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Sample records for sub-diffraction-limited imaging ability

  1. Review of near-field optics and superlenses for sub-diffraction-limited nano-imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Adams

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Near-field optics and superlenses for imaging beyond Abbe’s diffraction limit are reviewed. A comprehensive and contemporary background is given on scanning near-field microscopy and superlensing. Attention is brought to recent research leveraging scanning near-field optical microscopy with superlenses for new nano-imaging capabilities. Future research directions are explored for realizing the goal of low-cost and high-performance sub-diffraction-limited imaging systems.

  2. Sub-diffraction limit localization of proteins in volumetric space using Bayesian restoration of fluorescence images from ultrathin specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Wang

    Full Text Available Photon diffraction limits the resolution of conventional light microscopy at the lateral focal plane to 0.61λ/NA (λ = wavelength of light, NA = numerical aperture of the objective and at the axial plane to 1.4nλ/NA(2 (n = refractive index of the imaging medium, 1.51 for oil immersion, which with visible wavelengths and a 1.4NA oil immersion objective is -220 nm and -600 nm in the lateral plane and axial plane respectively. This volumetric resolution is too large for the proper localization of protein clustering in subcellular structures. Here we combine the newly developed proteomic imaging technique, Array Tomography (AT, with its native 50-100 nm axial resolution achieved by physical sectioning of resin embedded tissue, and a 2D maximum likelihood deconvolution method, based on Bayes' rule, which significantly improves the resolution of protein puncta in the lateral plane to allow accurate and fast computational segmentation and analysis of labeled proteins. The physical sectioning of AT allows tissue specimens to be imaged at the physical optimum of modern high NA plan-apochormatic objectives. This translates to images that have little out of focus light, minimal aberrations and wave-front distortions. Thus, AT is able to provide images with truly invariant point spread functions (PSF, a property critical for accurate deconvolution. We show that AT with deconvolution increases the volumetric analytical fidelity of protein localization by significantly improving the modulation of high spatial frequencies up to and potentially beyond the spatial frequency cut-off of the objective. Moreover, we are able to achieve this improvement with no noticeable introduction of noise or artifacts and arrive at object segmentation and localization accuracies on par with image volumes captured using commercial implementations of super-resolution microscopes.

  3. Coherent Rabi oscillations in a molecular system and sub-diffraction-limited pattern generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Zeyang; Al-Amri, M; Zubairy, M Suhail

    2015-01-01

    The resolution of a photolithography and optical imaging system is restricted by the diffraction limit. Coherent Rabi oscillations have been shown to be able to overcome the diffraction limit in a simple two-level atomic system (Z Liao, M Al-amri, and M S Zubairy 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 183601). In this paper, we numerically calculate the wave packet dynamics of a molecular system interacting with an ultrashort laser pulse and show that coherent Rabi oscillations in a molecular system are also possible. Moreover, a sub-diffraction-limited pattern can be generated in this system by introducing spatially modulated Rabi oscillations. We also discuss several techniques to improve the visibility of the sub-diffraction-limited pattern. Our result may have important applications in super-resolution optical lithography and optical imaging. (paper)

  4. Stimulated Emission Pumping Enablling Sub-Diffraction-Limited Spatial Resolution in CARS Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleff, C.; Gross, P.; Fallnich, C.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Kruse, K.; Beeker, W.P; Beeker, W.P.; Lee, Christopher James; Boller, Klaus J.; Dobner, S.

    2012-01-01

    Suppression of CARS signal generation is demonstrated by equalization of the ground and Raman states via a control state in a theoretical investigation. Using donut-shaped control light fields for population transfer results in sub-diffraction-limited spatial resolution CARS microscopy.

  5. An Investigation of Influencing Factors on Practical Sub-Diffraction-Limit Focusing of Planar Super-Oscillation Lenses

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    Yiting Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Planar super-oscillation lenses (SOLs can fulfill super-resolution focusing and nanoscopic imaging in the far field without the contribution of evanescent waves. Nevertheless, the existing deviations between the design and experimental results have been seldomly investigated, leaving the practical applications of SOLs unpredictable and uncontrollable. In this paper, some application-oriented issues are taken into consideration, such as the inevitable fabrication errors and the size effect of the designed SOLs, with the aim of providing an engineering reference to elaborately customize the demanded focusing light field. It turned out that a thicker structural film makes the focal spots enlarged, while the sloped sidewalls just weaken the intensity of the focal hotspot. Furthermore, the focal lengths are diminished with the decrease of device size, while the focal spots are enlarged. This research will promote the wide-spread applications of SOLs for sub-diffraction-limit far-field focusing in the areas of nanoscopy and high-density optical storage.

  6. Suppression of resonance Raman scattering via ground state depletion towards sub-diffraction-limited label-free microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieger, S.; Fischedick, M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Fallnich, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first experimental demonstration of the suppression of spontaneous Raman scattering via ground state depletion. The concept of Raman suppression can be used to achieve sub-diffraction-limited resolution in label-free microscopy by exploiting spatially selective signal suppression

  7. Stimulated-emission pumping enabling sub-diffraction-limited spatial resolution in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleff, C.; Gross, P.; Fallnich, C.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Kruse, K.; Beeker, W.P.; Lee, Christopher James; Boller, Klaus J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of stimulated emission pumping to achieve sub-diffraction-limited spatial resolution in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. A pair of control light fields is used to prepopulate the Raman state involved in the CARS process prior to the CARS

  8. Localized tip enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of impurity incorporated single GaN nanowire in the sub-diffraction limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patsha, Avinash; Dhara, Sandip; Tyagi, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    The localized effect of impurities in single GaN nanowires in the sub-diffraction limit is reported using the study of lattice vibrational modes in the evanescent field of Au nanoparticle assisted tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). GaN nanowires with the O impurity and the Mg dopants were grown by the chemical vapor deposition technique in the catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid process. Symmetry allowed Raman modes of wurtzite GaN are observed for undoped and doped nanowires. Unusually very strong intensity of the non-zone center zone boundary mode is observed for the TERS studies of both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN single nanowires. Surface optical mode of A 1 symmetry is also observed for both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN samples. A strong coupling of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons with free electrons, however, is reported only in the O rich single nanowires with the asymmetric A 1 (LO) mode. Study of the local vibration mode shows the presence of Mg as dopant in the single GaN nanowires

  9. Localized tip enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of impurity incorporated single GaN nanowire in the sub-diffraction limit

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    Patsha, Avinash, E-mail: avinash.phy@gmail.com, E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in; Dhara, Sandip; Tyagi, A. K. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2015-09-21

    The localized effect of impurities in single GaN nanowires in the sub-diffraction limit is reported using the study of lattice vibrational modes in the evanescent field of Au nanoparticle assisted tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). GaN nanowires with the O impurity and the Mg dopants were grown by the chemical vapor deposition technique in the catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid process. Symmetry allowed Raman modes of wurtzite GaN are observed for undoped and doped nanowires. Unusually very strong intensity of the non-zone center zone boundary mode is observed for the TERS studies of both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN single nanowires. Surface optical mode of A{sub 1} symmetry is also observed for both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN samples. A strong coupling of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons with free electrons, however, is reported only in the O rich single nanowires with the asymmetric A{sub 1}(LO) mode. Study of the local vibration mode shows the presence of Mg as dopant in the single GaN nanowires.

  10. Cell Matrix Remodeling Ability Shown by Image Spatial Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Li; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a critical step of many biological and pathological processes. However, most of the studies to date lack a quantitative method to measure ECM remodeling at a scale comparable to cell size. Here, we applied image spatial correlation to collagen second harmonic generation (SHG) images to quantitatively evaluate the degree of collagen remodeling by cells. We propose a simple statistical method based on spatial correlation functions to determine the size of high collagen density area around cells. We applied our method to measure collagen remodeling by two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), which display different degrees of invasiveness, and a fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3). We found distinct collagen compaction levels of these three cell lines by applying the spatial correlation method, indicating different collagen remodeling ability. Furthermore, we quantitatively measured the effect of Latrunculin B and Marimastat on MDA-MB-231 cell line collagen remodeling ability and showed that significant collagen compaction level decreases with these treatments. PMID:23935614

  11. A New Measure of Imagination Ability: Anatomical Brain Imaging Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Eugene Jung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Imagination involves episodic memory retrieval, visualization, mental simulation, spatial navigation, and future thinking, making it a complex cognitive construct. Prior studies of imagination have attempted to study various elements of imagination (e.g., visualization, but none have attempted to capture the entirety of imagination ability in a single instrument. Here we describe the Hunter Imagination Questionnaire (HIQ, an instrument designed to assess imagination over an extended period of time, in a naturalistic manner. We hypothesized that the HIQ would be related to measures of creative achievement and to a network of brain regions previously identified to be important to imagination/creative abilities. Eighty subjects were administered the HIQ in an online format; all subjects were administered a broad battery of tests including measures of intelligence, personality, and aptitude, as well as structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMR. Responses of the HIQ were found to be normally distributed, and exploratory factor analysis yielded four factors. Internal consistency of the HIQ ranged from .76 to .79, and two factors (Implementation and Learning were significantly related to measures of Creative Achievement (Scientifific - r = .26 and Writing - r = .31 respectively, suggesting concurrent validity. We found that the HIQ and its factors were related to a broad network of brain volumes including increased bilateral hippocampi, lingual gyrus, and caudal/rostral middle frontal lobe, and decreased volumes within the nucleus accumbens and regions within the default mode network (e.g., precuneus, posterior cingulate, transverse temporal lobe. The HIQ was found to be a reliable and valid measure of imagination in a cohort of normal human subjects, and was related to brain volumes previously identified as central to imagination including episodic memory retrieval (e.g., hippocampus. We also identified compelling evidence suggesting imagination

  12. Fabrication of sub-diffraction-limit molecular structures by scanning near-field photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducker, Robert E.; Montague, Matthew T.; Sun, Shuqing; Leggett, Graham J.

    2007-09-01

    Using a scanning near-field optical microscope coupled to a UV laser, an approach we term scanning near-field photolithography (SNP), structures as small as 9 nm (ca. λ/30) may be fabricated in self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on gold surfaces. Selective exposure of the adsorbate molecules in the near field leads to photoconversion of the alkylthiolate to a weakly bound alkylsulfonate which may be displaced readily be a contrasting thiol, leading to a chemical pattern, or used as a resist for the selective etching of the underlying metal. A novel ultra-mild etch for gold is reported, and used to etch structures as small as 9 nm. Photopatterning of oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) terminated selfassembled monolayers facilitates the fabrication of biomolecular nanostructures. Selective removal of the protein-resistant OEG terminated adsorbates created regions that may be functionalized with a second thiol and derivatized with a biomolecule. Finally, the application of SNP to nanopatterning on oxide surfaces is demonstrated. Selective exposure of monolayers of phosphonic acids adsorbed onto aluminum oxide leads to cleavage of the P-C bond and desorption of the adsorbate molecule. Subsequent etching, using aqueous based, yields structures as small as 100 nm.

  13. Effect of Reading Ability and Internet Experience on Keyword-Based Image Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pei-Lan; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Image searches are now crucial for obtaining information, constructing knowledge, and building successful educational outcomes. We investigated how reading ability and Internet experience influence keyword-based image search behaviors and performance. We categorized 58 junior-high-school students into four groups of high/low reading ability and…

  14. Image-Based Dietary Assessment Ability of Dietetics Students and Interns

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    Erica Howes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Image-based dietary assessment (IBDA may improve the accuracy of dietary assessments, but no formalized training currently exists for skills relating to IBDA. This study investigated nutrition and dietetics students’ and interns’ IBDA abilities, the training and experience factors that may contribute to food identification and quantification accuracy, and the perceived challenges to performing IBDA. An online survey containing images of known foods and serving sizes representing common American foods was used to assess the ability to identify foods and serving sizes. Nutrition and dietetics students and interns from the United States and Australia (n = 114 accurately identified foods 79.5% of the time. Quantification accuracy was lower, with only 38% of estimates within ±10% of the actual weight. Foods of amorphous shape or higher energy density had the highest percent error. Students expressed general difficulty with perceiving serving sizes, making IBDA food quantification more difficult. Experience cooking at home from a recipe, frequent measuring of portions, and having a food preparation or cooking laboratory class were associated with enhanced accuracy in IBDA. Future training of dietetics students should incorporate more food-based serving size training to improve quantification accuracy while performing IBDA, while advances in IBDA technology are also needed.

  15. Diagnostic ability of differential diagnosis in ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst by imaging modalities and observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Tae In; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Moon, Je Woon; Choi, Soon Chul

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic ability in differentiating between ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst according to the imaging modalities and observes. We evaluated thirty-six cases of ameloblastomas and forty-seven cases of odontogenic keratocysts all histologically confirmed. Six oral and maxillofacial radiologists diagnosed the lesions by 3 methods: using panoramic radiograph, using computed tomograph (CT), and using panoramic radiograph and CT. The observers were classified by 3 groups: group 1 had experienced over 10 years in oral and mazilofacial radiologic field, group 2 had experienced for 3-4 years, and group 3 was in the process of residentship. After over 2 weeks, the observers diagnosed them by the same methods. The ROC curve areas except for group 3 were the highest with interpretation using panoramic radiograph and CT, followed by interpretation using CT only, and the lowest with interpretation using panoramic radiograph only. The overall difference was not found in diagnostic ability among groups in using panoramic radiograph only, but there was difference in diagnostic ability of group 1 and 2 vs 3 in using CT only, and combination panoramic radiograph and CT. To differentiate between ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst more accurately, the experienced oral and maxillofacial radiologist should diagnose with combination of panoramic radiograph and CT

  16. Diagnostic ability of differential diagnosis in ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst by imaging modalities and observers

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    Gang, Tae In; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Moon, Je Woon; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic ability in differentiating between ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst according to the imaging modalities and observes. We evaluated thirty-six cases of ameloblastomas and forty-seven cases of odontogenic keratocysts all histologically confirmed. Six oral and maxillofacial radiologists diagnosed the lesions by 3 methods: using panoramic radiograph, using computed tomograph (CT), and using panoramic radiograph and CT. The observers were classified by 3 groups: group 1 had experienced over 10 years in oral and mazilofacial radiologic field, group 2 had experienced for 3-4 years, and group 3 was in the process of residentship. After over 2 weeks, the observers diagnosed them by the same methods. The ROC curve areas except for group 3 were the highest with interpretation using panoramic radiograph and CT, followed by interpretation using CT only, and the lowest with interpretation using panoramic radiograph only. The overall difference was not found in diagnostic ability among groups in using panoramic radiograph only, but there was difference in diagnostic ability of group 1 and 2 vs 3 in using CT only, and combination panoramic radiograph and CT. To differentiate between ameloblastoma and odontogenic keratocyst more accurately, the experienced oral and maxillofacial radiologist should diagnose with combination of panoramic radiograph and CT.

  17. Diagnostic ability of the periapical radiographs and digital image in the detection of the artificial proximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Min Suk; You, Dong Soo

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the digital image was introduced into radiological image. The digital image has the power of contrast enhancement, histogram control, and other digitally enhancement. At the point of the resolution, periapical radiograph is superior to the digital image, but enhanced digital procedure improves the diagnostic ability of the digital image. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries in conventional radiographs, digital radiographs and enhanced digital radiographs (histogram specification). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and paired t-test were used for the evaluation of detectability, and following results were acquired: 1. The mean ROC area of conventional radiographs was 0.9274. 2. The mean ROC area of unenhanced digital image was 0.9168. 3. The mean ROC area of enhanced digital image was 0.9339. 4. The diagnostic ability of three imaging methods was not significant difference (p>0.05). So, the digital images had similar diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries to conventional radiographs. If properly enhanced digital image, it may be superior to conventional radiographs.

  18. New software for raw data mask processing increases diagnostic ability of myocardial SPECT imaging.

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    Tanaka, Ryo; Yoshioka, Katsunori; Seino, Kazue; Ohba, Muneo; Nakamura, Tomoharu; Shimada, Katsuhiko

    2011-05-01

    Increased activity of myocardial perfusion tracer technetium-99m in liver and hepatobiliary system causes streak artifacts, which may affect clinical diagnosis. We developed a mask-processing tool for raw data generated using technetium-99m as a myocardial perfusion tracer. Here, we describe improvements in image quality under the influence of artifacts caused by high accumulation in other organs. A heart phantom (RH-2) containing 15 MBq of pertechnetate was defined as model A. Model B was designed in the same phantom containing ten times of cardiac radioactivity overlapping with other organs. Variance in the vertical profile count in the lower part of the myocardial inferior wall and in the myocardial circumferential profile curve were investigated in a phantom and clinical cases using our raw data masking (RDM) software. The profile variances at lower parts of myocardial inferior walls were 965.43 in model A, 1390.11 in model B and 815.85 in B-RDM. The mean ± SD of myocardial circumferential profile curves were 83.91 ± 7.39 in model A, 69.61 ± 11.45 in model B and 82.68 ± 9.71 in model B-RDM. For 11 clinical images with streak artifacts, the average of the variance significantly differed between with and without RDM (3.95 vs. 21.05; P software. The waiting time between infusion and image acquisition should be decreased, thus reducing patient burden and improving the diagnostic ability of the procedure.

  19. Ability of subtraction and dynamic MR imaging to detect breast tumors. Comparison with ultrasonography and mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, Eri; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Iwamura, Akira; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Harada, Junta; Tada, Shinpei

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of subtraction and dynamic MR imaging to accurately detect breast tumors. Sixty-five breast carcinomas and 24 fibroadenomas were examined by an SE pulse sequence using a 0.2 Tesla unit. Subtraction MR images were obtained every minute during dynamic study with Gd-DTPA. Almost all breast tumors were seen as very bright masses, and the margin of the mass was clearly demonstrated on subtraction MR images. Breast carcinomas and fibroadenomas showed characteristic time-intensity curves on dynamic study. Time-intensity curves of the early peak type and plateau type were seen in 97% of breast carcinomas, while the gradually increasing type was seen in 92% of fibroadenomas. The detectability of breast carcinoma was 98% by MRI, 98% by ultrasonography, and 87% by mammography. That of fibroadenoma was 95% by MRI, 91% by ultrasonography and 60% by mammography. Sensitivity and specificity for breast carcinoma were 98% and 92% for MRI and 97% and 71% for ultrasonography. For fibroadenoma, they were 96% and 98% for MRI and 89% and 92% for ultrasonography. (author)

  20. Ability of subtraction and dynamic MR imaging to detect breast tumors. Comparison with ultrasonography and mammography

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    Terao, Eri; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Iwamura, Akira; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Harada, Junta; Tada, Shinpei (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-09-01

    We evaluated the ability of subtraction and dynamic MR imaging to accurately detect breast tumors. Sixty-five breast carcinomas and 24 fibroadenomas were examined by an SE pulse sequence using a 0.2 Tesla unit. Subtraction MR images were obtained every minute during dynamic study with Gd-DTPA. Almost all breast tumors were seen as very bright masses, and the margin of the mass was clearly demonstrated on subtraction MR images. Breast carcinomas and fibroadenomas showed characteristic time-intensity curves on dynamic study. Time-intensity curves of the early peak type and plateau type were seen in 97% of breast carcinomas, while the gradually increasing type was seen in 92% of fibroadenomas. The detectability of breast carcinoma was 98% by MRI, 98% by ultrasonography, and 87% by mammography. That of fibroadenoma was 95% by MRI, 91% by ultrasonography and 60% by mammography. Sensitivity and specificity for breast carcinoma were 98% and 92% for MRI and 97% and 71% for ultrasonography. For fibroadenoma, they were 96% and 98% for MRI and 89% and 92% for ultrasonography. (author).

  1. Detection ability of FDG-PET/CT comparing with other imaging modalities in multiple myeloma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Min Jeong; Lee, Tae Hyun; Pai, Moon Sun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2007-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by bone marrow infiltration with malignant plasma cells. It is important to detect involving bone for diagnosis and management of MM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability and limitation of 18F-FDG-PET/CT (PET/CT) comparing other imaging modalities (separated PET and CT, whole body plain X-ray (XR), bone scintigraphy (BS), and MRI) in MM. Twenty PET/CT scans were performed in 16 patients (M: F=6: 10, median age=59 y). PET/CT findings were compared with available other images (n of CT=21, XR=21, BS=8, and MRI=5). Concordance with more than 2 image modalities, laboratory data, symptom, and biopsies were used for diagnosis of detected lesions. PET/CT revealed 256 of total 287 sites (sensitivity, 89.2%; accuracy, 84.8%). The sensitivity and accuracy of separating PET, CT, and XR were 86.3%, 70.4%; 47.4%, 50.3%; and 72.8%, 72.4%, respectively. Available BS identified 67 of 202 sites (sensitivity, 33.2%; accuracy, 44.0%). MRI detected 20 of 24 sites (sensitivity, 83.3%; accuracy, 36.3%). False positive rate (FP) of PET, XR, and MRI was as high as 87.8%, 95.1%, and 100%. PET for rib lesion identified 9 of 10 patients (90.0%) but for skull lesion only 4 of 7 patients (57.2%) with underestimation. 5 patients in MRI showed diffuse marrow signal change but only 3 had marrow involvement. But PET/CT showed higher accuracy than MRI. PET/CT was the most useful tool for detecting involving bone of MM comparing with other imaging modalities. Moreover, PET/CT is expected to overcome the limitations for the small osteolytic bone lesions with diffuse FDG uptake on PET

  2. The impact of different imaging modalities of 67Ga scintigraphy on the image quality and the ability in detection of lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiuqin; Li Wenchan; Zhang Jianfei; Yao Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: 67 Ga scintigraphy is an important method in detection of active sarcoidosis. The aim of this research was to study the influence of planar and tomography. with and without CT attenuation correction (AC and NAC), on 67 Ga images on the image quality and the ability in detection of lesions. Methods: Thirty one patients (13 male, 18 female, age range: 33-87 years)with sarcoidosis underwent 67 Ga planar and tomographic scans. AC and NAC.The imaging quality and the ability in detection of hyper-radioactive lymph nodes in lung hilar and mediastinal(1esion) among the planar, AC and NAC images were compared. The paired t-test and χ 2 -test were used for data analysis with SPSS 10.0 software. Results: From planar, NAC to AC, the image quality was better and better in proper order (χ 2 = 25.88, P 67 Ga tomographic scintigraphy can impmve the ability in detection of hyperradioactive lung hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes compared with planar image does. CT AC for 67 Ga tomography can improve the tomographic imaging quality. (authors)

  3. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Correlates of Reading Ability in Dysfluent and Non-Impaired Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Catherine; Shaywitz, Bennett; Holahan, John; Shaywitz, Sally; Marchione, Karen; Beaulieu, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Many children and adults have specific reading disabilities; insight into the brain structure underlying these difficulties is evolving from imaging. Previous research highlights the left temporal-parietal white matter as important in reading, yet the degree of involvement of other areas remains unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and…

  4. Consideration on the diagnostic ability of various imaging techniques in relation to renal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ike, Katsushi

    1984-01-01

    Radiological diagnosis of renal tumors is being improved with the increased imaging accuracy which has resulted from advancement in the various equipment used and improvement in techniques. However, at the clinical level, diagnostic procedures based on the characteristics of the delineated images are not yet established and the diverse diagnostic procedures are being conducted currently in a stereotyped manner. In this study, the images of 61 cases diagnosed as renal tumor were analysed retrospectively with the purpose of establishing the imaging accuracy, capacity for diagnosis based on image characteristics and a subseguent proper diagnostic procedure. It was found that CT and Angio gave similar diagnostic accuracy. It was further revealed that US images enabled to differentiate renal tumors from the more commonly experienced renal cystic disease. For determination of tunica involucrum infiltration, which is essential to diagnose Stage I and II renal tumors, CT was proved to be superior to Angio. CT and US were also to be so in the determination of metastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes which is a Stage III criterion. In recent years, CT and US imaging accuracies have increased, hence the improvement in the capacity to diagnose non-observable renal tumors is highly expected. (author)

  5. Interactions of Insolation and Shading on Ability to Use Fluorescence Imaging to Detect Fecal Contaminated Spinach

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    Alan M. Lefcourt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fecal contamination of produce in fields is a recognized food safety risk, and it is a requirement that fields be surveyed for evidence of fecal contamination. It may be possible to increase the efficacy of such surveys using imaging techniques that rely on detection of fluorescence responses of fecal material to UV excitation. However, fluorescence responses are easily masked by ambient illumination. This study investigated the potential of using a shroud to reduce the impact of ambient illumination on responses measured using relatively inexpensive optical components. During periods of near peak insolation, even with full shrouding, results indicate that reliable detection would be problematic. Towards dusk, effective imaging could be accomplished even with a gap of 250 cm at the bottom of the shroud. Results suggest that imaging using relatively inexpensive components could provide the basis for detection of fecal contamination in produce fields if surveys were conducted during dawn or dusk, or at night.

  6. Increasing Predictive Ability by Modeling Interactions between Environments, Genotype and Canopy Coverage Image Data for Soybeans

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    Diego Jarquin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenomics is a new area that offers numerous opportunities for its applicability in plant breeding. One possibility is to exploit this type of information obtained from early stages of the growing season by combining it with genomic data. This opens an avenue that can be capitalized by improving the predictive ability of the common prediction models used for genomic prediction. Imagery (canopy coverage data recorded between days 14–71 using two collection methods (ground information in 2013 and 2014; aerial information in 2014 and 2015 on a soybean nested association mapping population (SoyNAM was used to calibrate the prediction models together with the inclusion of several types of interactions between canopy coverage data, environments, and genomic data. Three different scenarios were considered that breeders might face testing lines in fields: (i incomplete field trials (CV2; (ii newly developed lines (CV1; and (iii predicting lines in unobserved environments (CV0. Two different traits were evaluated in this study: yield and days to maturity (DTM. Results showed improvements in the predictive ability for yield with respect to those models that solely included genomic data. These relative improvements ranged 27–123%, 27–148%, and 65–165% for CV2, CV1, and CV0, respectively. No major changes were observed for DTM. Similar improvements were observed for both traits when the reduced canopy information for days 14–33 was used to build the training-testing relationships, showing a clear advantage of using phenomics in very early stages of the growing season.

  7. When does subliminal affective image priming influence the ability of schizophrenic patients to perceive face emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaina, Lucia Maria; Rana, Kunjan D; Cotos, Ionela; Li-Yang, Chen; Huang, Melissa A; Podea, Delia

    2014-12-24

    Deficits in face emotion perception are among the most pervasive aspects of schizophrenia impairments which strongly affects interpersonal communication and social skills. Schizophrenic patients (PSZ) and healthy control subjects (HCS) performed 2 psychophysical tasks. One, the SAFFIMAP test, was designed to determine the impact of subliminally presented affective or neutral images on the accuracy of face-expression (angry or neutral) perception. In the second test, FEP, subjects saw pictures of face-expression and were asked to rate them as angry, happy, or neutral. The following clinical scales were used to determine the acute symptoms in PSZ: Positive and Negative Syndrome (PANSS), Young Mania Rating (YMRS), Hamilton Depression (HAM-D), and Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A). On the SAFFIMAP test, different from the HCS group, the PSZ group tended to categorize the neutral expression of test faces as angry and their response to the test-face expression was not influenced by the affective content of the primes. In PSZ, the PANSS-positive score was significantly correlated with correct perception of angry faces for aggressive or pleasant primes. YMRS scores were strongly correlated with PSZ's tendency to recognize angry face expressions when the prime was a pleasant or a neutral image. The HAM-D score was positively correlated with categorizing the test-faces as neutral, regardless of the affective content of the prime or of the test-face expression (angry or neutral). Despite its exploratory nature, this study provides the first evidence that conscious perception and categorization of facial emotions (neutral or angry) in PSZ is directly affected by their positive or negative symptoms of the disease as defined by their individual scores on the clinical diagnostic scales.

  8. Integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengier, Fabian; Häfner, Matthias F; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Nawrotzki, Ralph; Kirsch, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giesel, Frederik L

    2013-08-01

    Integrating interactive three-dimensional post-processing software into undergraduate radiology teaching might be a promising approach to synergistically improve both visual-spatial ability and radiological skills, thereby reducing students' deficiencies in image interpretation. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that a hands-on radiology course for medical students using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software improves radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability. A hands-on radiology course was developed using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software. The course consisted of seven seminars held on a weekly basis. The 25 participating fourth- and fifth-year medical students learnt to systematically analyse cross-sectional imaging data and correlated the two-dimensional images with three-dimensional reconstructions. They were instructed by experienced radiologists and collegiate tutors. The improvement in radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability was assessed immediately before and after the course by multiple-choice tests comprising 64 questions each. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired samples was applied. The total number of correctly answered questions improved from 36.9±4.8 to 49.5±5.4 (pability by 11.3% (psoftware into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves radiological reasoning, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability, and thereby even diagnostic skills for imaging modalities not included in the course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of partial least squares discriminant analysis on visible-near infrared multispectral image data to examine germination ability and germ length in spinach seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Gislum, René

    2012-01-01

    Because of the difficulties in obtaining homogenous germination of spinach seeds for baby leaf production, the possibility of using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) on features extracted from multispectral images of spinach seeds was investigated. The objective has been...... to discriminate between different seed sizes, as well as to predict germination ability and germ length. Images of 300 seeds including small, medium, and large seeds were taken, and the seeds were examined for germination ability and germ length. PLS-DA loadings plots were used to reduce the multidimensional...

  10. Integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rengier, Fabian, E-mail: fabian.rengier@web.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Häfner, Matthias F. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Unterhinninghofen, Roland [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Anthropomatics, Department of Informatics, Adenauerring 2, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Nawrotzki, Ralph; Kirsch, Joachim [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 307, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Giesel, Frederik L. [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 307, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Integrating interactive three-dimensional post-processing software into undergraduate radiology teaching might be a promising approach to synergistically improve both visual-spatial ability and radiological skills, thereby reducing students’ deficiencies in image interpretation. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that a hands-on radiology course for medical students using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software improves radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability. Materials and methods: A hands-on radiology course was developed using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software. The course consisted of seven seminars held on a weekly basis. The 25 participating fourth- and fifth-year medical students learnt to systematically analyse cross-sectional imaging data and correlated the two-dimensional images with three-dimensional reconstructions. They were instructed by experienced radiologists and collegiate tutors. The improvement in radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability was assessed immediately before and after the course by multiple-choice tests comprising 64 questions each. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired samples was applied. Results: The total number of correctly answered questions improved from 36.9 ± 4.8 to 49.5 ± 5.4 (p < 0.001) which corresponded to a mean improvement of 12.6 (95% confidence interval 9.9–15.3) or 19.8%. Radiological knowledge improved by 36.0% (p < 0.001), diagnostic skills for cross-sectional imaging by 38.7% (p < 0.001), diagnostic skills for other imaging modalities – which were not included in the course – by 14.0% (p = 0.001), and visual-spatial ability by 11.3% (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves radiological reasoning, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability, and thereby

  11. Integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengier, Fabian; Häfner, Matthias F.; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Nawrotzki, Ralph; Kirsch, Joachim; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Giesel, Frederik L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Integrating interactive three-dimensional post-processing software into undergraduate radiology teaching might be a promising approach to synergistically improve both visual-spatial ability and radiological skills, thereby reducing students’ deficiencies in image interpretation. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that a hands-on radiology course for medical students using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software improves radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability. Materials and methods: A hands-on radiology course was developed using interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software. The course consisted of seven seminars held on a weekly basis. The 25 participating fourth- and fifth-year medical students learnt to systematically analyse cross-sectional imaging data and correlated the two-dimensional images with three-dimensional reconstructions. They were instructed by experienced radiologists and collegiate tutors. The improvement in radiological knowledge, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability was assessed immediately before and after the course by multiple-choice tests comprising 64 questions each. Wilcoxon signed rank test for paired samples was applied. Results: The total number of correctly answered questions improved from 36.9 ± 4.8 to 49.5 ± 5.4 (p < 0.001) which corresponded to a mean improvement of 12.6 (95% confidence interval 9.9–15.3) or 19.8%. Radiological knowledge improved by 36.0% (p < 0.001), diagnostic skills for cross-sectional imaging by 38.7% (p < 0.001), diagnostic skills for other imaging modalities – which were not included in the course – by 14.0% (p = 0.001), and visual-spatial ability by 11.3% (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The integration of interactive three-dimensional image post-processing software into undergraduate radiology education effectively improves radiological reasoning, diagnostic skills and visual-spatial ability, and thereby

  12. Decrease in the ability to detect elevated lung thallium due to delay in commencing imaging after exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothendler, J.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.; Okada, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Post-exercise elevation of the lung/myocardial thallium ratio and a high lung clearance rate between initial and delayed images have been reported to be markers for exercise-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The authors performed thallium exercise tests on 60 patients, 42 with CAD, in order to determine the effect of delaying initial imaging on detection of elevated lung thallium. In addition to images obtained at 2 minutes and at 2 hours after exercise, 18-minute images were also obtained to simulate such a delay. Because of rapid isotope clearance in those with initially elevated lung activity, there was decreased sensitivity of both the initial lung/myocardial ratio and lung thallium clearance for detecting CAD, using the 18-minute image as the initial post exercise study. They conclude that initial imaging should be done in the anterior view early after exercise to optimize detection of elevated lung thallium

  13. Synthetic strategies for controlling inter- and intramolecular interactions: Applications in single-molecule fluorescence imaging, bioluminescence imaging, and palladium catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Nicholas R.

    proximity of the Cy3 and Cy5 fluorophores, behaves as an optical photoswitch in the presence of a thiol reagent. This unique property was employed to achieve sub-diffraction-limited imaging of the stalks of Caulobacter crescentus cells with 30-nm resolution using STORM (stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy). Lastly, the synthesis of the first selenium analogue of firefly luciferin is described, and this analogue is shown to be a competent substrate for firefly luciferase (fLuc). Remarkably, it exhibits red-shifted bioluminescence emission relative to the native sulfur analogue. The in vivo performance of the selenium and sulfur analogues in imaging are compared by tail-vein injection into nude mice bearing subcutaneous tumor xenografts of a human breast cancer cell line that was stably transduced to express fLuc. Part II of this thesis begins by addressing design considerations in the development of palladium catalysts that effect oxidative transformations under mild conditions (i.e., 1 atm air, room temperature) using molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant. A newly synthesized cationic palladium complex, [(2,9-dimethylphenanthroline)Pd(OAc)]2[OTf]2, is shown to catalyze aerobic alcohol oxidation under such conditions with an unprecedented initial turnover frequency, but the presence of partially reduced oxygen species results in competitive ligand oxidation with concomitant decrease in catalyst activity. To remedy this, oxidatively resistant ligands, which are essential for the development of next-generation, high-turnover-frequency palladium catalysts that utilize oxygen as a terminal oxidant, have been prepared and effectively employed. In addition, the first general palladium-catalyzed route to the carbonylation of diols is reported. In this system, carbon monoxide (1 atm) serves the carbonyl source, (2,9-dimethylphenanthroline)Pd(OAc) 2 acts as the catalyst, and N-chlorosuccinimide and iodosobenzene are the oxidants for 1,2- and 1,3-diols, respectively. This

  14. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim; Junet, Laila Kalidah; Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che

    2015-01-01

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom’s hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacement which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed that Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner

  15. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim; Junet, Laila Kalidah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Istana, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che [Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Istana, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom’s hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacement which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed that Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner.

  16. High contrast imaging and flexible photomanipulation for quantitative in vivo multiphoton imaging with polygon scanning microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxiao; Montague, Samantha J; Brüstle, Anne; He, Xuefei; Gillespie, Cathy; Gaus, Katharina; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Lee, Woei Ming

    2018-02-28

    In this study, we introduce two key improvements that overcome limitations of existing polygon scanning microscopes while maintaining high spatial and temporal imaging resolution over large field of view (FOV). First, we proposed a simple and straightforward means to control the scanning angle of the polygon mirror to carry out photomanipulation without resorting to high speed optical modulators. Second, we devised a flexible data sampling method directly leading to higher image contrast by over 2-fold and digital images with 100 megapixels (10 240 × 10 240) per frame at 0.25 Hz. This generates sub-diffraction limited pixels (60 nm per pixels over the FOV of 512 μm) which increases the degrees of freedom to extract signals computationally. The unique combined optical and digital control recorded fine fluorescence recovery after localized photobleaching (r ~10 μm) within fluorescent giant unilamellar vesicles and micro-vascular dynamics after laser-induced injury during thrombus formation in vivo. These new improvements expand the quantitative biological-imaging capacity of any polygon scanning microscope system. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Ability of combined Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Intravascular Ultrasound (NIRS-IVUS) imaging to detect lipid core plaques and estimate cap thickness in human autopsy coronary arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, S. J.; Su, J. L.; Greiner, C. A.; Saybolt, M. D.; Wilensky, R. L.; Raichlen, J. S.; Madden, S. P.; Muller, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to determine plaque cap thickness during catheterization is thought to be of clinical importance for plaque vulnerability assessment. While methods to compositionally assess cap integrity are in development, a method utilizing currently available tools to measure cap thickness is highly desirable. NIRS-IVUS is a commercially available dual imaging method in current clinical use that may provide cap thickness information to the skilled reader; however, this is as yet unproven. Ten autopsy hearts (n=15 arterial segments) were scanned with the multimodality NIRS-IVUS catheter (TVC Imaging System, Infraredx, Inc.) to identify lipid core plaques (LCPs). Skilled readers made predictions of cap thickness over regions of chemogram LCP, using NIRS-IVUS. Artery segments were perfusion fixed and cut into 2 mm serial blocks. Thin sections stained with Movat's pentachrome were analyzed for cap thickness at LCP regions. Block level predictions were compared to histology, as classified by a blinded pathologist. Within 15 arterial segments, 117 chemogram blocks were found by NIRS to contain LCP. Utilizing NIRSIVUS, chemogram blocks were divided into 4 categories: thin capped fibroatheromas (TCFA), thick capped fibroatheromas (ThCFA), pathological intimal thickening (PIT)/lipid pool (no defined cap), and calcified/unable to determine cap thickness. Sensitivities/specificities for thin cap fibroatheromas, thick cap fibroatheromas, and PIT/lipid pools were 0.54/0.99, 0.68/0.88, and 0.80/0.97, respectively. The overall accuracy rate was 70.1% (including 22 blocks unable to predict, p = 0.075). In the absence of calcium, NIRS-IVUS imaging provided predictions of cap thickness over LCP with moderate accuracy. The ability of this multimodality imaging method to identify vulnerable coronary plaques requires further assessment in both larger autopsy studies, and clinical studies in patients undergoing NIRS-IVUS imaging.

