalized fuzzy metric spaces. The purpose of this paper is to give a correct proof of the main result in Saadati [Saadati R. Notes to the paper 'fixed points in intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces' and its generalization to L-fuzzy metric spaces. Chaos, Solitions and Fractals 2008;35:80-176].

  12. LLW Notes, vol.9, no. 5. August/September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    LLW Notes is distributed to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  13. NOTE TAKING PAIRS TO IMPROVE STUDENTS‟ SENTENCE BASED WRITING ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testiana Deni Wijayatiningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Students had skill to actualize their imagination and interpret their knowledge through writing which could be combined with good writing structure. Moreover, their writing skill still had low motivation and had not reached the standard writing structure. Based on the background above, this research has purpose to know the influence Note Taking Pairs in improving students‘sentence based writing achievement. The subject of this research was the second semester of English Department in Muhammadiyah University of Semarang. It also used statistic non parametric method to analyze the students‘ writing achievement. The result of this research showed that Note Taking Pairs strategy could improve students‘sentence based writing achievement. Hopefully this research is recommended into learning process to improve students‘writing skill especially in sentence-based writing subject.

  14. LLW Notes, Volume 9, Number 6. October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    LLW Notes is distributed to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  15. Country plan Zeeland, predesign. Official note reactions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    In this official note of the steering committee Streekplanwerk (country plan work) the timely entered reactions on the predesign-country plan Zeeland, concerning the location of additional nuclear power plants in Borssele are elaborated. The relevance of the policy can be related to the character of the reactions on the predesign-country plan, as well as to the character of the answers and conclusions associated with them. The answers in this note may be important as explanations of the contents of the predesign-country plan. The remarks are arranged, summarized and answered as much as possible according to the arrangement of the predesign-country plan. By subject, in each case, first the corresponding reactions are summarized, next the reactions are answered. From the conclusions it appears if and to what extent reactions may give motivations for modifications in the predesign

  16. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 4, side-notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a number of side-notes pertaining to the first three volumes of the Energy Perspectives series of reports. Various topics are discussed by the authors of the first three volumes of the perspectives in the meetings held by the Energy Perspectives Working Group. The sixteen side-notes presented here cover the following topics: General conditions, fossil resources, the influence of climate warming, CO 2 emissions trading (Joint Implementation JI and Clean Development Mechanism CDM), definition of potentials, air traffic, imported renewable electricity, hydro power, electricity cost calculation, sensitivity analysis of centralised power production facilities, heat-pumps and their power consumption, cold spells and heat-waves, risk and its perception, the 2000-Watt society and international and national energy perspectives

  17. LLW Notes, volume 9, No. 7. November and December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    LLW Notes is distributed to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  18. LLW Notes, Volume 9, Number 6. October 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    LLW Notes is distributed to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact commission implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The Forum provides an opportunity for states and compacts to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  19. A note on forward contracts in leader-follower games

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Bonacina; Anna Creti

    2010-01-01

    This note shows that the pro-competitive effect of pre-commitments is robust to Stackelberg-like market structures. Although our results are in line with Allaz and Vila (1993), the two equilibria differ substantially. Sequential interactions foster a monopolization of the contract market and a redistribution of market shares - and hence of profits - towards the follower. Offsetting strategies in the sense of Bain (1949a) can then occur. The use of forward sales to exclude the rival in the out...

  20. Mobile Augmented Note-taking to Support Operating Physical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Liu , Can; Diehl , Jonathan; Huot , Stéphane; Borchers , Jan

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Augmented Reality: Design Issues and Opportunities - 1st Workshop on Mobile Augmented Reality, MobileHCI 2011; In this paper we propose an approach to assist operating physical devices with mobile augmented reality techniques. We propose ideas of interaction techniques, which allow users to put self-authored information as notes onto physical objects. We present the design of two example applications aiming at solving problems from different aspects of physical operations.

  1. A note on stable Teichmüller quasigeodesics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this note, we prove that for a cobounded, Lipschitz path γ : I → T in the Teichmüller space T of a hyperbolic surface, if the pull back bundle Hγ → I of the cannonical H2-bundle H → T is a strongly relatively hyperbolic metric space then there exists a geodesic ξ of T such that γ(I) and ξ are close to each other.

  2. Graphic and haptic simulation for transvaginal cholecystectomy training in NOTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun J; Ahn, Woojin; Dargar, Saurabh; Halic, Tansel; Li, Bai C; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Roberts, Kurt; Schwaitzberg, Steven; De, Suvranu

    2016-04-01

    Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) provides an emerging surgical technique which usually needs a long learning curve for surgeons. Virtual reality (VR) medical simulators with vision and haptic feedback can usually offer an efficient and cost-effective alternative without risk to the traditional training approaches. Under this motivation, we developed the first virtual reality simulator for transvaginal cholecystectomy in NOTES (VTEST™). This VR-based surgical simulator aims to simulate the hybrid NOTES of cholecystectomy. We use a 6DOF haptic device and a tracking sensor to construct the core hardware component of simulator. For software, an innovative approach based on the inner-spheres is presented to deform the organs in real time. To handle the frequent collision between soft tissue and surgical instruments, an adaptive collision detection method based on GPU is designed and implemented. To give a realistic visual performance of gallbladder fat tissue removal by cautery hook, a multi-layer hexahedral model is presented to simulate the electric dissection of fat tissue. From the experimental results, trainees can operate in real time with high degree of stability and fidelity. A preliminary study was also performed to evaluate the realism and the usefulness of this hybrid NOTES simulator. This prototyped simulation system has been verified by surgeons through a pilot study. Some items of its visual performance and the utility were rated fairly high by the participants during testing. It exhibits the potential to improve the surgical skills of trainee and effectively shorten their learning curve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  4. JRC Thinkers ‘N’ Tinkers Makerspace - Concept Note

    OpenAIRE

    VALENTE DE JESUS ROSA PAULO; MARTINHO GUIMARAES PIRES PEREIRA ANGELA

    2016-01-01

    In this concept note, we make the case for creating an in-house makerspace oriented towards the engagement of citizens in technoscientific innovations: the JRC Thinkers ‘N’ Tinkers Makerspace. The idea behind the makerspace is to have a space located in the premises of the JRC that promotes critical thinking and tinkering about technoscientific issues relevant for policy files focusing on their societal implications. We view it as a safe space where we can promote dialogues with civil society...

  5. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 12. Types of the Alaudidae

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, E.C.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.; Eck, S.; Somadikarta, S.; Kalyakin, M.; Loskot, V.; Morioka, H.; Violani, C.; Voisin, C.

    2001-01-01

    A list is provided of the 165 names applied to identifiable Asian forms of species of lark (family Alaudidae). This list summarises our collective knowledge on the whereabouts of types for these names; where our information does not include reliable data we provide notes relating to the deficit and to stimulate others to send us additional data or to suggest sources of information. In two appendices we deal with certain old names that we judge to be indeterminate and we designate a lectotype ...

  6. Dealer Group or Financial Planning Group? A Brief Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujer Santacruz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This technical note examines whether the industry practice of using the term dealer group when referring to afinancial planning group contributes to the general perception that financial advisers are not objective whenmaking financial product recommendations. An experimental design carried out through an online survey isused. This is supplemented by a direct comparison survey on the two terminologies. The results provide acase for the industry to adopt a new terminology.

  7. Notes on Computational Methodology and Tools of Thermoelectric Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min; Bach, Inger Palsgaard; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2007-01-01

    The SPICE model allows the concurrent simulation of thermoelectric devices and application electric sub-models. It is an important step to implement the thermoelectric modeling at the system level. In this paper, temperature dependent material properties in the SPICE model, temperature and heat...... flow obtained by the code ANSYS Multiphysics and SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis), as well as some notes on the 3-D extension of the SPICE model are introduced....

