WorldWideScience

Sample records for sub-critical flux influence

  1. A vibrating membrane bioreactor operated at supra- and sub-critical flux: Influence of extracellular polymeric substances from yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren Prip; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2007-01-01

    A vibrating membrane bioreactor, in which the fouling problems are reduced by vibrating a hollow fiber membrane module, has been tested in constant flux microfiltration above (supra-critical) and below (sub-critical) an experimentally determined critical flux. Suspensions of bakers yeast cells were...... chosen as filtration medium (dry weight 4 g/l). The influence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from the yeast cells is evaluated by UV absorbance measurements of the bulk supernatant during filtration. The critical flux seems to be an interval or a relative value rather than an absolute value....... Filtration just below the critical flux (sub-critical) seems to be a good compromise between acceptable flux level and acceptable increase of fouling resistance and trans-membrane pressure (TMP) in a given time period. EPS from the yeast cells causes the membrane module to foul and part of the fouling...

  2. Characteristics of membrane fouling in submerged membrane bioreactor under sub-critical flux operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y C; Huang, C P; Pan, Jill R; Lee, H C

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process has become one of the novel technologies to enhance the performance of biological treatment of wastewater. Membrane bioreactor process uses the membrane unit to replace a sediment tank, and this can greatly enhance treatment performance. However, membrane fouling in MBR restricts its widespread application because it leads to permeate flux decline, making more frequent membrane cleaning and replacement necessary, which then increases operating and maintenance costs. This study investigated the sludge characteristics in membrane fouling under sub-critical flux operation and also assessed the effect of shear stress on membrane fouling. Membrane fouling was slow under sub-critical flux operation. However, as filamentous microbes became dominant in the reactor, membrane fouling increased dramatically due to the increased viscosity and polysaccharides. A close link was found between membrane fouling and the amount of polysaccharides in soluble EPS. The predominant resistance was the cake resistance which could be minimized by increasing the shear stress. However, the resistance of colloids and solutes was not apparently reduced by increasing shear stress. Therefore, smaller particles such as macromolecules (e.g. polysaccharides) may play an important role in membrane fouling under sub-critical flux operation.

  3. Accelerator-driven sub-critical research facility with low-enriched fuel in lead matrix: Neutron flux calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The H5B is a concept of an accelerator-driven sub-critical research facility (ADSRF being developed over the last couple of years at the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. Using well-known computer codes, the MCNPX and MCNP, this paper deals with the results of a tar get study and neutron flux calculations in the sub-critical core. The neutron source is generated by an interaction of a proton or deuteron beam with the target placed inside the sub-critical core. The results of the total neutron flux density escaping the target and calculations of neutron yields for different target materials are also given here. Neutrons escaping the target volume with the group spectra (first step are used to specify a neutron source for further numerical simulations of the neutron flux density in the sub-critical core (second step. The results of the calculations of the neutron effective multiplication factor keff and neutron generation time L for the ADSRF model have also been presented. Neutron spectra calculations for an ADSRF with an uranium tar get (highest values of the neutron yield for the selected sub-critical core cells for both beams have also been presented in this paper.

  4. Study on the method of determining the sub-criticality of a reactor via the measurement of core neutron flux spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Aifeng; Jiang Xiaofeng; Zhang Shaohong

    2007-01-01

    A new methodology based on rigorous reactor physics theory astead of the point reactor assumption was proposed to determine or monitor the sub-criticality ora reactor, especially the sub-critical reactor of ADS, via the measurement of in-core flux spatial distribution. Preliminary numerical studies on the 1st ADS sub-critical experimental facilities-Venus No.1 in China have demonstrated the feasibility of this new method. Related discussions pointed out the potential applications of the method. (authors)

  5. Sub-criticality monitoring for ADTR trademark control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Following the debut of the Accelerator Driven Thorium Reactor (ADTR trademark) Power Station at ENC 2010 in Barcelona, thorium as a reactor fuel has gained increasing support. The ADTR trademark concept reactor introduced the combination of an accelerator driven system (ADS) with traditional control rod technology, to provide a very high gain novel sub-critical ADS reactor design. The high gain of the system, while significantly reducing the demands on the accelerator design, pushes up operational sub-criticality (k eff ) closer to unity. In this paper we review this design and the progress made since ENC 2010. We compare 2 different methods of measuring the sub-critical neutron multiplication factor as the fuel cycle develops. The paper discusses the most recent work on k eff measurement and the interesting relationship between neutron flux, accelerator current and fuel temperature when using beam pulse methods to determine operational sub-criticality, of which a European patent is being granted. (orig.)

  6. Accelerator driven sub-critical core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Peter M; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

    2015-03-17

    Systems and methods for operating an accelerator driven sub-critical core. In one embodiment, a fission power generator includes a sub-critical core and a plurality of proton beam generators. Each of the proton beam generators is configured to concurrently provide a proton beam into a different area of the sub-critical core. Each proton beam scatters neutrons within the sub-critical core. The plurality of proton beam generators provides aggregate power to the sub-critical core, via the proton beams, to scatter neutrons sufficient to initiate fission in the sub-critical core.

  7. Physics analyses of an accelerator-driven sub-critical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naberezhnev, Dmitry G.; Gohar, Yousry; Bailey, James; Belch, Henry

    2006-06-01

    Physics analyses have been performed for an accelerator-driven sub-critical assembly as a part of the Argonne National Laboratory activity in preparation for a joint conceptual design with the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine. KIPT has a plan to construct an accelerator-driven sub-critical assembly targeted towards the medical isotope production and the support of the Ukraine nuclear industry. The external neutron source is produced either through photonuclear reactions in tungsten or uranium targets, or deuteron reactions in a beryllium target. KIPT intends using the high-enriched uranium (HEU) for the fuel of the sub-critical assembly. The main objective of this paper is to study the possibility of utilizing low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel instead of HEU fuel without penalizing the sub-critical assembly performance, in particular the neutron flux level. In the course of this activity, several studies have been carried out to investigate the main choices for the system's parameters. The external neutron source has been characterized and a pre-conceptual target design has been developed. Several sub-critical configurations with different fuel enrichments and densities have been considered. Based on our analysis, it was shown that the performance of the LEU fuel is comparable with that of the HEU fuel. The LEU fuel sub-critical assembly with 200-MeV electron energy and 100-kW electron beam power has an average total flux of ˜2.50×10 13 n/s cm 2 in the irradiation channels. The corresponding total facility power is ˜204 kW divided into 91 and 113 kW deposited in the target and sub-critical assemblies, respectively.

  8. Nuclear data requirements for accelerator driven sub-critical systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The development of accelerator driven sub-critical systems (ADSS) require significant amount of new nuclear data in extended energy regions as well as for a variety of new materials. This paper reviews these perspectives in the Indian context.

  9. Reactor Dynamics Experiments with a Sub-Critical Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Yang, Y.; Wu, L.; Momota, H.

    2004-01-01

    A resurgence in use of nuclear power is now underway worldwide. However due to the shutdown of many university research reactors , student laboratories must rely more heavily on use of sub-critical assemblies. Here a driven sub-critical is described that uses a cylindrical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device to provide a fusion neutron source. The small IEC neutron source would be inserted in a fuel element position, with its power input controlled externally at a control panel. This feature opens the way to use of the critical assembly for a number of transient experiments such as sub-critical pulsing and neutron wave propagation. That in turn adds important new insights and excitement for the student teaching laboratory

  10. Reactor physics experiments in PURNIMA sub critical facility coupled with 14 MeV neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Degweker, S.B.; Patel, Tarun; Bishnoi, Saroj; Adhikari, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Sub-critical Systems (ADSS) are attracting increasing worldwide attention due to their superior safety characteristics and their potential for burning actinide and fission product waste and energy production. A number of countries around the world have drawn up roadmaps/programs for development of ADSS. Indian interest in ADSS has an additional dimension, which is related to the planned utilization of our large thorium reserves for future nuclear energy generation. A programme for development of ADSS is taken up at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in India. This includes R and D activities for high current proton accelerator development, target development and Reactor Physics studies. As part of the ADSS Reactor Physics research programme, a sub-critical facility is coming up in BARC which will be coupled with an existing D-D/D-T neutron generator. Two types of cores are planned. In one of these, the sub-critical reactor assembly consists of natural uranium moderated by high density polyethylene (HDP) and reflected by BeO. The other consists of natural uranium moderated by light water. The maximum neutron yield of the neutron source with tritium target is around 10 10 neutron per sec. Various reactor physics experiments like measurement of the source strength, neutron flux distribution, buckling estimation and sub-critical source multiplication are planned. Apart from this, measurement of the total fission power and neutron spectrum will also be carried out. Mainly activation detectors will be used in all in-core neutron flux measurement. Measurement of the degree of sub-criticality by various deterministic and noise methods is planned. Helium detectors with advanced data acquisition card will be used for the neutron noise experiments. Noise characteristics of ADSS are expected to be different from that of traditional reactors due to the non-Poisson statistical features of the source. A new theory incorporating these features has been

  11. International conference on sub-critical accelerator driven systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litovkina, L.P.; Titarenko, Yu.E.

    1999-01-01

    The International Meeting on Sub-Critical Accelerator Driven Systems was organized by the State Scientific Center - Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics with participation of Atomic Ministry of RF. The Meeting objective was to analyze the recent achievements and tendencies of the accelerator-driven systems development. The Meeting program covers a broad range of problems including the accelerator-driven systems (ADS) conceptual design; analyzing the ADS role in nuclear fuel cycle; accuracy of modeling the main parameters of ADS; conceptual design of high-current accelerators. Moreover, the results of recent experimental and theoretical studies on nuclear data accumulation to support the ADS technologies are presented. About 70 scientists from the main scientific centers of Russia, as well as scientists from USA, France, Belgium, India, and Yugoslavia, attended the meeting and presented 44 works [ru

  12. Experimental investigation on flow patterns of RP-3 kerosene under sub-critical and supercritical pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Yu; Wang, Hui

    2014-02-01

    Active cooling with endothermic hydrocarbon fuel is proved to be one of the most promising approaches to solve the thermal problem for hypersonic aircraft such as scramjet. The flow patterns of two-phase flow inside the cooling channels have a great influence on the heat transfer characteristics. In this study, phase transition processes of RP-3 kerosene flowing inside a square quartz-glass tube were experimentally investigated. Three distinct phase transition phenomena (liquid-gas two phase flow under sub-critical pressures, critical opalescence under critical pressure, and corrugation under supercritical pressures) were identified. The conventional flow patterns of liquid-gas two phase flow, namely bubble flow, slug flow, churn flow and annular flow are observed under sub-critical pressures. Dense bubble flow and dispersed flow are recognized when pressure is increased towards the critical pressure whilst slug flow, churn flow and annular flow disappear. Under critical pressure, the opalescence phenomenon is observed. Under supercritical pressures, no conventional phase transition characteristics, such as bubbles are observed. But some kind of corrugation appears when RP-3 transfers from liquid to supercritical. The refraction index variation caused by sharp density gradient near the critical temperature is thought to be responsible for this corrugation.

  13. The influence of humidity fluxes on offshore wind speed profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Pryor, Sara

    2010-01-01

    extrapolation from lower measurements. With humid conditions and low mechanical turbulence offshore, deviations from the traditional logarithmic wind speed profile become significant and stability corrections are required. This research focuses on quantifying the effect of humidity fluxes on stability corrected...... wind speed profiles. The effect on wind speed profiles is found to be important in stable conditions where including humidity fluxes forces conditions towards neutral. Our results show that excluding humidity fluxes leads to average predicted wind speeds at 150 m from 10 m which are up to 4% higher...... than if humidity fluxes are included, and the results are not very sensitive to the method selected to estimate humidity fluxes....

  14. Neutronic Design of an Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.

    2002-01-01

    Conceptual design of an accelerator driven sub-critical research reactor (ADSRR), as a new project in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, is suggested for support to the Ministry of science, technologies and development of Republic Serbia, Yugoslavia. This paper show initial results of neutronic analyses of the proposed ADSRR carried out by Monte Carlo based MCNP and SHIELD codes. According to the proposal, the ADSRR would be constructed, in a later phase, at high-energy channel H5B of the VINCY cyclotron of the TESLA Accelerator Installation, that is under completion in the Vinca Institute. The fuel elements of 80%-enriched uranium dioxide dispersed in aluminium matrix, available in the Vinca Institute, are proposed for the ADSRR core design. The HEU fuel elements are placed in aluminium tubes filled by the 'primary moderator' - light water. These 'fuel tubes' are placed in a square lattice within lead matrix in a stainless steel tank. The lead is used as a 'secondary moderator' in the core and as the axial and radial reflector. Such design of the ADSRR shows that this small low neutron flux system can be used as an experimental 'demonstration' ADS with some neutron characteristics similar to proposed well-known lead moderated and cooled power sub-critical ADS with intermediate or fast neutron spectrum. The proposed experimental ADSRR, beside usage as a valuable research machine in reactor and neutron physics, will contribute to following and developing new nuclear technologies in the country, useful for eventual nuclear power option and nuclear waste incineration in future. (author)

  15. Influence of magnetic history on flux jump fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    A formalism describing the fields at which flux jumps occur in hard superconductors has been confirmed by the description of an experimentally observed shift of flux jump fields in the second hysteresis loop of a Nb 3 Al superconducting sample. By fitting the theoretical model to experimental data, values of the proportionality parameter between the stability limit and the flux jump field, the first stability limit, and the first penetration field have been estimated

  16. Sub-Critical Nuclear Reactor Based on FFAG-Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Seok; Kang, Hung Sik; Lee, Tae Yeon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    After the East-Japan earthquake and the subsequent nuclear disaster, the anti-nuclear mood has been wide spread. It is very unfortunate both for nuclear science community and for the future of mankind, which is threatened by two serious challenges, the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect and the shortage of energy cause by the petroleum exhaustion. While the nuclear energy seemed to be the only solution to these problems, it is clear that it has its own problems, one of which broke out so strikingly in Japan. There are also other problems such as the radiotoxic nuclear wastes that survive up to even tens of thousands years and the limited reserves of Uranium. To solve these problems of nuclear fission energy, accelerator-based sub-critical nuclear reactor was once proposed. (Its details will be explained below.) First of all, it is safe in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem because it can use Thorium as its fuel. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of the accelerator-driven nuclear reactor was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty and economical reasons. The accelerator-based system needs 1 GeV, 10 MW power proton accelerator. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. However, recent technologies make it possible to realize that scale accelerator by a reasonable size. That is the fixed-field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator that is described in this article

  17. Sub-Critical Nuclear Reactor Based on FFAG-Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Seok; Kang, Hung Sik; Lee, Tae Yeon

    2011-01-01

    After the East-Japan earthquake and the subsequent nuclear disaster, the anti-nuclear mood has been wide spread. It is very unfortunate both for nuclear science community and for the future of mankind, which is threatened by two serious challenges, the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect and the shortage of energy cause by the petroleum exhaustion. While the nuclear energy seemed to be the only solution to these problems, it is clear that it has its own problems, one of which broke out so strikingly in Japan. There are also other problems such as the radiotoxic nuclear wastes that survive up to even tens of thousands years and the limited reserves of Uranium. To solve these problems of nuclear fission energy, accelerator-based sub-critical nuclear reactor was once proposed. (Its details will be explained below.) First of all, it is safe in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem because it can use Thorium as its fuel. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of the accelerator-driven nuclear reactor was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty and economical reasons. The accelerator-based system needs 1 GeV, 10 MW power proton accelerator. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. However, recent technologies make it possible to realize that scale accelerator by a reasonable size. That is the fixed-field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator that is described in this article

  18. Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    . FLUX betegner en flyden eller strømmen, dvs. dynamik. Forstår man livet som proces og udvikling i stedet for som ting og mekanik, får man et andet billede af det gode liv end det, som den velkendte vestlige mekanicisme lægger op til. Dynamisk forstået indebærer det gode liv den bedst mulige...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...

  19. Analysis of neutronics and dynamic characteristics with reactivity injection in LBE cooled sub-critical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sen; Wu Yican; Jin Ming; Chen Zhibin; Bai Yunqing; Zhao Zhumin

    2014-01-01

    Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS) has particular neutronics behaviors compared with the critical system. Prompt jump approximation point reactor kinetics equations taken external source into account have been deduced using an approach of prompt jump approximation. And the relationship between injection reactivity and power ampliation has been achieved. In addition, based on the RELAP5 code the prolong development of point reactor kinetics code used into assessing sub-critical system have been promoted. Different sub-criticality (k eff = 0.90, 0.95, 0.97, 0.98 and 0.99) have been assessed in preliminary design of a type of natural circulation cooling sub-critical reactor under conditions of reactivity injection +1 β in one second. It shows that the external source prompt transient approximation method has an accurate solution after injecting reactivity around short time and has a capacity to solve the dynamic equation, and the sub-critical system has an inner stability while the deeper sub-criticality the less impact on the sub-critical system. (authors)

  20. Does SW Monsoon Influence Total Suspended Matter Flux into the Arabian Sea?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, B.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    Seasonal enhancement in the flux of total suspended matter (TSM) has been attributed to climatology of the SW monsoon (SWM) in time-series trap experiments conducted in the Arabian Sea. To determine the influence of climate on TSM flux, synoptic...

  1. Estimation of the sub-criticality of the sodium-cooled fast reactor Monju using the modified neutron source multiplication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, G.; Van Rooijen, W. F. G.; Shimazu, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Modified Neutron Source Method (MNSM) is applied to the Monju reactor. This static method to estimate sub-criticality has already given good results on commercial Pressurized Water Reactors. The MNSM consists both in the extraction of the fundamental mode seen by a detector to avoid the effect of higher modes near sources, and the correction of flux distortion effects due to control rod movement. Among Monju's particularities that have a big influence on MNSM factors are: the presence of two californium sources and the position of the detector which is located far from the core outside of the reactor vessel. The importance of spontaneous fission and (α, n) reactions which have increased during the shutdown period of 15 years will also be discussed. The relative position of detectors and sources deeply affect the correction factors in some regions. In order to evaluate the detector count rate, an analytical propagation has been conducted from the reactor vessel. For two subcritical states, an estimation of the reactivity has been made and compared to experimental data obtained in the restart experiments at Monju (2010). (authors)

  2. The influence of gap to the mass flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Kang, C. H.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2000-01-01

    It was known that the release of gap is very important for I-129, Cs, which have high solubility. According to the disposal concept of spent fuel, there is a little gap between fuel rods and a canister. There is a concept that this gap may be filled with sand or beads, but it is impossible to perfectly fill for this gap, so the gap is one of important parameter in release mechanism. In this paper, the influence of gap was carried out. Gap volume have a little influence in the early stage(within a year), but there is not to significantly affect after 1 year. We have to consider the influence of filling material in canister such as cast iron, which have not considered on this paper

  3. The influence of measurement and relaxation time on flux jumps in high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaobin; Zhou Youhe; Tu Shandong

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the magnetization and relaxation time on flux jumps in high temperature superconductors (HTSC) under varying magnetic field is studied using the fundamental electromagnetic field equations and the thermal diffusion equation; temperature variety corresponding to flux jump is also discussed. We find that for a low sweep rate of the applied magnetic field, the measurement and relaxation times can reduce flux jump and to constrain the number of flux jumps, even stabilizing the HTSC, since much heat produced by the motion of magnetic flux can transfer into coolant during the measurement and relaxation times. As high temperature superconductors are subjected to a high sweep rate or a strong pulsed magnetic field, magnetization undergoes from stability or oscillation to jump for different pause times. And the period of temperature oscillation is equal to the measurement and relaxation time.

  4. Influence of surface conditions in nucleate boiling--the concept of bubble flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukri, M.; Judd, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the influence of surface conditions in nucleate pool boiling is presented. The surface conditions are represented by the number and distribution of the active nucleation sites as well as the size and size distribution of the cavities that constitute the nucleation sites. The heat transfer rate during nucleate boiling is shown to be influenced by the surface condition through its effect on the number and distribution of the active nucleation sites as well as the frequency of bubble departure from each of these different size cavities. The concept of bubble flux density, which is a function of both the active site density and frequency of bubble departure, is introduced. A method of evaluating the bubble flux density is proposed and a uniform correlation between the boiling heat flux and the bubble flux density is found to exist for a particular solid-liquid combination irrespective of the surface finish within the region of isolated bubbles

  5. Burning of spent fuel of an accelerator-driven modular HTGR in sub-critical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xingqing; Yang Yongwei; Chang Hong; Wu Zongxin; Gu Yuxiang

    2002-01-01

    The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor (MHTGR) has good safety characteristics because of the use of coated particles in the fuel element. After the particles cool outside of the reactor for some time, the spent fuel can be re-utilized. The author describes a physics feasibility study for the burning of spent fuel from a 350 MW ring-shaped modular high temperature gas cooled reactor in an accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor. A conceptual design is given for the 30 MW accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor. The neutron transport in the sub-critical reactor was simulated using the MCNP code, and the burnup was calculated using the ORIGEN2 code. The results show that the accelerator-driven sub-critical gas-cooled reactor has reliable sub-criticality and low power density and that the spent fuel from a 350 MW ring-shaped modular high temperature gas cooled reactor can be burned to provide 20% more energy

  6. Proposed sub-criticality level for an 80 MWTHd-bismuth-cooled Ads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansani, L.; Monti, R.; Neuhold, P.

    2003-01-01

    The degree of operational sub-criticality of an Accelerator-driven System (ADS) on the one hand directly affects key accelerator system parameters, such as the proton beam current required to sustain the selected rated power level and, on the other, the likelihood of approaching or attaining criticality under abnormal or accident conditions. Then, if in all such conditions the safety goal is pursued to design the sub-critical core so that it stays away from criticality with adequate margin, the required operational sub-criticality level must be determined by a properly balanced approach between excessively demanding accelerator system performances and risk of accidental criticality. The approach must necessarily include evaluation and appropriate combination of the relevant reactivity effects (e.g. from system cool-down, postulated accident scenarios, geometrical variations) and proper consideration of specific design features (such as, for instance, the absence of safety rods, intended as neutron absorbing devices having a role equivalent to the shutdown rods in critical reactors). The paper presents a possible approach to the determination of the operational sub-criticality level of an 80 MWth Lead-Bismuth-cooled pool type ADS, initially conceived and developed by a team of Italian Organisations led by Ansaldo, with funding from the Ministry of University and Scientific and Technological Research, and currently in the process of being assessed, versus a gas-cooled concept, in the frame of a contract with the Commission of the European Communities. After a brief description of the Lead-Bismuth-cooled ADS concept relevant features and of the key safety goals in terms of required sub-criticality margin, the evaluated reactivity effects are presented, a method to combine them is discussed and a proposed operational sub-criticality level is derived. (author)

  7. Conceptual research on reactor core physics for accelerator driven sub-critical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhixiang; Ding Dazhao; Liu Guisheng; Fan Sheng; Shen Qingbiao; Zhang Baocheng; Tian Ye

    2000-01-01

    The main properties of reactor core physics are analysed for accelerator driven sub-critical reactor. These properties include the breeding of fission nuclides, the condition of equilibrium, the accumulation of long-lived radioactive wastes, the effect from poison of fission products, as well as the thermal power output and the energy gain for sub-critical reactor. The comparison between thermal and fast system for main properties are carried out. The properties for a thermal-fast coupled system are also analysed

  8. Analysis on burn-up behaviors for accelerator-driven sub-critical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guisheng; Zhao Zhixiang; Zhang Baocheng; Shen Qinbiao; Ding Dazhao

    2000-01-01

    An analysis is performed on burn-up behaviors for accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor by means of the code PASC-1 for neutronics calculation, the code CBURN for burn-up calculation and 44 group constants is processed by CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6 using NJOY-91.91

  9. Development of reactivity feedback effect measurement techniques under sub-critical condition in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, A.; Nishi, H.; Suzuki, T.; Okajima, S.; Kanemoto, S.

    2012-01-01

    The first-of-a-kind reactor has been licensed by a safety examination of the plant design based on the measured data in precedent mock-up experiments. The validity of the safety design can be confirmed without a mock-up experiment, if the reactor feed-back characteristics can be measured before operation, with the constructed reactor itself. The 'Synthesis Method', a systematic and sophisticated method of sub-criticality measurement, is proposed in this work to ensure the safety margin before operation. The 'Synthesis Method' is based on the modified source multiplication method (MSM) combined with the noise analysis method to measure the reference sub-criticality level for MSM. A numerical simulation for the control-rod reactivity worth and the isothermal feed-back reactivity was conducted for typical fast reactors of 100 MWe-size, 300 MWe-size, 750 MWe-size, and 1500 MWe-size to investigate the applicability of Synthesis Method. The number of neutron detectors and their positions necessary for the measurement were investigated for both methods of MSM and the noise analysis by a series of parametric survey calculations. As a result, it was suggested that a neutron detector located above the core center and three or more neutron detectors located above the radial blanket region enable the measurement of sub-criticality within 10% uncertainty from -$0.5 to -$2 and within 15% uncertainty for the deeper sub-criticality. (authors)

  10. Recovery of Organic and Amino Acids from Sludge and Fish Waste in Sub Critical Water Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of organic and amino acid production from the treatment of sludge and fish waste using water at sub critical conditions was investigated. The results indicated that at sub-critical conditions, where the ion product of water went through a maximum, the formation of organic acids was favorable. The presence of oxidant favored formation of acetic and formic acid. Other organic acids of significant amount were propionic, succinic and lactic acids. Depending on the type of wastes, formation of other organic acids was also possible. Knowing the organic acids obtained by hydrolysis and oxidation in sub-critical water of various wastes are useful in designing of applicable waste treatment process, complete degradation of organic wastes into volatile carbon and water, and also on the viewpoint of resource recovery. The production of lactic acid was discussed as well. The results indicated that temperature of 573 K, with the absence of oxidant, yield of lactic acid from fish waste was higher than sewage sludge. The maximum yield of total amino acids (137 mg/g-dry fish from waste fish entrails was obtained at subcritical condition (T = 523 K, P = 4 MPa at reaction time of 60 min by using the batch reactor. The amino acids obtained in this study were mainly alanine and glycine. Keywords:  organic acids, amino acids, sub-critical water, hydrothermal, resources recovery

  11. Comparison of the transient behavior of lead-based advanced critical and sub-critical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gang; Gu Zhixing; Wang Zhen; Jin Ming; Bai Yunqing

    2014-01-01

    A lead-based reactor developed by FDS Team is proposed in 2011 and designed to be 10 MW. It is a pool type reactor and the primary coolant is driven by natural circulation. The reactor has two operation modes, which are a lead-based critical fast reactor mode and a lead-based sub-critical reactor mode. The conceptual designs of the two modes are both completed by 2013. In this paper, four transient accidents were simulated for both the critical and sub-critical reactors above by NTC-2D code, which is developed by FDS Team for advanced reactor safety analysis. The four accidents were protected and unprotected loss of heat sink accidents (PLOHS and ULOHS), protected and unprotected transient overpower accidents (PTOP and UTOP). The simulation results of the two reactors were compared and analyzed. The results showed that during PLOHS and PTOP accidents for both the two modes, all the key parameters (core power, fuel, cladding and coolant temperatures in the hottest channel) decreased to very small values after the reactor scrammed, which meant the reactors under the two modes were both safe. For ULOHS, the fuel, cladding and coolant temperatures of the sub-critical reactor increased bigger than those of the critical one. For UTOP, the parameters above of the critical fast reactor were much bigger than those of the sub-critical one. The analysis results showed different safety advantages of the lead-based critical fast and sub-critical reactors during different transient accidents. (author)

  12. An improved lattice hydrodynamic model considering the influence of optimal flux for forward looking sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunong; Ge, Hongxia; Cheng, Rongjun

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a lattice hydrodynamic model is derived considering the delayed-feedback control influence of optimal flux for forward looking sites on a single-lane road which includes more comprehensive information. The control method is used to analyze the stability of the model. The critical condition for the linear steady traffic flow is deduced and the numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the advantage of the proposed model with and without the effect of optimal flux for forward looking sites. Moreover it indicates that the characteristic of the model can lead to a lower energy consumption in traffic system. The results are consistent with the theoretical analysis correspondingly.

  13. Sediment fluxes from California Coastal Rivers: the influences of climate, geology, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, E.D.; Antweiler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    The influences of geologic and climatic factors on erosion and sedimentation processes in rivers draining the western flank of the California Coast Range are assessed. Annual suspended, bedload, and total sediment fluxes were determined for 16 river basins that have hydrologic records covering all or most of the period from 1950 to 2006 and have been relatively unaffected by flow storage, regulation, and depletion, which alter the downstream movement of water and sediment. The occurrence of relatively large annual sediment fluxes are strongly influenced by the El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The frequency of relatively large annual sediment fluxes decreases from north to south during La Nina phases and increases from north to south during El Nino phases. The influence of ENSO is modulated over a period of decades by the PDO, such that relatively large annual sediment fluxes are more frequent during a La Nina phase in conjunction with a cool PDO and during an El Nino phase in conjunction with a warm PDO. Values of mean annual sediment flux, , were regressed against basin and climatic characteristics. Basin area, bedrock erodibility, basin relief, and precipitation explain 87% of the variation in from the 16 river basins. Bedrock erodibility is the most significant characteristic influencing . Basin relief is a superior predictor of compared with basin slope. is nearly proportional to basin area and increases with increasing precipitation. For a given percentage change, basin relief has a 2.3-fold greater effect on than a similar change in precipitation. The estimated natural from all California coastal rivers for the period 1950–2006 would have been approximately 85 million tons without flow storage, regulation, and depletion; the actual has been approximately 50 million tons, because of the effects of flow storage, regulation, and depletion.

  14. Influence of grain boundary connectivity on the trapped magnetic flux of multi-seeded bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z., E-mail: zgdeng@gmail.com [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Hara, S.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulks as representatives. A coupling ratio to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside multi-seeded bulks. An averaged trapped magnetic flux density parameter was introduced. The top-seeded melt-growth process with multi-seeding technique provides a promising way to fabricate large-sized bulk superconductors in an economical way. To understand the essential characteristics of the multi-seeded bulks, the paper reports the influence of the grain boundary (GB) coupling or connectivity on the total trapped magnetic flux. The coupling ratio, the lowest trapped flux density in the GB area to the averaged top value of the two neighboring peak trapped fields, is introduced to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside a multi-seeded bulk. By the trapped flux density measurement of four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulk samples as representatives, it was found that the GB coupling plays an important role for the improvement of the total trapped magnetic flux; moreover, somewhat more significant than the widely used parameter of the peak trapped fields to evaluate the physical performance of bulk samples. This characteristic is different with the case of the well-grown single-grain bulks.

  15. Calculation and analysis of burnup and optimum core design in accelerator driven sub-critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuwei; Yang Yongwei; Cui Pengfei

    2011-01-01

    The premise of the accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS) in the accident is still subcritical, the biggest k eff change with burn time is less than 1.5% and the cladding material, HT9 steel, can withstand the maximum radiation damage, core fuel area is divided into fuel transmutation area and fuel multiplication area, and fuel transmutation area maintains the same fuel composition in the whole process. Through the analysis of the composition of the fuel, shape of core layout and the power distribution, etc., supposed outer and inner Pu enrichment ratio range of 1.0-1.5, then the fuel components of fuel multiplication area was adjusted. Time evolution of k eff was calculated by COUPLED2 which coupled with MCNP and ORIGEN. At the same time the power peaking factors, minoractinides transmutation rate desired to maximization and burnup were considered. A sub-critical system fitting for engineering practice was established. (authors)

  16. Sub-critical pulsed neutron experiments with uranyl nitrate solutions in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, Victor N.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Sviridov, Victor I.; Volnistov, Vladimir V.

    2003-01-01

    The pulse source method is used to study homogeneous solution assemblies. Three sets of sub-critical pulse experiments with spherical tanks filled with water solution of uranyl nitrate (90% enrichment) were carried out at the RF-GS facility, Obninsk, Russia. Seven spherical tanks with the volume within the range of 1.29 L to 19.8 L were used in the experiments. Three uranium concentrations were studied, i.e. 20.7, 29.6 and 37.5 g/L. The sub-critical experiments were analyzed with the MCNP 4A code based on the Monte-Carlo method, and with ENDF/B-V library. (author)

  17. Uranium Enrichment Determination of the InSTEC Sub Critical Ensemble Fuel by Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell Munnoz, Jose L.; LopezPino, Neivy; Diaz Rizo, Oscar; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, Katia; Padilla Cabal, Fatima; Arbelo Penna, Yunieski; Garcia Rios, Aczel R.; Quintas Munn, Ernesto L.; Casanova Diaz, Amaya O.

    2009-01-01

    Low background gamma spectrometry was applied to analyze the uranium enrichment of the nuclear fuel used in the InSTEC Sub Critical ensemble. The enrichment was calculated by two variants: an absolute method using the Monte Carlo method to simulated detector volumetric efficiency, and an iterative procedure without using standard sources. The results confirm that the nuclear fuel of the ensemble is natural uranium without any additional degree of enrichment. (author)

  18. Analytical solution of point kinetic equations for sub-critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrice Junior, Edson; Goncalves, Alessandro C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analytical solution for the set of point kinetic equations for sub-critical reactors. This solution stems from the ordinary, non-homogeneous differential equation that rules the neutron density and that presents the incomplete Gamma function in its functional form. The method used proved advantageous and allowed practical applications such as the linear insertion of reactivity, considering an external constant source or with both varying linearly. (author)

  19. Noise method for monitoring the sub-criticality in accelerator driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugama, Y.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Perez, R.B.; Perez-Navarro, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an absolute measurements technique for the sub-criticality determination is presented. The development of ADS, requires of methods to monitor and control the sub-criticality of this kind of systems, without interfering it's normal operation mode. This method is based on the Stochastic Neutron and Photon Transport Theory developed by Munoz-Cobo et al., and which can be implemented in presently available neutron transport codes. As a by-product of the methodology a monitoring measurement technique has been developed and verified using two coupled Monte Carlo programs. The spallation collisions and the high-energy transport are simulated with LAHET. The neutrons transports with energies less than 20 MeV and the estimation of the count statistics for neutron and/or gamma ray counters in fissile systems, is simulated with MCNP-DSP. It is possible to get the kinetics parameters and the k eff value of the sub-critical system through the analysis of the counter detectors. (author)

  20. Influence Method” applied to measure a moderated neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, I.J.; Mayer, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    The “Influence Method” is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector, in the count rate of another detector when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency. The method and its detailed mathematical description were recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015 [1]). In this article we apply it to the measurement of the moderated neutron flux produced by an "2"4"1AmBe neutron source surrounded by a light water sphere, employing a pair of "3He detectors. For this purpose, the method is extended for its application where particles arriving at the detector obey a Poisson distribution and also, for the case when efficiency is not constant over the energy spectrum of interest. Experimental distributions and derived parameters are compared with theoretical predictions of the method and implications concerning the potential application to the absolute calibration of neutron sources are considered. - Highlights: • “Influence Method” applied to measure a moderated neutron flux. • Effective efficiency defined independently of calibration sources. • Neutron sources calibration discussion.

  1. To the question of definition of fissile material mass and neutron multiplication in deep sub-critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulin, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    A method of determination neutrons multiplication in deep sub-critical multiplying media has been developed. It is based on a modified of Rossi - alpha method. It will consist in use of integral on time (a method of the areas) from correlated parts of distribution and integral in area, independent of time a part of distribution (area of a constant background). It allows to spend the calculated analysis, using the integrated equation on time for a neutrons flux and to not use representation of point kinetic model. A calculation spatially-correlation factor the adjoint (relative the detector count rate) inhomogeneous equation is used. Its calculation takes into account fission both in multiplying media and in a spontaneous neutron source. Measurements with plutonium-steel and uranium-steel blocks, and blocks from uranium and plutonium dioxide of different enrichment are have been carried out. The measured values of neutrons multiplication in a range 1.03-1.82 will be well coordinated to results of calculations. The question on an opportunity of definition of weight of the measured blocks of fissile material is considered [ru

  2. The Influence of Heat Flux Boundary Heterogeneity on Heat Transport in Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. J.; Mound, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Rotating convection in planetary systems can be subjected to large lateral variations in heat flux from above; for example, due to the interaction between the metallic cores of terrestrial planets and their overlying silicate mantles. The boundary anomalies can significantly reorganise the pattern of convection and influence global diagnostics such as the Nusselt number. We have conducted a suite of numerical simulations of rotating convection in a spherical shell geometry comparing convection with homogeneous boundary conditions to that with two patterns of heat flux variation at the outer boundary: one hemispheric pattern, and one derived from seismic tomographic imaging of Earth's lower mantle. We consider Ekman numbers down to 10-6 and flux-based Rayleigh numbers up to 800 times critical. The heterogeneous boundary conditions tend to increase the Nusselt number relative to the equivalent homogeneous case by altering both the flow and temperature fields, particularly near the top of the convecting region. The enhancement in Nusselt number tends to increase as the amplitude and wavelength of the boundary heterogeneity is increased and as the system becomes more supercritical. In our suite of models, the increase in Nusselt number can be as large as 25%. The slope of the Nusselt-Rayleigh scaling also changes when boundary heterogeneity is included, which has implications when extrapolating to planetary conditions. Additionally, regions of effective thermal stratification can develop when strongly heterogeneous heat flux conditions are applied at the outer boundary.

  3. Influence of grain boundary connectivity on the trapped magnetic flux of multi-seeded bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.; Hara, S.; Uetake, T.; Izumi, M.

    2011-09-01

    The top-seeded melt-growth process with multi-seeding technique provides a promising way to fabricate large-sized bulk superconductors in an economical way. To understand the essential characteristics of the multi-seeded bulks, the paper reports the influence of the grain boundary (GB) coupling or connectivity on the total trapped magnetic flux. The coupling ratio, the lowest trapped flux density in the GB area to the averaged top value of the two neighboring peak trapped fields, is introduced to reflect the coupling quality of GBs inside a multi-seeded bulk. By the trapped flux density measurement of four different performance multi-seeded YBCO bulk samples as representatives, it was found that the GB coupling plays an important role for the improvement of the total trapped magnetic flux; moreover, somewhat more significant than the widely used parameter of the peak trapped fields to evaluate the physical performance of bulk samples. This characteristic is different with the case of the well-grown single-grain bulks.

  4. Critical and sub-critical experiments on U-BeO lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.; Gourdon, Ch.; Martelly, J.; Sagot, M.; Wanner, G.

    1958-01-01

    Sub-critical experiments have allowed us to measure the material buckling of uranium natural oxide of beryllium lattices with a grid of 15 cm, and made up of uranium bars measuring 2.60 - 2.92 - 3.56 and 4.40 cm of diameter. A critical experiment has then been conducted with hollow 1.35 per cent enriched uranium bars. A study of U-BeO 18.03 cm grid lattices is at present being conducted. (author) [fr

  5. Influence of magnet eddy current on magnetization characteristics of variable flux memory machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Lin, Heyun; Zhu, Z. Q.; Lyu, Shukang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the magnet eddy current characteristics of a newly developed variable flux memory machine (VFMM) is investigated. Firstly, the machine structure, non-linear hysteresis characteristics and eddy current modeling of low coercive force magnet are described, respectively. Besides, the PM eddy current behaviors when applying the demagnetizing current pulses are unveiled and investigated. The mismatch of the required demagnetization currents between the cases with or without considering the magnet eddy current is identified. In addition, the influences of the magnet eddy current on the demagnetization effect of VFMM are analyzed. Finally, a prototype is manufactured and tested to verify the theoretical analyses.

  6. Influence of moist combustion gas on performance of a sub-critical turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenbin; Su Ming

    2005-01-01

    In the HAT cycle, as the absolute humidity of the moist combustion gas increases, the performance of the turbine will also change. In this paper, one model to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the moist combustion gas is introduced, and another model to calculate the performance of the turbine is formulated based on the equations of one dimensional flow. Using these models with the geometric parameters of the turbine fixed, at the design working condition, the performance of the turbine is calculated and analyzed for different absolute humidities. Finally, some conclusions about the turbine performance are presented

  7. 233U breeding in accelerator-driven sub-critical fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongwei; An Yu

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator-driven Sub-critical Fast Reactor (ADFR) is chosen as fissile-material-breeding reactor. (U-Pu)O x is chosen as fuel in the core and ThO 2 as fertile material in the blanket zone to breed 233 U. Molten lead is chosen as coolant because of its better neutronic and chemical characteristics over sodium. The program system used for neutronics study consists of: LAHET, for the simulation of the interaction between the proton with medium energy and the nuclei of the target; MCNP4A, for the simulation of neutron transport with energy below 20 MeV in the sub-critical reactor; CONNECT1, for the processing of some tallies provided by the output of MCNP4A in order to prepare micro-cross sections for elements used for burnup calculation; ORIGEN2, used for multi-region burnup calculation; CONNECT2, for the processing of atom densities of some elements provided in the output of ORIGEN2 in order to prepare input to LAHET calculation for next time step. The calculated results show that the proposed case is feasible for breeding fissile material considering the criticality safety, power density, burnup, etc

  8. Influence of Electrostatics on Small Molecule Flux through a Protein Nanoreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Jeff E; Asensio, Michael A; Jakobson, Christopher M; Francis, Matthew B; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2015-09-18

    Nature uses protein compartmentalization to great effect for control over enzymatic pathways, and the strategy has great promise for synthetic biology. In particular, encapsulation in nanometer-sized containers to create nanoreactors has the potential to elicit interesting, unexplored effects resulting from deviations from well-understood bulk processes. Self-assembled protein shells for encapsulation are especially desirable for their uniform structures and ease of perturbation through genetic mutation. Here, we use the MS2 capsid, a well-defined porous 27 nm protein shell, as an enzymatic nanoreactor to explore pore-structure effects on substrate and product flux during the catalyzed reaction. Our results suggest that the shell can influence the enzymatic reaction based on charge repulsion between small molecules and point mutations around the pore structure. These findings also lend support to the hypothesis that protein compartments modulate the transport of small molecules and thus influence metabolic reactions and catalysis in vitro.

  9. Influence of external toroidal flux on low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuno, S.; Natori, M.; Kamitani, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the HIST device, the external flux is generated by two kinds of currents: the current I s flowing along the symmetry axis and the bias coil current I D . The influence of the external flux on the MHD equilibrium and stability of the low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasma in the HIST device is investigated numerically. Equilibrium configurations of the low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasma in the HIST device are numerically determined by means of the combination of FDM and BEM. The influence of I s and I D on their stability is also investigated by using the Mercier criterion. The results of computations show that the Mercier limit decreases to zero with increasing I s and with decreasing I D . Moreover, either a further increase in I s or a further decrease in I D raises the Mercier limit considerably. Besides, the equilibrium configuration in the HIST device changes its state from spheromak through ultra-low q to tokamak with increasing I s and with decreasing I D . (author)

  10. The influence of land surface parameters on energy flux densities derived from remote sensing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittebrand, A.; Schwiebus, A. [Inst. for Hydrology und Meteorology, TU Dresden (Germany); Berger, F.H. [Observatory Lindenberg, German Weather Service, Lindenberg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Knowledge of the vegetation properties surface reflectance, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) are essential for the determination of the heat and water fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Remote sensing data can be used to derive spatial estimates of the required surface properties. The determination of land surface parameters and their influence on radiant and energy flux densities is investigated with data of different remote sensing systems. Sensitivity studies show the importance of correctly derived land surface properties to estimate the key quantity of the hydrological cycle, the evapotranspiration (L.E), most exactly. In addition to variable parameters like LAI or NDVI there are also parameters which are can not be inferred from satellite data but needed for the Penman-Monteith approach. Fixed values are assumed for these variables because they have little influence on L.E. Data of Landsat-7 ETM+ and NOAA-16 AVHRR are used to show results in different spatial resolution. The satellite derived results are compared with ground truth data provided by the Observatory Lindenberg of the German Weather Service. (orig.)

  11. Bright lights, big city: influences of ecological light pollution on reciprocal stream-riparian invertebrate fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lars A; Sullivan, S Mazeika P

    2013-09-01

    Cities produce considerable ecological light pollution (ELP), yet the effects of artificial night lighting on biological communities and ecosystem function have not been fully explored. From June 2010 to June 2011, we surveyed aquatic emergent insects, riparian arthropods entering the water, and riparian spiders of the family Tetragnathidae at nine stream reaches representing common ambient ELP levels of Columbus, Ohio, USA, streams (low, 0.1-0.5 lux; moderate, 0.6-2.0 lux; high, 2.1-4.0 lux). In August 2011, we experimentally increased light levels at the low- and moderate-treatment reaches to 10-12 lux to represent urban streams exposed to extremely high levels of ELP. Although season exerted the dominant influence on invertebrate fluxes over the course of the year, when analyzed by season, we found that light strongly influenced multiple invertebrate responses. The experimental light addition resulted in a 44% decrease in tetragnathid spider density (P = 0.035), decreases of 16% in family richness (P = 0.040) and 76% in mean body size (P = 0.022) of aquatic emergent insects, and a 309% increase in mean body size of terrestrial arthropods (P = 0.015). Our results provide evidence that artificial light sources can alter community structure and ecosystem function in streams via changes in reciprocal aquatic-terrestrial fluxes of invertebrates.

  12. Optimization by simulation of the coupling between a sub-critical reactor and its spallation source. Towards a pilot reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerdraon, D.

    2001-10-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), based on a proton accelerator and a sub-critical core coupled with a spallation target, offer advantages in order to reduce the nuclear waste radiotoxicity before repository closure. Many studies carried out on the ADS should lead to the definition of an experimental plan which would federate the different works in progress. This thesis deals with the neutronic Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNPX code to optimize such a system in view of a pilot reactor building. First, we have recalled the main neutronic properties of an hybrid reactor. The concept of gas-cooled eXperimental Accelerator Driven System (XADS) chosen for our investigations comes from the preliminary studies done by the Framatome company. In order to transmute minor actinides, we have considered the time evolution of the main fuels which could be reasonably used for the demonstration phases. The neutronic parameters of the reactor, concerning minor actinide transmutation, are reported. Also, we have calculated the characteristic times and the transmutation rates in the case of 99 Tc and 129 I isotopes. We have identified some neutronic differences between an experimental and a power ADS according to the infinite multiplication coefficient, the shape factor and the level of flux to extend the demonstrator concept. We have proposed geometric solutions to keep the radial shape factor of a power ADS acceptable. In the last part, beyond the experimental XADS scope, we have examined the possible transition towards an uranium/thorium cycle based on Molten Salt Reactors using a power ADS in order to generate the required 233 U proportion. (author)

  13. Spatial eigensolution analysis of energy-stable flux reconstruction schemes and influence of the numerical flux on accuracy and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengaldo, Gianmarco; De Grazia, Daniele; Moura, Rodrigo C.; Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2018-04-01

    This study focuses on the dispersion and diffusion characteristics of high-order energy-stable flux reconstruction (ESFR) schemes via the spatial eigensolution analysis framework proposed in [1]. The analysis is performed for five ESFR schemes, where the parameter 'c' dictating the properties of the specific scheme recovered is chosen such that it spans the entire class of ESFR methods, also referred to as VCJH schemes, proposed in [2]. In particular, we used five values of 'c', two that correspond to its lower and upper bounds and the others that identify three schemes that are linked to common high-order methods, namely the ESFR recovering two versions of discontinuous Galerkin methods and one recovering the spectral difference scheme. The performance of each scheme is assessed when using different numerical intercell fluxes (e.g. different levels of upwinding), ranging from "under-" to "over-upwinding". In contrast to the more common temporal analysis, the spatial eigensolution analysis framework adopted here allows one to grasp crucial insights into the diffusion and dispersion properties of FR schemes for problems involving non-periodic boundary conditions, typically found in open-flow problems, including turbulence, unsteady aerodynamics and aeroacoustics.

  14. Journey from discovery of nuclear fission to accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor systems (ADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    The epoch making discovery of nuclear fission in 1939, which resulted purely from the curiosity driven basic research to understand the atomic and nuclear structure has changed the world forever with the onset of a new era in the history of human civilization. The basic nuclear physics research pursued after the discovery of fission has also been of much relevance in the harnessing of nuclear energy. In the recent years, there is considerable interest towards developing accelerator driven sub-critical reactor systems (ADS) for the incineration of the long-lived spent fuel radioactive waste and for the utilization of thorium fuel for nuclear power generation. In this talk, we discuss important milestones in the journey from discovery of nuclear fission to ADS. (author)

  15. Conceptual design based on scale laws and algorithms for sub-critical transmutation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In order to conduct the effective integration of computer-aided conceptual design for integrated nuclear power reactor, not only is a smooth information flow required, but also decision making for both conceptual design and construction process design must be synthesized. In addition to the aboves, the relations between the one step and another step and the methodologies to optimize the decision variables are verified, in this paper especially, that is, scaling laws and scaling criteria. In the respect with the running of the system, the integrated optimization process is proposed in which decisions concerning both conceptual design are simultaneously made. According to the proposed reactor types and power levels, an integrated optimization problems are formulated. This optimization is expressed as a multi-objective optimization problem. The algorithm for solving the problem is also presented. The proposed method is applied to designing a integrated sub-critical reactors. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. Accelerator-driven sub-critical target concept for transmutation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Todosow, M.; Aronson, A.L.; Takahashi, H.; Geiger, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW e . 19 refs., 20 figs

  17. Present status of Monte Carlo seminar for sub-criticality safety analysis in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides overview of the methods and results of a series of sub-criticality safety analysis seminars for nuclear fuel cycle facility with the Monte Carlo method held in Japan from July 2000 to July 2003. In these seminars, MCNP-4C2 system (MS-DOS version) was installed in note-type personal computers for participants. Fundamental theory of reactor physics and Monte Carlo simulation as well as the contents of the MCNP manual were lectured. Effective neutron multiplication factors and neutron spectra were calculated for some examples such as JCO deposit tank, JNC uranium solution storage tank, JNC plutonium solution storage tank and JAERI TCA core. Management for safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities was discussed in order to prevent criticality accidents in some of the seminars. (author)

  18. Conceptual design based on scale laws and algorithms for sub-critical transmutation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In order to conduct the effective integration of computer-aided conceptual design for integrated nuclear power reactor, not only is a smooth information flow required, but also decision making for both conceptual design and construction process design must be synthesized. In addition to the aboves, the relations between the one step and another step and the methodologies to optimize the decision variables are verified, in this paper especially, that is, scaling laws and scaling criteria. In the respect with the running of the system, the integrated optimization process is proposed in which decisions concerning both conceptual design are simultaneously made. According to the proposed reactor types and power levels, an integrated optimization problems are formulated. This optimization is expressed as a multi-objective optimization problem. The algorithm for solving the problem is also presented. The proposed method is applied to designing a integrated sub-critical reactors. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  19. Do plant species influence soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in a diverse tropical forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L.M. van Haren; R.C. de Oliveira; N. Restrepo-Coupe; L. Hutyra; P. B. de Camargo; Michael Keller; S.R. Saleska

    2010-01-01

    [1] To test whether plant species influence greenhouse gas production in diverse ecosystems, we measured wet season soil CO2 and N2O fluxes close to 300 large (>35 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH)) trees of 15 species at three clay‐rich forest sites in central Amazonia. We found that soil CO2 fluxes were 38% higher near large trees than at control sites >10...

  20. Influence of the late winter bloom on migrant zooplankton metabolism and its implications on export fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzeys, S.; Yebra, L.; Almeida, C.; Bécognée, P.; Hernández-León, S.

    2011-12-01

    Studies on carbon active fluxes due to diel migrants are scarce and critical for carbon flux models and biogeochemical estimates. We studied the temporal variability and vertical distribution of biomass, indices of feeding and respiration of the zooplanktonic community north off the Canary Islands during the end of the late winter bloom, in order to assess vertical carbon fluxes in this area. Biomass distribution during the day presented two dense layers of organisms at 0-200 m and around 500 m, whereas at night, most of the biomass concentrated in the epipelagic layer. The gut pigment flux (0.05-0.18 mgC·m - 2 ·d - 1 ) represented 0.22% of the estimated passive export flux (POC flux) while potential ingestion represented 3.91% of the POC (1.24-3.40 mgC·m - 2 ·d - 1 ). The active respiratory flux (0.50-1.36 mgC·m - 2 ·d - 1 ) was only 1.57% of the POC flux. The total carbon flux mediated by diel migrants (respiration plus potential ingestion) ranged between 3.37 and 9.22% of the POC flux; which is three-fold higher than calculating ingestion fluxes from gut pigments. Our results suggest that the fluxes by diel migrants play a small role in the downward flux of carbon in the open ocean during the post-bloom period.

  1. Influence of the operating parameters on the flux during microfiltration of the steepwater in the starch industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šereš Zita I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the work is the possibility of applying microfiltration through a ceramic tubular membrane with 100 nm pore sizes to the steepwater obtained in the production process of corn starch. The dry matter content should be reduced in the steepwater permeate. Thus the consumption of the process water would be reduced, the nutrients from the steepwater could be exploited as feed and the wastewater problem would consequently be solved. The objective of the work was to examine the influence of the operating parameters on the permeate flux during steepwater microfiltration. The parameters that vary in the course of microfiltration, were the transmembrane pressur and flow rate, while the permeate flux and dry matter content of the permeate and retentate were the dependent parameters, constantly monitored during the process. Another objective of this study was to investigate the influence of static turbulence promoter on the permeate flux during steepwater microfiltration. Static mixers enhance permeate flux, thus the microfiltration can be performed longer. As a result of the statistical analysis, the optimal conditions for steepwater microfiltration were determined. The maximum value of the permeate flux without mixer (25 lm-2h-1 was achieved at a pressure of 2 bars and a flow rate around 100 lh-1. With the use of static mixer the flux is 2,5 times higher compared to the one obtained without the mixer. The dry matter content of the permeat after 2.5 hours of mucrofiltration was lowered by 40%.

  2. How Choice of Depth Horizon Influences the Estimated Spatial Patterns and Global Magnitude of Ocean Carbon Export Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palevsky, Hilary I.; Doney, Scott C.

    2018-05-01

    Estimated rates and efficiency of ocean carbon export flux are sensitive to differences in the depth horizons used to define export, which often vary across methodological approaches. We evaluate sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) flux rates and efficiency (e-ratios) in a global earth system model, using a range of commonly used depth horizons: the seasonal mixed layer depth, the particle compensation depth, the base of the euphotic zone, a fixed depth horizon of 100 m, and the maximum annual mixed layer depth. Within this single dynamically consistent model framework, global POC flux rates vary by 30% and global e-ratios by 21% across different depth horizon choices. Zonal variability in POC flux and e-ratio also depends on the export depth horizon due to pronounced influence of deep winter mixing in subpolar regions. Efforts to reconcile conflicting estimates of export need to account for these systematic discrepancies created by differing depth horizon choices.

  3. Influence of test tube material on subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux in short vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Koichi; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Noda, Nobuaki

    2007-01-01

    The steady state subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) for the flow velocities (u=4.0 to 13.3 m/s), the inlet subcoolings (ΔT sub,in =48.6 to 154.7 K), the inlet pressure (P in =735.2 to 969.0 kPa) and the increasing heat input (Q 0 exp(t/τ), τ=10, 20 and 33.3 s) are systematically measured with the experimental water loop. The 304 Stainless Steel (SUS304) test tube of inner diameter (d=6 mm), heated length (L=66 mm) and L/d=11 with the inner surface of rough finished (Surface roughness, Ra=3.18 μm), the Cupro Nickel (Cu-Ni 30%) test tube of d=6 mm, L=60 mm and L/d=10 with Ra=0.18 μm and the Platinum (Pt) test tubes of d=3 and 6 mm, L=66.5 and 69.6 mm, and L/d=22.2 and 11.6 respectively with Ra=0.45 μm are used in this work. The CHF data for the SUS304, Cu-Ni 30% and Pt test tubes were compared with SUS304 ones for the wide ranges of d and L/d previously obtained and the values calculated by the authors' published steady state CHF correlations against outlet and inlet subcoolings. The influence of the test tube material on CHF is investigated into details and the dominant mechanism of subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux is discussed. (author)

  4. Influence of Test Tube Material on Subcooled Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux in Short Vertical Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koichi Hata; Masahiro Shiotsu; Nobuaki Noda

    2006-01-01

    The steady state subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) for the flow velocities (u = 4.0 to 13.3 m/s), the inlet subcooling (ΔT sub,in = 48.6 to 154.7 K), the inlet pressure (P in = 735.2 to 969.0 kPa) and the increasing heat input (Q 0 exp(t/t), t = 10, 20 and 33.3 s) are systematically measured with the experimental water loop. The 304 Stainless Steel (SUS304) test tubes of inner diameters (d = 6 mm), heated lengths (L = 66 mm) and L/d = 11 with the inner surface of rough finished (Surface roughness, R a = 3.18 μm), the Cupro Nickel (Cu-Ni 30%) test tubes of d = 6 mm, L = 60 mm and L/d = 10 with R a = 0.18 μm and the Platinum (Pt) test tubes of d = 3 and 6 mm, L = 66.5 and 69.6 mm, and L/d 22.2 and 11.6 respectively with R a = 0.45 μm are used in this work. The CHF data for the SUS304, Cu-Ni 30% and Pt test tubes were compared with SUS304 ones for the wide ranges of d and L/d previously obtained and the values calculated by the authors' published steady state CHF correlations against outlet and inlet subcooling. The influence of the test tube material on CHF is investigated into details and the dominant mechanism of subcooled flow boiling critical heat flux is discussed. (authors)

  5. Influence of tungsten microstructure and ion flux on deuterium plasma-induced surface modifications and deuterium retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzi, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Unterberg, B.; M. Reinhart,; Dittmar, T.; Matveev, D.; Linsmeier, C.; Breuer, U.; Kreter, A.; Van Oost, G.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of surface temperature, particle flux density and material microstructure on the surface morphology and deuterium retention was studied by exposing tungsten targets (20 μm and 40 μm grain size) to deuterium plasma at the same particle fluence (1026 m−2) and

  6. Proposals on the organization of a fuel cycle of the cascade sub-critical molten salt reactor (CSMSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, A.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Melnik, M.I.; Babikov, L.G.; Ponomarev, L.I.

