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Sample records for sub-cooled nucleate boiling

  1. In-situ Monitoring of Sub-cooled Nucleate Boiling on Fuel Cladding Surface in Water at 1 bar and 130 bars using Acoustic Emission Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Heon; Wu, Kaige; Shim, Hee-Sang; Lee, Deok Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Crud deposition increases through a sufficient corrosion product supply around the steam-liquid interface of a boiling bubble. Therefore, the understanding of this SNB phenomenon is important for effective and safe operation of nuclear plants. The experimental SNB studies have been performed in visible conditions at a low pressure using a high speed video camera. Meanwhile, an acoustic emission (AE) method is an on-line non-destructive evaluation method to sense transient elastic wave resulting from a rapid release of energy within a dynamic process. Some researchers have investigated boiling phenomena using the AE method. However, their works were performed at atmospheric pressure conditions. Therefore, the objective of this work is for the first time to detect and monitor SNB on fuel cladding surface in simulated PWR primary water at 325 .deg. C and 130 bars using an AE technique. We successfully observed the boiling AE signals in primary water at 1 bar and 130 bars using AE technique. Visualization test was performed effectively to identify a correlation between water boiling phenomenon and AE signals in a transparent glass cell at 1 bar, and the boiling AE signals were in good agreement with the boiling behavior. Based on the obtained correlations at 1 bar, the AE signals obtained at 130 bars were analyzed. The boiling density and size of the AE signals at 130 bars were decreased by the flow parameters. However, overall AE signals showed characteristics and a trend similar to the AE signals at 1 bar. This indicates that boiling AE signals are detected successfully at 130 bars, and the AE technique can be effectively implemented in non-visualized condition at high pressures.

  2. Nucleate boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz Jabardo, J.M. [Universidade da Coruna (Spain). Escola Politecnica Superior], e-mail: mjabardo@cdf.udc.es

    2009-07-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 {mu}m and 10.5 {mu}m ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 {mu}m). (author)

  3. The Importance of Correct Modeling of Bubble Size and Condensation in Prediction of Sub-Cooled Boiling Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the updating of the sub-cooled boiling model used in CFD codes with the more recent and better sub-models. The improved sub-models include: Hibiki and Ishii [1] correlation for nucleation site density, Kocamustafaogullari [2] correlation for bubble departure diameter and the S-gamma model of Lo and Rao [3] for bubble size distribution in the flow. The new model has been tested against measured data from Debora [4] and Bartolomei [5]. The results show that improvement in the bubble size prediction has the most significant impact on the accuracy of the model.

  4. Void Measurements in the Regions of Sub-Cooled and Low-Quality Boiling. Part 1. Low Mass Velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1966-07-15

    By the application of the ({gamma}, n) reaction to boiling heavy water, void volume fractions have been measured in a vertical annular channel with 25 mm O.D. and 12 mm I.D. at a heated length of 1090 mm. The experiments covered pressures from 10 to 50 bars, mass velocities from 50 to 1450 kg/m-sec, heat fluxes from 30 to 90 W/cm{sup 2}, sub coolings from 30 to 0 C, and steam qualities from 0 to 15 %. The results indicate noticeable effects of pressure, heat flux and even mass velocity upon the variations of void with subcooling and steam quality. A novel explanation of the mechanism of their effects has been found and proved by qualitative analysis.

  5. Void Measurements in the Regions of Sub-Cooled and Low-Quality Boiling. Part 2. Higher Mass Velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1966-07-15

    This report consists mostly of tables of experimental data obtained in void measurements. It is a continuation and the completing part of a previous report with the same title. The data are from the measurements in a vertical annular channel with 25 mm O.D. and 12 mm I.D. at a heated length of 1090 mm. These experiments covered pressures from 10 to 50 bars, mass velocities from 650 to 1450 kg/m -sec., heat fluxes from 60 to 120 W/cm{sup 2}, sub-coolings from 30 to 0 C, and steam qualities from 0 to 12 %. The tables include the inlet temperatures and measured wall super-heat.