  18. Ability of preoperative 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging to predict the absence of side-specific extracapsular extension of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Tomohiko; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Tohru; Komiyama, Motokiyo; Kawahara, Takashi; Manabe, Tomoko; Miyake, Mototaka; Arai, Eri; Kanai, Yae; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have shown an improvement in prostate cancer diagnosis with the use of 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. We retrospectively assessed the ability of this imaging technique to predict side-specific extracapsular extension of prostate cancer. From October 2007 to August 2011, prostatectomy was carried out in 396 patients after preoperative 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Among these, 132 (primary sample) and 134 patients (validation sample) underwent 12-core prostate biopsy at the National Cancer Center Hospital of Tokyo, Japan, and at other institutions, respectively. In the primary dataset, univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to predict side-specific extracapsular extension using variables determined preoperatively, including 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging findings (T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging). A prediction model was then constructed and applied to the validation study sample. Multivariate analysis identified four significant independent predictors (P Tesla diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings, ≥2 positive biopsy cores on each side and a maximum percentage of positive cores ≥31% on each side. The negative predictive value was 93.9% in the combination model with these four predictors, meanwhile the positive predictive value was 33.8%. Good reproducibility of these four significant predictors and the combination model was observed in the validation study sample. The side-specific extracapsular extension prediction by the biopsy Gleason score and factors associated with tumor location, including a positive 3.0-Tesla diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging finding, have a high negative predictive value, but a low positive predictive value. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Ability to Gain Control Over One’s Own Brain Activity and its Relation to Spiritual Practice: A Multimodal Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia E. Kober

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual practice, such as prayer or meditation, is associated with focusing attention on internal states and self-awareness processes. As these cognitive control mechanisms presumably are also important for neurofeedback (NF, we investigated whether people who pray frequently (N = 20 show a higher ability of self-control over their own brain activity compared to a control group of individuals who rarely pray (N = 20. All participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and one session of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR, 12–15 Hz based NF training. Individuals who reported a high frequency of prayer showed improved NF performance compared to individuals who reported a low frequency of prayer. The individual ability to control one’s own brain activity was related to volumetric aspects of the brain. In the low frequency of prayer group, gray matter volumes in the right insula and inferior frontal gyrus were positively associated with NF performance, supporting prior findings that more general self-control networks are involved in successful NF learning. In contrast, participants who prayed regularly showed a negative association between gray matter volume in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann’s area (BA 10 and NF performance. Due to their regular spiritual practice, they might have been more skillful in gating incoming information provided by the NF system and avoiding task-irrelevant thoughts.

  20. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  1. The ability to identify the intraparotid facial nerve for locating parotid gland lesions in comparison to other indirect landmark methods: evaluation by 3.0 T MR imaging with surface coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Mana; Fujii, Shinya; Nishihara, Keisuke; Matsusue, Eiji; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori (Japan); Kawamoto, Katsuyuki [Tottori University, Division of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    It is important to know whether a parotid gland lesion is in the superficial or deep lobe for preoperative planning. We aimed to investigate the ability of 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with surface coils to identify the intraparotid facial nerve and locate parotid gland lesions, in comparison to other indirect landmark methods. We retrospectively evaluated 50 consecutive patients with primary parotid gland lesions. The position of the facial nerve was determined by tracing the nerve in the stylomastoid foramen and then following it on sequential MR sections through the parotid gland. The retromandibular vein and the facial nerve line (FN line) were also identified. For each radiologist and each method, we determined the diagnostic ability for deep lobe lesions and superficial lobe lesions, as well as accuracy. These abilities were compared among the three methods using the Chi-square test with Yates' correction. Mean diagnostic ability for deep lobe lesions, the diagnostic ability for superficial lobe lesions, and accuracy were 92%, 86%, 87%, respectively, for the direct identification method; 67%, 89%, 86%, respectively, for the retromandibular vein method; and 25%, 99%, 90%, respectively, for the FN line method. The direct identification method had significantly higher diagnostic ability for deep lesions than the FN line method (P < 0.01), but significantly lower diagnostic ability for superficial lobe lesions than the FN line method (P < 0.01). Direct identification of the intraparotid facial nerve enables parotid gland lesions to be correctly located, particularly those in the deep lobes. (orig.)

  2. Imaging Tumor Response and Tumoral Heterogeneity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Antiangiogenic Therapy: Comparison of the Prognostic Ability of RECIST 1.1, an Alternate Method (Crabb), and Image Heterogeneity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Connie; Tacelli, Nunzia; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Cortot, Alexis; Lafitte, Jean-Jacques; Wallyn, Frederic; Remy, Jacques; Bassett, Paul; Siddique, Musib; Cook, Gary J R; Landau, David B; Goh, Vicky

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to assess computed tomography (CT) intratumoral heterogeneity changes, and compared the prognostic ability of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1, an alternate response method (Crabb), and CT heterogeneity in non-small cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy with and without bevacizumab. Forty patients treated with chemotherapy (group C) or chemotherapy and bevacizumab (group BC) underwent contrast-enhanced CT at baseline and after 1, 3, and 6 cycles of chemotherapy. Radiologic response was assessed using RECIST 1.1 and an alternate method. CT heterogeneity analysis generating global and locoregional parameters depicting tumor image spatial intensity characteristics was performed. Heterogeneity parameters between the 2 groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Associations between heterogeneity parameters and radiologic response with overall survival were assessed using Cox regression. Global and locoregional heterogeneity parameters changed with treatment, with increased tumor heterogeneity in group BC. Entropy [group C: median -0.2% (interquartile range -2.2, 1.7) vs. group BC: 0.7% (-0.7, 3.5), P=0.10] and busyness [-27.7% (-62.2, -5.0) vs. -11.5% (-29.1, 92.4), P=0.10] showed a greater reduction in group C, whereas uniformity [1.9% (-8.0, 9.8) vs. -5.0% (-13.9, 5.6), P=0.10] showed a relative increase after 1 cycle but did not reach statistical significance. Two (9%) and 1 (6%) additional responders were identified using the alternate method compared with RECIST in group C and group BC, respectively. Heterogeneity parameters were not significant prognostic factors. The alternate response method described by Crabb identified more responders compared with RECIST. However, both criteria and baseline imaging heterogeneity parameters were not prognostic of survival.

  3. Far field photoluminescence imaging of single AlGaN nanowire in the sub-wavelength scale using confinement of polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivadasan, A.K.; Dhara, Sandip [Nanomaterials and Sensors Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Kalpakkam (India); Sardar, Manas [Theoretical Studies Section, Materials Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2017-03-15

    Till now the nanoscale focusing and imaging in the sub-diffraction limit is achieved mainly with the help of plasmonic field enhancement by confining the light assisted with noble metal nanostructures. Using far field imaging technique, we have recorded polarized spectroscopic photoluminescence (PL) imaging of a single AlGaN nanowire (NW) of diameter ∝100 nm using confinement of polarized light. It is found that the PL from a single NW is influenced by the proximity to other NWs. The PL intensity is proportional to 1/(l x d), where l and d are the average NW length and separation between the NWs, respectively. We suggest that the proximity induced PL intensity enhancement can be understood by assuming the existence of reasonably long lived photons in the intervening space between the NWs. A nonzero non-equilibrium population of such photons may cause stimulated emission leading to the enhancement of PL emission with the intensity proportional to 1/(l x d). The enhancement of PL emission facilitates far field spectroscopic imaging of a single semiconductor AlGaN NW of sub-wavelength dimension. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. A Study of the Relationship between Virtual Reality (Perceived Realism) and the Ability of Children To Create, Manipulate and Utilize Mental Images for Spatially Related Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merickel, Mark L.

    The premise of the Creative Technology Project, a collaboration by Autodesk, Inc., the School of Education at Oregon State University, and Novato Unified School District in the San Francisco Bay Area, was that children's cognitive abilities could be enhanced by having them develop, displace, transform, and interact with 2D and 3D…

  5. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - Paper 2: The ability of fluorescence imaging to detect differences in fluorosis prevalence and severity for different fluoride intakes from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect a dose response relationship between fluorosis severity and different levels of fluoride in water supplies compared to remote photographic scoring in selected populations participating in an observational, epidemiological survey in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of cooking water samples (CWS) was assessed to create categorical intervals of water fluoride concentration. Fluorescence images were taken of the maxillary central incisors and analyzed for dental fluorosis using two different software techniques. Output metrics for the fluorescence imaging techniques were compared to TF scores from blinded photographic scores obtained from the survey. Results Data from 553 subjects were available. Both software analysis techniques demonstrated significant correlations with the photographic scores. The metrics for area effected by fluorosis and the overall fluorescence loss had the strongest association with the photographic TF score (Spearman’s rho 0.664 and 0.652 respectively). Both software techniques performed well for comparison of repeat fluorescence images with ICC values of 0.95 and 0.85 respectively. Conclusions This study supports the potential use of fluorescence imaging for the objective quantification of dental fluorosis. Fluorescence imaging was able to discriminate between populations with different fluoride exposures on a comparable level to remote photographic scoring with acceptable levels of repeatability. PMID:22908997

  6. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Brain Imaging Investigation of Phonological Awareness and Passage Comprehension Abilities in Adult Recipients of Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisconti, Silvia; Shulkin, Masha; Hu, Xiaosu; Basura, Gregory J.; Kileny, Paul R.; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine how the brains of individuals with cochlear implants (CIs) respond to spoken language tasks that underlie successful language acquisition and processing. Method: During functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging, CI recipients with hearing impairment (n = 10, mean age: 52.7 ± 17.3 years) and…

  7. Readability and Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…

  8. A theoretical investigation of super-resolution CARS imaging via coherent and incoherent saturation of transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeker, W.P.; Beeker, Willem; Lee, Christopher James; Boller, Klaus J.; Gross, Petra; Gross, P.; Cleff, Carsten; Fallnich, Carsten; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn

    2011-01-01

    We review two approaches to achieving sub-diffraction-limited resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy (Beeker et al., Opt. Express, 2009, 17, 22632 and Beeker et al., J. Herek, Phys. Rev. A, 2010, 81, 012507). We performed a numerical investigation, based on the density

  9. Innovative Tools to Assess Systems Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    addition to the six cognitive ability constructs, there are two motivational attributes that are highly relevant to systems thinking performance...roles of the habenular complex, the reward system , and the cingulate motor area revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of...Technical Report 1362 Innovative Tools to Assess Systems Thinking Ability Cory Adis Michelle Wisecarver Chelsey Raber Personnel

  10. Girls underestimate maths ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).

  11. Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  12. Development of arithmetical abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Levstek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic (from the word 'arithmos' which means 'numbers' is an elementary branch of mathematics. Numeracy is essential for understanding mathematics, so the development of arithmetic abilities has been an area of scientific research for a long time. Recent research has shown that the development of arithmetic abilities is not based only on gaining experience and learning. Some arithmetic abilities, especially the sense of quantity, are innate. Even babies are able to distinguish between groups with different number of elements and they perceive numeracy amodally. Six-month-olds distinguish between two groups with the numeracy ratio of 1 : 2. With age this ratio improves rapidly. Five-year-old children already distinguish between groups with the number ratio 7 : 8. The ability to compare two quantities begins to develop after 15 months of age and children learn how to count spontaneously, together with the acquisition of language. Speech enables children to understand number in its abstract, symbolic sense, thus opening the way to symbolic arithmetic. During the preschool period children use intuition when doing calculations, but in school the arithmetic is based on the knowledge of arithmetical algorithms. So, in order to acquire mathematical knowledge, it is necessary to incorporate memory and automate arithmetical processes, without the use of intuition. However, research has shown that intuition is very important and is even a predictive factor for the development of mathematical abilities throughout the schooling process.

  13. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  14. Early Functional Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Early Functional Abilities (EFA), - en skala til evaluering af behandlingsforløb af svært hjerneskadede patienter i forbindelse med tidlig rehabilitering. Formål At monitorere og dokumentere rehabiliteringsforløbet for svært hjerneskadede patienter, hvor funktionsniveauet endnu ikke kan registreres...

  15. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MENTAL ABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF HUMAN INTELLECT. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1955 TO 1966. BOOKS, REPORTS, JOURNAL MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED TITLES ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE (1) INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, (2) ABILITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, RACES,…

  16. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  17. Synchronization of Mental Abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.

    2008-01-01

    I think it is better to summarize some cognitive issues in relation to this subject; how we learn, how we should organize learning (instructions), knowledge, etc. before treating creativity and rationality. Is it, really, possible to consider creativity without any kind of involvement of the ability

  18. AgrAbility Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cordless Ratchet Wrench ClampTite Wire Clamping Tool iBlue Smart Gate/Door Opener Full Toolbox AT Database Extranet ... in-person NTW - March 19-22, Portland, Maine House and Senate Appropriations Committees recommend restoring AgrAbility funding... ...

  19. Ability Grouping in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a position statement of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Reports that the NCSS objects to ability grouping in social studies. Argues that ability grouping disadvantages minority, handicapped, and low ability students. Suggests that ability grouping undermines the democratic ideals that should be the basis of the social…

  20. Efficient evaluation of hearing ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A system for establishing a hearing ability model of a hearing ability of a person, includes a data storage configured to store a representation of a distribution of a hearing ability of a population of individuals, and a processor configured to establish a hearing ability model representing a

  1. The evaluation of virtual non-contrast (VNC)images from dual-energy CT image quality and the ability of iodized oil removal%双源CT虚拟平扫图像质量及去除碘油的能力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于欣; 任克; 徐克; 陈久红; 赵宇; 赵丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To assess the image quality of virtual non-contrast (VNC)images and the ability of iodized oil removal in the embolization zone of iodized oil in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)patients with transcatheter arterial che-moembolization (TACE)on VNC images by dual energy CT.Methods:Forty HCC patients with TACE were enrolled.Dual-energy CT was performed in both arterial and portal phases.VNC was generated from dual energy mode CT scans.The true non-contrast (TNC)images were used as standard.The mean image quality of both SNR (signal-to-noise ratio)and CNR (contrast-to-noise ratio)and the ability of iodized oil removal (the average CT value of iodized oil in both deposit defect area and perifocal area)of VNC were compared with TNC using T test.Results:VNC possesses the powerful ability of removing iodized oil.For patients of iodized oil deposit,compared with TNC,the image quality of VNC was poorer.A significant difference existed in average CT value of iodized oil deposit defect area(arterial phase CTTNC= 54.4±19.1,CTVNC=44.8±12.9,P0.05;portal phase CTTNC= 56.4±7.6,CTVNC= 58.3±8.2,P>0.05).No significant statistical difference in average CT value between arterial and portal phase of VNC (iodized oil deposit defect area CTa= 44.8±12.9,CTp= 45.3±13.4,P>0.05;perifocal area CTa= 55.1±7.8,CTp= 58.3±8.2,P>0.05).Conclusion:The image quality of VNC images can meet the diagnostic needs in cases of less iodized oil accumulation,it could better differentiate HCC of perifocal areas from that ofintralesional areas after TACE.%目的:评价肝癌肝动脉化疗栓塞(TACE)术后双源CT虚拟平扫的图像质量以及去除栓塞区域碘油的能力。方法:对40例肝癌TACE术后患者先行常规腹部平扫(TNC),然后静脉注射对比剂行双能量动脉期、门静脉期增强扫描,之后采用肝脏虚拟平扫后处理软件Liver VNC对双能量强化图像进行处理,得到 VNC 图像,以TNC 图像为标准,评价VNC图像的图

  2. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  3. Spinal imaging and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    This book is instrumental to building a bridge between scientists and clinicians in the field of spine imaging by introducing state-of-the-art computational methods in the context of clinical applications.  Spine imaging via computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and other radiologic imaging modalities, is essential for noninvasively visualizing and assessing spinal pathology. Computational methods support and enhance the physician’s ability to utilize these imaging techniques for diagnosis, non-invasive treatment, and intervention in clinical practice. Chapters cover a broad range of topics encompassing radiological imaging modalities, clinical imaging applications for common spine diseases, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, quantitative analysis, data reconstruction and visualization, statistical modeling, image-guided spine intervention, and robotic surgery. This volume serves a broad audience as  contributions were written by both clinicians and researchers, which reflects the inte...

  4. Information Processing and Human Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, John R.; Das, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The simultaneous and successive processing model of cognitive abilities was compared to a traditional primary mental abilities model. Simultaneous processing was found to be primarily related to spatial ability; and to a lesser extent, to memory and inductive reasoning. Subjects were 104 fourth-grade urban males. (Author/GD C)

  5. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  6. Specific Abilities May Increment Psychometric g for High Ability Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    tend to sort themselves into jobs that are commensurate with their ability level ( McCormick , DeNisi, & Staw, 1979; McCormick , Jeanneret, & Mecham...of Genetic Psychology, 153, 229-230. Specific abilities, g, & high ability populations 14 McCormick , E. J., DeNisi, A. S., & Shaw, J. B... McCormick , E. J., Jeanneret, P. R., & Mecham, R. C. (1972). A study of job characteristics and job dimensions as based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire

  7. A study of the use of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIA) with the monoclonal antibody MAb-170, and fluorine-18 flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) for the preoperative imaging of complex ovarian masses and their ability to identify ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Gidon

    The hypothesis for this study is whether the newer diagnostic techniques of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) utilising radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies and 2-[[18]F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18]FDG) imaging using a double headed gamma camera offer improvements in preoperative selection for referral of patients to Cancer Centres. Monoclonal antibody radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) is hindered by several factors including false positive results due to physiological excretion, concern over production of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) that would prevent repeated doses and difficulty in precisely relating areas of accumulation and anatomy. [18]FDG imaging relies on the accumulation of radiolabelled sugars, and subsequent breakdown products within tumour. [18]FDG imaging with dedicated positron emission tomography has real potential, but its use is limited by large capital outlay. Newer techniques involving "dual headed cameras" (DHC) offer PET capability at a lower cost. Chapter two describes the evaluation of a monoclonal antibody (MAb-170) in 27 women who presented with suspicious pelvic masses. The preoperative clinical, radiological and radioimmunoscintigraphy findings are compared to those at surgery and subsequent histology. All 18 patients with malignant or borderline ovarian cancer were correctly identified using RIS. The overall sensitivity and specificity for all sites were 100% and 38%. RIS was particularly useful in the identification of (intra-abdominal) serosal deposits. Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was used to quantify the HAMA. A strong HAMA production was seen in at least 3 patients, however HAMA response was independent of clinical parameters. Chapter three describes the immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded biopsy specimens from the 27 patients who underwent RIS with MAb-170. The original research into the cellular location of the specific epitope to which the antibody interacts was performed on isopentane frozen biopsies

  8. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  9. Psychological Measures of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Ion Clinciu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial abilities are divided into three categories: mental rotation, spatial relation and visualization. Several tests are cited in foreign literature that are frequently used in order to assess these abilities, but for Romanian specialists they are not on hand. The present paper is introducing new assessment tools for static spatial abilities that were successfully used along with already validated instruments. Data on statistical qualities of the new instruments are also discussed.

  10. Language mastery, narrative abilities and oral expression abilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of language and language mastery for science learning has been the object of extensive investigation in recent decades, leading to ample recognition. However, specific focus on the role of narrative abilities is still scarce. This work focuses on the relevance of narrative abilities for chemistry learning.

  11. Assessment of motor imagery ability and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Felix Rodacki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in motor imagery ability in response to a specific dart throwing training. Twelve subjects (17-22 years with no previous experience in dart throwing or imagery agreed to participate. Changes in imagery ability were assessed using the Sports Imagery Questionnaire before (pretreatment and after (post-treatment an imagery training program consisting of 10 sessions. Retention (RET was assessed 2 weeks after training. The program included mental exercises designed to develop vivid images, to control one’s own images, and to increase perception about performance. Comparison of the imagery training conditions (training alone, training accompanied, observing a colleague, and during assessment showed no differences between the pretreatment, post-treatment and RET evaluations. Although imagery ability did not respond to training, significant differences between imagery domains (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and animic were found (p<0.05, except between the visual and animic domains (p=0.58. These differences might be related to subject’s domain preference subject during the imagery process and to the nature of the task in which the skill technique used seems to be a relevant aspect.

  12. How We View Young Children with Diverse Abilities: What Canada Can Learn From Reggio Emilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreman, Tim

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the Canadian school system's image of children with diverse abilities aged 0-6-years old, and critiques this image in light of that held in the municipal early education system in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The argument is made that the Canadian image of young children with diverse abilities has its roots in modernism and sees them…

  13. Verbal Ability and Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Michael D.; Cobb, Casey D.; Giampietro, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Critics of traditional teacher education programs have suggested that verbal ability along with subject knowledge is sufficient for measuring good teaching. A small group of research studies is called upon to support this contention. This article reviews these studies, analyzes the role of verbal ability in teaching, and presents research…

  14. Efficient evaluation of hearing ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of establishing a hearing ability model for a person, the method including providing a representation of the distribution of hearing ability for a population of individuals. The method may comprise the steps) performing a hearing evaluation event, comprising

  15. Readability, Reading Ability, and Readership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Richard P.; And Others

    This paper presents data describing large differences between the reading difficulty levels of printed materials used in certain military occupational specialties (MOSs) and the relatively lower reading ability levels of men assigned to these MOSs. Initial data explore the relationship between reading ability and utilization of printed materials…

  16. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... ensured exogenous variation in otherwise random team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  17. Giving Devices the Ability to Exercise Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Keeley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information and balancing inter-related alternatives. This paper will discuss a new way to define and process information that will give devices the ability to exercise human-like reasoning and judgment. The paper will discuss the characteristics of a "dynamic graphical language" in the context of addressing judgment, since judgment is often required to adjust rules when operating in a dynamic environment. The paper will touch on architecture issues and how judgment is integrated with rule processing.

  18. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  19. High ability: Giftedness and talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Prieto Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1 Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2 Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3 Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, USA, Russia, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Portugal and Poland, from sixteen different Spanish and international universities: Alicante (Spain, Autónoma de Barcelona (Spain, Málaga (Spain, Murcia (Spain, Navarra (Spain, Oviedo (Spain, Tufts University (USA, Yale University (USA, Moscow State University (Russia, Nacional de La Plata (Argentina, University of Connecticut (USA, Universidade do Minho (Portugal, Universidade da Beira Interior (Portugal, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, King Faisal University (Saudi Arabia and Universidad de Szczecin (Poland.

  20. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-09

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  1. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  2. Lifestyle index and work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Jegier, Anna

    2006-01-01

    In many countries around the world, negative changes in lifestyles are observed. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of selected lifestyle indicators on work ability among professionally active individuals. The study was performed in the randomly selected group of full-time employees (94 men and 93 women) living in the city of Lódź. Work ability was measured with the work ability index and lifestyle characteristic was assessed with the healthy lifestyle index. We analyzed four lifestyle indicators: non-smoking, healthy weight, fiber intake per day, and regular physical activity. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to control the effects of lifestyle and work ability. The analysis of lifestyle index indicated that 27.7, 30.9, 27.7 and 11.7% of men and 15.1, 21.5, 35.5 and 26.9% of women scored 0, 1, 2, 3 points, respectively. Only 2.1% of men and 1.1% of women met the criteria for the healthy lifestyle (score 4). Work ability was excellent, good and moderate in 38.3, 46.8 and 14.9% of men, and in 39.8, 14.9 and 19.3% of women, respectively. Poor work ability was found in 9.7% women. Work ability was strongly associated with lifestyle in both men and women. Among men with index score = 0, the risk of moderate work ability was nearly seven times higher than in men whose lifestyle index score exceeded 1 or more points (OR = 6.67; 95% CI: 1.94-22.90). Among women with lifestyle index score = 0, the risk of moderate or lower work ability was also highly elevated as compared to those with lifestyle index = 1 or higher (OR = 14.44; 95% CI: 3.53-59.04). Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of lifestyles should be addressed to all adults. Future programs aimed at increasing work ability should consider work- and lifestyle-related factors.

  3. Image, Image, Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    With all the talk today about accountability, budget cuts, and the closing of programs in public education, teachers cannot overlook the importance of image in the field of industrial technology. It is very easy for administrators to cut ITE (industrial technology education) programs to save school money--money they might shift to teaching the…

  4. Deafness and motor abilities level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zwierzchowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.

  5. The concept of work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2011-06-01

    The concept of "work ability" is central for many sciences, especially for those related to working life and to rehabilitation. It is one of the important concepts in legislation regulating sickness insurance. How the concept is defined therefore has important normative implications. The concept is, however, often not sufficiently well defined. AIM AND METHOD The objective of this paper is to clarify, through conceptual analysis, what the concept can and should mean, and to propose a useful definition for scientific and practical work. RESULTS Several of the defining characteristics found in the literature are critically scrutinized and discussed, namely health, basic standard competence, occupational competence, occupational virtues, and motivation. These characteristics are related to the work tasks and the work environment. One conclusion is that we need two definitions of work ability, one for specific jobs that require special training or education, and one for jobs that most people can manage given a short period of practice. Having work ability, in the first sense, means having the occupational competence, the health required for the competence, and the occupational virtues that are required for managing the work tasks, assuming that the tasks are reasonable and that the work environment is acceptable. In the second sense, having work ability is having the health, the basic standard competence and the relevant occupational virtues required for managing some kind of job, assuming that the work tasks are reasonable and that the work environment is acceptable. CONCLUSION These definitions give us tools for understanding and discussing the complex, holistic and dynamic aspects of work ability, and they can lay the foundations for the creation of instruments for evaluating work ability, as well as help formulate strategies for rehabilitation.

  6. Competence: Commodification of Human Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…

  7. An Alternative to Ability Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann

    2006-01-01

    Ability grouping is a common approach to dealing with student variance in learning. In general, findings suggest that such an approach to dealing with student differences is disadvantageous to students who struggle in school and advantageous to advanced learners. The concept of differentiation suggests that there is another alternative to…

  8. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  9. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  10. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. We ensured exogenous va...

  11. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  12. INDIVIDUAL ABILITIES AND LIFELONG LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new and emerging technologies in education, learning environments and methods that have to satisfy lifelong learning, from school age to retirement, on the basis of the psychophysiological model of the cognitive abilities formation. It covers such topics as: evaluation of a human (accounting schoolchildren, youth and adults features abilities and individual propensities, individual trajectory of learning, adaptive learning strategy and design, recommendation on curriculum design, day-to-day support for individual’s learning, assessment of a human learning environment and performance, recommendation regards vocational retraining and/or further carrier etc.. The specific goal is to facilitate a broader understanding of the promise and pitfalls of these technologies and working (learning/teaching environments in global education/development settings, with special regard to the human as subject in the system and to the collaboration of humans and technical, didactic and organizational subsystems.

  13. Implicit learning as an ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Data Set on the Multiple Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klynge, Alice Heegaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a data set on multiple abilities. The abilities cover the Literacy and Math Ability, the Creative and Innovative Ability, the Learning Ability, the Communication Ability, the Social Competency, the Self-Management Ability, the Environmental Awareness, the Civic Competency......, the Intercultural Awareness, and the Health Awareness. The data stems from a unique cross-sectional survey carried out for the adult population in Denmark. Several dimensions and many questions pinpoint and measure every ability. The dimensions cover areas such as the individual behavior at work, the individual...... behavior in leisure, the motivation for using an ability, the working conditions for using an ability, and the educational conditions for using an ability. The paper defines every ability and describes the dimensions and the questions underlying the abilities. It reports the categories of answers...

  15. Pictorial Visual Rotation Ability of Engineering Design Graphics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy Vaughn; Lane, Diarmaid; Clark, Aaron C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to rotate visual mental images is a complex cognitive skill. It requires the building of graphical libraries of information through short or long term memory systems and the subsequent retrieval and manipulation of these towards a specified goal. The development of mental rotation skill is of critical importance within engineering…

  16. Brain structure mediates the association between height and cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S; Franz, Carol E; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J; Lyons, Michael J; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2018-05-11

    Height and general cognitive ability are positively associated, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Both height and general cognitive ability are positively associated with brain size. Still, the neural substrate of the height-cognitive ability association is unclear. We used a sample of 515 middle-aged male twins with structural magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate whether the association between height and cognitive ability is mediated by cortical size. In addition to cortical volume, we used genetically, ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct cortical metrics of total cortical surface area and mean cortical thickness. Height was positively associated with general cognitive ability and total cortical volume and cortical surface area, but not with mean cortical thickness. Mediation models indicated that the well-replicated height-general cognitive ability association is accounted for by individual differences in total cortical volume and cortical surface area (highly heritable metrics related to global brain size), and that the genetic association between cortical surface area and general cognitive ability underlies the phenotypic height-general cognitive ability relationship.

  17. Teachers of high ability pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Genovard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the characteristics of gifted and talented students’ expert teachers. The subject background and the specific proprieties of the instructional process to meet gifted students’ educational needs are analyzed. The value of teacher-student interactions and of teaching and learning styles are highlighted. Also, we include different action guidelines and instructional resources to use in the classroom to teach these students. There is not an ideal teacher for high ability students. However, teachers must know what the teaching-learning processes are and how these work, and the diverse psychological, content and contextual variables involved in such processes.

  18. Parkinson's disease and driving ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. Methods The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in‐car driving test. Results The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pautomatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in‐car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on‐road driving assessment. PMID:17178820

  19. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Hindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being ‘gifted’. This study looks at the inter-correlations between performance in various subjects in examinations and then considers how examination performance correlates with measures of working memory capacity, extent of field dependency, extent of divergency and visual-spatial abilities. A very large sample of grade 7 Kuwaiti students (aged ~13 was involved, the sample being selected in such a way that it contained a high proportion of those regarded as ‘gifted’ under the procedures used in Kuwait. While specific learner characteristics have been related to examination performance, this study brings four different characteristics together to gain a picture of the way these characteristics may be seen in those who perform extremely well in examinations. Principal components analysis using varimax rotation, was used to look at the examination data and one factor accounted for 87% of the variance. A consideration of the examination papers led to the conclusion that the national examinations tested only recall-recognition. It was also found that those who performed best in all six subjects tended to be those who are highly divergent and strongly visual-spatial as well as those tending to have higher working memory capacities and being more field independent. The inter-correlations between the various learner characteristics are explained in terms of the way the brain is known to process information. The implications of the findings for assessment and for the way high ability is considered are discussed.

  20. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  1. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  2. Oral Cancer Knowledge and Diagnostic Ability Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Abu Tarboush, N; Baqain, Z; Ismail, F; Hawamdeh, S; Sawair, F

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence the diagnostic ability of dental students with regards to oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. Dental students at different levels of study were directly interviewed to examine their oral cancer knowledge and diagnostic ability using a validated and pre-tested survey instrument containing validated clinical images of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge, and a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Knowledge scores ranged from 0 to 27 (mean 10.1 ± 6.0); mean knowledge scores increased with year of study; 5th year students had the highest mean knowledge score (19.1 ± 4.0), while 1st year students had the lowest (5.6 ± 3.5). Diagnostic ability scores increased with year of study and ranged from 0 to 88.5 % (mean 41.8 % ± 15.6). The ability to recognize suspicious oral lesions was significantly correlated with knowledge about oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (r = 0.28; P oral cancer education curricula; increasing students' contact with patients who have oral lesions including oral cancer will help to improve their future diagnostic ability and early detection practices.

  3. No Circadian Variation in Surgeons' Ability to Diagnose Acute Appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Bech; Amirian, Ilda; Kehlet Watt, Sara

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if there were circadian variations in surgeons' ability to diagnose acute appendicitis. DESIGN: Retrospective database study of all patients admitted to an acute surgical procedure under the potential diagnosis of acute appendicitis in a 4-year period. The day was divided...... patients were included. There were no age limitations or selection in sex. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the ability to diagnose appendicitis in day-evening hours vs night hours (p = 0.391), nor was any significant difference found on weekdays (Monday-Thursday) vs weekends (Friday...... of imaging had no effect on the ability to diagnose appendicitis. Male sex showed a higher probability of the diagnosis being appendicitis compared with other or no pathology (odds ratio: 3.094; p

  4. Learning-Ability Relations in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Two successive recall tasks and eight ability measures were presented to women of five age groups to investigate the changing relation between performance and ability measures at various stages of the learning process during adulthood. (MS)

  5. Discourse abilities in the structure of intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This article is devoted to empirical research on discourse abilities within the structure of cognitive abilities. Discourse abilities, as well as linguistic abilities, are part of language abilities, but they are directly linked with discourse practices and a certain communicative situation. Discourse abilities allow a person to effectively initiate, keep, expand, and complete the process of communication, using language appropriate to any given situation. These abilities contribute to making communication more effective and achieving mutual understanding between partners, while at the same time they speed up the process of forming an interaction strategy. the empirical verification of the construct “discourse abilities,” and the design of original diagnostic tests on them, led us to differentiate linguistic and discourse abilities. Objective. However, it is not yet clear what place discourse abilities occupy in the structure of cognitive abilities. This is the primary goal of our research. Method. The design of the study involved group testing (in groups of 15-35 people using the following methods: a discourse abilities test; a short selection test; a social intelligence test, and short variations of Torrance’s and Mednick’s tests. In total, 208 people (133 women and 75 men, ages 17 to 21 years participated in the study, all of them either first year humanities students or high school students from Moscow. Results and Discussion. The research results revealed that discourse abilities relevantly correlate with the majority of indicators of general and social intelligence and creativity (except non-verbal intelligence. Discourse abilities as part of the structure of cognitive capabilities form a discrete factor, and include relevant components such as verbal and general intelligence and indicators of social intelligence, such as the ability to group expressions. Structures indicative of cognitive abilities varied within the

  6. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  7. Discrimination ability of the Energy score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Tastu, Julija

    as appealing since being proper, we show that its discrimination ability may be limited when focusing on the dependence structure of multivariate probabilistic forecasts. For the case of multivariate Gaussian process, a theoretical upper for such discrimination ability is derived and discussed. This limited...... discrimination ability may eventually get compromised by computational and sampling issues, as dimension increases....

  8. Judging the Ability of Friends and Foes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jennifer L; Murphy, Jennifer; Bird, Geoffrey

    2016-10-01

    Collaboration leads us to judge our own ability to be more similar to our collaborators and their ability to be more similar to our own, while competition leads us to exaggerate the gap between our abilities. How does this happen and what does it mean? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced Calibration Source for Planetary and Earth Observing Imaging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary and Earth imaging requires radiometrically calibrated and stable imaging sensors.  Radiometric calibration enables the ability to remove or mitigate...

  10. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dominguez@ttu.edu; Peralta, Luis Grave de [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bernussi, Ayrton A. [Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  11. Investigation of Problem-Solving and Problem-Posing Abilities of Seventh-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Elif Esra; Ünal, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of multiple problem-solving skills on the problem-posing abilities of gifted and non-gifted students and to assess whether the possession of such skills can predict giftedness or affect problem-posing abilities. Participants' metaphorical images of problem posing were also explored. Participants were 20 gifted…

  12. A qualitative approach to assessing work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    We often need to be able to assess the extent to which individuals have or lack work ability. For this we need instruments. Most of the instruments available have flaws. They either lack validity or they use roundabout methods when collecting information about the individual's work ability. The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual model for constructing a questionnaire that can be used for assessing work ability. The methods used are philosophical, i.e. analytical and deductive. A conceptual theory is provided, and based on the resulting definition of the concept of "work ability" conclusions are drawn regarding how to assess work ability. When constructing quantitative instruments, we can increase validity through using a more strict definition of work ability. However, such an approach will only solve some of the problems noted above. The proposal is, instead, to create a qualitative questionnaire, founded on a definition of "work ability", which focuses on the concrete problems concerning the work ability of the individual. Finally, a sketch of such an instrument is provided, with questions covering all the relevant aspects of work ability. The qualitative questionnaire proposed is believed to be superior to more traditional (quantitative) instruments for assessing a person's work ability, as well as for finding solutions to her problems concerning work ability.

  13. Artificial intelligence model for sustain ability measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navickiene, R.; Navickas, K.