    2002-01-01

    At present the approach of burning out long-lived radioactive waste (RW) in the reactor core neutron flux is the most feasible one. Currently the way of closing nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) on the basis of the nuclear chemical concept of the cascade sub-critical molten salt reactor (CSMSR) is considered as the most promising one. It is characterised by a number of advantages. CSMSR controlled by a beam of protons or electrons is the optimal reactor for closing the NFC using non-aqueous fluoride methods of fuel reprocessing. They, in comparison with aqueous methods, are characterised by a small waste quantity and are less laborious because of the absence of severe requirements to the product purity. A high productivity of high-temperature electrochemical processes allows the implementation of the fuel recycling process as part of the CSMSR total technological cycle. It can be conducted in the 'on-line' mode in the bypass molten salt circuit that brings the transportation volume of high-activity materials to a minimum. In order to reprocess the CSMSR irradiated molten salt fuel on the basis of salt composition LiF-NaF-(BeF 2 ) an option, based on the following three main operations of the melt treatment, was proposed at SSC RF RIAR: (i) On-line argon treatment of molten salt fuel for removal of gaseous fission products (FP) and also FP that form volatile fluorides and aerosols; (ii) Organisation of the fuel-active metal (probably with a fine-dispersed plutonium alloy) interaction in the on-line mode for removal of 'noble' and 'semi-noble' FP and corrosion products such as Ni, Fe, Cr (when using Pu alloy it allows to regenerate at the same time of the burned-out plutonium component); (iii) Portion-by-portion (fuel composition partially being removed from the CSMSR molten salt circuit) pyroelectrochemical reprocessing of the molten salt composition aimed at the removal of lanthanides - FP followed by a return of actinides to the CSMSR fuel cycle. This technology will allow

  7. Reactor noise in critical and accelerator driven sub-critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degweker, S.B.; Rana, Y.S.

    2007-01-01

    Noise methods have long been used for reactor kinetics parameters measurement and as diagnostic tools for monitoring the health of a nuclear power plant. It is conceivable that noise techniques would find similar applications in ADS. Measurement/monitoring the degree of sub-criticality of an ADS is one such application for which noise based methods are being considered, among others such as the pulsed source method. For this reason, theoretical studies on ADS noise have appeared since the late nineties. The principal difference between critical reactor noise and ADS noise is due to the statistical properties of the source. Unlike the source due to radioactive decay present in ordinary reactors, the machine produced ADS source cannot be assumed to be a Poisson process. In addition the source is pulsed. All this requires a new theoretical approach to the subject. In a number of papers (beginning in 2000) such a theoretical approach has been developed in BARC. Over the years, our approach has received general acceptance. The paper gives a description of the subject of reactor noise and its applications in critical reactors. The theory of noise in ADS is then outlined, highlighting the differences in approach and results from that of critical reactors. (author)

  8. Sub-critical cohesive crack propagation with hydro-mechanical coupling and friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Valente

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the long-time behaviour of a dam, it is necessary to assume that the water can penetrate a possible crack washing away some components of the concrete. This type of corrosion reduces the tensile strength and fracture energy of the concrete compared to the same parameters measured during a short-time laboratory test. This phenomenon causes the so called sub-critical crack propagation. That is the reason why the International Commission of Large Dams recommends to neglect the tensile strength of the joint between the dam and the foundation, which is the weakest point of a gravity dam. In these conditions a shear displacement discontinuity starts growing in a point, called Fictitious Crack Tip (shortened FCT, which is still subjected to a compression stress. In order to manage this problem, in this paper the cohesive crack model is re-formulated with the focus on the shear stress component. In this context, the classical Newton-Raphson method fails to converge to an equilibrium state. Therefore the approach used is based on two stages: (a a global one in which the FCT is moved ahead of one increment; (b a local one in which the non-linear conditions occurring in the Fracture Process Zone are taken into account. This two-stage approach, which is known in the literature as a Large Time Increment method, is able to model three different mechanical regimes occurring during the crack propagation between a dam and the foundation rock.

  9. Recycling high-performance carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites using sub-critical and supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Chase C.

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are composite materials that consist of carbon fibers embedded in a polymer matrix, a combination that yields materials with properties exceeding the individual properties of each component. CFRP have several advantages over metals: they offer superior strength to weight ratios and superior resistance to corrosion and chemical attack. These advantages, along with continuing improvement in manufacturing processes, have resulted in rapid growth in the number of CFRP products and applications especially in the aerospace/aviation, wind energy, automotive, and sporting goods industries. Due to theses well-documented benefits and advancements in manufacturing capabilities, CFRP will continue to replace traditional materials of construction throughout several industries. However, some of the same properties that make CFRP outstanding materials also pose a major problem once these materials reach the end of service life. They become difficult to recycle. With composite consumption in North America growing by almost 5 times the rate of the US GDP in 2012, this lack of recyclability is a growing concern. As consumption increases, more waste will inevitably be generated. Current composite recycling technologies include mechanical recycling, thermal processing, and chemical processing. The major challenge of CFRP recycling is the ability to recover materials of high-value and preserve their properties. To this end, the most suitable technology is chemical processing, where the polymer matrix can be broken down and removed from the fiber, with limited damage to the fibers. This can be achieved using high concentration acids, but such a process is undesirable due to the toxicity of such materials. A viable alternative to acid is water in the sub-critical and supercritical region. Under these conditions, the behavior of this abundant and most environmentally friendly solvent resembles that of an organic compound, facilitating the breakdown

  10. Electron versus proton accelerator driven sub-critical system performance using TRIGA reactors at power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, M.; Burgio, N.; D'Angelo, A.; Santagata, A.; Petrovich, C.; Schikorr, M.; Beller, D.; Felice, L. S.; Imel, G.; Salvatores, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a comparison of the performance of an electron accelerator-driven experiment, under discussion within the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project, being conducted within the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and of the proton-driven experiment TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) originally planned at ENEA-Casaccia in Italy. Both experiments foresee the coupling to sub-critical TRIGA core configurations, and are aimed to investigate the relevant kinetic and dynamic accelerator-driven systems (ADS) core behavior characteristics in the presence of thermal reactivity feedback effects. TRADE was based on the coupling of an upgraded proton cyclotron, producing neutrons via spallation reactions on a tantalum (Ta) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 200 kW. RACE is based on the coupling of an Electron Linac accelerator, producing neutrons via photoneutron reactions on a tungsten-copper (W-Cu) or uranium (U) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 50 kW. The paper is focused on analysis of expected dynamic power response of the RACE core following reactivity and/or source transients. TRADE and RACE target-core power coupling coefficients are compared and discussed. (authors)

  11. Transmutation of uranium and thorium in the particle field of the Quinta sub-critical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S. R.; Asquith, N. L.; Voronko, V. A.; Sotnikov, V. V.; Zhadan, Alina; Zhuk, I. V.; Potapenko, A.; Husak, Krystsina; Chilap, V.; Adam, J.; Baldin, A.; Berlev, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Khushvaktov, J.; Kudashkin, I.; Mar'in, I.; Paraipan, M.; Pronskih, V.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tyutyunnikov, S.

    2018-03-01

    The fission rates of natural uranium and thorium were measured in the particle field of Quinta, a 512 kg natural uranium target-blanket sub-critical assembly. The Quinta assembly was irradiated with deuterons of energy 4 GeV from the Nuclotron accelerator of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russia. Fission rates of uranium and thorium were measured using Gamma spectroscopy and fission track techniques. The production rate of 239Np was also measured. The obtained experimental results were compared with Monte Carlo predictions using the MCNPX 2.7 code employing the physics and fission-evaporation models of INCL4-ABLA, CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03. Some of the neutronic characteristics of the Quinta are compared with the "Energy plus Transmutation (EpT)" subcritical assembly, which is composed of a lead target and natU blanket. This comparison clearly demonstrates the importance of target material, neutron moderator and reflector types on the performance of a spallation neutron driven subcritical system. As the dimensions of the Quinta are very close to those of an optimal multi-rod-uranium target, the experimental and Monte Carlo calculation results presented in this paper provide insights on the particle field within a uranium target as well as in Accelerator Driven Systems in general.

  12. Fusion-driven sub-critical dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket: design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weihua; Wu Yican; Ke Yan; Kang Zhicheng; Wang Hongyan; Huang Qunying

    2003-01-01

    The Fusion-Driven Sub-critical System (FDS) is one of the Chinese programs to be further developed for fusion application. Its Dual-cooled Waste Transmutation Blanket (DWTB), as one the most important part of the FDS is cooled by helium and liquid metal, and have the features of safety, tritium self-sustaining, high efficiency and feasibility. Its conceptual design has been finished. This paper is mainly involved with the basic structure design and thermal-hydraulics analysis of DWTB. On the basis of a three-dimensional (3-D) model of radial-toroidal sections of the segment box, thermal temperature gradients and structure analysis made with a comprehensive finite element method (FEM) have been performed with the computer code ANSYS5.7 and computational fluid dynamic finite element codes. The analysis refers to the steady-state operating condition of an outboard blanket segment. Furthermore, the mechanical loads due to coolant pressure in normal operating conditions have been also taken into account. All the above loads have been combined as an input for a FEM stress analysis and the resulting stress distribution has been evaluated. Finally, the structure design and Pb-17Li flow velocity has been optimized according to the calculations and analysis

  13. Sub-critical crack growth and clad integrity in a PWR reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tice, D.R.; Foreman, A.J.E.; Sharples, J.K.

    1987-10-01

    The possibility of in-service growth of sub-critical defects in a PWR reactor pressure vessel to a critical size which could result in vessel failure was addressed in both the 1976 and 1982 reports of the Light Water Reactor Study Group (LWRSG), under the Chairmanship of Dr W Marshall (now Lord Marshall). An addendum to this report was published by UKAEA in April 1987. The section of the addendum dealing with subcritical crack growth and the related issue of integrity of the stainless steel cladding on the inner vessel surface is reproduced in this report. This section of the LWRSG addendum provides a review of the current status of fatigue crack growth and environmentally assisted cracking research for pressure vessel steels in light water reactor environments, as well as a review of developments in crack growth assessment methods. The review concludes that the alternative assessment procedures now being developed give a more realistic prediction of in service crack growth than the ASME Section XI Appendix A fatigue crack growth curves. (author)

  14. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Finland in Establishing a Sub-Critical Assemblies Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    The text of the Project Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Finland in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in establishing a sub-critical assemblies project is reproduced in Part I of this document for the information of all Members. This Agreement entered into force on 30 July 1963

  15. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Finland in Establishing a Sub-Critical Assemblies Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-02-10

    The text of the Project Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Finland in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in establishing a sub-critical assemblies project is reproduced in Part I of this document for the information of all Members. This Agreement entered into force on 30 July 1963.

  16. A study of influence of material properties on magnetic flux density induced in magneto rheological damper through finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurubasavaraju T. M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetorheological fluids are smart materials, which are responsive to the external stimulus and changes their rheological properties. The damper performance (damping force is dependent on the magnetic flux density induced at the annular gap. Magnetic flux density developed at fluid flow gap of MR damper due to external applied current is also dependent on materials properties of components of MR damper (such as piston head, outer cylinder and piston rod. The present paper discus about the influence of different materials selected for components of the MR damper on magnetic effect using magnetostatic analysis. Different materials such as magnetic and low carbon steels are considered for piston head of the MR damper and magnetic flux density induced at fluid flow gap (filled with MR fluid is computed for different DC current applied to the electromagnetic coil. Developed magnetic flux is used for calculating the damper force using analytical method for each case. The low carbon steel has higher magnetic permeability hence maximum magnetic flux could pass through the piston head, which leads to higher value of magnetic effect induction at the annular gap. From the analysis results it is observed that the magnetic steel and low carbon steel piston head provided maximum magnetic flux density. Eventually the higher damping force can be observed for same case.

  17. The Influence of Air-Sea Fluxes on Atmospheric Aerosols During the Summer Monsoon Over the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarsky, Alex; Booge, Dennis; Fiehn, Alina; Krüger, Kirstin; Atlas, Elliot; Marandino, Christa

    2018-01-01

    During the summer monsoon, the western tropical Indian Ocean is predicted to be a hot spot for dimethylsulfide emissions, the major marine sulfur source to the atmosphere, and an important aerosol precursor. Other aerosol relevant fluxes, such as isoprene and sea spray, should also be enhanced, due to the steady strong winds during the monsoon. Marine air masses dominate the area during the summer monsoon, excluding the influence of continentally derived pollutants. During the SO234-2/235 cruise in the western tropical Indian Ocean from July to August 2014, directly measured eddy covariance DMS fluxes confirm that the area is a large source of sulfur to the atmosphere (cruise average 9.1 μmol m-2 d-1). The directly measured fluxes, as well as computed isoprene and sea spray fluxes, were combined with FLEXPART backward and forward trajectories to track the emissions in space and time. The fluxes show a significant positive correlation with aerosol data from the Terra and Suomi-NPP satellites, indicating a local influence of marine emissions on atmospheric aerosol numbers.

  18. Influence of Sky Conditions on Estimation of Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density for Agricultural Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Yoshimura, M.

    2018-04-01

    Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD: µmol m-2 s-1) is indispensable for plant physiology processes in photosynthesis. However, PPFD is seldom measured, so that PPFD has been estimated by using solar radiation (SR: W m-2) measured in world wide. In method using SR, there are two steps: first to estimate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR: W m-2) by the fraction of PAR to SR (PF) and second: to convert PAR to PPFD using the ratio of quanta to energy (Q / E: µmol J-1). PF and Q/E usually have been used as the constant values, however, recent studies point out that PF and Q / E would not be constants under various sky conditions. In this study, we use the numeric data of sky-conditions factors such cloud cover, sun appearance/hiding and relative sky brightness derived from whole-sky image processing and examine the influences of sky-conditions factors on PF and Q / E of global and diffuse PAR. Furthermore, we discuss our results by comparing with the existing methods.

  19. Treatment of radioactive ionic exchange resins by super- and sub-critical water oxidation (SCWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeongsook; Son, Soon Hwan; Kim, Kwang Sin; Han, Joo Hee; Han, Kee Do; Do, Seung Hoe

    2010-01-01

    As the usage of ion exchange resins increases the inventory of spent ion exchange resins increases in nuclear power plants. This study is to find an environmental-friendly process to treat theses spent resins. The test samples were prepared by diluting the slurry made by wet ball milling the spent cationic exchange resins for 24 h. The spent cationic exchange resins were separated from mixed ion exchange resins by a fluidized bed gravimetric separator. The decomposition of the samples was investigated with super-critical water oxidation (SCWO) equipment. A statistical test method - the central composite design as a statistical design of experiments - was adopted to find the optimum condition to decompose the spent exchange resins. The optimum condition was 60% of excess oxygen, 22.5 min of residence time, 0.615 wt% of NaOH, 358 of reaction temperature, and 3600 psi of reaction pressure, which is a sub-critical condition. The liquid product of the decomposition has the characteristics of 80-185 ppm of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), 4.0-6.0 of pH, and <1.0 ppm of corrosive components (Ni, Fe, Cr, and Mo). The exhaust gas from the SCWO equipment contained NOx of 0 ppm, SOx of 3 ppm (environment exhaust standard in Korea: NOx 200 ppm, SOx 300 ppm). Co-substituted mock samples were prepared to simulate spent cationic exchange resins from nuclear power plants which can contain radioactive Co isotopes. The conditions to obtain organic compound destruction ratio which conforms the effluent stand for the mock samples were found. The treated water filtered with 0.2-filter contained less than 1 ppm of Co. Thus Co recovery rate of more 99% was achieved.

  20. Consultancy on the potential of fusion/fission sub-critical neutron systems for energy production and transmutation. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Workshop on Sub-critical Neutron Production held at the University of Maryland and the Eisenhower Institute on 11-13 October 2004 brought together members of fusion, fission and accelerator technical communities to discuss issues of spent fuel, nonproliferation, reactor safety and the use of neutrons for sub-critical operation of nuclear reactors. The Workshop strongly recommended that the fusion community work closely with other technical communities to ensure that a wider range of technical solutions is available to solve the spent fuel problem and to utilize the current actinide inventories. Participants of the Workshop recommended that a follow-on Workshop, possibly under the aegis of the IAEA, should be held in the first half of the year 2005. The Consultancy Meeting is the response to this recommendation. The objectives of the Consultancy meeting were to hold discussions on the role of fusion/fission systems in sub-critical operations of nuclear reactors. The participants agreed that development of innovative (fourth generation) fission reactors, advanced fuel cycle options, and disposition of existing spent nuclear fuel inventories in various Member Sates can significantly benefit from including sub-critical systems, which are driven by external neutron sources. Spallation neutrons produced by accelerators have been accepted in the past as the means of driving sub-critical reactors. The accelerator community deserves credit in pioneering this novel approach to reactor design. Progress in the design and operation of fusion devices now offers additional innovative means, broadening the range of sub-critical operations of fission reactors. Participants felt that fusion should participate with accelerators in providing a range of technical options in reactor design. Participants discussed concrete steps to set up a small fusion/fission system to demonstrate actinide burning in the laboratory and what advice should be given to the Agency on its role in

  1. Influence of particle flux density and temperature on surface modifications of tungsten and deuterium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzi, Luxherta, E-mail: l.buzi@fz-juelich.de [Ghent University, Department of Applied Physics, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR 7198, Bvd. des Aiguillettes, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France); Temmerman, Greg De [FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Unterberg, Bernhard; Reinhart, Michael; Litnovsky, Andrey; Philipps, Volker [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Oost, Guido Van [Ghent University, Department of Applied Physics, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Möller, Sören [Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Systematic study of deuterium irradiation effects on tungsten was done under ITER – relevant high particle flux density, scanning a broad surface temperature range. Polycrystalline ITER – like grade tungsten samples were exposed in linear plasma devices to two different ranges of deuterium ion flux densities (high: 3.5–7 · 10{sup 23} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} s and low: 9 · 10{sup 21} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} s). Particle fluence and ion energy, respectively 10{sup 26} D{sup +}/m{sup 2} and ∼38 eV were kept constant in all cases. The experiments were performed at three different surface temperatures 530 K, 630 K and 870 K. Experimental results concerning the deuterium retention and surface modifications of low flux exposure confirmed previous investigations. At temperatures 530 K and 630 K, deuterium retention was higher at lower flux density due to the longer exposure time (steady state plasma operation) and a consequently deeper diffusion range. At 870 K, deuterium retention was found to be higher at high flux density according to the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements. While blisters were completely absent at low flux density, small blisters of about 40–50 nm were formed at high flux density exposure. At the given conditions, a relation between deuterium retention and blister formation has been found which has to be considered in addition to deuterium trapping in defects populated by diffusion.

  2. Influence of particle flux density and temperature on surface modifications of tungsten and deuterium retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzi, Luxherta; Temmerman, Greg De; Unterberg, Bernhard; Reinhart, Michael; Litnovsky, Andrey; Philipps, Volker; Oost, Guido Van; Möller, Sören

    2014-01-01

    Systematic study of deuterium irradiation effects on tungsten was done under ITER – relevant high particle flux density, scanning a broad surface temperature range. Polycrystalline ITER – like grade tungsten samples were exposed in linear plasma devices to two different ranges of deuterium ion flux densities (high: 3.5–7 · 10 23 D + /m 2 s and low: 9 · 10 21 D + /m 2 s). Particle fluence and ion energy, respectively 10 26 D + /m 2 and ∼38 eV were kept constant in all cases. The experiments were performed at three different surface temperatures 530 K, 630 K and 870 K. Experimental results concerning the deuterium retention and surface modifications of low flux exposure confirmed previous investigations. At temperatures 530 K and 630 K, deuterium retention was higher at lower flux density due to the longer exposure time (steady state plasma operation) and a consequently deeper diffusion range. At 870 K, deuterium retention was found to be higher at high flux density according to the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements. While blisters were completely absent at low flux density, small blisters of about 40–50 nm were formed at high flux density exposure. At the given conditions, a relation between deuterium retention and blister formation has been found which has to be considered in addition to deuterium trapping in defects populated by diffusion

  3. Assessments of the kinetic and dynamic transient behavior of sub-critical systems (ADS) in comparison to critical reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikorr, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The neutron kinetic and the reactor dynamic behavior of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) is significantly different from those of conventional power reactor systems currently in use for the production of power. It is the objective of this study to examine and to demonstrate the intrinsic differences of the kinetic and dynamic behavior of accelerator driven systems to typical plant transient initiators in comparison to the known, kinetic and dynamic behavior of critical thermal and fast reactor systems. It will be shown that in sub-critical assemblies, changes in reactivity or in the external neutron source strength lead to an asymptotic power level essentially described by the instantaneous power change (i.e. prompt jump). Shutdown of ADS operating at high levels of sub-criticality, (i.e. k eff ∼0.99), without the support of reactivity control systems (such as control or safety rods), may be problematic in case the ability of cooling of the core should be impaired (i.e. loss of coolant flow). In addition, the dynamic behavior of sub-critical systems to typical plant transients such as protected or unprotected loss of flow (LOF) or heat sink (LOH) transients are not necessarily substantially different from the plant dynamic behavior of critical systems if the reactivity feedback coefficients of the ADS design are unfavorable. As expected, the state of sub-criticality and the temperature feedback coefficients, such as Doppler and coolant temperature coefficient, play dominant roles in determining the course and direction of plant transients. Should the combination of these safety coefficients be very unfavorable, not much additional margin in safety may be gained by making a critical system only sub-critical (i.e. k eff ∼0.95). A careful optimization procedure between the selected operating level of sub-criticality, the safety reactivity coefficients and the possible need for additional reactivity control systems seems, therefore, advisable during the early

  4. Reduced TCA flux in diabetic myotubes: A governing influence on the diabetic phenotype?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. It is unknown whether the reduced tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) flux in skeletal muscle of obese and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects is of primary origin. Acetate oxidation (measurement of TCA-flux) was sign......The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. It is unknown whether the reduced tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) flux in skeletal muscle of obese and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects is of primary origin. Acetate oxidation (measurement of TCA...

  5. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Mexico in Establishing a Sub-Critical Assembly Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The texts of the Supply Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Mexico and the United States of America, and of the Project Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Mexico in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in establishing a sub-critical assembly project.. are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Both Agreements entered into force on 20 June 1966

  6. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Mexico in Establishing a Sub-Critical Assembly Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-10-25

    The texts of the Supply Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Mexico and the United States of America, and of the Project Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Mexico, connected with the Agency's assistance to the latter Government in establishing a sub-critical assembly project, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Both Agreements entered into force on 23 August 1967.

  7. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Mexico in Establishing a Sub-Critical Assembly Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-07-07

    The texts of the Supply Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Mexico and the United States of America, and of the Project Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Mexico in connection with the Agency's assistance to that Government in establishing a sub-critical assembly project.. are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Both Agreements entered into force on 20 June 1966.

  8. The Texts of the Instruments connected with the Agency's Assistance to Mexico in Establishing a Sub-Critical Assembly Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The texts of the Supply Agreement between the Agency and the Governments of Mexico and the United States of America, and of the Project Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Mexico, connected with the Agency's assistance to the latter Government in establishing a sub-critical assembly project, are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. Both Agreements entered into force on 23 August 1967

  9. Recovery of Palm Oil and Valuable Material from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch by Sub-critical Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Kurnin, Nor Azrin; Shah Ismail, Mohd Halim; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izhar, Shamsul

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is one of the solid wastes produced in huge volume by palm oil mill. Whilst it still contains valuable oil, approximately 22.6 million tons is generated annually and treated as solid waste. In this work, sub-critical water (sub-cw) was used to extract oil, sugar and tar from spikelet of EFB. The spikelet was treated with sub-cw between 180-280°C and a reaction time of 2 and 5 minutes. The highest yield of oil was 0.075 g-oil/g-dry EFB, obtained at 240°C and reaction time of 5 minutes. Astonishingly, oil that was extracted through this method was 84.5% of that obtained through Soxhlet method using hexane. Yield of oil extracted was strongly affected by the reaction temperature and time. Higher reaction temperature induces the dielectric constant of water towards the non-polar properties of solvent; thus increases the oil extraction capability. Meanwhile, the highest yield of sugar was 0.20 g-sugar/g-dry EFB obtained at 220°C. At this temperature, the ion product of water is high enough to enable maximum sub-critical water hydrolysis reaction. This study showed that oil and other valuable material can be recovered using water at sub-critical condition, and most attractive without the use of harmful organic solvent.

  10. Influences of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages on the land surface fluxes and radiative temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lianhong; Meyers, Tilden; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hanson, Paul J.; Yang, Bai; Heuer, Mark; Hosman, Kevin P.; Liu, Qing; Riggs, Jeffery S.; Sluss, Dan; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2007-01-01

    The interest of this study was to develop an initial assessment on the potential importance of biomass heat and biochemical energy storages for land-atmosphere interactions, an issue that has been largely neglected so far. We conducted flux tower observations and model simulations at a temperate deciduous forest site in central Missouri in the summer of 2004. The model used was the comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem Fluxes and Pools Integrated Simulator (FAPIS). We first examined FAPIS performance by testing its predictions with and without the representation of biomass energy storages against measurements of surface energy and CO2 fluxes. We then evaluated the magnitudes and temporal patterns of the biomass energy storages calculated by FAPIS. Finally, the effects of biomass energy storages on land-atmosphere exchanges of sensible and latent heat fluxes and variations of land surface radiative temperature were investigated by contrasting FAPIS simulations with and without these storage terms. We found that with the representation of the two biomass energy storage terms, FAPIS predictions agreed with flux tower measurements fairly well; without the representation, however, FAPIS performance deteriorated for all predicted surface energy flux terms although the effect on the predicted CO2 flux was minimal. In addition, we found that the biomass heat storage and biochemical energy storage had clear diurnal patterns with typical ranges from -50 to 50 and -3 to 20 W m-2, respectively; these typical ranges were exceeded substantially when there were sudden changes in atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, FAPIS simulations without the energy storages produced larger sensible and latent heat fluxes during the day but smaller fluxes (more negative values) at night as compared with simulations with the energy storages. Similarly, without-storage simulations had higher surface radiative temperature during the day but lower radiative temperature at night, indicating that the

  11. The influence of idealized surface heterogeneity on virtual turbulent flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roo, Frederik; Mauder, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    The imbalance of the surface energy budget in eddy-covariance measurements is still an unsolved problem. A possible cause is the presence of land surface heterogeneity, which affects the boundary-layer turbulence. To investigate the impact of surface variables on the partitioning of the energy budget of flux measurements in the surface layer under convective conditions, we set up a systematic parameter study by means of large-eddy simulation. For the study we use a virtual control volume approach, which allows the determination of advection by the mean flow, flux-divergence and storage terms of the energy budget at the virtual measurement site, in addition to the standard turbulent flux. We focus on the heterogeneity of the surface fluxes and keep the topography flat. The surface fluxes vary locally in intensity and these patches have different length scales. Intensity and length scales can vary for the two horizontal dimensions but follow an idealized chessboard pattern. Our main focus lies on surface heterogeneity of the kilometer scale, and one order of magnitude smaller. For these two length scales, we investigate the average response of the fluxes at a number of virtual towers, when varying the heterogeneity length within the length scale and when varying the contrast between the different patches. For each simulation, virtual measurement towers were positioned at functionally different positions (e.g., downdraft region, updraft region, at border between domains, etc.). As the storage term is always small, the non-closure is given by the sum of the advection by the mean flow and the flux-divergence. Remarkably, the missing flux can be described by either the advection by the mean flow or the flux-divergence separately, because the latter two have a high correlation with each other. For kilometer scale heterogeneity, we notice a clear dependence of the updrafts and downdrafts on the surface heterogeneity and likewise we also see a dependence of the energy

  12. Reduced TCA flux in diabetic myotubes: A governing influence on the diabetic phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaster, Michael

    2009-10-02

    The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. It is unknown whether the reduced tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) flux in skeletal muscle of obese and obese type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects is of primary origin. Acetate oxidation (measurement of TCA-flux) was significantly reduced in primary myotube cultures established from T2D versus lean subjects. Acetate oxidation was acutely stimulated by insulin and respiratory uncoupling. Inhibition of TCA flux in lean myotubes by malonate was followed by a measured decline in; acetate oxidation, complete palmitate oxidation, lipid uptake, glycogen synthesis, ATP content and increased glucose uptake, while glucose oxidation was unaffected. Acute TCA inhibition did not induce insulin resistance. Thus the reduced TCA cycle flux in T2D skeletal muscle may be of primary origin. The diabetic phenotype of increased basal glucose uptake and glucose oxidation, the reduced complete lipid oxidation and increased respiratory quotient, are likely to be adaptive responses to the reduced TCA cycle flux.

  13. Topographically Driven Lateral Water Fluxes and Their Influence on Carbon Assimilation of a Black Spruce Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, A.; Chen, J. M.; Margolis, H.; Bernier, P. Y.

    2006-12-01

    Current estimates of ecophysiological indicators overlook the effects of topographically-driven lateral flow of soil water. We hypothesize that topographically driven lateral water flows over the landscape have significant influence on the terrestrial carbon cycle. To this end, we simulated the hydrological controls on carbon cycle processes in a black spruce forest in central Quebec, Canada, using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) at a daily time step. We accounted for lateral surface and subsurface flows in BEPS by incorporating a distributed, process-oriented hydrological procedure. The results show that modeled dynamics of ecophysiological processes such as evapotranspiration (ET) and photosynthesis (GPP) are consistent with the spatial variation of land cover, topography, soil texture, and leaf area index. Simulated ET and GPP averaged within the footprint of an eddy covariance tower in the watershed agree well with flux measurements with R2=0.77 and 0.83 for ET and GPP, respectively. For ET simulation, much of the remaining discrepancies are found in the winter when the model underestimates snow sublimation. For GPP, there is an underestimation in the fall coinciding with a mid growing season drought, showing the high sensitivity of the model to the soil water status. The key processes controlling primary production were hydraulic limitations for water transfer from soil, roots, stems and leaves through stomatal conductance. Therefore, a further understanding of soil water dynamics is warranted. Comparison with the soil water content of the footprint- averaged unsaturated zone showed that the model captured the annual trend. We also simulated the variations in the water table as well as the mid growing season drought, with a reasonable accuracy(R2=0.68). The foot print average water budget reveals that the annual precipitation of 835mm is partitioned into 282mm of ET, 541 mm of subsurface runoff, and 6 mm of storage change. To test the

  14. The influence of surface roughness and turbulence on heat fluxes from an oil palm plantation in Jambi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Tania; Meijide, Ana; Stiegler, Christian; Purba Kusuma, Alan; Knohl, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    Oil palm plantations are expanding vastly in Jambi, resulted in altered surface roughness and turbulence characteristics, which may influence exchange of heat and mass. Micrometeorological measurements above oil palm canopy were conducted for the period 2013–2015. The oil palms were 12.5 years old, canopy height 13 meters and 1.5 years old canopy height 2.5 m. We analyzed the influence of surface roughness and turbulence strenght on heat (sensible and latent) fluxes by investigating the profiles and gradient of wind speed, and temperature, surface roughness (roughness length, zo, and zero plane displacement, d), and friction velocity u*. Fluxes of heat were calculated using profile similarity methods taking into account atmospheric stability calculated using Richardson number Ri and the generalized stability factor ζ. We found that roughness parameters (zo, d, and u*) directly affect turbulence in oil palm canopy and hence heat fluxes; they are affected by canopy height, wind speed and atmospheric stability. There is a negative trend of d towards air temperature above the oil palm canopy, indicating the effect of plant volume and height in lowering air temperature. We propose studying the relation between zero plane displacement d with a remote sensing vegetation index for scaling up this point based analysis.

  15. Wall heat flux influence on the thermodynamic optimisation of irreversibilities of a circulating fluidised bed combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available . The irreversibilities generated were arrived at by computing the entropy generation rates due to the combustion and frictional pressure drop processes. For the combustor where the wall condition was changed from adiabatic to negative heat flux (that is heat leaving...

  16. Influence of condensation on heat flux and pressure measurements in a detonation-based short-duration facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.; Olivier, H.

    2017-10-01

    Detonation-based short-duration facilities provide hot gas with very high stagnation pressures and temperatures. Due to the short testing time, complex and expensive cooling techniques of the facility walls are not needed. Therefore, they are attractive for economical experimental investigations of high-enthalpy flows such as the flow in a rocket engine. However, cold walls can provoke condensation of the hot combustion gas at the walls. This has already been observed in detonation tubes close behind the detonation wave, resulting in a loss of tube performance. A potential influence of condensation at the wall on the experimental results, like wall heat fluxes and static pressures, has not been considered so far. Therefore, in this study the occurrence of condensation and its influence on local heat flux and pressure measurements has been investigated in the nozzle test section of a short-duration rocket-engine simulation facility. This facility provides hot water vapor with stagnation pressures up to 150 bar and stagnation temperatures up to 3800 K. A simple method has been developed to detect liquid water at the wall without direct optical access to the flow. It is shown experimentally and theoretically that condensation has a remarkable influence on local measurement values. The experimental results indicate that for the elimination of these influences the nozzle wall has to be heated to a certain temperature level, which exclusively depends on the local static pressure.

  17. Source-jerk method for application on ADS neutronics study The ADS is stated for Accelerator Driven sub-critical System

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu Qing Fu; Li Yi; Xia Pu; Zheng Wu Qing; Zhu Guo Sheng

    2003-01-01

    The paper is concerned in the source-jerk method used to measure the sub-criticality, and the sub-critical experiment facility, which is used for the study on the neutronics of ADS, driven by external neutron source sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf. The effects of the location of neutron source and material buffer where is at the location of the pipe of proton beam and target of fission-product dispersion on the sub-criticality of reactor are studied by source-jerk method

  18. Influence of the Gilbert damping constant on the flux rise time of write head fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl, Othmar; Schrefl, Thomas; Suess, Dieter; Schabes, Manfred E.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic recording at fast data rates requires write heads with rapid rise times of the magnetic flux during the write process. We present three-dimensional (3D) micromagnetic finite element calculations of an entire ring head including 3D coil geometry during the writing of magnetic bits in granular media. The simulations demonstrate how input current profiles translate into magnetization processes in the head and which in turn generate the write head field. The flux rise time significantly depends on the Gilbert damping constant of the head material. Low damping causes incoherent magnetization processes, leading to long rise times and low head fields. High damping leads to coherent reversal of the magnetization in the head. As a consequence, the gap region can be quickly saturated which causes high head fields with short rise times

  19. The influence of cockchafer larvae on net soil methane fluxes under different vegetation types - a mesocosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Chesmore, David; Müller, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    The influence of land-use associated pest insects on net soil CH4 fluxes has received little attention thus far, although e.g. soil-dwelling Scarabaeidae larvae are qualitatively known to emit CH4. The project "CH4ScarabDetect" aims to provide the first quantitative estimate of the importance of soil-dwelling larvae of two important European agricultural and forest pest insect species - the common cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) and the forest cockchafer (M. hippocastani) - for net soil CH4 fluxes. Here we present a mesocosm study within "CH4ScarabDetect" which tests the influence of different abundances of common cockchafer larvae on net soil CH4 fluxes under different vegetation types. In August 2016, 27 PVC boxes with a base area of 50 cm x 50 cm and a height of 40 cm were buried in planting beds previously used for cultivating vegetables. The bottom of each box was filled with a 10 cm thick layer of loam which was then covered with a 25 cm thick layer of loamy sand. The soil was hand-sieved prior to filling the boxes to remove any macrofauna. The mesocosms were planted with either turf, carrots or a combination of both. Of the resulting nine replicates per vegetation type, six were infested with one cockchafer larvae each in November 2016. In three of these infested mesocosms, the larvae abundance will be further increased to three in May 2017. This mesocosm study will continue until October 2017 during which measurements of net soil CH4 fluxes will be conducted with the chamber flux method twice per month. For the in situ separation of gross CH4 production and gross CH4 oxidation, the chamber method will be combined with a 13CH4 isotope pool dilution technique. Methane concentrations and their isotopic signatures in the collected gas samples will be analysed with a state-of-the-art CRDS analyzer (cavity ring-down spectroscopy, G2201-i) equipped with the Small Sample Isotope Module 2 - A0314 (Picarro Inc., USA). Different combinations of larvae abundance and

  20. The influence of climate change on stomatal ozone flux to a mountain Norway spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, M.; Pretel, J.; Chroust, P.; Cudlín, Pavel; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Czerný, Radek; Hůnová, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, OCT 2012 (2012), s. 267-273 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk OC10022; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Stomatal ozone flux * AOT40 * Phytotoxic Ozone Dose * Norway spruce * Net ecosystem production * Ozone * Climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  1. Influence of crystal shapes on radiative fluxes in visible wavelength: ice crystals randomly oriented in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chervet

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiative properties of cirrus clouds are one of the major unsolved problems in climate studies and global radiation budget. These clouds are generally composed of various ice-crystal shapes, so we tried to evaluate effects of the ice-crystal shape on radiative fluxes. We calculated radiative fluxes of cirrus clouds with a constant geometrical depth, composed of ice crystals with different shapes (hexagonal columns, bullets, bullet-rosettes, sizes and various concentrations. We considered ice particles randomly oriented in space (3D case and their scattering phase functions were calculated by a ray-tracing method. We calculated radiative fluxes for cirrus layers for different microphysical characteristics by using a discrete-ordinate radiative code. Results showed that the foremost effect of the ice-crystal shape on radiative properties of cirrus clouds was that on the optical thickness, while the variation of the scattering phase function with the ice shape remained less than 3% for our computations. The ice-water content may be a better choice to parameterize the optical properties of cirrus, but the shape effect must be included.

  2. The potential influence of multiple scattering on longwave flux and heating rate simulations with clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. P.; Yang, P.; Huang, X.; Feldman, D.; Flanner, M.; Kuo, C.; Mlawer, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds, which cover approximately 67% of the globe, serve as one of the major modulators in adjusting radiative energy on the Earth. Since rigorous radiative transfer computations including multiple scattering are costly, only absorption is considered in the longwave spectral bands in the radiation sub-models of the general circulation models (GCMs). Quantification of the effect of ignoring longwave scattering for flux and heating rate simulations is performed by using the GCM version of the Longwave Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG_LW) with an implementation with the 16-stream Discrete Ordinates Radiative Transfer (DISORT) Program for a Multi-Layered Plane-Parallel Medium in conjunction with the 2010 CCCM products that merge satellite observations from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), the CloudSat, the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). One-year global simulations show that neglecting longwave scattering overestimates upward flux at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and underestimates downward flux at the surface by approximately 2.63 and 1.15 W/m2, respectively. Furthermore, when longwave scattering is included in the simulations, the tropopause is cooled by approximately 0.018 K/day and the surface is heated by approximately 0.028 K/day. As a result, the radiative effects of ignoring longwave scattering and doubling CO2 are comparable in magnitude.

  3. Roughness Length of Water Vapor over Land Surfaces and Its Influence on Latent Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Jong Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat flux at the surface is largely dependent on the roughness length for water vapor (z0q. The determination of z0q is still uncertain because of its multifaceted characteristics of surface properties, atmospheric conditions and insufficient observations. In this study, observed values from the Fluxes Over Snow Surface II field experiment (FLOSS-II from November 2002 to March 2003 were utilized to estimate z0q over various land surfaces: bare soil, snow, and senescent grass. The present results indicate that the estimated z0q over bare soil is much smaller than the roughness length of momentum (z0m; thus, the ratio z0m/z0q is larger than those of previous studies by a factor of 20 - 150 for the available flow regime of the roughness Reynolds number, Re* > 0.1. On the snow surface, the ratio is comparable to a previous estimation for the rough flow (Re* > 1, but smaller by a factor of 10 - 50 as the flow became smooth (Re* < 1. Using the estimated ratio, an optimal regression equation of z0m/z0q is determined as a function of Re* for each surface type. The present parameterization of the ratio is found to greatly reduce biases of latent heat flux estimation compared with that estimated by the conventional method, suggesting the usefulness of current parameterization for numerical modeling.

  4. FeNbB bulk metallic glass: the influence of fluxing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, Mihai; Eckert, Juergen [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Kumar, Santosh [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Roth, Stefan [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Ram, Shanker [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Yavari, Alain Reza [LTPCM-CNRS, Institut National Politechnique de Grenoble, 1130 Rue de la Piscine, BP 75, Saint Martin d' Heres Campus 38402 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Recently, a new Fe-based BMG containing only 3 elements and a very high boron (Fe{sub 66}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 30}) content was synthesized. The preparation of this BMG was done by employing the copper mould casting method and using the fluxing technique. This new BMG is ferromagnetic, with a Curie temperature around 550 K and a saturation magnetization of 105 emu/g. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) investigations revealed a reduced glass transition temperature of 0.58 and an extension of the supercooled liquid region of about 31 K, values which indicate a relatively good thermal stability. Fluxed and not-fluxed master alloys were used to cast samples. The present work aims to discuss, for both kinds of samples, the kinetics of the phase formation using the Kissinger analysis and Johnson-Mehl-Avrami plots, correlated with the results obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) of samples with different metastable structures. Additionally, the magnetic behaviour of different phase(s) is discussed.

  5. Neutronic design and analysis on dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket for the fusion driven sub-critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanliang; Wu Yican; Gao Chunjing; Xu Dezheng; Li Jingjing; Zhu Xiaoxiang

    2004-01-01

    Neutronics design and analysis of dual-cooled multi-functional waste transmutation blanket (DWTB) for the fusion driven sub-critical system (FDS) are performed to ensure the system be able to meet the requirements of fuel-sufficiency and more waste transmutation ratio with low initial loading fuel inventory, which is based on 1-D burn-up calculations with home-developed code Visual BUS and the multi-group (175 neutron groups-42 Gamma groups coupled) data library HENDL1.0/MG (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library). (authors)

  6. Diagnosing the influence of model structure on the simulation of water, energy and carbon fluxes on bark beetle infested forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochis, D. J.; Gutmann, E. D.; Brooks, P. D.; Reed, D. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Biederman, J. A.; Harpold, A. A.; Barnard, H. R.; Hu, J.

    2011-12-01

    Forest dynamics induced by insect infestation can have a significant, local impact on plant physiological regulation of water, energy and carbon fluxes. Rapid mortality succeeded by more gradually varying land cover changes are presently thought to initiate a cascade of changes to water, energy and carbon budgets at the forest stand scale. Initial model sensitivity results have suggested very strong changes in land-atmosphere exchanges of these variables. Specifically, model results from the Noah land surface model, a relatively simple model, have suggested that loss of transpiration function may result in a nearly 50% increase in seasonal soil moisture values and similar increases in runoff production for locations in the central Rocky Mountains. However, differing model structures, such as the representation of plant canopy architecture, snowpack dynamics, dynamic vegetation and hillslope hydrologic processes, may significantly confound the synthesis of results from different modeling systems. We assess the performance of new suite of model simulations from three different land surface models of differing model structures and complexity levels against a comprehensive set of field observations of land surface flux and state variables. The focus of the analysis is in diagnosing how model structure influences changes in energy, water and carbon budget partitioning prior to and following insect infestation. Specific emphasis in this presentation is placed on verifying variables that characterize top of canopy and within canopy energy and water fluxes. We conclude the presentation with a set of recommendations about the advantages and disadvantages of various model structures in their simulation of insect driven forest dynamics.

  7. Influence of hadronic interaction models and the cosmic ray spectrum on the high-energy atmospheric muon and neutrino flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiati Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent observations of muon charge ratio up to about 10 TeV and of atmospheric neutrinos up to energies of about 400 TeV has triggered a renewed interest into the high-energy interaction models and cosmic ray primary composition. A reviewed calculation of lepton spectra produced in cosmic ray induced extensive air showers is carried out with a primary cosmic ray spectrum that fits the latest direct measurements below the knee. In order to achieve this, we used a full Monte Carlo method to derive the inclusive differential spectra (yields of muons, muon neutrinos and electron neutrinos at the surface for energies between 80 GeV and hundreds of PeV. Using these results the differential flux and the flavor ratios of leptons were calculated. The air shower simulator CORSIKA 6.990 was used for showering and propagation of the secondary particles through the atmosphere, employing the established high energy hadronic interaction models SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJet-01 and QGSJet-II-03. We show that the performance of the interaction models allows makes it possible to predict the spectra within experimental uncertainties, while SIBYLL generally yields a higher flux at the surface than the QGSJet models. The calculation of the flavor and charge ratios has lead to inconsistent results, mainly influenced by the different representations of the K/π ratio within the models. The influence of the knee of cosmic rays is reflected in the secondary spectra at energies between 100 and 200 TeV. Furthermore, we could quantify systematic uncertainties of atmospheric muon- and neutrino fluxes, associated to the models of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and the interaction models. For most recent parametrizations of the cosmic ray primary spectrum, atmospheric muons can be determined with an uncertainty smaller than +15/-13% of the average flux. Uncertainties of the muon and electron neutrino fluxes can be calculated within an average error of +32/-22% and +25

  8. Morphological and physiological photon flux influence under in vitro culture of apple shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilisandra Zanandrea

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth and development of apple rootstock shoots submitted to different photon flux densities (7, 14, 21 and 60 µmol m-2 s-1 and three culture media. The best photon flux for maximizing growth, number of shoots and leaves was 14 µmol m-2 s-1, which also resulted in the highest values of chloroplastic pigments. On the other hand, the highest photon flux (60 µmol m-2 s-1 decreased significantly these parameters. Medium with reduced sucrose concentration did not affect the analyzed parameters, enabling an efficient multiplication of the cultivar with only 1% of sucrose.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar características de crescimento e desenvolvimento de brotações de macieira submetidas a diferentes densidades de fluxo de fótons (7, 14, 21 e 60 µmol m-2 s-1 e três meios de cultura. O melhor fluxo de fótons para maximizar o crescimento, número de brotações e de folhas foi de 14 µmol m-2 s-1, o qual também proporcionou os maiores valores de pigmentos cloroplastídicos. Por outro lado, alto fluxo de fótons (60 µmol m-2 s-1 diminuiu significativamente os parâmetros citados acima. O meio com concentração reduzida de sacarose não afetou os parâmetros analisados, possibilitando uma multiplicação eficiente desta cultivar com apenas 1% deste carboidrato.

  9. Conceptual design for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors using scale laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility study on conceptual design methodology for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors has been conducted to optimize the design parameters from the scale laws and validates the reactor performance with the integrated code system. A 1000 MWth sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactor has been scaled and verified through the methodology in this paper, which is referred to Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). A Pb-Bi target material and a partitioned fuel are the liquid phases, and they are cooled by the circulation of secondary Pb-Bi coolant and by primary sodium coolant, respectively. Overall key design parameters are generated from the scale laws and they are improved and validated by the integrated code system. Integrated Code System (ICS) consists of LAHET, HMCNP, ORIGEN2, and COMMIX codes and some files. Through ICS the target region, the core region, and thermal-hydraulic related regions are analyzed once-through Results of conceptual design are attached in this paper. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  10. Temporal behaviour of self generated magnetic field and its influence on inhibition of thermal flux in ICF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, L.N.

    1989-06-01

    The self generated magnetic field of megagauss order is reported to play a crucial role in ICF target designs because of its strong influence on the transport of energy from the critical density region to the ablation layer. The inhibition of the thermal flux due to such a field, thus, affects the whole of the other phenomenon of ICF. The knowledge of the proper variation of the magnetic field may help in assigning the existing controversial value of flux limit, f. Many papers dealing with the spatial variation of such a field exist and are well documented but the study on the variation of self generated field with time is rare. Here, the spatial variation of the megagauss field generated in the corona of a wire target irradiated by a laser as well as a model to study the temporal nature of the B-field at the peak have been obtained by solving the self inhibited diffusion which is regarded as the most dominant mechanism by which the thermal transport is influenced. The field exists for about ten nanoseconds even after the laser is switched off. The ratio of the two components of the thermal conductivity is also plotted against time and shows the inhibition. So, a track on the B-field variation both in space and time is necessary to keep for at least a few nanoseconds for computation of f. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs

  11. Influence of orographically enhanced SW monsoon flux on coastal processes along the SE Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Raghavan, B.R.; Singh, K.; Rajawat, A; Ajai; Kader, U.S.A; Nayak, S.

    The Arabian Sea has an excess evaporation over precipitation regime. The southeast Arabian Sea is, however, anomalous because it has ~2800–4800 mm rainfall during the southwest monsoon (SWM). Despite a high rainfall, the fluvial influence on supply...

  12. Processes influencing model-data mismatch in drought-stressed, fire-disturbed eddy flux sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephen; Beven, Keith; Freer, Jim; Law, Beverly

    2011-06-01

    Semiarid forests are very sensitive to climatic change and among the most difficult ecosystems to accurately model. We tested the performance of the Biome-BGC model against eddy flux data taken from young (years 2004-2008), mature (years 2002-2008), and old-growth (year 2000) ponderosa pine stands at Metolius, Oregon, and subsequently examined several potential causes for model-data mismatch. We used the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology, which involved 500,000 model runs for each stand (1,500,000 total). Each simulation was run with randomly generated parameter values from a uniform distribution based on published parameter ranges, resulting in modeled estimates of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) that were compared to measured eddy flux data. Simulations for the young stand exhibited the highest level of performance, though they overestimated ecosystem C accumulation (-NEE) 99% of the time. Among the simulations for the mature and old-growth stands, 100% and 99% of the simulations underestimated ecosystem C accumulation. One obvious area of model-data mismatch is soil moisture, which was overestimated by the model in the young and old-growth stands yet underestimated in the mature stand. However, modeled estimates of soil water content and associated water deficits did not appear to be the primary cause of model-data mismatch; our analysis indicated that gross primary production can be accurately modeled even if soil moisture content is not. Instead, difficulties in adequately modeling ecosystem respiration, mainly autotrophic respiration, appeared to be the fundamental cause of model-data mismatch.

  13. Wet deposition of mercury in Qingdao, a coastal urban city in China: Concentrations, fluxes, and influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lufeng; Li, Yanbin; Liu, Chang; Guo, Lina; Wang, Xiulin

    2018-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant of public concern because of its high toxicity and capability for worldwide distribution via long-range atmospheric transportation. Wet atmospheric deposition is an important source of Hg in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Concentrations of various Hg species in precipitation were monitored from March 2016 to February 2017 in a coastal urban area of Qingdao, and their wet deposition fluxes were estimated. The results showed that the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of total mercury (THg), reactive mercury (RHg), dissolved THg (DTHg), particulate THg (PTHg), total methylmercury (TMeHg), and dissolved and particulate MeHg (DMeHg and PMeHg) in Qingdao's precipitation were 13.6, 1.5, 5.4, 8.2, 0.38, 0.15, and 0.22 ng L-1, respectively, and their annual deposition fluxes were estimated to be 5703.0 (THg), 666.6 (RHg), 2304.0 (DTHg), 3470.4 (PTHg), 161.6 (TMeHg), 64.0 (DMeHg), and 95.7 (PMeHg) ng m-2 y-1, respectively. A relatively high proportion of MeHg in THg was observed in precipitation (3.0 ± 2.6%) possibly due to higher methylation and contributions from an oceanic source to MeHg in the precipitation. Obvious seasonal variations in Hg concentrations and deposition fluxes were observed in the precipitation in Qingdao. Correlation analyses and multiple regression analyses showed that SO2, pH, and NO3- were the controlling factors for THg in precipitation, whereas the MeHg concentration was primarily controlled by the SO2, WS, Cl-, and THg concentrations. PM2.5 and Cl- were the major controlling factors for PMeHg/TMeHg, whereas the TMeHg/THg ratio was mainly influenced by Cl-. The THg and MeHg fluxes were primarily controlled by precipitation, whereas Cl- was also an important factor for the MeHg wet deposition flux. The results of a 72-h backward trajectory analysis in the study region with the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model indicated that Hg deposition in Qingdao mainly

  14. Filter Influence on Rotor Losses in Coreless Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTIAGO, J.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the eddy current losses induced in the rotor of coreless Axial-Flux machines. The calculation of eddy currents in the magnets requires the simulation of the inverter and the filter to obtain the harmonic content of the stator currents and FEM analysis of the magnets in the rotor. Due to the low inductance in coreless machines, the induced eddy current losses in the rotor remain lower than in traditional slotted machines. If only machine losses are considered, filters in DC/AC converters are not required in machines with wide airgaps as time harmonic losses in the rotor are very low.The harmonic content both from simulations and experimental results of a DC/AC converter are used to calculate the eddy currents in the rotor magnets. The properties of coreless machine topologies are investigated and some simplifications are proposed for time efficient 3D-FEM analysis. The time varying magnetic field can be considered constant over the magnets when the pole is divided in several magnets.The simplified FEM method to calculate eddy current losses is applicable to coreless machines with poles split into several magnets, although the conclusions are applicable to all coreless and slotless motors and generators.

  15. Influence of tungsten microstructure and ion flux on deuterium plasma-induced surface modifications and deuterium retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzi, Luxherta [IEK - Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Juelich (Germany); FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (Netherlands); Ghent University (Belgium); Temmerman, Greg de [FOM Institute DIFFER-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (Netherlands); Reinhart, Michael; Matveev, Dmitry; Unterberg, Bernhard; Wienhold, Peter; Breuer, Uwe; Kreter, Arkadi [IEK - Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Juelich (Germany); Oost, Guido van [Ghent University (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    Tungsten is to be used as plasma-facing material for the ITER divertor due to its favourable thermal properties, low erosion and fuel retention. Bombardment of tungsten by low energy ions of hydrogen isotopes, at different surface temperature, can lead to surface modifications and influence the fuel accumulation in the material. This contribution will assess the impact of material microstructure and the correlation between the particle flux, surface modifications and deuterium retention in tungsten. Tungsten samples were exposed to deuterium plasma at a surface temperature of 510 K, 670 K and 870 K, ion energy of 40 eV and ion fluence of 10{sup 26} m{sup -2}. The high and low ion flux ranges were in the order 10{sup 24} m{sup -2}s{sup -1} and 10{sup 22} m{sup -2}s{sup -1}. Depth profiling of deuterium in all the samples was done by secondary ion mass spectroscopy technique and a scanning electron microscope was used to investigate the surface modifications. Modelling of the D desorption spectra with the coupled reaction diffusion system model will be also presented.

  16. Influence of Different Rotor Teeth Shapes on the Performance of Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machines Used for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated a 12-slot/11-pole flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM machine used for electric vehicles (EVs. Five novel rotor teeth shapes are proposed and researched to reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple of the FSPM machine. These rotor teeth shapes are notched teeth, stepped teeth, eccentric teeth, combination of notched and stepped teeth, and combination of notched and eccentric teeth. They are applied on the rotor and optimized, respectively. The influences of different rotor teeth shapes on cogging torque, torque ripple and electromagnetic torque are analyzed by the 2-D finite-element method (FEM. Then, the performance of FSPMs with different rotor teeth shapes are compared and evaluated comprehensively from the points of view of cogging torque, torque ripple, electromagnetic torque, flux linkage, back electromotive force (EMF, and so on. The results show that the presented rotor teeth shapes, especially the combination of stepped and notched teeth, can greatly reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple with only slight changes in the average electromagnetic torque.

  17. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q; Ma, H Y; Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H Y; He, Y; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented.

  18. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Ma, H. Y.; Yang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. Y.; He, Y.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented.

  19. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q., E-mail: wuq@impcas.ac.cn; Ma, H. Y.; Yang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. Y.; He, Y.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented.

  20. Application of the modified neutron source multiplication method for a measurement of sub-criticality in AGN-201K reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Hyun Kim

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of sub-criticality is a challenging and required task in nuclear industry both for nuclear criticality safety and physics test in nuclear power plant. A relatively new method named as Modified Neutron Source Multiplication Method (MNSM) was proposed in Japan. This method is an improvement of traditional Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) Method, in which three correction factors are applied additionally. In this study, MNSM was tested in calculation of rod worth using an educational reactor in Kyung Hee University, AGN-201K. For this study, a revised nuclear data library and a neutron transport code system TRANSX-PARTISN were used for the calculation of correction factors for various control rod positions and source locations. Experiments were designed and performed to enhance errors in NSM from the location effects of source and detectors. MNSM can correct these effects but current results showed not much correction effects. (author)

  1. Influences of various calculation options on heat, water and carbon fluxes determined by open- and closed-path eddy covariance methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Ueyama

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis studies using multiple-site datasets for eddy covariance potentially contain uncertainties originating from the use of different flux calculation options, because the choice of the process for calculating half-hourly fluxes from raw time series data is left to individual researchers. In this study, we quantified the uncertainties associated with different flux calculation methods at seven sites. The differences in the half-hourly fluxes were small, generally of the order less than a few percentiles, but they were substantial for the annual fluxes. After the standardisation under current recommendations in the FLUXNET communities, we estimated the uncertainties in the annual fluxes associated with the flux calculations to be 2.6±2.7 W m−2 (the mean 90% ± confidence interval for the sensible heat flux, 72±37 g C m−2 yr−1 for net ecosystem exchange (NEE, 12±6% for evapotranspiration, 12±6% for gross primary productivity and 16±10% for ecosystem respiration. The self-heating correction strongly influenced the annual carbon balance (143±93 g C m−2 yr−1, not only for cold sites but also for warm sites, but did not fully account for differences between the open- and closed-path systems (413±189 g C m−2 yr−1.