  8. Direct target NOTES: prospective applications for next generation robotic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, S; Hodges, A; Larach, S W

    2018-05-01

    A new era in surgical robotics has centered on alternative access to anatomic targets and next generation designs include flexible, single-port systems which follow circuitous rather than straight pathways. Such systems maintain a small footprint and could be utilized for specialized operations based on direct organ target natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), of which transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) is an important derivative. During two sessions, four direct target NOTES operations were conducted on a cadaveric model using a flexible robotic system to demonstrate proof-of-concept of the application of a next generation robotic system to specific types of NOTES operations, all of which required removal of a direct target organ through natural orifice access. These four operations were (a) robotic taTME, (b) robotic transvaginal hysterectomy in conjunction with (c) robotic transvaginal salpingo-oophorectomy, and in an ex vivo model, (d) trans-cecal appendectomy. Feasibility was demonstrated in all cases using the Flex ® Robotic System with Colorectal Drive. During taTME, the platform excursion was 17 cm along a non-linear path; operative time was 57 min for the transanal portion of the dissection. Robotic transvaginal hysterectomy was successfully completed in 78 min with transvaginal extraction of the uterus, although laparoscopic assistance was required. Robotic transvaginal unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with transvaginal extraction of the ovary and fallopian tube was performed without laparoscopic assistance in 13.5 min. In an ex vivo model, a robotic trans-cecal appendectomy was also successfully performed for the purpose of demonstrating proof-of-concept only; this was completed in 24 min. A flexible robotic system has the potential to access anatomy along circuitous paths, making it a suitable platform for direct target NOTES. The conceptual operations posed could be considered suitable for next generation robotics once

  9. Introductory note on Emergent Unconscious Knowledge Networks (Asygnodic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Bakis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This note introduces the following paper on the concept of Emergent Unconscious Knowledge Networks (Asygnodic Networks created by E. Roche and M. Blaine. The concept of asyngnosis explains a large number of diverse phenomena involving organizations, groups and decision making. It will present the genesis and definition of Asygnodic Networks and will focus on how they raise challenges to traditional theories of decision making and emerging social networks.

  10. A note on the arc elacticity of demand

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Vázquez

    1995-01-01

    This note presents a simple alternative measure for the arc elasticity of demand which comes naturally and does retain the salient characteristics of the point demand elasticity. A remarkable feature is that it equals the point demand elasticity at some point inside the interval, thus leading to the exact estimation of the point demand elasticity when this is constant. It also ensures that the relationships between the arc demand elasticity and the arc revenue elasticities keep exact formal a...

  11. A note on sigular limits to hyperbolic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchini, Stefano

    2000-01-01

    In this note we consider two different singular limits to hyperbolic system of conservation laws, namely the standard backward schemes for non linear semigroups and the semidiscrete scheme. Under the assumption that the rarefaction curve of the corresponding hyperbolic system are straight lines, we prove the stability of the solution and the convergence to the perturbed system to the unique solution of the limit system for initial data with small total variation.

  12. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2017-01-01

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  13. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yi, E-mail: lingy@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China); School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Peng, E-mail: liup51@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jian-Pin, E-mail: jianpinwu@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2017-05-10

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  14. Total Vaginal NOTES Hysterectomy: A New Approach to Hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baekelandt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a total hysterectomy performed entirely by transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES). Conventional, reusable laparoscopic instruments were used, inserted through an inexpensive, self-constructed single-port device. Ten total vaginal NOTES hysterectomies (TVNHs) were performed by a single surgeon. The self-constructed single-port device was made by assembling a surgical glove, a wound protector or modified laryngeal mask airway, 1 reusable 10-mm trocar, and 4 reusable 5-mm trocars. This gloveport was inserted into the vagina to create a pneumovagina. The conventional steps of a vaginal hysterectomy were followed, but performed endoscopically with standard reusable endoscopic instruments. The patient and perioperative data were analyzed. No conversion to standard laparoscopy or laparotomy was necessary in any of the 10 patients who underwent a TVNH. Mean operation time was 97 min (range: 60-120); mean drop in hemoglobin level was 1.5 g/dL (range: 0.5-2.4). There were no operative complications, and postoperative pain scores were very low. This first report on a small number of patients demonstrates that TVNH is possible. By incorporating the advantages of endoscopic surgery, TVNH broadens the indications for vaginal hysterectomy and helps overcome its limitations. At the same time, the NOTES approach avoids abdominal wall wounds and trocar-related complications. TVNH is feasible, even when performed with reusable, conventional laparoscopic instruments. This frugally innovative technique also enables surgeons to perform hysterectomies by vNOTES in low resource settings. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2010-11-11

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung) voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones) than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices) test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation), which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  16. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzella, Patr?cia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP poss...

  17. A note on p-semisimple BCI-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Thaheem, A.B.

    1989-07-01

    In this note we prove some equivalent conditions for p-semisimple BCI-algebras. We also show that if X is a p-semisimple BCI-algebra then Hom(X), the set of all homomorphisms of X is a (p-semisimple) BCI-algebra, thus extending the class of BCI-algebras with this property as proposed. We also study some duality conditions. (author). 11 refs

  18. A Note On the Estimation of the Poisson Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Chitgopekar

    1985-01-01

    distribution when there are errors in observing the zeros and ones and obtains both the maximum likelihood and moments estimates of the Poisson mean and the error probabilities. It is interesting to note that either method fails to give unique estimates of these parameters unless the error probabilities are functionally related. However, it is equally interesting to observe that the estimate of the Poisson mean does not depend on the functional relationship between the error probabilities.

  19. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vanzella

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names, it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP.A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation, which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age.Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  20. Vertical specialization and industrial upgrading: a preliminary note

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Jiang; William Milberg

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vertical specialization is a measure of the import content of exports. Given the widely recognized importance of trade in tasks and global production networks, vertical specialization has recently gained the attention of international trade researchers and policy makers. In this note, we use measured changes in the within-country pattern of vertical specialization to gauge the relevance of task trade for industrial upgrading and economic development. We first calculate vertical speci...

  1. Note: Fast neutron efficiency in CR-39 nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia,Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania, Italy and INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 42, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    CR-39 samples are commonly employed for fast neutron detection in fusion reactors and in inertial confinement fusion experiments. The literature reported efficiencies are strongly depending on experimental conditions and, in some cases, highly dispersed. The present note analyses the dependence of efficiency as a function of various parameters and experimental conditions in both the radiator-assisted and the stand-alone CR-39 configurations. Comparisons of literature experimental data with Monte Carlo calculations and optimized efficiency values are shown and discussed.

  2. Lecture note on neutron and photon transport calculation with MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a lecture note on the continuous energy Monte Carlo method. The contents are as follows; history of the Monte Carlo study, continuous energy Monte Carlo codes, libraries, evaluation method for calculation results, integral emergent particle density equation, pseudorandom number, random walk, variance reduction techniques, MCNP weight window method, MCNP weight window generator, exponential transform, estimators, criticality problem and research subjects. This paper is a textbook for beginners on the Monte Carlo calculation. (author)

  3. A Note on Economic Principles and Financial Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    2006-01-01

    Finance is a branch of economics that deals with budgeting, saving, investing, borrowing, lending, insuring, diversifying, and matching. In setting standards of financial literacy we ought to make sure they are consistent with the basic principles taught in economics courses. In section I of this note I list four of the economic principles I believe can and should serve as a firm conceptual foundation for setting standards of financial literacy and for framing financial decisions. In section ...

  4. Time Dilation and Homogeneous, Soft-Spectrum GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J. P.; Bonnell, J. T.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Scargle, J. D.; Pendleton, G. N.; Kouveliotou, C.; Pizzichini, G.

    1996-12-01

    Recently, BATSE gamma-ray bursts selected for soft average spectra have been shown to follow more nearly a -3/2 power law in their number-intensity relation, indicative of a spatially homogeneous population, unlike the whole BATSE burst sample which deviates significantly from a -3/2 signature. The softer bursts might therefore be closer, and the reported time dilation as a function of peak flux in the whole burst sample (Bonnell et al., ApJ submitted) might be expected to be different for soft bursts. We have investigated this possibility with a sample of 500 long bursts (T_90 > 2 s) from the BATSE 3B catalog, defining soft bursts ( ~ 20% of total) using the three hardness ratios derived from fluences in BATSE's four energy channels (25--55, 55--110, 110--320, > 320 keV). The relative time-dilation factors (TDFs) were calculated using a brightness-independent algorithm for duration. The expected effect is observed: The average log[duration] of soft bursts is significantly lower (factor of ~ 2) than that for harder bursts, or for the whole set, to much dimmer peak fluxes -- consistent with unity TDF (compared to bright bursts in the whole sample) down to peak flux of ~ 1.0 photon cm(-2) s(-1) . Using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we find that T_90 and T_50 duration distributions of soft and hard bursts above this peak flux value are different, with a confidence level > 99%. This result is qualitatively consistent with a GRB luminosity function implied by the apparent homogeneity of the bright-to-intermediate peak-flux soft bursts. However, dimmer soft bursts are time-dilated relative to bright bursts in the whole sample, suggesting that spectral redshift compounds the definition of the soft burst class.