  6. A New Theory of Nucleate Pool Boiling in Arbitrary Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyevich, Y. A.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1995-01-01

    Heat transfer rates specific to nucleate pool boiling under various conditions are determined by the dynamics of vapour bubbles that are originated and grow at nucleation sites of a superheated surface. A new dynamic theory of these bubbles has been recently developed on the basis of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. In contrast to other existing models based on empirically postulated equations for bubble growth and motion, this theory does not contain unwarrantable assumptions, and both the equations are rigorously derived within the framework of a unified approach. The conclusions of the theory are drastically different from those of the conventional models. The bubbles are shown to detach themselves under combined action of buoyancy and a surface tension force that is proven to add to buoyancy in bubble detachment, but not the other way round as is commonly presumed. The theory ensures a sound understanding of a number of so far unexplained phenomena, such as effect caused by gravity level and surface tension on the bubble growth rate and dependence of the bubble characteristics at detachment on the liquid thermophysical parameters and relevant temperature differences. The theoretical predictions are shown to be in a satisfactory qualitative and quantitative agreement with observations. When being applied to heat transfer at nucleate pool boiling, this bubble dynamic theory offers an opportunity to considerably improve the main formulae that are generally used to correlate experimental findings and to design boiling heat removal in various industrial applications. Moreover, the theory makes possible to pose and study a great deal of new problems of essential impact in practice. Two such problems are considered in detail. One problem concerns the development of a principally novel physical model for the first crisis of boiling. This model allows for evaluating critical boiling heat fluxes under various conditions, and in particular at different

  7. Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer in aqueous surfactant solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasekar, Vivek Mahadeorao

    Saturated, nucleate pool boiling in aqueous surfactant solutions is investigated experimentally. Also, the role of Marangoni convection, driven both by temperature and surfactant concentration gradients at the vapor-liquid interface of a nucleating bubble is computationally explored. Experimental measurements of dynamic and equilibrium sigma using the maximum bubble pressure method indicate dynamic sigma to be higher than the corresponding equilibrium value, both at room and elevated temperatures. Also, nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Triton X-305) show larger sigma depression than anionic surfactants (SDS, SLES), and a normalized representation of their dynamic adsorption isotherms is shown to be helpful in generalizing the surfactant effectiveness to reduce surface tension. The dynamic sigma has a primary role in the modification of bubble dynamics and associated heat transfer, and is dictated by the adsorption kinetics of the surfactant molecules at boiling temperatures. In general, an enhancement in heat transfer is observed, which is characterized by an early incipience and an optimum boiling performance at or around the critical micelle concentration of the surfactant. The optimum performances, typically in the fully developed boiling regime ( q''w > 100 kW/m2), show a reverse trend with respect to surfactant molecular weights M, i.e., higher molecular weight additives promote lower enhancement. Normalized boiling performance using the respective solution's dynamic sigma correlates heat transfer coefficient by M-0.5 for anionics and M 0 for nonionics. This has been shown to be brought about by the surfactant concentration and its interfacial activity in a concentration sublayer around the growing vapor bubble, which governs the bubble growth behavior through the mechanism of dynamic sigma. The ionic nature of the surfactant influences the thickness and molecular makeup of the enveloping sublayer, thereby affecting the bubble dynamics and boiling heat

  8. A Fundamental Study of Nucleate Pool Boiling Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Jamie S.; Merte, Herman, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study of incipient boiling in short-term microgravity and with a/g = +/- 1 for pool boiling was performed. Calibrated thin gold films sputtered on a smoothly polished quartz surface were used simultaneously for thermal-resistance measurements and heating of the boiling surface. The gold films were used for both transient and quasi-steady heating surface temperature measurements. Two test vessels were constructed for precise measurement and control of fluid temperature and pressure: a laboratory pool boiling vessel for the a/g = +/- 1 experiments and a pool boiling vessel designed for the 131 m free-fall in the NASA Lewis Research Center Microgravity Research Facility for the microgravity tests. Measurements included the heater surface temperature, the pressure near the heating surface, the bulk liquid temperatures. High speed photography (up to 1,000 frames per second) was used in the experiments. With high quality microgravity and the measured initial temperature of the quiescent test fluid, R113, the temperature distribution in the liquid at the moment of boiling inception resulting from an imposed step in heat flux is known with a certainty not possible previously. The types of boiling propagation across the large flat heating surface, some observed here for the first time, are categorized; the conditions necessary for their occurrence are described. Explosive boiling propagation with a striking pattern of small scale protuberances over the entire vapor mass periphery not observed previously at low heat flux levels (on the order of 5 W/cm(exp 2)) is described. For the heater surface with a/g = -1, a step in the heater surface temperature of short duration was imposed. The resulting liquid temperature distribution at the moment of boiling inception was different from that obtained with a step in heat flux.