  2. Influence of the flux density on the radiation damage of bipolar silicon transistors by protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, Y.; Gorin, B.; Kozhevnikov, V.; Mikhnovich, V.; Gusev, L.

    1981-01-01

    It was found experimentally that the radiation damage of bipolar n-p-n transistors increased by a factor of 8--12 when the proton flux density was reduced from 4.07 x 10 10 to 2.5 x 10 7 cm -2 sec -1 . In the case of p-n-p transistors the effect was opposite: there was a reduction in the radiation damage by a factor of 2--3 when the dose rate was lowered between the same limits. A similar effect was observed for electrons but at dose rates three orders of magnitude greater. The results were attributed to the dependences of the radiation defect-forming reactions on the charge state of defects which was influenced by the formation of disordered regions in the case of proton irradiation

  3. Influence of environmental variables on diffusive greenhouse gas fluxes at hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogério, J P; Santos, M A; Santos, E O

    2013-11-01

    For almost two decades, studies have been under way in Brazil, showing how hydroelectric reservoirs produce biogenic gases, mainly methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), through the organic decomposition of flooded biomass. This somewhat complex phenomenon is due to a set of variables with differing levels of interdependence that directly or indirectly affect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to determine, through a statistical data analysis, the relation between CO2, CH4 diffusive fluxes and environmental variables at the Furnas, Itumbiara and Serra da Mesa hydroelectric reservoirs, located in the Cerrado biome on Brazil's high central plateau. The choice of this region was prompted by its importance in the national context, covering an area of some two million square kilometers, encompassing two major river basins (Paraná and Tocantins-Araguaia), with the largest installed power generation capacity in Brazil, together accounting for around 23% of Brazilian territory. This study shows that CH4 presented a moderate negative correlation between CO2 and depth. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for pH, water temperature and wind. The CO2 presented a moderate negative correlation for pH, wind speed, water temperature and air temperature. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for CO2 and water temperature. The complexity of the emission phenomenon is unlikely to occur through a simultaneous understanding of all the factors, due to difficulties in accessing and analyzing all the variables that have real, direct effects on GHG production and emission.

  4. Influence of environmental variables on diffusive greenhouse gas fluxes at hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP. Rogério

    Full Text Available For almost two decades, studies have been under way in Brazil, showing how hydroelectric reservoirs produce biogenic gases, mainly methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2, through the organic decomposition of flooded biomass. This somewhat complex phenomenon is due to a set of variables with differing levels of interdependence that directly or indirectly affect greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The purpose of this paper is to determine, through a statistical data analysis, the relation between CO2, CH4 diffusive fluxes and environmental variables at the Furnas, Itumbiara and Serra da Mesa hydroelectric reservoirs, located in the Cerrado biome on Brazil's high central plateau. The choice of this region was prompted by its importance in the national context, covering an area of some two million square kilometers, encompassing two major river basins (Paraná and Tocantins-Araguaia, with the largest installed power generation capacity in Brazil, together accounting for around 23% of Brazilian territory. This study shows that CH4 presented a moderate negative correlation between CO2 and depth. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for pH, water temperature and wind. The CO2 presented a moderate negative correlation for pH, wind speed, water temperature and air temperature. Additionally, a moderate positive correlation was noted for CO2 and water temperature. The complexity of the emission phenomenon is unlikely to occur through a simultaneous understanding of all the factors, due to difficulties in accessing and analyzing all the variables that have real, direct effects on GHG production and emission.

  5. Design of a molten heavy-metal coolant and target for fast-thermal accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyamurthy, P.; Degwekar, S.B.; Nema, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator Driven sub-critical Systems (ADS) have evoked considerable interest in recent years. The Energy Amplifier concept developed by C. Rubbia and others at CERN incorporates a buoyancy driven, lead-coolant primary system for extracting the heat generated in the fast reactor as well as that in neutron spallation target. In earlier publications, our BARC group has proposed a one-way coupled booster reactor system which could be operated at proton beam currents as low as 1-2 mA for a power output of 750 MW th . Here, the basic idea is to have a fast booster reactor zone of low power (- 100 MW th ) which is separated by a large gap from the main thermal reactor zone. In this arrangement, the spallation neutron source feeds neutrons to the fast reactor zone where neutrons are further multiplied. Further in this system, the neutrons from the booster region enter the main reactor but very few neutrons from main reactor return to booster, thus ensuring one-way coupling. In earlier work, several possible configurations of the booster and thermal regions were presented. In the present work, we describe an engineering design particularly with respect to thermal hydraulics of lead/lead-bismuth eutectic coolant also acting as spallation neutron source. This hybrid ADS reactor consists of fast and thermal reactor zones producing about 100 MW th and 650 MW th respectively. The scheme of the system is shown. The fast core consists of 48 hexagonal fuel bundles each containing 169 fuel pins of 8.2 mm diameter arranged in 11.4 mm triangular array pitch. The average thermal power per fuel pin is about 13.46 kw. However, due to neutron flux peaking effect, the maximum fuel pin power can be up to 2.5 times this average power. The thermal reactor consists of heavy water as moderator and coolant similar to a typical CANDU type Indian PHWR except for fuel composition. Though the gap between fast and thermal zones essentially provides one way coupling of neutron flux, a thermal

  6. Evaluating the influence of plant-specific physiological parameterizations on the partitioning of land surface energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulis, Mauro; Langensiepen, Matthias; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Schickling, Anke; Simmer, Clemens; Kollet, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation has a significant influence on the partitioning of radiative forcing, the spatial and temporal variability of soil water and soil temperature. Therefore plant physiological properties play a key role in mediating and amplifying interactions and feedback mechanisms in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. Because of the direct impact on latent heat fluxes, these properties may also influence weather generating processes, such as the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In land surface models, plant physiological properties are usually obtained from literature synthesis by unifying several plant/crop species in predefined vegetation classes. In this work, crop-specific physiological characteristics, retrieved from detailed field measurements, are included in the bio-physical parameterization of the Community Land Model (CLM), which is a component of the Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform (TerrSysMP). The measured set of parameters for two typical European mid-latitudinal crops (sugar beet and winter wheat) is validated using eddy covariance measurements (sensible heat and latent heat) over multiple years from three measurement sites located in the North Rhine-Westphalia region, Germany. We found clear improvements of CLM simulations, when using the crop-specific physiological characteristics of the plants instead of the generic crop type when compared to the measurements. In particular, the increase of latent heat fluxes in conjunction with decreased sensible heat fluxes as simulated by the two new crop-specific parameter sets leads to an improved quantification of the diurnal energy partitioning. These findings are cross-validated using estimates of gross primary production extracted from net ecosystem exchange measurements. This independent analysis reveals that the better agreement between observed and simulated latent heat using the plant-specific physiological properties largely stems from an improved simulation of the

  7. Study of the External Neutron Source Effect on TRU Burning in a Sub-critical Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Zafar Iqbal; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    One of the drawback points of nuclear power is the production of highly radioactive and long lasting waste isotopes during power production. Therefore, most important design requirement of future nuclear option should have a potential to burn selectively long-lived fission products (LLFP) and long-lived minor actinides (LLMA). However, there is no way to burn them selectively in the reactor core. Practical method of waste transmutation should rely on selective separation of them from spent nuclear fuel of power plants. Under the proliferation concern, direct separation of trans-uranic isotopes (TRU) from pyro-reprocessing plant became a feasible option in our country. Even though social political agreement is not matured as well as technical feasibility, current study is done based on basic assumptions; TRU and LLFP is separated from spent fuel of nuclear power plants. The remaining neutrons (among the external 3%) very few in number (less than 1% in any case) being very energetic (above three MeV or so) do cause much more fissions per neutron than their counterparts but, because of their overall low population they do not have any significant and decisive influence in the overall reactor performance. Currently, entire study is limited to the source neutron energy of 20 MeV only. In future, it is expected to get reasonably plausible fixed source dependent difference in the TRU burning by using tabulated data for the neutrons of higher energy (up to 250 MeV at least). Secondly, a clearer picture is expected if the TRU loading was increased from the current value of 133 kg to few metric tons, as is the case in most of the existing reactors.

  8. Shallow soil moisture – ground thaw interactions and controls – Part 2: Influences of water and energy fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Guan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The companion paper (Guan et al., 2010 demonstrated variable interactions and correlations between shallow soil moisture and ground thaw in soil filled areas along a wetness spectrum in a subarctic Canadian Precambrian Shield landscape. From wetter to drier, these included a wetland, peatland and soil filled valley. Herein, water and energy fluxes were examined for these same subarctic study sites to discern the key controlling processes on the found patterns. Results showed the presence of surface water was the key control in variable soil moisture and frost table interactions among sites. At the peatland and wetland sites, accumulated water in depressions and flow paths maintained soil moisture for a longer duration than at the hummock tops. These wet areas were often locations of deepest thaw depth due to the transfer of latent heat accompanying lateral surface runoff. Although the peatland and wetland sites had large inundation extent, modified Péclet numbers indicated the relative influence of external and internal hydrological and energy processes at each site were different. Continuous inflow from an upstream lake into the wetland site caused advective and conductive thermal energies to be of equal importance to ground thaw. The absence of continuous surface flow at the peatland and valley sites led to dominance of conductive thermal energy over advective energy for ground thaw. The results suggest that the modified Péclet number could be a very useful parameter to differentiate landscape components in modeling frost table heterogeneity. The calculated water and energy fluxes, and the modified Péclet number provide quantitative explanations for the shallow soil moisture-ground thaw patterns by linking them with hydrological processes and hillslope storage capacity.

  9. How a hurricane disturbance influences extreme CO2 fluxes and variance in a tropical forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    A current challenge is to understand what are the legacies left by disturbances on ecosystems for predicting response patterns and trajectories. This work focuses on the ecological implications of a major hurricane and analyzes its influence on forest gross primary productivity (GPP; derived from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer, MODIS) and soil CO 2 efflux. Following the hurricane, there was a reduction of nearly 0.5 kgC m −2 yr −1 , equivalent to ∼15% of the long-term mean GPP (∼3.0 ± 0.2 kgC m −2 yr −1 ; years 2003–8). Annual soil CO 2 emissions for the year following the hurricane were > 3.9 ± 0.5 kgC m −2 yr −1 , whereas for the second year emissions were 1.7 ± 0.4 kgC m −2 yr −1 . Higher annual emissions were associated with higher probabilities of days with extreme soil CO 2 efflux rates ( > 9.7 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 ). The variance of GPP was highly variable across years and was substantially increased following the hurricane. Extreme soil CO 2 efflux after the hurricane was associated with deposition of nitrogen-rich fresh organic matter, higher basal soil CO 2 efflux rates and changes in variance of the soil temperature. These results show that CO 2 dynamics are highly variable following hurricanes, but also demonstrate the strong resilience of tropical forests following these events. (letter)

  10. Influence of tubificid worms on nutrient fluxes across water-sediment interface in fish farm settling ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puigagut J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of tubificid worms on nutrient translocation from water to fish farm sediments accumulating in settling ponds was addressed under laboratory conditions. Small microcosms of 0.5 L were filled up with 35 g of sludge from a fish farm settling pond and 0.15 L of filtered settling pond water. The experimental set up consisted of one control line (no worms added, a second experimental line with 1 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (550 individuals·m-2 and a third experimental line with 40 mg of tubificid worms·g-1 fresh sediment (22 000 individuals·m-2. Nutrients translocation was determined by monitoring overlaying water concentration of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate for ten days. Results showed that abundances of 550 individuals·m-2 had no significant influence on the fluxes of nutrients here considered. However, the influence of higher abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2 was of significant extent on the translocation of nitrate and phosphate. Accordingly, bioturbation of tubificids caused 55% lower nitrate uptake by the sediment when compared to control conditions. Phosphorus released by the sediments of the control condition was ca. 90% higher than that recorded under abundances of tubificids (22 000 individuals·m-2. Results obtained allowed us to estimate that fish farm settling ponds highly colonized by tubificid worms (22 000 individuals·m-2 may contribute to decrease phosphorus discharge (in terms of soluble phosphorus in ca. 5 g of P·ton-1 of fish produced.

  11. A Distributed Lag Autoregressive Model of Geostationary Relativistic Electron Fluxes: Comparing the Influences of Waves, Seed and Source Electrons, and Solar Wind Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Laura; Engebretson, Mark; Clilverd, Mark; Rodger, Craig; Lessard, Marc; Gjerloev, Jesper; Reeves, Geoffrey

    2018-05-01

    Relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit depends on enhancement and loss processes driven by ultralow frequency (ULF) Pc5, chorus, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, seed electron flux, magnetosphere compression, the "Dst effect," and substorms, while solar wind inputs such as velocity, number density, and interplanetary magnetic field Bz drive these factors and thus correlate with flux. Distributed lag regression models show the time delay of highest influence of these factors on log10 high-energy electron flux (0.7-7.8 MeV, Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites). Multiple regression with an autoregressive term (flux persistence) allows direct comparison of the magnitude of each effect while controlling other correlated parameters. Flux enhancements due to ULF Pc5 and chorus waves are of equal importance. The direct effect of substorms on high-energy electron flux is strong, possibly due to injection of high-energy electrons by the substorms themselves. Loss due to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves is less influential. Southward Bz shows only moderate influence when correlated processes are accounted for. Adding covariate compression effects (pressure and interplanetary magnetic field magnitude) allows wave-driven enhancements to be more clearly seen. Seed electrons (270 keV) are most influential at lower relativistic energies, showing that such a population must be available for acceleration. However, they are not accelerated directly to the highest energies. Source electrons (31.7 keV) show no direct influence when other factors are controlled. Their action appears to be indirect via the chorus waves they generate. Determination of specific effects of each parameter when studied in combination will be more helpful in furthering modeling work than studying them individually.

  12. Influence of landscape composition and diversity on contaminant flux in terrestrial food webs: A case study of trace metal transfer to European blackbirds Turdus merula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritsch, C.; Coeurdassier, M.; Faivre, B.; Baurand, P.E.; Giraudoux, P.; Brink, van den N.W.; Scheifler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Although understanding the influence of the spatial arrangement of habitats and interacting communities on the processes of pollutant flux and impacts is critical for exposure and risk assessment, to date few studies have been devoted to this emergent topic. We tested the hypothesis that landscape

  13. Advanced electrical current measurements of microdischarges: evidence of sub-critical pulses and ion currents in barrier discharge in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Petr; Zemánek, Miroslav; Kudrle, Vít; Hoder, Tomáš

    2018-04-01

    Electrical current measurements in corona or barrier microdischarges are a challenge as they require both high temporal resolution and a large dynamic range of the current probe used. In this article, we apply a simple self-assembled current probe and compare it to commercial ones. An analysis in the time and frequency domain is carried out. Moreover, an improved methodology is presented, enabling both temporal resolution in sub-nanosecond times and current sensitivity in the order of tens of micro-amperes. Combining this methodology with a high-tech oscilloscope and self-developed software, a unique statistical analysis of currents in volume barrier discharge driven in atmospheric-pressure air is made for over 80 consecutive periods of a 15 kHz applied voltage. We reveal the presence of repetitive sub-critical current pulses and conclude that these can be identified with the discharging of surface charge microdomains. Moreover, extremely low, long-lasting microsecond currents were detected which are caused by ion flow, and are analysed in detail. The statistical behaviour presented gives deeper insight into the discharge physics of these usually undetectable current signals.

  14. Dynamic Simulation of the Water-steam System in Once-through Boilers - Sub-critical Power Boiler Case -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongil; Choi, Sangmin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The dynamics of a water-steam system in a once-through boiler was simulated based on the physics-based modeling approach, representing the system in response to large load change or scale disturbance simulations. The modeling considered the mass, energy conservation, and momentum equation in the water pipe and the focus was limited to the sub-critical pressure region. An evaporator tube modeling was validated against the reference data. A simplified boiler system consisting of economizer, evaporator, and superheater was constructed to match a 500 MW power boiler. The dynamic response of the system following a disturbance was discussed along with the quantitative response characteristics. The dynamic response of the boiler system was further evaluated by checking the case of an off-design point operation of the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio. The results re-emphasized the significance of controlling the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio and additional design requirements of the water-steam separator and spray attemperator.

  15. Dynamic Simulation of the Water-steam System in Once-through Boilers - Sub-critical Power Boiler Case -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seongil; Choi, Sangmin

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of a water-steam system in a once-through boiler was simulated based on the physics-based modeling approach, representing the system in response to large load change or scale disturbance simulations. The modeling considered the mass, energy conservation, and momentum equation in the water pipe and the focus was limited to the sub-critical pressure region. An evaporator tube modeling was validated against the reference data. A simplified boiler system consisting of economizer, evaporator, and superheater was constructed to match a 500 MW power boiler. The dynamic response of the system following a disturbance was discussed along with the quantitative response characteristics. The dynamic response of the boiler system was further evaluated by checking the case of an off-design point operation of the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio. The results re-emphasized the significance of controlling the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio and additional design requirements of the water-steam separator and spray attemperator.

  16. Design-theoretical study of cascade CO2 sub-critical mechanical compression/butane ejector cooling cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Petrenko, V.O.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper an innovative micro-trigeneration system composed of a cogeneration system and a cascade refrigeration cycle is proposed. The cogeneration system is a combined heat and power system for electricity generation and heat production. The cascade refrigeration cycle is the combination of a CO2 mechanical compression refrigerating machine (MCRM), powered by generated electricity, and an ejector cooling machine (ECM), driven by waste heat and using refrigerant R600. Effect of the cycle operating conditions on ejector and ejector cycle performances is studied. Optimal geometry of the ejector and performance characteristics of ECM are determined at wide range of the operating conditions. The paper also describes a theoretical analysis of the CO2 sub-critical cycle and shows the effect of the MCRM evaporating temperature on the cascade system performance. The obtained data provide necessary information to design a small-scale cascade system with cooling capacity of 10 kW for application in micro-trigeneration systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of fuel assembly loading pattern and fuel burnups upon leakage neutron flux spectra from light water reactor core (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Kensuke; Okumura, Keisuke; Kosako, Kazuaki; Torii, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    At the decommissioning of light water reactors (LWRs), it is important to evaluate an amount of radioactivity in the ex-core structures such as a reactor containment vessel, radiation shieldings, and so on. It is thought that the leakage neutron spectra in these radioactivation regions, which strongly affect the induced radioactivity, would be changed by different reactor core configurations such as fuel assembly loading pattern and fuel burnups. This study was intended to evaluate these effects. For this purpose, firstly, partial neutron currents on the core surfaces were calculated for some core configurations. Then, the leakage neutron flux spectra in major radioactivation regions were calculated based on the provided currents. Finally, influence of the core configurations upon the neutron flux spectra was evaluated. As a result, it has been found that the influence is small on the spectrum shapes of neutron fluxes. However, it is necessary to pay attention to the facts that intensities of the leakage neutron fluxes are changed by the configurations and that intensities and spectrum shapes of the leakage neutron fluxes are changed depending on the angular direction around the core. (author)

  18. Influence of gas-particle partitioning on ammonia and nitric acid fluxes above a deciduous forest in the Midwestern USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Hornsby, Karen E.

    to bi-directionality of the flux, and the dynamics of the chemical gas/aerosol equilibrium of NH3 and HNO3 (or other atmospheric acids) with aerosol-phase ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). NH3 and HNO3 are both very reactive and typically exhibit higher deposition velocities than aerosol NH4...... diffusion denuders with detection by florescence and half-hourly flux measurements are calculated. HNO3 REA system is based on gas capture on sodium chloride (NaCl) coated denuders with subsequent analysis by ion-chromatography, and the resulting fluxes have a resolution of 3-4 hours. CO2 fluxes...

  19. Influence of sustainable irrigation regimes and agricultural practices on the soil CO2 fluxes from olive groves in SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Serrano-Ortíz, Penelope; Vicente-Vicente, Jose Luis; Chamizo, Sonia; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2017-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) is the dominant agriculture plantation in Spain and its main product, olive oil, is vital to the economy of Mediterranean countries. Given the extensive surface dedicated to olive plantations, olive groves can potentially sequester large amounts of carbon and contribute to mitigate climate change. Their potential for carbon sequestration will, however, largely depend on the management and irrigation practices in the olive grove. Although soil respiration is the main path of C release from the terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere and a suitable indicator of soil health and fertility, the interaction of agricultural management practices with irrigation regimes on soil CO2 fluxes have not been assessed yet. Here we investigate the influence of the presence of herbaceous cover, use of artificial fertilizers and their interaction with the irrigation regime on the CO2 emission from the soil to the atmosphere. For this, the three agricultural management treatments were established in replicated plots in an olive grove in the SE of Spain: presence of herbaceous cover ("H"), exclusion of herbaceous cover by using herbicides ("NH"), and exclusion of herbaceous cover along with addition of artificial fertilizers (0.55 kg m-2 year-1 of N, P, K solid fertilizer in the proportion 20:10:10, "NHF"). Within each management treatment, three irrigation regimes were also implemented in a randomized design: no-irrigation ("NO") or rain fed, full irrigation (224 l week-1 per olive tree, "MAX"), and a 50% restriction (112 l week-1 per olive tree, "MED"). Soil respiration was measured every 2-3 weeks at 1, 3, and 5 meters from each olive tree together with soil temperature and soil moisture in order to account for the spatial and seasonal variability over the year. Soil respiration was higher when herbaceous cover was present compared to the herbaceous exclusion, whereas the addition of fertilizer did not exert any significant effect. Although the different

  20. A comparison of radiometric fluxes influenced by parameterization cirrus clouds with observed fluxes at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) cloud and radiation testbed (CART) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, G.G.; Ackerman, T.P.; George, A.T. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program`s Southern Great plains Site (SCP) is a valuable resource. We have developed an operational data processing and analysis methodology that allows us to examine continuously the influence of clouds on the radiation field and to test new and existing cloud and radiation parameterizations.

  1. Influence of internal and external boundary conditions on the decrement factor and time lag heat flux of building walls in steady periodic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzeo, D.; Oliveti, G.; Arcuri, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic behaviour of building walls subjected to sinusoidal and actual loadings. • The joint action of more temperature and heat flux loadings has been considered. • Dynamic parameters were defined by the internal and external fluctuating heat flux. • Use of the Total Harmonic Distortion to determine the number of harmonics required. • Study of the influence of external and internal loadings on dynamic parameters. - Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of opaque components of the building envelope in steady periodic regime is investigated using parameters defined by the fluctuating heat flux that is transferred in the wall. The use of the heat flux allows for the joint action of the loadings that characterise both the outdoor environment and the indoor air-conditioned environment to be taken into account. The analysis was developed in sinusoidal conditions to determine the frequency response of the wall and in non-sinusoidal conditions to identify the actual dynamic behaviour of the wall. The use of non-dimensional periodic thermal transmittance is proposed for the sinusoidal analysis in order to evaluate the decrement factor and the time lag that the heat flux undergoes in crossing the wall as well as the efficiency of heat storage. In the presence of non-sinusoidal loadings, the identification of the dynamic behaviour of the wall is obtained using several dynamic parameters: the decrement factor in terms of energy, defined as the ratio between the energy in a semi-period entering and exiting the wall; the decrement factor and the time lag in terms of heat flux, considering the maximum peak and the minimum peak. These parameters allow for the identification of how the form of the heat flux trend crossing the wall is modified. The number of harmonics to be considered for an accurate representation of heat fluxes is determined by means of the introduction of the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), which quantifies the distortion of a non

  2. Influence of the Particle Length of Carbon Nanotube for Pool Boiling Critical Heat Flux Enhancement of Nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Seek; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Nam Jin

    2013-01-01

    The results of this experiment were that the CHF of the two nanofluids increased along with the volumetric fraction until 0.001 vol%, and the two types of nanofluids are the highest CHF at 0.001 vol%. Also, the results show clearly that the rate of CHF increase of the CM-100 MWCNT nanofluid with longer-length nanoparticles is higher than that of the CM-95 MWNCT nanofluid. These results indicate that the length of carbon nanotube influences the pool boiling CHF of carbon nanotube nanofluid and that long-length MWCNT, as above-noted, offers a superior effect in this regard. Boiling heat transfer is used in a variety of industrial processes and applications, such as refrigeration, power generation, heat exchangers, cooling of high-power electronics components and cooling of nuclear reactors. The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon is the thermal limit during a boiling heat transfer phase change; at the CHF point the heat transfer is maximised, followed by a drastic degradation after the CHF point. The consequence is a substantial increase in wall temperature which may result in physical failure phenomenon of heat transfer systems. Therefore, the CHF is important being considered in the cooling device design, such as nuclear reactor and nuclear fuels, steam generators, high-density electronic component, etc. And, CHF enhancement is essential for safety of heat transfer system. Recently, CHF reported increased when applied to the nanofluids, with its high (higher-than-base-fluid) thermal characteristic in the nuclear power plant system. Therefore, in this study, carried out the pool boiling CHF experiments by the particle length using carbon nanotube nanofluids, and the results are compared and analyzed for the CHF enhancement. The pool boiling CHF of experiments of carbon nanotube nanofluids carried out by the length of particles and the various concentrations

  3. Influence of tree cover on herbaceous layer development and carbon and water fluxes in a Portuguese cork-oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbert, Maren; Mosena, Alexander; Piayda, Arndt; Cuntz, Matthias; Correia, Alexandra Cristina; Pereira, Joao Santos; Werner, Christiane

    2014-08-01

    Facilitation and competition between different vegetation layers may have a large impact on small-scale vegetation development. We propose that this should not only influence overall herbaceous layer yield but also species distribution and understory longevity, and hence the ecosystems carbon uptake capacity especially during spring. We analyzed the effects of trees on microclimate and soil properties (water and nitrate content) as well as the development of an herbaceous community layer regarding species composition, aboveground biomass and net water and carbon fluxes in a cork-oak woodland in Portugal, between April and November 2011. The presence of trees caused a significant reduction in photosynthetic active radiation of 35 mol m-2 d-1 and in soil temperature of 5 °C from April to October. At the same time differences in species composition between experimental plots located in open areas and directly below trees could be observed: species composition and abundance of functional groups became increasingly different between locations from mid April onwards. During late spring drought adapted native forbs had significantly higher cover and biomass in the open area while cover and biomass of grasses and nitrogen fixing forbs was highest under the trees. Further, evapotranspiration and net carbon exchange decreased significantly stronger under the tree crowns compared to the open during late spring and the die back of herbaceous plants occurred earlier and faster under trees. This was most likely caused by interspecific competition for water between trees and herbaceous plants, despite the more favorable microclimate conditions under the trees during the onset of summer drought.

  4. The influence of plasma horizontal position on the neutron rate and flux of neutral atoms in injection heating experiment on the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornev, V. A.; Chernyshev, F. V.; Melnik, A. D.; Askinazi, L. G.; Wagner, F.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Zhubr, N. A.; Krikunov, S. V.; Lebedev, S. V.; Razumenko, D. V.; Tukachinsky, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    Horizontal displacement of plasma along the major radius has been found to significantly influence the fluxes of 2.45 MeV DD neutrons and high-energy charge-exchange atoms from neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasma of the TUMAN-3M tokamak. An inward shift by Δ R = 1 cm causes 1.2-fold increase in the neutron flux and 1.9-fold increase in the charge-exchange atom flux. The observed increase in the neutron flux is attributed to joint action of several factors-in particular, improved high-energy ion capture and confinement and, probably, decreased impurity inflow from the walls, which leads to an increase in the density of target ions. A considerable increase in the flux of charge-exchange neutrals in inward-shifted plasma is due to the increased number of captured high-energy ions and, to some extent, the increased density of the neutral target. As a result of the increase in the content of high-energy ions, the central ion temperature T i (0) increased from 250 to 350 eV. The dependence of the neutron rate on major radius R 0 should be taken into account when designing compact tokamak-based neutron sources.

  5. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, R.W.; Billen, G.; Swaney, D.; Townsend, A.; Jaworski, N.; Lajtha, K.; Downing, J.A.; Elmgren, Ragnar; Caraco, N.; Jordan, T.; Berendse, F.; Freney, J.; Kudeyarov, V.; Murdoch, P.; Zhu, Z.-L.

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr-1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr-1. On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all regions. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate regions of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate regions (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, regional nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all regions. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many regions, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the

  6. Influence of soft ferromagnetic sections on the magnetic flux density profile of a large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, M P; Wéra, L; Fagnard, J-F; Vanderheyden, B; Vanderbemden, P; Ainslie, M D; Dennis, A R; Shi, Y-H; Cardwell, D A

    2015-01-01

    Bulk, high temperature superconductors have significant potential for use as powerful permanent magnets in a variety of practical applications due to their ability to trap record magnetic fields. In this paper, soft ferromagnetic sections are combined with a bulk, large grain Y–Ba–Cu–O high temperature superconductor to form superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures. We study how the ferromagnetic sections influence the shape of the profile of the trapped magnetic induction at the surface of each structure and report the surface magnetic flux density measured by Hall probe mapping. These configurations have been modelled using a 2D axisymmetric finite element method based on the H-formulation and the results show excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements. The model has also been used to study the magnetic flux distribution and predict the behaviour for other constitutive laws and geometries. The results show that the ferromagnetic material acts as a magnetic shield, but the flux density and its gradient are enhanced on the face opposite to the ferromagnet. The thickness and saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic material are important and a characteristic ferromagnet thickness d* is derived: below d*, saturation of the ferromagnet occurs, and above d*, a weak thickness-dependence is observed. The influence of the ferromagnet is observed even if its saturation magnetization is lower than the trapped flux density of the superconductor. Conversely, thin ferromagnetic discs can be driven to full saturation even though the outer magnetic field is much smaller than their saturation magnetization. (paper)

  7. Influence of growth flux solvent on anneal-tuning of ground states in CaFe2As2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncaioli, Connor; Drye, Tyler; Saha, Shanta R.; Paglione, Johnpierre

    2018-04-01

    The effects of anneal-tuning of single-crystalline samples of CaFe2As2 synthesized via a molten Sn-flux method are investigated using x-ray diffraction, chemical composition, electrical transport, and magnetic susceptibility measurements in order to understand the role of growth conditions on the resultant phase diagram. Previous studies of CaFe2As2 crystals synthesized using a self-flux (FeAs) method revealed an ability to tune the structural and magnetic properties of this system by control of post-synthesis annealing conditions, resulting in an ambient pressure phase diagram that spans from tetragonal/orthorhombic antiferromagnetism to the collapsed tetragonal phase of this system. In this work, we compare previous results to those obtained on crystals synthesized via Sn flux, finding similar tunability in both self- and Sn-flux cases, but less sensitivity to annealing temperatures in the latter case, resulting in a temperature-shifted phase diagram.

  8. Influence of slow-release urea on nitrogen balance and portal-drained visceral nutrient flux in beef steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Elam, N A; Kitts, S E

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow-release urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on portal-drained visceral (PDV) nutrient flux, nutrient digestibility, and total N balance in beef steers.......Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow-release urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on portal-drained visceral (PDV) nutrient flux, nutrient digestibility, and total N balance in beef steers....

  9. Coccolithophore fluxes in the open tropical North Atlantic: influence of thermocline depth, Amazon water, and Saharan dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Catarina V.; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Brummer, Geert-Jan A.; Fischer, Gerhard; Korte, Laura F.; Merkel, Ute; Sá, Carolina; de Stigter, Henko; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.

    2017-10-01

    Coccolithophores are calcifying phytoplankton and major contributors to both the organic and inorganic oceanic carbon pumps. Their export fluxes, species composition, and seasonal patterns were determined in two sediment trap moorings (M4 at 12° N, 49° W and M2 at 14° N, 37° W) collecting settling particles synchronously from October 2012 to November 2013 at 1200 m of water depth in the open equatorial North Atlantic. The two trap locations showed a similar seasonal pattern in total coccolith export fluxes and a predominantly tropical coccolithophore settling assemblage. Species fluxes were dominated throughout the year by lower photic zone (LPZ) taxa (Florisphaera profunda, Gladiolithus flabellatus) but also included upper photic zone (UPZ) taxa (Umbellosphaera spp., Rhabdosphaera spp., Umbilicosphaera spp., Helicosphaera spp.). The LPZ flora was most abundant during fall 2012, whereas the UPZ flora was more important during summer. In spite of these similarities, the western part of the study area produced persistently higher fluxes, averaging 241×107 ± 76×107 coccoliths m-2 d-1 at station M4 compared to only 66×107 ± 31×107 coccoliths m-2 d-1 at station M2. Higher fluxes at M4 were mainly produced by the LPZ species, favoured by the westward deepening of the thermocline and nutricline. Still, most UPZ species also contributed to higher fluxes, reflecting enhanced productivity in the western equatorial North Atlantic. Such was the case of two marked flux peaks of the more opportunistic species Gephyrocapsa muellerae and Emiliania huxleyi in January and April 2013 at M4, indicating a fast response to the nutrient enrichment of the UPZ, probably by wind-forced mixing. Later, increased fluxes of G. oceanica and E. huxleyi in October-November 2013 coincided with the occurrence of Amazon-River-affected surface waters. Since the spring and fall events of 2013 were also accompanied by two dust flux peaks, we propose a scenario in which atmospheric dust also

  10. Nuclear transmutation by flux compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    2001-01-01

    A new idea for the transmutation of minor actinides, long (and even short) lived fission products is presented. It is based an the property of neutron flux compression in nuclear (fast and/or thermal) reactors possessing spatially non-stationary critical masses. An advantage factor for the burn-up fluence of the elements to be transmuted in the order of magnitude of 100 and more is obtainable compared with the classical way of transmutation. Three typical examples of such transmuters (a subcritical ringreactor with a rotating reflector, a sub-critical ring reactor with a rotating spallation source, the socalled ''pulsed energy amplifier'', and a fast burn-wave reactor) are presented and analysed with regard to this purpose. (orig.) [de

  11. Sub-critical water as a green solvent for production of valuable materials from agricultural waste biomass: A review of recent work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shitu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste biomass generated from agricultural production and food processing industry are abundant, such as durian  peel, mango peel, corn straw, rice bran, corn shell, potato peel and many more. Due to low commercial value, these wastes are disposed in landfill, which if not managed properly may cause environmental problems. Currently, environmental laws and regulations pertaining to the pollution from agricultural waste streams by regulatory agencies are stringent and hence the application of toxic solvents during processing has become public concern. Recent development in valuable materials extraction from the decomposition of agricultural waste by sub-critical water treatment from the published literature was review. Physico-chemical characteristic (reaction temperature, reaction time and solid to liquid ratio of the sub-critical water affecting its yield were also reviewed. The utilization of biomass residue from agriculture, forest wood production and from food and feed processing industry may be an important alternative renewable energy supply. The paper also presents future research on sub-critical water.

  12. Turbulent fluxes of momentum and heat over land in the High-Arctic summer: the influence of observation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sjöblom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different observation techniques for atmospheric turbulent fluxes of momentum and sensible heat were tested in a High-Arctic valley in Svalbard during two consecutive summers (June–August in 2010 and 2011. The gradient method (GM and the bulk method (BM have been compared to the more direct eddy covariance method (ECM in order to evaluate if relatively robust and cheap instrumentation with low power consumption can be used as a means to increase the number of observations, especially at remote locations where instruments need to be left unattended for extended periods. Such campaigns increase knowledge about the snow-free surface exchange processes, an area which is relatively little investigated compared to snow-covered ground. The GM agreed closely to the ECM, especially for momentum flux where the two methods agree within 5%. For sensible heat flux, the GM produces, on average, approximately 40% lower values for unstable stratification and 67% lower for stable stratification. However, this corresponds to only 20 and 12 W m−2, respectively. The BM, however, shows a greater scatter and larger differences for both parameters. In addition to testing these methods, radiation properties were measured and the surface albedo was found to increase through the summer, from approximately 0.1 to 0.2. The surface energy budget shows that the sensible heat flux is usually directed upwards for the whole summer, while the latent heat flux is upwards in June, but becomes downward in July and August.

  13. Influence of urban resilience measures in the magnitude and behaviour of energy fluxes in the city of Porto (Portugal) under a climate change scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafael, S.; Martins, H.; Sá, E.; Carvalho, D.; Borrego, C.; Lopes, M.

    2016-01-01

    Different urban resilience measures, such as the increase of urban green areas and the application of white roofs, were evaluated with the WRF-SUEWS modelling system. The case study consists of five heat waves occurring in Porto (Portugal) urban area in a future climate scenario. Meteorological forcing and boundary data were downscaled for Porto urban area from the CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM, for the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 scenario. The influence of different resilience measures on the energy balance components was quantified and compared between each other. Results show that the inclusion of green urban areas increases the evaporation and the availability of surface moisture, redirecting the energy to the form of latent heat flux (maximum increase of + 200 W m"−"2) rather than to sensible heat. The application of white roofs increases the solar radiation reflection, due to the higher albedo of such surfaces, reducing both sensible and storage heat flux (maximum reductions of − 62.8 and − 35 W m"−"2, respectively). The conjugations of the individual benefits related to each resilience measure shows that this measure is the most effective one in terms of improving the thermal comfort of the urban population, particularly due to the reduction of both sensible and storage heat flux. The obtained results contribute to the knowledge of the surface-atmosphere exchanges and can be of great importance for stakeholders and decision-makers. - Graphical abstract: A combination of white roofs and increased green urban areas has the potential do reduce the sensible heat flux of urban areas, being of great effectiveness in improving the thermal comfort of the urban population under future climate. - Highlights: • Evaluation of energy fluxes behaviour under RCP8.5 climate change scenario • Increase in the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat waves • Cities must become resilient to be able to deal with climate change

  14. Influence of urban resilience measures in the magnitude and behaviour of energy fluxes in the city of Porto (Portugal) under a climate change scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael, S., E-mail: sandra.rafael@ua.pt; Martins, H.; Sá, E.; Carvalho, D.; Borrego, C.; Lopes, M.

    2016-10-01

    Different urban resilience measures, such as the increase of urban green areas and the application of white roofs, were evaluated with the WRF-SUEWS modelling system. The case study consists of five heat waves occurring in Porto (Portugal) urban area in a future climate scenario. Meteorological forcing and boundary data were downscaled for Porto urban area from the CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM, for the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 scenario. The influence of different resilience measures on the energy balance components was quantified and compared between each other. Results show that the inclusion of green urban areas increases the evaporation and the availability of surface moisture, redirecting the energy to the form of latent heat flux (maximum increase of + 200 W m{sup −2}) rather than to sensible heat. The application of white roofs increases the solar radiation reflection, due to the higher albedo of such surfaces, reducing both sensible and storage heat flux (maximum reductions of − 62.8 and − 35 W m{sup −2}, respectively). The conjugations of the individual benefits related to each resilience measure shows that this measure is the most effective one in terms of improving the thermal comfort of the urban population, particularly due to the reduction of both sensible and storage heat flux. The obtained results contribute to the knowledge of the surface-atmosphere exchanges and can be of great importance for stakeholders and decision-makers. - Graphical abstract: A combination of white roofs and increased green urban areas has the potential do reduce the sensible heat flux of urban areas, being of great effectiveness in improving the thermal comfort of the urban population under future climate. - Highlights: • Evaluation of energy fluxes behaviour under RCP8.5 climate change scenario • Increase in the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat waves • Cities must become resilient to be able to deal with climate change

  15. Environmental and microbial factors influencing methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in Mediterranean cork oak woodlands: trees make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvaleva, Alla; Siljanen, Henri M P; Correia, Alexandra; Costa E Silva, Filipe; Lamprecht, Richard E; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Bicho, Catarina; Fangueiro, David; Anderson, Margaret; Pereira, João S; Chaves, Maria M; Cruz, Cristina; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2015-01-01

    Cork oak woodlands (montado) are agroforestry systems distributed all over the Mediterranean basin with a very important social, economic and ecological value. A generalized cork oak decline has been occurring in the last decades jeopardizing its future sustainability. It is unknown how loss of tree cover affects microbial processes that are consuming greenhouse gases in the montado ecosystem. The study was conducted under two different conditions in the natural understory of a cork oak woodland in center Portugal: under tree canopy (UC) and open areas without trees (OA). Fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide were measured with a static chamber technique. In order to quantify methanotrophs and bacteria capable of nitrous oxide consumption, we used quantitative real-time PCR targeting the pmoA and nosZ genes encoding the subunit of particulate methane mono-oxygenase and catalytic subunit of the nitrous oxide reductase, respectively. A significant seasonal effect was found on CH4 and N2O fluxes and pmoA and nosZ gene abundance. Tree cover had no effect on methane fluxes; conversely, whereas the UC plots were net emitters of nitrous oxide, the loss of tree cover resulted in a shift in the emission pattern such that the OA plots were a net sink for nitrous oxide. In a seasonal time scale, the UC had higher gene abundance of Type I methanotrophs. Methane flux correlated negatively with abundance of Type I methanotrophs in the UC plots. Nitrous oxide flux correlated negatively with nosZ gene abundance at the OA plots in contrast to that at the UC plots. In the UC soil, soil organic matter had a positive effect on soil extracellular enzyme activities, which correlated positively with the N2O flux. Our results demonstrated that tree cover affects soil properties, key enzyme activities and abundance of microorganisms and, consequently net CH4 and N2O exchange.

  16. DAYCENT Simulations to Test the Influence of Fire Regime and Fire Suppression on Trace Gas Fluxes and Nitrogen Biogeochemistry of Colorado Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Gathany

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity and the physical environment regulate greenhouse gas fluxes (CH4, N2O and NO from upland soils. Wildfires are known to alter these factors such that we collected daily weather records, fire return intervals, or specific fire years, and soil data of four specific sites along the Colorado Front Range. These data were used as primary inputs into DAYCENT. In this paper we test the ability of DAYCENT to simulate four forested sites in this area and to address two objectives: (1 to evaluate the short-term influence of fire on trace gas fluxes from burned landscapes; and (2 to compare trace gas fluxes among locations and between pre-/post- fire suppression. The model simulations indicate that CH4 oxidation is relatively unaffected by wildfire. In contrast, gross nitrification rates were reduced by 13.5–37.1% during the fire suppression period. At two of the sites, we calculated increases in gross nitrification rates (>100%, and N2O and NO fluxes during the year of fire relative to the year before a fire. Simulated fire suppression exhibited decreased gross nitrification rates presumably as nitrogen is immobilized. This finding concurs with other studies that highlight the importance of forest fires to maintain soil nitrogen availability.

  17. Quasi-Linear Evolution of Trapped Electron Fluxes Under the Influence of Realistic Whistler-Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, O. V.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of fluxes of energetic trapped electrons as a function of geomagnetic activity is investigated using brand new statistical models of chorus waves derived from Cluster observations in the radiation belts. The new wave models provide the distributions of wave power and wave-normal angle with latitude as a function of either Dst or Kp indices. Lifetimes and energization of energetic electrons are examined, as well as the relevant uncertainties related to some of the wave models implicit assumptions.From the presented results, different implications concerning the characterization of relativistic flux enhancements and losses are provided.

  18. Influence of implanted helium on nickel resistance under simulation of plasma flux disruption in nuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadin, B.A.; Pol'skij, V.I.; Yakushin, V.L.; Markin, A.V.; Tserevitinov, S.S.; Vasil'ev, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Investigation results are presented of radiation erosion of constructive materials of the first wall of a thermonuclear reactor. The erosion is conditioned by successive repeated action of pulse processes, imitating plasma disruption, and helium ion fluxes at 40 keV and 2 x 10 21 -10 22 m -2 fluence. As imitating processes are used fluxes of deuterium high-temperature plasma. It is shown that preliminary action by high-temperature plasma leads to substantial suppression of radiation erosion, included by subsequent ion irradiation

  19. Influence of physical and biological processes on the seasonal cycle of biogenic flux in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vidya, P.J.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Gauns; Verenkar, A.; Unger, D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    to understand the factors that control them. The sediment trap data at SBBT was collected for ten years from November 1987 while that at EIOT was for a one year period from January 1996. The characteristic of biogenic flux at SBBT was the strong seasonality...

  20. Nitrogen oxides and ozone fluxes from an oilseed-rape management cycle: the influence of cattle slurry application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Raffaella M.; Loubet, Benjamin; Mascher, Nicolas; Gueudet, Jean-Christophe; Durand, Brigitte; Laville, Patricia; Zurfluh, Olivier; Ciuraru, Raluca; Stella, Patrick; Trebs, Ivonne

    2017-05-01

    This study reports NO, NO2 and O3 mixing ratios and flux measurements using the eddy covariance method during a 7-month period over an oilseed-rape field, spanning an organic and a mineral fertilisation event. Cumulated NO emissions during the whole period were in agreement with previous studies and showed quite low emissions of 0.26 kg N ha-1 with an emission factor of 0.27 %, estimated as the ratio between total N emitted in the form of NO and total N input. The NO emissions were higher following organic fertilisation in August due to conditions favouring nitrification (soil water content around 20 % and high temperatures), while mineral fertilisation in February did not result in high emissions. The ozone deposition velocity increased significantly after organic fertilisation. The analysis of the chemical and turbulent transport times showed that reactions between NO, NO2 and O3 below the measurement height occurred constantly throughout the 7-month period. Following organic fertilisation, the NO ground fluxes were 30 % larger than the NO fluxes at the measurement height (3.2 m), while the NO2 fluxes switched from deposition to emission during certain periods, being negative at the surface and positive at the measurement height. This phenomenon of apparent NO2 emissions appears to be significant during strong NO emissions and high O3 ambient mixing ratios, even on a bare soil during August.

  1. Coccolithophore fluxes in the open tropical North Atlantic: influence of thermocline depth, Amazon water, and Saharan dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Guerreiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coccolithophores are calcifying phytoplankton and major contributors to both the organic and inorganic oceanic carbon pumps. Their export fluxes, species composition, and seasonal patterns were determined in two sediment trap moorings (M4 at 12° N, 49° W and M2 at 14° N, 37° W collecting settling particles synchronously from October 2012 to November 2013 at 1200 m of water depth in the open equatorial North Atlantic. The two trap locations showed a similar seasonal pattern in total coccolith export fluxes and a predominantly tropical coccolithophore settling assemblage. Species fluxes were dominated throughout the year by lower photic zone (LPZ taxa (Florisphaera profunda, Gladiolithus flabellatus but also included upper photic zone (UPZ taxa (Umbellosphaera spp., Rhabdosphaera spp., Umbilicosphaera spp., Helicosphaera spp.. The LPZ flora was most abundant during fall 2012, whereas the UPZ flora was more important during summer. In spite of these similarities, the western part of the study area produced persistently higher fluxes, averaging 241×107 ± 76×107 coccoliths m−2 d−1 at station M4 compared to only 66×107 ± 31×107 coccoliths m−2 d−1 at station M2. Higher fluxes at M4 were mainly produced by the LPZ species, favoured by the westward deepening of the thermocline and nutricline. Still, most UPZ species also contributed to higher fluxes, reflecting enhanced productivity in the western equatorial North Atlantic. Such was the case of two marked flux peaks of the more opportunistic species Gephyrocapsa muellerae and Emiliania huxleyi in January and April 2013 at M4, indicating a fast response to the nutrient enrichment of the UPZ, probably by wind-forced mixing. Later, increased fluxes of G. oceanica and E. huxleyi in October–November 2013 coincided with the occurrence of Amazon-River-affected surface waters. Since the spring and fall events of 2013 were also accompanied by two dust

  2. The influence of neap-spring tidal variation and wave energy on sediment flux in salt marsh tidal creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jessica; Ferner, Matthew C.; Callaway, John C.

    2018-01-01

    Sediment flux in marsh tidal creeks is commonly used to gage sediment supply to marshes. We conducted a field investigation of temporal variability in sediment flux in tidal creeks in the accreting tidal marsh at China Camp State Park adjacent to northern San Francisco Bay. Suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), velocity, and depth were measured near the mouths of two tidal creeks during three six-to-ten-week deployments: two in winter and one in summer. Currents, wave properties and SSC were measured in the adjacent shallows. All deployments spanned the largest spring tides of the season. Results show that tidally-averaged suspended-sediment flux (SSF) in the tidal creeks decreased with increasing tidal energy, and SSF was negative (bayward) for tidal cycles with maximum water surface elevation above the marsh plain. Export during the largest spring tides dominated the cumulative SSF measured during the deployments. During ebb tides following the highest tides, velocities exceeded 1 m/s in the narrow tidal creeks, resulting in negative tidally-averaged water flux, and mobilizing sediment from the creek banks or bed. Storm surge also produced negative SSF. Tidally-averaged SSF was positive in wavey conditions with moderate tides. Spring-tide sediment export was about 50% less at a station 130 m further up the tidal creek than at the creek mouth. The negative tidally-averaged water flux near the creek mouth during spring tides indicates that in the lower marsh, some of the water flooding directly across the bay--marsh interface drains through the tidal creeks, and suggests that this interface may be a pathway for sediment supply to the lower marsh as well.

  3. Influence of the current-phase relation on the critical-current-applied-magnetic-flux dependence in parallel-connected Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, W.; Van Duzer, T.

    1976-01-01

    The form of the current-phase relations for the Josephson junctions is shown to have a significant influence on the relation I/sub c/(theta/sub a/) between critical current and applied flux for two junctions connected in parallel in a superconducting circuit. The observed one-flux-quantum periodicity and inversion symmetry of the I/sub c/(theta/sub a/) relation are shown to result from the fact that the current-phase, i-phi, relations of the junctions satisfy i (phi+2mπ) =i (phi) and i (-phi) =-i (phi), respectively. It is also shown that if the current-phase relations for the two junctions are different, an asymmetry appears in the I/sub c/(theta/sub a/)

  4. Simulated solar wind plasma interaction with the Martian exosphere: influence of the solar EUV flux on the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Modolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The solar wind plasma interaction with the Martian exosphere is investigated by means of 3-D multi-species hybrid simulations. The influence of the solar EUV flux on the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary is examined by comparing two simulations describing the two extreme states of the solar cycle. The hybrid formalism allows a kinetic description of each ions species and a fluid description of electrons. The ionization processes (photoionization, electron impact and charge exchange are included self-consistently in the model where the production rate is computed locally, separately for each ionization act and for each neutral species. The results of simulations are in a reasonable agreement with the observations made by Phobos 2 and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The position of the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary is weakly dependent of the solar EUV flux. The motional electric field creates strong asymmetries for the two plasma boundaries.

  5. The influence of a spatial displacement of hydrogen on the reactivity and neutron flux density distribution in a ZrH-moderated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler, J.; Bartsch, G.

    1975-08-01

    The effect of changes of the hydrogen concentration in uranium zirconium hydride resulting from spatially varying temperatures on the reactivity and neutron flux distribution of the BER-II core (power 2.2 MW) are shown. Furthermore, in general, the influence of the hydrogen concentration on important reactor parameters of a fuel cell of BER-II is calculated and presented. A comparison of the diffusion calculation with spatially constant hydrogen concentrations shows a decrease of the thermal neutron flux density in regions with a low hydrogen content (high temperature) and inversely an increase for high hydrogen concentrations. Furthermore, a change of the effective multiplication factor by 0.6% was found in the case of a spatially varying hydrogen concentration as compared with the calculation for a constant concentration. (orig.) [de

  6. Influence of Mean Rooftop-Level Estimation Method on Sensible Heat Flux Retrieved from a Large-Aperture Scintillometer Over a City Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Mariusz; Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Siedlecki, Mariusz

    2017-08-01

    The sensible heat flux ( H) is determined using large-aperture scintillometer (LAS) measurements over a city centre for eight different computation scenarios. The scenarios are based on different approaches of the mean rooftop-level (zH) estimation for the LAS path. Here, zH is determined separately for wind directions perpendicular (two zones) and parallel (one zone) to the optical beam to reflect the variation in topography and building height on both sides of the LAS path. Two methods of zH estimation are analyzed: (1) average building profiles; (2) weighted-average building height within a 250 m radius from points located every 50 m along the optical beam, or the centre of a certain zone (in the case of a wind direction perpendicular to the path). The sensible heat flux is computed separately using the friction velocity determined with the eddy-covariance method and the iterative procedure. The sensitivity of the sensible heat flux and the extent of the scintillometer source area to different computation scenarios are analyzed. Differences reaching up to 7% between heat fluxes computed with different scenarios were found. The mean rooftop-level estimation method has a smaller influence on the sensible heat flux (-4 to 5%) than the area used for the zH computation (-5 to 7%). For the source-area extent, the discrepancies between respective scenarios reached a similar magnitude. The results demonstrate the value of the approach in which zH is estimated separately for wind directions parallel and perpendicular to the LAS optical beam.

  7. Influence of planar macrodefects on the anisotropy of magnetic-flux penetration in YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuche, E.; Indenbom, M. V.; André, M.-O.; Richard, P.; Benoit, W.; Wolf, Th.

    1996-02-01

    The magnetic flux penetration in a high-quality YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ single crystal with an external field applied perpendicular to the crystalline c axis is directly visualized by means of the magneto-optical technique. The observations show that the field penetrates preferentially along the ab planes. Scanning acoustic microscopy reveals macrodefects along ab planes which strongly affect this anisotropy of the field penetration.

  8. The Influence of a Sandy Substrate, Seagrass, or Highly Turbid Water on Albedo and Surface Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, M. C.; Fewings, M. R.; Paget, A. C.; Dierssen, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    Sea-surface albedo is a combination of surface-reflected and water-leaving irradiance, but water-leaving irradiance typically contributes less than 15% of the total albedo in open-ocean conditions. In coastal systems, however, the bottom substrate or suspended particulate matter can increase the amount of backscattered light, thereby increasing albedo and decreasing net shortwave surface heat flux. Here a sensitivity analysis using observations and models predicts the effect of light scattering on albedo and the net shortwave heat flux for three test cases: a bright sand bottom, a seagrass canopy, and turbid water. After scaling to the full solar shortwave spectrum, daytime average albedo for the test cases is up to 0.20 and exceeds the value of 0.05 predicted using a commonly applied parameterization. Daytime net shortwave heat flux into the water is significantly reduced, particularly for waters with bright sediments, dense horizontal seagrass canopies waters with suspended particulate matter concentration ≥ 50 g m-3. Observations of a more vertical seagrass canopy within 0.2 and 1 m of the surface indicate the increase in albedo compared to the common parameterization is negligible. Therefore, we suggest that the commonly applied albedo lookup table can be used in coastal heat flux estimates in water as shallow as 1 m unless the bottom substrate is highly reflective or the water is highly turbid. Our model results provide guidance to researchers who need to determine albedo in highly reflective or highly turbid conditions but have no direct observations.