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the main dimensions of organizational sustain ability, their possible integrations into artificial neural network. In this article authors performing analyses of organizational internal and external environments, their possible correlations with 4 components of sustain ability, and the principal determination models for sustain ability of organizations. Based on the general principles of sustainable development organizations, a artificial intelligence model for the determination of organizational sustain ability has been developed. The use of self-organizing neural networks allows the identification of the organizational sustain ability and the endeavour to explore vital, social, antropogenical and economical efficiency. The determination of the forest enterprise sustain ability is expected to help better manage the sustain ability. (Authors)

  14. Work ability assessment in a worker population: comparison and determinants of Work Ability Index and Work Ability score

    OpenAIRE

    El Fassi, Mehdi; Bocquet, Valery; Majery, Nicole; Lair, Marie Lise; Couffignal, Sophie; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Public authorities in European countries are paying increasing attention to the promotion of work ability throughout working life and the best method to monitor work ability in populations of workers is becoming a significant question. The present study aims to compare the assessment of work ability based on the use of the Work Ability Index (WAI), a 7-item questionnaire, with another one based on the use of WAI?s first item, which consists in the worker?s self-assessment of his/he...

  15. Imaging dementias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Grisoli, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    Dementia is the progressive loss of intellectual functions due to involvement of cortical or subcortical areas. Specific involvement of certain brain areas in the different diseases leads to impairment of different functions, e. g., memory, language, visuospatial abilities, and behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging and other neuroradiological studies may indicate which structures are mainly or selectively involved in a demented patient, thus allowing clinical-radiological correlations. Clinical presentation and evolution of the disease, supported by imaging studies, may lead to a highly probable diagnosis. The most common disorders, or the most relevant from the neuroradiological point of view, such as Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementias, dementia associated with parkinsonism, Huntington's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus, are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  16. Imaging dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoiardo, M.; Grisoli, M.

    2001-01-01

    Dementia is the progressive loss of intellectual functions due to involvement of cortical or subcortical areas. Specific involvement of certain brain areas in the different diseases leads to impairment of different functions, e. g., memory, language, visuospatial abilities, and behavior. Magnetic resonance imaging and other neuroradiological studies may indicate which structures are mainly or selectively involved in a demented patient, thus allowing clinical-radiological correlations. Clinical presentation and evolution of the disease, supported by imaging studies, may lead to a highly probable diagnosis. The most common disorders, or the most relevant from the neuroradiological point of view, such as Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementias, dementia associated with parkinsonism, Huntington's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus, are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  17. Mind-Reading ability and structural connectivity changes in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia eCabinio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mind-Reading ability through the eyes is an important component of the affective Theory of Mind (ToM, which allows people to infer the other’s mental state from the eye gaze. The aim of the present study was to investigate to which extent age-associated structural brain changes impact this ability and to determine if this association is related to executive functions in elderly subjects. For this purpose, Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine both gray matter and white matter areas associated with aging. The resulting areas have been included in a subsequent correlation analysis to detect the brain regions whose structure was associated with the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes, assessed with the Italian version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME test, in a sample of 36 healthy subjects ranging from 24 to 79 years of age. The analysis resulted in three important findings: 1 the performance to the RME test is relatively stable across the decades 20-70 (despite a slight decrease of this ability with aging and independent from executive functions; 2 structural brain imaging demonstrated the involvement of a great number of cortical ToM areas for the execution of the RME test: the bilateral precentral gyrus, the bilateral posterior insula, the left superior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, which also showed a significant volume decrease with age; 3 an age and task-related decline in white matter connectivity on left fronto-temporal portion of the brain. Our results confirm the age-related structural modifications of the brain and show that these changes have an influence on the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes.

  18. Genetics and genomics of musical abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Oikkonen, Jaana

    2016-01-01

    Most people have the capacity for music perception and production, but the degree of music competency varies between individuals. In this thesis, I studied abilities to identify pitch, tone duration and sound patterns with Karma s test for auditory structuring (KMT), and Seashore s tests for time (ST) and pitch (SP). These abilities can be considered as basic components of musicality. Additionally, I studied self-reported musical activities, especially composing and arranging. Musical ability...

  19. A Study on the Diagnostic Detection Ability of the Artificial Proximal Caries by Digora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Ran; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duck

    1998-01-01

    Digora system is an intraoral indirect digital radiography system utilizing storage phosphor image plate. It has wide dynamic range which allows it to decrease the patient's exposure time and may increase diagnostic ability through image processing (such as edge enhancement, grey scale conversion, brightness change, and contrast enhancement). And also, it can transmit and storage image information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries between Conventional radiograph and Digora images (unenhanced image, brightness and contrast controlled image, and edge enhanced image). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, paired t-tests, and F-tests were done for the statistical evaluation of detectability. The following results were acquired: 1. In Grade I lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.953, 0.933, 0.965, 0.978 (p>0.05). 2. In Grade II lesions, the mean ROC areas of Conventional radiograph, Digora unenhanced image, Digora controlled image, and Digora edge enhanced image were 0.969, 0.964, 0.988, 0.994. Among theses areas, there was just statistical significance between Diagnostic abilities of Digora edge enhanced image and Conventional radiograph (p<0.05). 3. In the Interobserver variability, the ROC curve areas of Digora edge enhanced image was lowerest in these areas, regardless of the Carious lesion depths. In conclusion, intraoral indirect digital system, Digora system, has the potential possibility as an alternative of Conventional radiograph in the diagnosis of proximal caries.

  20. Risk Aversion Relates to Cognitive Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....

  1. Risk aversion relates to cognitive ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....

  2. Hip Hop Dance Experience Linked to Sociocognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Justin W; Lindberg, Jenna C; Pacampara, Marc C

    2017-01-01

    Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games) and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance) activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.

  3. Hip Hop Dance Experience Linked to Sociocognitive Ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Bonny

    Full Text Available Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.

  4. A Cognitive Analysis of Students’ Mathematical Communication Ability on Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. S.; Kusnandi, K.; Suhendra, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to analyze the difficulties of mathematical communication ability of students in one of secondary school on “three-dimensional space” topic. This research conducted by using quantitative approach with descriptive method. The population in this research was all students of that school and the sample was thirty students that was chosen by purposive sampling technique. Data of mathematical communication were collected through essay test. Furthermore, the data were analyzed with a descriptive way. The results of this study indicate that the percentage of achievement of student mathematical communication indicators as follows 1) Stating a situation, ideas, and mathematic correlation into images, graphics, or algebraic expressions is 35%; 2) Stating daily experience into a mathematic language / symbol, or a mathematic model is 35%; and 3) Associating images or diagrams into mathematical ideas is 53.3%. Based on the percentage of achievement on each indicator, it can be concluded that the level of achievement of students’ mathematical communication ability is still low. It can be caused the students were not used to convey or write their mathematical ideas systematically. Therefore students’ mathematical communication ability need to be improved.

  5. [Person-organization fit and work ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Person-environment issue has long been in focus of researchers who explore the area of human labor. It is known that the level of fit is a predictor of many phenomena related to health and attitude to work. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the level of person- organization fit (P-O fit) and work ability, including indicators of somatic and mental health. Research was conducted on a representative sample of 600 Polish men and women at working age. The Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire was used to assess three dimensions of P-O fit (supplementary fit, complementary fit and identification with organization); mental health status was measured by GHQ-28; the number of diagnosed diseases was taken as an index of somatic health; work ability, ability to physical and mental efforts were measured by three items from the Work Ability Index. A significant relationship between P-O fit level and work ability was found. In men, work ability predictors were: age, supplementary fit and mental health status, which explained 25% of the variance in work ability. In women, work ability predictors were: the number of diagnosed somatic diseases, supplementary fit, age and complementary fit, which explained 27% of the variance in work ability. Some gender-related differences in the predictive value of variables under the study were also found. The results of this study indicate the importance of P-O fit in shaping the sense of work ability, a recognized predictor of workers' occupational activity and the frequency of taking sick leave in subsequent years. Therefore, this result may be a useful argument to motivate employers to employ workers adequately to their abilities and preferences.

  6. Quantitative imaging features: extension of the oncology medical image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M. N.; Looney, P. T.; Young, K. C.; Halling-Brown, M. D.

    2015-03-01

    Radiological imaging is fundamental within the healthcare industry and has become routinely adopted for diagnosis, disease monitoring and treatment planning. With the advent of digital imaging modalities and the rapid growth in both diagnostic and therapeutic imaging, the ability to be able to harness this large influx of data is of paramount importance. The Oncology Medical Image Database (OMI-DB) was created to provide a centralized, fully annotated dataset for research. The database contains both processed and unprocessed images, associated data, and annotations and where applicable expert determined ground truths describing features of interest. Medical imaging provides the ability to detect and localize many changes that are important to determine whether a disease is present or a therapy is effective by depicting alterations in anatomic, physiologic, biochemical or molecular processes. Quantitative imaging features are sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible imaging measures of these changes. Here, we describe an extension to the OMI-DB whereby a range of imaging features and descriptors are pre-calculated using a high throughput approach. The ability to calculate multiple imaging features and data from the acquired images would be valuable and facilitate further research applications investigating detection, prognosis, and classification. The resultant data store contains more than 10 million quantitative features as well as features derived from CAD predictions. Theses data can be used to build predictive models to aid image classification, treatment response assessment as well as to identify prognostic imaging biomarkers.

  7. Work ability assessment in a worker population: comparison and determinants of Work Ability Index and Work Ability score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fassi, Mehdi; Bocquet, Valery; Majery, Nicole; Lair, Marie Lise; Couffignal, Sophie; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2013-04-08

    Public authorities in European countries are paying increasing attention to the promotion of work ability throughout working life and the best method to monitor work ability in populations of workers is becoming a significant question. The present study aims to compare the assessment of work ability based on the use of the Work Ability Index (WAI), a 7-item questionnaire, with another one based on the use of WAI's first item, which consists in the worker's self-assessment of his/her current work ability level as opposed to his/her lifetime best, this single question being termed "Work Ability score" (WAS). Using a database created by an occupational health service, the study intends to answer the following questions: could the assessment of work ability be based on a single-item measure and which are the variables significantly associated with self-reported work ability among those systematically recorded by the occupational physician during health examinations? A logistic regression model was used in order to estimate the probability of observing "poor" or "moderate" WAI levels depending on age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, position held, firm size and diseases reported by the worker in a population of workers aged 40 to 65 and examined between January 2006 and June 2010 (n=12389). The convergent validity between WAS and WAI was statistically significant (rs=0.63). In the multivariable model, age (pwork ability. A work position characterized by the predominance of mental activity (OR=0.71, 95%CI [0.61-0.84]) had a favourable impact on work ability. These relations were observed regardless of the work ability measurement tool used. The convergent validity and the similarity in results between WAI and WAS observed in a large population of employed workers should thus foster the use of WAS for systematic screening of work ability. Ageing, overweight, decline in health status, holding a mostly physical job and working in a large-sized firm increase the

  8. Functional Ability, Community Reintegration and Participation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Functional ability which appears to be related to stroke laterality showed positive association with both community reintegration and participation restriction. This suggests that improving the functional ability of the stroke survivors may reduce participation restriction and enhance their reintegration into the ...

  9. Spatial Ability Learning through Educational Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià, Carme; Antolí, Juan Òscar

    2016-01-01

    Several authors insist on the importance of students' acquisition of spatial abilities and visualization in order to have academic success in areas such as science, technology or engineering. This paper proposes to discuss and analyse the use of educational robotics to develop spatial abilities in 12 year old students. First of all, a course to…

  10. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  11. Statistical inference based on latent ability estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, H.J.A.; Boomsma, A.

    The quality of approximations to first and second order moments (e.g., statistics like means, variances, regression coefficients) based on latent ability estimates is being discussed. The ability estimates are obtained using either the Rasch, oi the two-parameter logistic model. Straightforward use

  12. Some procedures for computerized ability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Zwarts, Michel A.

    1989-01-01

    For computerized test systems to be operational, the use of item response theory is a prerequisite. As opposed to classical test theory, in item response models the abilities of the examinees and the properties of the items are parameterized separately. Hence, when measuring the abilities of

  13. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal...

  14. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  15. Psycholinguistic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal; Giacheti, Celia M.; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N=20, mean age=8.5 years, SD=1.62) and two typically developing groups,…

  16. Does Classmate Ability Influence Students' Social Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Empirically, the link between classmate ability and individual-level student achievement has been established. And yet, within the scope of this body of literature, there is a dearth of studies examining if a relationship also persists between classmate ability and non-achievement outcomes--that is, social skills. This article fills this research…

  17. Mental Rotation Ability and Computer Game Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecu, Zeynep; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Computer games, which are currently very popular among students, can affect different cognitive abilities. The purpose of the present study is to examine undergraduate students' experiences and preferences in playing computer games as well as their mental rotation abilities. A total of 163 undergraduate students participated. The results showed a…

  18. Reading Instruction That Increases Thinking Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cathy

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes the effects of eight reading and writing lessons designed to increase adolescent thinking ability. Finds that the lessons increased thinking abilities and scholastic achievement of middle school students. Notes that the lessons positively affect students' self-esteem and communication skills. (RS)

  19. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  20. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  1. High Ability Students' Voice on Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and Pressures…

  2. Assessing Professional Decision-Making Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNergney, Robert; Hinson, Stephanie

    1985-01-01

    Describes Teacher Development Decision Exercises, a computer-based method of diagnosing abilities of elementary and secondary school supervisors (principals, staff developers, curriculum coordinators) to make professional preactive or planning decisions. This approval simulates assessment of supervisors' abilities to use professional knowledge to…

  3. Credit Ratings and Bank Monitoring Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, L.I.; Roszbach, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use credit rating data from two Swedish banks to elicit evidence on these banks’ loan monitoring ability. We do so by comparing the ability of bank ratings to predict loan defaults relative to that of public ratings from the Swedish credit bureau. We test the banks’ abilility to

  4. Validation of the Early Functional Abilities scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Kreiner, Svend; Engberg, Aase W

    2018-01-01

    model item analysis. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between the Early Functional Abilities scale and the Functional Independence Measurement™, in order to establish the criterion validity of the Early Functional Abilities scale and to compare the sensitivity of measurements using......), facio-oral, sensorimotor and communicative/cognitive functions. Removal of one item from the sensorimotor scale confirmed unidimensionality for each of the 4 subscales, but not for the entire scale. The Early Functional Abilities subscales are sensitive to differences between patients in ranges in which......OBJECTIVE: The Early Functional Abilities scale assesses the restoration of brain function after brain injury, based on 4 dimensions. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the validity, objectivity, reliability and measurement precision of the Early Functional Abilities scale by Rasch...

  5. Control coordination abilities in shock combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Boychenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: optimize the process control level of coordination abilities in martial arts. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches of drum martial arts, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: identified specific types of coordination abilities in shock combat sports. Pod branny and offered specific and nonspecific tests to monitor the level of species athletes coordination abilities. Conclusion: it is determined that in order to achieve victory in the fight martial artists to navigate the space to be able to assess and manage dynamic and spatio-temporal parameters of movements, maintain balance, have a high coordination of movements. The proposed tests to monitor species coordination abilities athletes allow an objective assessment of not only the overall level of coordination, and the level of specific types of manifestations of this ability.

  6. GOATS Image Projection Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

  7. Image ranking in video sequences using pairwise image comparisons and temporal smoothing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the importance of an image is highly desirable in computer vision. This work introduces an image ranking scheme suitable for use in video or image sequences. Pairwise image comparisons are used to determine image ‘interest...

  8. Application of Nanoparticles in Diagnostic Imaging via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ability to image quantitatively both morphological and physiological functions of the tissue, ... Several types of contrast media are used in medical imaging and they can ... which is still widely used to examine internal organs of the body and ...

  9. Environmental change enhances cognitive abilities in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kotrschal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexible or innovative behavior is advantageous, especially when animals are exposed to frequent and unpredictable environmental perturbations. Improved cognitive abilities can help animals to respond quickly and adequately to environmental dynamics, and therefore changing environments may select for higher cognitive abilities. Increased cognitive abilities can be attained, for instance, if environmental change during ontogeny triggers plastic adaptive responses improving the learning capacity of exposed individuals. We tested the learning abilities of fishes in response to experimental variation of environmental quality during ontogeny. Individuals of the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus that experienced a change in food ration early in life outperformed fish kept on constant rations in a learning task later in life--irrespective of the direction of the implemented change and the mean rations received. This difference in learning abilities between individuals remained constant between juvenile and adult stages of the same fish tested 1 y apart. Neither environmental enrichment nor training through repeated neural stimulation can explain our findings, as the sensory environment was kept constant and resource availability was changed only once. Instead, our results indicate a pathway by which a single change in resource availability early in life permanently enhances the learning abilities of animals. Early perturbations of environmental quality may signal the developing individual that it lives in a changing world, requiring increased cognitive abilities to construct adequate behavioral responses.

  10. Cultural Capital and Teaching Ability Rating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    do not possess cultural capital. This paper uses extremely rich longitudinal data that provides a better basis than previous studies for holding ‘everything else’ constant. In addition to children and parents’ cultural capital, I control for children’s actual academic ability, physical appearance......, health impairments, social behaviour, antenatal influences, and many family background characteristics. My analysis shows, first, that both children and parents’ cultural capital have independent effects on teacher ability ratings. Second, for oral ability I find that parents’ cultural capital ‘protects...

  11. Developing Interpersonal Abilities With Interactive Vignettes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zbylut, Michelle L; Ward, Jason N

    2004-01-01

    ... of innovation and cultural awareness." This paper discussed an innovative training prototype that not only targets the development of interpersonal ability in junior officers, but also incorporates many of the situation elements...

  12. The Curriculum and Homogenization of Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Eugene J.

    1970-01-01

    Argues against emphasis on standard curriculum and makes suggestions for providing basis to increase heterogeneity of high level abilities of college students and for allowing highly talented but selectively developed students to gain appropriate training. (IR)

  13. Ability or Finances as Constraints to Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    have significantly lower survival rates and are less profitable than are those of unconstrained entrepreneurs. Collectively, these results suggest that constrained entrepreneurs have lower entrepreneurial ability and that capital markets work sufficiently well in funding individuals who have worthy...

  14. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Redick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one’s cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.

  15. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas S; Webster, Sean B

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one's cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.

  16. Cognitive Ability, Principled Reasoning and Political Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    Individuals are not equally politically tolerant. To explain why, individual differences in emotions and threat have received much scholarly attention in recent years. However, extant research also shows that psychological dispositions, habitual cognitive styles, ideological orientation...... and ‘principled reasoning’ influence political tolerance judgments. The extent to which cognitive ability plays a role has not been entertained even if the capacity to think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas and apply abstract ideas to concrete situations is inherent to both principled tolerance judgment...... and cognitive ability. Cognitive ability, we argue and show, adds to the etiology of political tolerance. In Danish and American samples cognitive ability strongly predicts political tolerance after taking habitual cognitive styles (as measured by personality traits), education, social ideology, and feelings...

  17. Behavioural motivations and abilities in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Broilers are chickens kept commercially under intensive husbandry conditions for poultry meat production. They grow to a slaughterweight of approximately 2.2 kg in 6 weeks. Broilers show a pronounced decrease in behavioural activity during their short life. The aim of this thesis was to gain more insight into the influence of both motivation and ability on behavioural activity in broilers. The distinction between motivation and ability is relevant for the interpretation of behavioural activit...

  18. [Appraisal of occupational stress and work ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiming; Lan, Yajia; Wang, Mianzhen

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess occupational stress and work ability. A test of occupational stress and work ability was carry out with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) and work ability index(WAI) for 2270 workers. (1) The occupational stress and strain in male was significantly higher than those in female, but self-care and social support in female werehigher than in male(P < 0.01). The level of occupational stress, strain except interpersonal strain increased with age, while work ability decreased(P < 0.05). (2) Among 6 items of occupational role questionnaire, the score of role boundary and responsibility were obviously higher in college education (P < 0.05). The score of occupational role, psychological strain, physical strain was higher in maried, divorce than unmarried(P < 0.05). (3) The score of occupational role, strain in good work ability category was significantly lower than others, but personal resources were higher(P < 0.05). (4) The correlation of work ability and occupational stress, strain, personal resources were significant(P < 0.01), occupational role and personal strain were positively correlated, both of which correlated negatively to the personal resources(P < 0.01). (5) The major influential factors of personal strain were age, recreation, self-care, social support, rational/cognitive, role insufficiency, role ambiguity and role boundary.

  19. Individual differences in multitasking ability and adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney; Abbott, Robert; Radvansky, Gabriel; Haass, Michael; Tamplin, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the cognitive factors that predictability and adaptability during multitasking with a flight simulator. Multitasking has become increasingly prevalent as most professions require individuals to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Considerable research has been undertaken to identify the characteristics of people (i.e., individual differences) that predict multitasking ability. Although working memory is a reliable predictor of general multitasking ability (i.e., performance in normal conditions), there is the question of whether different cognitive faculties are needed to rapidly respond to changing task demands (adaptability). Participants first completed a battery of cognitive individual differences tests followed by multitasking sessions with a flight simulator. After a baseline condition, difficulty of the flight simulator was incrementally increased via four experimental manipulations, and performance metrics were collected to assess multitasking ability and adaptability. Scholastic aptitude and working memory predicted general multitasking ability (i.e., performance at baseline difficulty), but spatial manipulation (in conjunction with working memory) was a major predictor of adaptability (performance in difficult conditions after accounting for baseline performance). Multitasking ability and adaptability may be overlapping but separate constructs that draw on overlapping (but not identical) sets of cognitive abilities. The results of this study are applicable to practitioners and researchers in human factors to assess multitasking performance in real-world contexts and with realistic task constraints. We also present a framework for conceptualizing multitasking adaptability on the basis of five adaptability profiles derived from performance on tasks with consistent versus increased difficulty.

  20. Retinex enhancement of infrared images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; He, Renjie; Xu, Guizhi; Hou, Changzhi; Sun, Yunyan; Guo, Lei; Rao, Liyun; Yan, Weili

    2008-01-01

    With the ability of imaging the temperature distribution of body, infrared imaging is promising in diagnostication and prognostication of diseases. However the poor quality of the raw original infrared images prevented applications and one of the essential problems is the low contrast appearance of the imagined object. In this paper, the image enhancement technique based on the Retinex theory is studied, which is a process that automatically retrieve the visual realism to images. The algorithms, including Frackle-McCann algorithm, McCann99 algorithm, single-scale Retinex algorithm, multi-scale Retinex algorithm and multi-scale Retinex algorithm with color restoration, are experienced to the enhancement of infrared images. The entropy measurements along with the visual inspection were compared and results shown the algorithms based on Retinex theory have the ability in enhancing the infrared image. Out of the algorithms compared, MSRCR demonstrated the best performance.

  1. Central nervous system imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1973, computed tomography (CT) of the brain has had a revolutionary impact on neuroradiologic diagnosis. It has largely replaced radionuclide brain imaging as the initial, noninvasive neurologic screening examination. Although conventional radionuclide brain imaging still contributes useful and unique diagnostic information in a few clinical situations, it appears that new technology and applications must be found if nuclear imaging is to play a prominent future role in neurologic diagnosis as it did in the past. One of the main advantages of CT over radionuclide brain imaging at present is CT's ability to demonstrate the size, shape, and position of the cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid spaces. Another important strength of CT is the ability to differentiate ischemic cerebral infarction from intracerebral hemorrhage. The overall sensitivity of CT in detecting intracranial neoplasms is also greater than that of radionuclide brain imaging, and CT is very useful in demonstrating the effects of head trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging appears superior to CT in the evaluation of neurologic disorders. A renewed interest in radionuclide brain imaging has developed because of recent advances in emission computed tomographic imaging. When tracer kinetic models are used, cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume, metabolic rate, and glucose and amino acid transport can be measured. Other applications involve investigation of receptor bindings, evaluation of the blood-brain barrier, brain blood-volume measurement, and cisternography

  2. Effects of gender, imagery ability, and sports practice on the performance of a mental rotation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habacha, Hamdi; Molinaro, Corinne; Dosseville, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Mental rotation is one of the main spatial abilities necessary in the spatial transformation of mental images and the manipulation of spatial parameters. Researchers have shown that mental rotation abilities differ between populations depending on several variables. This study uses a mental rotation task to investigate effects of several factors on the spatial abilities of 277 volunteers. The results demonstrate that high and low imagers performed equally well on this tasks. Athletes outperformed nonathletes regardless of their discipline, and athletes with greater expertise outperformed those with less experience. The results replicate the previously reported finding that men exhibit better spatial abilities than women. However, with high amounts of practice, the women in the current study were able to perform as well as men.

  3. Improving Students' Speaking Ability through Scaffolding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Ginaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Students often got confused and felt hesitant when they speak English. This situation had caused poor speaking ability, which then lead to serious problem in the teaching-learning process.  The application of scaffolding technique in the EFL learning might be the ideal solution; it had some principles that could improve the students’ speaking ability. This research is aimed at finding out the effect of the implementing Scaffolding Technique towards the students’ speaking ability. Participants were 50 (27 males and 23 females third-semester students, enrolled in a three-year diploma program in Travel and Tourism Business, State Polytechnic of Bali in 2017/2018 academic year. The students in the experimental group were given communicative activities such as brainstorming, business games, simulation, WebQuest, problem-solving, which were carefully designed to necessitate the implementation of the scaffolding technique. The students in the control group were taught by the deductive method of the lesson book. The students’ performance in the post-test was compared for both groups in order to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups in relation to the treatment. Significant differences occurring in the experimental group’s post-test speaking performance when compared to the pre-test indicate that the implementation of scaffolding technique can improve students’ speaking ability. The result of this study indicates scaffolding technique has the potential for use in promoting students’ speaking ability

  4. Methods for Evaluation of Some Psychomotor Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For estimation of psychomotor and sensor abilities different kinds of tests are used in the form of devices representing different technical devices which help examining sensomotor and psychomotor functions in certain conditions, as well as more complex motor abilities and skills that depend on CNS characteristics, vegetative nervous system and other functional systems and body states. These devices can be used for examining some parameters of psychomotor functions-such as speed of reaction through reactiometer or devices for examining sensor abilities-such as audiometer, ortoriter, color tests etc. In the scope of examining psychomotor skills and abilities, frequently used are different kinds of tests in the forms of devices serving for measuring ocultomotor coordination-such as Omega and Sinusoida, then Tumer`s device for measuring coordination and dissociation of hands` movements with visible control, O-Conor`s dexterimeter and Medeo`s dexterimeter-used for examining dexterity of fingers, Tremometer for examining hand stability and preciseness of movements, Minesota test for examining dexterity of hands and taping tests like “paper-pen” for examining speed and accuracy of simple movements. For examining more complex sensomotor abilities or different motor skills, special tests are used in the form of simulator, simulator and different technical devices, adjusted to specific sports situation. This category of tests includes different kinds of simulators and simulators used for examining certain aspects of sports activity.

  5. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  6. Cognitive ability and the demand for redistribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Mollerstrom

    Full Text Available Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution.

  7. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension : Single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Twisk, W.R.; Heymans, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP.

  8. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension: single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Heymans, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. Methods This

  9. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension : single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Heymans, Martijn W.

    Objectives Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. Methods This

  10. Single spin stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Waldherr, Gerald; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate precision addressing of single quantum emitters by combined optical microscopy and spin resonance techniques. To this end we utilize nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond confined within a few ten nanometers as individually resolvable quantum systems. By developing a stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) technique for NV centers we are able to simultaneously perform sub diffraction-limit imaging and optically detected spin resonance (ODMR)...

  11. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ WRITING ABILITY THROUGH STORYBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahul Janah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is a classroom action research which intended to improve students’ writing ability through Storyboard. The participants were the fourth semester students of English Department of STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu in academic year 2014/ 2015. The instruments used in collecting data were observation, questionnaire, and documents.  Observation is used to know what is really happening in the class and the condition when the class activity is taking place. Questionnaire is used to know the students’ perception towards Storyboard in improving their writing ability, and documents is used to get students’ written texts. Then, 1 assembling the data, 2 coding the data, 3 comparing the data, 4 building meanings and interpretations, and 5 reporting the outcomes, are the steps in analyzing the data. Having analyzed the data, it was found that there was improvement of the students’ activeness in writing activity and in writing ability.

  12. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  13. STUDENTS’ SELF ESTEEM IN SPEAKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Rosyida MR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of principle of communicative competence is the students know how to uselanguage according to the setting and the participants. Actually, to be able to speaktarget language, the students ar not only expected to have a great ability in grammar,vocabulary, or writing, but how brave they express their idea and use target languageto others. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate students’ self esteem to theirspeaking ability This study was carried out at Hadist major at the fourth semester ofIAIN Raden Intan Lampung. The researcher used questionnaire, test, and interview.The data collected were analyzed quantitatively, and described to know clearly theprocess which was occurred during the research. The results indicate that students’self esteem influence their speaking ability.Key Words: speaking, self esteem, communicative competence

  14. Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J; Horrocks, J; Britton, P G; Kernahan, J

    1999-04-01

    Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for measures of sustained attention and the ability to shift attention. These results indicate that children who have received treatment for leukaemia may experience highly specific attentional deficits that could have an impact on academic performance, particularly mathematical and reading skills. It is suggested that this underlying attentional deficit might be the source of the neuropsychological sequelae associated with the disease. Future attempts at remediation should incorporate activities specifically designed to ameliorate focusing difficulties.

  15. Creativity, synthetic intelligence and high ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sainz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the construct of creativity and its relationship with high ability, presenting different definitions, assessment tools and strategies to encourage their development in the school context. The paper is structured into five sections: firstly, we define the concept of creativity. Secondly, we present the most relevant instruments used in the analysis of high ability students’ creativity. Thirdly, we look into several studies on creativity and high abilitiy, highlighting the main limitations of the research carried out. Fourthly, we present principles and strategies in order to foster creativity in the school context. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the relationship between creativity and high ability.

  16. Analogical reasoning abilities of recovering alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, M K; Clark, E; Bowman, M A; Miller, P J

    1989-08-01

    This study investigated analogical reasoning abilities of alcoholics who had been abstinent from alcohol for at least 1 year. Their performance was compared to that of nonalcoholic controls matched as a group for education, age, and gender. Solution times and error rates were modeled using a regression model. Results showed a nonsignificant trend for alcoholics to be faster, but more error prone, than controls. The same componential model applied to both groups, and fit them equally well. Although differences have been found in analogical reasoning ability between controls and alcoholics immediately following detoxification, we find no evidence of differences after extended periods of sobriety.

  17. Trends in PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, William W.

    2000-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT)

  18. Imaging in ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Lambert, Robert G W

    2012-01-01

    Imaging is an integral part of the management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis and axial spondyloarthritis. Characteristic radiographic and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are key in the diagnosis. Radiography and MRI are also useful in monitoring the disease. Radiography...... in the spine and sacroiliac joints, but its clinical utility is limited due to its use of ionizing radiation and lack of ability to assess the soft tissues. It is exciting that with continued dedicated research and the rapid technical development it is likely that even larger improvements in the use of imaging...

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF GRAPH INTERPRETATION ABILITY USING HYPERTEXT-ASSISTED KINEMATIC LEARNING AND FORMAL THINKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Manurung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hypertext media in improving graph interpretation ability is investigated in this paper. In addition, joint ability of the formal thinking to improve the graph ability of prospective students is considered. The research design used is the one-group pretest-posttest experimental design is carried out in the research by taking 36 students on from Physics Education Program in one institute for teacher education in Medan. The test consists of graph interpretation ability test in the topic of kinematics and Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT or formal thinking before learning and graph interpretation ability test after learning. The data are then analysed by using SPSS based two ways Analisys of Variance (ANOVA method. The results show that the ability to interpretate graph is significantly improved by using hypertext media assisted kinematic learning.

  20. The work ability continuum : Epidemiological studies of factors promoting sustainable work ability

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    For the individual, the workplace and society, there would be considerable gains if the number of people suffering from physical and mental disorders could be reduced. The overall aim of this thesis was to identify determinants for future work ability among gainfully employed women and men, with special reference to promotive factors at work. Work ability is in this thesis defined as the ability to work with respect to demands at work on health and physical and mental reso...

  1. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Hernández, Maria del C.; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A.; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Bastin, Mark E.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = −0.14, p cognitive ability, after accounting for prior ability, age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging. PMID:23850341

  2. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...

  3. Unmasking Abilities Hidden by Developmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Kalisankar, Ed.; Shaver, Elaine M., Ed.

    This document contains 16 papers that were scheduled to be presented at a conference (which was canceled) on approaches and programs for helping developmentally disabled persons to be more self-sufficient. The book is divided into three sections: (1) unmasking vocational abilities, (2) enhancing functional independence, and (3) medical and…

  4. Emotional intelligence and leadership abilities | Herbst | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased recognition of the importance of the role of emotions in the leadership literature, the question arises whether the concept of emotional intelligence has significance for leadership effectiveness. In a pioneering study in the South African context, we

  5. Spatial Ability Improvement and Curriculum Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a significant history of research on spatial ability and visualization improvement and related curriculum content presented by members of the Engineering Design Graphics Division over the past decade. Recently, interest in this topic has again been heightened thanks to the work of several division members on research such as the…

  6. Narrative Abilities of Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…

  7. Evaluation of nuclear power plant operator's ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the quantitative research on nuclear power plant (NPP) operator's psychological characteristics and performance, the Borda's method of fuzzy mathematics combined with the character of operator's task is used to evaluate their abilities. The result provides the reference for operator's reliability research and psychological evaluation. (author)

  8. Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability of the nation's preservice agricultural education teachers. Based on the results of this study, preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems, and agricultural teacher education programs require basic and intermediate mathematics as their…

  9. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  10. Information Behavior: A Socio-Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spink

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available How has human information behavior evolved? Our paper explores this question in the form of notions, models and theories about the relationship between information behavior and human evolution. Alexander's Ecological Dominance and Social Competition/Cooperation (EDSC model currently provides the most comprehensive overview of human traits in the development of a theory of human evolution and sociality. His model provides a basis for explaining the evolution of human socio-cognitive abilities, including ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. Our paper examines the human trait of information behavior as a socio-cognitive ability related to ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. The paper first outlines what is meant by information behavior from various interdisciplinary perspectives. We propose that information behavior is a socio-cognitive ability that is related to and enables other socio-cognitive abilities such as human ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. The paper reviews the current state of evolutionary approaches to information behavior and future directions for this research

  11. Work ability in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie M; Hetland, Merete Lund; Pedersen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to study work ability in patients with RA compared with the general population by investigating the rates and risks of long-term sickness absence, unemployment and disability pension, and the chance of returning to work and the changes in these risks over time (1994-2011)....

  12. Triplex-forming ability of modified oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Torben; Babu, Bolle Ravindra; Bryld, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    We present our studies on the ability of several different nucleotide analogs as triplex-forming oligonucleotides. The modifications tested include 4'-C-hydroxymethyl, LNA, 2'-amino-LNA and N2'-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA. Triplexes containing monomers of N2'-glycyl-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA ar...

  13. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  14. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Users' abilities to review website pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elling, Sanne; Lentz, Leo; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Web sites increasingly encourage users to provide comments on the quality of the content by clicking on a feedback button and filling out a feedback form. Little is known about users’ abilities to provide such feedback. To guide the development of evaluation tools, this study examines to what extent

  16. THE OSMOREGULATORY ABILITY OF THREE GRAPSOID CRAB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the upper reaches of estuaries. C.lIl111&1lltlll was shown to be capable of maintainios its baemolymph osmotic pressure above that of tile environmental medium in loweRd salinities, but without the desrcc of constancy cbaracteristic of the two Se6tlntlll species. It does, however. show a marked ability to tolerate lowered ...

  17. Improving teamwork abilities across cultural differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Mirjam Irene

    2009-01-01

    The Belbin method has been applied at the education in Arctic Technology in Greenland as a way of improving the student’s teamwork abilities. The feedback from the students is that Belbin is a meaningful and relevant tool and they are very engaged during the teamwork exercises. They get...

  18. Numerical abilities in fish: A methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    The ability to utilize numerical information can be adaptive in a number of ecological contexts including foraging, mating, parental care, and anti-predator strategies. Numerical abilities of mammals and birds have been studied both in natural conditions and in controlled laboratory conditions using a variety of approaches. During the last decade this ability was also investigated in some fish species. Here we reviewed the main methods used to study this group, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods used. Fish have only been studied under laboratory conditions and among the methods used with other species, only two have been systematically used in fish-spontaneous choice tests and discrimination learning procedures. In the former case, the choice between two options is observed in a biologically relevant situation and the degree of preference for the larger/smaller group is taken as a measure of the capacity to discriminate the two quantities (e.g., two shoals differing in number). In discrimination learning tasks, fish are trained to select the larger or the smaller of two sets of abstract objects, typically two-dimensional geometric figures, using food or social companions as reward. Beyond methodological differences, what emerges from the literature is a substantial similarity of the numerical abilities of fish with those of other vertebrates studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A

    2011-09-06

    Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities.

  20. Host country language ability and expatriate adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language...

  1. Does Listening to Mozart Affect Listening Ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Becki J.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Cheah, Tsui Yi; Watson, W. Joe; Rubin, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted testing Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's (1993) Mozart Effect (ME). This study attempts to replicate, in part, research that tested the ME on listening comprehension abilities. Also included in this study is an examination of control group issues in current day research. We hypothesized that students who listen to…

  2. Assessing functional ability in older patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møldrup; Maribo, Thomas; Nielsen, Hanne Grethe

    2014-01-01

    from the hospital expressed a need for a fast and simple screening tool to identify those in need of further rehabilitation and care after discharge. Participants from the municipality expressed a need for a more detailed assessment tool to capture information about patients’ ability to perform daily...