  9. Analytical solution of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer model based on macrolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Mohd; Al Mesfer, Mohammed K.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, a transient heat conduction model has been developed for heat transfer through macrolayer in nucleate regime of pool boiling. The developed heat transfer model was solved analytically (Laplace Transform) using appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The influence of macrolayer thickness, wall superheat, and time on conduction heat flux has been predicted. The average conduction heat flux as a function of wall superheat and macrolayer thickness has also been predicted. The findings of the study have been compared with experimental results, and they are in reasonable agreement. For higher values of wall superheat, which correspond to nucleate pool boiling, predicted results agree with experimental data. Findings also substantiate the assertion that heat conduction across the macrolayer constitutes the major mode of heat transfer from the heated wall to the boiling liquid in the macrolayer regime of pool boiling.

  10. Analytical solution of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer model based on macrolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Mohd; Al Mesfer, Mohammed K.

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, a transient heat conduction model has been developed for heat transfer through macrolayer in nucleate regime of pool boiling. The developed heat transfer model was solved analytically (Laplace Transform) using appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The influence of macrolayer thickness, wall superheat, and time on conduction heat flux has been predicted. The average conduction heat flux as a function of wall superheat and macrolayer thickness has also been predicted. The findings of the study have been compared with experimental results, and they are in reasonable agreement. For higher values of wall superheat, which correspond to nucleate pool boiling, predicted results agree with experimental data. Findings also substantiate the assertion that heat conduction across the macrolayer constitutes the major mode of heat transfer from the heated wall to the boiling liquid in the macrolayer regime of pool boiling.

  11. Analysis and Measurement of Bubble Dynamics and Associated Flow Field in Subcooled Nucleate Boiling Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay G. Jones

    2008-10-01

    In recent years, subooled nucleate boiling (SNB) has attrcted expanding research interest owing to the emergence of axial offset anomaly (AOA) or crud-induced power shigt (CIPS) in many operating US PWRs, which is an unexpected deviation in the core axial power distribution from the predicted power curves. Research indicates that the formation of the crud, which directly leads to AOA phenomena, results from the presence of the subcooled nucleate boiling, and is especially realted to bubble motion occurring in the core region.

  12. Partial Nucleate Pool Boiling at Low Heat Flux: Preliminary Ground Test for SOBER-SJ10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke; Li, Zhen-Dong; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Li, Hui-Xiong; Li, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Focusing on partial nucleate pool boiling at low heat flux, SOBER-SJ10, one of 27 experiments of the program SJ-10, has been proposed to study local convection and heat transfer around an isolated growing vapor bubble during nucleate pool boiling on a well characterized flat surface in microgravity. An integrated micro heater has been developed. By using a local pulse overheating method in the experimental mode of single bubble boiling, a bubble nucleus can be excited with accurate spatial and temporal positioning on the top-side of a quartz glass substrate with a thickness of 2 mm and an effective heating area of 4.5 mm in diameter, and then grows under an approximate constant heat input provided by the main heater on the back-side of the substrate. Ten thin film micro-RTDs are used for local temperature measurements on the heating surface underneath the growing bubble. Normal pool boiling experiments can also be carried out with step-by-step increase of heating voltage. A series of ground test of the flight module of SOBER-SJ10 have been conducted. Good agreement of the measured data of single phase natural convection with the common-used empirical correlation warrants reasonable confidence in the data. It is found that the values of the incipience superheat of pool boiling at different subcooling are consistent with each others, verifying that the influence of subcooling on boiling incipience can be neglected. Pool boiling curves are also obtained, which shows great influence of subcooling on heat transfer of partial nucleate pool boiling, particularly in lower heat flux.

  13. Drop collision with a hot, dry solid substrate: Heat transfer during nucleate boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, Jan; Roisman, Ilia V.; Tropea, Cameron

    2017-07-01

    Outcomes from an isothermal drop impact onto a surface (rebound, deposition, or splash) are determined by the impact parameters, liquid material properties, substrate morphology, and wettability. Drop impact onto a hot surface can be accompanied by Marangoni effects, nucleate or film boiling, and evaporation. The main focus of this experimental study is the characterization of the hydrodynamic outcome of a single-drop impact onto a hot surface. Drop impact phenomena have been observed and characterized using a high-speed video system. The impact parameters of the drop and the surface temperature have been varied. The observations lead to a classification of impact outcomes into several regimes: evaporation, nucleate boiling, foaming, transitional boiling, and film boiling. The contact time of the impinging droplet on the surface has been measured, and a model for this time and for the heat flux from the substrate to the drop has been proposed for the nucleate boiling regime. Comparison of model predictions to existing literature data is good.