  9. Simple additive simulation overestimates real influence: altered nitrogen and rainfall modulate the effect of warming on soil carbon fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiangyin; Yang, Wanqin; Qi, Zemin; Liao, Shu; Xu, Zhenfeng; Tan, Bo; Wang, Bin; Wu, Qinggui; Fu, Changkun; You, Chengming; Wu, Fuzhong

    2017-08-01

    Experiments and models have led to a consensus that there is positive feedback between carbon (C) fluxes and climate warming. However, the effect of warming may be altered by regional and global changes in nitrogen (N) and rainfall levels, but the current understanding is limited. Through synthesizing global data on soil C pool, input and loss from experiments simulating N deposition, drought and increased precipitation, we quantified the responses of soil C fluxes and equilibrium to the three single factors and their interactions with warming. We found that warming slightly increased the soil C input and loss by 5% and 9%, respectively, but had no significant effect on the soil C pool. Nitrogen deposition alone increased the soil C input (+20%), but the interaction of warming and N deposition greatly increased the soil C input by 49%. Drought alone decreased the soil C input by 17%, while the interaction of warming and drought decreased the soil C input to a greater extent (-22%). Increased precipitation stimulated the soil C input by 15%, but the interaction of warming and increased precipitation had no significant effect on the soil C input. However, the soil C loss was not significantly affected by any of the interactions, although it was constrained by drought (-18%). These results implied that the positive C fluxes-climate warming feedback was modulated by the changing N and rainfall regimes. Further, we found that the additive effects of [warming × N deposition] and [warming × drought] on the soil C input and of [warming × increased precipitation] on the soil C loss were greater than their interactions, suggesting that simple additive simulation using single-factor manipulations may overestimate the effects on soil C fluxes in the real world. Therefore, we propose that more multifactorial experiments should be considered in studying Earth systems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Neutronics optimization of LiPb-He dual-cooled fuel breeding blanket for the fusion-driven sub-critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanliang; Wu Yican

    2002-01-01

    The concept of the liquid Li 17 Pb 83 and Helium gas dual-cooled Fuel Breeding Blanket (FBB) for the Fusion-Driven sub-critical System (FDS) is presented and analyzed. Taking self-sustaining tritium (TBR > 1.05) and annual output of 100 kg or more fissile 239 Pu (FBR > 0.238) as objective parameters, and based on the three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4A, a neutronics-optimized calculation of different cases was carried out and the concept is proved feasible. In addition, the total breeding ratio (Br = Tbr + Fbr) is listed corresponding to different cases

  11. Influence of urban resilience measures in the magnitude and behaviour of energy fluxes in the city of Porto (Portugal) under a climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, S; Martins, H; Sá, E; Carvalho, D; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2016-10-01

    Different urban resilience measures, such as the increase of urban green areas and the application of white roofs, were evaluated with the WRF-SUEWS modelling system. The case study consists of five heat waves occurring in Porto (Portugal) urban area in a future climate scenario. Meteorological forcing and boundary data were downscaled for Porto urban area from the CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM, for the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 scenario. The influence of different resilience measures on the energy balance components was quantified and compared between each other. Results show that the inclusion of green urban areas increases the evaporation and the availability of surface moisture, redirecting the energy to the form of latent heat flux (maximum increase of +200Wm(-2)) rather than to sensible heat. The application of white roofs increases the solar radiation reflection, due to the higher albedo of such surfaces, reducing both sensible and storage heat flux (maximum reductions of -62.8 and -35Wm(-2), respectively). The conjugations of the individual benefits related to each resilience measure shows that this measure is the most effective one in terms of improving the thermal comfort of the urban population, particularly due to the reduction of both sensible and storage heat flux. The obtained results contribute to the knowledge of the surface-atmosphere exchanges and can be of great importance for stakeholders and decision-makers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterisation of the oxygen fluxes in the division, elongation and mature zones of Vitis roots: influence of oxygen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Stefano; Boselli, Maurizio

    2002-03-01

    Oxygen fluxes into and from root cells of Vitis rupestris (flooding sensitive), V. riparia (flooding tolerant) and V. vinifera (medium tolerance to flooding) were measured under different levels of O2 availability using a recently developed polarographic O2-selective, vibrating-microelectrode system. The system enables fluxes to be measured with a spatial resolution of 2-3 microm and a temporal resolution of 10 s. No difference in root porosity was found among the genotypes when grown for 30 days in an aerated solution. Under normoxic conditions, O2 influx was characterised by two distinct peaks, one in the division zone and the other in the elongation zone of the roots. This pattern was found in all three species studied, although the fluxes showed a different magnitude. The peak in the elongation zone coincided with maximum relative elemental growth rates. When the energetics of the cell was disturbed by cyanide, both growth and oxygen O2 influxes ceased at the same time. Under hypoxic conditions, V. riparia plants showed a precise strategy directed toward the maintenance of enough O2 for the respiratory needs of mitosis in the apical meristem of the roots. Thus, whereas in the division zone of V. rupestris and V. vinifera, at bulk O2 concentrations of 0.094 mol x m(-3), the O2 influx was reduced by 70.5 and 38.5%, respectively, for V. riparia no variation in the O2 influx was detected down to bulk O2 concentrations of 0.078 mol x m(-3). Moreover, in accordance with the different tolerances of the plants, the Vitis genotypes were found to differ in their radial O2 loss from the adventitious roots when in an O2-free environment. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms of response to anoxia in Vitis species with different tolerances to flooding.

  13. Design Concept of the Thermal Flux Island in MYRRHA for LLFP Transmutation. Present Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoust, Th.; De Raedt, Ch.; Malambu, E.; Ait Abderrahim, H.

    2002-01-01

    MYRRHA is an ADS aimed at providing protons and neutrons for various R and D applications. It consists of a proton accelerator coupled to a sub-critical fast core. While the fast neutron spectrum, obtaining in the MYRRHA core, allows the transmutation of minor actinides (MAs), the transmutation of long lived fission products (LLFPs) in MYRRHA requires the utilisation of a thermal spectrum in order to take profit of the fact that the capture cross-sections of the LLFPs are much larger in the thermal-energy domain than in the high-energy domain. A high thermal flux island inside MYRRHA is therefore being developed, consisting of an irradiation device for LLFPs (or other irradiation target material needing a thermal neutron spectrum), surrounded by assemblies filled with a lattice of ZrH 2 moderator pins, cooled by the same coolant (Pb-Bi) as the MYRRHA fuel assemblies. Thermal neutron absorbers at the periphery of the neutron island are used to minimise the influence of the thermal flux on the fast core. The study of the performances of MYRRHA, including the transmutation of the LLFPs in such a thermal island, is carried out with the aid of the code MCNPX. The transmutation performances of LLFPs are assessed by coupling the code MCNPX to an evolution calculation. The LLFPs studied are Tc-99 and I-129. (authors)

  14. Influence of the land use pattern on the concentrations and fluxes of priority pollutants in urban stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, S; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the concentrations (μg/L) and fluxes (g/ha) of priority substances in stormwater from three watersheds with different land use patterns (namely, residential, urban dense, high urban density). Samples were collected at the outlet of these watersheds. Thirteen chemical groups were investigated corresponding to 88 individual substances before treatment. Results showed that stormwater discharges contained 55 substances, among them some metals, organotins, PAHs, PCBs, alkylphenols, pesticides, phthalates, cholorophenols and volatile organic compounds. Therefore, stormwater was highly contaminated. However, this contamination was often comparable from site to site, since no significant difference of the pollutant load was observed between the land use patterns.

  15. Development of low angle grain boundaries in lightly deformed superconducting niobium and their influence on hydride distribution and flux perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Z.-H.; Wang, M.; Polyanskii, A. A.; Santosh, C.; Balachandran, S.; Compton, C.; Larbalestier, D. C.; Bieler, T. R.; Lee, P. J.

    2017-05-01

    This study shows that low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) can be created by small 5% strains in high purity (residual resistivity ratio ≥ 200) superconducting radio frequency (SRF)-grade single crystalline niobium (Nb) and that these boundaries act as hydrogen traps as indicated by the distribution of niobium hydrides (Nb1-xHx). Nb1-xHx is detrimental to SRF Nb cavities due to its normal conducting properties at cavity operating temperatures. By designing a single crystal tensile sample extracted from a large grain (>5 cm) Nb ingot slice for preferred slip on one slip plane, LAGBs and dense dislocation boundaries developed. With chemical surface treatments following standard SRF cavity fabrication practice, Nb1-xHx phases were densely precipitated at the LAGBs upon cryogenic cooling (8-10 K/min). Micro-crystallographic analysis confirmed heterogeneous hydride precipitation, which included significant hydrogen atom accumulation in LAGBs. Magneto-optical imaging analysis showed that these sites can then act as sites for both premature flux penetration and eventually flux trapping. However, this hydrogen related degradation at LAGBs did not completely disappear even after an 800 °C/2 h anneal typically used for hydrogen removal in SRF Nb cavities. These findings suggest that hydride precipitation at an LAGB is facilitated by a non-equilibrium concentration of vacancy-hydrogen (H) complexes aided by mechanical deformation and the hydride phase interferes with the recovery process under 800 °C annealing.

  16. Influence of preheating on API 5L-X80 pipeline joint welding with self shielded flux-cored wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.; Silva, J. H. F.; Trevisan, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The present work refers to the characterization of API 5L-X80 pipeline joints welded with self-shielded flux cored wire. This process was evaluated under preheating conditions, with an uniform and steady heat input. All joints were welded in flat position (1G), with the pipe turning and the torch still. Tube dimensions were 762 mm in external diameter and 16 mm in thickness. Welds were applied on single V-groove, with six weld beads, along with three levels of preheating temperatures (room temperature, 100 degree centigree, 160 degree centigree). These temperatures were maintained as inter pass temperature. The filler metal E71T8-K6 with mechanical properties different from parent metal was used in under matched conditions. The weld characterization is presented according to the mechanical test results of tensile strength, hardness and impact test. The mechanical tests were conducted according to API 1104, AWS and ASTM standards. API 1104 and API 51 were used as screening criteria. According to the results obtained, it was possible to remark that it is appropriate to weld API 5L-X80 steel ducts with Self-shielded Flux Cored wires, in conformance to the API standards and no preheat temperature is necessary. (Author) 22 refs

  17. YALINA facility a sub-critical Accelerator- Driven System (ADS) for nuclear energy research facility description and an overview of the research program (1997-2008).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-04-28

    The YALINA facility is a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was conceived, constructed, and put into operation at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus located in Minsk-Sosny, Belarus. This facility was conceived for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems, and to serve as a neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinide nuclei. This report provides a detailed description of this facility and documents the progress of research carried out there during a period of approximately a decade since the facility was conceived and built until the end of 2008. During its history of development and operation to date (1997-2008), the YALINA facility has hosted several foreign groups that worked with the resident staff as collaborators. The participation of Argonne National Laboratory in the YALINA research programs commenced in 2005. For obvious reasons, special emphasis is placed in this report on the work at YALINA facility that has involved Argonne's participation. Attention is given here to the experimental program at YALINA facility as well as to analytical investigations aimed at validating codes and computational procedures and at providing a better understanding of the physics and operational behavior of the YALINA facility in particular, and ADS systems in general, during the period 1997-2008.

  18. The use of sub-critical water hydrolysis for the recovery of peptides and free amino acids from food processing wastes. Review of sources and main parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, Ismael; Álvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Food industry processing wastes are produced in enormous amounts every year, such wastes are usually disposed with the corresponding economical cost it implies, in the best scenario they can be used for pet food or composting. However new promising technologies and tools have been developed in the last years aimed at recovering valuable compounds from this type of materials. In particular, sub-critical water hydrolysis (SWH) has been revealed as an interesting way for recovering high added-value molecules, and its applications have been broadly referred in the bibliography. Special interest has been focused on recovering protein hydrolysates in form of peptides or amino acids, from both animal and vegetable wastes, by means of SWH. These recovered biomolecules have a capital importance in fields such as biotechnology research, nutraceuticals, and above all in food industry, where such products can be applied with very different objectives. Present work reviews the current state of art of using sub-critical water hydrolysis for protein recovering from food industry wastes. Key parameters as reaction time, temperature, amino acid degradation and kinetic constants have been discussed. Besides, the characteristics of the raw material and the type of products that can be obtained depending on the substrate have been reviewed. Finally, the application of these hydrolysates based on their functional properties and antioxidant activity is described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Using isotopes to constrain water flux and age estimates in snow-influenced catchments using the STARR (Spatially distributed Tracer-Aided Rainfall–Runoff model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ala-aho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tracer-aided hydrological models are increasingly used to reveal fundamentals of runoff generation processes and water travel times in catchments. Modelling studies integrating stable water isotopes as tracers are mostly based in temperate and warm climates, leaving catchments with strong snow influences underrepresented in the literature. Such catchments are challenging, as the isotopic tracer signals in water entering the catchments as snowmelt are typically distorted from incoming precipitation due to fractionation processes in seasonal snowpack. We used the Spatially distributed Tracer-Aided Rainfall–Runoff (STARR model to simulate fluxes, storage, and mixing of water and tracers, as well as estimating water ages in three long-term experimental catchments with varying degrees of snow influence and contrasting landscape characteristics. In the context of northern catchments the sites have exceptionally long and rich data sets of hydrometric data and – most importantly – stable water isotopes for both rain and snow conditions. To adapt the STARR model for sites with strong snow influence, we used a novel parsimonious calculation scheme that takes into account the isotopic fractionation through snow sublimation and snowmelt. The modified STARR setup simulated the streamflows, isotope ratios, and snow pack dynamics quite well in all three catchments. From this, our simulations indicated contrasting median water ages and water age distributions between catchments brought about mainly by differences in topography and soil characteristics. However, the variable degree of snow influence in catchments also had a major influence on the stream hydrograph, storage dynamics, and water age distributions, which was captured by the model. Our study suggested that snow sublimation fractionation processes can be important to include in tracer-aided modelling for catchments with seasonal snowpack, while the influence of fractionation during snowmelt

  20. Optimization by simulation of the coupling between a sub-critical reactor and its spallation source. Towards a pilot reactor; Optimisation par simulation du couplage entre un reacteur sous-critique et sa source de spallation. Application a un demonstrateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerdraon, D

    2001-10-01

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), based on a proton accelerator and a sub-critical core coupled with a spallation target, offer advantages in order to reduce the nuclear waste radiotoxicity before repository closure. Many studies carried out on the ADS should lead to the definition of an experimental plan which would federate the different works in progress. This thesis deals with the neutronic Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNPX code to optimize such a system in view of a pilot reactor building. First, we have recalled the main neutronic properties of an hybrid reactor. The concept of gas-cooled eXperimental Accelerator Driven System (XADS) chosen for our investigations comes from the preliminary studies done by the Framatome company. In order to transmute minor actinides, we have considered the time evolution of the main fuels which could be reasonably used for the demonstration phases. The neutronic parameters of the reactor, concerning minor actinide transmutation, are reported. Also, we have calculated the characteristic times and the transmutation rates in the case of {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I isotopes. We have identified some neutronic differences between an experimental and a power ADS according to the infinite multiplication coefficient, the shape factor and the level of flux to extend the demonstrator concept. We have proposed geometric solutions to keep the radial shape factor of a power ADS acceptable. In the last part, beyond the experimental XADS scope, we have examined the possible transition towards an uranium/thorium cycle based on Molten Salt Reactors using a power ADS in order to generate the required {sup 233}U proportion. (author)

  1. Study of potential of nuclear waste transmutation and safety characteristics of an hybrid system: sub critical accelerator reactor; Etude du potentiel de transmutation et des caracteristiques de surete d`un systeme hybride: accelerateur reacteur sous critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchistiakov, A

    1998-04-01

    The study of potential of nuclear waste transmutation for the new reactor systems - hybrid reactors - was the object of this work. Global review of different projects is presented. The basic physical parameters definitions, as neutron surplus and relative importance of external source neutrons, are introduced and explained. For these parameters, numerical values are obtained. The advantage in neutron surplus of fast system is noted. Equilibrium model and corresponding toxicities of different isotopes nd nuclear cycles are presented. Numerical analysis for equilibrium model converge validation are performed also. The study of neutron consumption by `transmutable` Long-Lived Fission Products (Tc, I and Cs) show the possibility of their incineration in dedicated fast hybrid reactors. Equilibrium model shown the influence of reprocessing losses level to cycle toxicity level. Relations between specific fuel inventories (mass normalised by power unit) for thermal and fast spectra are examined. The differences are relatively small. Finally, few hybrid reactor concepts with different objects were analysed. These studies confirm that in frameworks of certain Nuclear Energy scenarios the fast hybrid systems can reduce significantly the radio-toxicity of fuel cycle. Preliminary analyses of sub-critical reactor behaviour show big potential of this reactor type in `Transient of Power` kind of accident, even if more detailed study is necessary. (author)

  2. Role of aerosols in enhancing SVOC flux between air and indoor surfaces and its influence on exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Morrison, Glenn C.; Zhang, Yinping

    2012-08-01

    Indoor surfaces play an important role in the transport of, and exposure to, semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in buildings. In this study, we develop a model that accounts for SVOC transport mediated by particles and find that, due to large gas-particle partition coefficients along with large differences in Brownian and gas diffusivities, SVOC transport across concentration boundary layers is significantly enhanced in the presence of particles. Two important dimensionless parameters, Bim,g and Bim,g/Bim,p, were identified: Bim,g is the ratio of 1) the characteristic time for the SVOC to transport across the concentration boundary layer to 2) the characteristic time for boundary layer to either be "swept" of SVOCs by particles or "saturated" by release of SVOCs from particles. This parameter can be regarded as a dimensionless mass transfer coefficient. Bim,g/Bim,p characterizes the SVOC mass associated with particles, relative to SVOCs in the gas-phase. Analysis on monodisperse particles shows that flux can be enhanced by as much as a factor of 5 over transport in the absence of particles, for a large particle/gas partition coefficient (log Kpart = 13), small particles (dp ˜ 0.1 μm) and a small free stream velocity (U∞ = 0.01 m s-1). As particle diameter decreases, flux enhancement tends to increase. However, as particles become very small (e.g., dp cooking and smoking. Two illustrative examples are used to show that, 1) the timescale for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) to approach equilibrium between the gas and a surface is shortened from 3.0 years to 0.45 years; and 2) in the presence of particles, the gas-phase DEHP concentration and emission rate are predicted to be as much as 4 times higher by our model than that by prior model estimates. Particle mediated gas-phase transport of SVOCs can result an increase in occupant exposure by a factor of 4-10.

  3. Influence of landscape composition and diversity on contaminant flux in terrestrial food webs: a case study of trace metal transfer to European blackbirds Turdus merula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Clémentine; Coeurdassier, Michaël; Faivre, Bruno; Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Giraudoux, Patrick; van den Brink, Nico W; Scheifler, Renaud

    2012-08-15

    Although understanding the influence of the spatial arrangement of habitats and interacting communities on the processes of pollutant flux and impacts is critical for exposure and risk assessment, to date few studies have been devoted to this emergent topic. We tested the hypothesis that landscape composition and diversity affect the transfer of trace metals to vertebrates. Bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb in blood and feathers of European blackbirds Turdus merula (n=138) was studied over a smelter-impacted area (Northern France). Landscape composition (type and occurrence of the different habitats) and diversity (number of different habitat types and the proportional area distribution among habitat types) were computed around bird capture locations. Diet composition and contamination were assessed. No sex-related differences were detected, while age-related patterns were found: yearlings showed a sharper increase of tissue residues along the pollution gradient than older birds. Factors determining bird exposure acted at nested spatial scale. On a broad scale, environmental contamination mainly influenced metal levels in blackbirds, tissue residues increasing with soil contamination. At a finer grain, landscape composition and soil properties (pH, organic matter, clay) influenced metal transfer, while no influence of landscape diversity was detected. Landscape composition better explained metal transfer than soil properties did. Diet composition varied according to landscape composition, but diet diversity was not influenced by landscape diversity. Surprisingly, metal accumulation in some insect taxa was as high as in earthworms (known as hyper-accumulators). Results strongly suggested that variations in diet composition were the drivers through which landscape composition influenced metal transfer to blackbirds. This study shows that landscape features can affect pollutant transfer in food webs, partly through ecological processes related to spatial and foraging

  4. Influence of the flux axial form on the conversion rate and duration of cycle between recharging for ThPu and U{sub nat} fuels in CANDU reactors; Influence de la forme axiale du flux sur le taux de conversion et la duree du cycle entre rechargements pour du combustible ThPu et U{sub nat} dans les reacteurs CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Richard [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier / CNRS-IN2P3, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2007-01-15

    To face the increasing world power demand the world nuclear sector must be continuously updated and developed as well. Thus reactors of new types are introduced and advanced fuel cycles are proposed. The technological and economic feasibility and the transition of the present power park to a renewed park require thorough studies and scenarios, which are highly dependent on the reactor performances. The conversion rate and cycle span between recharging are important parameters in the scenarios studies. In this frame, we have studied the utilisation of thorium in the CANDU type reactors and particularly the influence of axial form of the flux, i.e. of the recharging mode, on the conversion rate and duration of the cycle between recharging. The results show that up to a first approximation the axial form of the flux resulting from the neutron transport calculations for assessing the conversion rate is not necessary to be taken into account. However the time span between recharging differs up to several percents if the axial form of the flux is taken into consideration in transport calculations. Thus if the burnup or the recharging frequency are parameters which influence significantly the deployment scenarios of a nuclear park an approach more refined than a simple transport evolution in a typical cell/assembly is recommended. Finally, the results of this study are not more general than for the assumed conditions but they give a thorough calculation method valid for any recharging/fuel combination in a CANDU type reactor.

  5. Measurement of absolute neutron flux in LWSCR based on the nuclear track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghzadeh, J.; Nassiri Mofakham, N.; Khajehmiri, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Up to now the spectral parameters of thermal neutrons are measured with activation foils that are not always reliable in low flux systems. ► We applied a solid state nuclear track detector to measure the absolute neutron flux in the light water sub-critical reactor (LWSCR). ► Experiments concerning fission track detecting were performed and were investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. ► The neutron fluxes obtained in experiment are in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by MCNP. - Abstract: In the present paper, a solid state nuclear track detector is applied to measure the absolute neutron flux in the light water sub-critical reactor (LWSCR) in Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI). Up to now, the spectral parameters of thermal neutrons have been measured with activation foils that are not always reliable in low flux systems. The method investigated here is the irradiation method. Experiments concerning fission track detecting were performed. The experiment including neutron flux calculation method has also been investigated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The analysis shows that the values of neutron flux obtained by experiment are in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by MCNP. Thus, this method may be able to predict the absolute value of neutron flux at LWSCR and other similar reactors.

  6. The mechanical design and fabrication of 162.5 MHz buncher for China accelerator driven sub-critical system injector II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Hai Hua; Li, Youtang [Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou (China); He, Yuan; Zhang, Bin; Huang, Shichun; Yuan, Chenzhang; Jia, Huan; Zhang, Shenghu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-08-15

    A buncher is one of the main pieces of equipment in the medium energy beam transport line (MEBT) for China accelerator driven sub-critical system (C-ADS) Injector II. To focus the beam longitudinally and match the beam for the acceptance of the superconducting linac section, two room temperature quarter wave resonator (QWR) bunchers with frequency of 162.5 MHz have been designed as parts of the MEBT. According to the beam transmission matching of the MEBT and the geometric parameters requirements of bunchers, the unique mechanical structure and the main processing technology of buncher cavities and their couplers and tuners are described in this paper. The fabrication of bunchers and their parts have been completed and tested at high power, the test results agree well with the design requirements. These bunchers work well for about two years in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Application of the potential-drop method to measurements of hydrogen-induced sub-critical crack growth in zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.; Clarke, C.F.

    1977-10-01

    Adaptation of the potential-drop method of crack-following to the problem of hydrogen-induced sub-critical crack growth in Zr-2.5% Nb is described. Reasons for non-linearity in the calibration of crack extension against potential drop in compact tension specimens are discussed. It is shown that despite non-linearities, careful comparison of fractographic features with the potential-drop record can lead to a continuous plot of crack velocity against time or stress intensity factor. Procedures for correcting data through temperature and load changes are also described. The application of the technique to studies of the mechanism of hydrogen crack growth is illustrated with several examples. (author)

  8. A study of physics of sub-critical multiplicative systems driven by sources and the utilization of deterministic codes in calculation of this systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Alberi

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the Physics of Source Driven Systems (ADS). It shows some statics and K i netics parameters of the reactor Physics and when it is sub critical, that are important in evaluation and definition of these systems. The objective is to demonstrate that there are differences in parameters when the reactor is critical. Moreover, the work shows the differences observed in the parameters for different calculation models. Two calculation methodologies are shown In this dissertation: Gandini and Salvatores and Dulla, and some parameters are calculated. The ANISN deterministic transport code is used in calculation in order to compare these parameters. In a subcritical configuration of IPEN-MB-01 Reactor driven by an external source some parameters are calculated. The conclusions about calculation realized are presented in end of work. (author)

  9. The mechanical design and fabrication of 162.5 MHz buncher for China accelerator driven sub-critical system injector II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Niu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A buncher is one of the main pieces of equipment in the medium energy beam transport line (MEBT for China accelerator driven sub-critical system (C-ADS Injector II. To focus the beam longitudinally and match the beam for the acceptance of the superconducting linac section, two room temperature quarter wave resonator (QWR bunchers with frequency of 162.5 MHz have been designed as parts of the MEBT. According to the beam transmission matching of the MEBT and the geometric parameters requirements of bunchers, the unique mechanical structure and the main processing technology of buncher cavities and their couplers and tuners are described in this paper. The fabrication of bunchers and their parts have been completed and tested at high power, the test results agree well with the design requirements. These bunchers work well for about two years in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Growth analysis of UV-B-irradiated cucumber seedlings as influenced by photosynthetic photon flux source and cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, D.T.; Mirecki, R.M.; Kramer, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    A growth analysis was made of ultraviolet-B (UV-B)-sensitive (Poinsett) and insensitive (Ashley) cultivars of Cucuumis satives L. grown in growth chambers at 600 μmol m −2 s −1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) provided by red- and far-red-deficient metal halide (MH) or blue- and UV-A-deficient high pressure sodium/deluxe f HPS/DX) lamps. Plants were irradiated 6 h daily with 0.2 f-UV-B) or 18.2 C+UV-B) kJ m −2 day −1 of biologically effective UV-B for 8 or 15 days from time of seeding. In general, plants given supplemental UV-B for 15 days showed lower leaf area ratio (LARs, and higher specific leaf mass (SLM) mean relative growth rate (MRGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) than that of control plants, but they showed no difference in leaf mass ratio (LMR), Plants grown under HPS/DX lamps vs MH lamps showed higher SLM and NAR. lower LAR and LMR. hut no difference in MRGR. LMR was the only growth parameter affected by cultivar: at 15 days, it was slightly greater in Poinsett than in Ashley. There were no interactive effects of UV-B. PPF source or cultivar on any of the growth parameters determined, indicating that the choice of either HPS/DX or MH lamps should not affect growth response to UV-B radiation. This was true even though leaves of UV-B-irradiated plants grown under HPS/DX lamps have been shown to have greater chlorosis than those grown under MH lamps. (author)

  11. Multiple Imputation of Groundwater Data to Evaluate Spatial and Temporal Anthropogenic Influences on Subsurface Water Fluxes in Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.; Hering, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the City of Los Angeles, groundwater accounts for 11% of the total water supply on average, and 30% during drought years. Due to ongoing drought in California, increased reliance on local water supply highlights the need for better understanding of regional groundwater dynamics and estimating sustainable groundwater supply. However, in an urban setting, such as Los Angeles, understanding or modeling groundwater levels is extremely complicated due to various anthropogenic influences such as groundwater pumping, artificial recharge, landscape irrigation, leaking infrastructure, seawater intrusion, and extensive impervious surfaces. This study analyzes anthropogenic effects on groundwater levels using groundwater monitoring well data from the County of Los Angeles Department of Public Works. The groundwater data is irregularly sampled with large gaps between samples, resulting in a sparsely populated dataset. A multiple imputation method is used to fill the missing data, allowing for multiple ensembles and improved error estimates. The filled data is interpolated to create spatial groundwater maps utilizing information from all wells. The groundwater data is evaluated at a monthly time step over the last several decades to analyze the effect of land cover and identify other influencing factors on groundwater levels spatially and temporally. Preliminary results show irrigated parks have the largest influence on groundwater fluctuations, resulting in large seasonal changes, exceeding changes in spreading grounds. It is assumed that these fluctuations are caused by watering practices required to sustain non-native vegetation. Conversely, high intensity urbanized areas resulted in muted groundwater fluctuations and behavior decoupling from climate patterns. Results provides improved understanding of anthropogenic effects on groundwater levels in addition to providing high quality datasets for validation of regional groundwater models.

  12. Influence of different moderator materials on characteristics of neutron fluxes generated under irradiation of lead target with proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, A.N.; Polanski, A.; Petrochenkov, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron fields generated in extended heavy (Z ≥ 82) targets under irradiation with proton beams at energies in the range of 1 GeV are investigated. Influence of different moderators on the spectra and multiplicities of neutrons escaping the surface of the assembly consisting of a lead target (diam. 8 cm x 20 cm or diam. 8 cm x 50 cm) screened by variable thickness of polyethylene or graphite, respectively, was compared. It is shown that the effectiveness of graphite as a material used in such assemblies to moderate spallation neutrons down to thermal energies is significantly lower than that of paraffin

  13. Influence of Different Moderator Materials on Characteristics of Neutron Fluxes Generated under Irradiation of Lead Target with Proton Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sosnin, A N; Polanski, A; Petrochenkov, S A; Golovatyuk, V M; Krivopustov, M I; Bamblevski, V P; Westmeier, W; Odoj, R; Brandt, R; Robotham, H; Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Zamani-Valassiadou, M

    2002-01-01

    Neutron fields generated in extended heavy (Z\\geq 82) targets under irradiation with proton beams at energies in the range of 1 GeV are investigated. Influence of different moderators on the spectra and multiplicities of neutrons escaping the surface of the assembly consisting of a lead target (\\varnothing 8 cm\\times 20 cm or \\varnothing 8cm\\times 50 cm) screened by variable thickness of polyethylene or graphite, respectively, was compared in the present work. It is shown that the effectiveness of graphite as a material used in such assemblies to moderate spallation neutrons down to thermal energies is significantly lower than that of paraffin.

  14. Incompressible boundary-layer stability analysis of LFC experimental data for sub-critical Mach numbers. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    An incompressible boundary-layer stability analysis of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) experimental data was completed and the results are presented. This analysis was undertaken for three reasons: to study laminar boundary-layer stability on a modern swept LFC airfoil; to calculate incompressible design limits of linear stability theory as applied to a modern airfoil at high subsonic speeds; and to verify the use of linear stability theory as a design tool. The experimental data were taken from the slotted LFC experiment recently completed in the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. Linear stability theory was applied and the results were compared with transition data to arrive at correlated n-factors. Results of the analysis showed that for the configuration and cases studied, Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) amplification was the dominating disturbance influencing transition. For these cases, incompressible linear stability theory correlated with an n-factor for TS waves of approximately 10 at transition. The n-factor method correlated rather consistently to this value despite a number of non-ideal conditions which indicates the method is useful as a design tool for advanced laminar flow airfoils.

  15. Modeling the influence of coupled mass transfer processes on mass flux downgradient of heterogeneous DNAPL source zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lurong; Wang, Xinyu; Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Abriola, Linda M

    2018-04-01

    Sequestered mass in low permeability zones has been increasingly recognized as an important source of organic chemical contamination that acts to sustain downgradient plume concentrations above regulated levels. However, few modeling studies have investigated the influence of this sequestered mass and associated (coupled) mass transfer processes on plume persistence in complex dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. This paper employs a multiphase flow and transport simulator (a modified version of the modular transport simulator MT3DMS) to explore the two- and three-dimensional evolution of source zone mass distribution and near-source plume persistence for two ensembles of highly heterogeneous DNAPL source zone realizations. Simulations reveal the strong influence of subsurface heterogeneity on the complexity of DNAPL and sequestered (immobile/sorbed) mass distribution. Small zones of entrapped DNAPL are shown to serve as a persistent source of low concentration plumes, difficult to distinguish from other (sorbed and immobile dissolved) sequestered mass sources. Results suggest that the presence of DNAPL tends to control plume longevity in the near-source area; for the examined scenarios, a substantial fraction (43.3-99.2%) of plume life was sustained by DNAPL dissolution processes. The presence of sorptive media and the extent of sorption non-ideality are shown to greatly affect predictions of near-source plume persistence following DNAPL depletion, with plume persistence varying one to two orders of magnitude with the selected sorption model. Results demonstrate the importance of sorption-controlled back diffusion from low permeability zones and reveal the importance of selecting the appropriate sorption model for accurate prediction of plume longevity. Large discrepancies for both DNAPL depletion time and plume longevity were observed between 2-D and 3-D model simulations. Differences between 2- and 3-D predictions increased in the presence of

  16. Modeling the influence of coupled mass transfer processes on mass flux downgradient of heterogeneous DNAPL source zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lurong; Wang, Xinyu; Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Abriola, Linda M.

    2018-04-01

    Sequestered mass in low permeability zones has been increasingly recognized as an important source of organic chemical contamination that acts to sustain downgradient plume concentrations above regulated levels. However, few modeling studies have investigated the influence of this sequestered mass and associated (coupled) mass transfer processes on plume persistence in complex dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zones. This paper employs a multiphase flow and transport simulator (a modified version of the modular transport simulator MT3DMS) to explore the two- and three-dimensional evolution of source zone mass distribution and near-source plume persistence for two ensembles of highly heterogeneous DNAPL source zone realizations. Simulations reveal the strong influence of subsurface heterogeneity on the complexity of DNAPL and sequestered (immobile/sorbed) mass distribution. Small zones of entrapped DNAPL are shown to serve as a persistent source of low concentration plumes, difficult to distinguish from other (sorbed and immobile dissolved) sequestered mass sources. Results suggest that the presence of DNAPL tends to control plume longevity in the near-source area; for the examined scenarios, a substantial fraction (43.3-99.2%) of plume life was sustained by DNAPL dissolution processes. The presence of sorptive media and the extent of sorption non-ideality are shown to greatly affect predictions of near-source plume persistence following DNAPL depletion, with plume persistence varying one to two orders of magnitude with the selected sorption model. Results demonstrate the importance of sorption-controlled back diffusion from low permeability zones and reveal the importance of selecting the appropriate sorption model for accurate prediction of plume longevity. Large discrepancies for both DNAPL depletion time and plume longevity were observed between 2-D and 3-D model simulations. Differences between 2- and 3-D predictions increased in the presence of

  17. The influence of tide-topography interaction on low-frequency heat and nutrient fluxes. Application to Cape Trafalgar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Yáñez, Manuel; Viola, Tarek Sarhan; Jorge, Francisco Plaza; Rubín, Juan P.; García-Martínez, M. Carmen

    2002-01-01

    During July 1994, 1995 and 1996, the Instituto Español de Oceanografía carried out three multidisciplinar surveys in the Northwestern Alboran Sea, Strait of Gibraltar and Gulf of Cadiz. Conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data and nutrient measurements revealed the existence of a pool of cool surface waters, rich in nutrients and with high fluorescence values offshore Cape Trafalgar during the three surveys. These data are considered as an indication of some sort of upwelling. The presence of a submarine ridge, breaking the continental shelf off Trafalgar and intercepting along shore tidal currents, and the intense winds in this area make us think that tide-topography interaction, probably enhanced by wind stirring in surface layers, is responsible for this phenomenon. Its permanence is inspected by means of the sea surface temperature (SST) satellite images recompiled for one year. They show that the pool is very frequent in summer and autumn, more unusual in spring and exceptional in winter. The explanation considered is that the mixing of deep and surface waters is only an effective means of heat exchange when the water column is stratified. To support our initial hypothesis and to get some insight of the relevant factors involved, we develop a bidimensional model aimed at studying along shore variations on the temperature, nutrient and chlorophyll distributions. Although the physical-biological model is very simple, it is able to show how large vertical excursions due to tide-topography interaction produce an eddy flux of heat and nutrients, cooling and fertilising areas around the topographic accident. The model is initialised with along-shore homogeneous distributions of all the variables modelled to check if the mechanism proposed is able to break this homogeneity in a similar way to the observed in experimental data. Appreciable differences between areas affected by tide-topography interaction and those far away from it appear in several days, a time

  18. Global Solar Magnetic Field Organization in the Outer Corona: Influence on the Solar Wind Speed and Mass Flux Over the Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réville, Victor; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of the solar wind depends intrinsically on the structure of the global solar magnetic field, which undergoes fundamental changes over the 11-year solar cycle. For instance, the wind terminal velocity is thought to be anti-correlated with the expansion factor, a measure of how the magnetic field varies with height in the solar corona, usually computed at a fixed height (≈ 2.5 {R}⊙ , the source surface radius that approximates the distance at which all magnetic field lines become open). However, the magnetic field expansion affects the solar wind in a more detailed way, its influence on the solar wind properties remaining significant well beyond the source surface. We demonstrate this using 3D global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar corona, constrained by surface magnetograms over half a solar cycle (1989-2001). A self-consistent expansion beyond the solar wind critical point (even up to 10 {R}⊙ ) makes our model comply with observed characteristics of the solar wind, namely, that the radial magnetic field intensity becomes latitude independent at some distance from the Sun, and that the mass flux is mostly independent of the terminal wind speed. We also show that near activity minimum, the expansion in the higher corona has more influence on the wind speed than the expansion below 2.5 {R}⊙ .

  19. Application of biochar and nitrogen influences fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O in a forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Iain; Johnson, Mark S; Jassal, Rachhpal S; Black, T Andrew; Grant, Nicholas J; Smukler, Sean M

    2017-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of forests for increasing carbon sequestration and wood volume is expected to influence soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially to increase N 2 O emissions. As biochar application is known to affect soil GHG emissions, we investigated the effect of biochar application, with and without N fertilization, to a forest soil on GHG emissions in a controlled laboratory study. We found that biochar application at high (10%) application rates increased CO 2 and N 2 O emissions when applied without urea-N fertilizer. At both low (1%) and high biochar (10%) application rates CH 4 consumption was reduced when applied without urea-N fertilizer. Biochar application with urea-N fertilization did not increase CO 2 emissions compared to biochar amended soil without fertilizer. In terms of CO 2 -eq, the net change in GHG emissions was mainly controlled by CO 2 emissions, regardless of treatment, with CH 4 and N 2 O together accounting for less than 1.5% of the total emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Si/Fe flux ratio influence on growth and physical properties of polycrystalline β-FeSi2 thin films on Si(100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, I. A.; Visotin, M. A.; Aleksandrovsky, A. S.; Kosyrev, N. N.; Yakovlev, I. A.; Molokeev, M. S.; Lukyanenko, A. V.; Krylov, A. S.; Fedorov, A. S.; Varnakov, S. N.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2017-10-01

    This work investigates the Si/Fe flux ratio (2 and 0.34) influence on the growth of β-FeSi2 polycrystalline thin films on Si(100) substrate at 630 °C. Lattice deformations for the films obtained are confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The volume unit cell deviation from that of β-FeSi2 single crystal are 1.99% and 1.1% for Si/Fe =2 and Si/Fe =0.34, respectively. Absorption measurements show that the indirect transition ( 0.704 eV) of the Si/Fe =0.34 sample changes to the direct transition with a bandgap value of 0.816 eV for the sample prepared at Si/Fe =2. The absorption spectrum of the Si/Fe =0.34 sample exhibits an additional peak located below the bandgap energy value with the absorption maximum of 0.36 eV. Surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE) measurements detect the ferromagnetic behavior of the β-FeSi2 polycrystalline films grown at Si/Fe =0.34 at T=10 K, but no ferromagnetism was observed in the samples grown at Si/Fe =2. Theoretical calculations refute that the cell deformation can cause the emergence of magnetization and argue that the origin of the ferromagnetism, as well as the lower absorption peak, is β-FeSi2 stoichiometry deviations. Raman spectroscopy measurements evidence that the film obtained at Si/Fe flux ratio equal to 0.34 has the better crystallinity than the Si/Fe =2 sample.

  1. The influence of hypercapnia and the infaunal brittlestar Amphiura filiformis on sediment nutrient flux – will ocean acidification affect nutrient exchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Widdicombe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the concomitant increased uptake of this by the oceans is resulting in hypercapnia-related reduction of ocean pH. Research focussed on the direct effects of these physicochemical changes on marine invertebrates has begun to improve our understanding of impacts at the level of individual physiologies. However, CO2-related impairment of organisms' contribution to ecological or ecosystem processes has barely been addressed. The burrowing ophiuroid Amphiura filiformis, which has a physiology that makes it susceptible to reduced pH, plays a key role in sediment nutrient cycling by mixing and irrigating the sediment, a process known as bioturbation. Here we investigate the role of A. filiformis in modifying nutrient flux rates across the sediment-water boundary and the impact of CO2- related acidification on this process. A 40 day exposure study was conducted under predicted pH scenarios from the years 2100 (pH 7.7 and 2300 (pH 7.3, plus an additional treatment of pH 6.8. This study demonstrated strong relationships between A. filiformis density and cycling of some nutrients; activity increases the sediment uptake of phosphate and the release of nitrite and nitrate. No relationship between A. filiformis density and the flux of ammonium or silicate were observed. Results also indicated that, within the timescale of this experiment, effects at the individual bioturbator level appear not to translate into reduced ecosystem influence. However, long term survival of key bioturbating species is far from assured and changes in both bioturbation and microbial processes could alter key biogeochemical processes in future, more acidic oceans.

  2. Influence of the neutron flux shape on the value of absorbed neutron dose; Uticaj oblika neutronskog spektra na vrednost apsorbovane doze neutrona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miric, I; Miric, P [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1974-07-01

    This paper deals with the study od specific doses dependence on the type and approximation procedures of neutron spectra. Values of specific dose rates (dose per neutron cm{sub 2}) were analysed for neutron spectra from RB reactor in Vinca, Crac facility in Valduc (France) and HPRR reactor in Oak Ridge (USA). Data used in this analysis were obtained by methods used in Harwell (AERE), Oak Ridge (ORNL), Chalk River (AECL), CEN de Cadarache (CEA) and in the Boris Kidric Institute (IBK). Specific absorbed neutron doses were determined for each of the estimated spectra and presented in the form of kerma/(n.cm{sup -2}) and rad/((n.cm{sup -2}) units. The obtained results have shown the influence of the flux approximation procedure on the values of conversion factors for obtaining neutron doses from neutron flux. U okviru ovog rada radjeno je na ispitivanju zavisnosti specificnih doza od vrste i nacina aproksimacije neutronskog spektra. U radu su analizirane vrednosti specificnih doza (doza po n.cm{sup -2}) za neutronske spektre koji se dobijaju oko sledecih nuklearnih postrojenja: reaktora RB u Vinci, postrojenja CRAC u Valduc-u (Francuska), reaktora HPRR u Oak Ridge-u (SAD). Za analizu su korisceni podaci dobijeni metodama koje se koriste u nuklearnim centrima Harwell (AERE), Oak Ridge-u (ORNL), Chalk River-u (AECL), CEN de Cadarache (CEA) i Institutu Boris Kidric (IBK). Za svaki procenjeni spektar odredjene su specificne apsorbovane doze neutrona izrazene u kerma/(n.cm{sup -2}) i rad/(n.cm{sup -2}) jedinicama. Dobijeni rezultati su pokazali koliko nacin aproksimacije spektra utice na vrednost konverzionih faktora koji sluze za prelazak sa fluksa na dozu neutrona (author)

  3. Small scale soil carbon and moisture gradients in a drained peat bog grassland and their influence on CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber-Sauheitl, K.; Fuß, R.; Freibauer, A.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the UNFCCC report requirements of each country on the emissions of greenhouse gases from key sources the joint research project "Organic Soils" was established in Germany. The project's objective is to improve the data set on greenhousegas emissions from organic soils in Germany. Within 12 German Project Catchments emissions from different types of organic soils, e.g. under different land uses and hydrological conditions, are measured. At the location "Großes Moor" near Gifhorn (Lower Saxony) the effects of small-scale soil organic carbon and groundwater level gradients on the GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) are quantified. The study area is located within a former peat bog altered by drainage and peat cutting, which is currently grassland under extensive agricultural use. The focus of the study is on the acquisition of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes on six sites via manual closed chambers. In order to calculate the annual CO2 exchange rate, values are interpolated on a 0.5 hour scale between measurement campaigns. In combination with continually logged meteorological parameters, such as the photosynthetic active radiation as well as air and soil temperatures, we calculate the daily CO2 ecosystem exchange of the different sites. During the 2011 campaign, CO2 was determined as the most important greenhouse gas. The groundwater table was the dominant variable influencing gas emissions. Another important factor was the vegetation composition. In detail, highest CO2 emissions occurred with a water table of 40-50 cm below ground level, temperatures above 10°C and low plant biomass amounts. Due to the more complex formation of N2O by a number of processes, each being promoted by different soil conditions, the measurement of N2O fluxes in the field was complemented by a laboratory experiment. In this, the use of stable isotope tracer techniques enabled us to quantify the contribution of single biochemical pathways to the overall formation of N2O under controlled

  4. Monte Carlo estimation of the influence of elastic scattering anisotropy on the neutron flux in a nuclear reactor cell; Monte Carlo procena uticaja anizotropije elasticnog rasejanja na vrednost neutronskog fluksa u celiji nuklearnog reaktora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocic, A [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1974-07-01

    Anisotropy of neutron elastic scattering is a problem of special importance in solving the Boltzmann transport equation numerically. This is not the case when Monte Carlo method is applied. Estimation of the influence of elastic scattering anisotropy on the neutron flux is treated in order to justify the application of Monte Carlo method which is computer time consuming. Correlation procedure was applied for the study of this influence. One group case was used as an example to enable comparison of other methods.

  5. Wetting layer states in low density InAs/InGaAs quantum dots from sub-critical InAs coverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seravalli, L; Trevisi, G; Frigeri, P; Rossi, F; Buffagni, E; Ferrari, C

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the properties of wetting layers in InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) structures suitable for single photon emission; the mandatory low density of QDs is obtained by an molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach based on the deposition of sub-critical InAs coverages followed by post-growth annealing. Such a growth regime is fundamentally different from the Stranski–Krastanow (SK) one commonly used for the deposition of QDs. By fitting x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, ten-steps composition profiles were derived and used as inputs of model calculations of the two-dimensional quantum energy system: model results were validated by comparison with photoluminescence spectra. A strong reduction of In molar fraction in wetting layers in comparison with SK structures was found, causing a larger wavefunction delocalization for carriers that populate the wetting layer energy levels. Moreover, by considering the limits for strain relaxation when In x Ga 1−x As capping layers are used, we grew structures with the highest possible values of x to study the modifications of the energy system. When x = 0.20 the electron–heavy hole overlap is almost halved and the carriers' probability of being in the first nanometre of the wetting layer is reduced by 60%. These results will be useful for advanced design of QD nanostructures for single photon sources. (paper)

  6. Critical and sub-critical experiments on U-BeO lattices; Experiences critiques et sous-critiques sur reseaux U-BeO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoist, P.; Gourdon, Ch.; Martelly, J.; Sagot, M.; Wanner, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Deniz, V.; Joshi, B.V.; Sahai, K. [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay (India)

    1958-07-01

    Sub-critical experiments have allowed us to measure the material buckling of uranium natural oxide of beryllium lattices with a grid of 15 cm, and made up of uranium bars measuring 2.60 - 2.92 - 3.56 and 4.40 cm of diameter. A critical experiment has then been conducted with hollow 1.35 per cent enriched uranium bars. A study of U-BeO 18.03 cm grid lattices is at present being conducted. (author)Fren. [French] Nous avons mesure par des experiences sous-critiques le laplacien matiere de reseaux uranium naturel-oxyde de beryllium, dont la maille carree a un pas de 15 cm, realises avec des barreaux d'uranium de diametres 2,60 - 2,92 - 3,56 - 4,40 cm. Une experience critique a ete faite ensuite avec des barres creuses d'uranium enrichi a 1,35 pour cent; l'etude des reseaux U-BeO de pas 18,03 cm est actuellement en cours. (auteur)

  7. A multi-fluid PSO-based algorithm for the search of the best performance of sub-critical Organic Rankine Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavazzini, G.; Bari, S.; Pavesi, G.; Ardizzon, G.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the thermodynamic optimization of a sub-critical ORC for heat source temperatures in the range between 80 and 150 °C. The most significant novelty of the optimization procedure is that the optimization algorithm was modified for this particular application in order to allow the swarm particles to dynamically choose the working fluid among a list of 37 candidates during their heuristic movement, by continuously and dynamically modifying the search domain of each particle iteration-by-iteration due to the different vapour saturation lines of the chosen working fluid. The significant amount of data obtained by the optimization procedure highlighted the dependency of the system efficiency on two main parameters: the Jakob number related to the optimized cycle (Ja_o_p_t) and the ratio between the critical temperature of the working fluid and the inlet heat source temperature. At closer inspection, a third new parameter Ω was identified, resulting from the combination of the previous two, whose minimization is correlated to the maximization of system efficiency. A procedure for the preliminary estimation of the optimal cycle allowing to estimate with good accuracy the Jakob number Ja_o_p_t and the corresponding value of Ω was also developed. - Highlights: • An PSO algorithm allowing for the dynamic choice of the working fluid is presented. • Thermodynamic optimizations for several heat source temperatures were carried out. • An effective parameter for choosing the best performing working fluids is presented.

  8. Development and Validation of NODAL-LAMBDA Program for the Calculation of the Sub-criticality of LAMDA MODES By Nodal Methods in BWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Merino, R.; Escriva, A.; Melara, J.; Concejal, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a 3D code with two energy groups and diffusion theory that is capable of calculating eigenvalues lambda of a BWR reactor using nodal methods and boundary conditions that calculates ALBEDO NODAL-LAMBDA from the properties of the reflector code itself. The code calculates the sub-criticality of the first harmonic, which is involved in the stability against oscillations reactor out of phase, and which is needed for calculating the decay rate for data out of phase oscillations. The code is very fast and in a few seconds is able to make a calculation of the first eigenvalues and eigenvectors, discretized solving the problem with different matrix elements zero. The code uses the LAPACK and ARPACK libraries. It was necessary to modify the LAPACK library to perform various operations with five non-diagonal matrices simultaneously in order to reduce the number of calls to bookstores and simplify the procedure for calculating the matrices in compressed format CSR. The code is validated by comparing it with the results for SIMULATE different cases and making 3D BENCHMAR of the IAEA. (Author)

  9. Experimental study on neutronics in bombardment of thick targets by high energy proton beams for accelerator-driven sub-critical system

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Shi Lun; Shi Yong Qian; Shen Qing Biao; Wan Jun Sheng; Brandt, R; Vater, P; Kulakov, B A; Krivopustov, M I; Sosnin, A N

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on neutronics in the target region of accelerator-driven sub-critical system is carried out by using the high energy accelerator in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. The experiments with targets U(Pb), Pb and Hg bombarded by 0.533, 1.0, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV proton beams show that the neutron yield ratio of U(Pb) to Hg and Pb to Hg targets is (2.10 +- 0.10) and (1.76 +- 0.33), respectively. Hg target is disadvantageous to U(Pb) and Pb targets to get more neutrons. Neutron yield drops along 20 cm thick targets as the thickness penetrated by protons increases. The lower the energy of protons, the steeper the neutron yield drops. In order to get more uniform field of neutrons in the targets, the energy of protons from accelerators should not be lower than 1 GeV. The spectra of secondary neutrons produced by different energies of protons are similar, but the proportion of neutrons with higher energy gradually increases as the proton energy increases

  10. Critical and sub-critical experiments on U-BeO lattices; Experiences critiques et sous-critiques sur reseaux U-BeO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoist, P; Gourdon, Ch; Martelly, J; Sagot, M; Wanner, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Deniz, V; Joshi, B V; Sahai, K [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay (India)

    1958-07-01

    Sub-critical experiments have allowed us to measure the material buckling of uranium natural oxide of beryllium lattices with a grid of 15 cm, and made up of uranium bars measuring 2.60 - 2.92 - 3.56 and 4.40 cm of diameter. A critical experiment has then been conducted with hollow 1.35 per cent enriched uranium bars. A study of U-BeO 18.03 cm grid lattices is at present being conducted. (author)Fren. [French] Nous avons mesure par des experiences sous-critiques le laplacien matiere de reseaux uranium naturel-oxyde de beryllium, dont la maille carree a un pas de 15 cm, realises avec des barreaux d'uranium de diametres 2,60 - 2,92 - 3,56 - 4,40 cm. Une experience critique a ete faite ensuite avec des barres creuses d'uranium enrichi a 1,35 pour cent; l'etude des reseaux U-BeO de pas 18,03 cm est actuellement en cours. (auteur)

  11. The influence of nitrogen fertiliser rate and crop rotation on soil methane flux in rain-fed potato fields in Wuchuan County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liwei; Pan, Zhihua; Xu, Hui; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Lin; Zhao, Peiyi; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; Cui, Guohui; Wang, Sen; Han, Guolin; Zhao, Hui

    2015-12-15

    As one of the important greenhouse gases, the characteristics and principles of methane exchange characteristics in cultivated lands have become hot topics in current climate change research. This study examines the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil water content on methane exchange characteristic and methane exchange functional gene-pmoA gene abundance based on experimental observations of methane exchange fluxes using the static chamber-gas chromatographic method and measurements of methanotroph gene copy numbers in three growing periods by real-time PCR in rain-fed potato fields. The results indicate that the rain-fed potato fields were a CH4 sink with an average annual methane absorption (negative emission) of 940.8±103.2 g CH4-C/ha/year. The cumulative methane absorption first exhibited flat and subsequently increasing trend with the increase of nitrogen fertilisation from 0~135 kg N·ha(-1). Methane cumulative absorption significantly increased with the increase of temperature when temperatures were below 19.6 °C. Methane oxidation capacity (methanotroph pmoA gene copy numbers) showed an increasing and subsequently decreasing trend with the increase of soil moisture. Crop rotation was observed to increase the methane absorption in rain-fed potato fields and nearly one time higher than that under continuous cropping. A mechanism concept model of the methane exchange in rain-fed potato fields was advanced in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tests on dynamic corrosion by water. Influence of the passage of a heat flux on the corrosion kinetics. pH measurement in water at high temperature; Essais de corrosion dynamique par l'eau. Influence du passage d'un flux thermique sur la cinetique de corrosion. Mesure du pH dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H.; Grall, L.; Hure, J.; Saint-James, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Berthod [Societe Grenobloise d' Etudes et d' Applications Hydrauliques, 38 (France); Le peintre [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1958-07-01

    The passage of a heat flux through the surface of a metal placed in a corrosive medium influences the rate of corrosion, these being higher than under adiabatic conditions. The apparatus developed for corrosion tests is described, it is possible to obtain with this equipment: 1) Heat fluxes greater than 200 W/cm{sup 2}, across aluminium canning, which is cooled by water (temperature 50 deg. C), circulating with flow rates of the order of 5 to 6 m/s. 2) Heat fluxes which can go up to 150 W/cm{sup 2}, across canning of zircaloy or stainless steel. The cooling fluid is pressurized water at a temperature around 280 deg. C, the flow-rate of circulation reaching 6 m/s. The results obtained on aluminium canning are studied from the viewpoint of corrosion, paying particular attention to cavitation phenomena which can cause serious damage in certain special circumstances. After developing a glass electrode system capable of supporting high pressures, the authors have investigated materials capable of functioning as a hydrogen electrode and of resisting satisfactorily corrosion by water at 200 deg. C. Various possibilities have been examined: electrodes of special glasses, quartz, metals, with a membrane etc... The results of the various tests and the practical limits of utilisation are given. (author)Fren. [French] Le passage d'un flux thermique a travers la surface d'un metal place dans un milieu corrosif influence les vitesses de corrosion, celles-ci etant plus elevees que dans des conditions adiabatiques. On decrit les appareils mis au point, pour essais de corrosion. Ils permettent d'obtenir: 1) A travers des gaine aluminium des flux thermiques depassant 200 W /cm{sup 2}. Les gaines sont refroidies par l'eau (temperature 50 deg. C), circulant a des vitesses de l'ordre de 5 a 6 m/s. 2) A travers des gaines en zircaloy ou acier inoxydable des flux thermiques pouvant s'elever a 150 W/cm{sup 2}. Le fluide de refroidissement est de l

  13. Tests on dynamic corrosion by water. Influence of the passage of a heat flux on the corrosion kinetics. pH measurement in water at high temperature; Essais de corrosion dynamique par l'eau. Influence du passage d'un flux thermique sur la cinetique de corrosion. Mesure du pH dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H; Grall, L; Hure, J; Saint-James, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Berthod, [Societe Grenobloise d' Etudes et d' Applications Hydrauliques, 38 (France); peintre, Le [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1958-07-01

    The passage of a heat flux through the surface of a metal placed in a corrosive medium influences the rate of corrosion, these being higher than under adiabatic conditions. The apparatus developed for corrosion tests is described, it is possible to obtain with this equipment: 1) Heat fluxes greater than 200 W/cm{sup 2}, across aluminium canning, which is cooled by water (temperature 50 deg. C), circulating with flow rates of the order of 5 to 6 m/s. 2) Heat fluxes which can go up to 150 W/cm{sup 2}, across canning of zircaloy or stainless steel. The cooling fluid is pressurized water at a temperature around 280 deg. C, the flow-rate of circulation reaching 6 m/s. The results obtained on aluminium canning are studied from the viewpoint of corrosion, paying particular attention to cavitation phenomena which can cause serious damage in certain special circumstances. After developing a glass electrode system capable of supporting high pressures, the authors have investigated materials capable of functioning as a hydrogen electrode and of resisting satisfactorily corrosion by water at 200 deg. C. Various possibilities have been examined: electrodes of special glasses, quartz, metals, with a membrane etc... The results of the various tests and the practical limits of utilisation are given. (author)Fren. [French] Le passage d'un flux thermique a travers la surface d'un metal place dans un milieu corrosif influence les vitesses de corrosion, celles-ci etant plus elevees que dans des conditions adiabatiques. On decrit les appareils mis au point, pour essais de corrosion. Ils permettent d'obtenir: 1) A travers des gaine aluminium des flux thermiques depassant 200 W /cm{sup 2}. Les gaines sont refroidies par l'eau (temperature 50 deg. C), circulant a des vitesses de l'ordre de 5 a 6 m/s. 2) A travers des gaines en zircaloy ou acier inoxydable des flux thermiques pouvant s'elever a 150 W/cm{sup 2}. Le fluide de refroidissement est de l'eau sous pression a une temperature

  14. Flux Pinning in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  15. The influence of xenon poisoning in high-flux reactors on the choice of control rod speeds (1961); Influence de l'empoisonnement xenon dans les piles a haut flux sur le choix de la vitesse des barres de controle (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    - The general laws are restated concerning the changes in xenon and iodine concentrations in thermal neutron reactors, assuming an uniform neutron flux distribution in the core. It is shown how the evolution in the xenon poisoning influences the selection of the control rod speed, at start-up. Certain simple methods of calculation are developed making it possible to resolve the problem of the choice of this speed in the case where the xenon poisoning is taken into account. (author) [French] - On rappelle les lois generales relatives aux evolutions de concentration xenon et iode dans les piles atomiques a neutrons thermiques lorsqu'on suppose une repartition uniforme du flux de neutrons dans le coeur. On montre comment l'evolution de l'empoisonnement xenon influe sur le choix de la vitesse des barres de controle en periode de demarrage. On developpe certaines methodes de calculs simples permettant de resoudre le probleme du choix de la vitesse des barres de controle, dans le cas ou l'on tient compte de l'empoisonnement xenon. (auteur)

  16. Numerical simulation of CO2 leakage from a geologic disposal reservoir, including transitions from super- to sub-critical conditions, and boiling of liquid of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2003-01-01

    The critical point of CO 2 is at temperature and pressure conditions of T crit = 31.04 C, P crit = 73.82 bar. At lower (subcritical) temperatures and/or pressures, CO 2 can exist in two different phase states, a liquid and a gaseous state, as well as in two-phase mixtures of these states. Disposal of CO 2 into brine formations would be made at supercritical pressures. However, CO 2 escaping from the storage reservoir may migrate upwards towards regions with lower temperatures and pressures, where CO 2 would be in subcritical conditions. An assessment of the fate of leaking CO 2 requires a capability to model not only supercritical but also subcritical CO 2 , as well as phase changes between liquid and gaseous CO 2 in sub-critical conditions. We have developed a methodology for numerically simulating the behavior of water-CO 2 mixtures in permeable media under conditions that may include liquid, gaseous, and supercritical CO 2 . This has been applied to simulations of leakage from a deep storage reservoir in which a rising CO 2 plume undergoes transitions from supercritical to subcritical conditions. We find strong cooling effects when liquid CO 2 rises to elevations where it begins to boil and evolve a gaseous CO 2 phase. A three-phase zone forms (aqueous - liquid - gas), which over time becomes several hundred meters thick as decreasing temperatures permit liquid CO 2 to advance to shallower elevations. Fluid mobilities are reduced in the three-phase region from phase interference effects. This impedes CO 2 upflow, causes the plume to spread out laterally, and gives rise to dispersed CO 2 discharge at the land surface. Our simulation suggests that temperatures along a CO 2 leakage path may decline to levels low enough so that solid water ice and CO 2 hydrate phases may be formed

  17. The influence of nitrogen fertiliser rate and crop rotation on soil methane flux in rain-fed potato fields in Wuchuan County, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liwei; Pan, Zhihua; Xu, Hui; Wang, Cheng; Gao, Lin; Zhao, Peiyi; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; Cui, Guohui; Wang, Sen; Han, Guolin; Zhao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    As one of the important greenhouse gases, the characteristics and principles of methane exchange characteristics in cultivated lands have become hot topics in current climate change research. This study examines the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil water content on methane exchange characteristic and methane exchange functional gene-pmoA gene abundance based on experimental observations of methane exchange fluxes using the static chamber–gas chromatographic method and measurements of methanotroph gene copy numbers in three growing periods by real-time PCR in rain-fed potato fields. The results indicate that the rain-fed potato fields were a CH_4 sink with an average annual methane absorption (negative emission) of 940.8 ± 103.2 g CH_4-C/ha/year. The cumulative methane absorption first exhibited flat and subsequently increasing trend with the increase of nitrogen fertilisation from 0 ~ 135 kg N·ha"−"1. Methane cumulative absorption significantly increased with the increase of temperature when temperatures were below 19.6 °C. Methane oxidation capacity (methanotroph pmoA gene copy numbers) showed an increasing and subsequently decreasing trend with the increase of soil moisture. Crop rotation was observed to increase the methane absorption in rain-fed potato fields and nearly one time higher than that under continuous cropping. A mechanism concept model of the methane exchange in rain-fed potato fields was advanced in this paper. - Highlights: • Rain-fed potato fields were a CH_4 sink. • Increased nitrogen fertilisation and temperature led to higher CH_4 absorption. • CH_4 oxidation capacity showed a parabolic trend with soil moisture increased. • Crop rotation increased CH_4 absorption one time higher than continuous cropping. • A mechanism concept model of the CH_4 exchange in potato fields was advanced.