  5. Long GRBs from binary stars: runaway, Wolf-Rayet progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantiello, M.; Yoon, S.C.; Langer, N.; Livio, M.

    2007-01-01

    The collapsar model for long gamma-ray bursts requires a rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet star as progenitor. We test the idea of producing rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet stars in massive close binaries through mass accretion and consecutive quasi-chemically homogeneous evolution — the latter had previously

  6. Long GRBs from Binary Stars: Runaway, Wolf-Rayet Progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantiello, M.; Yoon, S.C.; Langer, N.; Livio, M.

    2007-01-01

    The collapsar model for long gamma-ray bursts requires a rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet star as progenitor. We test the idea of producing rapidly rotating Wolf-Rayet stars in massive close binaries through mass accretion and consecutive quasi-chemically homogeneous evolution - the latter had previously

  7. Kiso observations of 20 GRBs in the HETE-2 era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Y.; Tamagawa, T.; Makishima, K.; Tokyo Univ., Tokyo

    2005-01-01

    We established a GRB follow-up observation system at the Kiso observatory (Japan) in 2001. Since prior to this the east Asian area has been a blank for a GRB follow-up observational network, this observational system is very important for studying the temporal and spectral evolution of early afterglows. We have thus been able to make quick observations of early phase optical afterglows based on HETE-2 and INTEGRAL alerts. Thanks to this quick follow-up observational system, we have so far been able to use the Kiso observatory to monitor 20 events, and conduct follow-up observations in the optical and near-infrared wavelengths

  8. Kiso observations of 20 GRBs in the HETE-2 era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Y. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Physics; Nakada, Y.; Miyata, T.; Aoki, T.; Soyano, T.; Tarusawa, K.; Mito, H. [Kiso Observatory, Nagano (Japan); Tamagawa, T. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Makishima, K. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Department of Physics

    2005-07-15

    We established a GRB follow-up observation system at the Kiso observatory (Japan) in 2001. Since prior to this the east Asian area has been a blank for a GRB follow-up observational network, this observational system is very important for studying the temporal and spectral evolution of early afterglows. We have thus been able to make quick observations of early phase optical afterglows based on HETE-2 and INTEGRAL alerts. Thanks to this quick follow-up observational system, we have so far been able to use the Kiso observatory to monitor 20 events, and conduct follow-up observations in the optical and near-infrared wavelengths.

  9. Resolving The ISM Surrounding GRBs with Afterglow Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochaska, J. X.; Chen, H.-W.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Bloom, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    We review current research related to spectroscopy of gamma-ray burst (GRB) after-glows with particular emphasis on the interstellar medium (ISM) of the galaxies hosting these high redshift events. These studies reveal the physical conditions of star-forming galaxies and yield clues to the nature of the GRB progenitor. We offer a pedagogical review of the experimental design and review current results. The majority of sightlines are characterized by large HI column densities, negligible molecular fraction, the ubiquitous detection of UV pumped fine-structure transitions, and metallicities ranging from 1/100 to nearly solar abundance

  10. Massive Stars as Progenitors of Supernovae and GRBs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langer, N.; van Marle, A.J.; Poelarends, A.J.T.; Yoon, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary fate of massive stars in our Milky Way is thought to be reasonably well understood: stars above ˜ 8 M_o produce neutron stars and supernovae, while those above ˜ 20...30 M_o are presumed to form black holes. At metallicities below that of the SMC, however, our knowledge becomes

  11. On the nature of the 'hostless' short GRBs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunnicliffe, R. L.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    seen for random positions on the sky. This suggests that the majority of 'hostless' SGRBshave likely been kicked from proximate galaxies at moderate redshift. Though this result stillsuggests only a small proportion of SGRBs will be within the Advanced Laser InterferometerGravitational Wave Observatory...

  12. The possibilities of CCD photometry of optical afterglows of GRBs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch; Polášek, Cyril; Jelínek, M.; Hudec, René; Štrobl, Jan

    -, č. 125 (2010), s. 24-28 ISSN 1801-5964. [Conference on Variable Stars Research /41./. Prague, 27.11.2009-29.11.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : gamma-ray bursts * optical afterglows * CCD photometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. Observing GRBs with the LOFT Wide Field Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Hernanz, M.; Feroci, M.

    2013-01-01

    (LAD) with a monitor (WFM) instrument. The WFM is based on the coded mask principle, and 5 camera units will provide coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of the WFM is to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. With its wide...

  14. A Note on the PageRank of Undirected Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Grolmusz, Vince

    2012-01-01

    The PageRank is a widely used scoring function of networks in general and of the World Wide Web graph in particular. The PageRank is defined for directed graphs, but in some special cases applications for undirected graphs occur. In the literature it is widely noted that the PageRank for undirected graphs are proportional to the degrees of the vertices of the graph. We prove that statement for a particular personalization vector in the definition of the PageRank, and we also show that in gene...

  15. Note on the End Game in Homotopy Zero Curve Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Sosonkina, Masha; Watson, Layne T.; Stewart, David E.

    1995-01-01

    Homotopy algorithms to solve a nonlinear system of equations f(x)=0 involve tracking the zero curve of a homotopy map p(a,theta,x) from theta=0 until theta=1. When the algorithm nears or crosses the hyperplane theta=1, an "end game" phase is begun to compute the solution x(bar) satisfying p(a,theta,x(bar))=f(x(bar))=0. This note compares several end game strategies, including the one implemented in the normal flow code FIXPNF in the homotopy software package HOMPACK.

  16. [Notes for a History of Hygiene taken from the Bible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Walter

    2016-08-01

    Reading once more the Gospels, we found a discussion between Jesus and the Pharisee about the hand washing, this golden rule of medicine, and then, with the help of Thomas Mann, we began a search for other notes on hygiene in the Bible. For the return from Egypt to the Promised Land, Moses established several rules for his people, some of them disguised as religious principles, concerning elimination of excreta, healthy and poisonous foods, isolation in case of contagious diseases (leprosy, gonorrhea), decontamination of clothes and houses, and many others that now seem to us ahead his time.

  17. Lecture Notes for the Course in Water Wave Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, Hans F.

    knowledge. The course is at the same time an introduction to the course in coastal hydraulics on the 8th semester. The notes cover the first four lectures of the course: • Definitions. Governing equations and boundary conditions. • Derivation of velocity potential for linear waves. Dispersion relationship...... Particle velocities and accelerations. • Particle paths, pressure variation, deep and shallow water waves, wave energy and group velocity. • Shoaling, refraction, diffraction and wave breaking. The last part of the course is on analysis of irregular waves and was included in the first two editions...

  18. Note on soft theorems and memories in even dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Pujian; Ouyang, Hao

    2017-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the Weinberg's formula for soft graviton production is essentially a Fourier transformation of the formula for gravitational memory which provides an effective way to understand how the classical calculation arises as a limiting case of the quantum result. In this note, we propose a general framework that connects the soft theorems to the radiation fields obtained from classical computation for different theories in even dimensions. We show that the latter is nothing but Fourier transformation of the former. The memory formulas can be derived from radiation fields explicitly.

  19. Note on the integration of the ILD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, C.; Jore, M.

    2009-05-01

    The ILD, the international large detector concept, is one of several detector concepts that are studied for the International Linear Collider. This note summarises part of the studies done on the integration of the ILD detector and gives details on the actual status of the overall integration. This document describes the assembly of the sub-detectors (according to their differences) that are the hadronic calorimeter (HCal), the electronic calorimeter (ECal), the time projection chamber (TPC), the end-cap calorimeters and the inner detectors. A proposal for the cabling scheme and the possible opening scenarios is made

  20. Some Notes and Critiques of Selected Lexicographic Texts in Bikol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louward Allen Zubiri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study revolves around notes and critiques of Bikol lexicography. Based on a selection of six dictionaries, the structure and diachronic development of Bikol lexicography were analyzed. Half of the selected dictionaries were authored in full or part by Malcolm Mintz, a renowned Bikol expert. These enabled a linear analysis of changes in lexicography that have occurred within the span of four decades. The dictionaries studied include the earliest and most influential Bikol dictionary of Lisboa (1865. The study presents a preliminary description of lexicographic work done in Bikol and traces the shift in the paradigm of dictionary making from the Spanish era to the present.