  14. Enhancement of critical heat flux in nucleate boiling of nanofluids: a state-of-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyungdae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanofluids (suspensions of nanometer-sized particles in base fluids have recently been shown to have nucleate boiling critical heat flux (CHF far superior to that of the pure base fluid. Over the past decade, numerous experimental and analytical studies on the nucleate boiling CHF of nanofluids have been conducted. The purpose of this article is to provide an exhaustive review of these studies. The characteristics of CHF enhancement in nanofluids are systemically presented according to the effects of the primary boiling parameters. Research efforts to identify the effects of nanoparticles underlying irregular enhancement phenomena of CHF in nanofluids are then presented. Also, attempts to explain the physical mechanism based on available CHF theories are described. Finally, future research needs are identified.

  15. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. Nineteen test series and a total of 178 tests were performed. Testing addressed the effects of: Heat flux; pressure; helium gas; power tilt; ribs; asymmetric heat flux. This document consists solely of the plato file index from 11/87 to 11/90.

  16. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists solely of tables of temperature measurements; minima, maxima, averages and standard deviations being measured.

  17. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.; Dolan, F.X.; Sam, R.G.; Stoedefalke, B.H.

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of data plots and summary files of temperature measurements.

  18. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.; Dolan, F.X.; Sam, R.G.; Stoedefalke, B.H.

    1992-11-01

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. This document consists of data plots and summary files of temperature measurements.

  19. An electrical simulator of a nuclear fuel rod cooled by nucleate boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: aclc@cdtn.br; Machado, Luiz; Koury, Ricardo Nicolau Nassar [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: luizm@demec.ufmg.br; Bonjour, Jocelyn [CETHIL, UMR5008, CNRS, INSA-Lyon (France)], e-mail: jocelyn.bonjour@insa-lyon.fr; Passos, Julio Cesar [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. LEPTEN/Boiling], e-mail: jpassos@emc.ufsc.br

    2009-07-01

    This study investigates an electrical heated test section designed to simulate a nuclear fuel rod. This simulator comprises a stainless steel vertical tube, with length and outside diameter of 600 mm and 10 mm, respectively, inside which there is a high power electrical resistor. The heat generated is removed by means of enhanced confined subcooled nucleate boiling of water in an annular space containing 153 small metal inclined discs. The tests were performed under electrical power and pressure up to 48 kW and 40 bar, respectively. The results show that the experimental boiling heat transfer coefficients are in good agreement with those calculated using the Jens-Lottes correlation. (author)

  20. Nucleate boiling of halogenated coolants - correlation analysis; Ebulicao nucleada de refrigerantes halogenados: analise de correlacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribatski, Gherhardt; Jabardo, Jose M. Saiz [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1998-07-01

    Present study has been focused on a literature of heat transfer under nucleate boiling conditions of halocarbon refrigerants and their mixtures with lubricating oil. Two kind of correlations regarding the heat transfer mechanism have been found: strictly empirical, based on a straight curve fitting of experimental data, and semi-empirical, based on the particular point of view of the author regarding the physical mechanism but still fitted with experimental data. As a general rule, it has been noted that correlations present significant discrepancies among each other, a result which mostly reflects the wide range of experimental conditions used as a reference. A similar trend has been observed with refrigerant/oil mixtures. Given the current status of halocarbon refrigerants for refrigeration applications, there is clearly a need for further research regarding the nucleate boiling phenomenon related to those compounds. (author)

  1. Numerical prediction of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient under high heat fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezo Milada L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics approach to prediction of the heat transfer coefficient for nucleate pool boiling under high heat fluxes. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the atmospheric saturated pool boiling are performed. Mathematical modelling of pool boiling requires a treatment of vapor-liquid two-phase mixture on the macro level, as well as on the micro level, such as bubble growth and departure from the heating surface. Two-phase flow is modelled by the two-fluid model, which consists of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for each phase. Interface transfer processes are calculated by the closure laws. Micro level phenomena on the heating surface are modelled with the bubble nucleation site density, the bubble resistance time on the heating wall and with the certain level of randomness in the location of bubble nucleation sites. The developed model was used to determine the heat transfer coefficient and results of numerical simulations are compared with available experimental results and several empirical correlations. A considerable scattering of the predictions of the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient by experimental correlations is observed, while the numerically predicted values are within the range of results calculated by well-known Kutateladze, Mostinski, Kruzhilin and Rohsenow correlations. The presented numerical modeling approach is original regarding both the application of the two-fluid two-phase model for the determination of heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling and the defined boundary conditions at the heated wall surface. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174014

  2. Cryogenic two-phase flow during chilldown: Flow transition and nucleate boiling heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jelliffe Kevin