  3. What Next? Promoting Alternatives to Ability Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Anne; Hawley, Willis D.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests ways to eliminate ability grouping in the schools, and explores new alternatives to improve schooling for all students. Specific guidelines are given for the development of academically and racially heterogeneous schooling. The elimination of grouping practices that deny equal access to education is a goal worth pursuing. (SLD)

  4. Effects of scanning resolution and digital image magnification on photostimulable phosphor imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Takashi; Inagaki, Masafumi; Asai, Hideomi; Koyama, Atsushi; Kashima, Isamu

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of changes in scanning resolution and digital magnification on the image quality and diagnostic ability of the photostimulable phosphor imaging system. Using a photostimulable phosphor imaging system, images of a human adult dried mandible phantom embedded in a 25 mm-thick epoxy resin block were made. The latent images on the photostimulable phosphor imaging plate were scanned using four different pixel sizes as follows: 25 μm x 25 μm, 50 μm x 50 μm, 100 μm x 100 μm and 200 μm x 200 μm. A primary image was produced for each pixel size. These images were also digitally magnified at powers of 2, 4 and 8 times. The gradient range, brightness and contrast of each image were adjusted to optimum levels on a cathode ray tube display, and hard copies were produced with a writing pixel size of 60 μm x 60 μm. The granularity, sharpness and anatomical diagnostic ability of the images were assessed subjectively by eight dentists. Increasing the scanning resolution tended to generally improve image quality and diagnostic ability. Visual image quality was maintained up to a pixel size of 50 μm, and diagnostic ability was maintained up to a pixel size of 100 μm. Digital image magnification degraded image quality, and more than 2-times magnification degraded diagnostic ability. Under the present experimental conditions, increasing the scanning resolution did not always lead to an improvement in image quality or diagnostic ability, and digital image magnification degraded image quality and diagnostic ability. (author)

  5. The impact of depression on musical ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Paul; Domschke, Katharina; Zwanzger, Peter; Evers, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    While there is sustained effort to refine the models and to further decrypt the neuronal underpinnings of cerebral music perception, empirical investigations on the associations of music perception with diagnoses others than focal brain damage need to be amplified. In the present study, a validated and standardized clinical test of musical ability was applied to a sample of severely depressed patients. Basic musical capacities of rhythm, melody and pitch perception, recognition of emotions, and musical memory were evaluated and compared to matched healthy controls and reassessed in a follow-up examination after clinical remission. We enroled 21 in-patients with major depression according to ICD-10 (F32 and F33). The score in the test of musical ability (maximum score 70) was 52.3±7.8 for the patient group and 57.8±4.3 for the control group (p=0.010). In particular, melody comparison, rhythm perception, and emotional categorising of music were impaired in patients. In the longitudinal study, patients improved from 53.6±7.8 to 56.2±6.7 (p=0.038); this improvement could be related to clinical improvement on the Hamilton Depression Scale. The sample size is small, in particular in the follow-up study. The results clearly revealed a significant reduction of musical ability in patients with depression. A part of the patients could even be diagnosed with a clinically relevant amusia. Along with significant decrease of depressive symptoms, the patients significantly improved with respect to musical ability. These findings suggest a systematic impact of depression on musical ability, they are of importance for the application of music therapy in depressive patients and for the function of music to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The genetic basis of music ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  7. Pediatric digital chest imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, R D; Cohen, M; Broderick, N J; Conces, D J

    1990-01-01

    The Philips Computed Radiography system performs well with pediatric portable chest radiographs, handling the throughout of a busy intensive care service 24 hours a day. Images are excellent and routinely provide a conventional (unenhanced) image and an edge-enhanced image. Radiation dose is decreased by the lowered frequency of repeat examinations and the ability of the plates to respond to a much lower dose and still provide an adequate image. The high quality and uniform density of serial PCR portable radiographs greatly enhances diagnostic content of the films. Decreased resolution has not been a problem clinically. Image manipulation and electronic transfer to remote viewing stations appear to be helpful and are currently being evaluated further. The PCR system provides a marked improvement in pediatric portable chest radiology.

  8. Pediatric digital chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarver, R.D.; Cohen, M.; Broderick, N.J.; Conces, D.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Philips Computed Radiography system performs well with pediatric portable chest radiographs, handling the throughout of a busy intensive care service 24 hours a day. Images are excellent and routinely provide a conventional (unenhanced) image and an edge-enhanced image. Radiation dose is decreased by the lowered frequency of repeat examinations and the ability of the plates to respond to a much lower dose and still provide an adequate image. The high quality and uniform density of serial PCR portable radiographs greatly enhances diagnostic content of the films. Decreased resolution has not been a problem clinically. Image manipulation and electronic transfer to remote viewing stations appear to be helpful and are currently being evaluated further. The PCR system provides a marked improvement in pediatric portable chest radiology

  9. Evaluation of diagnostic ability of CCD digital radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of a CCD-based digital system (CDX-2000HQ) in the detection of incipient dental caries. 93 extracted human teeth with sound proximal surfaces and interproximal artificial cavities were radiographed using 4 imaging methods. Automatically processed No.2 Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., U.S.A.) was used for conventional radiography, scanned images of conventional radiograms for indirect digital radiography were used. For the direct digital radiography, the CDX-2000HQ CCD system (Biomedisys Co. Korea) was used. The subtraction images were made from two direct digital images by Sunny program in the CDX-2000HQ system. Two radiologists and three endodontists examined the presence of lesions using a five-point confidence scale and compared the diagnostic ability by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and one way ANOVA test. The mean ROC areas of conventional radiography, indirect digital radiography, direct digital radiography, and digital subtraction radiography were 0.9093, 0.9102, 0.9184, and 0.9056, respectively. The diagnostic ability of direct digital radiography was better than the other imaging modalities, but there were no statistical differences among these imaging modalities (p>0.05). These results indicate that new CCD-based digital systems (CDX-2000HQ) have the potential to serve as an alternative to conventional radiography in the detection of incipient dental caries.

  10. Image Gallery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Image Gallery Share: The Image Gallery contains high-quality digital photographs available from ... Select a category below to view additional thumbnail images. Images are available for direct download in 2 ...

  11. Loss of ability to work and ability to live independently in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska-Myga, Barbara; Heckman, Michael G; Wider, Christian; Putzke, John D; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Uitti, Ryan J

    2012-02-01

    Ability to work and live independently is of particular concern for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied a series of PD patients able to work or live independently at baseline, and evaluated potential risk factors for two separate outcomes: loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently. The series comprised 495 PD patients followed prospectively. Ability to work and ability to live independently were based on clinical interview and examination. Cox regression models adjusted for age and disease duration were used to evaluate associations of baseline characteristics with loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently. Higher UPDRS dyskinesia score, UPDRS instability score, UPDRS total score, Hoehn and Yahr stage, and presence of intellectual impairment at baseline were all associated with increased risk of future loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently (P ≤ 0.0033). Five years after initial visit, for patients ≤70 years of age with a disease duration ≤4 years at initial visit, 88% were still able to work and 90% to live independently. These estimates worsened as age and disease duration at initial visit increased; for patients >70 years of age with a disease duration >4 years, estimates at 5 years were 43% able to work and 57% able to live independently. The information provided in this study can offer useful information for PD patients in preparing for future ability to perform activities of daily living. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interoceptive ability predicts aversion to losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hartley, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jeffrey R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Emotions have been proposed to inform risky decision-making through the influence of affective physiological responses on subjective value. The ability to perceive internal body states, or "interoception" may influence this relationship. Here, we examined whether interoception predicts participants' degree of loss aversion, which has been previously linked to choice-related arousal responses. Participants performed both a heartbeat-detection task indexing interoception and a risky monetary decision-making task, from which loss aversion, risk attitudes and choice consistency were parametrically measured. Interoceptive ability correlated selectively with loss aversion and was unrelated to the other value parameters. This finding suggests that specific and separable component processes underlying valuation are shaped not only by our physiological responses, as shown in previous findings, but also by our interoceptive access to such signals.

  13. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  14. On the Origins of Calculation Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A historical review of calculation abilities is presented. Counting, starting with finger sequencing, has been observed in different ancient and contemporary cultures, whereas number representation and arithmetic abilities are found only during the last 5000–6000 years. The rationale for selecting a base of ten in most numerical systems and the clinical association between acalculia and finger agnosia are analyzed. Finger agnosia (as a restricted form of autotopagnosia, right–left discrimination disturbances, semantic aphasia, and acalculia are proposed to comprise a single neuropsychological syndrome associated with left angular gyrus damage. A classification of calculation disturbances resulting from brain damage is presented. It is emphasized that using historical/anthropological analysis, it becomes evident that acalculia, finger agnosia, and disorders in right–left discrimination (as in general, in the use of spatial concepts must constitute a single clinical syndrome, resulting from the disruption of some common brain activity and the impairment of common cognitive mechanisms.

  15. Facile synthesis of carbon dots with superior sensing ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Li, Jingguo; Liu, Liyun; Wang, Zhenling; Zhang, Xingcai

    2018-04-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) have various applications in biomedical and environmental field, such as bio-imaging, bio-sensing and heavy metal detection. In this study, a novel class of CDs were synthesized using a one-step hydrothermal method. The fabricated CDs displayed stable photoluminescence, good water solubility, and photo stability. Moreover, the functional groups (carboxylic acid moieties and hydroxyls) on the surface of the obtained CDs enable it with superior sensing ability (e.g., very low detectable concentration for Pb2+: 5 nmol/L). With superior detection sensitivity, excellent fluorescent properties and facile fabrication method, the as-obtained CDs can find practical applications as cost-effective and sensitive chemo-sensors in water and food safety field.

  16. SELF-REGULATORY ABILITIES IN PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Ozhiganova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The self-regulation is considered by the author as a general ability of the person. The levels of self-regulation relating to any professional activity, and corresponding to these levels self-regulatory capacities are distinguished: 1 psychophysiological - the ability for self-regulation of emotional and psycho- physiological states; 2 socio-psychological - the ability for self-regulation in the process of social interaction; 3 psychological (the ability to regulate activities; the capacity for personal self-control;spiritual - the highest capacity for self-regulation due to the higher values and meanings of existence. Self-regulation at the highest spiritual level is considered in this research in connection with the actualization of higher self-regulatory capacities, leading to self-realization of the person including professional activity. Processes, levels, components of self-regulation, associated with different conditions of professional activities (for example, in extreme situations, as well as with different types of professions (teachers, sales managers, etc. are described. A particular attention is given to self- regulation in the teaching activities: levels, techniques of teachers’ self-regulatory skills are presented; the importance of teachers’ personal self-regulation is emphasized, because it determines self-development, self-improvement and self-fulfillment in their chosen profession, and is associated with the manifestation of higher self-regulatory capacities. It is noted that in the process of professional activities different levels and types of self-regulation are demanded. The self-regulation in professional activities is carried out due to various self-regulatory capabilities - from simple to complex, including the highest.

  17. Managing emotions - an ability of emotional intelligence.

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Ana Almeida; Veiga-Branco, Augusta

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the concept Managing Emotions from Emotional Intelligence (I.E.), (Mayer-Salovey, 1990, 1997, Goleman, 1995), also identified as Emotional Regulation (Bisquerra, 2000), to obtain recognition and practical use of this concept, through the use of Emotional Fitness charts (Bimbela-Pedrola, 2008), to develop these abilities and manage emotions in contexts of practical life. Objective: To train preschool teachers, as well as primary and lower secondary sc...

  18. Quantile forecast discrimination ability and value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben Bouallègue, Zied; Pinson, Pierre; Friederichs, Petra

    2015-01-01

    While probabilistic forecast verification for categorical forecasts is well established, some of the existing concepts and methods have not found their equivalent for the case of continuous variables. New tools dedicated to the assessment of forecast discrimination ability and forecast value are ...... is illustrated based on synthetic datasets, as well as for the case of global radiation forecasts from the high resolution ensemble COSMO-DE-EPS of the German Weather Service....

  19. Teachers’ ability in using math learning media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masniladevi; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Helsa, Y.; Dalais, M.

    2017-12-01

    The studies aim to enhance teachers’ knowledge and skill in making math instructional media, develop math instructional media, train and assist the use of instructional media in learning math in the classroom. The method used in the activities adopted the pattern of preventive implementation, planning stage, program implementation, observation and evaluation and reflection. The research results show that the evaluation of teachers’ ability is still in average category. The result required more intensive training.

  20. Cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding.

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, Reginald G.; Jacobson, R. Daniel; Kitchin, Rob; Blades, Mark

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relations between cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding, particularly in the context of traveling without the use of sight. Initially we discuss the nature of cognitive maps and the process of cognitive mapping as mechanisms for developing person to object (egocentric) and object to object (allocentric) internal representations. Imperfections in encoding either relations can introduce imperfections in representations of environments in memory. Thi...

  1. Improving English Speaking Ability Through Classroom Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Afrizal, M

    2015-01-01

    Speaking is one of important parts in teaching language because it includes one of four basic language skills. Nevertheless, in MA NU BANAT Kudus, the writer found that most of students there still get the difficulties in studying speaking. It may be caused by the method used in teaching English, especially speaking. Classroom Discussion is a method that can be applied in teaching English, especially to improve the ability of speaking. In this method, hopefully, the students get a big opportu...

  2. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  3. Glass forming ability of calcium aluminosilicate melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Mette; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite-wollastonite-tridymite and that of......The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite......-wollastonite-tridymite and that of anorthite-wollastonite-gehlenite. The series includes the eutectic compositions as end members. The second series consists of five compositions on a line parallel to the joining line on the alumina rich side. In the present work, GFA is described in terms of glass stability, i.e., the ability of a glass...... to resist crystallization during reheating. In addition, the fragility index (m) is derived by fitting the viscosity data with the Avramov-Milchev equation. The results show that m is inversely proportional to the glass stability for the two series of melts, implying that m is an indirect measure of GFA...

  4. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSARIO eCABELLO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists, whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists. The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688, implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT. Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.

  5. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Do the physical and environment PETTLEP elements predict sport imagery ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Nurwina; Williams, Sarah E; Cumming, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether physical and environment elements of PETTLEP imagery relate to the ability to image five types of sport imagery (i.e. skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery). Two hundred and ninety participants (152 males, 148 females; M age  = 20.24 years, SD = 4.36) from various sports completed the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ), and a set of items designed specifically for the study to assess how frequently participants incorporate physical (e.g. 'I make small movements or gestures during the imagery') and environment (e.g. 'I image in the real training/competition environment') elements of PETTLEP imagery. Structural equation modelling tested a hypothesised model in which imagery priming (i.e. the best fitting physical and environment elements) significantly and positively predicted imagery ability of the different imagery types (skill, β = 0.38; strategy, β = 0.23; goal, β = 0.21; affect, β = 0.25; mastery, β = 0.22). The model was a good fit to the data: χ 2 (174) = 263.87, p environment elements is associated with better skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery imagery ability. The findings extend models of imagery use by indicating that how athletes images may influence their imagery ability.

  7. Measuring Work Ability with Its Antecedents: Evaluation of the Work Ability Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Jan-Bennet; Deller, Jürgen

    2017-07-24

    Purpose The revised version of the Work Ability Survey (WAS-R) assesses work ability on several sub-scales at the intersection of personal and organizational capacity, thus adding to the measurement of work ability by integrating the holistic model. It, therefore, improves on two features of the current standard measurement tool of work ability, the Work Ability Index (WAI): (1) a ceiling effect and (2) limited detail due to a focus on physical health and personal capacity. Method In two samples (n 1  = 1093, n 2  = 359), psychometric properties and the structure of the WAS-R were analyzed. To evaluate construct validity, inter-correlations of the WAS-R and WAI, sickness absence, expected and desired retirement age, and post-retirement work intention were calculated. Results The WAS-R was found to be distributed closer to normality than the WAI. The structural analyses yielded acceptable results for the hypothesized model. The WAS-R was adequately correlated with the WAI, negatively with sickness absence, and positively with desired retirement age. Conclusions The WAS-R extends the measurement of work ability, reflecting organizations' work demands. Its broad sub-scales lead to high acceptance of the results within the participating companies. In particular, the organizational capacity scales can be used to guide interventions aiming at organizational characteristics to improve work ability.

  8. Is there a relationship between ultrasound scanning ability (sonography) and visuospatial perception or psychomotor ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Suzanne; Gallagher, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background Competent sonography is thought to include a unique combination of skills not yet fully defined. This presents challenges when recruiting the correct people for training. Skills are thought to include visuospatial perception and psychomotor skills, but little is known about the relationship between these aptitudes and scanning ability. This feasibility study explored such relationships, to identify evaluation techniques which may improve selection and recruitment. Methods A sample of 30 experienced ultrasound practitioners and 30 trainees at commencement and on completion of training were administered eight tests. Results No significant relationships between experienced practitioners’ or trainees’ visuospatial abilities or psychomotor abilities and scanning abilities were found. Results demonstrated that two of the visuospatial perception tests were not influenced by training and therefore, may be measuring the innate skills of ultrasound practitioners. As ultrasound practitioners had not performed any of the tests previously, ranges of scores for each of the eight tests were established for this group. This included measures for psychomotor skills which added to the current body of knowledge for sonography. Conclusions Although no significant correlations were found between participants’ visuospatial perception or psychomotor abilities and scanning ability, performance on the Obstetric Structured Assessment Test (combining all the skills required) pre-training gave the best indication of post-training scanning performance. The Obstetric Structured Assessment Test may prove a useful tool for initial assessment of potential trainees but abilities will require further investigation. PMID:27847536

  9. Work ability evaluation in neurosarcoidosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Aleksandar P.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology which affects most frequently the hilar lymph nodes and lungs. Symptomatic involvement of the central nervous system may develop in patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis or it may be the initial manifestation of the disease. This is a case report of 48-year old female patient admitted to our clinic for evaluation of working ability. The patient had a total of 24 years of service and occupational exposure and she has been employed as supplies procurement officer. On admission, she complained of the following discomforts: eye-lid pain, intellectual fatigue, psychic uneasiness, forgetfulness, dyspnea and productive cough. Neurological findings indicated the presence of the right eye ophthalmoplegia, psychoorganic syndrome and neurosarcoidosis. Ophthalmological examination evidenced bilateral ptosis and presence of anisocoria. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed discrete focal lesions of the pons (paracentral left and parietal corona radiata of the left hemisphere. Based on performed examinations and diagnostics procedures, final evaluation of patient’s working ability concluded that the patient was not capable of psychic strains and jobs associated with material accountability.

  10. Refining and Delegating Strategic Ability in ATL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar P. Guelev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose extending Alternating-time Temporal Logic (ATL by an operator F to express that agent i can distribute its powers to a set of sub-agents G in a way which satisfies ATL condition f on the strategic ability of the coalitions they may form, possibly together with others agents. We prove the decidability of model-checking of formulas whose subformulas with this operator as the main connective have the form ... f, with no further occurrences of this operator in f.

  11. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    , Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... both yielding and competitive ability may be possible. Non-linear regression models were fitted to canopy height and light interception data for each variety in all three years. The canopy height model provided a precise description of development and maximum canopy height of the varieties. A light...

  12. Genetic component in learning ability in bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, W E; Moura Duarte, F A; Oliveira, R S

    1975-10-01

    Twenty-five bees, five from each of five hives, were trained to collect food at a table. When the bee reached the table, time was recorded for 12 visits. Then a blue and yellow pan was substituted for the original metal pan, and time and correct responses were recorded for 30 trips (discrimination phase). Finally, food was taken from the pan and extinction was recorded as incorrect responses for 20 visits. Variance analysis was carried out, and genetic variance was undetected for discrimination, but was detected for extinction. It is concluded that learning is very important for bees, so that any impairment in such ability affects colony survival.

  13. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara S.

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm.

  14. Errors of Students Learning With React Strategy in Solving the Problems of Mathematical Representation Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsika Pramata Sari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the errors experienced by students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning in solving problems of mathematical representation ability. This study used quasi experimental pattern with static-group comparison design. The subjects of this study were 47 eighth grade students of junior high school in Bandung consisting of two samples. The instrument used was a test to measure students' mathematical representation ability. The reliability coefficient about the mathematical representation ability was 0.56. The most prominent errors of mathematical representation ability of students learning with REACT strategy and traditional learning, was on indicator that solving problem involving arithmetic symbols (symbolic representation. In addition, errors were also experienced by many students with traditional learning on the indicator of making the image of a real world situation to clarify the problem and facilitate its completion (visual representation.

  15. Controversial Embodiment: Sport, Masculinity, Dis/Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Parlati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an attempt at investigating visible forms of complex, indeed controversial embodiment, with the specific intention of concentrating on the ways they interrogate delicate issues such as disability, masculinity and prosthetic sport performance. I intend to sound the shifting boundaries between dis-ability and super-ability as manifested in iconic figures such as Stelarc and, in other fields, Oscar Pistorius, whose unsteady position as privileged/disabled bladerunner seems to require – and indeed to gather – particularly intense scrutiny. I shall introduce a few contemporary discourses on corporeality and embodiment, which focus on the ‘troubling’ nature of auxiliary organs Freud refers to in the much contended paragraph I adopt as epigraph and guiding procedural light; I shall move from Butler and Giddens to Jean-Luc Nancy’s work on transplants and/as prostheses to include theoretical debates on disintegrating embodiment and disability studies, in order to proceed towards an analysis of the short-circuiting of allegedly secure practices of (masculine embodiment in sport culture and theory.

  16. Nature versus Nurture in Determining Athletic Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Lidor, Ronnie; Eynon, Nir

    2016-01-01

    This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed. On the nurture (environment) side, we discuss common environmental variables including deliberate practice, family support, and the birthplace effect, which may be important in becoming an elite athlete. Developmental effects are difficult to disassociate with genetic effects, because the early life environment may have long-lasting effects in adulthood. With this in mind, the fetal programming hypothesis is also briefly reviewed, as fetal programming provides an excellent example of how the environment interacts with genetics. We conclude that the traditional argument of nature versus nurture is no longer relevant, as it has been clearly established that both are important factors in the road to becoming an elite athlete. With the availability of the next-generation genetics (sequencing) techniques, it is hoped that future studies will reveal the relevant genes influencing performance, as well as the interaction between those genes and environmental (nurture) factors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  18. Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiying; Wu, Hanrong

    2011-02-01

    Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) was investigated to explore the cognitive mechanism underlying DD. According to the definition of developmental dyscalculia, 19 children with DD-only and 10 children with DD&RD (DD combined with reading disability) were selected step by step, children in two control groups were matched with children in case groups by gender and age, and the match ratio was 1:1. Psychological testing software named DMDX was used to measure inhibitory ability of the subjects. The differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks and differences of accuracy in incongruent condition of color-word Stroop tasks and object inhibition tasks between DD-only children and their controls reached significant levels (P<0.05), and the differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks between dyscalculic and normal children did not disappear after controlling the non-executive components. The difference of accuracy in color-word incongruent tasks between children with DD&RD and normal children reached significant levels (P<0.05). Children with DD-only confronted with general inhibitory deficits, while children with DD&RD confronted with word inhibitory deficits only.

  19. Spatial ability and training in virtual neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, Leah; Armstrong, Ryan; De Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is one of the most challenging sections of anatomy to learn, partially related to the intricate relation of multiple 3D structures. As part of the medical student curriculum, it is usually taught in 2D using illustrations and plastinated brain section, since the number of hours devoted to anatomy have dropped in the curriculum, making the dissection of brain too time-consuming to be done. In this study we are analyzing the role of innate spatial ability of novices in learning some basic structures and placing them back in a 3D volumetric brain. Two tasks are performed after a short training session: the first one is to localize the ventricular tip as would be required during a temporal lobectomy, and the second task requires that the subject 'reconstruct' 3D anatomical structures within the context of our 3D brain model. We report our findings on the performance scores obtained from a population of subjects of differing backgrounds and spatial abilities.

  20. Do motor ability and handwriting kinematic measures predict organizational ability among children with Developmental Coordination Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara

    2015-10-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) exhibit deficient daily performance concealed in their perception-action mechanism. The aim of this study was to analyze behavior organization of children with DCD, in varied tasks that require generating and monitoring mental representations related to space and time inputs/requirements, for achieving better insight about their perception-action mechanism. Participants included 42 children aged 7-10, half of whom were defined with DCD and half were typically developing (TD). The children were matched for age, gender and school. They were evaluated using the Movement-ABC and performed three handwriting tasks on an electronic tablet that is part of a computerized system (ComPET - Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool). In addition, their teachers completed the Questionnaire for Assessing Students' Organizational Abilities-Teachers (QASOA-T) to assess the children's daily organizational ability. Significant group differences (DCD versus controls) were found for all handwriting kinematic measures across the three handwriting tasks and for the children's organizational abilities. Motor ability predicted a considerable percentage of the variance of the kinematic handwriting measures (30-37%), as well as a high percentage of the variance of their organizational abilities (67%). The coefficient of variance of the pen tilt added an additional 3% to the prediction of their organizational abilities. The results of this study exhibited deficient ability among children with DCD in organizing their behavior in varied real-world tasks requiring generation and monitoring representation related to space and time. The significance of the results to understanding the performance mechanism and implication to the clinical field are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to different aspects of mathematics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träff, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Image Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.

  3. Image Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance that explains the process for getting images approved in One EPA Web microsites and resource directories. includes an appendix that shows examples of what makes some images better than others, how some images convey meaning more than others

  4. Data imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepy, G.

    1999-01-01

    After an introduction about data imaging in general, the principles of imaging data collected via neutron scattering experiments are presented. Some computer programs designed for data imaging purposes are reviewed. (K.A.)

  5. Longitudinal Alterations of Frontoparietal and Frontotemporal Networks Predict Future Creative Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qunlin; Beaty, Roger E; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Junyi; Sun, Jiangzhou; Liu, Wei; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Creative cognition is important to academic performance and career success during late adolescence and adulthood. However, there is a lack of longitudinal data on whether brain structural development could predict improvements in creative thinking, and how such changes interact with other cognitive abilities to support creative performance. Here we examined longitudinal alterations of brain structure and their relation to creative cognitive ability in a sample of 159 healthy young adults who were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging 2-3 times over the course of 3 years. The most robust predictor of future creative ability was the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which in conjunction with baseline creative capacity showed a 31% prediction rate. Longitudinal analysis revealed that slower decreases in gray matter density within left frontoparietal and right frontotemporal clusters predicted enhanced creative ability. Moreoever, the relationship between longitudinal alterations within frontal-related clusters and improved creative ability was moderated by the right DLPFC and working memory ability. We conclude that continuous goal-directed planning and accumulated knowledge are implemented in the right DLPFC and temporal areas, respectively, which in turn support longitudinal gains in creative cognitive ability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children's precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the current study, we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of 2years. In addition, at the final time point, we tested children's informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3). We found that children's numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned nonsymbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematics reasoning that children come to master through instruction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pancreatic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potsaid, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    The clinical use of [ 75 Se] selenomethionine for visualising the pancreas is described. The physiological considerations, imaging procedure, image interpretations and reliability are considered. (C.F.)

  8. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  9. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  10. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Śmieja

    Full Text Available The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  11. Accommodative Ability in Prepresbyopic Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Etezad Razavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To compare various accommodative parameters in prepresbyopic diabetic patients with age-matched healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Study populationconsisted of 32 younger-onset diabetic patients (30-40 years of age and 28 age-matched healthy normal individuals. Using the best correction for distance visual acuity (20.20 by Snellen chart, multiple accommodative ability tests such as near point of accommodation, accommodative amplitude, negative or positive accommodative facility and near point of convergence were measured in both groups. Results: Mean near point of accommodation in diabetic patients was significantly greater than the control group (18.5±4.4 centimeters [cm] versus 9.5±2 centimeters, p= 0.000. Mean accommodative amplitude was (5.93±1.75 Diopter (D and (10.95±2.16 Diopter in diabetics and normal individuals, respectively (p=0.000. Mean accommodation facility was (3.19±3.04 cycle/minute [cyl/min] in patients and 10.01±5.09 cycle/minute in the control group (p= 0.000. Mean positive relative accommodation was (–3.37±1.19 D in diabetic and (-2.11±0.99 D in healthy participants (p=0.000. Mean negative relative accommodation was lower in diabetic patients compared with the control group, however, this difference did not reach statistical significance (2.61±0.65 D versus (2.61±0.60 D, p= 0.23. Mean near point of convergence was (8.23±1.43 cm and (7.13±0.67 cm in normal and diabetic groups, respectively which had insignificant difference (p= 0.45. Conclusion: Majority of accommodative ability functions decreased in prepresbyopic diabetic patients. Early detection and rehabilitation of such patients with corrective near spectacles are strongly recommended.

  12. Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Spatial Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2017-01-01

    Spatial abilities are used in many aspects of everyday life, thus developing these abilities should be one of the most important goal of Mathematics Education. These abilities should be developed starting with early school years, thus pre-school and primary school teachers have an important role in setting the foundation of these abilities. A…

  13. Occupational Choice and the Endogenous Supply of Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klynge, Alice Heegaard

    I develop a selection model in which the individual’s supply of ability is endogenous and subject to selection along with occupation. Additionally, I identify and estimate the returns to creative and innovative ability, communication ability, and reading and math ability for white-collar and blue...

  14. Group Innovation Ability of Agricultural Technological Innovation Strategic Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chishun; MA; Jintian; YU

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance, as an important form of strategic alliance, has steadily strengthened the collaborative management among organizations and raised competitive power with the backing of improved group innovation ability. This article studies innovation ability from individual innovation ability to the group innovation ability. Firstly, basic connotation of group innovation ability is to be concluded through the comparison of individual and group innovation ability. Secondly, evaluation index system is to be established based on the influencing factors of the group innovation ability of agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance and evaluation is based on three dimensions, namely organization technological innovation ability, alliance collaborative innovation ability as well as innovation environment. Furthermore, basic methods for promoting the group innovation ability of alliance are to be proposed.

  15. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  16. EFFECT OF TEACHERS’ ABILITIES ON STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION WITH VARYING LEVELS OF INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES IN THE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence and motivation are two crucial components of the education process that can significantly influence its efficiency. The level of intelligence determines our ability to learn from experience and to solve a problem successfully, whereas motivational processes energize and organize our behavior to reach our goals. This paper is connected to our previous article focused on the influence of teachers’ abilities on secondary business schools’ students’ motivation in the Economics. In our current study, we monitored the motivational potential of teachers’ abilities in a connection with students’ level of intelligence, measured by Vienna Matrices Test. As we would expect according to the results of our previous study, the expertise of teachers has the most important influence in the groups of both the above-average intelligent and the average intelligent students. Nevertheless, we found some differences in other preferences of both groups: except the teachers’ expertise, the average intelligent students refer to be motivated mostly by exposition of curriculum and ability to develop thinking, whereas above-average students refer only about the exposition of curriculum (except the teachers’ expertise. The next factor that we observed in our study is an amount of time that students spend on preparation to school.

  17. Engineering Play: Exploring Associations with Executive Function, Mathematical Ability, and Spatial Ability in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Zachary Samuel

    Engineering play is a new perspective on preschool education that views constructive play as an engineering design process that parallels the way engineers think and work when they develop engineered solutions to human problems (Bairaktarova, Evangelou, Bagiati, & Brophy, 2011). Early research from this perspective supports its use in framing play as a key learning context. However, no research to date has examined associations between engineering play and other factors linked with early school success, such as executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Additionally, more research is needed to further validate a new engineering play observational measure. This study had two main goals: (1) to gather early validity data on the engineering play measure as a potentially useful instrument for documenting the occurrence of children's engineering play behaviors in educational contexts, such as block play. This was done by testing the factor structure of the engineering play behaviors in this sample and their association with preschoolers' planning, a key aspect of the engineering design process; (2) to explore associations between preschoolers' engineering play and executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Participants included 110 preschoolers (62 girls; 48 boys; M = 58.47 months) from 10 classrooms in the Midwest United States coded for their frequency of engagement in each of the nine engineering play behaviors. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in one engineering play factor including six of the engineering play behaviors. A series of marginal regression models revealed that the engineering play factor was significantly and positively associated with the spatial horizontal rotation transformation. However, engineering play was not significantly related to planning ability, executive function, informal mathematical abilities, or other spatial transformation skills. Follow-up analyses revealed significant positive

  18. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  19. Abilities of preschoolers: comparing different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappedi Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong need for studies evaluating tests in terms both of psychometric properties (i.e. their efficacy or ability to be helpful in reaching a diagnosis and of their cost-effectiveness (i.e. their efficiency. These data are essential for planning a correct evaluation to identify children's needs (both educational and abilitative. Methods We evaluated 58 children attending for the first time the last year of the Scuola dell'Infanzia. Parental view was obtained with Child Behaviour Check-List and Conners' Rating Scales - Revised, and family socio-economic status was evaluated using Hollingshead's Four Factor Index; teacher compiled the IPDA questionnaire; children were administered Raven's Progressive Matrices, Modified Bell Cancellation Test, BVN 5-11 (a neuropsychological battery. Results A correlational analysis was conducted using Spearman's Rho (since variables were not normally distributed. These asymptomatic children show a good global cognitive functioning, but also a deficit of attention and of Executive Functions. Some of the tests used seem more cost-effective than others and there are some redundancies in information obtained. Conclusions Our data show that there are significant correlations between different neuropsychological and behavioural measures. It is therefore possible to rationalize diagnostic protocols without a significant information reduction. A deeper analysis will require a preliminary definition of the psychometric properties of used tools.

  20. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Béatrice; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  1. Adjusting ability and sensibility for an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Adjusting ability (technical competence) and sensibility (consciousness) are the two most important priorities any staff member of any organization should bear in mind while acting during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The discussion is aimed at the national authorities of states which do not have a major nuclear power reactor programme, and especially at the IAEA and WHO: although a decade has gone by, the lessons from the radiological accident in Goiania have not been fully learned. The events which unravelled in the fall of 1987 took the population of the city of Goiania completely by surprise: they did not comprehend what had happened and failed to grasp what measures needed to be taken, a situation which precipitated a very complex psychological reaction, coupled with discrimination. To ensure the safety of radiation sources and nuclear installations, national and international organizations should direct their efforts towards educating and training staff in developing countries who work with ionizing radiation and promoting organizational capacity. This should be done first, by improving safety qualitatively so as to better control the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industry and research, and secondly, by assisting countries without a major nuclear power reactor programme to develop an objective and realistic emergency response training programme. (author)

  2. Cancer Chemopreventive Ability of Conjugated Linolenic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Miyashita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated fatty acids (CFA have received increased interest because of their beneficial effects on human health, including preventing cancer development. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are such CFA, and have been reviewed extensively for their multiple biological activities. In contrast to other types of CFAs including CLA that are found at low concentrations (less than 1% in natural products, conjugated linolenic acids (CLN are the only CFAs that occur in higher quantities in natural products. Some plant seeds contain a considerably high concentration of CLN (30 to 70 wt% lipid. Our research group has screened CLN from different plant seed oils to determine their cancer chemopreventive ability. This review describes the physiological functions of CLN isomers that occur in certain plant seeds. CLN are able to induce apoptosis through decrease of Bcl-2 protein in certain human cancer cell lines, increase expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, and up-regulate gene expression of p53. Findings in our preclinical animal studies have indicated that feeding with CLN resulted in inhibition of colorectal tumorigenesis through modulation of apoptosis and expression of PPARγ and p53. In this review, we summarize chemopreventive efficacy of CLN against cancer development, especially colorectal cancer.

  3. Visual Abilities in Children with Developmental Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom three had......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... previously been undiagnosed. Students tested with preferential looking systems (N = 78) had significantly lower visual acuities [VA (decimal) = 0.55] than students tested with ortho types [VA (decimal) = 0.91] and had problems participating in the colour and form tests, possibly due to cerebral VI...

  4. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  5. Quantitative imaging as cancer biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoff, David A.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to assay tumor biologic features and the impact of drugs on tumor biology is fundamental to drug development. Advances in our ability to measure genomics, gene expression, protein expression, and cellular biology have led to a host of new targets for anticancer drug therapy. In translating new drugs into clinical trials and clinical practice, these same assays serve to identify patients most likely to benefit from specific anticancer treatments. As cancer therapy becomes more individualized and targeted, there is an increasing need to characterize tumors and identify therapeutic targets to select therapy most likely to be successful in treating the individual patient's cancer. Thus far assays to identify cancer therapeutic targets or anticancer drug pharmacodynamics have been based upon in vitro assay of tissue or blood samples. Advances in molecular imaging, particularly PET, have led to the ability to perform quantitative non-invasive molecular assays. Imaging has traditionally relied on structural and anatomic features to detect cancer and determine its extent. More recently, imaging has expanded to include the ability to image regional biochemistry and molecular biology, often termed molecular imaging. Molecular imaging can be considered an in vivo assay technique, capable of measuring regional tumor biology without perturbing it. This makes molecular imaging a unique tool for cancer drug development, complementary to traditional assay methods, and a potentially powerful method for guiding targeted therapy in clinical trials and clinical practice. The ability to quantify, in absolute measures, regional in vivo biologic parameters strongly supports the use of molecular imaging as a tool to guide therapy. This review summarizes current and future applications of quantitative molecular imaging as a biomarker for cancer therapy, including the use of imaging to (1) identify patients whose tumors express a specific therapeutic target; (2) determine

  6. The ability to mentally represent action is associated with low motor ability in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2012-05-01

    Theory and anatomical research suggest that the ability to mentally represent intended actions affect level of execution. This study presents preliminary data examining the association between children's ability to mentally represent action and general motor ability. Children aged 7- to 10 years were assessed for motor imagery ability using a simulation of reach task and motor ability via the Movement ABC-2. Motor ability values, based on percentile rank, ranged from 2 to 91, with a mean of 36. The overall correlation between mental representation and motor ability yielded a moderately positive relationship (r = .39). Interestingly, when looking at motor ability subcategories, only Balance was significant in the model, explaining 20% of the variance. These results provide preliminary evidence that children's motor ability and the ability to mentally represent action are associated in a positive direction. Furthermore, given the results for Balance, we speculate that there are clinical implications regarding work with potentially at-risk children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Image matching navigation based on fuzzy information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉龙; 吴伟仁; 田金文; 柳健

    2003-01-01

    In conventional image matching methods, the image matching process is mostly based on image statistic information. One aspect neglected by all these methods is that there is much fuzzy information contained in these images. A new fuzzy matching algorithm based on fuzzy similarity for navigation is presented in this paper. Because the fuzzy theory is of the ability of making good description of the fuzzy information contained in images, the image matching method based on fuzzy similarity would look forward to producing good performance results. Experimental results using matching algorithm based on fuzzy information also demonstrate its reliability and practicability.