  1. Having Fun with Organized Kissing: A Pedagogical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Shin Wei

    2008-01-01

    Harbaugh's daughter went to a French school at which every day before class, everyone in the class must kiss each other. It is easy to see that a class of 35 kids must engage in 595 kisses. Organizing the kissing for the purpose of time-saving and predicting how much time it would take are proposed in this pedagogical note inspired by the entertaining puzzle made by Harbaugh. We also illustrate how this problem-solving case study, requiring no mathematics but careful reasoning, might be incor...

  2. A note on non-compact Cauchy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Hyung

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that if a spacetime has a non-compact Cauchy surface Σ, then its causal structure is completely determined by the class of compact subsets of Σ of the forms J - (p) intersection Σ and J + (p) intersection Σ. Since the causal structure determines its metric structure up to a conformal factor, this implies that the sets J - (p) intersection Σ and J + (p) intersection Σ determine the conformal structure of a globally hyperbolic spacetime. In this way, we can encode the conformal structure of the spacetime into its Cauchy surface and we get another method for reconstructing spacetime. (comments, replies and notes)

  3. Notes on the quantum theory of angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Feenberg, Eugene

    1999-01-01

    This classic, concise text has served a generation of physicists as an exceptionally useful guide to the mysteries of angular momenta and Clebsch-Gordon Coefficients. Derived from notes originally prepared to assist graduate students in reading research papers on atomic, molecular, and nuclear structure, the text first reviews the basic elements of quantum theory. It then examines the development of the fundamental commutation relations for angular momentum components and vector operators, and the ways in which matrix elements and eigenvalues of the angular momentum operators are worked out f

  4. A short note on jackknifing the concordance correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dai; Baumgartner, Richard; Svetnik, Vladimir

    2014-02-10

    Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a very popular scaled index of agreement used in applied statistics. To obtain a confidence interval (CI) for the estimate of CCC, jackknifing was proposed and shown to perform well in simulation as well as in applications. However, a theoretical proof of the validity of the jackknife CI for the CCC has not been presented yet. In this note, we establish a sufficient condition for using the jackknife method to construct the CI for the CCC. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A Note on optimal estimation in the presence of outliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Haddad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Haddad, J. 2017. A Note on optimal estimation in the presence of outliers. Lebanese Science Journal, 18(1: 136-141. The basic estimation problem of the mean and standard deviation of a random normal process in the presence of an outlying observation is considered. The value of the outlier is taken as a constraint imposed on the maximization problem of the log likelihood. It is shown that the optimal solution of the maximization problem exists and expressions for the estimates are given. Applications to estimation in the presence of outliers and outlier detection are discussed and illustrated through a simulation study and analysis of trade data

  6. The Ghost of Blanco: A Note to Ugo Mattei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Surdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By noting the end of the dualism between public and private law, between state and international law and between goods and services, the article comments and interprets Ugo Mattei’s doctrine about new forms of property. Cognitive transformations, both technological and social, do not prelude to a new and different juridical intermediation as guarantee of the communal regime of goods. These new forms of property, when confronted with the domain that private economic property continues to exercise, do not announce neither the dissolution of the monopoly of state coercion, nor the advent of a merely administrative management.

  7. Sarnet lecture notes on nuclear reactor severe accident phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trambauer, K.; Adroguer, B.; Fichot, F.; Muller, C.; Meyer, L.; Breitung, W.; Magallon, D.; Journeau, C.; Alsmeyer, H.; Housiadas, C.; Clement, B.; Ang, M.L.; Chaumont, B.; Ivanov, I.; Marguet, S.; Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Fleurot, J.; Giordano, P.; Cranga, M.

    2008-01-01

    The 'Severe Accident Phenomenology Short Course' is part of the Excellence Spreading activities of the European Severe Accident Research NETwork of Excellence SARNET (project of the EURATOM 6. Framework programme). It was held at Cadarache, 9-13 January 2006. The course was divided in 14 lectures covering all aspects of severe accident phenomena that occur during a scenario. It also included lectures on PSA-2, Safety Assessment and design measures in new LWR plants for severe accident mitigation (SAM). This book presents the lecture notes of the Severe Accident Phenomenology Short Course and condenses the essential knowledge on severe accident phenomenology in 2008. (authors)

  8. Justifications on social ineaqualities. Notes on the Salvadoran case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lungo Rodríguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This note presents the theoretical and methodological guidelines of my phd dissertation, which is under preparation. My concern is about cultural aspects that underlie social inequalities in contemporary El Salvador. Currently, this country is characterized by the primacy of neoliberal acumulation model, the rise of an unprecedented democracy, processes of reconcentration of capital and the persistence of high levels of social exclusion. Specifically, I study the justification of inequalities from the case of the “elite” middle classes in El Salvador. This research is inscribed whitin the sociological debates on the cultural aspects after reproduction of stratification and inequality.

  9. Is testing a more effective learning strategy than note-taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummer, Ralf; Schweppe, Judith; Gerst, Kathleen; Wagner, Simon

    2017-09-01

    The testing effect is both robust and generalizable. However, most of the underlying studies compare testing to a rather ineffective control condition: massed repeated reading. This article therefore compares testing with note-taking, which has been shown to be more effective than repeated reading. Experiment 1 is based on a 3 × 3 between-participants design with the factors learning condition (repeated reading vs. repeated testing vs. repeated note-taking) and final test delay (5 min vs. 1 week vs. 2 weeks). It shows that in the immediate condition, learning performance is best after note-taking. After 1 week, both the note-taking and the testing groups outperform the rereading group, and after 2 weeks, testing is superior to both note-taking and rereading. Since repeated notetaking may not be the most effective (and common) operationalization of note-taking, Experiment 2 contrasts repeated testing with 2 other note-taking conditions: note-taking plus note-reading and note-taking plus testing (with only a 2-week final test delay). Both conditions that include a testing phase result in better long-term learning than note-taking plus note-reading. In summary, our findings indicate that-in the long run-testing is a powerful learning tool both in isolation and in combination with note-taking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Notes on a methodological discussion: autobiography, critique and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvor Løkken

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available After having tried for some time to overview the contemporary field of qualitative research to give a lecture for a professorship in that area, my idea at the outset of writing this article was to address whether changes in qualitative research should be viewed as recurrent revolutions as highlighted by Denzin and Lincoln (2000; 2005, or as a field of continuing key themes and long-standing tensions, as conceptualized by Atkinson, Coffey and Delamont (2003. However, during my writing, after one detour into the May 2009 issue of Current Sociology and a second detour into the July 2009 issue of Qualitative Research, my attention focused on to how critical debate and review are displayed in different methodological positions of qualitative research. In my reading, the discussion in Current Sociology between main stream and postmodern methodological positioning revealed an utterly one-way feminist critique; this was also the case in one of three book reviews of The Handbook of Qualitative Research (Denzin and Lincoln, 2005 in the referred issue of Qualitative Research. My puzzle over this critical stance, and my third detour, into Yvonne Lincoln’s discussion of twenty-five years of qualitative and new paradigm research in the January 2010 Issue of Qualitative Inquiry, helped evolve the following notes on a methodological discussion. The notes are partly structured by a temporal narrative over personally lived qualitative research, and partly by an epistemological narrative of a methodological discussion, interwoven with the passing of time when writing.

  11. How to write cases and teaching notes in marketing education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damnjanović Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents guidelines for developing cases and teaching notes for marketing classes in higher education. Cases are often used in problem-based learning, where students are placed in a problem or decision-making situation and are encouraged to take the role of problem solvers. The recommendations for case writing are based on analysis of high-level examples of marketing cases, published in the most prominent global publishing databases, along with more than 15 years of experience of the authors. This paper explains the process of writing cases depending on the source of data and tackles all necessary issues that should be addressed. Writing teaching notes is focused on providing the supportive material for a case that helps a lecturer understand the reason for writing the case, the questions that might arise from it and the professional or theoretical points that should be raised in discussion. This paper should contribute to interactive learning and provide lecturers with detailed recommendations for writing cases in the marketing field.