    The recent interest in space exploration has placed a renewed focus on rocket propulsion technology. Cryogenic propellants are the preferred fuel for rocket propulsion since they are more energetic and environmentally friendly compared with other storable fuels. Voracious evaporation occurs while transferring these fluids through a pipeline that is initially in thermal equilibrium with the environment. This phenomenon is referred to as line chilldown. Large temperature differences, rapid transients, pressure fluctuations and the transition from the film boiling to the nucleate boiling regime characterize the chilldown process. Although the existence of the chilldown phenomenon has been known for decades, the process is not well understood. Attempts have been made to model the chilldown process; however the results have been fair at best. A major shortcoming of these models is the use of correlations that were developed for steady, non-cryogenic flows. The development of reliable correlations for cryogenic chilldown has been hindered by the lack of experimental data. An experimental facility was constructed that allows the flow structure, the temperature history and the pressure history to be recorded during the line chilldown process. The temperature history is then utilized in conjunction with an inverse heat conduction procedure that was developed, which allows the unsteady heat transfer coefficient on the interior of the pipe wall to be extracted. This database is used to evaluate present predictive models and correlations for flow regime transition and nucleate boiling heat transfer. It is found that by calibrating the transition between the stratified-wavy and the intermittent/annular regimes of the Taitel and Dukler flow regime map, satisfactory predictions are obtained. It is also found that by utilizing a simple model that includes the effect of flow structure and incorporating the enhancement provided by the local heat flux, significant improvement in the

  3. Experimental study of undeveloped nucleate boiling on the horizontal tube heated by condensing steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, A.V.; Remizov, O.V.; Tzyganok, A.A.; Kalyakin, D.S. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Inst. for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    The experimental study of undeveloped nucleate boiling on the horizontal tube heated by condensing steam has been carried out in the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering. The feature of the processes investigated was a presence of natural circulation in primary circuit of the facility. The experiments were carried out at heating steam pressure P{sub s1} = 0.35 MPa. On the base of the results of these experiments the empirical correlations for prediction of heat transfer coefficient was obtained. This correlation can be used for the substantiation of work of VVER steam generator in the condensation mode. (author)

  4. Experimental investigations on nucleate boiling heat transfer of aqua based reduced graphene oxide nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatchi, R.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized from graphite powder and various characterization techniques have been used to study the in-plane crystallite size, number of layers, presence of functional groups and surface morphology. The rGO flakes are dispersed in Millipore water to obtain 0.0005, 0.001, and 0.002 wt.% of rGO-water nanofluids. It is then used in the experimental facility to study the nucleate boiling heat transfer with different heating surfaces viz. smooth and sandblasted surface (SBS). Results of this study indicate (i) an enhancement in heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for concentration upto 0.001 wt.% and deterioration beyond this in the case of smooth surface, and (ii) an increase in HTC with concentrations is observed for SBS and shows a maximum enhancement of about 60% in comparison with smooth surface at 0.002 wt.%. It is found that the presence of secondary cavities (acts as nucleation sites) formed by the rGO flakes during boiling is responsible for the observed phenomena in addition to the possible effect of rGO in the fluid flow.

  5. Experimental investigations on nucleate boiling heat transfer of aqua based reduced graphene oxide nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatchi, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized from graphite powder and various characterization techniques have been used to study the in-plane crystallite size, number of layers, presence of functional groups and surface morphology. The rGO flakes are dispersed in Millipore water to obtain 0.0005, 0.001, and 0.002 wt.% of rGO-water nanofluids. It is then used in the experimental facility to study the nucleate boiling heat transfer with different heating surfaces viz. smooth and sandblasted surface (SBS). Results of this study indicate (i) an enhancement in heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for concentration upto 0.001 wt.% and deterioration beyond this in the case of smooth surface, and (ii) an increase in HTC with concentrations is observed for SBS and shows a maximum enhancement of about 60% in comparison with smooth surface at 0.002 wt.%. It is found that the presence of secondary cavities (acts as nucleation sites) formed by the rGO flakes during boiling is responsible for the observed phenomena in addition to the possible effect of rGO in the fluid flow.