  8. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  9. Estimated maximal and current brain volume predict cognitive ability in old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Natalie A.; Booth, Tom; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Penke, Lars; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J.; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Starr, John; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue deterioration is a significant contributor to lower cognitive ability in later life; however, few studies have appropriate data to establish how much influence prior brain volume and prior cognitive performance have on this association. We investigated the associations between structural brain imaging biomarkers, including an estimate of maximal brain volume, and detailed measures of cognitive ability at age 73 years in a large (N = 620), generally healthy, community-dwelling population. Cognitive ability data were available from age 11 years. We found positive associations (r) between general cognitive ability and estimated brain volume in youth (male, 0.28; females, 0.12), and in measured brain volume in later life (males, 0.27; females, 0.26). Our findings show that cognitive ability in youth is a strong predictor of estimated prior and measured current brain volume in old age but that these effects were the same for both white and gray matter. As 1 of the largest studies of associations between brain volume and cognitive ability with normal aging, this work contributes to the wider understanding of how some early-life factors influence cognitive aging. PMID:23850342

  10. Molecular imaging in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging is generally defined as noninvasive and quantitative imaging of targeted macromolecules and biological processes in living organisms. A characteristic of molecular imaging is the ability to perform repeated studies and assess changes in biological processes over time. Thus molecular imaging lends itself well for monitoring the effectiveness of tumor therapy. In animal models a variety of techniques can be used for molecular imaging. These include optical imaging (bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine techniques. In the clinical setting, however, nuclear medicine techniques predominate, because so far only radioactive tracers provide the necessary sensitivity to study expression and function of macromolecules non-invasively in patients. Nuclear medicine techniques allows to study a variety of biological processes in patients. These include the expression of various receptors (estrogen, androgen, somatostatin receptors and integrins). In addition, tracers are available to study tumor cell proliferation and hypoxia. The by far most commonly used molecular imaging technique in oncology is, however, positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET). FDG-PET permits non-invasive quantitative assessment of the accelerated exogenous glucose use of malignant tumors. Numerous studies have now shown that reduction of tumor FDG-uptake during therapy allows early prediction of tumor response and patient survival. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine whether FDG-PET can be used to individualize tumor therapy by signaling early in the course of therapy the need for therapeutic adjustments in patients with likely non-responding tumors. (orig.)

  11. MR imaging of the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricak, H.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging, CT, and US should be viewed as complementary studies for imaging the pelvis. MR imaging is relatively expensive, not widely available, and requires special facilities. However, it is noninvasive and offers a large field-of-view, direct imaging in all three orthogonal planes and excellent soft-tissue contrast. Surgical clips, which present a problem with other imaging modalities, do not create significant MR image artifacts. Image degradation due to bowel motion can be minimized by bowel preparation and/or the administration of glucagon. The value of MR imaging of the pelvis is in staging rather than diagnosis of pelvic neoplasms. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of MR imaging in staging prostate or bladder tumors exceed those of US and CT. In prostate carcinoma, MR imaging can be used to evaluate periprostatic tumor extension, especially to the bladder base, rectum, or seminal vesicles. For early transcapsular extension, however, the accuracy of transrectal US reportedly surpasses that of MR imaging. In bladder carcinoma, the value of MR imaging is in direct tumor visualization, the ability to differentiate between tumor and normal bladder wall, and the evaluation of bladder tumors located at the dome of the bladder base, where imaging in the sagittal plane is essential. In the evaluation of benign entities of the female pelvis, US remains the preferred screening modality. The use of MR imaging is reserved for cases of infertility or for planning myomectomy when knowledge of the exact number, size, and location of tumors is essential. MR imaging is useful in evaluating patients with amenorrhea or any suspected congenital anomalies. The main application of MR imaging of the female pelvis is in the staging of neoplasms, including endometrial and cervical carcinomas

  12. Obstetric and gynecologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Obstetric and gynecologic imaging has undergone marked changes in the past 10 years, primarily because of the influence of new imaging modalities. The single modality that has most significantly changed the diagnostic approach to obstetric and gynecologic problems is diagnostic ultrasound. The remarkable ability of this technique to display the anatomy of the gravid and nongravid female pelvis without the use of ionizing radiation motivated the development of techniques and instrumentation that have supplanted but not totally replaced many x-ray based examinations. The use of diagnostic ultrasound for the evaluation of obstetric and gynecologic problems is the dominant theme of this chapter. Areas of patient diagnosis and management in which additional imaging techniques, x-rays, or magnetic resonance are used are presented where appropriate

  13. Multi-representation ability of students on the problem solving physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theasy, Y.; Wiyanto; Sujarwata

    2018-03-01

    Accuracy in representing knowledge possessed by students will show how the level of student understanding. The multi-representation ability of students on the problem solving of physics has been done through qualitative method of grounded theory model and implemented on physics education student of Unnes academic year 2016/2017. Multiforms of representation used are verbal (V), images/diagrams (D), graph (G), and mathematically (M). High and low category students have an accurate use of graphical representation (G) of 83% and 77.78%, and medium category has accurate use of image representation (D) equal to 66%.

  14. A Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Woo

    1999-01-01

    The ability to see the internal organs of the human body in a noninvasive way is a powerful diagnostic tool of modern medicine. Among these imaging modalities such as X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound. MRI and ultrasound are presenting much less risk of undesirable damage of both patient and examiner. In fact, no deleterious effects have been reported as a result of clinical examination by using MRI and ultrasound diagnostic equipment. As a result, their market volume has been rapidly increased. MRI has a good resolution. but there are a few disadvantages such as high price. non-real-time imaging capability. and expensive diagnostic cost. On the other hand, the ultrasound imaging system has inherently poor resolution as compared with X-ray and MRI. In spite of its poor resolution, the ultrasound diagnostic equipment is lower in price and has an ability of real-time imaging as compared with the others. As a result, the ultrasound imaging system has become general and essential modality for imaging the internal organs of human body. In this review various researches and developments to enhance the resolution of the ultrasound images are explained and future trends of the ultrasound imaging technology are described

  15. Maxillofacial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larheim, T.A. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Maxillofacial Radiology; Westesson, P.L. [Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY (United States). Div. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2006-07-01

    Maxillofacial imaging has evolved dramatically over the past two decades with development of new cross-sectional imaging techniques. Traditional maxillofacial imaging was based on plain films and dental imaging. However, today's advanced imaging techniques with CT and MRI have only been partially implemented for maxillofacial questions. This book bridges the gap between traditional maxillofacial imaging and advanced medical imaging. We have applied CT and MRI to a variety of maxillofacial cases and these are illustrated with high-quality images and multiple planes. A comprehensive chapter on imaging anatomy is also included. This book is useful for oral and maxillofacial radiologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, dentists, radiologists, plastic surgeons, head and neck surgeons, and others that work with severe maxillofacial disorders. (orig.)

  16. Experimental study of ERT monitoring ability to measure solute dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekmine, Grégory; Pessel, Marc; Auradou, Harold

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports experimental measurements performed to test the ability of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) imaging to provide quantitative information about transport parameters in porous media such as the dispersivity α, the mixing front velocity u, and the retardation factor R(f) associated with the sorption or trapping of the tracers in the pore structure. The flow experiments are performed in a homogeneous porous column placed between two vertical set of electrodes. Ionic and dyed tracers are injected from the bottom of the porous media over its full width. Under such condition, the mixing front is homogeneous in the transverse direction and shows an S-shape variation in the flow direction. The transport parameters are inferred from the variation of the concentration curves and are compared with data obtained from video analysis of the dyed tracer front. The variations of the transport parameters obtained from an inversion performed by the Gauss-Newton method applied on smoothness-constrained least-squares are studied in detail. While u and R(f) show a relatively small dependence on the inversion procedure, α is strongly dependent on the choice of the inversion parameters. Comparison with the video observations allows for the optimization of the parameters; these parameters are found to be robust with respect to changes in the flow condition and conductivity contrast. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Spontaneous brain activity predicts learning ability of foreign sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán, Ana; González, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Deco, Gustavo; Ávila, César

    2013-05-29

    Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) between brain areas involved in a task? We combined task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) before and after training with a Hindi dental-retroflex nonnative contrast. Previous fMRI results were replicated, demonstrating that this learning recruited the left insula/frontal operculum and the left superior parietal lobe, among other areas of the brain. Crucially, resting-state FC (rs-FC) between these two areas at pretraining predicted individual differences in learning outcomes after distributed (Experiment 1) and intensive training (Experiment 2). Furthermore, this rs-FC was reduced at posttraining, a change that may also account for learning. Finally, resting-state network analyses showed that the mechanism underlying this reduction of rs-FC was mainly a transfer in intrinsic activity of the left frontal operculum/anterior insula from the left frontoparietal network to the salience network. Thus, rs-FC may contribute to predict learning ability and to understand how learning modifies the functioning of the brain. The discovery of this correspondence between initial spontaneous brain activity in task-related areas and posttraining performance opens new avenues to find predictors of learning capacities in the brain using task-related fMRI and rs-fMRI combined.

  18. Comparative Lateralizing Ability of Multimodality MRI in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabekir Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective is to compare lateralizing ability of three quantitative MR (qMRI modalities to depict changes of hippocampal architecture with clinical entities in temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods. We evaluated 14 patients with clinical and EEG proven diagnosis of unilateral TLE and 15 healthy volunteers. T1-weighted 3D dataset for volumetry, single-voxel 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI were performed for bilateral hippocampi of all subjects. Results. Individual volumetric measurements provided accurate lateralization in 85% of the patients, spectroscopy in 57%, and DTI in 57%. Higher lateralization ratios were acquired combining volumetry-spectroscopy (85%, spectroscopy-DTI (85%, and volumetry-DTI (100%. Significantly decreased NAA/(Cho+Cr ratios (p=0.002 and increased FA (p=0.001 values were obtained in ipsilateral to epileptogenic hippocampus. Duration of epilepsy and FA values showed a significant negative correlation (p=0.016, r=-0.847. The history of febrile convulsion associated with ipsilateral increased ADC values (p=0.015, r=0.851 and reduced NAA/(Cho+Cr ratios (p=0.047, r=-761. Conclusion. Volumetry, MRS, and DTI studies provide complementary information of hippocampal pathology. For lateralization of epileptogenic focus and preoperative examination, volumetry-DTI combination may be indicative of diagnostic accuracy.

  19. Mirror image agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2014-10-01

    Gnosis is a modality-specific ability to access semantic knowledge of an object or stimulus in the presence of normal perception. Failure of this is agnosia or disorder of recognition. It can be highly selective within a mode. self-images are different from others as none has seen one's own image except in reflection. Failure to recognize this image can be labeled as mirror image agnosia or Prosopagnosia for reflected self-image. Whereas mirror agnosia is a well-recognized situation where the person while looking at reflected images of other objects in the mirror he imagines that the objects are in fact inside the mirror and not outside. Five patients, four females, and one male presented with failure to recognize reflected self-image, resulting in patients conversing with the image as a friend, fighting because the person in mirror is wearing her nose stud, suspecting the reflected self-image to be an intruder; but did not have prosopagnosia for others faces, non living objects on self and also apraxias except dressing apraxia in one patient. This phenomena is new to our knowledge. Mirror image agnosia is an unique phenomena which is seen in patients with parietal lobe atrophy without specificity to a category of dementing illness and seems to disappear as disease advances. Reflected self-images probably have a specific neural substrate that gets affected very early in posterior dementias specially the ones which predominantly affect the right side. At that phase most patients are mistaken as suffering from psychiatric disorder as cognition is moderately preserved. As disease becomes more widespread this symptom becomes masked. A high degree of suspicion and proper assessment might help physicians to recognize the organic cause of the symptom so that early therapeutic interventions can be initiated. Further assessment of the symptom with FMRI and PET scan is likely to solve the mystery of how brain handles reflected self-images. A new observation involving failure

  20. Imaging angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Natalie; Donaldson, Stephanie; Price, Pat

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for direct imaging of effects on tumor vasculature in assessment of response to antiangiogenic drugs and vascular disrupting agents. Imaging tumor vasculature depends on differences in permeability of vasculature of tumor and normal tissue, which cause changes in penetration of contrast agents. Angiogenesis imaging may be defined in terms of measurement of tumor perfusion and direct imaging of the molecules involved in angiogenesis. In addition, assessment of tumor hypoxia will give an indication of tumor vasculature. The range of imaging techniques available for these processes includes positron emission tomography (PET), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), perfusion computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US).

  1. Recruitment efforts to reduce adverse impact: targeted recruiting for personality, cognitive ability, and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel A; Lyon, Julie S

    2009-03-01

    Noting the presumed tradeoff between diversity and performance goals in contemporary selection practice, the authors elaborate on recruiting-based methods for avoiding adverse impact while maintaining aggregate individual productivity. To extend earlier work on the primacy of applicant pool characteristics for resolving adverse impact, they illustrate the advantages of simultaneous cognitive ability- and personality-based recruiting. Results of an algebraic recruiting model support general recruiting for cognitive ability, combined with recruiting for conscientiousness within the underrepresented group. For realistic recruiting effect sizes, this type of recruiting strategy greatly increases average performance of hires and percentage of hires from the underrepresented group. Further results from a policy-capturing study provide initial guidance on how features of organizational image can attract applicants with particular job-related personalities and abilities, in addition to attracting applicants on the basis of demographic background. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. managerial ability and farming success : an analysis of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research and analysis drew from the field of Industrial Psychology to determine and ... capital and sound financial structure within farmers' business, market access, ... managerial ability and strong entrepreneurial instinct; ability to handle.

  3. Talonavicular joint abnormalities and walking ability of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Noriyoshi; Senda, Masuo; Hamada, Masanori; Katayama, Yoshimi; Kinosita, Atsushi; Uchida, Kensuke; Inoue, Hajime

    2004-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often associated with deformities of the feet, and foot pain often arises in the talonavicular joint of patients with RA. The object of this study was to assess the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the talonavicular joint and walking ability. The subjects were 35 RA patients (10 feet in 5 males and 56 feet in 30 females) aged 34-87 years (mean: 70 years±12.1), with a disease duration from 1-54 years (mean: 14 years±12.1). MRI findings were classified as follows: Grade 1, almost normal; Grade 2, early articular destruction; Grade 3, moderate articular destruction; Grade 4, severe articular destruction; and Grade 5, bony ankylosis dislocation. Walking ability was classified into one of 9 categories ranging from normal gait to bedridden status according to the system of Fujibayashi. As the grade of MRI images became higher the walking ability decreased, and these parameters showed a correlation by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis (P=0.003). Thus, in the present cohort group of patients with RA, the deterioration of walking ability increased with the severity of destruction of the talonavicular joint. (author)

  4. Spatial ability in computer-aided design courses

    OpenAIRE

    Torner Ribé, Jordi; Alpiste Penalba, Francesc; Brigos Hermida, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that spatial ability is an important factor in the study of Industrial Engineering. Spatial ability is fundamentally important to the work of an engineer, as it is vital for project design. Among other elements, spatial ability correlates with factors such as good academic results and a natural ability to learn how to use I.T systems and computer programs. Furthermore, the new framework drawn up by the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) guides us as to the...

  5. Shared-Environmental Contributions to High Cognitive Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Using a combined sample of adolescent twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings, we estimated and compared the differential shared-environmentality for high cognitive ability and the shared-environmental variance for the full range of ability during adolescence. Estimates obtained via multiple methods were in the neighborhood of 0.20, and suggest a modest effect of the shared environment on both high and full-range ability. We then examined the association of ability with three measur...

  6. Urogenital imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, B.; Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hein, P.; Lemke, U.

    2008-01-01

    The book in direct diagnosis in radiology, urogenital imaging, includes information concerning definition, imaging signs and clinical aspects on the following topics: kidneys and adrenals, the urinary tract, the male genitals and the female genitals

  7. Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M. C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... illness or congenital abnormalities. When imaging of a child’s brain and spinal cord is needed, MRI is useful because of its ability to see through the skull and the bones of the skull and spine without radiation. MRI of the brain and spine ...

  9. Image understanding using sparse representations

    CERN Document Server

    Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J; Turaga, Pavan; Spanias, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Image understanding has been playing an increasingly crucial role in several inverse problems and computer vision. Sparse models form an important component in image understanding, since they emulate the activity of neural receptors in the primary visual cortex of the human brain. Sparse methods have been utilized in several learning problems because of their ability to provide parsimonious, interpretable, and efficient models. Exploiting the sparsity of natural signals has led to advances in several application areas including image compression, denoising, inpainting, compressed sensing, blin

  10. Clinical photoacoustic imaging of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valluru, Keerthi S.; Willmann, Juergen K. [Dept. of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid technique that shines laser light on tissue and measures optically induced ultrasound signal. There is growing interest in the clinical community over this new technique and its possible clinical applications. One of the most prominent features of photoacoustic imaging is its ability to characterize tissue, leveraging differences in the optical absorption of underlying tissue components such as hemoglobin, lipids, melanin, collagen and water among many others. In this review, the state-of-the-art photoacoustic imaging techniques and some of the key outcomes pertaining to different cancer applications in the clinic are presented.

  11. 20 CFR 604.4 - Application-ability to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application-ability to work. 604.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.4 Application—ability to work. (a) A State may consider an... all or a portion of the week claimed, provided any limitation on his or her ability to work does not...

  12. Visuospatial ability factors and performance variables in laparoscopic simulator training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus

  13. Re-Conceiving Ability in Physical Education: A Social Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jan; Burrows, Lisette

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we explore how "ability" is currently conceptualised in physical education and with what effects for different groups of young people. We interrogate approaches to theorising ability in physical education that draw on sociological and phenomenological "foundations" together with notions of ability as…

  14. QTL mapping for combining ability in different population-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-13

    Dec 13, 2013 ... ability and for geneticists to research the genetic basis of combining ability. [Li L., Sun C., ... population-based NCII designs by a simulation study. J. Genet. ... combining ability could also be applied to other population- based NCII ... was to estimate how different base populations, sample sizes, heritability ...

  15. Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Luralyn

    2013-01-01

    The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…

  16. Microwave imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorino, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the most relevant theoretical and algorithmic aspects of modern microwave imaging approaches Microwave imaging-a technique used in sensing a given scene by means of interrogating microwaves-has recently proven its usefulness in providing excellent diagnostic capabilities in several areas, including civil and industrial engineering, nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysical prospecting, and biomedical engineering. Microwave Imaging offers comprehensive descriptions of the most important techniques so far proposed for short-range microwave imaging-in

  17. Imaging of the temporomandibular joint: An update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asim; K; Bag; Santhosh; Gaddikeri; Aparna; Singhal; Simms; Hardin; Benson; D; Tran; Josue; A; Medina; Joel; K; Curé

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of the temporomandibular joint(TMJ) is continuously evolving with advancement of imaging technologies. Many different imaging modalities are currently used to evaluate the TMJ. Magnetic resonance imaging is commonly used for evaluation of the TMJ due to its superior contrast resolution and its ability to acquire dynamic imaging for demonstration of the functionality of the joint. Computed tomography and ultrasound imaging have specific indication in imaging of the TMJ. This article focuses on state of the art imaging of the temporomandibular joint. Relevant normal anatomy and biomechanics of movement of the TMJ are discussed for better understanding of many TMJ pathologies. Imaging of internal derangements is discussed in detail. Different arthropathies and commontumors are also discussed in this article.

  18. Digital image analyser for autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muth, R.A.; Plotnick, J.

    1985-01-01

    The most critical parameter in quantitative autoradiography for assay of tissue concentrations of tracers is the ability to obtain precise and accurate measurements of optical density of the images. Existing high precision systems for image analysis, rotating drum densitometers, are expensive, suffer from mechanical problems and are slow. More moderately priced and reliable video camera based systems are available, but their outputs generally do not have the uniformity and stability necessary for high resolution quantitative autoradiography. The authors have designed and constructed an image analyser optimized for quantitative single and multiple tracer autoradiography which the authors refer to as a memory-mapped charged-coupled device scanner (MM-CCD). The input is from a linear array of CCD's which is used to optically scan the autoradiograph. Images are digitized into 512 x 512 picture elements with 256 gray levels and the data is stored in buffer video memory in less than two seconds. Images can then be transferred to RAM memory by direct memory-mapping for further processing. Arterial blood curve data and optical density-calibrated standards data can be entered and the optical density images can be converted automatically to tracer concentration or functional images. In double tracer studies, images produced from both exposures can be stored and processed in RAM to yield ''pure'' individual tracer concentration or functional images. Any processed image can be transmitted back to the buffer memory to be viewed on a monitor and processed for region of interest analysis

  19. Socioeconomic Position Across the Life Course and Cognitive Ability Later in Life: The Importance of Considering Early Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foverskov, Else; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Holm, Anders; Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke

    2017-11-01

    Investigate direct and indirect associations between markers of socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and midlife cognitive ability while addressing methodological limitations in prior work. Longitudinal data from the Danish Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953 ( N = 2,479) who completed ability tests at age 12, 18, and 56-58 linked to register-based information on paternal occupational class, educational attainment, and occupational level. Associations were assessed using structural equation models, and different models were estimated to examine the importance of accounting for childhood ability and measurement error. Associations between adult SEP measures and midlife ability decreased significantly when adjusting for childhood ability and measurement error. The association between childhood and midlife ability was by far the strongest. The impact of adult SEP on later life ability may be exaggerated when not accounting for the stability of individual differences in cognitive ability and measurement error in test scores.

  20. Sidescan Sonar Image Matching Using Cross Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisen, Erik; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Stage, Bjarne

    2003-01-01

    When surveying an area for sea mines with a sidescan sonar, the ability to find the same object in two different sonar images is helpful to determine the nature of the object. The main problem with matching two sidescan sonar images is that a scene changes appearance when viewed from different vi...

  1. Tomographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Noreen Norfaraheen Lee Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Tomography is used to image anatomy of organs as in the case of CT and MRI or image body functions as in the case of SPECT and PET. The theory of reconstruction applies equally well to CT, SPECT and PET with a minor differences. The main difference between SPECT and PET is that SPECT images single photon emitters (radionuclides) which emit normal gamma rays (like Tc-99m), whereas PET images positron emitting radionuclides such as O 15 or F 18 . The word tomography means drawing of the body. Every tomography results in an image of the inside of the body and is represented as a slice. (author)

  2. Animal imaging using immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Rand, Kendra; Faris, Gregory W.

    2003-07-01

    We are using rodent animal models to study and compare contrast mechanisms for detection of breast cancer. These measurements are performed with the animals immersed in a matching scattering medium. The matching scattering medium or liquid tissue phantom comprises a mixture of Ropaque (hollow acrylic/styrene microspheres) and ink. We have previously applied matched imaging to imaging in humans. Surrounding the imaged region with a matched tissue phantom compensates for variations in tissue thickness and geometry, provides more uniform illumination, and allows better use of the dynamic range of the imaging system. If the match is good, the boundaries of the imaged region should almost vanish, enhancing the contrast from internal structure as compared to contrast from the boundaries and surface topography. For our measurements in animals, the immersion plays two additional roles. First, we can readily study tumors through tissue thickness similar to that of a human breast. Although the heterogeneity of the breast is lost, this is a practical method to study the detection of small tumors and monitor changes as they grow. Second, the immersion enhances our ability to quantify the contrast mechanisms for peripheral tumors on the animal because the boundary effects on photon migration are eliminated. We are currently developing two systems for these measurements. One is a continuous-wave (CW) system based on near-infrared LED illumination and a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera. The second system, a frequency domain system, can help quantify the changes observed with the CW system.

  3. Determinants of work ability and its predictive value for disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavinia, S M; de Boer, A G E M; van Duivenbooden, J C; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Burdorf, A

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining the ability of workers to cope with physical and psychosocial demands at work becomes increasingly important in prolonging working life. To analyse the effects of work-related factors and individual characteristics on work ability and to determine the predictive value of work ability on receiving a work-related disability pension. A longitudinal study was conducted among 850 construction workers aged 40 years and older, with average follow-up period of 23 months. Disability was defined as receiving a disability pension, granted to workers unable to continue working in their regular job. Work ability was assessed using the work ability index (WAI). Associations between work-related factors and individual characteristics with work ability at baseline were evaluated using linear regression analysis, and Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of work ability for disability. Work-related factors were associated with a lower work ability at baseline, but had little prognostic value for disability during follow-up. The hazard ratios for disability among workers with a moderate and poor work ability at baseline were 8 and 32, respectively. All separate scales in the WAI had predictive power for future disability with the highest influence of current work ability in relation to job demands and lowest influence of diseases diagnosed by a physician. A moderate or poor work ability was highly predictive for receiving a disability pension. Preventive measures should facilitate a good balance between work performance and health in order to prevent quitting labour participation.

  4. Association between Ability Emotional Intelligence and Left Insula during Social Judgment of Facial Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Maddalena, Chiara; Viscanti, Giovanna; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Mangiulli, Ivan; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Bertolino, Alessandro; Curci, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The human ability of identifying, processing and regulating emotions from social stimuli is generally referred as Emotional Intelligence (EI). Within EI, Ability EI identifies a performance measure assessing individual skills at perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Previous models suggest that a brain "somatic marker circuitry" (SMC) sustains emotional sub-processes included in EI. Three primary brain regions are included: the amygdala, the insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here, our aim was to investigate the relationship between Ability EI scores and SMC activity during social judgment of emotional faces. Sixty-three healthy subjects completed a test measuring Ability EI and underwent fMRI during a social decision task (i.e. approach or avoid) about emotional faces with different facial expressions. Imaging data revealed that EI scores are associated with left insula activity during social judgment of emotional faces as a function of facial expression. Specifically, higher EI scores are associated with greater left insula activity during social judgment of fearful faces but also with lower activity of this region during social judgment of angry faces. These findings indicate that the association between Ability EI and the SMC activity during social behavior is region- and emotion-specific.

  5. Association between Ability Emotional Intelligence and Left Insula during Social Judgment of Facial Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Quarto

    Full Text Available The human ability of identifying, processing and regulating emotions from social stimuli is generally referred as Emotional Intelligence (EI. Within EI, Ability EI identifies a performance measure assessing individual skills at perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Previous models suggest that a brain "somatic marker circuitry" (SMC sustains emotional sub-processes included in EI. Three primary brain regions are included: the amygdala, the insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC. Here, our aim was to investigate the relationship between Ability EI scores and SMC activity during social judgment of emotional faces. Sixty-three healthy subjects completed a test measuring Ability EI and underwent fMRI during a social decision task (i.e. approach or avoid about emotional faces with different facial expressions. Imaging data revealed that EI scores are associated with left insula activity during social judgment of emotional faces as a function of facial expression. Specifically, higher EI scores are associated with greater left insula activity during social judgment of fearful faces but also with lower activity of this region during social judgment of angry faces. These findings indicate that the association between Ability EI and the SMC activity during social behavior is region- and emotion-specific.

  6. Application of expert-notice dialogue (END) method to assess students’ science communication ability on biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyati, S.; Amelia, D. N.; Soniyana, G. T.

    2018-05-01

    Student’s science communication ability can be assessed by the Expert-Notice Dialogue (END) method which focusing on verbal explanations using graphs or images as a tool. This study aims to apply the END method to assess students’ science communication ability. The study was conducted in two high schools with each sample of one class at each school (A and B). The number of experts in class A is 8 students and 7 in class B, the number of notice in class A 24 students and 30 in class B. The material chosen for explanation by expert is Ecosystem in class A and plant classification in class B. Research instruments are rubric of science communication ability, observation rubric, notice concept test and notice questionnaire. The implementation recorded with a video camera and then transcribed based on rubric science communication ability. The results showed that the average of science communication ability in class A and B was 60% and 61.8%, respectively, in enough categories. Mastery of the notice concept is in good category with 79.10 averages in class A and 94.64 in class B. Through the questionnaire notice it is known that the END method generally helps notice in understanding the concept.

  7. Quantitative phase imaging of arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Katz, Aron; Soto-Adames, Felipe; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Classification of arthropods is performed by characterization of fine features such as setae and cuticles. An unstained whole arthropod specimen mounted on a slide can be preserved for many decades, but is difficult to study since current methods require sample manipulation or tedious image processing. Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) is a quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique that is an add-on module to a commercial phase contrast microscope. We use SLIM to image a whole organism springtail Ceratophysella denticulata mounted on a slide. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that an entire organism has been imaged using QPI. We also demonstrate the ability of SLIM to image fine structures in addition to providing quantitative data that cannot be obtained by traditional bright field microscopy.

  8. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Longitudinal Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. John

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has indicated that pragmatics is an area of particular weakness for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS, the relations among different pragmatic abilities and the relations between pragmatic ability and expressive vocabulary ability have yet to be addressed. In addition, analyses of the relations between the same type of pragmatic ability over time have not been reported. The present study was designed to address these questions. We considered the pragmatic language abilities of 14 children with WS at two time points: as 4-year-olds during a 30-minute play-session with their mothers (Time 1 and an average of 5.87 years later during a one-on-one conversation with a familiar researcher (Time 2. Children’s intellectual and expressive vocabulary abilities were assessed at both time points. Results indicated that the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was required in response to a question was significantly related to the ability to verbally contribute new information in the absence of a question both at age 4 years and during primary school. At age 4, both the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity and expressive vocabulary ability were related to the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was expected within a social interaction. Finally, the ability to verbally contribute new information to a social interaction beyond what was required to answer a question and the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity at age 4 years predicted the ability to verbally contribute new information beyond what was required to answer a question at age 9 – 12 years. The theoretical implications of our findings and the importance of early pragmatic language intervention for children who have WS are discussed.

  9. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. MR imaging of cerebral abnormalities in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thickman, D; Mintz, M; Mennuti, M; Kressel, H Y

    1984-12-01

    In view of the lack of ionizing radiation, ability to image in a variety of planes, and high contrast resolution, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may have a role in obstetrical management. Three fetuses with severe cerebral abnormalities were studied by MR in utero. The findings were correlated with ultrasound examinations and with autopsy results. Ventricular dilatation and progression of hydrocephalus were detected by MR. Although fetal motion may affect image quality, diagnostically useful images were obtained with imaging times of 2.5 min.

  11. Thermal imaging cameras characteristics and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ability to see through smoke and mist and the ability to use the variances in temperature to differentiate between targets and their backgrounds are invaluable in military applications and have become major motivators for the further development of thermal imagers. As the potential of thermal imaging is more clearly understood and the cost decreases, the number of industrial and civil applications being exploited is growing quickly. In order to evaluate the suitability of particular thermal imaging cameras for particular applications, it is important to have the means to specify and measur

  12. Holography for imaging in structural heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckheimer, Elchanan; Rotschild, Carmel

    2016-05-17

    Three-dimensional imaging modalities for structural heart disease interventions have become a common feature in the procedural workflow. The images acquired are usually presented on 2D displays, thereby restricting their usefulness and the ability to interact with them. Holographic images created in real time from the volumetric data which float in the air during the procedure, in front of the operator and above the patient, could provide an intuitive and interactive display for the interventionalist and improve procedure outcomes.

  13. Lexical and metaphonological abilities in preschoolers with phonological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ranilde Cristiane Cavalcante; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2010-01-01

    lexical and metaphonological abilities of phonologically disordered preschoolers. to investigate the influence of Phonological Disorder on the lexical and metaphonological abilities of a group of preschoolers and the correlation between them. participants were 56 preschoolers - 32 boys and 24 girls - with ages between 4 years and 6 months and 6 years and 11 months, divided into two different groups: the Research Group, composed of 28 preschoolers with Phonological Disorder, and the Control Group, composed of 28 preschoolers with normal speech and no oral speech-related complaints, paired to the research group by gender and age. All of the participants were initially assessed by the ABFW Test - Phonology. After that, they were assessed on their lexical and metaphonological abilities by the ABFW Test - Vocabulary and phonological awareness test: sequential assessment instrument, CONFIAS - identification tasks and, rhyme and alliteration production, respectively. regarding lexical ability, the preschoolers from both groups presented similar behavior. The disordered preschoolers presented the worst performance on the overall analysis of the metaphonological ability. Age had an influence on the performance of lexical ability for both groups and the metaphonological abilities only for the Control Group. Correlations were identified, mostly positive, good to moderate between lexical and metaphonological abilities. the influence of Phonological Disorder may only be observed on the metaphonological performance. Phonological Disorder did not interfere with the development of the lexical ability of this group of preschoolers. Positive correlations were identified between both abilities in the studied age group.

  14. Cyber-Imageability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ferracina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing an environment triggers a two-way exchange between the environment and its observer, a process that bridges materiality and immateriality by creating what Kevin Lynch calls an “environmental image”. Such an image consists in a “generalized mental picture of the exterior physical world that is held by an individual” and it is critical in contributing to the subject’s ability to engage his/her environment, from orientation and way-finding to social interaction and emotional mooring.

  15. Cyber-Imageability

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Ferracina

    2011-01-01

    Experiencing an environment triggers a two-way exchange between the environment and its observer, a process that bridges materiality and immateriality by creating what Kevin Lynch calls an “environmental image”. Such an image consists in a “generalized mental picture of the exterior physical world that is held by an individual” and it is critical in contributing to the subject’s ability to engage his/her environment, from orientation and way-finding to social interaction and emotional mooring...

  16. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  17. Cerenkov Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sudeep; Thorek, Daniel L.J.; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Cerenkov luminescence (CL) has been used recently in a plethora of medical applications like imaging and therapy with clinically relevant medical isotopes. The range of medical isotopes used is fairly large and expanding. The generation of in vivo light is useful since it circumvents depth limitations for excitation light. Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is much cheaper in terms of infrastructure than positron emission tomography (PET) and is particularly useful for imaging of superficial...

  18. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.; Chu, Hungkuo; Lee, Tongyee; Wolf, Lior; Yeshurun, Hezy; Cohen-Or, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart

  19. Investigation of Prognostic Ability of Novel Imaging Markers for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    at delivery; (g) amniotic fluid obtained at the time of rupture of the membrane prior to or during labor; (h) supra- and subgingival dental plaque and... calculus , provided the collection procedure is not more invasive than routine prophylactic scaling of the teeth and the process is accomplished in

  20. Image compression of bone images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayrapetian, A.; Kangarloo, H.; Chan, K.K.; Ho, B.; Huang, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) experiment conducted to compare the diagnostic performance of a compressed bone image with the original. The compression was done on custom hardware that implements an algorithm based on full-frame cosine transform. The compression ratio in this study is approximately 10:1, which was decided after a pilot experiment. The image set consisted of 45 hand images, including normal images and images containing osteomalacia and osteitis fibrosa. Each image was digitized with a laser film scanner to 2,048 x 2,048 x 8 bits. Six observers, all board-certified radiologists, participated in the experiment. For each ROC session, an independent ROC curve was constructed and the area under that curve calculated. The image set was randomized for each session, as was the order for viewing the original and reconstructed images. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data and derive statistically significant results. The preliminary results indicate that the diagnostic quality of the reconstructed image is comparable to that of the original image

  1. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  2. Healthy Adult Ageing: Multitasking Abilities and the Impact of Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Nevay, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...

  3. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  4. The impact of menopausal symptoms on work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukes, Marije; van Aalst, Mariëlle P; Nauta, Mary C E; Oosterhof, Henk

    2012-03-01

    Menopause is an important life event that may have a negative influence on quality of life. Work ability, a concept widely used in occupational health, can predict both future impairment and duration of sickness absence. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of menopausal symptoms on work ability. This was a cross-sectional study that used a sample of healthy working Dutch women aged 44 to 60 years. Work ability was measured using the Work Ability Index, and menopausal symptoms were measured using the Greene Climacteric Scale. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between menopausal symptoms and work ability. A total of 208 women were included in this study. There was a significant negative correlation between total Greene Climacteric Scale score and Work Ability Index score. Total Greene Climacteric Scale score predicted 33.8% of the total variance in the Work Ability Index score. Only the psychological and somatic subscales of the Greene Climacteric Scale were significant predictors in multiple linear regression analysis. Together, they accounted for 36.5% of total variance in Work Ability Index score. Menopausal symptoms are negatively associated with work ability and may increase the risk of sickness absence.