  12. Research Note on the Energy Infrastructure Attack Database (EIAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Giroux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The January 2013 attack on the In Amenas natural gas facility drew international attention. However this attack is part of a portrait of energy infrastructure targeting by non-state actors that spans the globe. Data drawn from the Energy Infrastructure Attack Database (EIAD shows that in the last decade there were, on average, nearly 400 annual attacks carried out by armed non-state actors on energy infrastructure worldwide, a figure that was well under 200 prior to 1999. This data reveals a global picture whereby violent non-state actors target energy infrastructures to air grievances, communicate to governments, impact state economic interests, or capture revenue in the form of hijacking, kidnapping ransoms, theft. And, for politically motivated groups, such as those engaged in insurgencies, attacking industry assets garners media coverage serving as a facilitator for international attention. This research note will introduce EIAD and position its utility within various research areas where the targeting of energy infrastructure, or more broadly energy infrastructure vulnerability, has been addressed, either directly or indirectly. We also provide a snapshot of the initial analysis of the data between 1980-2011, noting specific temporal and spatial trends, and then conclude with a brief discussion on the contribution of EIAD, highlighting future research trajectories. 

  13. Analyzing Language in Suicide Notes and Legacy Tokens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnoto, Michael J; Griffin, Darrin J

    2016-03-01

    Identifying precursors that will aid in the discovery of individuals who may harm themselves or others has long been a focus of scholarly research. This work set out to determine if it is possible to use the legacy tokens of active shooters and notes left from individuals who completed suicide to uncover signals that foreshadow their behavior. A total of 25 suicide notes and 21 legacy tokens were compared with a sample of over 20,000 student writings for a preliminary computer-assisted text analysis to determine what differences can be coded with existing computer software to better identify students who may commit self-harm or harm to others. The results support that text analysis techniques with the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) tool are effective for identifying suicidal or homicidal writings as distinct from each other and from a variety of student writings in an automated fashion. Findings indicate support for automated identification of writings that were associated with harm to self, harm to others, and various other student writing products. This work begins to uncover the viability or larger scale, low cost methods of automatic detection for individuals suffering from harmful ideation.

  14. Why risk is not variance: an expository note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2008-08-01

    Variance (or standard deviation) of return is widely used as a measure of risk in financial investment risk analysis applications, where mean-variance analysis is applied to calculate efficient frontiers and undominated portfolios. Why, then, do health, safety, and environmental (HS&E) and reliability engineering risk analysts insist on defining risk more flexibly, as being determined by probabilities and consequences, rather than simply by variances? This note suggests an answer by providing a simple proof that mean-variance decision making violates the principle that a rational decisionmaker should prefer higher to lower probabilities of receiving a fixed gain, all else being equal. Indeed, simply hypothesizing a continuous increasing indifference curve for mean-variance combinations at the origin is enough to imply that a decisionmaker must find unacceptable some prospects that offer a positive probability of gain and zero probability of loss. Unlike some previous analyses of limitations of variance as a risk metric, this expository note uses only simple mathematics and does not require the additional framework of von Neumann Morgenstern utility theory.

  15. Editorial Note FQS Reviews: Editorial Work is "Communication Work"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Mey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Editorial Notes provide a view "behind the scenes" of FQS Reviews, reporting and describing the editorial process. The first topic in this Editorial Note focuses on changes in the way reviewers are found. As FQS Reviews began we preferred finding reviewers by posting on different listservs to inform others about review copies of books and other media. In the next phase of FQS Reviews—aside from postings—we attempted to establish a core of authors who would exclusively write reviews. The second topic describes an analyses of 131 archived files (first drafts of reviews published in FQS and the analyses of the e-mail contacts between the reviewers and the editorial team which accompany the peer review process. One result of our analyses is that the quality of a review is independent from way the reviewer was recruited (postings on listservs or established core reviewer; no significant differences can be seen between the two groups (reviewers found via listservs or established reviewers. More, important, however, is the intensive "communication work" between editors and reviewers—a necessary communication to guarantee standardization and maintenance of quality. This is critical as our focus is on the review as a "unique contribution" within the research community. To give an insight into the intensive communication work an anonymous case study of a "failed" review is included. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040115

  16. Mission climate note n.7, November 2005; Mission climat note d'etude n. 7, novembre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominicis, A. de

    2005-07-01

    The year 2005 was the year of the implementing of the CO{sub 2} quotas market and the implementing of the kyoto protocol after the ratification by Russia. This context confirmed the presence of a 'carbon finance' based on new financial products: the CO{sub 2} actives or carbon credits which materialize the emissions reductions and exist on the new markets. This note presents the main points of these markets: the purchase funds implementing, the investments and the purchase mechanisms management. (A.L.B.)

  17. Electrical design note for a 5000 ADC, 230 μH power supply filter choke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A.T.

    1993-04-01

    This note describes the design of a 5000 ADC, 230 μH choke made from standard transformer cores. Five of these chokes have been made for CDF and MTF. NOTE: Special magnets can also be made using standard cores

  18. "Seeing things in my head": a synesthete's images for music and notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Carol Bergfeld; Boteler, Edith Howell; Larcombe, Glenda K

    2003-01-01

    We explored synesthetic experiences (photisms) elicited by music and notes for GS, a 22-year-old female college student, who is a genuine digit synesthete (Mills et al 1999 Cognitive Neuropsychology 16 181-191). After extensive interviews, we conducted five studies using synthesizer notes in different octaves and in different instrument sounds. GS described, drew, or selected her photisms from alternatives. The results were: (a) her photisms had shape, color, movement, and texture: (b) different instruments had photisms with different shapes and families of instruments had similar shapes; (c) low-pitched notes were darker and larger than high notes; (d) instrument and pitch affected each other; (e) a given note was perceived as darker after a high note than after a low note; and (f) GS's drawings of notes became more consistent with repeated trials. Theoretical observations are discussed on the basis of these results.

  19. Transgastric pure-NOTES peritoneoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography for staging of gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Vilmann, Peter; Meisner, Søren

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has mainly been based on simultaneous laparoscopic assistance (hybrid NOTES), forgoing the theoretical benefits of the NOTES technique. This is due to a lack of NOTES-specific instruments and endoscopes, making pure-NOTES...... procedures difficult and time consuming. An area where pure NOTES could be adopted at its present stage of development is minimally invasive staging of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of combining transgastric (TG) pure-NOTES peritoneoscopy...... and intraperitoneal endoscopic ultrasonography (ip-EUS) with intraluminal EUS (il-EUS) for peritoneal evaluation. METHODS: This was a feasibility and survival study where il-EUS followed by ip-EUS and peritoneoscopy was performed in 10 pigs subjected to TG pure NOTES. A score was given with regard to achieved...

  20. Summary list of CEA notes published by the French Atomic Energy Commission (April 1953 - September 1957)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1957-09-01

    This document is a summary list of the bibliographic references of all technical notes (CEA-N) published by the French Atomic Energy Commission between April 1953 and September 1957 (note number, authors, title)

  1. Key-note speaker: Predictors of weight loss after preventive Health consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Freund, Kirsten S

    2018-01-01

    Invited key-note speaker ved conferencen: Preventive Medicine and Public Health Conference 2018, July 16-17, London.......Invited key-note speaker ved conferencen: Preventive Medicine and Public Health Conference 2018, July 16-17, London....

  2. The pen is mightier than the keyboard: advantages of longhand over laptop note taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Pam A; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2014-06-01

    Taking notes on laptops rather than in longhand is increasingly common. Many researchers have suggested that laptop note taking is less effective than longhand note taking for learning. Prior studies have primarily focused on students' capacity for multitasking and distraction when using laptops. The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand. We show that whereas taking more notes can be beneficial, laptop note takers' tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Summary list of CEA notes published by the French Atomic Energy Commission (October 1957 - January 1958)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    This document is a summary list of the bibliographic references of all technical notes (CEA-N) published by the French Atomic Energy Commission between October 1957 and January 1958 (note number, authors, title)

  4. Note Taking Activity and its assessment in a Blended Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Minoru; Mutsuura, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Hiroh

    2017-01-01

    "Note-taking" is a popular skill for all types of learning activities. In recent years, the online educational environment has began spreading rapidly at institutes of higher educational, obviating the need for printed materials or written notes. This means that students’ ability to take notes may decline and this may influence the success of their learning.  In order to examine this phenomenon, students' notes were surveyed during a blended learning course in a bachelor level program at...