  18. The influence of nitrogen fertiliser rate and crop rotation on soil methane flux in rain-fed potato fields in Wuchuan County, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liwei [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Agronomy, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866 (China); Wuchuan Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture Wuchuan 011700 (China); Pan, Zhihua, E-mail: panzhihua@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wuchuan Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture Wuchuan 011700 (China); Xu, Hui [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Cheng [College of Agricultural and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Lin [School of Resources and Environmental, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Zhao, Peiyi [Institute of Resources Environmental and Detection Technology, Inner Mongolia Academy of Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Sciences, Huhhot 010031 (China); Wuchuan Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture Wuchuan 011700 (China); Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; Cui, Guohui; Wang, Sen; Han, Guolin; Zhao, Hui [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wuchuan Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture Wuchuan 011700 (China)

    2015-12-15

    As one of the important greenhouse gases, the characteristics and principles of methane exchange characteristics in cultivated lands have become hot topics in current climate change research. This study examines the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil water content on methane exchange characteristic and methane exchange functional gene-pmoA gene abundance based on experimental observations of methane exchange fluxes using the static chamber–gas chromatographic method and measurements of methanotroph gene copy numbers in three growing periods by real-time PCR in rain-fed potato fields. The results indicate that the rain-fed potato fields were a CH{sub 4} sink with an average annual methane absorption (negative emission) of 940.8 ± 103.2 g CH{sub 4}-C/ha/year. The cumulative methane absorption first exhibited flat and subsequently increasing trend with the increase of nitrogen fertilisation from 0 ~ 135 kg N·ha{sup −1}. Methane cumulative absorption significantly increased with the increase of temperature when temperatures were below 19.6 °C. Methane oxidation capacity (methanotroph pmoA gene copy numbers) showed an increasing and subsequently decreasing trend with the increase of soil moisture. Crop rotation was observed to increase the methane absorption in rain-fed potato fields and nearly one time higher than that under continuous cropping. A mechanism concept model of the methane exchange in rain-fed potato fields was advanced in this paper. - Highlights: • Rain-fed potato fields were a CH{sub 4} sink. • Increased nitrogen fertilisation and temperature led to higher CH{sub 4} absorption. • CH{sub 4} oxidation capacity showed a parabolic trend with soil moisture increased. • Crop rotation increased CH{sub 4} absorption one time higher than continuous cropping. • A mechanism concept model of the CH{sub 4} exchange in potato fields was advanced.

  19. Anthropogenic and climatic influences on carbon fluxes from eastern North America to the Atlantic Ocean: A process-based modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hanqin; Yang, Qichun; Najjar, Raymond G.; Ren, Wei; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Pan, Shufen

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude, spatiotemporal patterns, and controls of carbon flux from land to the ocean remain uncertain. Here we applied a process-based land model with explicit representation of carbon processes in streams and rivers to examine how changes in climate, land conversion, management practices, atmospheric CO2, and nitrogen deposition affected carbon fluxes from eastern North America to the Atlantic Ocean, specifically the Gulf of Maine (GOM), Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB), and South Atlantic Bight (SAB). Our simulation results indicate that the mean annual fluxes (±1 standard deviation) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the past three decades (1980-2008) were 2.37 ± 0.60, 1.06 ± 0.20, and 3.57 ± 0.72 Tg C yr-1, respectively. Carbon export demonstrated substantial spatial and temporal variability. For the region as a whole, the model simulates a significant decrease in riverine DIC fluxes from 1901 to 2008, whereas there were no significant trends in DOC or POC fluxes. In the SAB, however, there were significant declines in the fluxes of all three forms of carbon, and in the MAB subregion, DIC and POC fluxes declined significantly. The only significant trend in the GOM subregion was an increase in DIC flux. Climate variability was the primary cause of interannual variability in carbon export. Land conversion from cropland to forest was the primary factor contributing to decreases in all forms of C export, while nitrogen deposition and fertilizer use, as well as atmospheric CO2 increases, tended to increase DOC, POC, and DIC fluxes.

  20. Design status and future research programme for a sub-critical assembly driven by a proton accelerator with proton energy 660 MeV for experiments on long-lived fission products and minor actinides transmutation (Sad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustov, S.A.; Mirokhin, I.V.; Morozov, N.A.; Onischenko, L.M.; Savchenko, O.V.; Sissakian, A.N.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Tretyakov, I.T.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Vorontsov, M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Report presents project for the construction of a low power integral system on the basis of the proton accelerator of energy 660 MeV and sub-critical MOX blanket with uranium-plutonium fuel. Installation includes sub-critical core with a nominal thermal power of 15-20 kW. Multiplication coefficient k eff = 0,95 and the accelerator beam power of 0.75-1 kW. The experimental programme for SAD will be focused on solving different aspects of reactor physics, reaction rates measurements and benchmarking. The first conceptual design of the SAD experiment is completed in the form of the ISTC Project Proposal 2267. Realisation of the SAD facility may be expected in about 3-4 years. (author)

  1. A vibrating membrane bioreactor (VMBR): Macromolecular transmission-influence of extracellular polymeric substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2009-01-01

    The vibrating membrane bioreactor (VMBR) system facilitates the possibility of conducting a separation of macromolecules (BSA) from larger biological components (yeast cells) with a relatively high and stable macromolecular transmission at sub-critical flux. This is not possible to achieve...... for a static non-vibrating membrane module. A BSA transmission of 74% has been measured in the separation of 4g/L BSA from 8 g/L dry weight yeast cells in suspension at sub-critical flux (20L/(m(2) h)). However, this transmission is lower than the 85% BSA transmission measured for at pure 4g/L BSA solution....... This can be ascribed to the presence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from the yeast cells. The initial fouling rate for constant sub-critical flux filtration of unwashed yeast cells is 3-4 times larger than for washed yeast cells (18(mbar/h)/5(mbar/h)). At sub-critical flux, an EPS transmission...

  2. Influence of O2 Flux on Compositions and Properties of ITO Films Deposited at Room Temperature by Direct-Current Pulse Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua-Lin; Ding Wan-Yu; Liu Chao-Qian; Chai Wei-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature by dc pulse magnetron sputtering. Varying O 2 flux, ITO films with different properties are obtained. Both x-ray diffractometer and x-ray photoelectron spectrometer are used to study the change of crystalline structures and bonding structures of ITO films, respectively. Electrical properties are measured by four-point probe measurements. The results indicate that the chemical structures and compositions of ITO films strongly depend on the O 2 flux. With increasing O 2 flux, ITO films display better crystallization, which could decrease the resistivity of films. On the contrary, ITO films contain less O vacancies with increasing O 2 flux, which could worsen the conductive properties of films. Without any heat treatment onto the samples, the resistivity of the ITO film could reach 6.0 × 10 −4 Ω ·cm, with the optimal deposition parameter of 0.2 sccm O 2 flux. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  4. The influence of crystal anisotropy on the critical state stability and flux jump dynamics of a single crystal of La1.85Sr0.15CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabiałek, A; Wiśniewski, A; Chabanenko, V V; Vasiliev, S V; Tsvetkov, T V; Pérez-Rodríguez, F

    2012-01-01

    We studied the critical state stability of a large cubic sample of single-crystalline La 1.85 Sr 0.15 CuO 4 for different sample orientations with respect to the external magnetic field as well as the dynamics of the flux jumps. It is shown that thermomagnetic avalanches develop under dynamic conditions, which are characterized by the magnetic diffusivity being significantly lower than the thermal case. In this case, the critical state stability depends strongly on the cooling conditions. We compared predictions from the isothermal model and from the model for a weakly cooled sample with experimental results. In both models, the field of the first flux jump decreases with increase of the sweep rate of the external magnetic field. We also investigated the influence of the external magnetic field on the dynamics of the following stages of the thermomagnetic avalanche. It is shown that the dynamics of the flux jumps is correlated with the magnetic diffusivity, which is proportional to the flux flow resistivity. (paper)

  5. The influence of snow grain size and impurities on the vertical profiles of actinic flux and associated NOx emissions on the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Zatko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We use observations of the absorption properties of black carbon and non-black carbon impurities in near-surface snow collected near the research stations at South Pole and Dome C, Antarctica, and Summit, Greenland, combined with a snowpack actinic flux parameterization to estimate the vertical profile and e-folding depth of ultraviolet/near-visible (UV/near-vis actinic flux in the snowpack at each location. We have developed a simple and broadly applicable parameterization to calculate depth and wavelength dependent snowpack actinic flux that can be easily integrated into large-scale (e.g., 3-D models of the atmosphere. The calculated e-folding depths of actinic flux at 305 nm, the peak wavelength of nitrate photolysis in the snowpack, are 8–12 cm near the stations and 15–31 cm away (>11 km from the stations. We find that the e-folding depth is strongly dependent on impurity content and wavelength in the UV/near-vis region, which explains the relatively shallow e-folding depths near stations where local activities lead to higher snow impurity levels. We calculate the lifetime of NOx in the snowpack interstitial air produced by photolysis of snowpack nitrate against wind pumping (τwind pumping from the snowpack, and compare this to the calculated lifetime of NOx against chemical conversion to HNO3 (τchemical to determine whether the NOx produced at a given depth can escape from the snowpack to the overlying atmosphere. Comparison of τwind pumping and τchemical suggests efficient escape of photoproduced NOx in the snowpack to the overlying atmosphere throughout most of the photochemically active zone. Calculated vertical actinic flux profiles and observed snowpack nitrate concentrations are used to estimate the potential flux of NOx from the snowpack. Calculated NOx fluxes of 4.4 × 108–3.8 × 109 molecules cm−2 s−1 in remote polar locations and 3.2–8.2 × 108 molecules cm−2 s−1 near polar stations for January at Dome C and

  6. Influence of air-sea fluxes on chlorine isotopic composition of ocean water: Implications for constancy in d37Cl- A statistical inference

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Xiao, Y.K.; Sarkar, A.; Dalal, S.G.; Chivas, A.R.

    WE, Ehrlich R, Klovan JE. J Math Geol 1981;13:331–4. Grassl H, Jost V, Ramesh Kumar MR, Schulz J, Bauer P, Schluessel P. The Hamburg Ocean atmosphere parameters and fluxes from satellite data (HOAPS): a climatological atlas of satellite derived air...

  7. Simulation of Silver Thin Films' Growth and Influence of Deposition Rate on Final Grain Size under Angle Flux and Standard Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jamshidnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a 2D stimulation model, FACET, is used for investigation of the relation between micro structure and deposition conditions such as substrate temperature, deposition rate and deposition angle of Ag thin films. It is observed that by increasing the deposition rate in standard conditions providing that the temperature of substrate is low, the average of final grain size is decreased. While, in deposition with angle flux the average of final grain size is increased.

  8. Influence of average ion energy and atomic oxygen flux per Si atom on the formation of silicon oxide permeation barrier coatings on PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschker, F.; Wißing, J.; Hoppe, Ch; de los Arcos, T.; Grundmeier, G.; Awakowicz, P.

    2018-04-01

    The respective effect of average incorporated ion energy and impinging atomic oxygen flux on the deposition of silicon oxide (SiO x ) barrier coatings for polymers is studied in a microwave driven low pressure discharge with additional variable RF bias. Under consideration of plasma parameters, bias voltage, film density, chemical composition and particle fluxes, both are determined relative to the effective flux of Si atoms contributing to film growth. Subsequently, a correlation with barrier performance and chemical structure is achieved by measuring the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and by performing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is observed that an increase in incorporated energy to 160 eV per deposited Si atom result in an enhanced cross-linking of the SiO x network and, therefore, an improved barrier performance by almost two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, independently increasing the number of oxygen atoms to 10 500 per deposited Si atom also lead to a comparable barrier improvement by an enhanced cross-linking.

  9. Influence of near-ultraviolet light enhancement and photosynthetic photon flux density during photoperiod extension on the morphology and lignin content of black spruce seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis, H.; Vezina, L.P.; Bellefleur, P.

    1991-01-01

    When containerized black spruce seedlings (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) are grown rapidly in greenhouse culture, they sometimes bend over, grow horizontally and become deformed. This phenomenon has been known to affect between 5% and 10% of a winter greenhouse crop. In this study, near-ultraviolet lamps were used to supplement the artificial light received from high-pressure sodium lamps and the effects on seedling morphology and lignin contents were examined. Neither height to diameter ratios nor lignin concentrations were significantly affected by UV radiation flux density. However, seedling biomass, height, root collar diameter, lignin content, and lignin to cellulose ratios of stems were significantly correlated with total photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) received during photoperiod extension. Height to diameter ratios were negatively correlated with PPFD during photoperiod enhancement because of a greater relative increase in diameter growth compared with height growth. Neither UV nor PAR flux density affected the percentage of black spruce seedlings having stem deformations greater than 30 ° from the vertical [fr

  10. Net flux of nutrients across splanchnic tissues of lactating dairy cows as influenced by dietary supplements of biotin and vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, C L; Desrochers, A

    2010-04-01

    Biotin and vitamin B(12) are coenzymes in reactions that are essential to propionate metabolism in dairy cows. The objective of the present studies was to determine whether an increased dietary supply of these vitamins would change the net flux of nutrients through the rumen, the portal-drained viscera (PDV), the total splanchnic tissues (TSP), and the liver. Four lactating cows equipped with ultrasonic flow probes around the right ruminal artery and the portal vein and catheters in the right ruminal vein, the portal vein, one hepatic vein, and one mesenteric artery were fed 12 times per day a mixed ration at 95% of ad libitum dry matter intake. Daily supplements of 500 mg of vitamin B(12)+20mg of biotin or no vitamin supplement (study 1) or 500 mg of vitamin B(12) alone or with 20mg of biotin (study 2) were fed according to a crossover design with two 4-wk periods in each study. On the last day of each period, blood flow was recorded and blood samples were collected every 30 min for 4h. In study 1, biotin and vitamin B(12) given together increased milk production and milk protein yields compared with the control diet. The supplement increased appearance of the 2 vitamins across the PDV and TSP. It also reduced the net portal appearance of ammonia and total volatile fatty acids across the PDV. In study 2, compared with the 2 vitamins together, vitamin B(12) alone increased glucose flux across PDV and TSP as well as its arterial concentration and PDV flux of ammonia. With the diet used in the present experiment, the major effects of the vitamin supplements seem to be mediated through changes in ruminal fermentation and gastrointestinal tract metabolism rather than by effects on hepatic metabolism. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of the number of activation detectors on the Seibersdorf - Milano intercomparison of neutron flux density spectra by WINDOWS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertek, C.

    1981-02-01

    This work is a continuation of the work performed within the IAEA programme on standardization of reactor radiation measurements, one of the important objectives of which is the assistance to laboratories in Member States to implement or intercompare the multiple foil activation techniques for different neutron field measurements. The importance of these techniques is well recognized. In CESNEF-FERMI Politecnico di Milano, Italy, they have installed near the core of a water boiler of 50kW, a neutron filter made of B 4 C in order to obtain a neutron flux density spectrum that could be of utility in intercalibration problems connected with irradiation in fast assemblies. Dr. V. Sangiust from CESNEF kindly sent the input guess neutron flux density spectrum and a series of measured reaction rates to be treated by the IAEA Seibersdorf laboratory using the SAND-II and the WINDOWS unfolding codes. The meaningful comparison using partly the same ENDF/B IV cross section data is performed. In the present work we extended the investiga tion using WINDOWS unfolding code for different numbers of activation fo ils or reaction rates

  12. Magnetic-flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  13. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  14. Modeling the influence of long term human-induced land use conversion on sediment fluxes and carbon dynamics at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoms, Samuel; Van Oost, Kristof; Vanacker, Veerle

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been increasing evidence of the strong impact of human activities on the landscape, specifically on soil erosion due to the removal of natural vegetation cover for agricultural and urban purposes. The results question the widespread hypothesis of a steady state landscape since it appears that the balance between soil production and erosion may be broken altering the interactions between chemical, physical and biological processes in both soil and landscape system. Yet, the relationship between this accelerated erosion and the carbon dynamics at the landscape scale remains an important area of investigation. Recent attempts to combine geomorphic models, soil redistribution and carbon dynamic has proved themselves valuable in term of supporting the importance of lateral fluxes as a crucial control of carbon dynamic at the landscape scale. We use the SPEROS LT model, a modified version of SPEROS-C which includes dynamic land use and soil physical properties, to assess the impact of historical land use conversion on sediment and carbon fluxes in the Dijle catchment. This particular location has experienced a significant human impact since the Roman period, undergoing heavy deforestation and expansion of agricultural lands followed by a period of abandonment. The last 400 to 500 years saw a dramatic increase in the intensity of land use conversion associated to population growth leading to forest cleaning and urbanization. Our main objective is to validate the combined geomorphic and soil carbon turnover process descriptions of the model. Historical land use proportions are based on existing literature estimations and spatial assignation of the land conversion relies on simple allocation rules based on criteria such as slope or soil texture. Land use scenarios are constructed for the last 2000 years. We confront the model results with observations and perform a sensitivity analysis. The results indicate that the general trends in

  15. Meteoric 10Be/9Be ratios in marine sedimentary records: Deciphering the mixing between their marine and terrestrial sources and influence of costal trace metal fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, H.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Mohtadi, M.; Christl, M.; Bernhardt, A.

    2017-12-01

    Meteoric 10Be to stable 9Be ratios combine a cosmogenic nuclide produced in the atmosphere at a rate known from reconstructions of magnetic field strength with a stable isotope that records the present and past continental weathering and erosion flux. In seawater, the 10Be/9Be ratio provides important information on metal release from bottom sediments, called boundary exchange, and the oceanic mixing of reactive trace metals due to the inherently different sources of the two isotopes. When measured in the authigenic phase of marine sediments, the 10Be/9Be ratio allows deriving the feedbacks between erosion, weathering, and climate in the geologic past. At an ocean margin site 37°S offshore Chile, we use the 10Be/9Be ratio to trace changes in terrestrial particulate composition due to exchange with seawater. We analyzed the reactive (sequentially extracted) phase of marine surface sediments along a coast-perpendicular transect, and compared to samples from their riverine source. We find evidence for growth of authigenic rims through co-precipitation, not via reversible adsorption, that incorporate an open ocean 10Be/9Be signature from a deep water source only 30 km from the coast, thereby overprinting terrestrial riverine 10Be/9Be signatures. We show that the measured 10Be/9Be ratios in marine sediments comprise a mixture between seawater-derived and riverine-sourced phases. As 10Be/9Be ratios increase due to exchange with seawater, particulate-bound Fe concentrations increase, which we attribute to release of Fe-rich pore waters during boundary exchange in the sediment. The implications for the use of 10Be/9Be in sedimentary records for paleo-denudation flux reconstructions are that in coast-proximal sites that are neither affected by deeper water nor by narrow boundary currents, the authigenic record will be a direct recorder of terrigenous denudation of the adjacent river catchments. Hence archive location and past oceanic circulation have to be accounted for

  16. Exposure of liquid lithium confined in a capillary structure to high plasma fluxes in PILOT-PSI—Influence of temperature on D retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Rojo, A.B., E-mail: anabmr2010@hotmail.com [Ciemat, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Av Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oyarzabal, E. [Ciemat, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Av Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fundación UNED Guzman el Bueno, 133, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Morgan, T.W. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Tabarés, F.L. [Ciemat, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Av Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Experiments on deuterium retention on liquid lithium confined in a capillary structure followed by ex-situ thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) at high plasma fluxes (∼10{sup 23} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}) and high temperatures (440 °C and 580 °C) have been performed. Deuterium plasmas were generated at the PILOT-PSI linear plasma device and the targets were a 30 mm diameter stainless steel disc, 5 mm thick, covered with a porous mesh and filled with lithium. The settings (current) of the plasma source were varied in order to get different sample surface temperatures during irradiation. The targets were kept at floating potential during the exposure. Hydrogen and Li emission signals were monitored during the plasma exposure and TDS analysis was made afterwards in a separated system. Decreased retention at high exposure temperatures was deduced from the analysis of the hydrogen emission signals. Nevertheless, the results from TDS signal analysis were not conclusive.

  17. Influence of UV-B radiation on developmental changes, ethylene, CO2 flux and polyamines in cv. Doyenne d'Hiver pear shoots grown in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predieri, S.; Krizek, D.T.; Wang, C.Y.; Mirecki, R.M.; Zimmerman, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    In vitro shoots of cv. Doyenne d'Hiver pear (Pyrus communis L.) were irradiated under controlled environments for 6 h per day at 5 different levels of biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B BE ). UV-B exposure caused a progressive increase in apical necrosis above background levels and stimulated leaf abscission. Shoots grown for 2 weeks at 7. 8 mol m −2 day −1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) and treated with 8. 4 or 12. 0 kJ m −2 day −1 UV-B BE produced up to 4 times more ethylene than those given 2. 2 or 5. 1 kJ m −2 day −1 UV-B BE or untreated controls. Exposure of shoots to 12 kJ m −2 day −1 of UV-BBE caused an increase in free putreseine content after 4 to 14 days of irradiation. Shoots showed a decrease in CO2 uptake after 3 days of UV-B: thereafter, they appeared to recover their photosynthetic capacity. Under typical PPF conditions used in micropropagation (90 μmol m −2 s −1 ). 8. 4 kJ m −2 day −1 of UV-B radiation was injurious to realatively tender tissues of in vitro pear shoots: increasing the level of UV-B BE to 12 kJ m −2 day −1 produced even more adverse effects. (author)

  18. Influence of Lorentz force, Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and viscous dissipation on the flow of micropolar fluid past a nonlinear convective stretching vertical surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaneswara Reddy, Machireddy

    2017-12-01

    The problem of micropolar fluid flow over a nonlinear stretching convective vertical surface in the presence of Lorentz force and viscous dissipation is investigated. Due to the nature of heat transfer in the flow past vertical surface, Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model effect is properly accommodated in the energy equation. The governing partial differential equations for the flow and heat transfer are converted into a set of ordinary differential equations by employing the acceptable similarity transformations. Runge-Kutta and Newton's methods are utilized to resolve the altered governing nonlinear equations. Obtained numerical results are compared with the available literature and found to be an excellent agreement. The impacts of dimensionless governing flow pertinent parameters on velocity, micropolar velocity and temperature profiles are presented graphically for two cases (linear and nonlinear) and analyzed in detail. Further, the variations of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are reported with the aid of plots for the sundry flow parameters. The temperature and the related boundary enhances enhances with the boosting values of M. It is found that fluid temperature declines for larger thermal relaxation parameter. Also, it is revealed that the Nusselt number declines for the hike values of Bi.

  19. Influence of angle between the nozzle and skin surface on the heat flux and overall heat extraction during cryogen spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Vu, Henry; Nelson, J Stuart

    2004-01-01

    High speed video imaging and an inverse heat conduction problem algorithm were used to observe and measure the effect of the angle between the nozzle and surface of a skin phantom on: (a) surface temperature; (b) heat flux q; and (c) overall heat extraction Q during cryogen spray cooling (CSC). A skin phantom containing a fast-response temperature sensor was sprayed with 50 ms cryogen spurts from a commercial nozzle placed 30 mm from the surface. The nozzle was systematically positioned at angles ranging from 5 deg. to 90 deg. (perpendicular) with respect to the phantom surface. It is shown that angles as low as 15 deg. have an insignificant impact on the surface temperature, q and Q. Only exaggerated angles of 5 deg. show up to 10% lower q and 30% lower Q with respect to the maximal values measured when nozzles are aimed perpendicularly. This study proves that the slight angle that many commercial nozzles have does not affect significantly the CSC efficiency. (note)

  20. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  1. The influence of the form of the cells on the buckling and fine structure of the thermal flux in a heterogeneous pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly du Bois, B.

    1957-01-01

    The elementary diffusion equation and the age equation have been solved for lattices assumed, to be infinite and periodic. In this way the influence of the form of the cells on thermal captures and resonance captures is determined. The solutions obtained are expressed by means of tabulated functions which can be used in the analysis of the f factor measurements. The case of mixed lattices in which different types of rods are regularly arranged is also foreseen. (author) [fr

  2. Stable oxygen isotope analysis reveal vegetation influence on soil water movement and ecosystem water fluxes in a semi-arid oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piayda, Arndt; Dubbert, Maren; Werner, Christiane; Cuntz, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Mechanistically disentangling the role and function of vegetation within the hydrological cycle is one of the key questions in the interdisciplinary field of ecohydrology. The presence of vegetation can have various impacts on soil water relations: transpiration of active vegetation causes great water losses, rainfall is intercepted, soil evaporation can be reduced and infiltration, hydraulic redistribution and translatory flow might be altered. In drylands, covering around 40% of the global land surface, the carbon cycle is closely coupled to water availability due to (seasonal) droughts. Specifically savannah type ecosystems, which cover large areas worldwide, are, due to their bi-layered structure, very suitable to study the effects of distinct vegetation types on the ecosystem water cycle. Oxygen isotope signatures (δ18O) have been used to partition ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET ) because of the distinct isotopic compositions of water transpired by leaves relative to soil evaporated vapor. Recent developments in laser spectroscopy enable measurements of δ18O in the vapor phase with high temporal resolution in the field and bear a novel opportunity to trace water movement within the ecosystem. In the present study, the effects of distinct vegetation layers (i.e. trees and herbaceous vegetation) on soil water infiltration and redistribution as well as ecosystem water fluxes in a Mediterranean cork-oak woodland are disentangled. An irrigation experiment was carried out using δ18O labeled water to quantify the distinct effects of trees and herbaceous vegetation on 1) infiltration and redistribution of water in the soil profile and 2) to disentangle the effects of tree cover on the contribution of unproductive soil evaporation and understory transpiration to total ET . First results proof that stable δ18O isotopes measured onsite with laser spectroscopy is a valuable tool to trace water movement in the soil showing a much higher sensitivity than common TDR

  3. Influence of V/III growth flux ratio on trap states in m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Hurni, C. A.; Speck, J. S.; Ringel, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) were utilized to investigate the behavior of deep states in m-plane, n-type GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH 3 -MBE) as a function of systematically varied V/III growth flux ratios. Levels were detected at E C - 0.14 eV, E C - 0.21 eV, E C - 0.26 eV, E C - 0.62 eV, E C - 0.67 eV, E C - 2.65 eV, and E C - 3.31 eV, with the concentrations of several traps exhibiting systematic dependencies on V/III ratio. The DLTS spectra are dominated by traps at E C - 0.14 eV and E C - 0.67 eV, whose concentrations decreased monotonically with increasing V/III ratio and decreasing oxygen impurity concentration, and by a trap at E C - 0.21 eV that revealed no dependence of its concentration on growth conditions, suggestive of different physical origins. Higher concentrations of deeper trap states detected by DLOS with activation energies of E C - 2.65 eV and E C - 3.31 eV in each sample did not display measureable sensitivity to the intentionally varied V/III ratio, necessitating further study on reducing these deep traps through growth optimization for maximizing material quality of NH 3 -MBE grown m-plane GaN.

  4. [CO2 flux characteristics and their influence on the carbon budget of a larch plantation in Maoershan region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ling; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Wang, Wen-Jie; Sun, Wei; Su, Dong-Xue; Zheng, Guang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    From January to December 2008, the CO2 flux in a larch plantation (Larix gmeilinii) in Maoershan region of Shangzhi County, Heilongliang Province was measured by eddy covanance method, and the diurnal changes of leaf photosynthetic rate were measured in growth season (from May to October). There existed differences in the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the plantation in different time periods under the effects of environmental factors. In the afternoon (12:00-24:00), the NEE changed more slowly with the variation of vapor pressure deficit (VPD) than in the morning (0:00-12:00); and in the morning, tbe light use efficiency was 0.6284 mol x mol(-1), 14% more than that in afternoon. The NEE increased with increasing temperature, and the increment in the morning was 50% higher than that in the afternoon (air temperature > 15 degrees C). These differences in responding to environmental changes led to 88% NEE implemented in the morning, and only 12% NEE implemented in the afternoon. The annual gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) in the morning took a percentage of 60%, and that in afternoon took 40%. These findings were supported by the observation at leaf level, i.e., on average of whole growth season, the leaf photosynthetic capacity in the morning was over 2-fold higher than that in afternoon. Generally, the annual NEE, ecosystem respiration (Re), and GEP of the plantation in 2008 were 263-264 g C x m(-2), 718-725 g C x m(-2), and 981-989 g C x m(-2), respectively.

  5. Gate-controlled metal-insulator transition in the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} system with sub-critical LaAlO{sub 3} thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Sung; Lee, Seung Ran; Chang, Jung-Won; Noh, Hyunho; Baasandorj, Lkhagvasuren; Shim, Seung-Bo; Kim, Jinhee [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Seung, Sang Keun; Shin, Hyun Sup; Song, Jonghyun [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    We studied the electrical conduction in the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (LAO/STO) interface electron system with a sub-critical LAO layer thickness of {proportional_to}3.5 unit cells (uc). It was found that the true dividing point between metallic and insulating behaviour without gating lies near the LAO thickness of 3.5 uc. Our marginally metallic 3.5 uc sample showed a sharp transition to insulating state at temperatures which strongly depended on the applied negative back-gate voltage. The superior gate-controllability of the sample was attributed to its sheet carrier density which was an order of magnitude lower than those of conducting LAO/STO samples with 4 uc or more of LAO layers. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Flux flow and flux dynamics in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.H.; Turchinskaya, M.; Swartzendruber, L.J.; Roitburd, A.; Lundy, D.; Ritter, J.; Kaiser, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Because high temperature superconductors, including BYCO and BSSCO, are type 2 superconductors with relatively low H(sub c 1) values and high H(sub c 2) values, they will be in a critical state for many of their applications. In the critical state, with the applied field between H(sub c 1) and H(sub c 2), flux lines have penetrated the material and can form a flux lattice and can be pinned by structural defects, chemical inhomogeneities, and impurities. A detailed knowledge of how flux penetrates the material and its behavior under the influence of applied fields and current flow, and the effect of material processing on these properties, is required in order to apply, and to improve the properties of these superconductors. When the applied field is changed rapidly, the time dependence of flux change can be divided into three regions, an initial region which occurs very rapidly, a second region in which the magnetization has a 1n(t) behavior, and a saturation region at very long times. A critical field is defined for depinning, H(sub c,p) as that field at which the hysteresis loop changes from irreversible to reversible. As a function of temperature, it is found that H(sub c,p) is well described by a power law with an exponent between 1.5 and 2.5. The behavior of H(sub c,p) for various materials and its relationship to flux flow and flux dynamics are discussed

  7. Sub-critical installations for continuous evaporations of up to 200 litres/hour - description and experimental results; Installations sous-critiques d'evaporation continue jusqu'a 200 litres/heure - description et resultats experimentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, P; Bouzou, G C; Sautray, R R; Jacquotte, M C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1965-07-01

    In this report are given a detailed technological description and the test results obtained with two continuous evaporation units, one of 16 l/hr, the other of 65 l/hr. These installations are sub-critical with multiplication factors (k{sub eff}) for total reflection of 0.73 and 0.77. A third evaporator of 200 litres, also sub-critical (k{sub eff} = 0.90), is given as the limiting possible case. A description is also given of simple devices without regulator for maintaining a constant level in an extra flat, separator thus making it possible to operate without supervision in perfect safety at any concentration factor. The liberal thermal characteristics and the simple operational principles constitute a sure guarantee for operation in {alpha} and {gamma} conditions. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport, on trouvera la description technologique detaillee et les resultats obtenus au cours des essais, de deux installations d'evaporation en continu, l'une de 16 l/h, l'autre de 65 l/h. Ces installations sont sous-critiques avec des facteurs de multiplication (k{sub eff}) en reflexion totale de 0,73 et 0,77. Un troisieme evaporateur, de 200 l/h, egalement sous-critique (k{sub eff} = 0,90), est donne comme cas limite realisable. On trouvera aussi la description de dispositifs simples, sans regulateur, permettant de garder un niveau constant dans un separateur extra-plat, ce qui permet une marche sans surveillance, en toute securite, a tous les facteurs de concentration. Les caracteristiques thermiques non poussees et les principes de fonctionnement simples, sont une garantie certaine pour l'exploitation en milieu {alpha} et {gamma}. (auteurs)

  8. Influence of casein on flux and passage of serum proteins during microfiltration using polymeric spiral-wound membranes at 50°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulewska, Justyna; Barbano, David M

    2013-04-01

    Raw milk (approximately 1,800 kg) was separated at 4°C, pasteurized (at 72°C for 16s), and split into 2 batches. One batch (620 kg) was microfiltered (MF) using pilot-scale ceramic uniform transmembrane pressure Membralox membranes (model EP1940GL0.1 μA, 0.1-μm alumina; Pall Corp., East Hills, NY) to produce retentate and permeate. The permeate from the MF uniform transmembrane pressure was casein-free skim milk (CFSM). The CFSM was MF using polymeric spiral-wound (SW) membranes (model FG7838-OS0x-S, 0.3 μm; Parker-Hannifin Corp., Process Advanced Filtration Division, Tell City, IN) at a concentration factor of 3× and temperature of 50°C. Following the processing of CFSM, the second batch of skim milk (1,105 kg) was processed using the same polymeric membranes to determine how casein content in the feed material for MF with polymeric membranes affects the performance of the system. There was little resistance to passage of milk serum proteins (SP) through a 0.3-μm polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) SW membrane at 50°C and no detectable increase in hydraulic resistance of the membrane when processing CFSM. Therefore, milk SP contributed little, if any, to fouling of the PVDF membrane. In contrast, when processing skim milk containing a normal concentration of casein, the flux was much lower than when processing CFSM (17.2 vs. 80.2 kg/m(2) per hour, respectively) and the removal of SP from skim milk with a single-pass 3× bleed-and-feed MF system was also much lower than from CFSM (35.2 vs. 59.5% removal, respectively). Thus, when processing skim milk with a PVDF SW membrane, casein was the major protein foulant that increased hydraulic resistance and reduced passage of SP through the membrane. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Data bank of critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balino, J.L.; Ruival, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    More than 13.000 measurements of critical heat flux are classified in a data bank. From each experiment the following information can be obtained: cooling medium (light water, freon 12 or freon 21), geometry of the test section and thermalhydraulic parameters. The data management is performed by a computer program called CHFTRAT. A brief study of the influence of different parameters in the critical heat flux is presented, as an example of how to use the program. (M.E.L.) [es

  10. A study on the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y. S.; Suh, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The main reason to analyze the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant is to increase boiler high efficiency and energy saving movement in the government. This study intends to have trend and analyze the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler parameter in sub-critical and super-critical type boiler

  11. Influence of changes in wetland inundation extent on net fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane in northern high latitudes from 1993 to 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Qianlai; Zhu, Xudong; He, Yujie; Prigent, Catherine; Melillo, Jerry M; Kicklighter, David W; David McGuire, A; Prinn, Ronald G

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of the seasonal and interannual exchanges of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) between land ecosystems north of 45°N and the atmosphere are poorly constrained, in part, because of uncertainty in the temporal variability of water-inundated land area. Here we apply a process-based biogeochemistry model to evaluate how interannual changes in wetland inundation extent might have influenced the overall carbon dynamics of the region during the time period 1993–2004. We find that consideration by our model of these interannual variations between 1993 and 2004, on average, results in regional estimates of net methane sources of 67.8 ± 6.2 Tg CH 4 yr −1 , which is intermediate to model estimates that use two static inundation extent datasets (51.3 ± 2.6 and 73.0 ± 3.6 Tg CH 4 yr −1 ). In contrast, consideration of interannual changes of wetland inundation extent result in regional estimates of the net CO 2 sink of −1.28 ± 0.03 Pg C yr −1 with a persistent wetland carbon sink from −0.38 to −0.41 Pg C yr −1 and a upland sink from −0.82 to −0.98 Pg C yr −1 . Taken together, despite the large methane emissions from wetlands, the region is a consistent greenhouse gas sink per global warming potential (GWP) calculations irrespective of the type of wetland datasets being used. However, the use of satellite-detected wetland inundation extent estimates a smaller regional GWP sink than that estimated using static wetland datasets. Our sensitivity analysis indicates that if wetland inundation extent increases or decreases by 10% in each wetland grid cell, the regional source of methane increases 13% or decreases 12%, respectively. In contrast, the regional CO 2 sink responds with only 7–9% changes to the changes in wetland inundation extent. Seasonally, the inundated area changes result in higher summer CH 4 emissions, but lower summer CO 2 sinks, leading to lower summer negative greenhouse gas forcing. Our analysis further

  12. Compact neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor

  13. Primary cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2001-05-01

    We discuss the primary cosmic ray flux from the point of view of particle interactions and production of atmospheric neutrinos. The overall normalization of the cosmic ray flux and its time variations and site dependence are major ingredients of the atmospheric neutrino predictions and the basis for the derivation of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

  14. Flux cutting in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiments and theories of flux cutting in superconductors. The use of the flux line picture in free space is discussed. In superconductors cutting can either be by means of flux at an angle to other layers of flux, as in longitudinal current experiments, or due to shearing of the vortex lattice as in grain boundaries in YBCO. Experiments on longitudinal currents can be interpreted in terms of flux rings penetrating axial lines. More physical models of flux cutting are discussed but all predict much larger flux cutting forces than are observed. Also, cutting is occurring at angles between vortices of about one millidegree which is hard to explain. The double critical state model and its developments are discussed in relation to experiments on crossed and rotating fields. A new experiment suggested by Clem gives more direct information. It shows that an elliptical yield surface of the critical state works well, but none of the theoretical proposals for determining the direction of E are universally applicable. It appears that, as soon as any flux flow takes place, cutting also occurs. The conclusion is that new theories are required. (perspective)

  15. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  16. The extent of the influence and flux estimation of volatile mercury from the aeration pool in a typical coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lumin; Feng, Lifeng; Yuan, Dongxing; Lin, Shanshan; Huang, Shuyuan; Gao, Liangming; Zhu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Before being discharged, the waste seawater from the flue gas desulfurization system of coal-fired power plants contains a large amount of mercury, and is treated in aeration pools. During this aeration process, part of the mercury enters the atmosphere, but only very limited impact studies concerning this have been carried out. Taking a typical Xiamen power plant as an example, the present study targeted the elemental mercury emitted from the aeration pool. Concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury as high as 1.14 ± 0.17 ng·L −1 were observed in the surface waste seawater in the aeration pool, and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) as high as 10.94 ± 1.89 ng·m −3 was found in the air above the pool. To investigate the area affected by this GEM through air transfer, the total mercury in the dust and topsoil samples around the aeration pool were analyzed. Much higher values were found compared to those at a reference site. Environmental factors other than solar radiation had limited influence on the concentrations of the mercury species in the pool. A simulation device was built in our laboratory to study the flux of mercury from the aeration pool into the air. The results showed that more than 0.59 kg of mercury was released from the aeration pool every year, occupying 0.3% of the total mercury in the waste seawater. The transfer of mercury from water to air during the aeration pool and its environmental influence should not be ignored. - Highlights: ► High concentration of volatile mercury was observed in the aeration pool. ► More than 0.3% of total discharged Hg emitted from the pool into the air. ► Higher aeration rate resulted in more mercury emitted into the air. ► The dust and topsoil around the pool were polluted with the mercury

  17. Influence of the heat flux and of the gas on heat transfer and friction coefficients in a smooth cylindrical tube; Influence du flux de chaleur et de la nature du gaz sur les coefficients d'echange et le frottement dans un tube cylindrique lisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpont, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-12-15

    The stainless steel tube used for the experiments is heated by means of d.c current; its inside diameter is 40 mm; its length is about 5.80 meters. Special core has been taken (heated rocket) to avoid heat loss and to provide very accurate measurements. The cooling gases tested are air and carbon dioxide at a pressure of 2.6 to 19 psi; the Reynolds number ranges from 70,000 to 10{sup 6}, the wall temperature and the heat flux reach respectively 430 deg C and 16 watts/cm{sup 2}. The Reynolds number Re{sub m}, Stanton number M{sub m} and friction coefficient f are computed by evaluating the physical properties of the gases at the mean temperature T{sub m}. For a given Reynolds number, a decrease of M{sub m} and of f is observed hen the heat flux increases, this decrease reaches 10 per cent in the experiments described. A formulation is proposed to express this effect in terms of a heat flow parameter (T{sub m} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p} used as a corrective factor (T{sub p} = wall temperature). The correlation formulae are: M{sub m} = 0.0168 Re{sub m}{sup -0.18} P{sub m}{sup -0.6} (1 - 0.4 [(T{sub p} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p}]) for air f = f{sub 0} (1 0.25 [(T{sub p} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p}]) for air M{sub m} = 0.0171 Re{sub m}{sup -0.18} P{sub m}{sup -0.6} (1 - 0.2 [(T{sub p} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p}]) for carbon dioxide f = f{sub 0} (1 - 0.20 [(T{sub p} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p}]) for carbon dioxide where f{sub 0} = the friction coefficient for isotherm flow. (author) [French] Le tube utilite a un diametre interieur de 40 mm; sa longueur est de 5,80 m environ; il est en acier inoxydable et chauffe par un courant continu. Des precautions particulieres (enceinte chauffante exterieure) ont ete prises pour eviter tout echange de chaleur avec le milieu exterieur et permettre des mesures extremement precises. Les gaz de refroidissement experimentes sont l'air et le gaz corbonique sous une pression de 1,8 a 13 hpz; les nombres de Reynolds vont de 70 000 a 10{sup 6}, la temperature de

  18. Seasonality and interannual variability of particle-fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haake, B.; Ittekkot, V.; Rixen, T.; Ramaswamy, V.; Nair, R.R.; Curry, W.B.

    at the western location due to the prolonged influence of the monsoonal upwelling as indicatEd. by increased biogenic carbonate and opal fluxes. However, the opal fluxes peak a month later than the carbonate fluxes. The delayed onset of opal flux peak appears...

  19. Continuous magnetic flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A method and means for altering the intensity of a magnetic field by transposing flux from one location to the location desired fro the magnetic field are examined. The device described includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, is dimensioned to be insertable into one of the cavities and to substantially fill the cavity. Magnetic flux is first trapped in the cavities by establishing a magnetic field while the superconducting material is above the critical temperature at which it goes superconducting. Thereafter, the temperature of the material is reduced below the critical value, and then the exciting magnetic field may be removed. By varying the ratios of the areas of the two cavities, it is possible to produce a field having much greater flux density in the second, smaller cavity, into which the flux transposed.

  20. Flux in Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise elektroonilise kunsti sümpoosioni ISEA2004 klubiõhtu "Flux in Tallinn" klubis Bon Bon. Eestit esindasid Ropotator, Ars Intel Inc., Urmas Puhkan, Joel Tammik, Taavi Tulev (pseud. Wochtzchee). Klubiõhtu koordinaator Andres Lõo

  1. Flux shunts for undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1993-05-01

    Undulators for high-performance applications in synchrotron-radiation sources and periodic magnetic structures for free-electron lasers have stringent requirements on the curvature of the electron's average trajectory. Undulators using the permanent magnet hybrid configuration often have fields in their central region that produce a curved trajectory caused by local, ambient magnetic fields such as those of the earth. The 4.6 m long Advanced Light Source (ALS) undulators use flux shunts to reduce this effect. These flux shunts are magnetic linkages of very high permeability material connecting the two steel beams that support the magnetic structures. The shunts reduce the scalar potential difference between the supporting beams and carry substantial flux that would normally appear in the undulator gap. Magnetic design, mechanical configuration of the flux shunts and magnetic measurements of their effect on the ALS undulators are described

  2. Comic ray flux anisotropies caused by astrospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K.; Strauss, R. D.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Fichtner, H.

    2016-09-01

    Huge astrospheres or stellar wind bubbles influence the propagation of cosmic rays at energies up to the TeV range and can act as small-scale sinks decreasing the cosmic ray flux. We model such a sink (in 2D) by a sphere of radius 10 pc embedded within a sphere of a radius of 1 kpc. The cosmic ray flux is calculated by means of backward stochastic differential equations from an observer, which is located at r0, to the outer boundary. It turns out that such small-scale sinks can influence the cosmic ray flux at the observer's location by a few permille (i.e. a few 0.1%), which is in the range of the observations by IceCube, Milagro and other large area telescopes.

  3. Neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Naotaka.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention greatly saves an analog processing section such as an analog filter and an analog processing circuit. That is, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a neutron flux detection means for detecting neutron fluxed in the reactor, (2) a digital filter means for dividing signals corresponding to the detected neutron fluxes into predetermined frequency band regions, (3) a calculation processing means for applying a calculation processing corresponding to the frequency band regions to the neutron flux detection signals divided by the digital filter means. With such a constitution, since the neutron detection signals are processed by the digital filter means, the accuracy is improved and the change for the property of the filter is facilitated. Further, when a neutron flux level is obtained, a calculation processing corresponding to the frequency band region can be conducted without the analog processing circuit. Accordingly, maintenance and accuracy are improved by greatly decreasing the number of parts. Further, since problems inherent to the analog circuit are solved, neutron fluxes are monitored at high reliability. (I.S.)

  4. Neutron flux monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro.

    1995-01-01

    In a neutron flux monitoring device, there are disposed a neutron flux measuring means for outputting signals in accordance with the intensity of neutron fluxes, a calculation means for calculating a self power density spectrum at a frequency band suitable to an object to be measured based on the output of the neutron flux measuring means, an alarm set value generation means for outputting an alarm set value as a comparative reference, and an alarm judging means for comparing the alarm set value with the outputted value of the calculation means to judge requirement of generating an alarm and generate an alarm in accordance with the result of the judgement. Namely, the time-series of neutron flux signals is put to fourier transformation for a predetermined period of time by the calculation means, and from each of square sums for real number component and imaginary number component for each of the frequencies, a self power density spectrum in the frequency band suitable to the object to be measured is calculated. Then, when the set reference value is exceeded, an alarm is generated. This can reliably prevent generation of erroneous alarm due to neutron flux noises and can accurately generate an alarm at an appropriate time. (N.H.)

  5. Power reactors and sub-critical blanket systems with lead and lead-bismuth as coolant and/or target material. Utilization and transmutation of actinides and long lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    High level radioactive waste disposal is an issue of great importance in the discussion of the sustainability of nuclear power generation. The main contributors to the high radioactivity are the fission products and the minor actinides. The long lived fission products and minor actinides set severe demands on the arrangements for safe waste disposal. Fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS) are under development in Member States to reduce the long term hazard of spent fuel and radioactive waste, taking advantage of their incineration and transmutation capability. Important R and D programmes are being undertaken in many Member States to substantiate this option and advance the basic knowledge in this innovative area of nuclear energy development. The conceptual design of the lead cooled fast reactor concept BREST-OD-300, as well as various other conceptual designs of lead/lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors have been developed to meet enhanced safety and non-proliferation requirements, aiming at both energy production and transmutation of nuclear waste. Some R and D studies indicate that the use of lead and lead-bismuth coolant has some advantages in comparison with existing sodium cooled fast reactor systems, e.g.: simplified design of fast reactor core and BOP, enhanced inherent safety, and easier radwaste management in related fuel cycles. Moreover, various ADS conceptual designs with lead and lead-bismuth as target material and coolant also have been pursued. The results to date are encouraging, indicating that the ADS has the potential to offer an option for meeting the challenges of the back end fuel cycle. During the last decade, there have been substantial advances in several countries with their own R and D programme in the fields of lead/lead-bismuth cooled critical and sub-critical concepts. coolant technology, and experimental validation. In this context, international exchange of information and experience, as well as international

  6. ECO2M: A TOUGH2 Fluid Property Module for Mixtures of Water, NaCl, and CO2, Including Super- and Sub-Critical Conditions, and Phase Change Between Liquid and Gaseous CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.

    2011-04-01

    ECO2M is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.0) that was designed for applications to geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. It includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamics and thermophysical properties of H{sub 2}O - NaCl - CO{sub 2} mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for temperature, pressure and salinity conditions in the range of 10 C {le} T {le} 110 C, P {le} 600 bar, and salinity from zero up to full halite saturation. The fluid property correlations used in ECO2M are identical to the earlier ECO2N fluid property package, but whereas ECO2N could represent only a single CO{sub 2}-rich phase, ECO2M can describe all possible phase conditions for brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. This allows for seamless modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO{sub 2}-rich) phase, as well as two-and three-phase mixtures of aqueous, liquid CO{sub 2} and gaseous CO{sub 2} phases. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. TOUGH2/ECO2M is upwardly compatible with ECO2N and accepts ECO2N-style inputs. This report gives technical specifications of ECO2M and includes instructions for preparing input data. Code applications are illustrated by means of several sample problems, including problems that had been previously solved with TOUGH2/ECO2N.

  7. Diurnal Change of Soil Carbon Flux of Binhai New District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. F.; Mao, T. Y.; Ye, W.

    2018-05-01

    In order to investigate the factors influencing diurnal change of soil carbon flux of Binhai New District. Field observation experiments were carried out by using LC pro-SD photosynthetic apparatus. The diurnal changes of soil carbon flux and its environmental factors such as atmosphere temperature and soil temperature were analysed. The results indicated that soil carbon flux appeared single diurnal pattern. The diurnal average of soil carbon flux ranked from 0.2761 to 2.3367μmo1/m2/s. Soil carbon flux varied significantly among different land use regimes(Pequations (Pquadratic correlations between soil carbon flux and soil temperature (10cm). And soil temperature could account for more than 32.27% of the soil carbon flux changes (P<0.05, R2=0.3227-0.7465).

  8. The influence of the form of the cells on the buckling and fine structure of the thermal flux in a heterogeneous pile; Influence de la forme des cellules sur le laplacien et structure fine du flux thermique dans une pile heterogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly du Bois, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The elementary diffusion equation and the age equation have been solved for lattices assumed, to be infinite and periodic. In this way the influence of the form of the cells on thermal captures and resonance captures is determined. The solutions obtained are expressed by means of tabulated functions which can be used in the analysis of the f factor measurements. The case of mixed lattices in which different types of rods are regularly arranged is also foreseen. (author) [French] L'equation elementaire de la diffusion et l'equation de l'age ont ete resolues pour des reseaux supposes infinis et periodiques. On determine ainsi quelle est l'influence de la forme des cellules sur les captures thermiques et les captures de resonances. Les solutions obtenues s'expriment au moyen de fonctions tabulees qui peuvent etre utilisees dans le depouillement des mesures du facteur f. Le cas des reseaux mixtes dans lequels des barreaux de types differents sont disposes regulierement est egalement envisage. (auteur)

  9. The Open Flux Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, J. A.; Caplan, R. M.; Downs, C.; Riley, P.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C. N.; Liu, Y.; Derosa, M. L.; Yeates, A.; Owens, M. J.

    2017-10-01

    The heliospheric magnetic field is of pivotal importance in solar and space physics. The field is rooted in the Sun’s photosphere, where it has been observed for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full-disk magnetograms are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) the open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes (CHs) observed in emission and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. In this study, we calculate both magnetohydrodynamic and potential field source surface solutions using 14 different magnetic maps produced from five different types of observatory magnetograms, for the time period surrounding 2010 July. We have found that for all of the model/map combinations, models that have CH areas close to observations underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match the interplanetary flux, the modeled open field regions are larger than CHs observed in EUV emission. In an alternative approach, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining automatically detected CHs for Carrington rotation 2098 with observatory synoptic magnetic maps. This approach also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. Our results imply that either typical observatory maps underestimate the Sun’s magnetic flux, or a significant portion of the open magnetic flux is not rooted in regions that are obviously dark in EUV and X-ray emission.

  10. The Open Flux Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linker, J. A.; Caplan, R. M.; Downs, C.; Riley, P.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Henney, C. J. [Air Force Research Lab/Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Arge, C. N. [Science and Exploration Directorate, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Liu, Y. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Derosa, M. L. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street B/252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Yeates, A. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Owens, M. J., E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com [Space and Atmospheric Electricity Group, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-10

    The heliospheric magnetic field is of pivotal importance in solar and space physics. The field is rooted in the Sun’s photosphere, where it has been observed for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full-disk magnetograms are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) the open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes (CHs) observed in emission and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. In this study, we calculate both magnetohydrodynamic and potential field source surface solutions using 14 different magnetic maps produced from five different types of observatory magnetograms, for the time period surrounding 2010 July. We have found that for all of the model/map combinations, models that have CH areas close to observations underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match the interplanetary flux, the modeled open field regions are larger than CHs observed in EUV emission. In an alternative approach, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining automatically detected CHs for Carrington rotation 2098 with observatory synoptic magnetic maps. This approach also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. Our results imply that either typical observatory maps underestimate the Sun’s magnetic flux, or a significant portion of the open magnetic flux is not rooted in regions that are obviously dark in EUV and X-ray emission.

  11. Validating modeled turbulent heat fluxes across large freshwater surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, B. M.; Fujisaki-Manome, A.; Gronewold, A.; Anderson, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Blanken, P.; Spence, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Xiao, C.; Charusambot, U.