  5. Effect of clinical practice on self-learning development ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Yang, Han Joon; Kim, Nak Sang

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyze the degree of self-learning development ability after the clinical training curriculum, the results of 121 questionnaires were analyzed for 3rd and 4th grade students in radiology in the metropolitan area. The overall average of self-learning ability according to gender was 3.07±0.85, which was statistically significant according to gender. However, the results according to educational system showed that the overall average was 3.07±0.85, which was higher than the average level of self-learning development ability. There was no statistically significant difference according to educational system. The results of the self-learning development ability according to the motivation for selecting the department showed that the students who have chosen their department due to their higher employment rate after graduation had high self-development ability level(3.58±0.85) but the students who entered the school due to self-aptitude had relatively lower self-development ability level (2.30±0.40). The overall average of self-learning ability according to direction of career path was 3.08±0.76, which was over-average of self-learning development ability. Thus, there was statistically significant difference according to career path. It is necessary to improve the self-learning ability in clinical practice. In addition, the lack of statistical significance suggests problems and diversity

  6. Innovation ability and innovation spirit in photoelectric comprehensive experiment teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dexing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The traditional experimental teaching methods have some shortcomings in the training the student innovation ability. In order to improve the student practical ability in the photoelectric technology, in this paper new experimental teaching modes are tried and reformed for cultivating the innovative ability of students in the linear CCD experiment. The photoelectric experiment systems are independently designed and completed by students. Compared with the traditional experimental teaching methods, this new methods have a great role in the development of the ability of creative thinking.

  7. Fire Fighters' Ability and Willingness to Participate in a Pandemic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delaney, Jr, John

    2008-01-01

    .... Issues that may influence fire fighters ability and willingness to work include childcare, concern of family, adequate personal protective equipment, worker's compensation coverage, and availability...

  8. Effect of clinical practice on self-learning development ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Yang, Han Joon [Dept. of International Radiological Science, Hallym University of Graduate Studies, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nak Sang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Songho College, Hoengseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    In order to analyze the degree of self-learning development ability after the clinical training curriculum, the results of 121 questionnaires were analyzed for 3rd and 4th grade students in radiology in the metropolitan area. The overall average of self-learning ability according to gender was 3.07±0.85, which was statistically significant according to gender. However, the results according to educational system showed that the overall average was 3.07±0.85, which was higher than the average level of self-learning development ability. There was no statistically significant difference according to educational system. The results of the self-learning development ability according to the motivation for selecting the department showed that the students who have chosen their department due to their higher employment rate after graduation had high self-development ability level(3.58±0.85) but the students who entered the school due to self-aptitude had relatively lower self-development ability level (2.30±0.40). The overall average of self-learning ability according to direction of career path was 3.08±0.76, which was over-average of self-learning development ability. Thus, there was statistically significant difference according to career path. It is necessary to improve the self-learning ability in clinical practice. In addition, the lack of statistical significance suggests problems and diversity.

  9. Morphometry of Left Frontal and Temporal Poles Predicts Analogical Reasoning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichelburg, Clarisse; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Humbert, Frederic; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical for making inferences and adapting to novelty. It can be studied experimentally using tasks that require creating similarities between situations or concepts, i.e., when their constituent elements share a similar organization or structure. Brain correlates of analogical reasoning have mostly been explored using functional imaging that has highlighted the involvement of the left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (rlPFC) in healthy subjects. However, whether inter-individual variability in analogical reasoning ability in a healthy adult population is related to differences in brain architecture is unknown. We investigated this question by employing linear regression models of performance in analogy tasks and voxel-based morphometry in 54 healthy subjects. Our results revealed that the ability to reason by analogy was associated with structural variability in the left rlPFC and the anterior part of the inferolateral temporal cortex. Tractography of diffusion-weighted images suggested that these 2 regions have a different set of connections but may exchange information via the arcuate fasciculus. These results suggest that enhanced integrative and semantic abilities supported by structural variation in these areas (or their connectivity) may lead to more efficient analogical reasoning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Single molecule image formation, reconstruction and processing: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Amit; Piestun, Rafael; Stallinga, Sjoerd

    2016-07-01

    The ability to image at the single molecule scale has revolutionized research in molecular biology. This feature issue presents a collection of articles that provides new insights into the fundamental limits of single molecule imaging and reports novel techniques for image formation and analysis.

  11. Review methods for image segmentation from computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamat, Nurwahidah; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Soh, Shaharuddin Cik; Mahmud, Rozi

    2014-01-01

    Image segmentation is a challenging process in order to get the accuracy of segmentation, automation and robustness especially in medical images. There exist many segmentation methods that can be implemented to medical images but not all methods are suitable. For the medical purposes, the aims of image segmentation are to study the anatomical structure, identify the region of interest, measure tissue volume to measure growth of tumor and help in treatment planning prior to radiation therapy. In this paper, we present a review method for segmentation purposes using Computed Tomography (CT) images. CT images has their own characteristics that affect the ability to visualize anatomic structures and pathologic features such as blurring of the image and visual noise. The details about the methods, the goodness and the problem incurred in the methods will be defined and explained. It is necessary to know the suitable segmentation method in order to get accurate segmentation. This paper can be a guide to researcher to choose the suitable segmentation method especially in segmenting the images from CT scan

  12. Recent lung imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, G.V.; Chopra, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide lung imaging procedures have been available for 11 years but only the perfusion examination has been used extensively and mainly for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (P.E.). Its ability to reveal localized ischemia makes it a valuable test of regional lung function as well as a useful diagnostic aid in P.E. Although it had been recognized for several years that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can cause lung perfusion defects which may simulate pulmonary embolism, relatively little use has been made of either the radioxenon or the radioaerosol inhalation lung imaging procedures until the last few years as a means of distinguishing P.E. from COPD. In this review emphasis is placed on our recent experience with both of these inhalation procedures in comparison with pulmonary function tests and roentgenography for the early detection of COPD in population studies. Equal emphasis is given to simultaneous aerosol ventilation-perfusion (V/P) imaging for a functional diagnosis of P.E. Two new developments in regional lung diffusion imaging, performed after the inhalation of radioactive gases and/or rapidly absorbed radioaerosols are described. The experimental basis for their potential clinical application in pulmonary embolism detection is presented

  13. The importance of spatial ability and mental models in learning anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Allison K.

    , problem solving strategies, and study methods. Students with different levels of spatial ability visualize and think about anatomy in qualitatively different ways, which is reflected by the features of their mental models. Low spatial ability students thought about and used two-dimensional images from the textbook. They possessed basic two-dimensional models of anatomical structures; they placed emphasis on diagrams and drawings in their studies; and they re-read anatomical problems many times before answering. High spatial ability students thought fully in three-dimensional and imagined rotation and movement of the structures; they made use of many types of images and text as they studied and solved problems. They possessed elaborate three-dimensional models of anatomical structures which they were able to manipulate to solve problems; and they integrated diagrams, drawings, and written text in their studies. Middle spatial ability students were a mix between both low and high spatial ability students. They imagined two-dimensional images popping out of the flat paper to become more three-dimensional, but still relied on drawings and diagrams. Additionally, high spatial ability students used a higher proportion of anatomical terminology than low spatial ability or middle spatial ability students. This provides additional support to the premise that high spatial students' mental models are a complex mixture of imagistic representations and propositional representations that incorporate correct anatomical terminology. Low spatial ability students focused on the function of structures and ways to group information primarily for the purpose of recall. This supports the theory that low spatial students' mental models will be characterized by more on imagistic representations that are general in nature. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Ultrasound imaging with a micromotor; Micromotor ni yoru choonpa imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, O.; Salimuzzaman, M.; Matani, A.; Chihara, K. [Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara (Japan); Asao, M. [Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a new ultrasound intravascular imaging system. In this system, an ultrasound probe consists of a micromotor, an ultrasound reflecting mirror attached with the micromotor and an ultrasound transducer. Ultrasound is scanned radially by a micromotor instead of a rotation transmitting wire and the rotation of the micromotor is performed and controlled by an external magnetic field. This ultrasound imaging system with a micromotor was applied to observe the inside of blood vessels through in vitro experiments. The preliminary results suggest that this system has the sufficient ability to define the blood vessel morphology and that the simple image processing enhances signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed image. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Relationship between candidate communication ability and oral certification examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunz, Mary E; Bashook, Philip G

    2008-12-01

    Structured case-based oral examinations are widely used in medical certifying examinations in the USA. These orals assess the candidate's decision-making skills using real or realistic patient cases. Frequently mentioned but not empirically evaluated is the potential bias introduced by the candidate's communication ability. This study aimed to assess the relationship between candidate communication ability and medical certification oral examination scores. Non-doctor communication observers rated a random sample of 90 candidates on communication ability during a medical oral certification examination. The multi-facet Rasch model was used to analyse the communication survey and the oral examination data. The multi-facet model accounts for observer and examiner severity bias. anova was used to measure differences in communication ability between passing and failing candidates and candidates grouped by level of communication ability. Pearson's correlations were used to compare candidate communication ability and oral certification examination performance. Candidate separation reliability values for the communication survey and the oral examination were 0.85 and 0.97, respectively, suggesting accurate candidate measurement. The correlation between communication scores and oral examination scores was 0.10. No significant difference was found between passing and failing candidates for measured communication ability. When candidates were grouped by high, moderate and low communication ability, there was no significant difference in their oral certification examination performance. Candidates' communication ability has little relationship to candidate performance on high-stakes, case-based oral examinations. Examiners for this certifying examination focused on assessing candidate decision-making ability and were not influenced by candidate communication ability.

  16. NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    Since hydrogen is the most abundant element in all living organisms, proton NMR lends itself well as a method of investigation in biology and medicine. NMR imaging has some special advantages as a diagnostic tool: no ionizing radiation is used, it is noninvasive; it provides a safer means of imaging than the use of x-rays, gamma rays, positrons, or heavy ions. In contrast with ultrasound, the radiation penetrates the bony structures without attenuation. In additional to morphological information, NMR imaging provides additional diagnostic insights through relaxation parameters, which are not available from other imaging methods. In the decade since the first primitive NMR images were obtained, the quality of images now obtained approaches those from CT x-ray scanners. Prototype instruments are being constructed for clinical evaluation and the first whole-body scanners are beginning to appear on the market at costs comparable to CT scanners. Primary differences in equipment for conventional NMR and NMR imaging are the much larger aperture magnets that are required for the examination of human subjects and the addition of coils to generate field gradients and facilities for manipulating the gradients. Early results from clinical trials in many parts of the world are encouraging, and in a few years, the usefuleness of this modality of medical imaging to the medical profession in diagnosis and treatment of disease will be defined. 10 figures

  17. Nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Reid, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear imaging, utilizing relatively low photon energy emitting isotopes, allows an assessment of anatomic configuration and organ function. This method of imaging is predicted on the utilization of physiologically active radioisotope-labeled compounds or biologically active radioisotopes. Localization of such isotopes in normal or abnormal concentrations may be due to varying physiological or pathological mechanisms

  18. Cerenkov imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeep; Thorek, Daniel L J; Grimm, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Cerenkov luminescence (CL) has been used recently in a plethora of medical applications like imaging and therapy with clinically relevant medical isotopes. The range of medical isotopes used is fairly large and expanding. The generation of in vivo light is useful since it circumvents depth limitations for excitation light. Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is much cheaper in terms of infrastructure than positron emission tomography (PET) and is particularly useful for imaging of superficial structures. Imaging can basically be done using a sensitive camera optimized for low-light conditions, and it has a better resolution than any other nuclear imaging modality. CLI has been shown to effectively diagnose disease with regularly used PET isotope ((18)F-FDG) in clinical setting. Cerenkov luminescence tomography, Cerenkov luminescence endoscopy, and intraoperative Cerenkov imaging have also been explored with positive conclusions expanding the current range of applications. Cerenkov has also been used to improve PET imaging resolution since the source of both is the radioisotope being used. Smart imaging agents have been designed based on modulation of the Cerenkov signal using small molecules and nanoparticles giving better insight of the tumor biology. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques of brain imaging and results in perfusion studies and delayed images are outlined. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the brain scan in a variety of common problems is discussed, especially as compared with other available procedures. Both nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions are considered. (Auth/C.F.)

  20. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  1. Retinal Imaging and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abràmoff, Michael D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindness in the industrialized world that includes age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, the review is devoted to retinal imaging and image analysis methods and their clinical implications. Methods for 2-D fundus imaging and techniques for 3-D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging are reviewed. Special attention is given to quantitative techniques for analysis of fundus photographs with a focus on clinically relevant assessment of retinal vasculature, identification of retinal lesions, assessment of optic nerve head (ONH) shape, building retinal atlases, and to automated methods for population screening for retinal diseases. A separate section is devoted to 3-D analysis of OCT images, describing methods for segmentation and analysis of retinal layers, retinal vasculature, and 2-D/3-D detection of symptomatic exudate-associated derangements, as well as to OCT-based analysis of ONH morphology and shape. Throughout the paper, aspects of image acquisition, image analysis, and clinical relevance are treated together considering their mutually interlinked relationships. PMID:22275207

  2. An ROC study detecting ability of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis using digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Chul; Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Jong Hyo

    1991-01-01

    One potential advantage of the digital radiography system is its ability to enhance image quality by various types of processing. Digital unsharp masking is one of the simplest and most useful forms of enhancing processes. The efficacy of unsharp masking in radiological diagnosis has not been investigated thoroughly. To evaluate the effects of unsharp masking in film-digital chest images, 3 observers were shown 150 test radiographs. These test radiographs consisted of 50 unprocessed images (25 normals and 25 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with honey combing) and their 100 processed images by using 450 and 15-sized masks respectively. An ROC analysis of these data suggests that unsharp masking is more effective in detecting idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis than unprocessed image (ρ < 0.05), and so it may improve diagnostic accuracy for interstitial fibrosis. In addition, the smaller mask size (15) is more effective than the larger one (mask size 45) (ρ < 0.05). By using this analytic approach, an optimal parameter in digital chest radiography may be investigated in many other forms of pulmonary disease such as pulmonary nodule or mediastinal mass

  3. An ROC study detecting ability of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Chul; Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Jong Hyo [College of Medicine, Ewha Womens University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    One potential advantage of the digital radiography system is its ability to enhance image quality by various types of processing. Digital unsharp masking is one of the simplest and most useful forms of enhancing processes. The efficacy of unsharp masking in radiological diagnosis has not been investigated thoroughly. To evaluate the effects of unsharp masking in film-digital chest images, 3 observers were shown 150 test radiographs. These test radiographs consisted of 50 unprocessed images (25 normals and 25 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with honey combing) and their 100 processed images by using 450 and 15-sized masks respectively. An ROC analysis of these data suggests that unsharp masking is more effective in detecting idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis than unprocessed image ({rho} < 0.05), and so it may improve diagnostic accuracy for interstitial fibrosis. In addition, the smaller mask size (15) is more effective than the larger one (mask size 45) ({rho} < 0.05). By using this analytic approach, an optimal parameter in digital chest radiography may be investigated in many other forms of pulmonary disease such as pulmonary nodule or mediastinal mass.

  4. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are ...

  5. Correlation between direction and severity of temporomandibular joint disc displacement and reduction ability during mouth opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litko, M; Berger, M; Szkutnik, J; Różyło-Kalinowska, I

    2017-12-01

    The most common temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement is an abnormal relationship of the disc with respect to the mandibular condyle, articular eminence and glenoid fossa-disc displacement. The aim of our study was to analyse the correlation between partial/complete disc displacement in the intercuspal position (IP) and its reduction in the open-mouth position (OMP) in both oblique sagittal and coronal planes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Multisection MRI analysis of 382 TMJs was conducted in 191 patients with disc displacement according to the RDC/TMD criteria (148 women, 43 men; aged 14-60 years). The disc position was evaluated on all oblique sagittal and coronal images in the IP and the OMP. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the severity of disc displacement in the sagittal plane is a statistically significant predictor of reduction ability during mouth opening (B = 3.118; P displacement in both planes is also a significant predictor of disc reduction in OMP (B = 2.200; P displacement in IP, in both sagittal and coronal planes. Multisection analysis of all MR images allows distinguishing the correct disc position from disc displacement and can improve the ability to distinguish between various stages of TMJ internal derangement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, David W

    1996-01-01

    Since the introduction of the X-ray scanner into radiology almost 25 years ago, non-invasive imaging has become firmly established as an essential tool in the diagnosis of disease. Fully three-dimensional imaging of internal organs is now possible, b and for studies which explore the functional status of the body. Powerful techniques to correlate anatomy and function are available, and scanners which combine anatomical and functional imaging in a single device are under development. Such techniques have been made possible through r ecent technological and mathematical advances. This series of lectures will review both the physical basis of medical imaging techniques using X-rays, gamma and positron emitting radiosiotopes, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and the mathematical methods used to reconstruct three-dimentional distributions from projection data. The lectures will trace the development of medical imaging from simple radiographs to the present-day non-invasive measurement of in vivo biochemistry. They ...

  7. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Iwaki

    2009-01-01

    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  8. PACS for imaging centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, T J

    2003-01-01

    PACS can be a difficult and confusing decision for any radiology provider, but it can be an even more dynamic question for an outpatient imaging center. Every center represents a unique situation and requires a specialized solution. Typically, most of what is said and discussed about PACS concentrates on solutions and requirements for hospital radiology facilities. Administrators of imaging centers have different problems from hospital administrators, and they need different answers. For imaging centers, the financial justification for PACS may be less immediate than for hospitals. The first thing that must be understood is that no PAC system can make a typical imaging center completely filmless, at least not for quite a while. A hospital has the ability to dictate to its internal referring physicians how a radiological study is delivered, whereas in an imaging center environment, the roles are very much reversed. Once the justification are made for the financial viability of PACS in an imaging center, the next question is how to finance the acquisition of PACS. The decision will depend on how you cost justify your PACS, as well as the shape of your business model, and it will come to a decision between capital purchase or contracting with an application service provider, or ASP. Historically, in the hospital-dominated marketplace, PAC systems have been treated as capital acquisitions. However, for most imaging center, owning the system is more of a problem than a benefit. ASPs increasingly represent a successful alternative for imaging centers. One of the biggest things to consider with PACS is how to store all of those images. There are typically two options, on-site and off-site, with a new "hybrid" option surfacing more recently. Each option has benefits for the user, but the benefits of off-site storage are increasing as the technology advances. Some of the benefits are data security and access. Other issues to address are HIPAA compliance, standardized

  9. Quantitative information in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconinck, F.

    1985-01-01

    When developing new imaging or image processing techniques, one constantly has in mind that the new technique should provide a better, or more optimal answer to medical tasks than existing techniques do 'Better' or 'more optimal' imply some kind of standard by which one can measure imaging or image processing performance. The choice of a particular imaging modality to answer a diagnostic task, such as the detection of coronary artery stenosis is also based on an implicit optimalisation of performance criteria. Performance is measured by the ability to provide information about an object (patient) to the person (referring doctor) who ordered a particular task. In medical imaging the task is generally to find quantitative information on bodily function (biochemistry, physiology) and structure (histology, anatomy). In medical imaging, a wide range of techniques is available. Each technique has it's own characteristics. The techniques discussed in this paper are: nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray fluorescence, scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, applied potential tomography, computerized tomography, and compton tomography. This paper provides a framework for the comparison of imaging performance, based on the way the quantitative information flow is altered by the characteristics of the modality

  10. Nanomaterials for In Vivo Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan Ronain; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2017-02-08

    In vivo imaging, which enables us to peer deeply within living subjects, is producing tremendous opportunities both for clinical diagnostics and as a research tool. Contrast material is often required to clearly visualize the functional architecture of physiological structures. Recent advances in nanomaterials are becoming pivotal to generate the high-resolution, high-contrast images needed for accurate, precision diagnostics. Nanomaterials are playing major roles in imaging by delivering large imaging payloads, yielding improved sensitivity, multiplexing capacity, and modularity of design. Indeed, for several imaging modalities, nanomaterials are now not simply ancillary contrast entities, but are instead the original and sole source of image signal that make possible the modality's existence. We address the physicochemical makeup/design of nanomaterials through the lens of the physical properties that produce contrast signal for the cognate imaging modality-we stratify nanomaterials on the basis of their (i) magnetic, (ii) optical, (iii) acoustic, and/or (iv) nuclear properties. We evaluate them for their ability to provide relevant information under preclinical and clinical circumstances, their in vivo safety profiles (which are being incorporated into their chemical design), their modularity in being fused to create multimodal nanomaterials (spanning multiple different physical imaging modalities and therapeutic/theranostic capabilities), their key properties, and critically their likelihood to be clinically translated.

  11. Looking Like a Leader–Facial Shape Predicts Perceived Height and Leadership Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E.; Hunter, David W.; Coetzee, Vinet; Tiddeman, Bernard P.; Xiao, Dengke; DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Perrett, David I.

    2013-01-01

    Judgments of leadership ability from face images predict the outcomes of actual political elections and are correlated with leadership success in the corporate world. The specific facial cues that people use to judge leadership remain unclear, however. Physical height is also associated with political and organizational success, raising the possibility that facial cues of height contribute to leadership perceptions. Consequently, we assessed whether cues to height exist in the face and, if so, whether they are associated with perception of leadership ability. We found that facial cues to perceived height had a strong relationship with perceived leadership ability. Furthermore, when allowed to manually manipulate faces, participants increased facial cues associated with perceived height in order to maximize leadership perception. A morphometric analysis of face shape revealed that structural facial masculinity was not responsible for the relationship between perceived height and perceived leadership ability. Given the prominence of facial appearance in making social judgments, facial cues to perceived height may have a significant influence on leadership selection. PMID:24324651

  12. Increase the glyde path diameter improves the centering ability of F6 Skytaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Giuseppe; Dioguardi, Mario; Cocco, Armando; Zhurakivska, Khrystyna; Ciavarella, Domenico; Muzio, Lorenzo Lo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of glide path preparation, performed with PathGlider 0.15 (Komet Brasseler GmbH & Co., Lemgo, Germany) and PathGlider 0.20 (Komet Brasseler GmbH & Co., Lemgo, Germany), on the centering ability of 25-size F6 Skytaper in J-shape simulated root canals, compared with no glide path executed. Sixty J-shaped ISO 15 0.02 taper endo training blocks (Dentsply Maillefer) were assigned to three groups ( n = 20 for each group). Photographic images were taken on endoblocks before and after shaping procedures. After superimposition, the software AutoCAD 2013 (Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, USA) was used for record the centering and shaping ability at 9 different levels from the apex. Shaping procedures including the using of PathGlider 0.20 resulted in a lower amount of resin removed and in a clear improvement of centering ability of the Skytaper 0.25 at almost all reference point levels. Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that the glide path procedure, performed with the PathGlider 0.20 before the shaping with 25-size F6 Skytaper, might determine a lower amount of resin removed and a better centering ability compared with the groups without glide path procedure and those treated with PathGlider 0.15.

  13. What the Nose Knows: Olfaction and Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Roberts, Richard D.; Pallier, Gerry; Stankov, Lazar

    2001-01-01

    Studied the role of olfactory processes within the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence by testing 107 Australian college students with a battery of psychometric and olfactory tests. Results indicate the likely existence of an olfactory memory ability that is structurally independent of established higher-order abilities and not related…

  14. Pattern of mathematic representation ability in magnetic electricity problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, R. R. H.; Marwoto, P.; Putra, N. M. D.

    2018-03-01

    The mathematic representation ability in solving magnetic electricity problem gives information about the way students understand magnetic electricity. Students have varied mathematic representation pattern ability in solving magnetic electricity problem. This study aims to determine the pattern of students' mathematic representation ability in solving magnet electrical problems.The research method used is qualitative. The subject of this study is the fourth semester students of UNNES Physics Education Study Program. The data collection is done by giving a description test that refers to the test of mathematical representation ability and interview about field line topic and Gauss law. The result of data analysis of student's mathematical representation ability in solving magnet electric problem is categorized into high, medium and low category. The ability of mathematical representations in the high category tends to use a pattern of making known and asked symbols, writing equations, using quantities of physics, substituting quantities into equations, performing calculations and final answers. The ability of mathematical representation in the medium category tends to use several patterns of writing the known symbols, writing equations, using quantities of physics, substituting quantities into equations, performing calculations and final answers. The ability of mathematical representations in the low category tends to use several patterns of making known symbols, writing equations, substituting quantities into equations, performing calculations and final answer.

  15. A Study on Improving Information Processing Abilities Based on PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Du Gyu; Lee, JaeMu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined an instruction method for the improvement of information processing abilities in elementary school students. Current elementary students are required to develop information processing abilities to create new knowledge for this digital age. There is, however, a shortage of instruction strategies for these information processing…

  16. Does Doxastic Responsibility Entail the Ability to Believe Otherwise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.

    2013-01-01

    Whether responsibility for actions and omissions requires the ability to do otherwise is an important issue in contemporary philosophy. However, a closely related but distinct issue, namely whether doxastic responsibility requires the ability to believe otherwise, has been largely neglected. This

  17. nutritional status, functional ability and food habits of institutionalised

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... Objective: To determine nutritional status, food habits and functional abilities of the institutionalised ... with special family work such as caring for young children, food ... The ability to get around in one' s environment is a basic ...

  18. Communication Related Abilities and Upward Mobility: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypher, Beverly Davenport; Zorn, Theodore E., Jr.

    To provide a clearer understanding of the relationship between various communication and communication related abilities and individuals' work performance, a four-year investigation was conducted to examine the relationships among four measures of social cognitive and communication abilities, and the relationships of these measures to job level…

  19. Drop Jumping as a Training Method for Jumping Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical jumping ability is of importance for good performance in sports such as basketball and volleyball. Coaches are in need of exercises that consume only little time and still help to improve their players’ jumping ability, without involving a high risk of injury. Drop jumping is assumed to

  20. Associations between insomnia, sleep duration and poor work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Yan; Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Li, Fuye; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint effect of insomnia and objective sleep duration on poor work ability. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2820 Chinese manufacturing workers were categorized as insomnia patients and individuals with normal sleeping pattern by interview according to DSM-IV criteria. Sleep duration was classified into four categories: ≥7h, 6-7h, 5-6h, and Work ability was assessed using the Chinese Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Regression analysis examined the independent and joint association of sleep duration and insomnia with poor work ability, after adjusting for various confounding factors. Insomnia and objective short sleep duration were both independently associated with poor work ability. Compared with the normal sleeping and ≥7h sleep duration group, the highest risk of poor work ability was in the insomnia patients with work ability. Objective sleep duration should be taken into consideration when assessing the work ability of people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  2. Language and Academic Abilities in Children with Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Evans, Mary Ann; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined receptive language and academic abilities in children with selective mutism (SM; n = 30; M age = 8.8 years), anxiety disorders (n = 46; M age = 9.3 years), and community controls (n = 27; M age = 7.8 years). Receptive language and academic abilities were assessed using standardized tests completed in the laboratory. We found a…

  3. Text Recall in Adulthood: The Role of Intellectual Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines age-related predictive relationships among an array of psychometric intellectual ability markers and text recall performance. Women from three age groups (ranging from 21 to 78 years) read and recalled four narratives at three delay intervals and completed a battery of intellectual ability tests. (Author/CB)

  4. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA 101...

  5. Deleterious Effects of Chronic Under-Nutrition on Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashem, Beatrice; Janes, Margaret D.

    1978-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of malnutrition on children's cognitive abilities, the McCarthy Scale of Abilities was administered to 118 Nigerian children between the ages of 2 1/2 and 6 years who came from "well-to-do" urban and "poor" urban and rural environments. Scores of malnourished children were lower than those of…

  6. University Students' Problem Posing Abilities and Attitudes towards Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmeier, Todd A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the problem posing abilities and attitudes towards mathematics of students in a university pre-calculus class and a university mathematical proof class. Reports a significant difference in numeric posing versus non-numeric posing ability in both classes. (Author/MM)

  7. Measurement of Spatial Ability in an Introductory Graphic Communications Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Walter F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Published articles on spatial ability can be found in the fields of psychology and graphics education. In the "Engineering Design Graphics Journal" for 1936-1978, six articles concerning visualization (spatial ability) were listed. As published graphics research increased, the journal (1975-1996) listed 28 articles in the visualization…

  8. Indicators that influence prospective mathematics teachers representational and reasoning abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darta; Saputra, J.

    2018-01-01

    Representational and mathematical reasoning ability are very important ability as basic in mathematics learning process. The 2013 curriculum suggests that the use of a scientific approach emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Therefore, a scientific approach is required in mathematics learning to improve ability of representation and mathematical reasoning. The objectives of this research are: (1) to analyze representational and reasoning abilities, (2) to analyze indicators affecting the ability of representation and mathematical reasoning, (3) to analyze scientific approaches that can improve the ability of representation and mathematical reasoning. The subject of this research is the students of mathematics prospective teachers in the first semester at Private Higher Education of Bandung City. The research method of this research was descriptive analysis. The research data were collected using reasoning and representation tests on sixty-one students. Data processing was done by descriptive analysis specified based on the indicators of representation ability and mathematical reasoning that influenced it. The results of this first-year study showed that students still had many weaknesses in reasoning and mathematical representation that were influenced by the ability to understand the indicators of both capabilities. After observing the results of the first-year research, then in the second and third year, the development of teaching materials with a scientific approach in accordance with the needs of prospective students was planned.

  9. Prosodic Awareness and Punctuation Ability in Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Lindsay; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2018-01-01

    We examined the relationship between two metalinguistic tasks: prosodic awareness and punctuation ability. Specifically, we investigated whether adults' ability to punctuate was related to the degree to which they are aware of and able to manipulate prosody in spoken language. English-speaking adult readers (n = 115) were administered a receptive…

  10. Ability performance of older workers - Internal and external influencing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittmann-Kohli, F.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Internal and external factors affecting ability and performance of older employees are being analyzed in a short literature review. Internal factors like physical capacity, sensory capacity, cognitive abilities and general health are reduced with ageing; their effect on performance, however, depends

  11. Are Spatial Visualization Abilities Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chwen Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…

  12. Gray and White Matter Correlates of Navigational Ability in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, J.B.T.; Fonteijn, H.M.; Ekert, J. van; Tyborowska, A.B.; Jansen, C.; Janzen, G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans differ widely in their navigational abilities. Studies have shown that self-reports on navigational abilities are good predictors of performance on navigation tasks in real and virtual environments. The caudate nucleus and medial temporal lobe regions have been suggested to subserve different

  13. Determinants of work ability and its predictive value for disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alavinia, S. M.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Burdorf, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Maintaining the ability of workers to cope with physical and psychosocial demands at work becomes increasingly important in prolonging working life. Aims To analyse the effects of work-related factors and individual characteristics on work ability and to determine the predictive value of

  14. Effect of weight on osmoregulation ability in Rutilus frisii kutum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to study the downstream migratory behavior and effects of weight on osmoregulation ability of hatchery-reared Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings during adaptation to the seawater. Accordingly, blood osmotic pressure regulation ability in kutum fingerlings with weights of 1, 3, 5 and 7 g in three ...

  15. The osmoregulatory ability of three grapsoid crab species in relation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The osmoregulatory abilities of the grapsoid crabs Cyclograpsus punctata, Sesarma catenata and Sesarma eulimene were studied comparatively in an attempt to explain, at least in part, their distribution in estuaries. Both survival and haemorymph osmotic pressure were used as indices of hyperosmotic regulatory ability.

  16. Combining Ability for Yield and its Components in Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of variance revealed that mean squares due to genotypes, parents and crosses were highly significant (P<0.01) for all the traits except for 100 kernel weight that were significant for crosses. Mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant for all ...

  17. Profile of student critical thinking ability on static fluid concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulasih; Suparmi, A.; Sarwanto

    2017-11-01

    Critical thinking ability is an important part of educational goals. It has higher complex processes, such as analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating, drawing conclusion and reflection. This study is aimed to know the critical thinking ability of students in learning static fluids of senior high school students. This research uses the descriptive method which its instruments based on the indicator of critical thinking ability developed according to Ennis. The population of this research is XIth grade science class Public Senior High School, SMA N 1, Sambungmacan, Sragen, Central Java. The static fluid teaching material is delivered using Problem Based Learning Model through class experiment. The results of this study shows that the average student of XIth science class have high critical thinking skills, particularly in the ability of providing simple explanation, build basic skill, and provide advanced explanation, but they do not have high enough in ability of drawing conclusion and strategic and tactical components of critical thinking ability in the study of static fluid teaching material. The average of students critical thinking ability is 72.94, with 27,94% of students are in a low category and 72,22% of students in the high category of critical thinking ability.

  18. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  19. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  20. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated

  1. Dispersal ability determines the scaling properties of species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borda-De-Água, Luís; Whittaker, Robert James; Cardoso, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    with computer simulations, low dispersal ability species generate a hump for intermediate abundance classes earlier than the distributions of high dispersal ability species. Importantly, when plotted as function of sample size, the raw moments of the SADs of arthropods have a power law pattern similar...

  2. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  3. Processing computed tomography images by using personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Kazuhiko; Fujishiro, Kazuo; Seki, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo.

    1994-01-01

    Processing of CT images was attempted by using a popular personal computer. The program for image-processing was made with C compiler. The original images, acquired with CT scanner (TCT-60A, Toshiba), were transferred to the computer by 8-inch flexible diskette. Many fundamental image-processing, such as displaying image to the monitor, calculating CT value and drawing the profile curve. The result showed that a popular personal computer had ability to process CT images. It seemed that 8-inch flexible diskette was still useful medium of transferring image data. (author)

  4. Noninvasive imaging of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medarova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    With the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, it is highly advantageous to be able to determine their efficacy, to improve overall patient survival. Non-invasive imaging techniques are currently available for visualizing different pathological conditions of the human body, but their use for cancer monitoring is limited due to the lack of tumor-specific imaging probes. This review will attempt to summarize the current clinical diagnostic approaches for breast cancer detection, staging, and therapy assessment. In addition, I will present some novel concepts from the field of molecular imaging that form the basis of some of our research. We believe that this general imaging strategy has the potential of significantly advancing our ability to diagnose breast cancer at the earliest stages of the pathology, before any overt clinical symptoms have developed, as well as to better direct the development of molecularly-targeted individualized therapy protocols.

  5. Scintigraphic imaging of endocrine organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Thrall, J.H.; Freitas, J.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear medicine approach to the portrayal of endocrine organs is unique; the scintigraphic images provide not only anatomic and localization information, but in many instances allow a quantitative assessment of organ function. The ability to image endocrine glands is based upon the design of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals with characteristics to take advantage of many unique and specific biochemical and advantage of many unique and specific biochemical and metabolic functions of these tissues. The recent introduction of new radiopharmaceutical and tracers has provided the consulting endocrinologist with imaging procedures that allow localization and functional characterization not available by other single, noninvasive diagnostic modalities. This review will serve as an update of the available techniques to image and quantitate the function of the endocrine glands using the nuclear medicine approach

  6. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.

  7. Shared-environmental contributions to high cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-07-01

    Using a combined sample of adolescent twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings, we estimated and compared the differential shared-environmentality for high cognitive ability and the shared-environmental variance for the full range of ability during adolescence. Estimates obtained via multiple methods were in the neighborhood of 0.20, and suggest a modest effect of the shared environment on both high and full-range ability. We then examined the association of ability with three measures of the family environment in a subsample of adoptive siblings: parental occupational status, parental education, and disruptive life events. Only parental education showed significant (albeit modest) association with ability in both the biological and adoptive samples. We discuss these results in terms of the need for cognitive-development research to combine genetically sensitive designs and modern statistical methods with broad, thorough environmental measurement.

  8. Demographic and occupational determinants of the work ability of firemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozeh, Marjan; Saremi, Mahnaz; Kavousi, Amir; Maleki, Azam

    2017-01-24

    Firefighters tackle various stressors that affect their health and job performance; therefore, assessment of their work ability is necessary. This study aimed to investigate the demographic and occupational determinants of the work ability of firemen. In this cross-sectional study, 375 firemen working in Tehran Fire Department were randomly selected. Demographic, occupational, and work ability index (WAI) questionnaires were applied as research tools. The mean firemen's WAI score was relatively high. There were significant relationships between WAI and age, body mass index, work experience, and weekly leisure-time physical exercise hours. Single employees, those who did not have extra jobs and did not smoke, had greater scores compared to their counterparts. Poisson regression revealed that age and weekly leisure-time physical exercise hours could affect WAI significantly. Although Iranian firemen revealed good work ability, recognizing factors affecting this ability and preparing facilities to promote their function is necessary.

  9. Structure of Cognitive Abilities and Skills of Lifeguards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lifeguard service on beaches greatly contributes to reducing the number of accidents in and around the water. The lifeguard can be a person with good motor, but also cognitive skills and abilities. In addition to good swimming skills, lifeguard must be able to quickly detect and recognize the accident, and also to be able to timely and correctly act in case of accident in water, but also at the beach. The goal of this study is to determine the structure of cognitive abilities and skills with the sample of lifeguards that work on Montenegrin beaches. Battery KOG-3 was applied on the sample of 40 lifeguards. The collected and achieved results lead to following conclusion: the subjects have good ability to determine relation between elements of a structure and lower characteristics of that structure; subjects have good ability to assess the efficiency of serial processor; and subjects have good ability to assess efficiency of perceptive processor.