  6. Spatial distribution of nanoparticles in PWR nanofluid coolant subjected to local nucleate boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirghaffari, Reza; Jahanfarnia, Gholamreza [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2016-12-15

    Nanofluids have shown to be promising as an alternative for a PWR reactor coolant or as a safety system coolant to cover the core in the event of a loss of coolant accident. The nanoparticles distribution and neutronic parameters are intensively affected by the local boiling of nanofluid coolant. The main goal of this study was the physical-mathematical modeling of the nanoparticles distribution in the nucleate boiling of nanofluids within the viscous sublayer. Nanoparticles concentration, especially near the heat transfer surfaces, plays a significant role in the enhancement of thermal conductivity of nanofluids and prediction of CHF, Hide Out and Return phenomena. By solving the equation of convection-diffusion for the liquid phase near the heating surface and the bulk stream, the effect of heat flux on the distribution of nanoparticles was studied. The steady state mass conservation equations for liquids, vapors and nanoparticles were written for the flow boiling within the viscous sublayer adjacent the fuel cladding surface. The derived differential equations were discretized by the finite difference method and were solved numerically. It was found out that by increasing the surface heat flux, the concentration of nanoparticles increased.

  7. Numerical study of silica-water based nanofluid nucleate pool boiling by two-phase Eulerian scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, H.; Hormozi, F.

    2017-10-01

    In this research, numerical simulation of nucleate pool boiling of water and water-silica nanofluid was investigated using Eulerian multiphase approach. At first, nucleate pool boiling of pure water was simulated. Classic heat flux partitioning (HFP) model was used for the prediction of bubble parameters. To validate proposed approach, numerical results were compared with experimental data. In the next step, this scheme has been used for water-silica nanofluid. Due to dilute nanofluid (0.1% volume) concentration, it was assumed as a homogenous liquid and therefore, a two-phase approach was applied to simulate its boiling. Meanwhile, various correlations were compared to determine nucleation site density and bubble departure frequency and the best equation was found. Results demonstrated nanoparticle deposition on the heater surface was a key factor that could change the heat transfer performance in boiling nanofluid. Therefore, accurate investigation of bubble behavior in nucleate boiling of nanofluids is a necessary concern to be focused in future modeling studies.

  8. Correlations of Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer and Critical Heat Flux for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Yang; F. B. Cheung; J. L. Rempe; K. Y. Suh; S. B. Kim

    2005-07-01

    Four types of steady-state boiling experiments were conducted to investigate the efficacy of two distinctly different heat transfer enhancement methods for external reactor vessel cooling under severe accident conditions. One method involved the use of a thin vessel coating and the other involved the use of an enhanced insulation structure. By comparing the results obtained in the four types of experiments, the separate and integral effect of vessel coating and insulation structure were determined. Correlation equations were obtained for the nucleate boiling heat transfer and the critical heat flux. It was found that both enhancement methods were quite effective. Depending on the angular location, the local critical heat flux could be enhanced by 1.4 to 2.5 times using vessel coating alone whereas it could be enhanced by 1.8 to 3.0 times using an enhanced insulation structure alone. When both vessel coating and insulation structure were used simultaneously, the integral effect on the enhancement was found much less than the product of the two separate effects, indicating possible competing mechanisms (i.e., interference) between the two enhancement methods.

  9. Enhancement of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer to dilute binary mixtures using endothermic chemical reactions around the smoothed horizontal cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafraz, M. M.; Peyghambarzadeh, S. M.; Alavifazel, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    Experimental studies on enhancing the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient of binary dilute mixtures of water/glycerol, water/MEG (Mono-ethylene glycol) and water/DEG (di-ethylene glycol) have been carried out. Some particular endothermic chemical reactions related to ammonium salts were used to enhance the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient, simultaneously with occurrence of pool boiling heat transfer. Accordingly, 100 g of Ammonium nitrate, ammonium perborate and Ammonium sulfate were selected to dissolve into mixtures. High and extreme solution enthalpies of each of these ammonium salt powders are employed to reduce the surface temperature around the horizontal cylinder locally. Results demonstrated that presence of ammonium salts into the mixtures deteriorates the surface temperature of cylinder and as the result, higher pool boiling heat transfer coefficient is reported for tested solutions. Results are also reported and compared for different ammonium salts to find the influence of inducing different enthalpies of solution on pool boiling heat transfer coefficient. Obtained results also indicated that presence of endothermic reaction besides the pool boiling heat transfer enhances the heat transfer coefficients in comparison with nucleate pool boiling phenomenon solely.

  10. Boils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or recurrent boils, which are usually due to Staph infections. The bacteria are picked up somewhere and ... is an infection of hair follicles, usually with Staph bacteria. These often itch more than hurt. The ...