    2017-12-01

    Turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat are important physical processes that influence the energy and water budgets of the Great Lakes. Validation and improvement of bulk flux algorithms to simulate these turbulent heat fluxes are critical for accurate prediction of hydrodynamics, water levels, weather, and climate over the region. Here we consider five heat flux algorithms from several model systems; the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model, the Weather Research and Forecasting model, and the Large Lake Thermodynamics Model, which are used in research and operational environments and concentrate on different aspects of the Great Lakes' physical system, but interface at the lake surface. The heat flux algorithms were isolated from each model and driven by meteorological data from over-lake stations in the Great Lakes Evaporation Network. The simulation results were compared with eddy covariance flux measurements at the same stations. All models show the capacity to the seasonal cycle of the turbulent heat fluxes. Overall, the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment algorithm in FVCOM has the best agreement with eddy covariance measurements. Simulations with the other four algorithms are overall improved by updating the parameterization of roughness length scales of temperature and humidity. Agreement between modelled and observed fluxes notably varied with geographical locations of the stations. For example, at the Long Point station in Lake Erie, observed fluxes are likely influenced by the upwind land surface while the simulations do not take account of the land surface influence, and therefore the agreement is worse in general.

  12. Meromorphic flux compactification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damian, Cesar [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad de Guanajuato,Carretera Salamanca-Valle de Santiago Km 3.5+1.8 Comunidad de Palo Blanco,Salamanca (Mexico); Loaiza-Brito, Oscar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque No. 103 Col. Lomas del Campestre C.P 37150 León, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2017-04-26

    We present exact solutions of four-dimensional Einstein’s equations related to Minkoswki vacuum constructed from Type IIB string theory with non-trivial fluxes. Following https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)187; https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)188 we study a non-trivial flux compactification on a fibered product by a four-dimensional torus and a two-dimensional sphere punctured by 5- and 7-branes. By considering only 3-form fluxes and the dilaton, as functions on the internal sphere coordinates, we show that these solutions correspond to a family of supersymmetric solutions constructed by the use of G-theory. Meromorphicity on functions constructed in terms of fluxes and warping factors guarantees that flux and 5-brane contributions to the scalar curvature vanish while fulfilling stringent constraints as tadpole cancelation and Bianchi identities. Different Einstein’s solutions are shown to be related by U-dualities. We present three supersymmetric non-trivial Minkowski vacuum solutions and compute the corresponding soft terms. We also construct a non-supersymmetric solution and study its stability.

  13. Meromorphic flux compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damian, Cesar; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    We present exact solutions of four-dimensional Einstein’s equations related to Minkoswki vacuum constructed from Type IIB string theory with non-trivial fluxes. Following https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)187; https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)188 we study a non-trivial flux compactification on a fibered product by a four-dimensional torus and a two-dimensional sphere punctured by 5- and 7-branes. By considering only 3-form fluxes and the dilaton, as functions on the internal sphere coordinates, we show that these solutions correspond to a family of supersymmetric solutions constructed by the use of G-theory. Meromorphicity on functions constructed in terms of fluxes and warping factors guarantees that flux and 5-brane contributions to the scalar curvature vanish while fulfilling stringent constraints as tadpole cancelation and Bianchi identities. Different Einstein’s solutions are shown to be related by U-dualities. We present three supersymmetric non-trivial Minkowski vacuum solutions and compute the corresponding soft terms. We also construct a non-supersymmetric solution and study its stability.

  14. Fluxes of chemically reactive species inferred from mean concentration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galmarini, S.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Duyzer, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of the fluxes of chemically reactive species on the basis of routine measurements of meteorological variables and chemical species. The method takes explicity into account the influence of chemical reactions on the fluxes of the species. As a demonstration

  15. Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of zooplankton feeding behavior on vertical flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Boutorh, Julia; De La Rocha, Christina L.

    2017-01-01

    Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of ......Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles...

  16. Neutron flux monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Yasushi; Mitsubori, Minehisa; Ohashi, Kazunori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a neutron flux monitoring device for preventing occurrence of erroneous reactor scram caused by the elevation of the indication of a start region monitor (SRM) due to a factor different from actual increase of neutron fluxes. Namely, judgement based on measured values obtained by a pulse counting method and a judgment based on measured values obtained by a Cambel method are combined. A logic of switching neutron flux measuring method to be used for monitoring, namely, switching to an intermediate region when both of the judgements are valid is adopted. Then, even if the indication value is elevated based on the Cambel method with no increase of the counter rate in a neutron source region, the switching to the intermediate region is not conducted. As a result, erroneous reactor scram such as 'shorter reactor period' can be avoided. (I.S.)

  17. Analysis of in-R12 CHF data: influence of hydraulic diameter and heating length; test of Weisman boiling crisis model; Analyse de donnees de flux critique en R12: influence du diametre hydraulique et de la longueur chauffante; test du modele de Weisman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czop, V; Herer, C; Souyri, A; Garnier, J

    1993-09-01

    In order to progress on the comprehensive modelling of the boiling crisis phenomenon, Electricite de France (EDF), Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) and FRAMATOME have set up experimental programs involving in-R12 tests: the EDF APHRODITE program and the CEA-EDF-FRAMATOME DEBORA program. The first phase in these programs aims to acquire critical heat flux (CHF) data banks, within large thermal-hydraulic parameter ranges, both in cylindrical and annular configurations, and with different hydraulic diameters and heating lengths. Actually, three data banks have been considered in the analysis, all of them concerning in-R12 round tube tests: - the APHRODITE data bank, obtained at EDF with a 13 mn inside diameter, - the DEBORA data bank, obtained at CEA with a 19.2 mm inside diameter, - the KRISTA data bank, obtained at KfK with a 8 mm inside diameter. The analysis was conducted using CHF correlations and with the help of an advanced mathematical tool using pseudo-cubic thin plate type Spline functions. Two conclusions were drawn: -no influence of the heating length on our CHF results, - the influence of the diameter on the CHF cannot be simply expressed by an exponential function of this parameter, as thermal-hydraulic parameters also have an influence. Some calculations with Weisman and Pei theoretical boiling crisis model have been compared to experimental values: fairly good agreement was obtained, but further study must focus on improving the modelling of the influence of pressure and mass velocity. (authors). 12 figs., 4 tabs., 21 refs.

  18. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kasahara, K.; Hidaka, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    1990-02-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo simulation of neutrino fluxes of atmospheric origin is made taking into account the muon polarization effect on neutrinos from muon decay. We calculate the fluxes with energies above 3 MeV for future experiments. There still remains a significant discrepancy between the calculated (ν e +antiν e )/(ν μ +antiν μ ) ratio and that observed by the Kamiokande group. However, the ratio evaluated at the Frejus site shows a good agreement with the data. (author)

  19. Flux pinning characteristics of YBCO coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Watanabe, T.; Fukumoto, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S.; Kiss, T.; Watanabe, T.; Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Muroga, T.; Yamada, Y.; Shiohara, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Flux pinning properties of PLD-processed YBCO coated conductors deposited on IBAD substrate are investigated. The thickness of YBCO layer is changed in the range of 0.27-1.0 μm. The thickness dependence of critical current density, n-value and irreversibility field are measured in a wide range of magnetic field. The results are compared with the theoretical flux creep-flow model. It is found that these pinning properties are strongly influenced by the thickness as well as the pinning strength. Optimum condition for high field application of this superconductor is discussed

  20. A Hybrid Excited Machine with Flux Barriers and Magnetic Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Wardach

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an U-shape flux barrier rotor concept for a hybrid excited synchronous machine with flux magnetic bridges fixed on the rotor is presented. Using 3D finite element analysis, the influence of axial flux bridges on the field-weakening and -strengthening characteristics, electromagnetic torque, no-load magnetic flux linkage, rotor iron losses and back electromotive force is shown. Three different rotor designs are analyzed. Furthermore, the field control characteristics depending on additional DC control coil currents are shown.

  1. Design Considerations of Permanent Magnet Transverse Flux Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    electrical machines. This paper addresses two important design considerations for PMTFM—the influence of permanent magnet leakage flux, which plays an important role in the determination of machine output torque, and the leakage inductance. A new simple method to provide a quick estimation of the armature......Permanent magnet transverse flux machine (PMTFM) is well known for its high torque density and is interested in various direct-drive applications. Due to its complicated 3-D flux components, design and design optimization of a PMTFM is more difficult and time consuming than for radial flux...

  2. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  3. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  4. Flux vacua and supermanifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Pietro Antonio [CERN, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Marescotti, Matteo [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, I-10125, Turin (Italy)

    2007-01-15

    As been recently pointed out, physically relevant models derived from string theory require the presence of non-vanishing form fluxes besides the usual geometrical constraints. In the case of NS-NS fluxes, the Generalized Complex Geometry encodes these informations in a beautiful geometrical structure. On the other hand, the R-R fluxes call for supergeometry as the underlying mathematical framework. In this context, we analyze the possibility of constructing interesting supermanifolds recasting the geometrical data and RR fluxes. To characterize these supermanifolds we have been guided by the fact topological strings on supermanifolds require the super-Ricci flatness of the target space. This can be achieved by adding to a given bosonic manifold enough anticommuting coordinates and new constraints on the bosonic sub-manifold. We study these constraints at the linear and non-linear level for a pure geometrical setting and in the presence of p-form field strengths. We find that certain spaces admit several super-extensions and we give a parameterization in a simple case of d bosonic coordinates and two fermionic coordinates. In addition, we comment on the role of the RR field in the construction of the super-metric. We give several examples based on supergroup manifolds and coset supermanifolds.

  5. Flux vacua and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Marescotti, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    As been recently pointed out, physically relevant models derived from string theory require the presence of non-vanishing form fluxes besides the usual geometrical constraints. In the case of NS-NS fluxes, the Generalized Complex Geometry encodes these informations in a beautiful geometrical structure. On the other hand, the R-R fluxes call for supergeometry as the underlying mathematical framework. In this context, we analyze the possibility of constructing interesting supermanifolds recasting the geometrical data and RR fluxes. To characterize these supermanifolds we have been guided by the fact topological strings on supermanifolds require the super-Ricci flatness of the target space. This can be achieved by adding to a given bosonic manifold enough anticommuting coordinates and new constraints on the bosonic sub-manifold. We study these constraints at the linear and non-linear level for a pure geometrical setting and in the presence of p-form field strengths. We find that certain spaces admit several super-extensions and we give a parameterization in a simple case of d bosonic coordinates and two fermionic coordinates. In addition, we comment on the role of the RR field in the construction of the super-metric. We give several examples based on supergroup manifolds and coset supermanifolds

  6. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino fluxes, which are responsible for the main background in proton decay experiments, have been calculated by two independent methods. There are discrepancies between the two sets of results regarding latitude effects and up-down asymmetries, especially for neutrino energies Esub(ν) < 1 GeV. (author)

  7. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  8. Evaluating Energy Flux in Vibrofluidized Granular Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows require sustained input of energy for fluidization. A level of fluidization depends on the amount of heat flux provided to the flow. In general, the dissipation of the grains upon interaction balances the heat inputs and the resultant flow patterns can be described using hydrodynamic models. However, with the increase in packing fraction, the heat fluxes prediction of the cell increases. Here, a comparison is made for the proposed theoretical models against the MD simulations data. It is observed that the variation of packing fraction in the granular cell influences the heat flux at the base. For the elastic grain-base interaction, the predictions vary appreciably compared to MD simulations, suggesting the need to accurately model the velocity distribution of grains for averaging.

  9. A flux footprint analysis to understand ecosystem fluxes in an intensively managed landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Rodriguez, L. C.; Goodwell, A. E.; Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Flux tower studies in agricultural sites have mainly been done at plot scale, where the footprint of the instruments is small such that the data reveals the behaviour of the nearby crop on which the study is focused. In the Midwestern United States, the agricultural ecosystem and its associated drainage, evapotranspiration, and nutrient dynamics are dominant influences on interactions between the soil, land, and atmosphere. In this study, we address large-scale ecohydrologic fluxes and states in an intensively managed landscape based on data from a 25m high eddy covariance flux tower. We show the calculated upwind distance and flux footprint for a flux tower located in Central Illinois as part of the Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IMLCZO). In addition, we calculate the daily energy balance during the summer of 2016 from the flux tower measurements and compare with the modelled energy balance from a representative corn crop located in the flux tower footprint using the Multi-Layer Canopy model, MLCan. The changes in flux footprint over the course of hours, days, and the growing season have significant implications for the measured fluxes of carbon and energy at the flux tower. We use MLCan to simulate these fluxes under land covers of corn and soybeans. Our results demonstrate how the instrument heights impact the footprint of the captured eddy covariance fluxes, and we explore the implication for hydrological analysis. The convective turbulent atmosphere during the daytime shows a wide footprint of more than 10 km2, which reaches 3km length for the 90% contribution, where buoyancy is the dominant mechanism driving turbulence. In contrast, the stable atmosphere during the night-time shows a narrower footprint that goes beyond 8km2 and grows in the direction of the prevalent wind, which exceeds 4 km in length. This study improves our understanding of agricultural ecosystem behaviour in terms of the magnitude and variability of fluxes and

  10. Design of a flux buffer based on the flux shuttle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenson, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the design considerations for a flux buffer based on the flux-shuttle concept. Particular attention is given to the issues of flux popping, stability of operation and saturation levels for a large input. Modulation techniques used in order to minimize 1/f noise, in addition to offsets are also analyzed. Advantages over conventional approaches using a SQUID for a flux buffer are discussed. Results of computer simulations are presented

  11. Lobotomy of flux compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibitetto, Giuseppe [Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, University of Uppsala,Box 803, SE-751 08 Uppsala (Sweden); Guarino, Adolfo [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics,Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Roest, Diederik [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    We provide the dictionary between four-dimensional gauged supergravity and type II compactifications on T{sup 6} with metric and gauge fluxes in the absence of supersymmetry breaking sources, such as branes and orientifold planes. Secondly, we prove that there is a unique isotropic compactification allowing for critical points. It corresponds to a type IIA background given by a product of two 3-tori with SO(3) twists and results in a unique theory (gauging) with a non-semisimple gauge algebra. Besides the known four AdS solutions surviving the orientifold projection to N=4 induced by O6-planes, this theory contains a novel AdS solution that requires non-trivial orientifold-odd fluxes, hence being a genuine critical point of the N=8 theory.

  12. Integrating est.of ecosystem respiration from eddy covariance towers with automated measures of soil respiration: Exam. the dvlpt. and influence of hysteresis in soil respiratory fluxes along a woody plant gradient 2026

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physiognomic shift in ecosystem structure from a grassland to a woodland may alter the sensitivity of CO2 exchange to variations in growing-season temperatures and precipitation inputs. One large component of ecosystem flux is the efflux of CO2 from the soil (soil respiration, Rsoil), which is ...

  13. The Oceanic Flux Program: A three decade time-series of particle flux in the deep Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J. C.; Conte, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Oceanic Flux Program (OFP), 75 km SE of Bermuda, is the longest running time-series of its kind. Initiated in 1978, the OFP has produced an unsurpassed, nearly continuous record of temporal variability in deep ocean fluxes, with a >90% temporal coverage at 3200m depth. The OFP, in conjunction with the co-located Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) time-series, has provided key observations enabling detailed assessment of how seasonal and non-seasonal variability in the deep ocean is linked with the overlying physical and biogeochemical environment. This talk will focus on the short-term flux variability that overlies the seasonal flux pattern in the Sargasso Sea, emphasizing episodic extreme flux events. Extreme flux events are responsible for much of the year-to-year variability in mean annual flux and are most often observed during early winter and late spring when surface stratification is weak or transient. In addition to biological phenomena (e.g. salp blooms), passage of productive meso-scale features such as eddies, which alter surface water mixing characteristics and surface export fluxes, may initiate some extreme flux events. Yet other productive eddies show a minimal influence on the deep flux, underscoring the importance of upper ocean ecosystem structure and midwater processes on the coupling between the surface ocean environment and deep fluxes. Using key organic and inorganic tracers, causative processes that influence deep flux generation and the strength of the coupling with the surface ocean environment can be identified.

  14. Physics of magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Priest, E. R.; Lee, L. C.

    The present work encompasses papers on the structure, waves, and instabilities of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), photospheric flux tubes (PFTs), the structure and heating of coronal loops, solar prominences, coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds, flux ropes in planetary ionospheres, the magnetopause, magnetospheric field-aligned currents and flux tubes, and the magnetotail. Attention is given to the equilibrium of MFRs, resistive instability, magnetic reconnection and turbulence in current sheets, dynamical effects and energy transport in intense flux tubes, waves in solar PFTs, twisted flux ropes in the solar corona, an electrodynamical model of solar flares, filament cooling and condensation in a sheared magnetic field, the magnetopause, the generation of twisted MFRs during magnetic reconnection, ionospheric flux ropes above the South Pole, substorms and MFR structures, evidence for flux ropes in the earth magnetotail, and MFRs in 3D MHD simulations.

  15. Study of the effect of the energy spectrum and of the total flux on the damage produced by neutrons in solids; Contribution a l'etude de l'influence du spectre et du flux integre sur les dommages crees par les neutrons dans les solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulieu, P C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    In the first part are studied the general relationships between the physical effects produced by neutrons in solids, and the total flux and neutron energy spectrum; some examples are given. The second part, describes the application to a silicon damage detector whose principle is to use the damage produced in a PIN Junction for measuring the neutron flux (intermediate and fast) received by the detector. Chapter I is devoted to the experimental determination of the energy given to the atoms by a primary in the silicon. The results and conclusions drawn from this determination make it possible to consider, in chapter II, the calculation of the detectors response characteristics.Chapter III deals with the measurement of the detectors response function and it is noted that good agreement is obtained between the calculation and experimental results. The whole of the second part constitutes a test of the methods presented in the first part. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, nous etudions les relations generales qui lient les effets physiques engendres par les neutrons dans les solides au flux integre et au spectre des neutrons et nous donnons des exemples d'utilisation. La deuxieme partie est une application au detecteur de dommages en silicium, dont le principe est d'utiliser les dommages crees dans une jonction PIN pour mesurer les flux de neutrons (intermediaires et rapides) recus par le detecteur. Le chapitre I est consacre a la determination experimentale de l'energie cedee aux atomes par un primaire dans le silicium. Les resultats et les conclusions que l'on peut tirer de cette determination permettent d'aborder, au chapitre II, le calcul de la fonction de reponse du detecteur. Le chapitre III porte sur la mesure de la fonction de reponse du detecteur et on constate qu'il y a un bon accord entre le calcul et l'experience. L'ensemble de la deuxieme partie constitue un test des methodes exposees dans la premiere partie. (auteur)

  16. Quantifying the drivers of ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M.; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Williams, Richard G.; Follows, Michael J.

    2016-07-01

    A mechanistic framework for quantitatively mapping the regional drivers of air-sea CO2 fluxes at a global scale is developed. The framework evaluates the interplay between (1) surface heat and freshwater fluxes that influence the potential saturated carbon concentration, which depends on changes in sea surface temperature, salinity and alkalinity, (2) a residual, disequilibrium flux influenced by upwelling and entrainment of remineralized carbon- and nutrient-rich waters from the ocean interior, as well as rapid subduction of surface waters, (3) carbon uptake and export by biological activity as both soft tissue and carbonate, and (4) the effect on surface carbon concentrations due to freshwater precipitation or evaporation. In a steady state simulation of a coarse-resolution ocean circulation and biogeochemistry model, the sum of the individually determined components is close to the known total flux of the simulation. The leading order balance, identified in different dynamical regimes, is between the CO2 fluxes driven by surface heat fluxes and a combination of biologically driven carbon uptake and disequilibrium-driven carbon outgassing. The framework is still able to reconstruct simulated fluxes when evaluated using monthly averaged data and takes a form that can be applied consistently in models of different complexity and observations of the ocean. In this way, the framework may reveal differences in the balance of drivers acting across an ensemble of climate model simulations or be applied to an analysis and interpretation of the observed, real-world air-sea flux of CO2.

  17. Comparison between Evapotranspiration Fluxes Assessment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casola, A.; Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.

    2009-11-01

    Knowledge of hydrological processes acting in the water balance is determinant for a rational water resources management plan. Among these, the water losses as vapour, in the form of evapotranspiration, play an important role in the water balance and the heat transfers between the land surface and the atmosphere. Mass and energy interactions between soil, atmosphere and vegetation, in fact, influence all hydrological processes modificating rainfall interception, infiltration, evapotraspiration, surface runoff and groundwater recharge.A numbers of methods have been developed in scientific literature for modelling evapotranspiration. They can be divided in three main groups: i) traditional meteorological models, ii) energy fluxes balance models, considering interaction between vegetation and the atmosphere, and iii) remote sensing based models. The present analysis preliminary performs a study of fluxes directions and an evaluation of energy balance closure in a typical Mediterranean short vegetation area, using data series recorded from an eddy covariance station, located in the Campania region, Southern Italy. The analysis was performed on different seasons of the year with the aim to assess climatic forcing features impact on fluxes balance, to evaluate the smaller imbalance and to highlight influencing factors and sampling errors on balance closure. The present study also concerns evapotranspiration fluxes assessment at the point scale. Evapotranspiration is evaluated both from empirical relationships (Penmann-Montheit, Penmann F AO, Prestley&Taylor) calibrated with measured energy fluxes at mentioned experimental site, and from measured latent heat data scaled by the latent heat of vaporization. These results are compared with traditional and reliable well known models at the plot scale (Coutagne, Turc, Thorthwaite).

  18. Australian methane fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates are provided for the amount of methane emitted annually into the atmosphere in Australia for a variety of sources. The sources considered are coal mining, landfill, motor vehicles, natural gas suply system, rice paddies, bushfires, termites, wetland and animals. This assessment indicates that the major sources of methane are natural or agricultural in nature and therefore offer little scope for reduction. Nevertheless the remainder are not trival and reduction of these fluxes could play a significant part in any Australian action on the greenhouse problem. 19 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Area-averaged surface fluxes and their time-space variability over the FIFE experimental domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E. A.; Hsu, A. Y.; Crosson, W. L.; Field, R. T.; Fritschen, L. J.; Gurney, R. J.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Kustas, W. P.; Nie, D.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    The underlying mean and variance properties of surface net radiation, sensible-latent heat fluxes and soil heat flux are studied over the densely instrumented grassland region encompassing FIFE. Flux variability is discussed together with the problem of scaling up to area-averaged fluxes. Results are compared and contrasted for cloudy and clear situations and examined for the influence of surface-induced biophysical controls (burn and grazing treatments) and topographic controls (aspect ratios and slope factors).

  20. Critical heat flux evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banner, D.

    1995-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is of importance for nuclear safety and represents the major limiting factors for reactor cores. Critical heat flux is caused by a sharp reduction in the heat transfer coefficient located at the outer surface of fuel rods. Safety requires that this phenomenon also called the boiling crisis should be precluded under nominal or incidental conditions (Class I and II events). CHF evaluation in reactor cores is basically a two-step approach. Fuel assemblies are first tested in experimental loops in order to determine CHF limits under various flow conditions. Then, core thermal-hydraulic calculations are performed for safety evaluation. The paper will go into more details about the boiling crisis in order to pinpoint complexity and lack of fundamental understanding in many areas. Experimental test sections needed to collect data over wide thermal-hydraulic and geometric ranges are described CHF safety margin evaluation in reactors cores is discussed by presenting how uncertainties are mentioned. From basic considerations to current concerns, the following topics are discussed; knowledge of the boiling crisis, CHF predictors, and advances thermal-hydraulic codes. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs

  1. Neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Eiji; Tai, Ichiro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the measuring accuracy and the reponse time within an allowable range in accordance with the change of neutron fluxes in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. Constitution: Neutron fluxes within a nuclear reactor pressure vessel are detected by detectors, converted into pulse signals and amplified in a range switching amplifier. The amplified signals are further converted through an A/D converter and digital signals from the converter are subjected to a square operation in an square operation circuit. The output from the circuit is inputted into an integration circuit to selectively accumulate the constant of 1/2n, 1 - 1/2n (n is a positive integer) respectively for two continuing signals to perform weighing. Then, the addition is carried out to calculate the integrated value and the addition number is changed by the chane in the number n to vary the integrating time. The integrated value is inputted into a control circuit to control the value of n so that the fluctuation and the calculation time for the integrated value are within a predetermined range and, at the same time, the gain of the range switching amplifier is controlled. (Seki, T.)

  2. Critical flux and chemical cleaning-in-place during the long-term operation of a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2011-01-01

    The critical flux and chemical cleaning-in-place (CIP) in a long-term operation of a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment were investigated. Steady filtration under high flux (30 L/(m2 h)) was successfully achieved due to effective membrane fouling control by sub-critical flux operation and chemical CIP with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) in both trans-membrane pressure (TMP) controlling mode (cleaning with high concentration NaClO of 2000-3000 mg/L in terms of effective chorine was performed when TMP rose to 15 kPa) and time controlling mode (cleanings were performed weekly and monthly respectively with low concentration NaClO (500-1000 mg/L) and high concentration NaClO (3000 mg/L)). Microscopic analysis on membrane fibers before and after high concentration NaClO was also conducted. Images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that NaClO CIP could effectively remove gel layer, the dominant fouling under sub-critical flux operation. Porosity measurements indicated that NaClO CIP could partially remove pore blockage fouling. The analyses from fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) with attenuated total reflectance accessory (ATR) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) demonstrated that protein-like macromolecular organics and inorganics were the important components of the fouling layer. The analysis of effluent quality before and after NaClO CIP showed no obvious effect on effluent quality. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Study of the effect of the energy spectrum and of the total flux on the damage produced by neutrons in solids; Contribution a l'etude de l'influence du spectre et du flux integre sur les dommages crees par les neutrons dans les solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulieu, P.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    In the first part are studied the general relationships between the physical effects produced by neutrons in solids, and the total flux and neutron energy spectrum; some examples are given. The second part, describes the application to a silicon damage detector whose principle is to use the damage produced in a PIN Junction for measuring the neutron flux (intermediate and fast) received by the detector. Chapter I is devoted to the experimental determination of the energy given to the atoms by a primary in the silicon. The results and conclusions drawn from this determination make it possible to consider, in chapter II, the calculation of the detectors response characteristics.Chapter III deals with the measurement of the detectors response function and it is noted that good agreement is obtained between the calculation and experimental results. The whole of the second part constitutes a test of the methods presented in the first part. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, nous etudions les relations generales qui lient les effets physiques engendres par les neutrons dans les solides au flux integre et au spectre des neutrons et nous donnons des exemples d'utilisation. La deuxieme partie est une application au detecteur de dommages en silicium, dont le principe est d'utiliser les dommages crees dans une jonction PIN pour mesurer les flux de neutrons (intermediaires et rapides) recus par le detecteur. Le chapitre I est consacre a la determination experimentale de l'energie cedee aux atomes par un primaire dans le silicium. Les resultats et les conclusions que l'on peut tirer de cette determination permettent d'aborder, au chapitre II, le calcul de la fonction de reponse du detecteur. Le chapitre III porte sur la mesure de la fonction de reponse du detecteur et on constate qu'il y a un bon accord entre le calcul et l'experience. L'ensemble de la deuxieme partie constitue un test des methodes exposees dans la premiere partie

  4. Landscape-scale soil moisture heterogeneity and its influence on surface fluxes at the Jornada LTER site: Evaluating a new model parameterization for subgrid-scale soil moisture variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, I. T.; Prihodko, L.; Vivoni, E. R.; Denning, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Arid and semiarid regions represent a large fraction of global land, with attendant importance of surface energy and trace gas flux to global totals. These regions are characterized by strong seasonality, especially in precipitation, that defines the level of ecosystem stress. Individual plants have been observed to respond non-linearly to increasing soil moisture stress, where plant function is generally maintained as soils dry down to a threshold at which rapid closure of stomates occurs. Incorporating this nonlinear mechanism into landscape-scale models can result in unrealistic binary "on-off" behavior that is especially problematic in arid landscapes. Subsequently, models have `relaxed' their simulation of soil moisture stress on evapotranspiration (ET). Unfortunately, these relaxations are not physically based, but are imposed upon model physics as a means to force a more realistic response. Previously, we have introduced a new method to represent soil moisture regulation of ET, whereby the landscape is partitioned into `BINS' of soil moisture wetness, each associated with a fractional area of the landscape or grid cell. A physically- and observationally-based nonlinear soil moisture stress function is applied, but when convolved with the relative area distribution represented by wetness BINS the system has the emergent property of `smoothing' the landscape-scale response without the need for non-physical impositions on model physics. In this research we confront BINS simulations of Bowen ratio, soil moisture variability and trace gas flux with soil moisture and eddy covariance observations taken at the Jornada LTER dryland site in southern New Mexico. We calculate the mean annual wetting cycle and associated variability about the mean state and evaluate model performance against this variability and time series of land surface fluxes from the highly instrumented Tromble Weir watershed. The BINS simulations capture the relatively rapid reaction to wetting

  5. Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, W.I.

    1981-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the Hanford site a few miles north of Richland, Washington, is a major link in the chain of development required to sustain and advance Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) technology in the United States. This 400 MWt sodium cooled reactor is a three loop design, is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy, and is the largest research reactor of its kind in the world. The purpose of the facility is three-fold: (1) to provide a test bed for components, materials, and breeder reactor fuels which can significantly extend resource reserves; (2) to produce a complete body of base data for the use of liquid sodium in heat transfer systens; and (3) to demonstrate inherent safety characteristics of LMFBR designs

  6. Controlling the flux dynamics in superconductors by nanostructured magnetic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapra, Andrey

    In this thesis we investigate theoretically how the critical current jc of nano-engineered mesoscopic superconducting film can be improved and how one can control the dynamics of the magnetic flux, e.g., the transition from flux-pinned to flux-flow regime, using arrays of magnetic nanostructures. In particularly we investigate: (1) Vortex transport phenomena in superconductors with deposited ferromagnetic structures on top, and the influence of the sample geometry on the critical parameters and on the vortex configurations. Changing geometry of the magnetic bars and magnetization of the bars will affect the critical current jc of the superconducting film. Such nanostructured ferromagnets strongly alter the vortex structure in its neighborhood. The influence of geometry, position and magnetization of the ferromagnet (single bar or regular lattice of the bars) on the critical parameters of the superconductor is investigated. (2) Effect of flux confinement in narrow superconducting channels with zigzag-shaped banks: the flux motion is confined in the transverse (perpendicular) direction of a diamond-cell-shape channel. The matching effect for the magnetic flux is found in the system relevantless of boundary condition. We discuss the dynamics of vortices in the samples and vortex pattern formation in the channel. We show how the inclusion of higher-Tc superconductor into the sample can lead to enhanced properties of the system. By adding an external driving force, we study the vortex dynamics. The different dynamic regimes are discussed. They allowed an effective control of magnetic flux in superconductors.

  7. Flux canceling in three-dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Irina; Spruit, H. C.

    2017-05-01

    We aim to study the processes involved in the disappearance of magnetic flux between regions of opposite polarity on the solar surface using realistic three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. "Retraction" below the surface driven by magnetic forces is found to be a very effective mechanism of flux canceling of opposite polarities. The speed at which flux disappears increases strongly with initial mean flux density. In agreement with existing inferences from observations we suggest that this is a key process of flux disappearance within active complexes. Intrinsic kG strength concentrations connect the surface to deeper layers by magnetic forces, and therefore the influence of deeper layers on the flux canceling process is studied. We do this by comparing simulations extending to different depths. For average flux densities of 50 G, and on length scales on the order of 3 Mm in the horizontal and 10 Mm in depth, deeper layers appear to have only a mild influence on the effective rate of diffusion.

  8. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grana, Mariana

    2006-01-01

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T 6 /(Z 3 x Z 3 ) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry

  9. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Mariana [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-11-07

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T{sup 6} /(Z{sub 3} x Z{sub 3}) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry.

  10. Estimating daytime ecosystem respiration from eddy-flux data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Herbst, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    To understand what governs the patterns of net ecosystem exchange of CO2, an understanding of factors influencing the component fluxes, ecosystem respiration and gross primary production is needed. In the present paper, we introduce an alternative method for estimating daytime ecosystem respiration...... based on whole ecosystem fluxes from a linear regression of photosynthetic photon flux density data vs. daytime net ecosystem exchange data at forest ecosystem level. This method is based on the principles of the Kok-method applied at leaf level for estimating daytime respiration. We demonstrate...

  11. Radiation Hardness tests with neutron flux on different Silicon photomultiplier devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; Cervi, T.; Menegolli, A.; Oddone, M.; Prata, M.; Prata, M. C.; Rossella, M.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation hardness is an important requirement for solid state readout devices operating in high radiation environments common in particle physics experiments. The MEG II experiment, at PSI, Switzerland, investigates the forbidden decay μ+ → e+ γ. Exploiting the most intense muon beam of the world. A significant flux of non-thermal neutrons (kinetic energy Ek>= 0.5 MeV) is present in the experimental hall produced along the beam-line and in the hall itself. We present the effects of neutron fluxes comparable to the MEG II expected doses on several Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPMs). The tested models are: AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P50 (used in MEG II experiment), AdvanSiD ASD-NUV3S-P40, AdvanSiD ASD-RGB3S-P40, Hamamatsu and Excelitas C30742-33-050-X. The neutron source is the thermal Sub-critical Multiplication complex (SM1) moderated with water, located at the University of Pavia (Italy). We report the change of SiPMs most important electric parameters: dark current, dark pulse frequency, gain, direct bias resistance, as a function of the integrated neutron fluency.

  12. The NASA Carbon Airborne Flux Experiment (CARAFE: instrumentation and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of trace gases between the Earth's surface and atmosphere strongly influences atmospheric composition. Airborne eddy covariance can quantify surface fluxes at local to regional scales (1–1000 km, potentially helping to bridge gaps between top-down and bottom-up flux estimates and offering novel insights into biophysical and biogeochemical processes. The NASA Carbon Airborne Flux Experiment (CARAFE utilizes the NASA C-23 Sherpa aircraft with a suite of commercial and custom instrumentation to acquire fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, sensible heat, and latent heat at high spatial resolution. Key components of the CARAFE payload are described, including the meteorological, greenhouse gas, water vapor, and surface imaging systems. Continuous wavelet transforms deliver spatially resolved fluxes along aircraft flight tracks. Flux analysis methodology is discussed in depth, with special emphasis on quantification of uncertainties. Typical uncertainties in derived surface fluxes are 40–90 % for a nominal resolution of 2 km or 16–35 % when averaged over a full leg (typically 30–40 km. CARAFE has successfully flown two missions in the eastern US in 2016 and 2017, quantifying fluxes over forest, cropland, wetlands, and water. Preliminary results from these campaigns are presented to highlight the performance of this system.

  13. The NASA Carbon Airborne Flux Experiment (CARAFE): instrumentation and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Glenn M.; Kawa, S. Randy; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Hannun, Reem A.; Newman, Paul A.; Swanson, Andrew; Bailey, Steve; Barrick, John; Thornhill, K. Lee; Diskin, Glenn; DiGangi, Josh; Nowak, John B.; Sorenson, Carl; Bland, Geoffrey; Yungel, James K.; Swenson, Craig A.

    2018-03-01

    The exchange of trace gases between the Earth's surface and atmosphere strongly influences atmospheric composition. Airborne eddy covariance can quantify surface fluxes at local to regional scales (1-1000 km), potentially helping to bridge gaps between top-down and bottom-up flux estimates and offering novel insights into biophysical and biogeochemical processes. The NASA Carbon Airborne Flux Experiment (CARAFE) utilizes the NASA C-23 Sherpa aircraft with a suite of commercial and custom instrumentation to acquire fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, sensible heat, and latent heat at high spatial resolution. Key components of the CARAFE payload are described, including the meteorological, greenhouse gas, water vapor, and surface imaging systems. Continuous wavelet transforms deliver spatially resolved fluxes along aircraft flight tracks. Flux analysis methodology is discussed in depth, with special emphasis on quantification of uncertainties. Typical uncertainties in derived surface fluxes are 40-90 % for a nominal resolution of 2 km or 16-35 % when averaged over a full leg (typically 30-40 km). CARAFE has successfully flown two missions in the eastern US in 2016 and 2017, quantifying fluxes over forest, cropland, wetlands, and water. Preliminary results from these campaigns are presented to highlight the performance of this system.

  14. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  15. KoFlux: Korean Regional Flux Network in AsiaFlux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.

    2002-12-01

    AsiaFlux, the Asian arm of FLUXNET, held the Second International Workshop on Advanced Flux Network and Flux Evaluation in Jeju Island, Korea on 9-11 January 2002. In order to facilitate comprehensive Asia-wide studies of ecosystem fluxes, the meeting launched KoFlux, a new Korean regional network of long-term micrometeorological flux sites. For a successful assessment of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, an accurate measurement of surface fluxes of energy and water is one of the prerequisites. During the 7th Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME) held in Nagoya, Japan on 1-2 October 2001, the Implementation Committee of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) was established. One of the immediate tasks of CEOP was and is to identify the reference sites to monitor energy and water fluxes over the Asian continent. Subsequently, to advance the regional and global network of these reference sites in the context of both FLUXNET and CEOP, the Korean flux community has re-organized the available resources to establish a new regional network, KoFlux. We have built up domestic network sites (equipped with wind profiler and radiosonde measurements) over deciduous and coniferous forests, urban and rural rice paddies and coastal farmland. As an outreach through collaborations with research groups in Japan, China and Thailand, we also proposed international flux sites at ecologically and climatologically important locations such as a prairie on the Tibetan plateau, tropical forest with mixed and rapid land use change in northern Thailand. Several sites in KoFlux already begun to accumulate interesting data and some highlights are presented at the meeting. The sciences generated by flux networks in other continents have proven the worthiness of a global array of micrometeorological flux towers. It is our intent that the launch of KoFlux would encourage other scientists to initiate and

  16. From elementary flux modes to elementary flux vectors: Metabolic pathway analysis with arbitrary linear flux constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamt, Steffen; Gerstl, Matthias P.; Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Müller, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Elementary flux modes (EFMs) emerged as a formal concept to describe metabolic pathways and have become an established tool for constraint-based modeling and metabolic network analysis. EFMs are characteristic (support-minimal) vectors of the flux cone that contains all feasible steady-state flux vectors of a given metabolic network. EFMs account for (homogeneous) linear constraints arising from reaction irreversibilities and the assumption of steady state; however, other (inhomogeneous) linear constraints, such as minimal and maximal reaction rates frequently used by other constraint-based techniques (such as flux balance analysis [FBA]), cannot be directly integrated. These additional constraints further restrict the space of feasible flux vectors and turn the flux cone into a general flux polyhedron in which the concept of EFMs is not directly applicable anymore. For this reason, there has been a conceptual gap between EFM-based (pathway) analysis methods and linear optimization (FBA) techniques, as they operate on different geometric objects. One approach to overcome these limitations was proposed ten years ago and is based on the concept of elementary flux vectors (EFVs). Only recently has the community started to recognize the potential of EFVs for metabolic network analysis. In fact, EFVs exactly represent the conceptual development required to generalize the idea of EFMs from flux cones to flux polyhedra. This work aims to present a concise theoretical and practical introduction to EFVs that is accessible to a broad audience. We highlight the close relationship between EFMs and EFVs and demonstrate that almost all applications of EFMs (in flux cones) are possible for EFVs (in flux polyhedra) as well. In fact, certain properties can only be studied with EFVs. Thus, we conclude that EFVs provide a powerful and unifying framework for constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. PMID:28406903

  17. Flux trapping in superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, C.; Bolore, M.; Bonin, B.; Charrier, J.P.; Daillant, B.; Gratadour, J.; Koechlin, F.; Safa, H.

    1992-01-01

    The flux trapped in various field cooled Nb and Pb samples has been measured. For ambient fields smaller than 3 Gauss, 100% of the flux is trapped. The consequences of this result on the behavior of superconducting RF cavities are discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  18. Squeezing Flux Out of Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Merging transcriptomics or metabolomics data remains insufficient for metabolic flux estimation. Ramirez et al. integrate a genome-scale metabolic model with extracellular flux data to predict and validate metabolic differences between white and brown adipose tissue. This method allows both metab...

  19. Data Acquisition and Flux Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebmann, C.; Kolle, O; Heinesch, B

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation....

  20. Solar proton fluxes since 1956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fluxes of protons emitted during solar flares since 1956 were evaluated. The depth-versus-activity profiles of 56 Co in several lunar rocks are consistent with the solar-proton fluxes detected by experiments on several satellites. Only about 20% of the solar-proton-induced activities of 22 Na and 55 Fe in lunar rocks from early Apollo missions were produced by protons emitted from the sun during solar cycle 20 (1965--1975). The depth-versus-activity data for these radionuclides in several lunar rocks were used to determine the fluxes of protons during solar cycle 19 (1954--1964). The average proton fluxes for cycle 19 are about five times those for both the last million years and for cycle 20. These solar-proton flux variations correlate with changes in sunspot activity

  1. Fractional flux excitations and flux creep in a superconducting film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyuksyutov, I.F.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the transport properties of a modulated superconducting film in a magnetic field parallel to the film. Modulation can be either intrinsic, due to the layered structure of the high-T c superconductors, or artificial, e.g. due to thickness modulation. This system has an infinite set ( >) of pinned phases. In the pinned phase the excitation of flux loops with a fractional number of flux quanta by the applied current j results in flux creep with a generated voltage V ∝ exp[-jo/j[. (orig.)

  2. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng

    2008-01-01

    In contrast with recent advances on the dynamics of the flow at a forest edge, few studies have considered its role on scalar transport and, in particular, on CO2 transfer. The present study addresses the influence of the abrupt roughness change on forest atmosphere CO2 exchange and contrasts...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...

  3. Fast flux test facility noise data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thie, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    An extensive collection of spectra from an automated data collection system at the Fast Flux Facility has features from neutron data extracted and managed by database software. Inquiry techniques, including screening, applied to database results show the influences of control rods on wideband noise and, more generally, abilities to detect diverse types of off-normal noise. Uncovering a temporary 0.1-Hz resonance shift gave additional diagnostic information on a 13-Hz mechanical motion characterized by the interference of two resonances. The latter phenomenon is discussed generically for possible application to other reactor types. (author)

  4. Burnout heat flux in natural flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, M.M.; Darwish, M.A.; Mahmoud, S.I.

    1978-01-01

    Twenty runs of experiments were conducted to determine the critical heat flux for natural flow boiling with water flowing upwards through annuli of centrally heated stainless steel tube. The test section has concentric heated tube of 14mm diameter and heated lengthes of 15 and 25 cm. The outside surface of the annulus was formed by various glass tubes of 17.25, 20 and 25.9mm diameter. System pressure is atmospheric. Inlet subcooling varied from 18 to 5 0 C. Obtained critical heat flux varied from 24.46 to 62.9 watts/cm 2 . A number of parameters having dominant influence on the critical heat flux and hydrodynamic instability (flow and pressure oscillations) preceeding the burnout have been studied. These parameters are mass flow rate, mass velocity, throttling, channel geometry (diameters ratio, length to diameter ratio, and test section length), and inlet subcooling. Flow regimes before and at the moments of burnout were observed, discussed, and compared with the existing physical model of burnout

  5. Monte Carlo surface flux tallies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Particle fluxes on surfaces are difficult to calculate with Monte Carlo codes because the score requires a division by the surface-crossing angle cosine, and grazing angles lead to inaccuracies. We revisit the standard practice of dividing by half of a cosine 'cutoff' for particles whose surface-crossing cosines are below the cutoff. The theory behind this approximation is sound, but the application of the theory to all possible situations does not account for two implicit assumptions: (1) the grazing band must be symmetric about 0, and (2) a single linear expansion for the angular flux must be applied in the entire grazing band. These assumptions are violated in common circumstances; for example, for separate in-going and out-going flux tallies on internal surfaces, and for out-going flux tallies on external surfaces. In some situations, dividing by two-thirds of the cosine cutoff is more appropriate. If users were able to control both the cosine cutoff and the substitute value, they could use these parameters to make accurate surface flux tallies. The procedure is demonstrated in a test problem in which Monte Carlo surface fluxes in cosine bins are converted to angular fluxes and compared with the results of a discrete ordinates calculation.

  6. Carbon dioxide fluxes from an urban area in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Wang, Yuesi

    2012-03-01

    A better understanding of urban carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions is important for quantifying urban contributions to the global carbon budget. From January to December 2008, CO 2 fluxes were measured, by eddy covariance at 47 m above ground on a meteorological tower in a high-density residential area in Beijing. The results showed that the urban surface was a net source of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Diurnal flux patterns were similar to those previously observed in other cities and were largely influenced by traffic volume. Carbon uptake by both urban vegetation during the growing season and the reduction of fuel consumption for domestic heating resulted in less-positive daily fluxes in the summer. The average daily flux measured in the summer was 0.48 mg m - 2 s - 1 , which was 82%, 35% and 36% lower than those in the winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The reduction of vehicles on the road during the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games had a significant impact on CO 2 flux. The flux of 0.40 mg m - 2 s - 1 for September 2008 was approximately 0.17 mg m - 2 s - 1 lower than the flux for September 2007. Annual CO 2 emissions from the study site were estimated at 20.6 kg CO 2 m - 2 y - 1 , considerably higher than yearly emissions obtained from other urban and suburban landscapes.

  7. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  8. Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, E R; Lee, L C

    1990-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference on the Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes was held at the Hamilton Princess Hotel, Hamilton, Bermuda on March 27–31, 1989. Topics discussed ranged from solar flux ropes, such as photospheric flux tubes, coronal loops and prominences, to flux ropes in the solar wind, in planetary ionospheres, at the Earth's magnetopause, in the geomagnetic tail and deep in the Earth's magnetosphere. Papers presented at that conference form the nucleus of this book, but the book is more than just a proceedings of the conference. We have solicited articles from all interested in this topic. Thus, there is some material in the book not discussed at the conference. Even in the case of papers presented at the conference, there is generally a much more detailed and rigorous presentation than was possible in the time allowed by the oral and poster presentations.

  9. Notes on neutron flux measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala Ruiz, F.

    1984-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to get an useful guide to carry out topical neutron flux measurements. Although the foil activation technique is used in the majority of the cases, other techniques, such as those based on fission chambers and self-powered neutron detectors, are also shown. Special interest is given to the description and application of corrections on the measurement of relative and absolute induced activities by several types of detectors (scintillators, G-M and gas proportional counters). The thermal arid epithermal neutron fluxes, as determined in this work, are conventional or effective (West cots fluxes), which are extensively used by the reactor experimentalists; however, we also give some expressions where they are related to the integrated neutron fluxes, which are used in neutron calculations. (Author) 16 refs

  10. Specification of ROP flux shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung Joo; Gray, A.

    1997-06-01

    The CANDU 9 480/SEU core uses 0.9% SEU (Slightly Enriched Uranium) fuel. The use f SEU fuel enables the reactor to increase the radial power form factor from 0.865, which is typical in current natural uranium CANDU reactors, to 0.97 in the nominal CANDU 9 480/SEU core. The difference is a 12% increase in reactor power. An additional 5% increase can be achieved due to a reduced refuelling ripple. The channel power limits were also increased by 3% for a total reactor power increase of 20%. This report describes the calculation of neutron flux distributions in the CANDU 9 480/SEU core under conditions specified by the C and I engineers. The RFSP code was used to calculate of neutron flux shapes for ROP analysis. Detailed flux values at numerous potential detector sites were calculated for each flux shape. (author). 6 tabs., 70 figs., 4 refs

  11. Specification of ROP flux shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Gray, A [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    The CANDU 9 480/SEU core uses 0.9% SEU (Slightly Enriched Uranium) fuel. The use f SEU fuel enables the reactor to increase the radial power form factor from 0.865, which is typical in current natural uranium CANDU reactors, to 0.97 in the nominal CANDU 9 480/SEU core. The difference is a 12% increase in reactor power. An additional 5% increase can be achieved due to a reduced refuelling ripple. The channel power limits were also increased by 3% for a total reactor power increase of 20%. This report describes the calculation of neutron flux distributions in the CANDU 9 480/SEU core under conditions specified by the C and I engineers. The RFSP code was used to calculate of neutron flux shapes for ROP analysis. Detailed flux values at numerous potential detector sites were calculated for each flux shape. (author). 6 tabs., 70 figs., 4 refs.

  12. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  13. Flux networks in metabolic graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P B; Queiros, S M Duarte; Jones, J L

    2009-01-01

    A metabolic model can be represented as a bipartite graph comprising linked reaction and metabolite nodes. Here it is shown how a network of conserved fluxes can be assigned to the edges of such a graph by combining the reaction fluxes with a conserved metabolite property such as molecular weight. A similar flux network can be constructed by combining the primal and dual solutions to the linear programming problem that typically arises in constraint-based modelling. Such constructions may help with the visualization of flux distributions in complex metabolic networks. The analysis also explains the strong correlation observed between metabolite shadow prices (the dual linear programming variables) and conserved metabolite properties. The methods were applied to recent metabolic models for Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Methanosarcina barkeri. Detailed results are reported for E. coli; similar results were found for other organisms

  14. Avatars in flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    they act and engage, gradually, the conception of an avatar as the representation of the actor has become questionable. During the interviews, discussing with the actors their relationship with the chosen avatars, increasingly the transformative aspects of the relationship has influenced the theoretical......, question the consensus to suggest that we nuance and broaden our understanding of the relationships of avatars with their owners. The question that I will set out to answer is: In what ways do actors make sense of their choice and design of avatars? The empirical basis for addressing this question is found...... in iterative video interviews with actors while they act in their chosen virtual worlds and with their avatars. The video interviews have been conducted in situ together with actors on the locations of their usual play and practice – be it at home or at their work place. The methodological approach...

  15. Boundary fluxes for nonlocal diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.; Wolanski, Noemi

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  16. Energy flux of hot atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotzak, G.P.; Kostin, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The process in which hot atoms collide with thermal atoms of a gas, transfer kinetic energy to them, and produce additional hot atoms is investigated. A stochastic method is used to obtain numerical results for the spatial and time dependent energy flux of hot atoms in a gas. The results indicate that in hot atom systems a front followed by an intense energy flux of hot atoms may develop

  17. Carbon fluxes from an urban tropical grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, B.J.L.; Hutyra, L.R.; Nguyen, H.; Cobb, A.R.; Kai, F.M.; Harvey, C.; Gandois, L.

    2015-01-01

    Turfgrass covers a large fraction of the urbanized landscape, but the carbon exchange of urban lawns is poorly understood. We used eddy covariance and flux chambers in a grassland field manipulative experiment to quantify the carbon mass balance in a Singapore tropical turfgrass. We also assessed how management and variations in environmental factors influenced CO 2 respiration. Standing aboveground turfgrass biomass was 80 gC m −2 , with a mean ecosystem respiration of 7.9 ± 1.1 μmol m −2  s −1 . The contribution of autotrophic respiration was 49–76% of total ecosystem respiration. Both chamber and eddy covariance measurements suggest the system was in approximate carbon balance. While we did not observe a significant relationship between the respiration rates and soil temperature or moisture, daytime fluxes increased during the rainy interval, indicating strong overall moisture sensitivity. Turfgrass biomass is small, but given its abundance across the urban landscape, it significantly influences diurnal CO 2 concentrations. - Highlights: • We measured urban turfgrass CO 2 respiration rates and soil characteristics. • Mean observed ecosystem respiration was 7.9 ± 1.1 μmol m −2  s −1 . • Soil temperature and moisture were largely insignificant drivers of observed flux. - We found a Singapore urban turfgrass to be approximately carbon neutral, with a mean ecosystem respiration of 7.9 ± 1.1 μmol m −2  s −1

  18. Influence of UV-B radiation on developmental changes, ethylene, CO[sub 2] flux and polyamines in cv. Doyenne d'Hiver pear shoots grown in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predieri, S. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Centro Studi di Technica Frutticola, Bologna (Italy)); Krizek, D.T. (Climate Stress Laboratory, USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States)); Chien, Y. Wang (Horticultural Crops quality Laboratory, USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States)); Mirecki, R.M. (Climate Stress Laboratory, USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States)); Zimmerman, R.H. (Fruit Laboratory, USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    In vitro shoots of cv. Doyenne d'Hiver pear (Pyrus communis L.) were irradiated under controlled environments for 6 h per day at 5 different levels of biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B[sub BE]). UV-B exposure caused a progressive increase in apical necrosis above background levels and stimulated leaf abscission. Shoots grown for 2 weeks at 7.8 mol m[sup -2] day[sup -1] of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) and treated with 8.4 or 12.0 kJ m[sup -1] day[sup -1] UV-B[sub BE] produced up to 4 times more ethylene than those given 2.2 or 5.1 kJ m[sup -2] day[sup -1] UV-B[sub BE] or untreated controls. Exposure of shoots to 12 kJ m[sup -2] day[sup -1] of UV-B[sub BE] caused an increase in free putrescine content after 4 to 14 days of irradiation. Shoots showed a decrease in CO[sub 2] uptake after 3 days of UV-B; thereafter, they appeared to recover their photosynthetic capacity. Under typical PPF conditions used in micropropagation (90 [mu]mol m[sup -2] s[sup -1]), 8.4 kJ m[sup -2] day[sup -1] of UV-B radiation was injurious to relatively tender tissues of in vitro pear shoots; increasing the level of UV-B[sub BE] to 12 kJ m[sup -2] day[sup -1] produced even more adverse effects. (au).

  19. Flux tubes at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cuteri, Francesca; Papa, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria & INFN-Cosenza,Ponte Bucci, cubo 31C, I-87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2016-06-07

    The chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair, with its peculiar tube-like shape, can be nicely described, at zero temperature, within the dual superconductor scenario for the QCD confining vacuum. In this work we investigate, by lattice Monte Carlo simulations of the SU(3) pure gauge theory, the fate of chromoelectric flux tubes across the deconfinement transition. We find that, if the distance between the static sources is kept fixed at about 0.76 fm ≃1.6/√σ and the temperature is increased towards and above the deconfinement temperature T{sub c}, the amplitude of the field inside the flux tube gets smaller, while the shape of the flux tube does not vary appreciably across deconfinement. This scenario with flux-tube “evaporation” above T{sub c} has no correspondence in ordinary (type-II) superconductivity, where instead the transition to the phase with normal conductivity is characterized by a divergent fattening of flux tubes as the transition temperature is approached from below. We present also some evidence about the existence of flux-tube structures in the magnetic sector of the theory in the deconfined phase.

  20. P fluxes and exotic branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Davide M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Riccioni, Fabio [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Risoli, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-12-21

    We consider the N=1 superpotential generated in type-II orientifold models by non-geometric fluxes. In particular, we focus on the family of P fluxes, that are related by T-duality transformations to the S-dual of the Q flux. We determine the general rule that transforms a given flux in this family under a single T-duality transformation. This rule allows to derive a complete expression for the superpotential for both the IIA and the IIB theory for the particular case of a T{sup 6}/[ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 2}] orientifold. We then consider how these fluxes modify the generalised Bianchi identities. In particular, we derive a fully consistent set of quadratic constraints coming from the NS-NS Bianchi identities. On the other hand, the P flux Bianchi identities induce tadpoles, and we determine a set of exotic branes that can be consistently included in order to cancel them. This is achieved by determining a universal transformation rule under T-duality satisfied by all the branes in string theory.

  1. P fluxes and exotic branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, Davide M.; Riccioni, Fabio; Risoli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We consider the N=1 superpotential generated in type-II orientifold models by non-geometric fluxes. In particular, we focus on the family of P fluxes, that are related by T-duality transformations to the S-dual of the Q flux. We determine the general rule that transforms a given flux in this family under a single T-duality transformation. This rule allows to derive a complete expression for the superpotential for both the IIA and the IIB theory for the particular case of a T 6 /[ℤ 2 ×ℤ 2 ] orientifold. We then consider how these fluxes modify the generalised Bianchi identities. In particular, we derive a fully consistent set of quadratic constraints coming from the NS-NS Bianchi identities. On the other hand, the P flux Bianchi identities induce tadpoles, and we determine a set of exotic branes that can be consistently included in order to cancel them. This is achieved by determining a universal transformation rule under T-duality satisfied by all the branes in string theory.

  2. Magnetic flux creep in HTSC and Anderson-Kim theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykov, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental data on flux creep in high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) were analyzed in the review paper. On the one hand, the main attention is paid to the most striking experimental results which have had a significant influence on the investigations of flux creep in HTSC. On the other hand, the analysis of theoretical studies is concentrated on the works, which explain the features of flux creep on the basis of the Anderson-Kim (AK) theory modifications, and received previously unsufficient attention. However, it turned out that the modified AK theory could explain a lot of features of flux creep in HTSC: the scaling behaviour of current-voltage curves of HTSC, the finite rate of flux creep at ultra low temperatures, the logarithmic dependence of effective pinning potential as a function of transport current and its decrease with temperature. The harmonic potential field which is used in this approach makes it possible to solve accurately the both problems: viscous vortex motion and flux creep in this field. Moreover the distribution of pinning potential and the interaction of vortices with each other are taken into account in the approach. Thus, the modification of the AK theory consists, essentially, in its detailed elaboration and approaching to real situations in superconductors

  3. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov–Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms. -- Highlights: •The light transport is investigated through ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic field. •Aharonov–Bohm ring interferometer of arbitrary configuration is investigated. •The half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to destructive interference and transmission zeros for two-arm at equal length. •Complete transmission is available via tuning synthetic magnetic flux.