  5. Technology in Note Taking and Assessment: The Effects of Congruence on Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Matthew E.; Swan, Alexander B.; Mamikonian, Ani; Ghajoyan, Inna; Kramarova, Olga; Youmans, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the encoding specificity principle in relation to traditional and computer-based note taking and assessment formats in higher education. Students (N = 79) took lecture notes either by hand (n = 40) or by computer (n = 39) and then completed either a computer or a paper-based assessment. When note taking and assessment formats were congruent, students scored significantly higher on the assessment when compared to students whose note taking and assessment format were incongr...

  6. The Impact of Note Taking On the Improvement of Listening Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Zohrabi; Farzaneh Esfandyari

    2014-01-01

    Note taking is a popular and operative strategy which increases the students? ability to remember, comprehend, and keep the material in mind. Nowadays, it is very common for teachers to use the note taking strategy in EFL listening classes due to the fact that taking notes can help students catch the main points easily and in turn promote their listening comprehension effectively. However, it creates areas of concerns for some researchers about whether taking notes is effective for students t...

  7. Cirugía endoscópica transluminal por orificios naturales: NOTES Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery: NOTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Varas Lorenzo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión actual, puesta al día, y punto de vista de los autores sobre un tema sumamente novedoso y atractivo, como es la Cirugía Endoscópica Transluminal por Orificios Naturales (NOTES: Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery. La mayoría de los trabajos revisados se han realizado en animales de experimentación, pero la publicación de la colecistectomía por vía transvaginal, y la aparición de editoriales y artículos de revisión sobre el tema, nos llevan a realizar una serie de preguntas no resueltas actualmente sobre este tipo de cirugía, que representa un avance potencial para conseguir "una cirugía endoscópica sin cicatrices, sin infecciones, con mínimos requerimientos de anestesia y una inmediata recuperación".A current review and update of an exceedingly novel and appealing topic, namely natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES, is discussed, as well as the authors' viewpoint thereon. Most reviewed studies were performed in laboratory animals, but reports on transvaginal cholecystectomy and the emergence of editorials and review articles on this topic pose a number of as yet unanswered questions on this type of surgery, which represents a potential advance towards "endoscopic surgery with no scars, no infection, minimal anesthesia requirements, and immediate recovery".

  8. Transesophageal NOTES--a critical analysis of relevant problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, Karl E; Lehmann, Thorsten G

    2010-10-01

    The transesophageal access route has not become a principal topic in the discussion about NOTES up to now. Analyzing the problems in this new field of surgery, however, the transesophageal route shows high relevance. Here, all possibilities, limitations, and problems of NOTES become obvious. This paper contains a critical analysis of the literature published to date (nine full papers, five abstracts). Nearly all publications represent experimental studies in living pigs. In most cases a submucosal tunnel technique is performed as access route to mediastinum, pleural cavity, and heart. Interventions and operations include simple mediastinoscopies as well as epicardial operations after exposition of the heart. For access and manipulation, conventional flexible endoscopes and instruments are used. Clips, T-bars, or a combination of both achieve the closure. Some studies rely on spontaneous closure of the incision without any suturing or approximation. In such experimental settings, the following results are presented: Access is achieved in 90% of cases, the aim of the operation is met in 92%, technical success in closure is achieved in 90%, healing of incision assessed as good in two of five studies, satisfactory in three of five studies. Mortality, ranging from 6 to 25%, and complication rates were (surprisingly) high. It has to be stressed that analyzing these papers published to date, no adequate attention is paid to basic facts and problems of general and thoracic surgery (e.g. different forms, prevention, diagnosis and therapy of pneumothorax or differentiated forms of ventilation). Relevant differences in the anatomy and physiology of the esophagus and mediastinum between humans and pigs should additionally be taken into account to choose optimal experimental parameters when transferring results to human settings. Moreover, requirements regarding sterility and hygiene in a structure like the mediastinum, which is at high risk from the point of view of infection

  9. 7 CFR 1901.508 - Servicing of insured notes outstanding with investors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing of insured notes outstanding with investors. 1901.508 Section 1901.508 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... Ownership and Insured Notes § 1901.508 Servicing of insured notes outstanding with investors. The Director...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit association investment in farmers' notes given to cooperatives and dealers. 615.5172 Section 615....5172 Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes... farmers and ranchers eligible to borrow from such associations. (b) Such notes and other obligations...

  11. 7 CFR 3550.208 - Reamortization using promissory note interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reamortization using promissory note interest rate... § 3550.208 Reamortization using promissory note interest rate. Reamortization using the promissory note interest rate may be authorized when RHS determines that reamortization is required to enable the borrower...

  12. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Note Taking on Computer-Based Graphic Organizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Steven M.; White, David R.; Barnard, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    Previous research on graphic organizer (GO) note taking has shown that this method is most effective when the GO is presented to the student partially complete with provided notes. This study extended prior research by investigating the effects of provided note type (summary vs. verbatim) and GO bite size (large vs. small) on the transfer…

  13. Learning from Lectures: The Implications of Note-Taking for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph R.

    2006-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities lack effective note-taking skills for a variety of reasons. Despite the important role that notes play in helping students to understand lecture content information and serving as documents for later review, many students with learning disabilities are simply not effective note-takers. Many of these students…

  14. Note-Taking Skills of Middle School Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    For middle school students with learning disabilities (LD), one major component of learning in content area classes, such as science, involves listening to lectures and recording notes. Lecture learning and note-taking are critical skills for students to succeed in these classes. Despite the importance of note-taking skills, no research has been…

  15. The Process of Note Taking: Implications for Students with Mild Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph R.

    2007-01-01

    Students with mild disabilities have a difficult time recording notes from lectures. Accurate note taking is important because it helps students understand the content from lectures and notes serve as a document for later review. In this article, the author describes what teachers can do before, during, and after the lecture to help students…

  16. An Exploration of Note-Taking in an Online Calculus Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Carla; Abramson, Jay; Judson-Garcia, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Taking notes is a popular activity for students attending instructional lectures and has been linked to achievement. Research on note-taking has shown that the contents and usefulness of student notes depends on several factors, including the pace of the lecture and the presence of organizational and selection cues. However, this research has…

  17. Note-Taking with Computers: Exploring Alternative Strategies for Improved Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Dung C.; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments examined note-taking strategies and their relation to recall. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed either to take organized lecture notes or to try and transcribe the lecture, and they either took their notes by hand or typed them into a computer. Those instructed to transcribe the lecture using a computer showed the…

  18. Technology in Note Taking and Assessment: The Effects of Congruence on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Matthew E.; Swan, Alexander B.; Mamikonian, Ani; Ghajoyan, Inna; Kramarova, Olga; Youmans, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the encoding specificity principle in relation to traditional and computer-based note taking and assessment formats in higher education. Students (N = 79) took lecture notes either by hand (n = 40) or by computer (n = 39) and then completed either a computer or a paper-based assessment. When note taking and assessment formats…

  19. Optimising the Use of Note-Taking as an External Cognitive Aid for Increasing Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makany, Tamas; Kemp, Jonathan; Dror, Itiel E.

    2009-01-01

    Taking notes is of uttermost importance in academic and commercial use and success. Different techniques for note-taking utilise different cognitive processes and strategies. This experimental study examined ways to enhance cognitive performance via different note-taking techniques. By comparing performances of traditional, linear style…

  20. What Limits the Encoding Effect of Note-Taking? A Meta-Analytic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses indicate that the overall encoding effect of note-taking is positive but modest. This meta-analysis of 57 note-taking versus no note-taking comparison studies explored what limits the encoding effect by examining the moderating influence of seven variables: intervention, schooling level, presentation mode and length, test…

  1. Strategic Note-Taking for Middle-School Students with Learning Disabilities in Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    While today's teachers use a variety of teaching methods in middle-school science classes, lectures and note-taking still comprise a major portion of students' class time. To be successful in these classes, middle-school students need effective listening and note-taking skills. Students with learning disabilities (LD) are poor note-takers, which…

  2. Notes on taxonomy and nomenclature of plants, III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bolòs, Oriol

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Nomenclatural and taxonomic notes on plants of the preparing " Flora dels Països Catalans". This text follows the published ones in the Butll. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat. 38: 63-89 (1984 and in Collect. Bol. (Barcelona 11: 25-89 (1979 & 14: 89-103 (1983.