  11. Local-Scale Simulations of Nucleate Boiling on Micrometer Featured Surfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dede, Ercan M. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Joshi, Shailesh N. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Zhou, Feng [Toyota Research Institute of North America

    2017-08-03

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model for bubble nucleation of the refrigerant HFE7100 on micrometer-featured surfaces is presented in this work. The single-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with energy transport and natural convection effects are solved on a featured surface resolved grid. An a priori cavity detection method is employed to convert raw profilometer data of a surface into well-defined cavities. The cavity information and surface morphology are represented in the CFD model by geometric mesh deformations. Surface morphology is observed to initiate buoyancy-driven convection in the liquid phase, which in turn results in faster nucleation of cavities. Simulations pertaining to a generic rough surface show a trend where smaller size cavities nucleate with higher wall superheat. This local-scale model will serve as a self-consistent connection to larger device scale continuum models where local feature representation is not possible.

  12. Local-Scale Simulations of Nucleate Boiling on Micrometer-Featured Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dede, Ercan M. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Joshi, Shailesh N. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Zhou, Feng [Toyota Research Institute of North America

    2017-07-12

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model for bubble nucleation of the refrigerant HFE7100 on micrometer-featured surfaces is presented in this work. The single-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with energy transport and natural convection effects are solved on a featured surface resolved grid. An a priori cavity detection method is employed to convert raw profilometer data of a surface into well-defined cavities. The cavity information and surface morphology are represented in the CFD model by geometric mesh deformations. Surface morphology is observed to initiate buoyancy-driven convection in the liquid phase, which in turn results in faster nucleation of cavities. Simulations pertaining to a generic rough surface show a trend where smaller size cavities nucleate with higher wall superheat. This local-scale model will serve as a self-consistent connection to larger device scale continuum models where local feature representation is not possible.

  13. CFD investigation of nucleate boiling in non-circular geometries at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakrar, R., E-mail: rkt08@imperial.ac.uk; Murallidharan, J.; Walker, S.P.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Blind CFD benchmark of high-pressure boiling test case in rectangular geometry. • Influence of turbulence, wall boiling, interfacial area transport and lift force modelling examined. • Good agreement of the area-averaged void with the most mechanistic approaches. • Transition from wall to core void peaking due to regime transition captured only in part. - Abstract: Boiling flows are commonplace in the nuclear industry. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is slowly beginning to be used to deliver the relevant two-phase thermal hydraulic analyses required for nuclear applications. This paper presents a blind assessment of the capabilities of the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+ against measurements for a vertically upward mildly subcooled boiling flow approaching saturation in a rectangular channel at a pressure of 41 bar. The available measurements comprised transverse distributions and cross-sectional area averages of void fraction at numerous axial positions along the channel. The predictive ability of several combinations of turbulence, wall heat flux partitioning, interfacial area transport and lift force models was tested. In general, good agreement was obtained for the area-averaged void, with the most mechanistic modelling combination reproducing the measurements accurately. Reasonable agreement was also observed for the distributions of transverse void, however this agreement could not be maintained beyond the channel entrance. The transition from near-wall to core void peaking exhibited in the experiments, attributable presumably to a bubbly to churn-turbulent flow regime transition, could not be reproduced accurately with any of the modelling combinations used, and the basic qualitative trend was captured only in part. Suggestions for future investigation are outlined subsequently.

  14. Analysis of heat transfer under high heat flux nucleate boiling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Dinh, N. [3145 Burlington Laboratories, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Analysis was performed for a heater infrared thermometric imaging temperature data obtained from high heat flux pool boiling and liquid film boiling experiments BETA. With the OpenFOAM solver, heat flux distribution towards the coolant was obtained by solving transient heat conduction of heater substrate given the heater surface temperature data as boundary condition. The so-obtained heat flux data was used to validate them against the state-of-art wall boiling model developed by D. R. Shaver (2015) with the assumption of micro-layer hydrodynamics. Good agreement was found between the model prediction and data for conditions away from the critical heat flux (CHF). However, the data indicate a different heat transfer pattern under CHF, which is not captured by the current model. Experimental data strengthen the notion of burnout caused by the irreversible hot spot due to failure of rewetting. The observation forms a basis for a detailed modeling of micro-layer hydrodynamics under high heat flux.