  4. Partitioning Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes using Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    A variety of methods are currently available to partition water vapor fluxes (into components of transpiration and direct evaporation) and carbon dioxide fluxes (into components of photosynthesis and respiration), using chambers, isotopes, and regression modeling approaches. Here, a methodology is presented that accounts for correlations between high-frequency measurements of water vapor (q) and carbon dioxide (c) concentrations being influenced by their non-identical source-sink distributions and the relative magnitude of their constituent fluxes. Flux-variance similarity assumptions are applied separately to the stomatal and the non-stomatal exchange, and the flux components are identified by considering the q-c correlation. Water use efficiency for the vegetation, and how it varies with respect to vapor pressure deficit, is the only input needed for this approach that uses standard eddy covariance measurements. The method is demonstrated using data collected over a corn field throughout a growing season. In particular, the research focuses on the partitioning of the water flux with the aim of improving how direct evaporation is handled in soil-vegetation- atmosphere transfer models over the course of wetting and dry-down cycles.

  5. Evaluation of Deep Learning Models for Predicting CO2 Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Nguyen, P.; Frankel, D.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial neural networks have been employed to calculate surface flux measurements from station data because they are able to fit highly nonlinear relations between input and output variables without knowing the detail relationships between the variables. However, the accuracy in performing neural net estimates of CO2 flux from observations of CO2 and other atmospheric variables is influenced by the architecture of the neural model, the availability, and complexity of interactions between physical variables such as wind, temperature, and indirect variables like latent heat, and sensible heat, etc. We evaluate two deep learning models, feed forward and recurrent neural network models to learn how they each respond to the physical measurements, time dependency of the measurements of CO2 concentration, humidity, pressure, temperature, wind speed etc. for predicting the CO2 flux. In this paper, we focus on a) building neural network models for estimating CO2 flux based on DOE data from tower Atmospheric Radiation Measurement data; b) evaluating the impact of choosing the surface variables and model hyper-parameters on the accuracy and predictions of surface flux; c) assessing the applicability of the neural network models on estimate CO2 flux by using OCO-2 satellite data; d) studying the efficiency of using GPU-acceleration for neural network performance using IBM Power AI deep learning software and packages on IBM Minsky system.

  6. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Matt [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research,Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2015-07-03

    Is the Hawking flux “thermal”? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word “thermal”. The original 1850’s notions of thermality — based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized “black bodies” or “lamp black surfaces” — when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900’s, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but without any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only approximately Planck-shaped over an explicitly bounded range of frequencies. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is approximately Planck-shaped from both above and below — the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  7. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Is the Hawking flux “thermal”? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word “thermal”. The original 1850’s notions of thermality — based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized “black bodies” or “lamp black surfaces” — when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900’s, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but without any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only approximately Planck-shaped over an explicitly bounded range of frequencies. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is approximately Planck-shaped from both above and below — the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  8. Physics of magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ryutova, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first account of the physics of magnetic flux tubes from their fundamental properties to collective phenomena in an ensembles of flux tubes. The physics of magnetic flux tubes is absolutely vital for understanding fundamental physical processes in the solar atmosphere shaped and governed by magnetic fields. High-resolution and high cadence observations from recent space and  ground-based instruments taken simultaneously at different heights and temperatures not only show the ubiquity of filamentary structure formation but also allow to study how various events are interconnected by system of magnetic flux tubes. The book covers both theory and observations. Theoretical models presented in analytical and phenomenological forms are tailored for practical applications. These are welded with state-of-the-art observations from early decisive ones to the most recent data that open a new phase-space for exploring the Sun and sun-like stars. Concept of magnetic flux tubes is central to various magn...

  9. Flux studies on ion microporous membrane for the use of medical filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongying; Huang Zhengde

    2002-01-01

    The influences of the irradiating condition (divergent and perpendicular irradiation) and hole shapes (cylinder and cone holes) on the flux are studied for ion microporous membrane. The results show that divergent irradiation and cone hole both can improve the flux of ion microporous membrane for the use of medical filtration

  10. A simple model of the distant Jovian tail with magnetic flux loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzedzielski, S.; Macek, W.; Oberc, P.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of a small rate of magnetic flux loss on a simple hydromagnetic model of the distant Jovian tail was estimated. The loss of flux leads to a 10-15% decrease of the tail radius at Saturn's distance. Possible encounter of the tail with Uranus in 1983 is also briefly discussed. (author)

  11. Crystallization of Reduced Strontium and Barium Niobate Perovskites from Borate Fluxes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessen, B.; Sunshine, S.A.; Siegrist, T.; Jimenez, R.

    1991-01-01

    Single crystals of three AxNbO3 (A = Sr, Ba) reduced niobate cubic perovskites have been obtained by recrystallization of reduced ternary ceramic precursors from borate fluxes under high-vacuum. Product formation could be influenced by variation of the alkaline-earth metal oxide content of the flux,

  12. C-13 Tracer experiments and metabolite balancing for metabolic flux analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Karsten; Marx, A.; de Graaf, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    performed independently for a wild-type strain of Aspergillus oryzae producing alpha-amylase. Two different nitrogen sources, NH4+ and NO3-, have been used to investigate the influence of the NADPH requirements on the intracellular flux distribution. The two different approaches to the calculation of fluxes...

  13. Effects of magnetizing on flux pinning force for sintered YBCO superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, S.Y.; Yan, J.L.; Yu, Z.; Shi, K.X.; Tong, H.W.; Qiu, L.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that magnitude and course of magnetizing field influence magnetization and transport current. Effective flux pinning force density with two types is extracted by an iterative procedure based on the critical state equation. One of the types is attributed to the weak links and the other is considered to be resulted from the intragrain flux pinning centers

  14. Flux driven turbulence in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, P.; Ottaviani, M.; Sarazin, Y.; Beyer, P.; Benkadda, S.; Waltz, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with tokamak plasma turbulence in the case where fluxes are fixed and profiles are allowed to fluctuate. These systems are intermittent. In particular, radially propagating fronts, are usually observed over a broad range of time and spatial scales. The existence of these fronts provide a way to understand the fast transport events sometimes observed in tokamaks. It is also shown that the confinement scaling law can still be of the gyroBohm type in spite of these large scale transport events. Some departure from the gyroBohm prediction is observed at low flux, i.e. when the gradients are close to the instability threshold. Finally, it is found that the diffusivity is not the same for a turbulence calculated at fixed flux than at fixed temperature gradient, with the same time averaged profile. (author)

  15. Methane flux from boreal peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crill, P.; Bartlett, K.; Roulet, N.

    1992-01-01

    The peatlands in the boreal zone (roughly 45 deg - 60 degN) store a significant reservoir of carbon, much of which is potentially available for exchange with the atmosphere. The anaerobic conditions that cause these soils to accumulate carbon also makes wet, boreal peatlands significant sources of methane to the global troposphere. It is estimated that boreal wetlands contribute approximately 19.5 Tg methane per year. The data available on the magnitude of boreal methane emissions have rapidly accumulated in the past twenty years. This paper offers a short review of the flux measured (with range roughly 1 - 2000 mg methane/m2d), considers environmental controls of the flux and briefly discusses how climate change might affect future fluxes

  16. Wide range neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yorimasa; Fukushima, Toshiki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a wide range neutron-flux monitor adapted such that the flux monitoring function and alarming function can automatically by shifted from pulse counting system to cambel method system. Constitution: A wide range neutron-flux monitor comprises (la) pulse counting system and (lb) cambel-method system for inputting detection signals from neutron detectors and separating them into signals for the pulse measuring system and the cambel measuring system, (2) overlap detection and calculation circuit for detecting the existence of the overlap of two output signals from the (la) and (lb) systems, and (3) trip circuit for judging the abnormal state of neutron detectors upon input of the detection signals. (Seki, T.)

  17. High heat flux facility GLADIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H.; Boeswirth, B.; Boscary, J.; McNeely, P.

    2007-01-01

    The new ion beam facility GLADIS started the operation at IPP Garching. The facility is equipped with two individual 1.1 MW power ion sources for testing actively cooled plasma facing components under high heat fluxes. Each ion source generates heat loads between 3 and 55 MW/m 2 with a beam diameter of 70 mm at the target position. These parameters allow effective testing from probes to large components up to 2 m length. The high heat flux allows the target to be installed inclined to the beam and thus increases the heated surface length up to 200 mm for a heat flux of 15 MW/m 2 in the standard operating regime. Thus the facility has the potential capability for testing of full scale ITER divertor targets. Heat load tests on the WENDELSTEIN 7-X pre-series divertor targets have been successfully started. These tests will validate the design and manufacturing for the production of 950 elements

  18. Heat flux driven ion turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.

    1998-01-01

    This work is an analysis of an ion turbulence in a tokamak in the case where the thermal flux is fixed and the temperature profile is allowed to fluctuate. The system exhibits some features of Self-Organized Critical systems. In particular, avalanches are observed. Also the frequency spectrum of the thermal flux exhibits a structure similar to the one of a sand pile automaton, including a 1/f behavior. However, the time average temperature profile is found to be supercritical, i.e. the temperature gradient stays above the critical value. Moreover, the heat diffusivity is lower for a turbulence calculated at fixed flux than a fixed temperature gradient, with the same time average temperature. This behavior is attributed to a stabilizing effect of avalanches. (author)

  19. Ideal flux field dielectric concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Botella, Angel

    2011-10-01

    The concept of the vector flux field was first introduced as a photometrical theory and later developed in the field of nonimaging optics; it has provided new perspectives in the design of concentrators, overcoming standard ray tracing techniques. The flux field method has shown that reflective concentrators with the geometry of the field lines achieve the theoretical limit of concentration. In this paper we study the role of surfaces orthogonal to the field vector J. For rotationally symmetric systems J is orthogonal to its curl, and then a family of surfaces orthogonal to the lines of J exists, which can be called the family of surfaces of constant pseudopotential. Using the concept of the flux tube, it is possible to demonstrate that refractive concentrators with the shape of these pseudopotential surfaces achieve the theoretical limit of concentration.

  20. Flux flow and flux creep in thick films of YBCO. [Y-Ba-Cu-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickets, J.; Vinen, W.F.; Abell, J.S.; Shields, T.C. (Superconductivity Research Group, Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom))

    1991-12-01

    The results are described of new experiments designed to study flux creep and flux flow along a single flux percolation path in thick films of YBCO. The flux flow regime is studied by a four-point resistive technique using pulsed currents, and the flux creep regime by observing the rate at which flux enters a superconducting loop in parallel with the resistance that is associated with the flux percolation path. (orig.).

  1. The flux database concerted action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.G.; Donnelly, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the background to the UIR action on the development of a flux database for radionuclide transfer in soil-plant systems. The action is discussed in terms of the objectives, the deliverables and the progress achieved so far by the flux database working group. The paper describes the background to the current initiative and outlines specific features of the database and supporting documentation. Particular emphasis is placed on the proforma used for data entry, on the database help file and on the approach adopted to indicate data quality. Refs. 3 (author)

  2. Boosted Fast Flux Loop Alternative Cooling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Donna Post Guillen; James R. Parry; Douglas L. Porter; Bruce W. Wallace

    2007-08-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project was instituted to develop the means for conducting fast neutron irradiation tests in a domestic radiation facility. It made use of booster fuel to achieve the high neutron flux, a hafnium thermal neutron absorber to attain the high fast-to-thermal flux ratio, a mixed gas temperature control system for maintaining experiment temperatures, and a compressed gas cooling system to remove heat from the experiment capsules and the hafnium thermal neutron absorber. This GTL system was determined to provide a fast (E > 0.1 MeV) flux greater than 1.0E+15 n/cm2-s with a fast-to-thermal flux ratio in the vicinity of 40. However, the estimated system acquisition cost from earlier studies was deemed to be high. That cost was strongly influenced by the compressed gas cooling system for experiment heat removal. Designers were challenged to find a less expensive way to achieve the required cooling. This report documents the results of the investigation leading to an alternatively cooled configuration, referred to now as the Boosted Fast Flux Loop (BFFL). This configuration relies on a composite material comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) in an aluminum matrix to transfer heat from the experiment to pressurized water cooling channels while at the same time providing absorption of thermal neutrons. Investigations into the performance this configuration might achieve showed that it should perform at least as well as its gas-cooled predecessor. Physics calculations indicated that the fast neutron flux averaged over the central 40 cm (16 inches) relative to ATR core mid-plane in irradiation spaces would be about 1.04E+15 n/cm2-s. The fast-to-thermal flux ratio would be in excess of 40. Further, the particular configuration of cooling channels was relatively unimportant compared with the total amount of water in the apparatus in determining performance. Thermal analyses conducted on a candidate configuration showed the design of the water coolant and

  3. Surface renewal analysis for estimating turbulent surface fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellvi, F.

    2009-01-01

    A decade ago, the need for a long-term surface monitoring was recognized to better understand the soil-vegetation-atmosphere scalar exchange and interaction processes. the AmeriFlux concept emerged in the IGBP workshop (La Thuile, IT, 1995). Continuous acquisition of surface fluxes for different species such as temperature, water vapour, CO x , halocarbon, ozone, etc.,) and momentum allows determination of the influence of local (canopy) exchanges, fossil fuel emission, large-scale biotic exchange on ambient concentrations which are crucial to take decisions for protecting natural environments and water resources, to develop new perspective for modern agriculture and forest management and to better understand the global climate change. (Author)

  4. Determination of photon detector coefficient in neutron flux study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedol Dayou; Azali Muhammad; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Abdul Razak Daud; Elias Saniman

    1995-01-01

    The efficiency of photon detector which is normally used in neutron flux measurement has been studied. The data obtain have been plotted using mathematical models in the form of reciprocal, exponential and semilog equation and subsequently efficiency coefficient of the detector has been determined. Beside that, energy quadratic equation model has also been used. It has been found that equation model selection is very important in the detector efficiency coefficient determination. In the case of energy quadratic equation, it has been found that the selection of energy set influenced the result. It can be concluded that energy quadratic equation is the best model in the neutron flux determination

  5. Flux-profile relationships over a fetch limited beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of an internal boundary layer and a roughness sublayer on flux-profile relationships for momentum and sensible heat have been investigated for a closed beech forest canopy with limited fetch conditions. The influence was quantified by derivation of local scaling functions for sensible...... heat flux and momentum (phi(h) and phi(m)) and analysed as a function of atmospheric stability and fetch. For heat, the influences of the roughness sublayer and the internal boundary layer were in agreement with previous studies. For momentum, the strong vertical gradient of the flow just above...... the canopy top for some wind sectors led to an increase in phi(m), a feature that has not previously been observed. For a fetch of 500 m over the beech forest during neutral atmospheric conditions, there is no height range at the site where profiles can be expected to be logarithmic with respect to the local...

  6. Laboratory Measurements of the Water/Air Flux of Dimethylsulfide Using a Wind/Wave Tank

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dacey, John

    1998-01-01

    The flux of dimethylsulfide (DMS) from the surface water of the ocean to the atmosphere is an important biogeochemical problem, since DMS contributes to optical haze and potentially impacts global climate by influencing earth's albedo...

  7. Measurements at the RA Reactor related to the VISA-2 project - Part 3, calculation of VISA-2 samples influence on the reactor reactivity, on the depression of thermal neutron flux in VK-5 channel and VISA-2 samples; Fizicka merenja na reaktoru RA u vezi projekta VISA-2 - III deo, Proracun uticaja uzoraka VISA-2 na reaktivnost reaktora, na depresiju fluksa termalnih neuntrona u kanalu VK-5 i u uzorcima VISA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, H; Martinc, R [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-07-01

    The objective of this task was to determine the thermal neutron flux in the RA reactor cell with VISA-2 samples, the influence of VISA-2 samples on the thermal neutron flux distribution in the vicinity of VK-5 channel and the antireactivity of VISA-2 samples placed in the RA reactor core. This distribution is needed for calculating the mean value of absorption and thermal efficiency factor in the reactor cell with the sample. Thermal neutron flux distribution without the sample was calculated by diffusion theory. Fast neutron flux space distribution was assumed to be constant, i.e. that it is dependent only on the nuclear properties of the materials. Macroscopic thermal neutron flux distribution was determined by two-group diffusion theory using the four factor formula applied for two regions: active RA region, and reactor region with calls containing VISA-2 samples. This calculation enables estimation of the VISA-2 samples influence on the thermal neutron flux distribution in the VK-5 channel. Antireactivity of VISA-2 samples was calculated by neutron diffusion theory applying the perturbation method. [Serbo-Croat] Cilj ovog zadatka je da se odredi raspodela fluksa termalnih neutrona u celiji reaktora RA sa uzorcima VISA-2, uticaj uzoraka VISA-2 na makroskopsku raspodelu termalnih neutrona u blizini uzoraka, tj. u kanalu VK-5, kao i antiraktivnost uzoraka VISA-2 ubacenih u jezgro RA. Poznavanje ove raspodele potrebno je za izracunavanje srednje apsorpcije i faktora termalnog iskoriscenja u celiji reaktora sa uzorkom. Raspodela fluksa termalnih neutrona u celiji RA bez uzorka izracunata je na bazi difuzione teorije. Fluks brzih neutrona uzet je kao konstanta s obzirom na prostorne koordinate, tj. da zavisi samo od nuklearnih karakteristika materijala. Makroskopska raspodela fluksa termalnih neutrona u okolini VISA-2 odredjena je na bazi dvogrupne difuzione teorije preko formule cetiri faktora, primenjene na dve zone: prva aktivna zona RA, i druga reaktorka sredina

  8. Simple models with ALICE fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Striet, J

    2000-01-01

    We introduce two simple models which feature an Alice electrodynamics phase. In a well defined sense the Alice flux solutions we obtain in these models obey first order equations similar to those of the Nielsen-Olesen fluxtube in the abelian higgs model in the Bogomol'nyi limit. Some numerical solutions are presented as well.

  9. The Effect of the Heat Flux on the Self-Ignition of Oriented Strand Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirle Siegfried

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the initiation phase of flaming and smouldering burning of oriented strand board. The influence of heat flux on thermal degradation of OSB boards, time to ignition, heat release rate and mass loss rate using thermal analysis and vertical electrical radiation panel methods were studied. Significant information on the influence of the heat flux density and the thickness of the material on time to ignition was obtained.

  10. The Effect of the Heat Flux on the Self-Ignition of Oriented Strand Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirle, Siegfried; Balog, Karol

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the initiation phase of flaming and smouldering burning of oriented strand board. The influence of heat flux on thermal degradation of OSB boards, time to ignition, heat release rate and mass loss rate using thermal analysis and vertical electrical radiation panel methods were studied. Significant information on the influence of the heat flux density and the thickness of the material on time to ignition was obtained.

  11. Using thermalizers in measuring 'Ukryttia' object's FCM neutron fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnyanskaya, O G; Odinokin, G I; Pavlovich, V N

    2003-01-01

    The results of research of a thermalizer (heater) width influence on neutron thermalization efficiency during FCM neutron flux measuring in the 'Ukryttia' are described. The calculations of neutron flux densities were performed by the Monte-Carlo method with the help of computer code MCNP-4C for FCM different models.Three possible installations of detectors were considered: on FCM surface,inside the FCM, and inside the concrete under the FCM layer. It was shown,that in order to increase the sensitivity of neutron detectors in intermediate and fast neutrons field,and consequently, to decrease the dependence of the readings of spectral distribution of neutron flux,it is necessary to position the detector inside the so-called thermalizer or heater. The most reasonable application of thick 'heaters' is the situation, when the detector is placed on FCM surface.

  12. Assessing environmental impacts on stream water quality: the use of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference approaches to deforestation of the Hafren Forest, mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for examining the impacts of disturbance on stream water quality based on paired catchment “controlâ€? and “responseâ€? water quality time series is described in relation to diagrams of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference. The paper describes the equations used and illustrates the patterns expected for idealised flux changes followed by an application to stream water quality data for a spruce forested catchment, the Hore, subjected to clear fell. The water quality determinands examined are sodium, chloride, nitrate, calcium and acid neutralisation capacity. The anticipated effects of felling are shown in relation to reduction in mist capture and nitrate release with felling as well as to the influence of weathering and cation exchange mechanisms, but in a much clearer way than observed previously using other approaches. Keywords: Plynlimon, stream, Hore, acid neutralisation capacity, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sodium, cumulative flux, flux

  13. Flavour mixings in flux compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-01-01

    A multiplicity of quark-lepton families can naturally arise as zero-modes in flux compactifications. The flavour structure of quark and lepton mass matrices is then determined by the wave function profiles of the zero-modes. We consider a supersymmetric SO(10) x U(1) model in six dimensions compactified on the orbifold T 2 =Z 2 with Abelian magnetic flux. A bulk 16-plet charged under the U(1) provides the quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10-plets yield two Higgs doublets. Bulk anomaly cancellation requires the presence of additional 16- and 10-plets. The corresponding zero-modes form vectorlike split multiplets that are needed to obtain a successful flavour phenomenology. We analyze the pattern of flavour mixings for the two heaviest families of the Standard Model and discuss possible generalizations to three and more generations.

  14. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.; Hietala, V.M.; Ginley, D.S.; Tigges, C.P.; Phillips, J.M.; Siegal, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed a family of digital logic circuits based on superconducting flux flow transistors that show high speed, reasonable signal levels, large fan-out, and large noise margins. The circuits are made from high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and have been shown to operate at over 90 K. NOR gates have been demonstrated with fan-outs of more than 5 and fully loaded switching times less than a fixture-limited 50 ps. Ring-oscillator data suggest inverter delay times of about 40ps when using a 3-μm linewidths. Simple flip-flops have also been demonstrated showing large noise margins, response times of less than 30 ps, and static power dissipation on the order of 30 nW. Among other uses, this logic family is appropriate as an interface between logic families such as single flux quantum and conventional semiconductor logic

  15. Heisenberg groups and noncommutative fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, Daniel S.; Moore, Gregory W.; Segal, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    We develop a group-theoretical approach to the formulation of generalized abelian gauge theories, such as those appearing in string theory and M-theory. We explore several applications of this approach. First, we show that there is an uncertainty relation which obstructs simultaneous measurement of electric and magnetic flux when torsion fluxes are included. Next, we show how to define the Hilbert space of a self-dual field. The Hilbert space is Z 2 -graded and we show that, in general, self-dual theories (including the RR fields of string theory) have fermionic sectors. We indicate how rational conformal field theories associated to the two-dimensional Gaussian model generalize to (4k+2)-dimensional conformal field theories. When our ideas are applied to the RR fields of string theory we learn that it is impossible to measure the K-theory class of a RR field. Only the reduction modulo torsion can be measured

  16. Neutron flux enhancement at LASREF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.F.; Ferguson, P.D.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The accelerator at the Los Alamos Meson Physiscs Facility produces a 1 mA beam of protons at an energy of 800 MeV. Since 1985, the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has made use of the neutron flux that is generated as the incident protons interact with the targets and a copper beam stop. A variety of basic and applied experiments in radiation damage and radiation effects have been completed. Recent studies indicate that the flux at LASREF can be increased by at least a factor of 10 from the present level of about 5 E + 17 m -2 s -1 . This requires changing the beam stop material from Cu to W and optimizing the geometry of the beam-target interaction region. These studies are motivated by the need for a large volume, high energy, and high intensity neutron source in the development of materials for advanced energy concepts such as fusion reactors. (orig.)

  17. Flux through a Markov chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floriani, Elena; Lima, Ricardo; Ourrad, Ouerdia; Spinelli, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The flux through a Markov chain of a conserved quantity (mass) is studied. • Mass is supplied by an external source and ends in the absorbing states of the chain. • Meaningful for modeling open systems whose dynamics has a Markov property. • The analytical expression of mass distribution is given for a constant source. • The expression of mass distribution is given for periodic or random sources. - Abstract: In this paper we study the flux through a finite Markov chain of a quantity, that we will call mass, which moves through the states of the chain according to the Markov transition probabilities. Mass is supplied by an external source and accumulates in the absorbing states of the chain. We believe that studying how this conserved quantity evolves through the transient (non-absorbing) states of the chain could be useful for the modelization of open systems whose dynamics has a Markov property.

  18. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized

  19. Rapid reconnection of flux lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.

    1982-01-01

    The rapid reconnection of flux lines in an incompressible fluid through a singular layer of the current density is discussed. It is shown that the liberated magnetic energy must partially appear in the form of plasma kinetic energy. A laminar structure of the flow is possible, but Alfven velocity must be achieved in eddies of growing size at the ends of the layer. The gross structure of the flow and the magnetic configuration may be obtained from variational principles. (author)

  20. System for prediction and determination of the sub critic multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Aquilino S.; Pereira, Valmir; Silva, Fernando C. da

    1997-01-01

    It is presented a concept of a system which may be used to calculate and anticipate the subcritical multiplication of a PWR nuclear power plant. The system is divided into two different modules. The first module allows the theoretical prediction of the subcritical multiplication factor through the solution of the multigroup diffusion equation. The second module determines this factor based on the data acquired from the neutron detectors of a NPP external nuclear detection system. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Nuclear data requirements for accelerator driven sub-critical systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (b) Compilations coordinated by a classical data centre, computerized visual- izations, large data files information management, evaluations, that include nuclear model based predictions, creating ... and resources with a comprehensive approach to cover as many known ADSS de- signs as possible to meet the nuclear data ...

  2. Comparative analysis of sub-critical transmutation reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The long-lived nuclear wastes have been substantially generated from the light water reactor for a few decades. The toxicity of these spent fuels will be higher than that of the uranium ore, even if those will be stored in the repository more than ten thousands. Hence the means of transmuting the key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides, using a hybrid proton accelerator and subcritical transmutation reactor, are proposed. Until now, the representative concepts for a subcritical transmutation reactor are the Energy Amplifier, the OMEGA project, the ATW and the MSBR. The detailed concepts and the specifications are illustrated in Table 1. The design requirements for the subcritical transmutation reactor are the high transmutation rate of long-lived nuclear wastes, safety and economics. And to propose the subcritical transmutation reactor concepts, the coolant, the target material and fuel type are carefully considered. In these aspects, the representative concepts for a subcritical transmutation reactor in Table 1 have been surveyed. The requirements for a target and a coolant are the reliable, low maintenance operation and safe operation to minimize the wastes. The reliable, low maintenance operation and safe operation to minimize the wastes. The reliable coolant must have the low melting point, high heat capacity and excellent physical properties. And the target material must have high neutron yield for a given proton condition and easy heat removal capability. Therefore in respect with the above requirements, Pb-Bi is proposed as the coolant and the target material for the subcritical reactor. Because the neutron yield for a given proton energy increases linearly with mass number up to bismuth but in heavier elements spallation events sharply increase both the neutron and heat outputs, Pb-Bi meets not only such the requirements as the above for the coolant but also those for the coolant and target, the simplification of system can be achieved. Therefore, Pb-Bi is proposed as the coolant and the target material for a subcritical transmutation reactor. (author)

  3. A microfluidic sub-critical water extraction instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Noell, Aaron C.; Fisher, Anita; Lee, Mike C.; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kutzer, Thomas C.; Grunthaner, Frank

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses a microfluidic subcritical water extraction (SCWE) chip for autonomous extraction of amino acids from astrobiologically interesting samples. The microfluidic instrument is composed of three major components. These include a mixing chamber where the soil sample is mixed and agitated with the solvent (water), a subcritical water extraction chamber where the sample is sealed with a freeze valve at the chip inlet after a vapor bubble is injected into the inlet channels to ensure the pressure in the chip is in equilibrium with the vapor pressure and the slurry is then heated to ≤200 °C in the SCWE chamber, and a filter or settling chamber where the slurry is pumped to after extraction. The extraction yield of the microfluidic SCWE chip process ranged from 50% compared to acid hydrolysis and 80%-100% compared to a benchtop microwave SCWE for low biomass samples.

  4. The physics of accelerator driven sub-critical reactors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are attracting worldwide attention .... The region of interest (or the entire reactor core) is divided into a suitable number ..... have also presented the status of the theoretical and experimental activities being.

  5. Neutron flux control systems validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hascik, R.

    2003-01-01

    In nuclear installations main requirement is to obtain corresponding nuclear safety in all operation conditions. From the nuclear safety point of view is commissioning and start-up after reactor refuelling appropriate period for safety systems verification. In this paper, methodology, performance and results of neutron flux measurements systems validation is presented. Standard neutron flux measuring chains incorporated into the reactor protection and control system are used. Standard neutron flux measuring chain contains detector, preamplifier, wiring to data acquisition unit, data acquisition unit, wiring to display at control room and display at control room. During reactor outage only data acquisition unit and wiring and displaying at reactor control room is verified. It is impossible to verify detector, preamplifier and wiring to data acquisition recording unit during reactor refuelling according to low power. Adjustment and accurate functionality of these chains is confirmed by start-up rate (SUR) measurement during start-up tests after refuelling of the reactors. This measurement has direct impact to nuclear safety and increase operational nuclear safety level. Briefly description of each measuring system is given. Results are illustrated on measurements performed at Bohunice NPP during reactor start-up tests. Main failures and their elimination are described (Authors)

  6. Surface fluxes in heterogeneous landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C

    1997-01-01

    The surface fluxes in homogeneous landscapes are calculated by similarity scaling principles. The methodology is well establish. In heterogeneous landscapes with spatial changes in the micro scale range, i e from 100 m to 10 km, advective effects are significant. The present work focus on these effects in an agricultural countryside typical for the midlatitudes. Meteorological and satellite data from a highly heterogeneous landscape in the Rhine Valley, Germany was collected in the large-scale field experiment TRACT (Transport of pollutants over complex terrain) in 1992. Classified satellite images, Landsat TM and ERS SAR, are used as basis for roughness maps. The roughnesses were measured at meteorological masts in the various cover classes and assigned pixel by pixel to the images. The roughness maps are aggregated, i e spatially averaged, into so-called effective roughness lengths. This calculation is performed by a micro scale aggregation model. The model solves the linearized atmospheric flow equations by a numerical (Fast Fourier Transform) method. This model also calculate maps of friction velocity and momentum flux pixel wise in heterogeneous landscapes. It is indicated how the aggregation methodology can be used to calculate the heat fluxes based on the relevant satellite data i e temperature and soil moisture information. (au) 10 tabs., 49 ills., 223 refs.

  7. Generalized drift-flux correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, K.; Young, M.Y.; Hochreiter, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    A one-dimensional drift-flux model with five conservation equations is frequently employed in major computer codes, such as TRAC-PD2, and in simulator codes. In this method, the relative velocity between liquid and vapor phases, or slip ratio, is given by correlations, rather than by direct solution of the phasic momentum equations, as in the case of the two-fluid model used in TRAC-PF1. The correlations for churn-turbulent bubbly flow and slug flow regimes were given in terms of drift velocities by Zuber and Findlay. For the annular flow regime, the drift velocity correlations were developed by Ishii et al., using interphasic force balances. Another approach is to define the drift velocity so that flooding and liquid hold-up conditions are properly simulated, as reported here. The generalized correlation is used to reanalyze the MB-2 test data for two-phase flow in a large-diameter pipe. The results are applied to the generalized drift flux velocity, whose relationship to the other correlations is discussed. Finally, the generalized drift flux correlation is implemented in TRAC-PD2. Flow reversal from countercurrent to cocurrent flow is computed in small-diameter U-shaped tubes and is compared with the flooding curve

  8. Force sensor using changes in magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Herman L. (Inventor); Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A force sensor includes a magnetostrictive material and a magnetic field generator positioned in proximity thereto. A magnetic field is induced in and surrounding the magnetostrictive material such that lines of magnetic flux pass through the magnetostrictive material. A sensor positioned in the vicinity of the magnetostrictive material measures changes in one of flux angle and flux density when the magnetostrictive material experiences an applied force that is aligned with the lines of magnetic flux.

  9. Reluctance motor employing superconducting magnetic flux switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyker, R.L.; Ruckstadter, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that superconducting flux switches controlling the magnetic flux in the poles of a motor will enable the implementation of a reluctance motor using one central single phase winding. A superconducting flux switch consists of a ring of superconducting material surrounding a ferromagnetic pole of the motor. When in the superconducting state the switch will block all magnetic flux attempting to flow in the ferromagnetic core. When switched to the normal state the superconducting switch will allow the magnetic flux to flow freely in that pole. By using one high turns-count coil as a flux generator, and selectively channeling flux among the various poles using the superconducting flux switch, 3-phase operation can be emulated with a single-hase central AC source. The motor will also operate when the flux generating coil is driven by a DC current, provided the magnetic flux switches see a continuously varying magnetic flux. Rotor rotation provides this varying flux due to the change in stator pole inductance it produces

  10. Coronal and heliospheric magnetic flux circulation and its relation to open solar flux evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Mike; Owens, Mathew J.; Imber, Suzanne M.; James, Matthew K.; Bunce, Emma J.; Yeoman, Timothy K.

    2017-06-01

    Solar cycle 24 is notable for three features that can be found in previous cycles but which have been unusually prominent: (1) sunspot activity was considerably greater in the northern/southern hemisphere during the rising/declining phase; (2) accumulation of open solar flux (OSF) during the rising phase was modest, but rapid in the early declining phase; (3) the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) tilt showed large fluctuations. We show that these features had a major influence on the progression of the cycle. All flux emergence causes a rise then a fall in OSF, but only OSF with foot points in opposing hemispheres progresses the solar cycle via the evolution of the polar fields. Emergence in one hemisphere, or symmetric emergence without some form of foot point exchange across the heliographic equator, causes poleward migrating fields of both polarities in one or both (respectively) hemispheres which temporarily enhance OSF but do not advance the polar field cycle. The heliospheric field observed near Mercury and Earth reflects the asymmetries in emergence. Using magnetograms, we find evidence that the poleward magnetic flux transport (of both polarities) is modulated by the HCS tilt, revealing an effect on OSF loss rate. The declining phase rise in OSF was caused by strong emergence in the southern hemisphere with an anomalously low HCS tilt. This implies the recent fall in the southern polar field will be sustained and that the peak OSF has limited implications for the polar field at the next sunspot minimum and hence for the amplitude of cycle 25.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryThere is growing interest in being able to predict the evolution in solar conditions on a better basis than past experience, which is necessarily limited. Two of the key features of the solar magnetic cycle are that the polar fields reverse just after the peak of each sunspot cycle and that the polar field that has accumulated by the time of each sunspot minimum is a good

  11. Optimization of neutron flux distribution in Isotope Production Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    In order to optimize the thermal neutrons flux distribution in a Radioisotope Production and Research Reactor, the influence of two reactor parameters was studied, namely the Vmod / Vcomb ratio and the core volume. The reactor core is built with uranium oxide pellets (UO 2 ) mounted in rod clusters, with an enrichment level of ∼3 %, similar to LIGHT WATER POWER REATOR (LWR) fuel elements. (author) [pt

  12. Land-Use Influences Carbon Fluxes in Northern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of carbon cycling is important to maintain sustainable rangeland ecosystems. Rangelands in the western U.S. are similar to those in Central Asia. We used a combination of meteorological and computer modeling techniques to quantitatively assess carbon loss and gain for four major l...

  13. Influence of transient flooding on methane fluxes from subtropical pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonally flooded subtropical pastures are major methane (CH4) sources, where transient flooding drives episodic and high-magnitude emissions from the underlying landscape. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these patterns is needed to better understand pasture CH4 emissions and their response...

  14. Freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mernild

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial inputs of freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland, were estimated, indicating ice discharge to be the dominant source of freshwater. A freshwater flux of 40.4 ± 4.9×109 m3 y−1 was found (1999–2008, with an 85% contribution originated from ice discharge (65% alone from Helheim Glacier, 11% from terrestrial surface runoff (from melt water and rain, 3% from precipitation at the fjord surface area, and 1% from subglacial geothermal and frictional melting due to basal ice motion. The results demonstrate the dominance of ice discharge as a primary mechanism for delivering freshwater to Sermilik Fjord. Time series of ice discharge for Helheim Glacier, Midgård Glacier, and Fenris Glacier were calculated from satellite-derived average surface velocity, glacier width, and estimated ice thickness, and fluctuations in terrestrial surface freshwater runoff were simulated based on observed meteorological data. These simulations were compared and bias corrected against independent glacier catchment runoff observations. Modeled runoff to Sermilik Fjord was variable, ranging from 2.9 ± 0.4×109 m3 y−1 in 1999 to 5.9 ± 0.9×109 m3 y−1 in 2005. The sub-catchment runoff of the Helheim Glacier region accounted for 25% of the total runoff to Sermilik Fjord. The runoff distribution from the different sub-catchments suggested a strong influence from the spatial variation in glacier coverage, indicating high runoff volumes, where glacier cover was present at low elevations.

  15. Flux of Cadmium through Euphausiids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, G.; Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    Flux of the heavy metal cadmium through the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica was examined. Radiotracer experiments showed that cadmium can be accumulated either directly from water or through the food chain. When comparing equilibrium cadmium concentration factors based on stable element measurements with those obtained from radiotracer experiments, it is evident that exchange between cadmium in the water and that in euphausiid tissue is a relatively slow process, indicating that, in the long term, ingestion of cadmium will probably be the more important route for the accumulation of this metal. Approximately 10% of cadmium ingested by euphausiids was incorporated into internal tissues when the food source was radioactive Artemia. After 1 month cadmium, accumulated directly from water, was found to be most concentrated in the viscera with lesser amounts in eyes, exoskeleton and muscle, respectively. Use of a simple model, based on the assumption that cadmium taken in by the organism must equal cadmium released plus that accumulated in tissue, allowed assessment of the relative importance of various metabolic parameters in controlling the cadmium flux through euphausiids. Fecal pellets, due to their relatively high rate of production and high cadmium content, accounted for 84% of the total cadmium flux through M. norvegica. Comparisons of stable cadmium concentrations in natural euphausiid food and the organism's resultant fecal pellets indicate that the cadmium concentration in ingested material was increased nearly 5-fold during its passage through the euphausiid. From comparisons of all routes by which cadmium can be released from M. norvegica to the water column, it is concluded that fecal pellet deposition represents the principal mechanism effecting the downward vertical transport of cadmium by this species. (author)

  16. Framework for Flux Qubit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Kamal, Archana; Krantz, Philip; Campbell, Daniel; Kim, David; Yoder, Jonilyn; Orlando, Terry; Gustavsson, Simon; Oliver, William; Engineering Quantum Systems Team

    A qubit design for higher performance relies on the understanding of how various qubit properties are related to design parameters. We construct a framework for understanding the qubit design in the flux regime. We explore different parameter regimes, looking for features desirable for certain purpose in the context of quantum computing. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) via MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002.

  17. FSFE: Fake Spectra Flux Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simeon

    2017-10-01

    The fake spectra flux extractor generates simulated quasar absorption spectra from a particle or adaptive mesh-based hydrodynamic simulation. It is implemented as a python module. It can produce both hydrogen and metal line spectra, if the simulation includes metals. The cloudy table for metal ionization fractions is included. Unlike earlier spectral generation codes, it produces absorption from each particle close to the sight-line individually, rather than first producing an average density in each spectral pixel, thus substantially preserving more of the small-scale velocity structure of the gas. The code supports both Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO.

  18. Four-collector flux sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, W.J. Jr.; Bullis, R.H.; Mongeon, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A flowmeter based on ion drift techniques was developed for measuring the rate of flow of a fluid through a given cross-section. Ion collectors are positioned on each side of an immediately adjacent to ion source. When air flows axially through the region in which ions are produced and appropriate electric fields are maintained between the collectors, an electric current flows to each collector due to the net motion of the ions. The electric currents and voltages and other parameters which define the flow are combined in an electric circuit so that the flux of the fluid can be determined. (DN)

  19. Influência de diferentes superfícies na temperatura e no fluxo de energiaInfluência de diferentes superfícies na temperatura e no fluxo de energia: um ensaio experimental / Influence of different surfaces on the temperature and energy flux: an experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2012-04-01

    clouds, cloudiness and precipitation directly influenced on the behavior of temperature and energy flux. It was noted that the artificial surfaces (asphalt and concrete presented more heat and greater fluxes of energy, while natural surfaces (grass and bare soil had the lowest values. The asphalt had, on average, 12% more energy emission in relation to the grass. Therefore, It was highlighted the urgent need to rethink the use of urban materials for a better quality of life.

  20. The causal relation between turbulent particle flux and density gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligen, B. Ph. van; Martín de Aguilera, A.; Hidalgo, C. [CIEMAT - Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carreras, B. A. [BACV Solutions, 110 Mohawk Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); García, L.; Nicolau, J. H. [Universidad Carlos III, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    A technique for detecting the causal relationship between fluctuating signals is used to investigate the relation between flux and gradient in fusion plasmas. Both a resistive pressure gradient driven turbulence model and experimental Langmuir probe data from the TJ-II stellarator are studied. It is found that the maximum influence occurs at a finite time lag (non-instantaneous response) and that quasi-periodicities exist. Furthermore, the model results show very long range radial influences, extending over most of the investigated regions, possibly related to coupling effects associated with plasma self-organization. These results clearly show that transport in fusion plasmas is not local and instantaneous, as is sometimes assumed.

  1. Energy flux simulation in heterogeneous cropland - a two year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Biernath, Christian; Heinlein, Florian; Priesack, Eckart

    2016-04-01

    changing contributions of the patchwork of environmental land surface conditions (land use, management, soil properties) which influence the energy flux tower measurements due to the footprint dynamics. Our simulation results show that a mosaic approach can improve modeling and analyzing energy fluxes when the land surface is heterogeneous. In this case our applied method is a promising approach to extend weather and climate models on the regional scale. A mixed approach for surface fluxes simulations can improve the understanding of the measured surface fluxes of crop fields located in a small distance to the flux tower. Simulated surface fluxes using the mixed approach are not always better representing the measurements than single crop simulations, but the simulation results are more stable and more reliably than taking only one vegetation and soil model configuration.

  2. Transport and degradation of pesticides in a biopurification system under variable flux, part I: A microcosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, Tineke, E-mail: dewilde.tineke@gmail.co [Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Spanoghe, Pieter [Laboratory of Crop Protection Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ryckeboer, Jaak [Division Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Catholic University Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jaeken, Peter [PCF-Royal Research Station of Gorsem, De Brede Akker 13, 3800 Sint-Truiden (Belgium); Springael, Dirk [Division Soil and Water Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Catholic University Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-10-15

    The efficiency of a biopurification system, developed to treat pesticide contaminated water, is to a large extent determined by the chemical and hydraulic load. Insight into the behaviour of pesticides under different fluxes is necessary. The behaviour of metalaxyl, bentazone, linuron, isoproturon and metamitron was studied under three different fluxes with or without the presence of pesticide-primed soil in column experiments. Due to the time-dependent sorption process, retention of the pesticides with intermediate mobility was significantly influenced by the flux. The higher the flux, the slower pesticides will be sorbed, which resulted in a lower retention. Degradation of the intermediate mobile pesticides was also submissive to variations in flux. An increase in flux, led to a decrease in retention, which in turn decreased the opportunity time for biodegradation. Finally, the presence of pesticide-primed soil was only beneficial for the degradation of metalaxyl. - Retention and degradation of pesticides in microcosms liable to different fluxes.

  3. Fluxes of particulate organic carbon in the East China Sea in summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Hung

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To understand carbon cycling in marginal seas better, particulate organic carbon (POC concentrations, POC fluxes and primary production (PP were measured in the East China Sea (ECS in summer 2007. Higher concentrations of POC were observed in the inner shelf, and lower POC values were found in the outer shelf. Similar to POC concentrations, elevated uncorrected POC fluxes (720–7300 mg C m−2 d−1 were found in the inner shelf, and lower POC fluxes (80–150 mg C m−2 d−1 were in the outer shelf, respectively. PP values (~ 340–3380 mg C m−2 d−1 had analogous distribution patterns to POC fluxes, while some of PP values were significantly lower than POC fluxes, suggesting that contributions of resuspended particles to POC fluxes need to be appropriately corrected. A vertical mixing model was used to correct effects of bottom sediment resuspension, and the lowest and highest corrected POC fluxes were in the outer shelf (58 ± 33 mg C m−2 d−1 and the inner shelf (785 ± 438 mg C m−2 d−1, respectively. The corrected POC fluxes (486 to 785 mg C m−2 d−1 in the inner shelf could be the minimum value because we could not exactly distinguish the effect of POC flux from Changjiang influence with turbid waters. The results suggest that 27–93% of the POC flux in the ECS might be from the contribution of resuspension of bottom sediments rather than from the actual biogenic carbon sinking flux. While the vertical mixing model is not a perfect model to solve sediment resuspension because it ignores biological degradation of sinking particles, Changjiang plume (or terrestrial inputs and lateral transport, it makes significant progress in both correcting the resuspension problem and in assessing a reasonable quantitative estimate of POC flux in a marginal sea.

  4. Triode for magnetic flux quanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Colauto, Fabiano; Benseman, Timothy; Rosenmann, Daniel; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    We designed a magnetic vortex triode using an array of closely spaced soft magnetic Py strips on top of a Nb superconducting film. The strips act similar to the grid electrode in an electronic triode, where the electron flow is regulated by the grid potential. In our case, we tune the vortex motion by the magnetic charge potential of the strip edges, using a small magnetic field rotating in the film plane. The magnetic charges emerging at the stripe edges and proportional to the magnetization component perpendicular to the edge direction, form linear potential barriers or valleys for vortex motion in the superconducting layer. We directly imaged the normal flux penetration into the Py/Nb films and observed retarded or accelerated entry of the normal vortices depending on the in-plane magnetization direction in the stripes. The observed flux behavior is explained by interactions between magnetically charged lines and magnetic monopoles of vortices similar to those between electrically charged strings and point charges. We discuss the possibility of using our design for manipulation of individual vortices in high-speed, low-power superconducting electronic circuits. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, and Office of BES (contract DE-AC02-06CH11357). F. Colauto thanks the Sao Paulo Research Foundation FAPESP (Grant No. 2015/06.085-3).

  5. Neutron flux enhancement at LASREF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.F.; Ferguson, P.D.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The accelerator at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility produces a 1-mA beam of protons at an energy of 800 MeV. Since 1985, the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has made use of the neutron flux that is generated as the incident protons interact with the nuclei in targets and a copper beam stop. A variety of basic and applied experiments in radiation damage and radiation effects have been completed. Recent studies indicate that the flux at LASREF can be increased by at least a factor of ten from the present level of about 5 E+17 m -2 s -1 . This requires changing the beam-stop material from Cu to W and optimizing the geometry of the beam-target interaction region. These studies are motivated by the need for a large volume, high energy, and high intensity neutron source in the development of materials for advanced energy concepts such as fusion reactors. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Neutron flux enhancement at LASREF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, W.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Ferguson, P.D. (Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)); Wechsler, M.S. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    The accelerator at the Los Alamos Meson Physiscs Facility produces a 1 mA beam of protons at an energy of 800 MeV. Since 1985, the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has made use of the neutron flux that is generated as the incident protons interact with the targets and a copper beam stop. A variety of basic and applied experiments in radiation damage and radiation effects have been completed. Recent studies indicate that the flux at LASREF can be increased by at least a factor of 10 from the present level of about 5 E + 17 m[sup -2] s[sup -1]. This requires changing the beam stop material from Cu to W and optimizing the geometry of the beam-target interaction region. These studies are motivated by the need for a large volume, high energy, and high intensity neutron source in the development of materials for advanced energy concepts such as fusion reactors. (orig.).

  7. Flux line patterns in Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, F.; Hardy, V.; Provost, J.; Ruyter, A.; Simon, C.

    1994-01-01

    Results of the defect influence on the flux line lattice in Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O x single crystals are presented. These crystals, non irradiated or irradiated at GANIL with heavy ions (Pb 56+ , 6 GeV) have been decorated with Ni particles in the superconducting state using the Bitter technique. The defects involved are columnar defects. Resulting decorated flux line patterns have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and computer image analysis. Disorder of the decorated flux line networks has been found to be strongly dependent on the defect density, which results from the irradiation. In order to characterize this disorder, a method for determining elastic energy terms in the deformation of flux line patterns has been investigated. This method can be applied if Fourier transforms of the decorated flux line patterns exhibit distinct reflections. (orig.)

  8. Accounting for urban biogenic fluxes in regional carbon budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Brady S; Wang, Jonathan A; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Friedl, Mark A

    2017-08-15

    Many ecosystem models incorrectly treat urban areas as devoid of vegetation and biogenic carbon (C) fluxes. We sought to improve estimates of urban biomass and biogenic C fluxes using existing, nationally available data products. We characterized biogenic influence on urban C cycling throughout Massachusetts, USA using an ecosystem model that integrates improved representation of urban vegetation, growing conditions associated with urban heat island (UHI), and altered urban phenology. Boston's biomass density is 1/4 that of rural forests, however 87% of Massachusetts' urban landscape is vegetated. Model results suggest that, kilogram-for-kilogram, urban vegetation cycles C twice as fast as rural forests. Urban vegetation releases (R E ) and absorbs (GEE) the equivalent of 11 and 14%, respectively, of anthropogenic emissions in the most urban portions of the state. While urban vegetation in Massachusetts fully sequesters anthropogenic emissions from smaller cities in the region, Boston's UHI reduces annual C storage by >20% such that vegetation offsets only 2% of anthropogenic emissions. Asynchrony between temporal patterns of biogenic and anthropogenic C fluxes further constrains the emissions mitigation potential of urban vegetation. However, neglecting to account for biogenic C fluxes in cities can impair efforts to accurately monitor, report, verify, and reduce anthropogenic emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil Carbon Dioxide Production and Surface Fluxes: Subsurface Physical Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, D.; Kellman, L.; Beltrami, H.

    Soil respiration is a critical determinant of landscape carbon balance. Variations in soil temperature and moisture patterns are important physical processes controlling soil respiration which need to be better understood. Relationships between soil respi- ration and physical controls are typically addressed using only surface flux data but other methods also exist which permit more rigorous interpretation of soil respira- tion processes. Here we use a combination of subsurface CO_{2} concentrations, surface CO_{2} fluxes and detailed physical monitoring of the subsurface envi- ronment to examine physical controls on soil CO_{2} production at four climate observatories in Eastern Canada. Results indicate that subsurface CO_{2} produc- tion is more strongly correlated to the subsurface thermal environment than the surface CO_{2} flux. Soil moisture was also found to have an important influence on sub- surface CO_{2} production, particularly in relation to the soil moisture - soil profile diffusivity relationship. Non-diffusive profile CO_{2} transport appears to be im- portant at these sites, resulting in a de-coupling of summertime surface fluxes from subsurface processes and violating assumptions that surface CO_{2} emissions are the result solely of diffusion. These results have implications for the study of soil respiration across a broad range of terrestrial environments.

  10. Some consequences of shear on galactic dynamos with helicity fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongzhe; Blackman, Eric G.

    2017-08-01

    Galactic dynamo models sustained by supernova (SN) driven turbulence and differential rotation have revealed that the sustenance of large-scale fields requires a flux of small-scale magnetic helicity to be viable. Here we generalize a minimalist analytic version of such galactic dynamos to explore some heretofore unincluded contributions from shear on the total turbulent energy and turbulent correlation time, with the helicity fluxes maintained by either winds, diffusion or magnetic buoyancy. We construct an analytic framework for modelling the turbulent energy and correlation time as a function of SN rate and shear. We compare our prescription with previous approaches that include only rotation. The solutions depend separately on the rotation period and the eddy turnover time and not just on their ratio (the Rossby number). We consider models in which these two time-scales are allowed to be independent and also a case in which they are mutually dependent on radius when a radial-dependent SN rate model is invoked. For the case of a fixed rotation period (or a fixed radius), we show that the influence of shear is dramatic for low Rossby numbers, reducing the correlation time of the turbulence, which, in turn, strongly reduces the saturation value of the dynamo compared to the case when the shear is ignored. We also show that even in the absence of winds or diffusive fluxes, magnetic buoyancy may be able to sustain sufficient helicity fluxes to avoid quenching.

  11. Optimization of the flux values in multichannel ceramic membrane microfiltration of Baker`s yeast suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milović Nemanja R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the effects of the operating parameters on the baker's yeast microfiltration through multichannel ceramic membrane. The selected parameters were transmembrane pressure, suspension feed flow, and initial suspension concentration. In order to investigate the influence and interaction effects of these parameters on the microfiltration operation, two responses have been chosen: average permeate flux and flux decline. The Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology was used for result processing and process optimization. According to the obtained results, the most important parameter influencing permeate flux during microfiltration is the initial suspension concentration. The maximum average flux value was achieved at an initial concentration of 0.1 g/L, pressure around 1.25 bars and a flow rate at 16 L/h. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31002

  12. Role of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor wall conditions on radical and ion substrate fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, Mark J., E-mail: msowa@ultratech.com [Ultratech/Cambridge NanoTech, 130 Turner Street, Building 2, Waltham, Massachusetts 02453 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Chamber wall conditions, such as wall temperature and film deposits, have long been known to influence plasma source performance on thin film processing equipment. Plasma physical characteristics depend on conductive/insulating properties of chamber walls. Radical fluxes depend on plasma characteristics as well as wall recombination rates, which can be wall material and temperature dependent. Variations in substrate delivery of plasma generated species (radicals, ions, etc.) impact the resulting etch or deposition process resulting in process drift. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is known to depend strongly on substrate radical flux, but film properties can be influenced by other plasma generated phenomena, such as ion bombardment. In this paper, the chamber wall conditions on a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process are investigated. The downstream oxygen radical and ion fluxes from an inductively coupled plasma source are indirectly monitored in temperature controlled (25–190 °C) stainless steel and quartz reactors over a range of oxygen flow rates. Etch rates of a photoresist coated quartz crystal microbalance are used to study the oxygen radical flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Plasma density estimates from Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements are used to study the ion flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Reactor temperature was not found to impact radical and ion fluxes substantially. Radical and ion fluxes were higher for quartz walls compared to stainless steel walls over all oxygen flow rates considered. The radical flux to ion flux ratio is likely to be a critical parameter for the deposition of consistent film properties. Reactor wall material, gas flow rate/pressure, and distance from the plasma source all impact the radical to ion flux ratio. These results indicate maintaining chamber wall conditions will be important for delivering consistent results from plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

  13. Effects of moderation level on core reactivity and. neutron fluxes in natural uranium fueled and heavy water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.J.; Aslam; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, R.; Ahmad, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    The neutron moderation level in a nuclear reactor has a strong influence on core multiplication, reactivity control, fuel burnup, neutron fluxes etc. In the study presented in this article, the effects of neutron moderation level on core reactivity and neutron fluxes in a typical heavy water moderated nuclear research reactor is explored and the results are discussed. (author)

  14. Local rectification of heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, M.; Cui, Y. Y.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Simón, M. A.; Muga, J. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present a chain-of-atoms model where heat is rectified, with different fluxes from the hot to the cold baths located at the chain boundaries when the temperature bias is reversed. The chain is homogeneous except for boundary effects and a local modification of the interactions at one site, the “impurity”. The rectification mechanism is due here to the localized impurity, the only asymmetrical element of the structure, apart from the externally imposed temperature bias, and does not rely on putting in contact different materials or other known mechanisms such as grading or long-range interactions. The effect survives if all interaction forces are linear except the ones for the impurity.

  15. LOFT gamma densitometer background fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimesey, R.A.; McCracken, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Background gamma-ray fluxes were calculated at the location of the γ densitometers without integral shielding at both the hot-leg and cold-leg primary piping locations. The principal sources for background radiation at the γ densitometers are 16 N activity from the primary piping H 2 O and γ radiation from reactor internal sources. The background radiation was calculated by the point-kernel codes QAD-BSA and QAD-P5A. Reasonable assumptions were required to convert the response functions calculated by point-kernel procedures into the gamma-ray spectrum from reactor internal sources. A brief summary of point-kernel equations and theory is included

  16. Dynamics of warped flux compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Underwood, Bret; Torroba, Gonzalo; Douglas, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the four dimensional effective action for type IIB flux compactifications, and obtain the quadratic terms taking warp effects into account. The analysis includes both the 4-d zero modes and their KK excitations, which become light at large warping. We identify an 'axial' type gauge for the supergravity fluctuations, which makes the four dimensional degrees of freedom manifest. The other key ingredient is the existence of constraints coming from the ten dimensional equations of motion. Applying these conditions leads to considerable simplifications, enabling us to obtain the low energy lagrangian explicitly. In particular, the warped Kaehler potential for metric moduli is computed and it is shown that there are no mixings with the KK fluctuations and the result differs from previous proposals. The four dimensional potential contains a generalization of the Gukov-Vafa-Witten term, plus usual mass terms for KK modes.

  17. Stability and Bifurcation in Magnetic Flux Feedback Maglev Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear properties of magnetic flux feedback control system have been investigated mainly in this paper. We analyzed the influence of magnetic flux feedback control system on control property by time delay and interfering signal of acceleration. First of all, we have established maglev nonlinear model based on magnetic flux feedback and then discussed hopf bifurcation’s condition caused by the acceleration’s time delay. The critical value of delayed time is obtained. It is proved that the period solution exists in maglev control system and the stable condition has been got. We obtained the characteristic values by employing center manifold reduction theory and normal form method, which represent separately the direction of hopf bifurcation, the stability of the period solution, and the period of the period motion. Subsequently, we discussed the influence maglev system on stability of by acceleration’s interfering signal and obtained the stable domain of interfering signal. Some experiments have been done on CMS04 maglev vehicle of National University of Defense Technology (NUDT in Tangshan city. The results of experiments demonstrate that viewpoints of this paper are correct and scientific. When time lag reaches the critical value, maglev system will produce a supercritical hopf bifurcation which may cause unstable period motion.