  10. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  11. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  12. Correlation between MRI findings, blood pressure and mental ability in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Okada, Kazunori; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1991-01-01

    We studied the association between mental ability as rated by Hasegawa's scale, the severity of hypertension, the severity of brain atrophy, and the severity of lesions in the cerebral white matter on magnetic resonance imaging in 34 patients with multiple cerebral infarcts but without obvious cortical lesions. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The patients having both marked brain atrophy and severe white matter lesions showed an impairment of mental ability. Brain atrophy was correlated with aging and the severity of white matter lesions. There was a significant positive correlation between the diastolic blood pressure and the severity of white matter lesions. These findings suggest that the white matter lesions in patients with multiple cerebral infarcts are correlated with brain atrophy and mental deterioration, and that uncontrolled hypertension is an important risk factor in exacerbating the lesions in the cerebral white matter. (author)

  13. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Angela E.; Dobson, Lauren A.; Thomas, Lauren E.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that pragmatics is an area of particular weakness for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). To further address this aspect of the WS social phenotype, we used an individual differences approach to consider both cross-sectional and longitudinal relations among different pragmatic abilities for 14 children with WS, taking into account individual differences in non-verbal reasoning abilities. We also considered the relations between pragmatic abilities and expressive vocabulary ability. Participants were tested at two time points: as 4-year-olds during a 30-min play session with their mothers (Time 1) and an average of 5.87 years later during a one-on-one conversation with a familiar researcher (Time 2). Children’s intellectual and expressive vocabulary abilities were assessed at both time points. Results indicated that the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was required in response to a question (ExtendQ) was significantly related to the ability to verbally contribute new information in the absence of a question (ExtendS) both at age 4 years and during primary school. At age 4, both the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact in triadic interactions (secondary intersubjectivity) and expressive vocabulary ability were related to both ExtendQ and ExtendS. Finally, both ExtendQ and the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity) at age 4 years predicted ExtendQ at age 9–12 years. The theoretical implications of our findings and the importance of early pragmatic language intervention for children who have WS are discussed. PMID:22719734

  14. Image perception and image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1987-01-01

    The author develops theoretical and practical models of image perception and image processing, based on phenomenology and structuralism and leading to original perception: fundamental for a positivistic approach of research work for the development of artificial intelligence that will be able in an automated system fo 'reading' X-ray pictures.

  15. Image perception and image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1987-01-01

    The author develops theoretical and practical models of image perception and image processing, based on phenomenology and structuralism and leading to original perception: fundamental for a positivistic approach of research work for the development of artificial intelligence that will be able in an automated system fo 'reading' X-ray pictures. (orig.) [de

  16. Retinal imaging and image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of

  17. Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.

    2006-09-01

    This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging

  18. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  19. Image retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    The paper touches upon indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Different conceptions of what subject indexing means are described as a basis for defining an operational subject indexing strategy for images. The methodology is based on the art historian Erwin Panofsky......), special knowledge about image codes, and special knowledge about history of ideas. The semiologist Roland Barthes has established a semiology for pictorial expressions based on advertising photos. Barthes uses the concepts denotation/connotation where denotations can be explained as the sober expression...

  20. Validation of the NOSCA - nurses' observation scale of cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoon, Anke; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Melis, Rene J F; van Achterberg, Theo; Kessels, Roy P C; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde

    2012-11-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities. Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities is a behavioural rating scale comprising eight subscales that represent different cognitive domains. It is based on observations during contact between nurse and patient. Observational study. A total of 50 patients from two geriatric wards in acute care hospitals participated in this study. Reliability was examined via internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. Construct validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities and its subscales were explored by means of convergent and divergent validity and post hoc analyses for group differences. Cronbach's αs of the total Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities and its subscales were 0·98 and 0·66-0·93, respectively. The item-total correlations were satisfactory (overall > 0·4). The intra-class coefficients were good (37 of 39 items > 0·4). The convergent validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities against cognitive ratings (MMSE, NOSGER) and severity of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating) demonstrated satisfactory correlations (0·59-0·70, p 0·05). The divergent validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities against depressive symptoms was low (0·12, p > 0·05). The construct validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales against 13 specific neuropsychological tests showed correlations varying from poor to fair (0·18-0·74; 10 of 13 correlations p Validity and reliability of the total Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities are excellent. The correlations between the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales and standard neuropsychological tests were moderate. More conclusive results may be found if the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales were to be validated using more ecologically valid tests and in a patient

  1. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension: single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac J L; Twisk, Jos W R; Heymans, Martijn W

    2014-07-01

    Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. This prospective cohort study comprised 11 537 male construction workers, who completed the WAI at baseline and reported DP after a mean 2.3 years of follow-up. WAS and WAI were calibrated for DP risk predictions with the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) test and their ability to discriminate between high- and low-risk construction workers was investigated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). At follow-up, 336 (3%) construction workers reported DP. Both WAS [odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.66-0.78] and WAI (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.52-0.63) scores were associated with DP at follow-up. The WAS showed miscalibration (H-L model χ (�)=10.60; df=3; P=0.01) and poorly discriminated between high- and low-risk construction workers (AUC 0.67, 95% CI 0.64-0.70). In contrast, calibration (H-L model χ �=8.20; df=8; P=0.41) and discrimination (AUC 0.78, 95% CI 0.75-0.80) were both adequate for the WAI. Although associated with the risk of future DP, the single-item WAS poorly identified male construction workers at risk of DP. We recommend using the multi-item WAI to screen for risk of DP in occupational health practice.

  2. The Relationship between a Linear Combination of Intelligence, Musical Background, Rhythm Ability and Tapping Ability to Typewriting Speed and Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Cheryl H.

    This study was conducted in an attempt to identify any predictor or combination of predictors of a beginning typewriting student's success. Variables of intelligence, rhythmic ability, musical background, and tapping ability were combined to study their relationship to typewriting speed and accuracy. A sample of 109 high school students was…

  3. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links With Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h2 = .00 –.63) and shared (c2 = .15–.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences. PMID:20157630

  4. The Interrelationship of Sex, Visual Spatial Abilities, and Mathematical Problem Solving Ability in Grade Seven. Parts 1, 2, and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Ann Koch

    This three-volume report deals with the hypothesis that males are more successful at solving mathematical and spatial problems than females. The general relationship between visual spatial abilities and mathematical problem-solving ability is also investigated. The research sample consisted of seventh graders. Each pupil took five spatial tests…

  5. Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Christopher; Barkley, Joel; Smith, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Intrauterine photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging are probe-based imaging modalities with translational potential for use in detecting endometrial diseases. This deep-tissue imaging probe design allows for the retrofitting of commercially available endometrial sampling curettes. The imaging probe presented here has a 2.92-mm diameter and approximate length of 26 cm, which allows for entry into the human endometrial cavity, making it possible to use photoacoustic imaging and high-resolution ultrasound to characterize the uterus. We demonstrate the imaging probes' ability to provide structural information of an excised pig uterus using ultrasound imaging and detect photoacoustic signals at a radial depth of 1 cm. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  6. Image processing technology for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Beom; Kim, Woong Ki; Park, Soon Young

    1993-05-01

    Digital image processing technique is being actively studied since microprocessors and semiconductor memory devices have been developed in 1960's. Now image processing board for personal computer as well as image processing system for workstation is developed and widely applied to medical science, military, remote inspection, and nuclear industry. Image processing technology which provides computer system with vision ability not only recognizes nonobvious information but processes large information and therefore this technique is applied to various fields like remote measurement, object recognition and decision in adverse environment, and analysis of X-ray penetration image in nuclear facilities. In this report, various applications of image processing to nuclear facilities are examined, and image processing techniques are also analysed with the view of proposing the ideas for future applications. (Author)

  7. Sound induced activity in voice sensitive cortex predicts voice memory ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eWatson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ‘temporal voice areas’ (TVAs (Belin et al., 2000 of the human brain show greater neuronal activity in response to human voices than to other categories of nonvocal sounds. However, a direct link between TVA activity and voice perceptionbehaviour has not yet been established. Here we show that a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI measure of activity in the TVAs predicts individual performance at a separately administered voice memory test. This relation holds whengeneral sound memory ability is taken into account. These findings provide the first evidence that the TVAs are specifically involved in voice cognition.

  8. Document image database indexing with pictorial dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammad; Azimi, Reza

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we introduce a new approach for information retrieval from Persian document image database without using Optical Character Recognition (OCR).At first an attribute called subword upper contour label is defined then, a pictorial dictionary is constructed based on this attribute for the subwords. By this approach we address two issues in document image retrieval: keyword spotting and retrieval according to the document similarities. The proposed methods have been evaluated on a Persian document image database. The results have proved the ability of this approach in document image information retrieval.

  9. Imaging and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    The use of imaging in evaluating patients with prostate cancer is highly dependent upon the purpose of the evaluation. Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, TC-99m Bone Scanning, and Positron Emission Tomography may all be utilized for imaging in prostate cancer. The utility of each of these modalities depends upon the intended purpose: for instance, screening, staging, or evaluating for progression of disease in patients with prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound is performed by placing a 5MHz to 7.5 MHz transducer in the rectum and imaging the prostate in the coronal and sagittal planes. Prostate cancer generally appears as an area of diminished echogenocity in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland. However, up to 24% of prostate cancers are isoechoic and cannot be well distinguished from the remainder of the peripheral zone. In addition, the incidence of malignancy in a lesion judged to be suspicious on ultrasound is between 20% and 25%. Therefore, while ultrasound is the least expensive of the three cross sectional imaging modalities, its relatively low specificity precludes it from being used as a screening examination. Investigators have also looked at the ability of ultrasound to evaluate the presence and extent of extracapsular spread of prostate cancer. The RDOG (Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group) multi-institutional cooperative trial reported a disappointing overall accuracy of ultrasound of 58% for staging prostate cancer. The accuracy was somewhat higher 63%, for patients with advanced disease. The other cross-sectional imaging modalities available for imaging the prostate include Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Computed Tomography is useful as an 'anatomic' imaging technique to detect lymph node enlargement. It is not sensitive in detecting microscopic nodal involvement with tumor, or tumor in non-enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The primary prostate neoplasm is generally the same attenuation as the normal

  10. Concept mapping learning strategy to enhance students' mathematical connection ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda

    2017-05-01

    The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.

  11. Evaluation of the combining ability of mutant maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Valkova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The study shows the results of a preliminary evaluation of the combining ability for grain yield of 17 mutant maize lines. For the purpose the top cross method for early testing and the mathematical model of Savchenko for analysis of the general and the specific combining ability were used. The lines were tested on three testers with high general combining ability that belong to two genetic groups: K 46 52 and XM 552 from SSS and N 192 – Lancaster. For the purposes of evaluation of the productive abilities of the received top cross two preliminary varietal experiments were carried out at the experimental field of Maize Research Institute, Knezha As a result of the conducted experimental work and the analysis it was found that the highest general combining ability have lines XM 11 6 and XM 12 1. These lines can be included as components of high-yielding synthetics or as testers in analyzing crosses to determine general combining ability in early stages of the selection process. The above lines with high specific combining ability – XM 11 13 and XM 11 46 are suitable for inclusion in combinations to develop high-yielding hybrids. Three of the tested lines XM 11 7 11 XM 10 and XM 11 11 have both high GCA and SCA. These lines can be used in corresponding breeding in the selection programs.

  12. Image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, M.; Bischof, L.M.; Breen, E.J.; Peden, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of modern image analysis techniques pertinent to materials science. The usual approach in image analysis contains two basic steps: first, the image is segmented into its constituent components (e.g. individual grains), and second, measurement and quantitative analysis are performed. Usually, the segmentation part of the process is the harder of the two. Consequently, much of the paper concentrates on this aspect, reviewing both fundamental segmentation tools (commonly found in commercial image analysis packages) and more advanced segmentation tools. There is also a review of the most widely used quantitative analysis methods for measuring the size, shape and spatial arrangements of objects. Many of the segmentation and analysis methods are demonstrated using complex real-world examples. Finally, there is a discussion of hardware and software issues. 42 refs., 17 figs

  13. Medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loshkajian, A.

    2000-01-01

    This didactical book presents the medical imaging techniques: radiography, scanner, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Examples are given for the most common pathologies in all domains of medicine. (J.S.)

  14. Work ability, effort-reward imbalance and disability pension claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, J; Spanier, K; Radoschewski, F M; Bethge, M

    2017-12-30

    Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and self-rated work ability are known independent correlates and predictors of intended disability pension claims. However, little research has focused on the interrelationship between the three and whether self-rated work ability mediates the relationship between ERI and intended disability pension claims. To investigate whether self-rated work ability mediates the association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Baseline data from participants of the Third German Sociomedical Panel of Employees, a 5-year cohort study that investigates determinants of work ability, rehabilitation utilization and disability pensions in employees who have previously received sickness benefits, were analysed. We tested direct associations between ERI with intended disability pension claims (Model 1) and self-rated work ability (Model 2). Additionally, we tested whether work ability mediates the association between ERI and intended disability pension claims (Model 3). There were 2585 participants. Model 1 indicated a significant association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Model 2 showed a significant association between ERI and self-rated work ability. The mediation in Model 3 revealed a significant indirect association between ERI and intended disability pension claims via self-rated work ability. There was no significant direct association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Our results support the adverse health-related impact of ERI on self-rated work ability and intended disability pension claims. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Work ability among Finnish workers with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, P; Moilanen, L; Hänninen, V; Heikkinen, J; Räsänen, K

    2016-08-01

    Work ability represents the balance between individual resources, health status and job demands. As far as we are aware, these issues have not been examined in working people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). To examine how work-related and diabetes-related factors are associated with work ability among male and female workers. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 2500 people with T1D from the Medication Reimbursement Register of The Social Insurance Institution of Finland. The associations of the predictors of poor work ability were examined in a logistic regression analysis. The final sample comprised 767 working people aged 18-64 with T1D; overall response rate 49%. One in every three working men and women with T1D had poor work ability. High job demands and low job control were associated with poor work ability in both genders. Physical work and low worktime control were significantly associated with poor work ability in men but not in women with T1D. A self-reported high value of glycosylated haemoglobin was the only diabetes-related variable associated with poor work ability in both men and women. Work-related factors and poor glycaemic control were associated with poor work ability in individuals with T1D. Thus, job control and worktime control should be taken into account in supporting the work ability of workers with T1D. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Infant motor and cognitive abilities and subsequent executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Liang, Xi; Lu, Shan; Wang, Zhengyan

    2017-11-01

    Although executive function (EF) is widely considered crucial to several aspects of life, the mechanisms underlying EF development remain largely unexplored, especially for infants. From a behavioral or neurodevelopmental perspective, motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with EF. EF development is a multistage process that starts with sensorimotor interactive behaviors, which become basic cognitive abilities and, in turn, mature EF. This study aims to examine how infant motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with their EF at 3 years of age. This work also aims to explore the potential processes of EF development from early movement. A longitudinal study was conducted with 96 infants (55 girls and 41 boys). The infants' motor and general cognitive abilities were assessed at 1 and 2 years of age with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Second and Third Editions, respectively. Infants' EFs were assessed at 3 years of age with Working Memory Span task, Day-Night task, Wrapped Gift task, and modified Gift-in-Bag task. Children with higher scores for cognitive ability at 2 years of age performed better in working memory, and children with higher scores for gross motor ability at 2 years performed better in cognitive inhibitory control (IC). Motor ability at 1 year and fine/gross motor ability at 2 years indirectly affected cognitive IC via general cognitive ability at 2 years and working memory. EF development is a multistage process that originates from physical movement to simple cognitive function, and then to complex cognitive function. Infants and toddlers can undergo targeted motor training to promote EF development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Extended local binary pattern features for improving settlement type classification of quickbird images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that image texture features extracted from high-resolution remotely sensed images over urban areas have demonstrated their ability to distinguish different classes, they are still far from being ideal. Multiresolution grayscale...

  18. Image Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jerram, Paul; Stefanov, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    An image sensor of the type for providing charge multiplication by impact ionisation has plurality of multiplication elements. Each element is arranged to receive charge from photosensitive elements of an image area and each element comprises a sequence of electrodes to move charge along a transport path. Each of the electrodes has an edge defining a boundary with a first electrode, a maximum width across the charge transport path and a leading edge that defines a boundary with a second elect...

  19. Brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, L.D.; Bennett, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Imaging with radionuclides should be used in a complementary fashion with other neuroradiologic techniques. It is useful in the early detection and evaluation of intracranial neoplasm, cerebrovascular accident and abscess, and in postsurgical follow-up. Cisternography yields useful information about the functional status of cerebrospinal fluid pathways. Computerized axial tomography is a new technique of great promise that produced a cross-sectional image of the brain

  20. Longitudinal associations between stressors and work ability in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen Martinez, Maria; da Silva Alexandre, Tiago; Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario; Marina Fischer, Frida

    This study sought to assess associations between work stressors and work ability in a cohort (2009-2012) of 498 hospital workers. Time-dependent variables associated with the Work Ability Index (WAI) were evaluated using general linear mixed models. Analyses included effects of individual and work characteristics. Except for work demands, the work stressors (job control, social support, effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment and work-related activities that cause pain/injury) were associated with WAI (p work and morning shift work were associated with decreased WAI (p Work stressors negatively affected work ability over time independently of other variables.

  1. Adsorption factor effect on dispersive ability of polymethylmethylmethacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorokhovskij, G.A.; Samsonov, G.V.; Gorshunov, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    A relationhsip between the rate of polymer macromolecules absorption on some refractory compounds and the dispersion ability of polymer-abrasive compositions was investigated at various contents of the polymethacrylate polymer in an abrasive composition. The solid phase used was powders of Al 2 O 3 , WC, W 2 B 5 , TiB 2 . It was established that the dispersion ability of the polymer-abrasive compositions was a function not only of the cutting properties of the abrasives and the dispersion ability of the polymers, but also of the adsorption properties of the solid phase and of its capacity to transport macromolecules to the surface being worked

  2. A practice course to cultivate students' comprehensive ability of photoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yong; Liu, Yang; Niu, Chunhui; Liu, Lishuang

    2017-08-01

    After the studying of many theoretical courses, it's important and urgent for the students from specialty of optoelectronic information science and engineering to cultivate their comprehensive ability of photoelectricity. We set up a comprehensive practice course named "Integrated Design of Optoelectronic Information System" (IDOIS) for the purpose that students can integrate their knowledge of optics, electronics and computer programming to design, install and debug an optoelectronic system with independent functions. Eight years of practice shows that this practice course can train students' ability of analysis, design/development and debugging of photoelectric system, improve their ability in document retrieval, design proposal and summary report writing, teamwork, innovation consciousness and skill.

  3. [Management abilities of the head surgeon: essential for survival!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähne, J

    2012-04-01

    Due to increased economic challenges in the management of hospitals head surgeons do not only need excellent surgical expertise but also significant management qualities. The personality of head surgeons should include authenticity, sincerity, fairness and the ability to cooperate. Visionary leadership, strategic thinking and strategic management of the personnel are further prerequisites for success. Besides good abilities in communication head surgeons need knowledge of the operating figures for interpretation. To keep up with the own capabilities time and self-management is essential. A survival as head surgeon is likely if these qualities and abilities exist.

  4. The utility of covariance of combining ability in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, V

    1976-11-01

    The definition of covariances of half- and full sibs, and hence that of variances of general and specific combining ability with regard to a quantitative character, is extended to take into account the respective covariances between a pair of characters. The interpretation of the dispersion and correlation matrices of general and specific combining ability is discussed by considering a set of single, three- and four-way crosses, made using diallel and line × tester mating systems in Pennisetum typhoides. The general implications of the concept of covariance of combining ability in plant breeding are discussed.

  5. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, T.J.P.; Mortensen, K.H.; Gopalan, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis

  6. Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, T.J.P., E-mail: timothyjpbray@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); Mortensen, K.H., E-mail: mortensen@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom); University Department of Radiology, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Road, Box 318, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Gopalan, D., E-mail: deepa.gopalan@btopenworld.com [Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ermine Street, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A plethora of pulmonary and systemic disorders, often associated with grave outcomes, may cause pulmonary infarction. • A stereotypical infarct is a peripheral wedge shaped pleurally based opacity but imaging findings can be highly variable. • Multimodality imaging is key to diagnosing the presence, aetiology and complications of pulmonary infarction. • Multimodality imaging of pulmonary infarction together with any ancillary features often guide to early targeted treatment. • CT remains the principal imaging modality with MRI increasingly used alongside nuclear medicine studies and ultrasound. - Abstract: The impact of absent pulmonary arterial and venous flow on the pulmonary parenchyma depends on a host of factors. These include location of the occlusive insult, the speed at which the occlusion develops and the ability of the normal dual arterial supply to compensate through increased bronchial arterial flow. Pulmonary infarction occurs when oxygenation is cut off secondary to sudden occlusion with lack of recruitment of the dual supply arterial system. Thromboembolic disease is the commonest cause of such an insult but a whole range of disease processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the pulmonary arterial and venous lumen may also result in infarcts. Recognition of the presence of infarction can be challenging as imaging manifestations often differ from the classically described wedge shaped defect and a number of weighty causes need consideration. This review highlights aetiologies and imaging appearances of pulmonary infarction, utilising cases to illustrate the essential role of a multimodality imaging approach in order to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis.

  7. Targeted Nanotechnology for Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Randall; Bauer, Lisa; Hoimes, Christopher; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    Targeted nanoparticle imaging agents provide many benefits and new opportunities to facilitate accurate diagnosis of cancer and significantly impact patient outcome. Due to the highly engineerable nature of nanotechnology, targeted nanoparticles exhibit significant advantages including increased contrast sensitivity, binding avidity and targeting specificity. Considering the various nanoparticle designs and their adjustable ability to target a specific site and generate detectable signals, nanoparticles can be optimally designed in terms of biophysical interactions (i.e., intravascular and interstitial transport) and biochemical interactions (i.e., targeting avidity towards cancer-related biomarkers) for site-specific detection of very distinct microenvironments. This review seeks to illustrate that the design of a nanoparticle dictates its in vivo journey and targeting of hard-to-reach cancer sites, facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and interrogation of the most aggressive forms of cancer. We will report various targeted nanoparticles for cancer imaging using X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging and optical imaging. Finally, to realize the full potential of targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging, we will describe the challenges and opportunities for the clinical translation and widespread adaptation of targeted nanoparticles imaging agents. PMID:25116445

  8. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation.

  9. The current ability to test theories of gravity with black hole shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Younsi, Ziri; Fromm, Christian M.; Porth, Oliver; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Olivares, Hector; Falcke, Heino; Kramer, Michael; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2018-04-01

    Our Galactic Centre, Sagittarius A*, is believed to harbour a supermassive black hole, as suggested by observations tracking individual orbiting stars1,2. Upcoming submillimetre very-long baseline interferometry images of Sagittarius A* carried out by the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration (EHTC)3,4 are expected to provide critical evidence for the existence of this supermassive black hole5,6. We assess our present ability to use EHTC images to determine whether they correspond to a Kerr black hole as predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity or to a black hole in alternative theories of gravity. To this end, we perform general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations and use general-relativistic radiative-transfer calculations to generate synthetic shadow images of a magnetized accretion flow onto a Kerr black hole. In addition, we perform these simulations and calculations for a dilaton black hole, which we take as a representative solution of an alternative theory of gravity. Adopting the very-long baseline interferometry configuration from the 2017 EHTC campaign, we find that it could be extremely difficult to distinguish between black holes from different theories of gravity, thus highlighting that great caution is needed when interpreting black hole images as tests of general relativity.

  10. Naming abilities: Differentiation between objects and verbs in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Carmen Spezzano

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive Neuropsychology aims to understand the processing mechanisms of normal and injured brain, by means of functional architectural models of information processing. Naming is one of the most important abilities in linguistic processing. Naming of different semantic and grammatical categories differ in their lexical properties and have distinct neuroanatomical substrates. We reviewed literature data on the differences between nouns and verbs in aphasic subjects reported by scientific publications in the form of indexed articles. Studies on naming abilities tended to emphasize the differentiation between nouns and verbs both in their lexical properties and neuroanatomical substrates. Functional neuroimaging studies have improved the state of knowledge regarding category-specific naming abilities, but further studies on different types of aphasia and the use of naming abilities in different contexts are warranted.

  11. Availability of new drugs and Americans' ability to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this work was the investigation of the extent to which the introduction of new drugs has increased society's ability to produce goods and services by increasing the number of hours worked per member of the working-age population. Econometric models of ability-to-work measures from data on approximately 200,000 individuals with 47 major chronic conditions observed throughout a 15-year period (1982-1996) were estimated. Under very conservative assumptions, the estimates indicate that the value of the increase in ability to work attributable to new drugs is 2.5 times as great as expenditure on new drugs. The potential of drugs to increase employee productivity should be considered in the design of drug-reimbursement policies. Conversely, policies that broadly reduce the development and utilization of new drugs may ultimately reduce our ability to produce other goods and services.

  12. Intelligence quotient and perceptual ability: an inter-relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Cognitive ability refers to the characteristic approach by the brain in processing ... The study is based on resting brainwave of fifty samples and focused on the left and right prefrontal cortex.

  13. Gender and age do not influence the ability to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; da Silva Valente, Luciana do Socorro; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Work capacity is related to physical, environmental and psychosocial factors and is influenced by individual characteristics and occupations. The aim of this study was to evaluated the relationship between work capacity, gender and age. 360 people employed at an institution of higher education of both genders and similar age were asked to participate in this study. The ability to work was analyzed using Work Ability Index (WAI). Descriptive statistical, Pearson correlations and ANOVA test was applied. Of these, 197 workers who participated in the study completed and returned the questionnaire. The results show there weren't any significant differences between work ability in relation to gender and age, but we observed an increase variability of responses for WAI score in older workers. No significant differences in the perception of the ability of work between men and women..

  14. Politsei hakkab kiiruskaamera abil kihutajaid trahvima / Ingvar Bärenklau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bärenklau, Ingvar, 1967-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 13. apr. lk. 5. Politsei alustab Eesti teedel teste eravärvides politseiautole paigutatud mobiilse kiiruskaameraga, mille abil saab tuvastada kiiruseületajaid ja neid trahvida

  15. Improving activities of daily living ability in women with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; Bandak, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore and compare the outcomes of adaptation and physical activity programmes regarding activities of daily living (ADL) ability following interdisciplinary rehabilitation in women with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Participants (n = 85) were quasi-randomized to 16-week adaptation (ADAPT...

  16. Relationship between motor and cognitive learning abilities among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama Abdelkarim

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... the cognitive learning abilities (i.e. mathematical thinking, r = 0.62 and ...... exercise was efficient both in the promotion of learning English .... Ishigawara K, Ishizuka H. Effects of Brain Activation through Physical Exercise.

  17. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  18. Work ability of Dutch employees with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, E. M.; Sluiter, J. K.; Nijssen, T. F.; Kammeijer, M.; Dijkmans, B. A. C.; Lankhorst, G. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To ( i) examine the association between fatigue, psychosocial work characteristics ( job control, support, participation in decision making, psychological job demands), and physical work requirements on the one hand and work ability of employees with rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) on the

  19. Sensorimotor abilities predict on-field performance in professional baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Kyle; Vittetoe, Kelly; Ramger, Benjamin; Suresh, Sunith; Tokdar, Surya T; Reiter, Jerome P; Appelbaum, L Gregory

    2018-01-08

    Baseball players must be able to see and react in an instant, yet it is hotly debated whether superior performance is associated with superior sensorimotor abilities. In this study, we compare sensorimotor abilities, measured through 8 psychomotor tasks comprising the Nike Sensory Station assessment battery, and game statistics in a sample of 252 professional baseball players to evaluate the links between sensorimotor skills and on-field performance. For this purpose, we develop a series of Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models enabling us to compare statistics across professional baseball leagues. Within this framework, we find that sensorimotor abilities are significant predictors of on-base percentage, walk rate and strikeout rate, accounting for age, position, and league. We find no such relationship for either slugging percentage or fielder-independent pitching. The pattern of results suggests performance contributions from both visual-sensory and visual-motor abilities and indicates that sensorimotor screenings may be useful for player scouting.

  20. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN JUDO TECHNIQUES AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Drid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific physical preparation affects the development of motor abilities required for execution of specific movements in judo. When selecting proper specific exercises for judo for a target motor ability, it is necessary to precede it with the study of the structure of specific judo techniques and activities of individual muscle groups engaged for execution of the technique. On the basis of this, one can understand which muscles are most engaged during realization of individual techniques, which serves as a standpoint for selection of a particular complex of specific exercises to produce the highest effects. In addition to the development of particular muscle groups, the means of specific preparation will take effect on the development of those motor abilities which are evaluated as the indispensable for the development of particular qualities which are characteristic for judo. This paper analyses the relationship between judo techniques field and specific motor abilities.

  1. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

  2. An investigation of the morpho-syntactic abilities of Afrikaans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At present, no such data are available on the morphosyntactic abilities of ... of grammatical features related to number, person, case and tense as well as questions ... for genitive case and tense comprehension, simple wh-question production, ...

  3. Learning Abilities and Disabilities: Generalist Genes, Specialist Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Twin studies comparing identical and fraternal twins consistently show substantial genetic influence on individual differences in learning abilities such as reading and mathematics, as well as in other cognitive abilities such as spatial ability and memory. Multivariate genetic research has shown that the same set of genes is largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse cognitive areas. We call these "generalist genes." What differentiates these abilities is largely the environment, especially nonshared environments that make children growing up in the same family different from one another. These multivariate genetic findings of generalist genes and specialist environments have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities and for understanding the brain mechanisms that mediate these effects.

  4. Human face recognition ability is specific and highly heritable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura; Chabris, Christopher F; Chatterjee, Garga; Williams, Mark; Loken, Eric; Nakayama, Ken; Duchaine, Bradley

    2010-03-16

    Compared with notable successes in the genetics of basic sensory transduction, progress on the genetics of higher level perception and cognition has been limited. We propose that investigating specific cognitive abilities with well-defined neural substrates, such as face recognition, may yield additional insights. In a twin study of face recognition, we found that the correlation of scores between monozygotic twins (0.70) was more than double the dizygotic twin correlation (0.29), evidence for a high genetic contribution to face recognition ability. Low correlations between face recognition scores and visual and verbal recognition scores indicate that both face recognition ability itself and its genetic basis are largely attributable to face-specific mechanisms. The present results therefore identify an unusual phenomenon: a highly specific cognitive ability that is highly heritable. Our results establish a clear genetic basis for face recognition, opening this intensively studied and socially advantageous cognitive trait to genetic investigation.

  5. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.

  6. MR imaging of acoustic neurinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamachi, Keikichi; Aida, Toshimitsu; Abe, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mikio; Saitou, Hisatoshi.

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen cases of acoustic neurinomas were studied by the use of a 0.15 T magnetic resonance (MR) imager. Three of the patients were male, and twelve were female. The patients' ages ranged from 23 to 67 years. The tumors were measured by means of MR images; the maximum was 37.5 mm across, and the minimum, 10 mm. The MR images of the acoustic neurinomas were hypointense on the T 1 -weighted images except in one case (isointense), while all cases were hyperintense on the T 2 -weighted images. MRI was much better than contrastenhanced CT for internal auditory canal (IAC) tumors (78 % versus 36 %), especially by means of coronal oblique image on T 2 -weighted images. In addition, MRI was more useful in demonstrating a VII - VIII neurocomplex on the non-affected side than was CT (57 % versus 10 %), but it did not demonstrate a VII - VIII neurocomplex on the affected side when a 0.15 T MR imager was used. It is very effective to separate the tumor from the tentorium cerebelli when it is necessary to differentiate an acoustic neurinoma from a meningioma at the cerebellopontine angle. A coronal or coronal oblique image offers information for use in separating the tentorium cerebelli. In small IAC tumors, the increased protein content of the cerebro-spinal fluid in an obstructed IAC and the bound-water effect in small collections of fluid may shorten the relaxation times of the trapped intracanalicular fluid, producing difficulty in the ability to diagnosis small tumors. To reveal cystic components, it was found to be effective to use Gd-DTPA or short-TR short-TE spin-echo images. (author)

  7. Animation, audio, and spatial ability: Optimizing multimedia for scientific explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol May

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation and spatial ability in a computer based instructional program for biology. The program presented instructional material via text or audio with lean text and included eight instructional sequences presented either via static illustrations or animations. High school students enrolled in a biology course were blocked by spatial ability and randomly assigned to one of four treatments (Text-Static Illustration Audio-Static Illustration, Text-Animation, Audio-Animation). The study examined the effects of instructional mode (Text vs. Audio), illustration mode (Static Illustration vs. Animation) and spatial ability (Low vs. High) on practice and posttest achievement, attitude and time. Results for practice achievement indicated that high spatial ability participants achieved more than low spatial ability participants. Similar results for posttest achievement and spatial ability were not found. Participants in the Static Illustration treatments achieved the same as participants in the Animation treatments on both the practice and posttest. Likewise, participants in the Text treatments achieved the same as participants in the Audio treatments on both the practice and posttest. In terms of attitude, participants responded favorably to the computer based instructional program. They found the program interesting, felt the static illustrations or animations made the explanations easier to understand and concentrated on learning the material. Furthermore, participants in the Animation treatments felt the information was easier to understand than participants in the Static Illustration treatments. However, no difference for any attitude item was found for participants in the Text as compared to those in the Audio treatments. Significant differences were found by Spatial Ability for three attitude items concerning concentration and interest. In all three items, the low spatial ability participants responded more positively

  8. The construction and experience of ability in physical education

    OpenAIRE

    Croston, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis explores how notions of ability are socially constructed, defined and experienced within physical education (PE). Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts are used to examine the processes through an acknowledgement and consideration of the culture where pupils’ and teachers’ notions of ability are configured, reconfigured, and experienced. The study covered one academic school year in a North ...

  9. Predicting absenteeism: screening for work ability or burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouteten, R

    2017-01-01

    In determining the predictors of occupational health problems, two factors can be distinguished: personal (work ability) factors and work-related factors (burnout, job characteristics). However, these risk factors are hardly ever combined and it is not clear whether burnout or work ability best predicts absenteeism. To relate measures of work ability, burnout and job characteristics to absenteeism as the indicators of occupational health problems. Survey data on work ability, burnout and job characteristics from a Dutch university were related to the absenteeism data from the university's occupational health and safety database in the year following the survey study. The survey contained the Work Ability Index (WAI), Utrecht Burnout Scale (UBOS) and seven job characteristics from the Questionnaire on Experience and Evaluation of Work (QEEW). There were 242 employees in the study group. Logistic regression analyses revealed that job characteristics did not predict absenteeism. Exceptional absenteeism was most consistently predicted by the WAI dimensions 'employees' own prognosis of work ability in two years from now' and 'mental resources/vitality' and the burnout dimension 'emotional exhaustion'. Other significant predictors of exceptional absenteeism frequency included estimated work impairment due to diseases (WAI) and feelings of depersonalization or emotional distance from the work (burnout). Absenteeism among university personnel was best predicted by a combination of work ability and burnout. As a result, measures to prevent absenteeism and health problems may best be aimed at improving an individual's work ability and/or preventing the occurrence of burnout. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Does training with beat gestures favour children's narrative discourse abilities?

    OpenAIRE

    Vilà Giménez, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    There is consensus evidence that gestures and prosody are important precursors of children’s early language abilities and development. Previous literature has investigated the beneficial role of beat gestures in the recall of information by preschoolers (Igualada, Esteve-Gibert, & Prieto, under review; Austin & Sweller, 2014). However, to our knowledge, little is known about whether the use of beat gestures can promote children’s later linguistic abilities and specifically whether training wi...

  11. Development of engineering drawing ability for emerging engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Wen; Cao, Xiao-Chang; Xie, Li; Jin, Jian-Jun; Wang, Chu-Diao

    2017-09-01

    Students majoring in engineering is required by the emerging engineering education (3E) in the aspect of their ability of engineering drawing. This paper puts forward training mode of engineering drawing ability for 3E. This mode consists of three kinds of training including training in courses, training in competitions and training in actual demand. We also design the feasible implementation plan and supplies viable references to carry out the mode.

  12. Factors that determine development of the ability to draw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Dahik Cabrera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the necessary factors are determined to structure a drawing representing an object, a brief description of the functions of the cerebral hemispheres, the theory of multiple bits of intelligence Gardner, capacities of representation and perception involved in the skill is reviewed and ability to draw. This work aims to be the beginning of a larger study, where they plan to measure the ability to draw in students, in order to experiment with alternative methodologies for teaching drawing.

  13. Predictors of fatigue and work ability in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Muijen, P; Duijts, S F A; Bonefaas-Groenewoud, K; van der Beek, A J; Anema, J R

    2017-12-30

    Workers diagnosed with cancer are at risk for job loss or work disability. To determine predictors of fatigue and work ability at 36 months after diagnosis in a population of cancer survivors. Individuals diagnosed with cancer and who applied for work disability benefit at 24 months of sick leave were surveyed at the time of application and again 12 months later. Fatigue was measured using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness-Fatigue scale questionnaire and work ability was measured using the work ability index. Linear regression analyses were applied to identify predictors. There were 336 participants. Participants who were divorced or widowed had more physical limitations, more depressive symptoms and were more fatigued at baseline, and who worked in health care demonstrated higher levels of fatigue. Lower fatigue was predicted by having received chemotherapy. A higher level of work ability was predicted by having received chemotherapy, better global health and better work ability at baseline. Lower work ability was predicted by being principal wage earner, insecurity about being free of disease, having more physical limitations and having greater wage loss. Socio-demographic, health- and work-related factors were associated with fatigue and work ability in cancer survivors on long-term sick leave. As fatigue and poor work ability are important risk factors for work disability, addressing the identified predictive factors may assist in mitigation of work disability in cancer survivors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Active Listening Improve Your Ability to Listen and Lead

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership

    2011-01-01

    Active listening is a person's willingness and ability to hear and understand. At its core, active listening is a state of mind that involves paying full and careful attention to the other person, avoiding premature judgment, reflecting understanding, clarifying information, summarizing, and sharing. By learning and committing to the skills and behaviors of active listening, leaders can become more effective listeners and, over time, improve their ability to lead.