    Notas nomenclaturales y taxonómicas referentes a plantas de la "Flora dels Països Catalans" en preparación. Este texto es continuación de los que han aparecido en el Butll. Inst. Catalana Hist. Nat. 38: 63-89 (1984 y en Collect. Bot. (Barcelona 11: 25-89 (1979 y 14: 89-103 (1983.

  3. Identification of possible adverse drug reactions in clinical notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warrer, Pernille; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Aagaard, Lise

    2015-01-01

    and labeling status. Findings: A total of 207 patients were included in the study leading to the identification of 163 AEs. 14% were categorized as certain, 60% as probable/likely, and 26% as possible. 15 (9%) ADRs were unlabeled of which two were serious: peripheral edema associated with sitagliptin......Objective: Through manual review of clinical notes for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending a Danish diabetes center, the aim of the study was to identify adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with three classes of glucose-lowering medicines: "Combinations of oral blood....... Methods: For observed adverse events (AEs) we extracted time to onset, outcome, and suspected medicine(s). AEs were assessed according to World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality criteria and analyzed with respect to suspected medicines, type of ADR (system organ class), seriousness...

  4. Flesh-Eating Disease: A Note on Necrotizing Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dele Davies

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been much media attention in the past few years to the condition dubbed 'flesh-eating disease', which refers, primarily, to a form of invasive group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS infection that leads to fascia and muscle necrosis. In 1999, the Canadian Paediatric Society issued a statement on the state of knowledge and management of children, and close contacts of persons with all-invasive GABHS disease (1. The present note is intended to deal specifically with necrotizing fasciitis (NF by providing an update on the limited current state of knowledge, diagnosis and management. Surveillance to establish actual national rates and epidemiology of NF through the Canadian Paediatric Society is proposed.

  5. A Supervised Classification Algorithm for Note Onset Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Eck

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to detecting onsets in music audio files. We use a supervised learning algorithm to classify spectrogram frames extracted from digital audio as being onsets or nononsets. Frames classified as onsets are then treated with a simple peak-picking algorithm based on a moving average. We present two versions of this approach. The first version uses a single neural network classifier. The second version combines the predictions of several networks trained using different hyperparameters. We describe the details of the algorithm and summarize the performance of both variants on several datasets. We also examine our choice of hyperparameters by describing results of cross-validation experiments done on a custom dataset. We conclude that a supervised learning approach to note onset detection performs well and warrants further investigation.

  6. [The archeology of slavery on Jesuit fazendas: first research notes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symanski, Luís Cláudio P; Gomes, Flávio

    2012-12-01

    These preliminary research notes present theoretical and methodological questions regarding a recently inaugurated investigation in historical archeology that intends to analyze daily life under slavery, demographic regimes, cultural practices, and so on. A survey of archeological sites on former 'senzalas' (slave quarters) and slave-owning fazendas in the Paraíba Valley and northern part of the state of Rio de Janeiro is currently in progress. With the cooperation of historians, archeologists, and anthropologists, records of the material culture of slave populations, which originally comprised indigenes and later Africans, are being located at excavations underway on the fazenda that is part of the Jesuit school in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, first run by the clergy and later by members of the laity in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries.

  7. Recommendations related to the strategic environmental assessment. Methodological note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bris, Charlotte; Brivadier, Isabelle; Fournie, Sebastien; Godart, Angelique; Hubert, Severine; Ille, Yann-Mikiel; Le Mitouard, Eric; Phelep, Michele; Delduc, Paul; Poitevin, Florent; Lemaitre, Valery; Bataille, Tristan; Noulin, Alice; Fevre, Cecile; Kervella, Frederic; Orefici, Christine; Rambaud, Lucile; Antoine, Stephanie; Wormser, Veronique; Garrigou, Olivier; Vinay, Catherine; Cretin, Benedicte; Le Saout, Michaele; Pagnucco, Fabrice; Meinier, Yves; Nicolas, Veronique; Thiolliere, Blandine; Guilbert, Sebastien; Billant, Claude; Saingenest, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    This methodological note aims at giving commissioners and project managers of plans, schemes and programmes or other planning documents related to strategic environmental assessment a comprehensive vision of the approach to be adopted, as well as useful advices and operational recommendations. The first part recalls the main principles of environmental assessment, addresses general issues of organisation of the approach, and clarifies its articulation with the plan/scheme/programme elaboration or other approaches such as the assessment of incidences on the Natura 2000 network. The second part addresses the different chapters which are foreseen by the regulation for the environmental report. Some sheets are proposed on SDAGEs (Water Development and Management Master Plans) and PGIRs (flood risk management plans), on SRCs (quarry regional plan) and SAGEs (Water Development and Management Scheme)

  8. MITHRAS REDISCOVERED II. FURTHER NOTES ON CIMRM 1938 AND 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabo Csaba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an important Mithraic relief was rediscovered and republished by the author of these lines in collaboration with George Bounegru and Victor Sava. The relief, known in the literature as CIMRM 1938 was for a long time considered a „disappeared” monument, the only laconic description being that of Marteen J. Vermaseren from his monumental corpus. Due to the recently rediscovered photographs of the relief and the detailed analysis of the correspondence between Béla Cserni and Franz Cumont, the CIMRM 1938 is now became available for further research. In this article, I will add some further historiographic and iconographic notes on one of the biggest Mithraic reliefs found in Dacia, solving also another mysterious piece in Vermaseren’s catalogue, the CIMRM 1986. The article is also the first publication of Béla Cserni’s photograph about the relief.

  9. The Masoretic Notes in Three Commentaries Attributed to Rashi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmelfarb, Lea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the Mikra ̓ot Gedolot ‘Haketer’ version of Rashi’s commentary on three Biblical passages (Deuteronomy 33:23, Isaiah 14:11 and Ezekiel 17:9 the author reviews the textual version of the commentaries’ transmission from medieval manuscripts to print editions. Addressing their meaning and adducing the masoretic notes that the Meyuḥas may have used in making additions, the author demonstrates that these later additions have generated erroneous attributions to Rashi’s original commentaries. In the first two cases, the commentator employs the Masorah note as an interpretive tool. Firstly, he cites the Masorah Magna to support his claim that this unusual form of ירְָשָֽׁה (Deut 33:23 is indeed in the imperative. Secondly, the commentator adduces from a masoretic note that the word נבְָלֶ֑יך (Isa 14:11, which occurs twice in the Bible in this form has two meanings. In the third case, the Masorah note had no interpretive agenda; it merely pointed out that all the letters of the Hebrew alphabet appear in Ezekiel 17:9.

    Partiendo de la versión del comentario de Raší a tres pasajes bíblicos (De 33:23, Is 14:11 y Ez 17:9 contenida en las Mikra ̓ot Gedolot ‘Haketer’, la autora revisa la transmisión del texto de dichos comentarios desde los manuscritos medievales a las ediciones impresas. Mediante el análisis de su significado y aduciendo las notas masoréticas contenidas en las adiciones, y que había sido atribuido (Meyuḥas a Raší, la autora demuestra que dicha atribución puede ser errónea y no corresponde a los comentarios originales de este autor. En los dos primeros pasajes estudiados, se muestra cómo el comentarista había empleado la nota de la masora como instrumento de interpretación. En primer lugar, cita la Masora Magna para apoyar su afirmación de que la forma inusual de ירְָשָֽׁה (De 33:23 estuviera en imperativo. En segundo lugar, partiendo de una

  10. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  11. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Ganesan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  12. Response to The Lost Thing: Notes from a Secondary Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandie Mourão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses students’ responses to the picturebook The Lost Thing (Tan, 2000 and its film (2010. It describes a small-scale project in a secondary school in Portugal, which involved 16-18 year-old students, learning English as a foreign language. Following a socio-constructivist approach to language learning and the basic tenets of reader response theory, discussion and an interpretative stance to meaning making were encouraged. The aim was to foster students’ appreciation of the visual during their interpretative discussions as well as developing their English language skills. This paper demonstrates how the picturebook in particular afforded the students with opportunities for language development through talk. It closes with notes on the implications of using picturebooks and their films in the classroom.