  18. Simulation of flux during electro-membrane extraction based on the Nernst-Planck equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2007-12-07

    The present work has for the first time described and verified a theoretical model of the analytical extraction process electro-membrane extraction (EME), where target analytes are extracted from an aqueous sample, through a thin layer of 2-nitrophenyl octylether immobilized as a supported liquid membrane (SLM) in the pores in the wall of a porous hollow fibre, and into an acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the hollow fibre by the application of an electrical potential difference. The mathematical model was based on the Nernst-Planck equation, and described the flux over the SLM. The model demonstrated that the magnitude of the electrical potential difference, the ion balance of the system, and the absolute temperature influenced the flux of analyte across the SLM. These conclusions were verified by experimental data with five basic drugs. The flux was strongly dependent of the potential difference over the SLM, and increased potential difference resulted in an increase in the flux. The ion balance, defined as the sum of ions in the donor solution divided by the sum of ions in the acceptor solution, was shown to influence the flux, and high ionic concentration in the acceptor solution relative to the sample solution was advantageous for high flux. Different temperatures also led to changes in the flux in the EME system.

  19. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  20. Minkowski vacuum transitions in (nongeometric) flux compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Suarez, Wilberth; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    In this work we study the generalization of twisted homology to geometric and nongeometric backgrounds. In the process, we describe the necessary conditions to wrap a network of D-branes on twisted cycles. If the cycle is localized in time, we show how by an instantonic brane mediation, some D-branes transform into fluxes on different backgrounds, including nongeometric fluxes. As a consequence, we show that in the case of a IIB six-dimensional torus compactification on a simple orientifold, the flux superpotential is not invariant by this brane-flux transition, allowing the connection among different Minkowski vacuum solutions. For the case in which nongeometric fluxes are turned on, we also discuss some topological restrictions for the transition to occur. In this context, we show that there are some vacuum solutions protected to change by a brane-flux transition.

  1. rf SQUID system as tunable flux qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, B. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)]. E-mail: b.ruggiero@cib.na.cnr.it; Granata, C. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-81031 Aversa (Italy); Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-81031 Aversa (Italy); Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2006-08-21

    We present a fully integrated rf SQUID-based system as flux qubit with a high control of the flux transfer function of the superconducting transformer modulating the coupling between the flux qubit and the readout system. The control of the system is possible by including into the superconducting flux transformer a vertical two-Josephson-junctions interferometer (VJI) in which the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero by a transversal magnetic field parallel to the flux transformer plane. The proposed system can be also used in a more general configuration to control the off-diagonal terms in the Hamiltonian of the flux qubit and to turn on and off the coupling between two or more qubits.

  2. Validation of the flux number as scaling parameter for top-spray fluidised bed systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    2SO4 using Dextrin as binder in three top-spray fluidised bed scales, i.e. a small-scale (type: GEA Aeromatic-Fielder Strea-1), medium-scale (type: Niro MP-1) and large-scale (type: GEA MP-2/3). Following the parameter guidelines adapted from the original patent description, the flux number....... Coating conditions with flux number values of 4.5 and 4.7 were however successful in terms of agglomeration tendency and match of particle size fractions, but indicated in addition a strong influence of nozzle pressure. The present paper suggests even narrower boundaries for the flux number compared...

  3. Decomposition studies of no-clean solder flux systems in connection with corrosion reliability of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Verdingovas, Vadimas

    2013-01-01

    with specific soldering process and parameters, while most important factors are the flux chemistry and its decomposition characteristics. Active parts of the flux residue can cause increased water absorption due to their hygroscopic nature and in solution they will increase leakage current and corrosion...... the contaminated PCBA parts to varying humidity and measuring the resulting leakage current. Results revealed a significant influence of flux chemistry including the amount of WOAs, while aggressiveness of the residue seems to vary with content and type of WOAs, and their nature of decomposition....

  4. The use of uranium fluxes as safety indicators of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.M.; Hooker, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Natural analogues based on uranium deposits are commonly used to represent the long-term behaviour of radioactive waste repositories or the processes that influence their radioactive contents. The geochemical dispersion of naturally occurring uranium can also be used to model natural radioactivity fluxes in the vicinity of a planned repository. These fluxes can be estimated for erosional and groundwater discharge processes and compared with calculated future fluxes of radioactivity that would be released from a repository. The methodology is outlined and the benefits of the approach for supporting the derivation of a safety case for a repository are indicated. (author)

  5. Fast heat flux modulation at the nanoscale

    OpenAIRE

    van Zwol, P. J.; Joulain, K.; Abdallah, P. Ben; Greffet, J. J.; Chevrier, J.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new concept for electrically controlled heat flux modulation. A flux contrast larger than 10 dB is expected with switching time on the order of tens of nanoseconds. Heat flux modulation is based on the interplay between radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale and phase change materials. Such large contrasts are not obtainable in solids, or in far field. As such this opens up new horizons for temperature modulation and actuation at the nanoscale.

  6. Heat Flux Inhibition by Whistlers: Experimental Confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Heat flux in weakly magnetized collisionless plasma is, according to theoretical predictions, limited by whistler turbulence that is generated by heat flux instabilities near threshold. Observations of solar wind electrons by Gary and coworkers appear to confirm the limit on heat flux as being roughly the product of the magnetic energy density and the electron thermal velocity, in agreement with prediction (Pistinner and Eichler 1998)

  7. Radon flux maps for the Netherlands and Europe using terrestrial gamma radiation derived from soil radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, S. N.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Herber, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, radon (222Rn) is a valuable tracer to study atmospheric processes and to validate global chemical transport models. However, the use of radon as a proxy in atmospheric and climate research is limited by the uncertainties in the magnitude and distribution of the radon flux density over the Earth's surface. Terrestrial gamma radiation is a useful proxy for generating radon flux maps. A previously reported radon flux map of Europe used terrestrial gamma radiation extracted from automated radiation monitoring networks. This approach failed to account for the influence of local artificial radiation sources around the detector, leading to under/over estimation of the reported radon flux values at different locations. We present an alternative approach based on soil radionuclides which enables us to generate accurate radon flux maps with good confidence. Firstly, we present a detailed comparison between the terrestrial gamma radiation obtained from the National Radiation Monitoring network of the Netherlands and the terrestrial gamma radiation calculated from soil radionuclides. Extending further, we generated radon flux maps of the Netherlands and Europe using our proposed approach. The modelled flux values for the Netherlands agree reasonably well with the two observed direct radon flux measurements (within 2σ level). On the European scale, we find that the observed radon flux values are higher than our modelled values and we introduce a correction factor to account for this difference. Our approach discussed in this paper enables us to develop reliable and accurate radon flux maps in countries with little or no information on radon flux values.

  8. Mechanism and Microstructure of Oxide Fluxes for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. M.; Zhang, Z. D.; Song, G.; Wang, L.

    2007-03-01

    Five single oxide fluxes—MgO, CaO, TiO2, MnO2, and Cr2O3—were used to investigate the effect of active flux on the depth/width ratio in AZ31B magnesium alloy. The microstructure and mechanical property of the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding seam were studied. The oxygen content in the weld seam and the arc images during the TIG welding process were analyzed. A series of emission spectroscopy of weld arc for TIG welding for magnesium with and without flux were developed. The results showed that for the five single oxide fluxes, all can increase the weld penetration effectively and grain size in the weld seam of alternating current tungsten inert gas (ACTIG) welding of the Mg alloy. The oxygen content of the welds made without flux is not very different from those produced with oxide fluxes not considering trapped oxide. However, welds that have the best penetration have a relatively higher oxygen content among those produced with flux. It was found that the arc images with the oxide fluxes were only the enlarged form of the arc images without flux; the arc constriction was not observed. The detection of arc spectroscopy showed that the metal elements in the oxides exist as the neutral atom or the first cation in the weld arc. This finding would influence the arc properties. When TIG simulation was carried out on a plate with flux applied only on one side, the arc image video showed an asymmetric arc, which deviated toward the flux free side. The thermal stability, the dissociation energy, and the electrical conductivity of oxide should be considered when studying the mechanism for increased TIG flux weld penetration.

  9. The elliptic model for communication fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Yagüe, C; Schneider, C M; González, M C; Smoreda, Z; Couronné, T; Zufiria, P J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a model (called the elliptic model) is proposed to estimate the number of social ties between two locations using population data in a similar manner to how transportation research deals with trips. To overcome the asymmetry of transportation models, the new model considers that the number of relationships between two locations is inversely proportional to the population in the ellipse whose foci are in these two locations. The elliptic model is evaluated by considering the anonymous communications patterns of 25 million users from three different countries, where a location has been assigned to each user based on their most used phone tower or billing zip code. With this information, spatial social networks are built at three levels of resolution: tower, city and region for each of the three countries. The elliptic model achieves a similar performance when predicting communication fluxes as transportation models do when predicting trips. This shows that human relationships are influenced at least as much by geography as is human mobility. (paper)

  10. Effect of radial electric field inhomogeneity on anomalous cross field plasma flux in Heliotron/Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Tomejiro; Sanuki, Heiji.

    1996-01-01

    Anomalous cross field plasma fluxes induced by the electric field fluctuations has been evaluated in a rotating plasma with shear flow in a helical system. The anomalous ion flux is evaluated by the contribution from ion curvature drift resonance continuum in the test particle model. The radial electric field induces the Doppler frequency shift which disappears in the frequency integrated anomalous flux. The inhomogeneity of the electric field (shear flow effect), however, induces a new force term in the flux. The curvature drift resonance also induces a new force term '/ which, however, did not make large influence in the ion flux in the CHS configuration. The shear flow term in the flux combined with the electric field in neoclassical flux reduces to a first order differential equation which governs the radial profile of the electric field. Numerical results indicate that the shear flow effect is important for the anomalous cross field flux and for determination of the radial electric field particularly in the peripheral region. (author)

  11. Dimensional reduction of a generalized flux problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized flux problem with Abelian and non-Abelian fluxes is considered. In the Abelian case we shall show that the generalized flux problem for tight-binding models of noninteracting electrons on either 2n- or (2n + 1)-dimensional lattice can always be reduced to an n-dimensional hopping problem. A residual freedom in this reduction enables one to identify equivalence classes of hopping Hamiltonians which have the same spectrum. In the non-Abelian case, the reduction is not possible in general unless the flux tensor factorizes into an Abelian one times are element of the corresponding algebra

  12. Information-flux approach to multiple-spin dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Franco, C.; Paternostro, M.; Kim, M. S.; Palma, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce and formalize the concept of information flux in a many-body register as the influence that the dynamics of a specific element receive from any other element of the register. By quantifying the information flux in a protocol, we can design the most appropriate initial state of the system and, noticeably, the distribution of coupling strengths among the parts of the register itself. The intuitive nature of this tool and its flexibility, which allow for easily manageable numerical approaches when analytic expressions are not straightforward, are greatly useful in interacting many-body systems such as quantum spin chains. We illustrate the use of this concept in quantum cloning and quantum state transfer and we also sketch its extension to nonunitary dynamics

  13. A Bayesian analysis of sensible heat flux estimation: Quantifying uncertainty in meteorological forcing to improve model prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, Ali; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    The influence of uncertainty in land surface temperature, air temperature, and wind speed on the estimation of sensible heat flux is analyzed using a Bayesian inference technique applied to the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model

  14. Measurement improvements of heat flux probes for internal combustion engine; Nainen kikan ni okeru netsuryusokukei no kaihatsu to kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, H; Tasaka, H [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In heat flux measurement in engines, material properties of a heat flux probe and numerical prediction of those influence have been discussed rather than practical measurement accuracy. This study featured the process for the quantitative examination of heat flux probes. Although the process required direct comparison among all the probes and additional measurements in a constant volume bomb, precision of heat flux measurement was greatly improved so that the essential characteristics of heat transfer in engines can be detected. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  16. Magnetic flux generator for balanced membrane loudspeaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Jörg; Rombach, Pirmin; Hansen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a magnetic flux generator with an application in a hearing aid loudspeaker produced in microsystem technology (MST). The technology plans for two different designs for the magnetic flux generator utilizing a softmagnetic substrate or electroplated Ni...

  17. EL-2 reactor: Thermal neutron flux distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, A.; Genthon, J.P.

    1958-01-01

    The flux distribution of thermal neutrons in EL-2 reactor is studied. The reactor core and lattices are described as well as the experimental reactor facilities, in particular, the experimental channels and special facilities. The measurement shows that the thermal neutron flux increases in the central channel when enriched uranium is used in place of natural uranium. However the thermal neutron flux is not perturbed in the other reactor channels by the fuel modification. The macroscopic flux distribution is measured according the radial positioning of fuel rods. The longitudinal neutron flux distribution in a fuel rod is also measured and shows no difference between enriched and natural uranium fuel rods. In addition, measurements of the flux distribution have been effectuated for rods containing other material as steel or aluminium. The neutron flux distribution is also studied in all the experimental channels as well as in the thermal column. The determination of the distribution of the thermal neutron flux in all experimental facilities, the thermal column and the fuel channels has been made with a heavy water level of 1825 mm and is given for an operating power of 1000 kW. (M.P.)

  18. Neutron flux measurement by mobile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verchain, M.

    1987-01-01

    Various incore instrumentation systems and their technological evolution are first reviewed. Then, for 1300 MWe PWR nuclear power plant, temperature and neutron flux measurement are described. Mobile fission chambers, with their large measuring range and accurate location allow a good knowledge of the core. Other incore measures are possible because of flux detector thimble tubes inserted in the reactor core [fr

  19. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-01-01

    H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts

  20. ANthropogenic heat FLUX estimation from Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmong, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mi, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2017-01-01

    The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the

  1. Fast flux module detection using matroid theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Arne C; Bruggeman, Frank J; Olivier, Brett G; Stougie, Leen

    2015-05-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is one of the most often applied methods on genome-scale metabolic networks. Although FBA uniquely determines the optimal yield, the pathway that achieves this is usually not unique. The analysis of the optimal-yield flux space has been an open challenge. Flux variability analysis is only capturing some properties of the flux space, while elementary mode analysis is intractable due to the enormous number of elementary modes. However, it has been found by Kelk et al. (2012) that the space of optimal-yield fluxes decomposes into flux modules. These decompositions allow a much easier but still comprehensive analysis of the optimal-yield flux space. Using the mathematical definition of module introduced by Müller and Bockmayr (2013b), we discovered useful connections to matroid theory, through which efficient algorithms enable us to compute the decomposition into modules in a few seconds for genome-scale networks. Using that every module can be represented by one reaction that represents its function, in this article, we also present a method that uses this decomposition to visualize the interplay of modules. We expect the new method to replace flux variability analysis in the pipelines for metabolic networks.

  2. FILAMENT INTERACTION MODELED BY FLUX ROPE RECONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, T.; Chandra, R.; Pariat, E.; Demoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Aulanier, G.; Linton, M. G.; Mandrini, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Hα observations of solar active region NOAA 10501 on 2003 November 20 revealed a very uncommon dynamic process: during the development of a nearby flare, two adjacent elongated filaments approached each other, merged at their middle sections, and separated again, thereby forming stable configurations with new footpoint connections. The observed dynamic pattern is indicative of 'slingshot' reconnection between two magnetic flux ropes. We test this scenario by means of a three-dimensional zero β magnetohydrodynamic simulation, using a modified version of the coronal flux rope model by Titov and Demoulin as the initial condition for the magnetic field. To this end, a configuration is constructed that contains two flux ropes which are oriented side-by-side and are embedded in an ambient potential field. The choice of the magnetic orientation of the flux ropes and of the topology of the potential field is guided by the observations. Quasi-static boundary flows are then imposed to bring the middle sections of the flux ropes into contact. After sufficient driving, the ropes reconnect and two new flux ropes are formed, which now connect the former adjacent flux rope footpoints of opposite polarity. The corresponding evolution of filament material is modeled by calculating the positions of field line dips at all times. The dips follow the morphological evolution of the flux ropes, in qualitative agreement with the observed filaments.

  3. Increased heat fluxes near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W; van Breugel, PB; Moors, EJ; Nieveen, JP

    2002-01-01

    Observations of sensible and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest. The enhancement averages to 56 W m(-2), or 16% of the net radiation, at fetches less than 400 m, equivalent to fetch to height ratios less

  4. Increased heat fluxes near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.; Breugel, van P.B.; Moors, E.J.; Nieveen, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Observations of sensible and latent heat flux above forest downwind of a forest edge show these fluxes to be larger than the available energy over the forest. The enhancement averages to 56 W mm2, or 16 f the net radiation, at fetches less than 400 m, equivalent to fetch to height ratios less than

  5. Initiation of CMEs by Magnetic Flux Emergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The initiation of solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is studied in the framework of numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The initial CME model includes a magnetic flux rope in spherical, axisymmetric geometry. The initial configuration consists of a magnetic flux rope embedded in a gravitationally stratified solar ...

  6. Crystal growth of emerald by flux method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Mikio; Narita, Eiichi; Okabe, Taijiro; Morishita, Toshihiko.

    1979-01-01

    Emerald crystals have been formed in two binary fluxes of Li 2 O-MoO 2 and Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 using the slow cooling method and the temperature gradient method under various conditions. In the flux of Li 2 O-MoO 3 carried out in the range of 2 -- 5 of molar ratios (MoO 3 /Li 2 O), emerald was crystallized in the temperature range from 750 to 950 0 C, and the suitable crystallization conditions were found to be the molar ratio of 3 -- 4 and the temperature about 900 0 C. In the flux of Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 carried out in the range of 1.7 -- 5 of molar ratios (V 2 O 5 /Li 2 O), emerald was crystallized in the temperature range from 900 to 1150 0 . The suitable crystals were obtained at the molar ratio of 3 and the temperature range of 1000 -- 1100 0 C. The crystallization temperature rised with an increase in the molar ratio of the both fluxes. The emeralds grown in two binary fluxes were transparent green, having the density of 2.68, the refractive index of 1.56, and the two distinct bands in the visible spectrum at 430 and 600nm. The emerald grown in Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 flux was more bluish green than that grown in Li 2 O-MoO 3 flux. The size of the spontaneously nucleated emerald grown in the former flux was larger than the latter, when crystallized by the slow cooling method. As for the solubility of beryl in the two fluxes, Li 2 O-V 2 O 5 flux was superior to Li 2 O-MoO 3 flux whose small solubility of SiO 2 caused an experimental problem to the temperature gradient method. The suitability of the two fluxes for the crystal growth of emerald by the flux method was discussed from the view point of various properties of above-mentioned two fluxes. (author)

  7. Flux Modulation in the Electrodynamic Loudspeaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Morten; Tinggaard, Carsten; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of flux modulation in the electrodynamic loudspeaker with main focus on the effect on the force factor. A measurement setup to measure the AC flux modulation with static voice coil is explained and the measurements shows good consistency with FEA simulations....... Measurements of the generated AC flux modulation shows, that eddy currents are the main source to magnetic losses in form of phase lag and amplitude changes. Use of a copper cap shows a decrease in flux modulation amplitude at the expense of increased power losses. Finally, simulations show...... that there is a high dependency between the generated AC flux modulation from the voice coil and the AC force factor change....

  8. Plasma crowbars in cylindrical flux compression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    We have done a series of one- and two-dimensional calculations of hard-core Z-pinch flux compression experiments in order to study the effect of a plasma on these systems. These calculations show that including a plasma can reduce the amount of flux lost during the compression. Flux losses to the outer wall of such experiments can be greatly reduced by a plasma conducting sheath which forms along the wall. This conducting sheath consists of a cold, dense high β, unmagnetized plasma which has enough pressure to balance a large field gradient. Flux which is lost into the center conductor is not effectively stopped by this plasma sheath until late in the implosion, at which time a layer similar to the one formed at the outer wall is created. Two-dimensionl simulations show that flux losses due to arching along the sliding contact of the experiment can be effectively stopped by the formation of a plasma conducting sheath

  9. OpenFLUX: efficient modelling software for 13C-based metabolic flux analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Lars K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantitative analysis of metabolic fluxes, i.e., in vivo activities of intracellular enzymes and pathways, provides key information on biological systems in systems biology and metabolic engineering. It is based on a comprehensive approach combining (i tracer cultivation on 13C substrates, (ii 13C labelling analysis by mass spectrometry and (iii mathematical modelling for experimental design, data processing, flux calculation and statistics. Whereas the cultivation and the analytical part is fairly advanced, a lack of appropriate modelling software solutions for all modelling aspects in flux studies is limiting the application of metabolic flux analysis. Results We have developed OpenFLUX as a user friendly, yet flexible software application for small and large scale 13C metabolic flux analysis. The application is based on the new Elementary Metabolite Unit (EMU framework, significantly enhancing computation speed for flux calculation. From simple notation of metabolic reaction networks defined in a spreadsheet, the OpenFLUX parser automatically generates MATLAB-readable metabolite and isotopomer balances, thus strongly facilitating model creation. The model can be used to perform experimental design, parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis either using the built-in gradient-based search or Monte Carlo algorithms or in user-defined algorithms. Exemplified for a microbial flux study with 71 reactions, 8 free flux parameters and mass isotopomer distribution of 10 metabolites, OpenFLUX allowed to automatically compile the EMU-based model from an Excel file containing metabolic reactions and carbon transfer mechanisms, showing it's user-friendliness. It reliably reproduced the published data and optimum flux distributions for the network under study were found quickly ( Conclusion We have developed a fast, accurate application to perform steady-state 13C metabolic flux analysis. OpenFLUX will strongly facilitate and

  10. Interaction between granulation and small-scale magnetic flux observed by Hinode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Yang Shuhong; Jin Chunlan

    2009-01-01

    With the polarimetric observations obtained by the Spectro-Polarimeter on board Hinode, we study the relationship between granular development and magnetic field evolution in the quiet Sun. Six typical cases are displayed to exhibit interaction between granules and magnetic elements, and we have obtained the following results. (1) A granule develops centrosymmetrically when no magnetic flux emerges within the granular cell. (2) A granule develops and splits noncentrosymmetrically while flux emerges at an outer part of the granular cell. (3) Magnetic flux emergence in a cluster of mixed polarities is detected at the position of a granule as soon as the granule breaks up. (4) A dipole emerges accompanied by the development of a granule, and the two elements of the dipole are rooted in the adjacent intergranular lanes and face each other across the granule. Advected by the horizontal granular motion, the positive element of the dipole then cancels with the pre-existing negative flux. (5) Flux cancellation also takes place between a positive element, which is advected by granular flow, and its surrounding negative flux. (6) While magnetic flux cancellation takes place in a granular cell, the granule shrinks and then disappears. (7) Horizontal magnetic fields are enhanced at the places where dipoles emerge and where opposite polarities cancel each other, but only the horizontal fields between the dipolar elements point in an orderly way from the positive elements to the negative ones. Our results reveal that granules and small-scale magnetic fluxes influence each other. Granular flow advects magnetic flux, and magnetic flux evolution suppresses granular development. There exist extremely large Doppler blue-shifts at the site of one canceling magnetic element. This phenomenon may be caused by the upward flow produced by magnetic reconnection below the photosphere. (research papers)

  11. Geometrical exploration of a flux-optimised sodium receiver through multi-objective optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselineau, Charles-Alexis; Corsi, Clothilde; Coventry, Joe; Pye, John

    2017-06-01

    A stochastic multi-objective optimisation method is used to determine receiver geometries with maximum second law efficiency, minimal average temperature and minimal surface area. The method is able to identify a set of Pareto optimal candidates that show advantageous geometrical features, mainly in being able to maximise the intercepted flux within the geometrical boundaries set. Receivers with first law thermal efficiencies ranging from 87% to 91% are also evaluated using the second law of thermodynamics and found to have similar efficiencies of over 60%, highlighting the influence that the geometry can play in the maximisation of the work output of receivers by influencing the distribution of the flux from the concentrator.

  12. Eddy covariance N2O flux measurements at low flux rates: results from the InGOS campaign in a Danish willow field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Brümmer, Christian; Hensen, Arjan; van Asperen, Hella; Carter, Mette S.; Gasche, Rainer; Famulari, Daniela; Kutsch, Werner; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2014-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils are characterised by their high spatial and temporal variability. The fluxes depend on the availability of the substrates for nitrification and denitrification and soil physical and chemical conditions that control the metabolic microbial activity. The sporadic nature of the fluxes and their high sensitivity to alterations of the soil climate put very high demands on measurement approaches. Laser spectroscopy enables accurate and fast response detection of atmospheric N2O concentrations and is used for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. Alternatively N2O fluxes can be measured with chambers together with high precision analysers. Differences in the measurement approaches and system designs are expected to have a considerable influence on the accuracy of the flux estimation. This study investigates how three different eddy covariance systems perform in a situation of low N2O fluxes from a flat surface. Chamber flux measurements with differing chamber and analyser designs are used for comparison. In April 2013, the EU research infrastructure project InGOS (http://www.ingos-infrastructure.eu/) organised a campaign of N2O flux measurements in a willow plantation close to the Risø Campus of the Technical University of Denmark. The willow field was harvested in February 2013 and received mineral fertiliser equivalent to 120 kg N ha-1 before the campaign started. Three different eddy covariance systems took part in the campaign: two Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL) based systems and one Los Gatos Research off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy (ICOS) system for N2O and CO. The sonic anemometers were all installed at 2 m height above the bare ground. Gill R3 type sonic anemometers were used with QCL systems and a Gil HS-50 with the ICOS system. The 10 Hz raw data were analysed with group specific softwares and procedures. The local conditions in the exceptionally cold and dry spring 2013 did not lead to large N2O flux

  13. Measurement of neutron flux distribution by semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradovic, D.; Bosevski, T.

    1964-01-01

    Application of semiconductor detectors for measuring neutron flux distribution is about 10 times faster than measurements by activation foils and demands significantly lower reactor power. Following corrections are avoided: mass of activation foils which influences the self shielding, nuclear decay during activity measurements; counter dead-time. It is possible to control the measured data during experiment and repeat measurements if needed. Precision of the measurement is higher since it is possible to choose the wanted statistics. The method described in this paper is applied for measurements at the RB reactor. It is concluded that the method is suitable for fast measurements but the activation analysis is still indispensable

  14. Entanglement of flux qubits through a joint detection of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpas, Marcin; Zipper, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    We study the entanglement creation between two flux qubits interacting with electromagnetic field modes. No direct interaction between the qubits exists. Entanglement is reached using the entanglement swapping method by an interference measurement performed on photons. We discuss the influence of off-resonance and multi-photon initial states on the qubit-qubit entanglement. The presented scheme is able to drive an initially separable state of two qubits into an highly entangled state suitable for quantum information processing (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Flux surface shaping effects on tokamak edge turbulence and flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendl, A.; Scott, B.D.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of shaping of magnetic flux surfaces in tokamaks on gyro-fluid edge turbulence is studied numerically. Magnetic field shaping in tokamaks is mainly due to elongation, triangularity, shift and the presence of a divertor X-point. A series of tokamak configurations with varying elongation 1 ≤ κ ≥ 2 and triangularity 0 ≤ δ ≤ 0.4, and an actual ASDEX Upgrade divertor configuration are obtained with the equilibrium code HELENA and implemented into the gyro-fluid turbulence code GEM. The study finds minimal impact on the zonal flow physics itself, but strong impact on the turbulence and transport. (authors)

  16. Flux surface shaping effects on tokamak edge turbulence and flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendl, A. [Innsbruck Univ., Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Association EURATOM (Austria); Scott, B.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The influence of shaping of magnetic flux surfaces in tokamaks on gyro-fluid edge turbulence is studied numerically. Magnetic field shaping in tokamaks is mainly due to elongation, triangularity, shift and the presence of a divertor X-point. A series of tokamak configurations with varying elongation 1 {<=} {kappa} {>=} 2 and triangularity 0 {<=} {delta} {<=} 0.4, and an actual ASDEX Upgrade divertor configuration are obtained with the equilibrium code HELENA and implemented into the gyro-fluid turbulence code GEM. The study finds minimal impact on the zonal flow physics itself, but strong impact on the turbulence and transport. (authors)

  17. Spatiotemporal variability in carbon exchange fluxes across the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Cappelaere, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    for semi-arid ecosystems. We have synthesized data on the land-atmosphere exchange of CO2 measured with the eddy covariance technique from the six existing sites across the Sahel, one of the largest semi-arid regions in the world. The overall aim of the study is to analyse and quantify the spatiotemporal...... variability in these fluxes and to analyse to which degree spatiotemporal variation can be explained by hydrological, climatic, edaphic and vegetation variables. All ecosystems were C sinks (average ± total error -162 ± 48 g C m-2 y-1), but were smaller when strongly impacted by anthropogenic influences...

  18. FluxVisualizer, a Software to Visualize Fluxes through Metabolic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Daniel Rose

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available FluxVisualizer (Version 1.0, 2017, freely available at https://fluxvisualizer.ibgc.cnrs.fr is a software to visualize fluxes values on a scalable vector graphic (SVG representation of a metabolic network by colouring or increasing the width of reaction arrows of the SVG file. FluxVisualizer does not aim to draw metabolic networks but to use a customer’s SVG file allowing him to exploit his representation standards with a minimum of constraints. FluxVisualizer is especially suitable for small to medium size metabolic networks, where a visual representation of the fluxes makes sense. The flux distribution can either be an elementary flux mode (EFM, a flux balance analysis (FBA result or any other flux distribution. It allows the automatic visualization of a series of pathways of the same network as is needed for a set of EFMs. The software is coded in python3 and provides a graphical user interface (GUI and an application programming interface (API. All functionalities of the program can be used from the API and the GUI and allows advanced users to add their own functionalities. The software is able to work with various formats of flux distributions (Metatool, CellNetAnalyzer, COPASI and FAME export files as well as with Excel files. This simple software can save a lot of time when evaluating fluxes simulations on a metabolic network.

  19. Topology of magnetic flux ropes and formation of fossil flux transfer events and boundary layer plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Ma, Z. W.; Fu, Z. F.; Otto, A.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of fossil flux transfer events and the low-level boundary layer within the framework of multiple X-line reconnection is proposed. Attention is given to conditions for which the bulk of magnetic flux in a flux rope of finite extent has a simple magnetic topology, where the four possible connections of magnetic field lines are: IMF to MSP, MSP to IMF, IMF to IMF, and MSP to MSP. For a sufficient relative shift of the X lines, magnetic flux may enter a flux rope from the magnetosphere and exit into the magnetosphere. This process leads to the formation of magnetic flux ropes which contain a considerable amount of magnetosheath plasma on closed magnetospheric field lines. This process is discussed as a possible explanation for the formation of fossil flux transfer events in the magnetosphere and the formation of the low-latitude boundary layer.

  20. Diurnal variability of CO2 flux at coastal zone of Taiwan based on eddy covariance observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hwa; Zhong, Yao-Zhao; Yang, Kang-Hung; Cheng, Hao-Yuan

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we employed shore-based eddy covariance systems for a continuous measurement of the coastal CO2 flux near the northwestern coast of Taiwan from 2011 to 2015. To ensure the validity of the analysis, the data was selected and filtered with a footprint model and an empirical mode decomposition method. The results indicate that the nearshore air-sea and air-land CO2 fluxes exhibited a significant diurnal variability and a substantial day-night difference. The net air-sea CO2 flux was -1.75 ± 0.98 μmol-C m-2 s-1, whereas the net air-land CO2 flux was 0.54 ± 7.35 μmol-C m-2 s-1, which indicated that in northwestern Taiwan, the coastal water acts as a sink of atmospheric CO2 but the coastal land acts as a source. The Random Forest Method was applied to hierarchize the influence of Chl-a, SST, DO, pH and U10 on air-sea CO2 fluxes. The result suggests that the strength of the diurnal air-sea CO2 flux is strongly influenced by the local wind speed.

  1. Neutron flux enhancement in the NRAD reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, A.A.; Heidel, C.C.; Imel, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    In 1987 a series of experiments were conducted at the NRAD reactor facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) to investigate the possibility of increasing the thermal neutron content at the end of the reactor's east beam tube through the use of hydrogenous flux traps. It was desired to increase the thermal flux for a series of experiments to be performed in the east radiography cell, in which the enhanced flux was required in a relatively small volume. Hence, it was feasible to attempt to focus the cross section of the beam to a smaller area. Two flux traps were constructed from unborated polypropylene and tested to determine their effectiveness. Both traps were open to the entire cross-sectional area of the neutron beam (as it emerges from the wall and enters the beam room). The sides then converged such that at the end of the trap the beam would be 'focused' to a greater intensity. The differences in the two flux traps were primarily in length, and hence angle to the beam as the inlet and outlet cross-sectional areas were held constant. The experiments have contributed to the design of a flux trap in which a thermal flux of nearly 10 9 was obtained, with an enhancement of 6.61

  2. Flux nucleation in the current-induced resistive state of a constricted type I superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, K.P.; Huebener, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The current-induced resistive state in a constricted type I superconductor is characterized by a train of flux tubes traversing the sample perpendicular to the direction of the applied current following its nucleation at the sample edge. The temporal structure of the nucleation process can be investigated by attempting to synchronize this process with small periodic current pulses superimposed on the direct bias current. The resistive dc voltage is then to be measured as a function of the pulse parameters such as frequency and width. We have performed such experiments at 4.2 K on constricted Pb films of 6--8 μm thickness and 100 μm width. Simultaneously with the electrical measurements the dynamic behavior of the flux tubes was directly observed using a stroboscopic magnetooptical method for magnetic flux detection. Our electrical measurements clearly show how the size of the nucleated flux tubes varies with the direct bias current and the nucleation frequency. The positive wall energy in the Pb films results in a lower limit for this size as expected. The influence of the preceding flux tubes still existing within the constriction upon the flux nucleation process is revealed in detail. All observations can be understood from a consideration of the energy balance during the flux nucleation process

  3. Derivation of ozone flux-yield relationships for lettuce: A key horticultural crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goumenaki, Eleni [Environmental and Molecular Plant Physiology, Institute for Research on the Environment and Sustainability, School of Biology and Psychology, Division of Biology, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Education Institute of Crete, P.O. Box 1939, 71004 Heraklion (Greece); Fernandez, Ignacio Gonzalez [Environmental and Molecular Plant Physiology, Institute for Research on the Environment and Sustainability, School of Biology and Psychology, Division of Biology, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); CIEMAT, Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Papanikolaou, Antigoni [School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Education Institute of Crete, P.O. Box 1939, 71004 Heraklion (Greece); Papadopoulou, Despoina [School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Education Institute of Crete, P.O. Box 1939, 71004 Heraklion (Greece); Askianakis, Christos [School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Education Institute of Crete, P.O. Box 1939, 71004 Heraklion (Greece); Kouvarakis, George [Environmental and Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, P.O. Box 1470, 71409 Heraklion (Greece); Barnes, Jeremy [Environmental and Molecular Plant Physiology, Institute for Research on the Environment and Sustainability, School of Biology and Psychology, Division of Biology, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.d.barnes@ncl.ac.uk

    2007-04-15

    Ozone flux-response relationships were derived for lettuce, employing a multiplicative approach to model the manner in which stomatal conductance is influenced by key environmental variables, using a dataset collected during field experimentation in Crete and yield-response relationships derived from parallel open-top chamber experiments. Regional agronomic practices were adopted throughout. Computed versus measured data revealed that the derived model explained 51% (P < 0.001) of the observed variation in stomatal conductance. Concentration-based indices were compared with flux-based indices. Analyses revealed a significant relationship between accumulated stomatal ozone flux and yield employing flux threshold cut-offs up to 4 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Regressions employing very low or zero flux thresholds resulted in the strongest yield-flux relationships (explaining {approx}80% (P < 0.05) of the variation in the dataset). - Establishment of ozone flux-yield relationships for a commercially-important horticultural crop grown widely in the Mediterranean.

  4. Theoretical simulation of the dual-heat-flux method in deep body temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2010-01-01

    Deep body temperature reveals individual physiological states, and is important in patient monitoring and chronobiological studies. An innovative dual-heat-flux method has been shown experimentally to be competitive with the conventional zero-heat-flow method in its performance, in terms of measurement accuracy and step response to changes in the deep temperature. We have utilized a finite element method to model and simulate the dynamic process of a dual-heat-flux probe in deep body temperature measurements to validate the fundamental principles of the dual-heat-flux method theoretically, and to acquire a detailed quantitative description of the thermal profile of the dual-heat-flux probe. The simulation results show that the estimated deep body temperature is influenced by the ambient temperature (linearly, at a maximum rate of 0.03 °C/°C) and the blood perfusion rate. The corresponding depth of the estimated temperature in the skin and subcutaneous tissue layer is consistent when using the dual-heat-flux probe. Insights in improving the performance of the dual-heat-flux method were discussed for further studies of dual-heat-flux probes, taking into account structural and geometric considerations.

  5. The Effect of Breaking Waves on CO_2 Air-Sea Fluxes in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; García-Nava, Héctor

    2018-03-01

    The influence of wave-associated parameters controlling turbulent CO_2 fluxes through the air-sea interface is investigated in a coastal region. A full year of high-quality data of direct estimates of air-sea CO_2 fluxes based on eddy-covariance measurements is presented. The study area located in Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico, is a net sink of CO_2 with a mean flux of -1.3 μmol m^{-2}s^{-1} (-41.6 mol m^{-2}yr^{-1} ). The results of a quantile-regression analysis computed between the CO_2 flux and, (1) wind speed, (2) significant wave height, (3) wave steepness, and (4) water temperature, suggest that the significant wave height is the most correlated parameter with the magnitude of the flux but the behaviour of the relation varies along the probability distribution function, with the slopes of the regression lines presenting both positive and negative values. These results imply that the presence of surface waves in coastal areas is the key factor that promotes the increase of the flux from and into the ocean. Further analysis suggests that the local characteristics of the aqueous and atmospheric layers might determine the direction of the flux.

  6. Solar flux incident on an orbiting surface after reflection from a planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modest, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    Algorithms describing the solar radiation impinging on an infinitesimal surface after reflection from a gray and diffuse planet are derived. The following conditions apply: only radiation from the sunny half of the planet is taken into account; the radiation must fall on the top of the orbiting surface, and radiation must come from that part of the planet that can be seen from the orbiting body. A simple approximate formula is presented which displays excellent accuracy for all significant situations, with an error which is always less than 5% of the maximum possible reflected flux. Attention is also given to solar albedo flux on a surface directly facing the planet, the influence of solar position on albedo flux, and to solar albedo flux as a function of the surface-planet tilt angle.

  7. Derivation of ozone flux-yield relationships for lettuce: A key horticultural crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumenaki, Eleni; Fernandez, Ignacio Gonzalez; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Papadopoulou, Despoina; Askianakis, Christos; Kouvarakis, George; Barnes, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Ozone flux-response relationships were derived for lettuce, employing a multiplicative approach to model the manner in which stomatal conductance is influenced by key environmental variables, using a dataset collected during field experimentation in Crete and yield-response relationships derived from parallel open-top chamber experiments. Regional agronomic practices were adopted throughout. Computed versus measured data revealed that the derived model explained 51% (P -2 s -1 . Regressions employing very low or zero flux thresholds resulted in the strongest yield-flux relationships (explaining ∼80% (P < 0.05) of the variation in the dataset). - Establishment of ozone flux-yield relationships for a commercially-important horticultural crop grown widely in the Mediterranean

  8. Simplified magnetic circuit for the calculation of the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collarin, P.; Piovan, R. [Associazioni EURATOM-ENEA-CNR-Univ. di Padova (Italy). Gruppo di Padova per Ricerche sulla Fusione

    1995-12-31

    Significant toroidal magnetic field perturbations, stray flux at the shell gaps and current mismatching in the coils of the toroidal field winding are measured during the start-up and the flat-top phases of RFX. These phenomena are consistent with large and wall locked MHD modes: at first some m = 1 modes evolve separately one after the other, afterwards they concur to a wide and localized plasma perturbation that persists during the flat-top. These perturbations are heavily influenced by the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps. Hence a magnetic circuit that mainly considers the magnetic reluctance of the conducting shell gaps has been developed in order to estimate this stray flux and, therefore, to evaluate the stabilizing capability of the shell. The observation of the MHD modes, the description of the equivalent magnetic network, the estimation of the stray flux and the comparison with the experimental measurements are reported in the paper.

  9. Simplified magnetic circuit for the calculation of the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collarin, P.; Piovan, R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant toroidal magnetic field perturbations, stray flux at the shell gaps and current mismatching in the coils of the toroidal field winding are measured during the start-up and the flat-top phases of RFX. These phenomena are consistent with large and wall locked MHD modes: at first some m = 1 modes evolve separately one after the other, afterwards they concur to a wide and localized plasma perturbation that persists during the flat-top. These perturbations are heavily influenced by the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps. Hence a magnetic circuit that mainly considers the magnetic reluctance of the conducting shell gaps has been developed in order to estimate this stray flux and, therefore, to evaluate the stabilizing capability of the shell. The observation of the MHD modes, the description of the equivalent magnetic network, the estimation of the stray flux and the comparison with the experimental measurements are reported in the paper

  10. Material gap membrane distillation: A new design for water vapor flux enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-08-19

    A new module design for membrane distillation, namely material gap membrane distillation (MGMD), for seawater desalination has been proposed and successfully tested. It has been observed that employing appropriate materials between the membrane and the condensation plate in an air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) module enhanced the water vapor flux significantly. An increase in the water vapor flux of about 200-800% was observed by filling the gap with sand and DI water at various feed water temperatures. However, insulating materials such as polypropylene and polyurethane have no effect on the water vapor flux. The influence of material thickness and characteristics has also been investigated in this study. An increase in the water gap width from 9. mm to 13. mm increases the water vapor flux. An investigation on an AGMD and MGMD performance comparison, carried out using two different commercial membranes provided by different manufacturers, is also reported in this paper. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  11. The energy dependence of photon-flux and efficiency in the NRF measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agar, Osman [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Department of Physics, 70100 Karaman (Turkey); Gayer, Udo; Merter, Laura; Pai, Haridas; Pietralla, Norbert; Ries, Philipp; Romig, Christopher; Werner, Volker; Schillling, Marcel; Zweidinger, Markus [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The calibration of the detector efficiency and the photon-flux distribution play an important role during the analysis of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements. The nucleus {sup 11}B is a frequently used calibration target with well-known photo-excitation cross sections. The product of photon flux and efficiency is determined exploiting γ-ray transitions of the {sup 11}B monitoring target. Photon-flux calibrations from numerous measurements at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (S-DALINAC) are carried out up to the neutron separation threshold, in order to obtain a system check of influences of absorbers on the flux, and to check against different GEANT models as well as parametrizations of the Schiff formula.

  12. Inorganic carbon fluxes across the vadose zone of planted and unplanted soil mesocosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Eike Marie; Jacques, D.; Jessen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils influences atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thereby climate change. The partitioning of inorganic carbon (C) fluxes in the vadose zone between emission to the atmosphere and to the groundwater was investigated to reveal controlling underlying...... mechanisms. Carbon dioxide partial pressure in the soil gas (pCO(2)), alkalinity, soil moisture and temperature were measured over depth and time in unplanted and planted (barley) mesocosms. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) percolation flux was calculated from the pCO(2), alkalinity and the water flux...... to calculate the soil CO2 production. Carbon dioxide fluxes were modeled using the HP1 module of the Hydrus 1-D software. The average CO2 effluxes to the atmosphere from unplanted and planted mesocosm ecosystems during 78 days of experiment were 0.1 +/- 0.07 and 4.9 +/- 0.07 mu mol Cm-2 s(-1), respectively...

  13. Predicting radon flux from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, is developing technology for the design of radon barriers for uranium mill tailings piles. To properly design a radon cover for a particular tailings pile, the radon flux emanating from the bare tailings must be known. The tailings characteristics required to calculate the radon flux include radium-226 content, emanating power, bulk density, and radon diffusivity. This paper presents theoretical and practical aspects of estimating the radon flux from an uranium tailings pile. Results of field measurements to verify the calculation methodology are also discussed. 24 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  14. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibret, B; Premaratne, M; Lewis, P M; Thomson, R; Fitzgerald, P B

    2016-01-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications. (paper)

  15. Energy flux correlations and moving mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, L.H.; Roman, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    We study the quantum stress tensor correlation function for a massless scalar field in a flat two-dimensional spacetime containing a moving mirror. We construct the correlation functions for right-moving and left-moving fluxes for an arbitrary trajectory, and then specialize them to the case of a mirror trajectory for which the expectation value of the stress tensor describes a pair of delta-function pulses, one of negative energy and one of positive energy. The flux correlation function describes the fluctuations around this mean stress tensor, and reveals subtle changes in the correlations between regions where the mean flux vanishes

  16. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  17. Exponentially tapered Josephson flux-flow oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benabdallah, A.; Caputo, J. G.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    1996-01-01

    We introduce an exponentially tapered Josephson flux-flow oscillator that is tuned by applying a bias current to the larger end of the junction. Numerical and analytical studies show that above a threshold level of bias current the static solution becomes unstable and gives rise to a train...... of fluxons moving toward the unbiased smaller end, as in the standard flux-flow oscillator. An exponentially shaped junction provides several advantages over a rectangular junction including: (i) smaller linewidth, (ii) increased output power, (iii) no trapped flux because of the type of current injection...

  18. Diamagnetic flux measurement in Aditya tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sameer; Jha, Ratneshwar; Lal, Praveen; Hansaliya, Chandresh; Gopalkrishna, M. V.; Kulkarni, Sanjay; Mishra, Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of diamagnetic flux in Aditya tokamak for different discharge conditions are reported for the first time. The measured diamagnetic flux in a typical discharge is less than 0.6 mWb and therefore it has required careful compensation for various kinds of pick-ups. The hardware and software compensations employed in this measurement are described. We introduce compensation of a pick-up due to plasma current of less than 20 kA in short duration discharges, in which plasma pressure gradient is supposed to be negligible. The flux measurement during radio frequency heating is also presented in order to validate compensation.

  19. High heat flux cooling for accelerator targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, I.; Nagler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerator targets, both for radioisotope production and for high neutron flux sources generate very high thermal power in the target material which absorbs the particles beam. Generally, the geometric size of the targets is very small and the power density is high. The design of these targets requires dealing with very high heat fluxes and very efficient heat removal techniques in order to preserve the integrity of the target. Normal heat fluxes from these targets are in the order of 1 kw/cm 2 and may reach levels of an order of magnitude higher

  20. Methods and applications in high flux neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballhausen, H.

    2007-01-01

    This treatise develops new methods for high flux neutron radiography and high flux neutron tomography and describes some of their applications in actual experiments. Instead of single images, time series can be acquired with short exposure times due to the available high intensity. To best use the increased amount of information, new estimators are proposed, which extract accurate results from the recorded ensembles, even if the individual piece of data is very noisy and in addition severely affected by systematic errors such as an influence of gamma background radiation. The spatial resolution of neutron radiographies, usually limited by beam divergence and inherent resolution of the scintillator, can be significantly increased by scanning the sample with a pinhole-micro-collimator. This technique circumvents any limitations in present detector design and, due to the available high intensity, could be successfully tested. Imaging with scattered neutrons as opposed to conventional total attenuation based imaging determines separately the absorption and scattering cross sections within the sample. For the first time even coherent angle dependent scattering could be visualized space-resolved. New applications of high flux neutron imaging are presented, such as materials engineering experiments on innovative metal joints, time-resolved tomography on multilayer stacks of fuel cells under operation, and others. A new implementation of an algorithm for the algebraic reconstruction of tomography data executes even in case of missing information, such as limited angle tomography, and returns quantitative reconstructions. The setup of the world-leading high flux radiography and tomography facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin is presented. A comprehensive appendix covers the physical and technical foundations of neutron imaging. (orig.)

  1. Mapping carbon flux uncertainty and selecting optimal locations for future flux towers in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Howard, Daniel M.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Flux tower networks (e. g., AmeriFlux, Agriflux) provide continuous observations of ecosystem exchanges of carbon (e. g., net ecosystem exchange), water vapor (e. g., evapotranspiration), and energy between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The long-term time series of flux tower data are essential for studying and understanding terrestrial carbon cycles, ecosystem services, and climate changes. Currently, there are 13 flux towers located within the Great Plains (GP). The towers are sparsely distributed and do not adequately represent the varieties of vegetation cover types, climate conditions, and geophysical and biophysical conditions in the GP. This study assessed how well the available flux towers represent the environmental conditions or "ecological envelopes" across the GP and identified optimal locations for future flux towers in the GP. Regression-based remote sensing and weather-driven net ecosystem production (NEP) models derived from different extrapolation ranges (10 and 50%) were used to identify areas where ecological conditions were poorly represented by the flux tower sites and years previously used for mapping grassland fluxes. The optimal lands suitable for future flux towers within the GP were mapped. Results from this study provide information to optimize the usefulness of future flux towers in the GP and serve as a proxy for the uncertainty of the NEP map.

  2. Evaluation of Site and Continental Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Simulations with North American Flux Tower Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczka, B. M.; Davis, K. J.; Regional-Interim Synthesis Participants, N.; Site Level Interim Synthesis, N.; Regional/Continental Interim Synthesis Team

    2010-12-01

    likely influenced by model sensitivity to positively biased radiation the latter finding is more likely a result of differences in model structure. Not surprisingly, site level models outperform regional level models for almost all statistical criteria suggesting: (1) locally observed driver data is important for capturing local carbon fluxes and (2) biases in regional driver data adversely effect regional model output. The inability of regional models to reproduce NEE inter-annual variability in combination with limited improvement between site and regional level models in terms of inter-annual variability, suggests that model structure remains a limiting factor in overall performance. Monthly correlations between models and data are much higher than annual correlations. Regional models show similar performance to their site level counterparts in terms of correlation of monthly fluxes. EC-MOD, a model using assimilated flux tower data, performs the best overall. CASA-GFEDV2 and VEGAS2 also perform well.

  3. Neutron flux measurements in PUSPATI Triga Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Ah Auu; Mohamad Amin Sharifuldin Salleh; Mohamad Ali Sufi.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron flux measurement in the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (PTR) was initiated after its commissioning on 28 June 1982. Initial measured thermal neutron flux at the bottom of the rotary specimen rack (rotating) and in-core pneumatic terminus were 3.81E+11 n/cm 2 sec and 1.10E+12n/cm 2 sec respectively at 100KW. Work to complete the neutron flux data are still going on. The cadmium ratio, thermal and epithermal neutron flux are measured in the reactor core, rotary specimen rack, in-core pneumatic terminus and thermal column. Bare and Cadmium covered gold foils and wires are used for the above measurement. The activities of the irradiated gold foils and wires are determined using Ge(Li) and hyperpure germinium detectors. (author)

  4. Pulse power applications of flux compression generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics are presented for two different types of explosive driven flux compression generators and a megavolt pulse transformer. Status reports are given for rail gun and plasma focus programs for which the generators serve as power sources

  5. Modeling radon flux from the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schery, S.D.; Wasiolek, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    We report development of a 222 Rn flux density model and its use to estimate the 222 Rn flux density over the earth's land surface. The resulting maps are generated on a grid spacing of 1 0 x 1 0 using as input global data for soil radium, soil moisture, and surface temperature. While only a first approximation, the maps suggest a significant regional variation (a factor of three is not uncommon) and a significant seasonal variation (a factor of two is not uncommon) in 222 Rn flux density over the earth's surface. The estimated average global flux density from ice-free land is 34 ± 9 mBq m -2 s -1 . (author)

  6. 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 400 Area at Hanford is home primarily to the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), a DOE-owned, formerly operating, 400-megawatt (thermal) liquid-metal (sodium)-cooled...

  7. Flux Tube Dynamics in the Dual Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampert, M.; Svetitsky, B.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied plasma oscillations in a flux tube created in a dual superconductor. The theory contains an Abelian gauge field coupled magnetically to a Higgs field that confines electric charge via the dual Meissner effect. Starting from a static flux tube configuration, with electric charges at either end, we release a fluid of electric charges in the system that accelerate and screen the electric field. The weakening of the electric field allows the flux tube to collapse, and the inertia of the charges forces it open again. We investigate both Type I and Type II superconductors, with plasma frequencies both above and below the threshold for radiation into the Higgs vacuum. (The parameters appropriate to QCD are in the Type II regime; the plasma frequency depends on the mass taken for the fluid constituents.) The coupling of the plasma oscillations to the Higgs field making up the flux tube is the main new feature in our work

  8. High Flux Isotope Reactor technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This report gives technical specifications for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) on the following: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; and administrative controls

  9. Heat flux microsensor measurements and calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, James P.; Hager, Jon M.; Onishi, Shinzo; Diller, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    A new thin-film heat flux gage has been fabricated specifically for severe high temperature operation using platinum and platinum-10 percent rhodium for the thermocouple elements. Radiation calibrations of this gage were performed at the AEDC facility over the available heat flux range (approx. 1.0 - 1,000 W/cu cm). The gage output was linear with heat flux with a slight increase in sensitivity with increasing surface temperature. Survivability of gages was demonstrated in quench tests from 500 C into liquid nitrogen. Successful operation of gages to surface temperatures of 750 C has been achieved. No additional cooling of the gages is required because the gages are always at the same temperature as the substrate material. A video of oxyacetylene flame tests with real-time heat flux and temperature output is available.

  10. High energy neutrinos: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We discuss briefly the potential sources of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and show estimates of the neutrino fluxes that they can produce. A special attention is paid to the connection between the highest energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos.

  11. Rotating flux compressor for energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.; Linton, T.W.; Phillips, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The rotating flux compressor (RFC) converts rotational kinetic energy into an electrical output pulse which would have higher energy than the electrical energy initially stored in the compressor. An RFC has been designed in which wedge-shaped rotor blades pass through the air gaps between successive turns of a solenoid, the stator. Magnetic flux is generated by pulsing the stator solenoids when the inductance is a maximum, i.e., when the flux fills the stator-solenoid volume. Connecting the solenoid across a load conserves the flux which is compressed within the small volume surrounding the stator periphery when the rotor blades cut into the free space between the stator plates, creating a minimum-inductance condition. The unique features of this design are: (1) no electrical connections (brushes) to the rotor; (2) no conventional windings; and (3) no maintenance. The device has been tested up to 5000 rpm of rotor speed

  12. Modelling drug flux through microporated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhevskiy, Alexey S; Guy, Richard H; Anissimov, Yuri G

    2016-11-10

    A simple mathematical equation has been developed to predict drug flux through microporated skin. The theoretical model is based on an approach applied previously to water evaporation through leaf stomata. Pore density, pore radius and drug molecular weight are key model parameters. The predictions of the model were compared with results derived from a simple, intuitive method using porated area alone to estimate the flux enhancement. It is shown that the new approach predicts significantly higher fluxes than the intuitive analysis, with transport being proportional to the total pore perimeter rather than area as intuitively anticipated. Predicted fluxes were in good general agreement with experimental data on drug delivery from the literature, and were quantitatively closer to the measured values than those derived from the intuitive, area-based approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. On the Tensorial Nature of Fluxes in Continuous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Vijay Kumar; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami

    1982-01-01

    Argues that mass and energy fluxes in a fluid are vectors. Topics include the stress tensor, theorem for tensor fields, mass flux as a vector, stress as a second order tensor, and energy flux as a tensor. (SK)

  14. sizing of wind powered axial flux permanent magnet alternator using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Keywords: Wind-Power, Axial flux, Axial Flux Permanent Machines (AFPM), Axial Flux Permanent Magnet ... energy for power generation, a high constraint is the .... arrangements as Single-Rotor Single-Stator Structure.

  15. Boundary fluxes for non-local diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Cortazar, C.; Elgueta, M.; Rossi, J. D.; Wolanski, N.

    2006-01-01

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  16. Determination flux in the Reactor JEN-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manas Diaz, L.; Montes Ponce de leon, J.

    1960-01-01

    This report summarized several irradiations that have been made to determine the neutron flux distributions in the core of the JEN-1 reactor. Gold foils of 380 μ gr and Mn-Ni (12% de Ni) of 30 mg have been employed. the epithermal flux has been determined by mean of the Cd radio. The resonance integral values given by Macklin and Pomerance have been used. (Author) 9 refs

  17. Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1990-01-01

    Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations for auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.

  18. Vertical Josephson Interferometer for Tunable Flux Qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Lisitskiy, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    We present a niobium-based Josephson device as prototype for quantum computation with flux qubits. The most interesting feature of this device is the use of a Josephson vertical interferometer to tune the flux qubit allowing the control of the off-diagonal Hamiltonian terms of the system. In the vertical interferometer, the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero with fine control by a small transversal magnetic field parallel to the rf superconducting loop plane.

  19. Self-powered neutron flux detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, J.

    1979-01-01

    A self-powered neutron flux detector having an emitter electrode, at least a major portion of which is, 95 Mo encased in a tubular collector electrode and separated therefrom by dielectric material. The 95 Mo emitter electrode has experimentally shown a 98% prompt response, is primarily sensitive to neutron flux, has adequate sensitivity and has low burn up. Preferably the emitter electrode is molybdenum which has been enriched 75% to 99% by weight with 95 Mo

  20. Flux at a point in MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, E.D.; Schrandt, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The current state of the art of calculating flux at a point with MCNP is discussed. Various techniques are touched upon, but the main emphasis is on the fast improved version of the once-more-collided flux estimator, which has been modified to treat neutrons thermalized by the free gas model. The method is tested on several problems on interest and the results are presented