  15. Coordinating abilities in structure of special preparation of combat athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko A.I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development tendency of modern sport assumes high competition and as a result, training and competitive pressure. This requires from the coach to search for new methods of increasing effectiveness of the training process without increasing the pressure volume and intensiveness. One of the ways of solving this problem is the development of a method of increasing coordinating abilities. Several types of coordinating abilities of wrestlers. Deals with methodical peculiarities or perfection and means of increasing coordinating of sambo.

  16. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  17. Microbial Cell Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Sullivan, Claretta [Eastern Virginia Medical School; Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Allison, David P [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    limitation on the maximum scan size (roughly 100 x 100 {mu}m) and the restricted movement of the cantilever in the Z (or height) direction. In most commercial AFMs, the Z range is restricted to roughly 10 {mu}m such that the height of cells to be imaged must be seriously considered. Nevertheless, AFM can provide structural-functional information at nanometer resolution and do so in physiologically relevant environments. Further, instrumentation for scanning probe microscopy continues to advance. Systems for high-speed imaging are becoming available, and techniques for looking inside the cells are being demonstrated. The ability to combine AFM with other imaging modalities is likely to have an even greater impact on microbiological studies. AFM studies of intact microbial cells started to appear in the literature in the 1990s. For example, AFM studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae examined buddings cars after cell division and detailed changes related to cell growth processes. Also, the first AFM studies of bacterial biofilms appeared. In the late 1990s, AFM studies of intact fungal spores described clear changes in spore surfaces upon germination, and studies of individual bacterial cells were also described. These early bacterial imaging studies examined changes in bacterial morphology due to antimicrobial peptides exposure and bacterial adhesion properties. The majority of these early studies were carried out on dried samples and took advantage of the resolving power of AFM. The lack of cell mounting procedures presented an impediment for cell imaging studies. Subsequently, several approaches to mounting microbial cells have been developed, and these techniques are described later. Also highlighted are general considerations for microbial imaging and a description of some of the various applications of AFM to microbiology.

  18. Are teachers' judgements of pupils' ability influenced by body shape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, N L; Campbell, T

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that teachers can judge pupils on the basis of their physical appearance, including their body shape. Teacher bias towards obese pupils has been suggested as a potential pathway through which obese children attain relatively lower academic levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' judgements of pupils' ability are influenced by the body shape of the child. The sample includes English, singleton children in state schools from the Millennium Cohort Study. The data were taken from the fourth wave of data collection, when the children were approximately 7 years old. In all, 5086/5072 children had teacher ability ratings of reading and maths. Logistic regression analyses were used to test whether teachers' perceptions of the child's reading and mathematics ability were influenced by the pupil's waist circumference, conditional upon cognitive test scores of reading and maths ability. After adjustment for cognitive test scores, no significant overall relationship was found between the pupil's waist circumference and the teacher's judgements of ability. No statistically significant differences were observed in the probability of being judged as above average after further adjustments were made for potential confounders. There is little evidence that teachers' judgements of pupils' ability are influenced by obesity.

  19. Experiences that develop the ability to think strategically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ellen; Cahill, Terrence; Filho, Rubens Pessanha

    2009-01-01

    The ability to think strategically is an admired and a sought-after leadership requirement, yet we know little about how it develops. The purpose of this study is to identify specific experiences that contribute to the development of an individual's ability to think strategically. We identified eight work experiences, including different types of organizational projects, processes, and relationships, that contribute to an individual's strategic thinking ability. We also delineate specific characteristics material to each experience. These characteristics indicate that considerable time and focus are required to develop the ability to think strategically. In addition, the experiences are not all accessed equally: Women are less likely to have nonrelational experiences, while chief executive officers are more likely to have the most challenging ones. In addition, we found differences regarding work-related continuing education activities. Respondents rated nonhealthcare conferences and reading behind all other identified experiences that contribute to strategic thinking ability. Individuals can implement several strategies to improve their strategic thinking ability, including deliberately incorporating the requisite experiences into their development plans, ensuring that the experiences incorporate the required characteristics, and improving the benefit received from attending educational programs in nonhealthcare industries. Organizations can implement several strategies to ensure the experiences are as effective as possible, such as appraising gender differences across the experiences and reviewing the organization's strategic planning processes for the characteristics that best encourage strategic thinking.

  20. Chuck Watson's ``differential psychoacoustics:'' Individual differences in auditory abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Gary R.

    2004-05-01

    Chuck Watson was among the first in the psychoacoustic community to seriously address the topic of individual differences. At a time when there was little concern with variation among ``normal listeners'' in psychoacoustic research, Watson began a research program to document the range of human auditory abilities. The primary goals were to determine the number of distinct abilities, to specify the nature of each ability, and to document the distribution of these abilities in the general population. Thanks to Watson's talent for organizing and directing large-scale projects and his workmanlike approach to science, a large and valuable body of data on human individual differences has been collected. The research program began about 20 years ago with the study of basic auditory abilities, and it has expanded to include other modalities and cognitive/intellectual abilities in adults and children. A somewhat biased view of the importance of this work will be presented by one of Watson's many colleagues in this endeavor. The talk will provide an overview of this ongoing research program as well as a brief review of some related research by other investigators. New findings from recent extensions of this work will also be discussed.

  1. Testing the "Work Ability House" Model in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2016-01-01

    To test the Work Ability House model, verifying the hierarchy of proposed dimensions, among a group of hospital workers. A cohort study (2009-2011) was conducted with a sample of 599 workers from a hospital in the city of São Paulo. A questionnaire including sociodemographics, lifestyle and working conditions was used. The Brazilian versions of Job Stress Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance, Work-Related Activities That May Contribute To Job-Related Pain and/or Injury, and the Work Ability Index (WAI) were also used. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed: the independent variables were allocated into levels according to the dimensions of the theoretical model in order to evaluate the factors associated with work ability. Variables associated with impairment of work ability in each dimension were as follows: (a) sociodemographics: age work injuries (p = 0.029), (c) professional competence: low educational level (p = 0.008), (d) values : intensified in overcommitment (p work: intensification of effort-reward imbalance (p = 0.009) and high demands (p = 0.040). The results confirmed the dimensions proposed for the Work Ability House model, indicating that it is valid as a representation of a multidimensional construct of multifactorial determination and can be used in the management of work ability.

  2. Number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ariel; Libertus, Melissa E; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-05

    Human infants in the first year of life possess an intuitive sense of number. This preverbal number sense may serve as a developmental building block for the uniquely human capacity for mathematics. In support of this idea, several studies have demonstrated that nonverbal number sense is correlated with mathematical abilities in children and adults. However, there has been no direct evidence that infant numerical abilities are related to mathematical abilities later in childhood. Here, we provide evidence that preverbal number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in preschool-aged children. Numerical preference scores at 6 months of age correlated with both standardized math test scores and nonsymbolic number comparison scores at 3.5 years of age, suggesting that preverbal number sense facilitates the acquisition of numerical symbols and mathematical abilities. This relationship held even after controlling for general intelligence, indicating that preverbal number sense imparts a unique contribution to mathematical ability. These results validate the many prior studies purporting to show number sense in infancy and support the hypothesis that mathematics is built upon an intuitive sense of number that predates language.

  3. Childhood Cognitive Ability Predicts Adult Financial Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Furnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to investigate to what extent childhood cognitive ability, along with personality traits, education and occupational status, as well as marital status influence adult financial success. Data were drawn from a large, prospective birth cohort in the UK, the National Child Development Study (NCDS. The analytic sample was comprised of 4537 cohort members with data on parental social class (at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11, educational qualifications (at age 33, personality traits (at age 50, current marital status and occupational prestige, and salary/wage earning level (all measured at age 54. Correlational results showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, traits extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and openness, being married positively, being divorced or separated negatively, education and occupation as well as gender were all significantly associated with adult earning ability (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001. Effect sizes for the relationship between intelligence and income was moderate. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that childhood cognitive ability, traits conscientiousness and openness, educational qualifications and occupational prestige were significant and independent predictors of adult earning ability accounting for 30% of the total variance. There was also a gender effect on the outcome variable. Numerous limitations are noted.

  4. Use of Response Time for Measuring Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Kyllonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review some of the key literature on response time as it has played a role in cognitive ability measurement, providing a historical perspective as well as covering current research. We discuss the speed-level distinction, dimensions of speed and level in cognitive abilities frameworks, speed–accuracy tradeoff, approaches to addressing speed–accuracy tradeoff, analysis methods, particularly item response theory-based, response time models from cognitive psychology (ex-Gaussian function, and the diffusion model, and other uses of response time in testing besides ability measurement. We discuss several new methods that can be used to provide greater insight into the speed and level aspects of cognitive ability and speed–accuracy tradeoff decisions. These include item-level time limits, the use of feedback (e.g., CUSUMs, explicit scoring rules that combine speed and accuracy information (e.g., count down timing, and cognitive psychology models. We also review some of the key psychometric advances in modeling speed and level, which combine speed and ability measurement, address speed–accuracy tradeoff, allow for distinctions between response times on items responded to correctly and incorrectly, and integrate psychometrics with information-processing modeling. We suggest that the application of these models and tools is likely to advance both the science and measurement of human abilities for theory and applications.

  5. Spatial Ability Differences in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive processes, specifically spatial abilities, are responsible for integration of daily activities. Many factors contribute to the plasticity of the brain which, furthermore, alter the spatial ability. Physical activity, which can be further grouped into sport and exercise, is a modifiable factor that enhances the cognitive processes through a divergent mechanism. This study aimed to gain further understanding on whether sport differs from exercise in altering spatial ability in athletes and non-athletes. Methods: This observational study compared the spatial ability score of athletes of Indonesia National Sport Comitte (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia, KONI in West Java (n= 21 and non-athletes (n= 21. Sampling were performed using stratified random technique and data were collected between August and October 2015 which included spatial scores and demographic of subjects. Results: The difference in spatial scores between athletes and non-athletes were not significant (p=0.432. Conclusions: This study suggests an insignificant difference in spatial ability in athletes performing sport and non-athletes performing exercise. Hence, the cognitive component skills in sport experience do not alter the spatial ability.

  6. Secondary school teachers' attitudes towards and beliefs about ability grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Ireson, Judith

    2003-09-01

    Internationally and historically considerable research has been undertaken regarding the attitudes of secondary school teachers towards different types of ability grouping. There has been no recent research taking account of the changing educational context in the UK. This paper aims to explore secondary school teachers' attitudes and beliefs about ability grouping taking account of school type, gender, experience and qualifications. The sample comprised over 1,500 teachers from 45 schools divided into three groups based on their ability grouping practices in years 7-9 (the students were aged 11-14). The sample included all the lower school teachers of mathematics, science and English and a random sample of teachers from other subjects in each school. Teachers responded to a questionnaire which explored their attitudes towards ability grouping through the use of rating scales and open-ended questions. The findings showed that the teachers' beliefs broadly reflected research findings on the actual effects of ability grouping, although there were significant differences relating to the type of school they taught in and the subject that they taught. Separate analysis of school types showed that length of time teaching, individual school differences and teacher qualifications were also significant predictors of attitudes. Teachers' beliefs about ability grouping are influenced by the type of groupings adopted in the school where they work, the subject that they teach, their experience and qualifications. As pedagogical practices are known to be influenced by beliefs these findings have important implications for teacher training.

  7. Students’ Cognitive Abilities in Plant Anatomy Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiono, S.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Rahmat, A.; Anggraeni, S.

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive abilities is fundamental for the students, as it is closely related to higher thinking skills such as the ability to think critically, creatively, and problem solving. This descriptive study aims to investigate the cognitive abilities of biology prospective teachers in the course of Plant Anatomy Practicum based on the cognitive process dimension and dimensions of knowledge the using the framework of Revision of Bloom taxonomy. A number of biology prospective teachers was involved in this study (n=42). The instrument used to collect data for students’ cognitive process mastery in the form of multiple choice with 5 options. Research finding shows that the average student’s cognitive ability is 68.10. The acquisition of knowledge mastery of cognitive ability is still under the criterion of mastery in the course of the Plant Anatomy Practicum (75). Validity and reliability of the instrument (0,71) and (0,81). It is necessary to design lecture programs both in the class and laboratory to develop student’ cognitive abilities.

  8. Writing Abilities Longitudinally Predict Academic Outcomes of Adolescents with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Stephen J.; Langberg, Joshuah M.; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Evans, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Students with ADHD often experience a host of negative academic outcomes and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear whether written expression abilities uniquely contribute to the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The current study included a sample of 104 middle school students diagnosed with ADHD (grades 6–8). Participants were followed longitudinally to evaluate whether written expression abilities at baseline predicted student GPA and parent ratings of academic impairment 18 months later, after controlling for reading ability and additional relevant covariates. Written expression abilities longitudinally predicted both academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD and ODD symptoms, medication use, reading ability, and baseline values of GPA and parent-rated academic impairment. Follow-up analyses revealed that no single aspect of written expression was demonstrably more impactful on academic outcomes than the others, suggesting that writing as an entire process should be the focus of intervention. PMID:26783650

  9. Desirable characteristics for teachers of High Ability/Gifted students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra da Costa Souza Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the desirable educational background for a teacher to work with high ability/gifted students, desirable characteristics these teachers should present and conceptions on high ability/giftedness. The participants were 20 public school teachers from a city surrounding Brasilia. Of this group, ten were elementary school teachers working with initial grades and ten were undergraduate Pedagogy teachers. A qualitative approach was used and data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview. A content analysis was then conducted. In relation to the desirable educational background for a teach of high ability/gifted students, participants indicated the need of continuous training, under graduation curriculum adapted to the theme and graduation courses in the area. The desirable features for teachers of high ability/gifted students were related to personological attributes (personality traits and intellectual ability, as well as professional characteristics. The conceptions on high ability/giftedness presented by the participants were, in general, close to those found in the literature and used as reference for this study. However, there was lack of information on how to apply the theory into real practice, as well as several wrong ideas on the topic.

  10. Ability to manage everyday technology after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Malinowsky, Camilla; Jacobsson, Lars; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2013-01-01

    To investigate and describe how persons with an acquired brain injury (ABI) manage everyday technology (ET) in their daily activities and to explore whether the ability to manage ET was related to the severity of the disability. Eighty-one persons with ABI were observed while managing ET by using the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) was used to assess the severity of disability after the ABI. A computer application of a Rasch measurement model was used to generate measures of the participants' ability to manage ET and the measures were compared groupwise with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The degree of severity of disability had a significant main effect on the ability to manage ET. The groups with severe and moderate disability exhibited a significantly lower ability to manage ET compared to the group with good recovery. The result indicates that the ability to manage ET in daily activities can be related to the global severity of disability after ABI. This demonstrates the importance of considering the ability to manage ET to support the performance of activities at home, at work and in society in persons with ABI.

  11. PC image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, Mok Jin Il; Am, Ha Jeng Ung

    1995-04-01

    This book starts summary of digital image processing and personal computer, and classification of personal computer image processing system, digital image processing, development of personal computer and image processing, image processing system, basic method of image processing such as color image processing and video processing, software and interface, computer graphics, video image and video processing application cases on image processing like satellite image processing, color transformation of image processing in high speed and portrait work system.

  12. Three dimensional image alignment, registration and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treves, S.T.; Mitchell, K.D.; Habboush, I.H.

    1998-01-01

    Combined assessment of three dimensional anatomical and functional images (SPECT, PET, MRI, CT) is useful to determine the nature and extent of lesions in many parts of the body. Physicians principally rely on their spatial sense of mentally re-orient and overlap images obtained with different imaging modalities. Objective methods that enable easy and intuitive image registration can help the physician arrive at more optimal diagnoses and better treatment decisions. This review describes a simple, intuitive and robust image registration approach developed in our laboratory. It differs from most other registration techniques in that it allows the user to incorporate all of the available information within the images in the registration process. This method takes full advantage of the ability of knowledgeable operators to achieve image registration and fusion using an intuitive interactive visual approach. It can register images accurately and quickly without the use of elaborate mathematical modeling or optimization techniques. The method provides the operator with tools to manipulate images in three dimensions, including visual feedback techniques to assess the accuracy of registration (grids, overlays, masks, and fusion of images in different colors). Its application is not limited to brain imaging and can be applied to images from any region in the body. The overall effect is a registration algorithm that is easy to implement and can achieve accuracy on the order of one pixel

  13. Corner-point criterion for assessing nonlinear image processing imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeau, Stéphane; Pigois, Laurent; Foing, Jean-Paul; Deshors, Gilles; Swiathy, Greggory

    2017-10-01

    Range performance modeling of optronics imagers attempts to characterize the ability to resolve details in the image. Today, digital image processing is systematically used in conjunction with the optoelectronic system to correct its defects or to exploit tiny detection signals to increase performance. In order to characterize these processing having adaptive and non-linear properties, it becomes necessary to stimulate the imagers with test patterns whose properties are similar to the actual scene image ones, in terms of dynamic range, contours, texture and singular points. This paper presents an approach based on a Corner-Point (CP) resolution criterion, derived from the Probability of Correct Resolution (PCR) of binary fractal patterns. The fundamental principle lies in the respectful perception of the CP direction of one pixel minority value among the majority value of a 2×2 pixels block. The evaluation procedure considers the actual image as its multi-resolution CP transformation, taking the role of Ground Truth (GT). After a spatial registration between the degraded image and the original one, the degradation is statistically measured by comparing the GT with the degraded image CP transformation, in terms of localized PCR at the region of interest. The paper defines this CP criterion and presents the developed evaluation techniques, such as the measurement of the number of CP resolved on the target, the transformation CP and its inverse transform that make it possible to reconstruct an image of the perceived CPs. Then, this criterion is compared with the standard Johnson criterion, in the case of a linear blur and noise degradation. The evaluation of an imaging system integrating an image display and a visual perception is considered, by proposing an analysis scheme combining two methods: a CP measurement for the highly non-linear part (imaging) with real signature test target and conventional methods for the more linear part (displaying). The application to

  14. Visual Temporal Acuity Is Related to Auditory Speech Perception Abilities in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Kelly N; Stevenson, Ryan A; Wallace, Mark T

    Despite significant improvements in speech perception abilities following cochlear implantation, many prelingually deafened cochlear implant (CI) recipients continue to rely heavily on visual information to develop speech and language. Increased reliance on visual cues for understanding spoken language could lead to the development of unique audiovisual integration and visual-only processing abilities in these individuals. Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that good CI performers, as indexed by auditory-only speech perception abilities, have different patterns of visual cortex activation in response to visual and auditory stimuli as compared with poor CI performers. However, no studies have examined whether speech perception performance is related to any type of visual processing abilities following cochlear implantation. The purpose of the present study was to provide a preliminary examination of the relationship between clinical, auditory-only speech perception tests, and visual temporal acuity in prelingually deafened adult CI users. It was hypothesized that prelingually deafened CI users, who exhibit better (i.e., more acute) visual temporal processing abilities would demonstrate better auditory-only speech perception performance than those with poorer visual temporal acuity. Ten prelingually deafened adult CI users were recruited for this study. Participants completed a visual temporal order judgment task to quantify visual temporal acuity. To assess auditory-only speech perception abilities, participants completed the consonant-nucleus-consonant word recognition test and the AzBio sentence recognition test. Results were analyzed using two-tailed partial Pearson correlations, Spearman's rho correlations, and independent samples t tests. Visual temporal acuity was significantly correlated with auditory-only word and sentence recognition abilities. In addition, proficient CI users, as assessed via auditory-only speech perception performance, demonstrated

  15. Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murafa S.V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls. The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls. The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students, mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the

  16. Making judgments about ability: the role of implicit theories of ability in moderating inferences from temporal and social comparison information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R

    2000-05-01

    Two studies examined the novel proposal that implicit theories of intelligence (C. S. Dweck & E. L. Leggett, 1988) moderate both the effects of performance trends on ability inferences and the perceived diagnosticity of temporal versus normative feedback. Results from 613 adolescents and 42 teachers confirmed that entity theorists perceived initial outcome as more diagnostic and inferred higher ability in another (Study 1) and in the self (Study 2) in a declining outcome condition; incremental theorists perceived last outcome as more diagnostic and inferred higher ability in an ascending condition. Experimental induction of beliefs about ability had similar effects. As predicted, self-appraisal was affected more by temporal feedback among incremental theorists and by normative feedback among entity theorists. Results help resolve prior mixed findings regarding order effects and responses to temporal and normative evaluation.

  17. Functional ability of community dwelling elderly. Criterion-related validity of a new measure of functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, K; Avlund, K; Kreiner, S

    1992-01-01

    Criterion-related validity of a new measure of functional ability was conducted according to a causal model based on conceptual models employed in the area of rehabilitative and geriatric medicine. The criteria variables included concurrent diagnosed diseases, global self-rated health, drug...... consumption and general practitioner (GP) consultations. The measure of functional ability was developed with the intention of achieving a high degree of discrimination among a group of community dwelling elderly. Data were derived from a sample survey of 70-year-old men and women conducted in 1984...... different unidimensional index scales of functional ability divided into two types, with reduced speed and tiredness as subdimensions. The two scale types were mobility function and lower limb function. Early losses of ability together with global self-rated health were treated as outcome measures...

  18. Medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Alex

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic medical imaging is a fundamental part of the practice of modern medicine and is responsible for the expenditure of considerable amounts of capital and revenue monies in healthcare systems around the world. Much research and development work is carried out, both by commercial companies and the academic community. This paper reviews briefly each of the major diagnostic medical imaging techniques-X-ray (planar and CT), ultrasound, nuclear medicine (planar, SPECT and PET) and magnetic resonance. The technical challenges facing each are highlighted, with some of the most recent developments. In terms of the future, interventional/peri-operative imaging, the advancement of molecular medicine and gene therapy are identified as potential areas of expansion

  19. Ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.N.T.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasound is a form of energy which consists of mechanical vibrations the frequencies of which are so high that they are above the range of human hearing. The lower frequency limit of the ultrasonic spectrum may generally be taken to be about 20 kHz. Most biomedical applications of ultrasound employ frequencies in the range 1-15 MHz. At these frequencies, the wavelength is in the range 1.5 - 0.1 mm in soft tissues, and narrow beams of ultrasound can be generated which propagate through such tissues without excessive attenuation. This chapter begins with brief reviews of the physics of diagnostic ultrasound pulse-echo imaging methods and Doppler imaging methods. The remainder of the chapter is a resume of the applications of ultrasonic imaging to physiological measurement

  20. Fast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrli, F.W.; Altas, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on MRI which has evolved rapidly and promises to continue to do so. The diagnostic armamentarium, as a result, has increased dramatically over recent years, which has necessitated constant interactions between clinicians, physicists, and biochemists. Pulse sequence design, coupled with advances in other software and hardware technology, offers practical improvements in scanning and image quality. Perhaps more importantly, these same advances hold promise for MRI to become, in addition to its traditional role as a morphological imaging technique, a functional imaging modality. The attractiveness of this prospect is that for the first time, a high-resolution technique has been shown to have the potential to provide both types of information from a single integrated examination, which promises to generate important insights into normal physiology as well as the natural history of pathophysiologic states

  1. Early skin tumor detection from microscopic images through image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.A.; Narejo, G.B.; Khan, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The research is done to provide appropriate detection technique for skin tumor detection. The work is done by using the image processing toolbox of MATLAB. Skin tumors are unwanted skin growth with different causes and varying extent of malignant cells. It is a syndrome in which skin cells mislay the ability to divide and grow normally. Early detection of tumor is the most important factor affecting the endurance of a patient. Studying the pattern of the skin cells is the fundamental problem in medical image analysis. The study of skin tumor has been of great interest to the researchers. DIP (Digital Image Processing) allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image processing, and hence, can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple task, and the implementation of methods which would be impossibly by analog means. It allows much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as build up of noise and signal distortion during processing. The study shows that few works has been done on cellular scale for the images of skin. This research allows few checks for the early detection of skin tumor using microscopic images after testing and observing various algorithms. After analytical evaluation the result has been observed that the proposed checks are time efficient techniques and appropriate for the tumor detection. The algorithm applied provides promising results in lesser time with accuracy. The GUI (Graphical User Interface) that is generated for the algorithm makes the system user friendly. (author)

  2. Direct and indirect effects of organizational justice on work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, K; Radoschewski, F M; Gutenbrunner, C; Bethge, M

    2014-12-01

    Organizational justice (OJ), involving transparent workplace procedures and treating staff members with respect, has been of growing concern in recent epidemiological research as a determinant of health-related outcomes. To examine the factorial validity of the German version of Moorman's Organizational Justice Questionnaire (OJQ), to investigate the direct cross-sectional effect of OJ on self-rated work ability and to analyse if there is an additional indirect effect of OJ on work ability mediated by effort-reward imbalance. An analysis of cross-sectional data from the Second German Sociomedical Panel of Employees, involving white-collar workers employed at least half time. We performed confirmatory factor analyses to test the factorial validity of the OJQ and analysed the direct and indirect associations of OJ and self-rated work ability by path model analysis. Of the 1217 participants (47% female; mean age: 51) 36% had poor work ability. Factor analyses confirmed the two-factor structure of the German OJQ. Work ability was explained directly by OJ (β = 0.30) and effort-reward imbalance (β = -0.27). Additionally, we identified an indirect effect of OJ that was mediated by effort-reward imbalance (β = 0.14). The total effect of OJ on work ability was remarkably strong (β = 0.44). Associations remained unchanged after adjustment for socio-demographic parameters. This study showed the importance of considering additional indirect pathways when examining the impact of OJ on the work ability of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Age, burnout and physical and psychological work ability among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, D J; Freude, G; Martus, P; Rose, U; Müller, G; Potter, G G

    2018-03-26

    The ageing of the US labour force highlights the need to examine older adults' physical and psychological ability to work, under varying levels of occupational burnout. To examine how age and burnout interact in predicting physical and psychological work ability. Using a cohort of actively working nurses, we assessed factors on the Work Ability Index at 12-month follow-up and determined how these were related to age and exhaustion-related burnout at baseline. The study group consisted of 402 nurses aged 25-67 (mean = 41.7). Results indicated age by burnout interactions in which decrements in physical work ability with greater age were observed at all but the lowest level of burnout (1.5 SD below mean: β = -0.14, 95% CI -0.36, 0.07; 1 SD below: β = -0.23, 95% CI -0.39, -0.06; mean: β = -0.39, 95% CI -0.50, -0.29; 1 SD above: β = -0.56, 95% CI -0.70, -0.42; 1.5 SD above: β = -0.64, 95% CI -0.83, -0.46). In contrast, we observed decrements in psychological work ability with age at higher levels of burnout only (1 SD above: β = -0.20, 95% CI -0.35, -0.05; 1.5 SD above: β = -0.30, 95% CI -0.49, -0.11); at lower levels of burnout, older age was associated with improvements in this (1 SD below: β = 0.19, 95% CI 0.03, 0.35; 1.5 SD below: β = 0.29, 95% CI 0.08, 0.50). Findings indicated physical and psychological dimensions of work ability that differed by age and occupational burnout. This emphasizes the need for interventions to reduce burnout and to address age-related strengths and vulnerabilities relating to physical and psychological work ability.

  4. Early motor development and cognitive abilities among Mexican preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Valencia, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Schnaas, Lourdes

    2017-07-18

    Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale). 148 children whose motor performance was determined at age 3 and was evaluated later at age 5 to determine their cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative, and memory) measured by McCarthy Scales. Significant positive associations were observed between stationary balance at age 3 with verbal abilities (β = 0.67, p = .04) and memory (β = 0.81, p = .02) at 5 years. Grasping and visual-motor integration were significant and positively associated with quantitative abilities (β = 0.74, p = .005; β = 0.61, p = .01) and memory (β = 2.11, p = .001; β = 1.74, p = .004). The results suggest that early motor performance contributes to the establishment of cognitive abilities at 5 years. Evaluation and early motor stimulation before the child is faced with formal learning likely helps to create neuronal networks that facilitate the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  5. Worksite adjustments and work ability among employed cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp, Steffen; Nielsen, Roy A; Gudbergsson, Sævar B; Dahl, Alv A

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine how many cancer survivors (CSs) make worksite adjustments and what kinds of adjustments they make. Changes in work ability among employed CSs were explored, and clinical, sociodemographic, and work-related factors associated with the current total work ability were studied. CSs of the ten most common invasive types of cancer for men and women in Norway completed a mailed questionnaire 15-39 months after being diagnosed with cancer. Included in the analyses were all participants who worked both at the time of diagnosis and at the time of the survey and who had not changed their labor force status since diagnosis (n = 563). The current total work ability was compared to the lifetime best (0-10 score). Twenty-six percent of the employed CSs had made adjustments at work, and the most common adjustment was changing the number of work hours per week. Despite the fact that 31% and 23% reported reduced physical and mental work abilities, respectively, more than 90% of the CSs reported that they coped well with their work demands. The mean total work ability score was high (8.6) among both men and women. Being self-employed and working part-time at the time of diagnosis showed significant negative correlations with total work ability, while a favorable psychosocial work environment showed a significant positive correlation. CSs with low work ability were more often in contact with the occupational health service and also made more worksite adjustments than others. The prospects of future work life seem optimistic for Norwegian employed CSs who return to work relatively soon after primary treatment.

  6. LATENT STRUCTURE OF MOTOR ABILITIES AND SKILLS OF DEAF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnija Hasanbegović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work surveys of latent motility abilities and skills of school children are shown. The sample for this survey was consisted of two subsamples. First one has consisted of deaf children N=29, and the second one has consisted hearing children of same age N=69. Subsamples of deaf is chosen according to model of applied sample, and subsample is chosen randomly, so two stages group sample N=90 has been created. After quantitative differences have been discovered between subsamples, hearing pupils have shown statistically better results at motility skills and techniques than deaf children and cumulative results have been subjected to inter correlation of variables. The target of using this method was determination of saturation of common variability through saturation of variables and their correlation by Ortoblique rotation for determination of latent information that are going to serve as practical guides at education and deaf children treatment, because of improvement of their motility abilities and skills according to hearing children. Three factors have been singled out as main preview of measurement on manifest variables. According to first review of measuring it has been established that at deaf children is needed to work on improving of physical abilities and mobility and then developed motility abilities and skills. Their information has been gained most probably by non system fluctuations as information about ability of balance maintaining which is most probably non dependable of motility abilities and skills as at deaf and hearing children too. According to this survey by entering the structure of measuring instrument it is possible to create programs for improving motility abilities and skills at deaf children.

  7. Incompatible Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassene, Michel J.; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    is, however, based on a taken-for-granted image of asthmatics as, per se, striving to be symptom-free. This image is incompatible with interviewed asthmatics' day-to-day performances of their asthma, and renders invisible (a) that their asthma performances emphasize an economy of good passages...... and of feeling capable, (b) that they achieve the objective of feeling capable in quite different ways, and (c) that feeling capable does not per se equal being symptom-free all the time. To attain long-term use of self-management systems and other patient-centred e-health systems, such systems must acknowledge...

  8. DBU's image

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, Katrin Hellesøe; Saugstrup, Annie; Yohannes, Adiam; Giesow, Katja Ludvigsen; Merved, Mikkel Dollerup

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Football Association (DBU) has a long history of crisis, which has led to a bad reputation for the organisation. The current crisis on the women’s national soccer team is in particular discussed in the media. Why are DBU often in crisis? How do they manage these crises and how does it affect their image? We are interested in identifying what they can do to change this pattern, which is why we conducted the following hypothesis: “DBU does still have an image problem“. We will examin...

  9. [The Impact of Visual Perceptual Abilities on the Performance on the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpup-Stüwe, L; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2015-10-01

    The use of psychometric tests in with children and adolescents is especially important in psychological diagnostics. Nonverbal intelligence tests are very often used to diagnose psychological abnormalities and generate developmental prognosis independent of the child´s verbal abilities. The correlation of the German version of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception - Adolescents and Adults (DTVP-A) with the Wechsler Nonverbal Scala of Abilities (WNV) was calculated based on the results of 172 children, adolescents and young adults aged 9-21 years. Furthermore, it was examined if individuals with poor visual perceptual abilities scored lower on the WNV than healthy subjects. The correlations of the results scored on DTVP-A and WNV ranged from moderate to strong. The group with poor visual perceptual abilities scored significantly lower on the WNV than the control group. Nonverbal intelligence tests like the WNV are not reliable for estimating the intelligence of individuals with low visual perceptual abilities. Therefore, the intelligence of these subjects should be tested with a test that also contains verbal subtests. If poor visual perceptual abilities are suspected, then they should be tested. The DTVP-A seems to be the right instrument for achieving this goal. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.

  11. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Sanbonmatsu

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.

  12. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720

  13. Quantitative imaging with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldofsky, P.J.; Hammond, N.D.

    1988-01-01

    The ability to image tumor by using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody products has been widely demonstrated. The questions of safety and efficacy remain open and require further experience, but at least in some clinical situations radioimmunoimaging has provided clinically useful information. Imaging tumor with radiolabeled monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies has been widely reported, and several summaries have recently appeared. For extensive review of recent clinical imaging the reader is referred to these excellent sources. Having demonstrated the possibility of imaging tumor with radiolabeled antibody, the question now apparent is: will the imaging modality provide information new and different from the already available with established techniques in computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and standard nuclear medicine?

  14. Images of time mind, science, reality

    CERN Document Server

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    2016-01-01

    Have you ever wondered about Time: what it is or how to discuss it? If you have, then you may have been bewildered by the many different views and opinions in many diverse fields to be found, such as physics, mathematics, philosophy, religion, history, and science fiction novels and films. This book will help you unravel fact from fiction. It provides a broad survey of many of these views, these images of time, covering historical, cultural, philosophical, biological, mathematical and physical images of time, including classical and quantum mechanics, special and general relativity and cosmology. This book gives you more than just a review of such images. It provides the reader a basis for judging the scientific soundness of these various images. It develops the reader's critical ability to distinguish Images of Time in terms of its contextual completeness. Differentiating between metaphysical images (which cannot be scientifically validated) and those that could, in principle, be put to empirical test. Showi...

  15. Simultaneous nano-tracking of multiple motor proteins via spectral discrimination of quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizuka, Taishi; Ikezaki, Keigo; Kaneshiro, Junichi; Fujita, Hideaki; Watanabe, Tomonobu M; Ichimura, Taro

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous nanometric tracking of multiple motor proteins was achieved by combining multicolor fluorescent labeling of target proteins and imaging spectroscopy, revealing dynamic behaviors of multiple motor proteins at the sub-diffraction-limit scale. Using quantum dot probes of distinct colors, we experimentally verified the localization precision to be a few nanometers at temporal resolution of 30 ms or faster. One-dimensional processive movement of two heads of a single myosin molecule and multiple myosin molecules was successfully traced. Furthermore, the system was modified for two-dimensional measurement and applied to tracking of multiple myosin molecules. Our approach is useful for investigating cooperative movement of proteins in supramolecular nanomachinery.

  16. Single molecule tracking fluorescence microscopy in mitochondria reveals highly dynamic but confined movement of Tom40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Anton; Tankov, Stoyan; English, Brian P.; Tarassov, Ivan; Tenson, Tanel; Kamenski, Piotr; Elf, Johan; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2011-12-01

    Tom40 is an integral protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane, which as the central component of the Translocase of the Outer Membrane (TOM) complex forms a channel for protein import. We characterize the diffusion properties of individual Tom40 molecules fused to the photoconvertable fluorescent protein Dendra2 with millisecond temporal resolution. By imaging individual Tom40 molecules in intact isolated yeast mitochondria using photoactivated localization microscopy with sub-diffraction limited spatial precision, we demonstrate that Tom40 movement in the outer mitochondrial membrane is highly dynamic but confined in nature, suggesting anchoring of the TOM complex as a whole.

  17. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure for ...

  18. Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Xiaoxia; Abbott, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz Imaging for Biomedical Applications: Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction presents the necessary algorithms needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and these algorithms will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized with an increasing number of trials performed in a biomedical setting. Terahertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries,and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments. This book also: Introduces terahertz radiation techniques and provides a number of topical examples of signal and image processing, as well as machine learning Presents the most recent developments in an emerging field, terahertz radiation Utilizes new methods...

  19. Gamma-ray imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    External nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging of early primary and metastatic lung cancer tumors is difficult due to the poor sensitivity and resolution of existing gamma cameras. Nonimaging counting detectors used for internal tumor detection give ambiguous results because distant background variations are difficult to discriminate from neighboring tumor sites. This suggests that an internal imaging nuclear medicine probe, particularly an esophageal probe, may be advantageously used to detect small tumors because of the ability to discriminate against background variations and the capability to get close to sites neighboring the esophagus. The design, theory of operation, preliminary bench tests, characterization of noise behavior and optimization of such an imaging probe is the central theme of this work

  20. NMR imaging of human atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of atherosclerosis can no longer be evaluated with morphological parameters only. A description of atherosclerotic plaque composition is necessary to study the mechanisms of plaque rupture, which depends on collagenous cap and lipid core thicknesses. NMR, as a biochemical imaging technique, allows visualization of these components using T1 contrast (mobile lipids), T2 contrast (cap vs. core), spin density (calcifications), diffusion imaging, 1H and 13C spectroscopy. Today, these imaging sequences allow to study in vitro the effects of interventional techniques such as angioplasty or atherectomy. Clinical investigations begin, which will attempt to develop in vivo microscopy and test the ability of NMR to predict plaque rupture. (author). 13 refs., 7 figs