  13. Note Onset Detection via Nonnegative Factorization of Magnitude Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Sanei

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for onset detection of musical notes from audio signals is presented. In contrast to most commonly used conventional approaches, the proposed method features new detection functions constructed from the linear temporal bases that are obtained from the decomposition of musical spectra using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF. Three forms of detection function, namely, first-order difference function, psychoacoustically motivated relative difference function, and constant-balanced relative difference function, are considered. As the approach works directly on input data, no prior knowledge or statistical information is therefore required. Practical issues, including the choice of the factorization rank and detection robustness to instruments, are also examined experimentally. Due to the scalability issue with the generated nonnegative matrix, the proposed method is only applied to relatively short, single instrument (or voice recordings. Numerical examples are provided to show the good performance of the proposed method, including comparisons between the three detection functions.

  14. A Note on Lower Bounds for Colourful Simplicial Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Deza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The colourful simplicial depth problem in dimension d is to find a configuration of (d+1 sets of (d+1 points such that the origin is contained in the convex hull of each set, or colour, but contained in a minimal number of colourful simplices generated by taking one point from each set. A construction attaining d2 + 1 simplices is known, and is conjectured to be minimal. This has been confirmed up to d = 3, however the best known lower bound for d ≥ 4 is ⌈(d+12 /2 ⌉. In this note, we use a branching strategy to improve the lower bound in dimension 4 from 13 to 14.

  15. Finnie's notes on fracture mechanics fundamental and practical lessons

    CERN Document Server

    Dharan, C K H; Finnie, Iain

    2016-01-01

    This textbook consists primarily of notes by Iain Finnie who taught a popular course on fracture mechanics at the University of California at Berkeley. It presents a comprehensive and detailed exposition of fracture, the fundamentals of fracture mechanics and procedures for the safe design of engineering components made from metal alloys, brittle materials like glasses and ceramics, and composites. Interesting and practical problems are listed at the end of most chapters to give the student practice in applying the theory. A solutions manual is provided to the instructor. The text presents a unified perspective of fracture with a strong fundamental foundation and practical applications. In addition to its role as a text, this reference would be invaluable for the practicing engineer who is involved in the design and evaluation of components that are fracture critical. This book also: Presents details of derivations of the basic equations of fracture mechanics and the historical context of the development of f...

  16. Note on the polishing of small spheres of ferrimagnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunberg, J. G.; Antier, G. [Centre d' etudes nucleaires de Grenoble - C.E.N.G. (France); Seiden, P. E. [Institut Fourier, Universite de Grenoble (France)

    1961-07-01

    This note describes a simple and rapid method that we have used for obtaining a high degree of polish on spheres of ferrimagnetic materials. A high surface polish is of particular importance if one desires to perform ferrimagnetic resonance experiments on very narrow linewidth materials such as Yttrium Iron Garnet. It is not possible to obtain the very narrow linewidths without polishing the sample with a very fine abrasive such as 'Linde A'. Although the methods presently used for the fine polishing of ferrite spheres give satisfactory results, the method described here is of particular interest because of its simplicity and speed. For example with the air-jet tumbling technique it can take as long as three days of polishing to obtain an acceptable surface while our method will give the same results in one to two hours. (author)

  17. A note on the mixture viscosity using the Shannak definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A note on the mixture viscosity using the Shannak definition is presented. • The Shannak definition gives μ (2ph) > μ f at low x. • Attention must be taken when using the Shannak definition at low x. - Abstract: In this study, a note on the mixture viscosity using the Shannak definition is presented [Shannak, B. A., 2008. Frictional pressure drop of gas liquid two-phase flow in pipes. Nucl. Eng. Des. 238, 3277–3284]. From his definition of the two-phase Reynolds number (Re (2ph) ), an expression of the two-phase viscosity (μ (2ph) ) is obtained. This expression of the two-phase viscosity (μ (2ph) ) satisfies the following important limiting conditions: i. at x = 0, μ (2ph) = μ f , and at x = 1, μ (2ph) = μ g . This definition of the two-phase viscosity (μ (2ph) ) can be used to compute the two-phase frictional pressure gradient using the homogeneous modeling approach in circular pipes, minichannels and microchannels. By plotting μ (2ph) /μ f versus x for air–water system at atmospheric conditions using the Shannak definition as well as the other most commonly used formulas of the two-phase viscosity (μ (2ph) ) in gas–liquid two-phase flows such as McAdams et al. (1942), Cicchitti et al. (1960), and Awad and Muzychka (2008) (Definition 1, Definition 2, Definition 3, and Definition 4), it is clear that the Shannak definition of the two-phase viscosity gives μ (2ph) > μ f at low x. This is impossible because we must have μ g (2ph) f for 0 < x < 1. Therefore, attention must be taken when using the Shannak definition of the two-phase viscosity at low x

  18. Lecture notes for introduction to nuclear engineering 101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.; Cadwell, J.

    1992-03-01

    The lecture notes for introductory nuclear engineering are provided for Department of Energy personnel that are recent graduates, transfers from non-nuclear industries, and people with minimum engineering training. The material assumes a knowledge of algebra and elementary calculus. These notes support and supplement a three-hour lecture. The reader is led into the subject from the familiar macroscopic world to the microscopic world of atoms and the parts of atoms called elementary particles. Only a passing reference is made to the very extensive world of quarks and tansitory particles to concentrate on those associated with radioactivity and fission. The Einsteinian truth of mass-energy equivalence provides an understanding of the forces binding a nucleus with a resulting mass defect that results in fusion at one end of the mass spectrum and fission at the other. Exercises are provided in calculating the energy released in isotopic transformation, reading and understanding the chart of the nuclides. The periodic table is reviewed to appreciate that the noble elements are produced by quantum mechanical shell closings. Radioactive decay is calculated as well as nuclear penetration and shielding. The geometric attenuation of radiation is studied for personal protection; the use of shielding materials for radiation protection is presented along with the buildup factor that renders the shielding less effective than might be supposed. The process of fission is presented along with the fission products and energies produced by fission. The requirements for producing a sustained chain reactor are discussed. The lecture ends with discussions of how radiation and dose is measured and how dose is converted to measures of the damage of radiation to our bodies

  19. Patients who share transparent visit notes with others: characteristics, risks, and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sara L; Mejilla, Roanne; Darer, Jonathan D; Oster, Natalia V; Ralston, James D; Leveille, Suzanne G; Walker, Jan; Delbanco, Tom; Elmore, Joann G

    2014-11-12

    Inviting patients to read their primary care visit notes may improve communication and help them engage more actively in their health care. Little is known about how patients will use the opportunity to share their visit notes with family members or caregivers, or what the benefits might be. Our goal was to evaluate the characteristics of patients who reported sharing their visit notes during the course of the study, including their views on associated benefits and risks. The OpenNotes study invited patients to access their primary care providers' visit notes in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Washington. Pre- and post-intervention surveys assessed patient demographics, standardized measures of patient-doctor communication, sharing of visit notes with others during the study, and specific health behaviors reflecting the potential benefits and risks of offering patients easy access to their visit notes. More than half (55.43%, 2503/4516) of the participants who reported viewing at least one visit note would like the option of letting family members or friends have their own Web access to their visit notes, and 21.70% (980/4516) reported sharing their visit notes with someone during the study year. Men, and those retired or unable to work, were significantly more likely to share visit notes, and those sharing were neither more nor less concerned about their privacy than were non-sharers. Compared to participants who did not share clinic notes, those who shared were more likely to report taking better care of themselves and taking their medications as prescribed, after adjustment for age, gender, employment status, and study site. One in five OpenNotes patients shared a visit note with someone, and those sharing Web access to their visit notes reported better adherence to self-care and medications. As health information technology systems increase patients' ability to access their medical records, facilitating access to caregivers may improve perceived health

  20. Student notes as a mediating tool for learning in school subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2016-01-01

    -writing function as a tool for a shift in identity from school child to student?. Perceptions of note-writing by two male students and students notes from the school subject bussines economics are analysed. It is concluded that note-writing can function as a tool for learning. Writing notes often allow students...... discource language which must be considered learning subjects. It is concluded that.note writing can mediate between subject discourse language and everyday language, and thereby also function as a tool to identity shift....