  15. Microwave-Assisted Superheating and/or Microwave-Specific Superboiling (Nucleation-Limited Boiling of Liquids Occurs under Certain Conditions but is Mitigated by Stirring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ferrari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary superheating and sustained nucleation-limited “superboiling” of unstirred liquids above the normal atmospheric boiling point have been documented during microwave heating. These phenomena are reliably observed under prescribed conditions, although the duration (of superheating and magnitude (of superheating and superboiling vary according to system parameters such as volume of the liquid and the size and shape of the vessel. Both phenomena are mitigated by rapid stirring with an appropriate stir bar and/or with the addition of boiling chips, which provide nucleation sites to support the phase-change from liquid to gas. With proper experimental design and especially proper stirring, the measured temperature of typical organic reaction mixtures heated at reflux will be close to the normal boiling point temperature of the solvent, whether heated using microwave radiation or conventional convective heat transfer. These observations are important to take into consideration when comparing reaction rates under conventional and microwave heating.

  16. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

    2011-01-19

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  17. Experimental investigation of nucleate pool boiling characteristics of high concentrated alumina/water nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Jagdeep M.; Shrivastava, Ramakant

    2018-01-01

    In Present study, the critical heat flux (CHF) and boiling heat transfer coefficient of alumina nanoparticles with the base fluid as deionised water is measured. The selected concentrations of nanofluids for the experimentation are from 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 wt%. The main objective to select higher concentration is that to study the surface morphology of heater surface at higher concentrations and its effect on critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient. It is observed that the critical heat flux enhancement rate decreases as concentration increases and surface roughness of heater surface decreases after 1.2 wt% concentration of nanofluids.

  18. Study of the internal heat transfer of the water flow in nucleate boiling; Estudio de la transferencia de calor del flujo interno de agua en ebullicion nucleada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payan Rodriguez, Luis Alfredo

    2003-09-01

    In this paper the development of a research project oriented to the analysis of the heat transfer of the water flow in nucleate boiling is presented. Here a mathematical model is described to characterize the water flow in boiling condition in vertical tubes by means of which the temperature distributions in the tube wall and in the water flow are obtained, including the calculation of the pressure drop throughout the tube. In addition, a mechanistic model focused to the prediction of the critical heat flow in vertical tubes uniformly heated was modified to be applied in non-uniform heat flow conditions. The proposed mathematical models were used in a case study derived from a real problem in a thermoelectric power plant, where it was required to simulate the process of boiling in fireplace tubes of the steam generator to determine the causes of the faults that happened in a considerable number of tubes. With the obtained results it was possible to establish that the faults in the tubes of the analyzed steam generator were originated because the heat transfer rate in the fireplace reached critical values that caused the deviation of the nucleate boiling to film boiling, causing the diminution of the heat transfer coefficient with the consequent sudden increase in the tube wall temperature. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un proyecto de investigacion orientado al analisis de la transferencia de calor en flujo de agua en ebullicion nucleada. Aqui se describe un modelo matematico para caracterizar el flujo de agua en ebullicion en tubos verticales mediante el cual se obtienen las distribuciones de temperatura en la pared del tubo y en el flujo de agua, incluyendo el calculo de la caida de presion a lo largo del tubo. Ademas, un modelo mecanistico enfocado a la prediccion del flujo de calor critico en tubos verticales uniformemente calentados fue modificado para aplicarlo en condiciones de flujo de calor no uniforme. Los modelos matematicos

  19. Experimental study of the effect of the reduced graphene oxide films on nucleate boiling performances of inclined surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Kong, Byeong Tak [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Min [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-05-15

    For the enhancing the CHF, surface coating techniques are available. Yang et al. performed small scale boiling experiments for the vessel lower head, which was coated by aluminum/copper micro particles. Recently, graphene has received much attention for applications in thermal engineering due to its large thermal conductivity. Ahn et al. used a silicon dioxide substrate, which was coated graphene films, as a heating surface during pool boiling experiments. The graphene films inhibited the formation of hot spots, increasing the CHF. For applying novel material 'Graphene' in nuclear industry, here we investigated the effects of graphene film coatings on boiling performances. The experimental pool boiling facility, copying the geometry of lower head of reactor, was designed for verifying orientation effects. The effects of graphene films coating on varied inclined heater surfaces were investigated. The CHF values were increased at every case, but the increased amounts were decreased for downward heater surfaces. At the downward-facing region, however, coating the RGO films would change the CHF mechanisms and boiling heat transfer performances. Generally, RGO films, made by colloidal fabrication, has defects on each flakes.

  20. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-02-03

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  1. The Influence of Oil Contamination on the Nucleate Pool-Boiling Behavior of R-114 from a Structured Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    compressor, some amount of oil is always present in the evaporator. Studies by Henrici and Hesse [Ref. 6] for 10 " . . . - LIQUID IN VAPOR OUT C VAPOR...1972, Henrici and Hesse [Ref. 6] updated Stephan’s work for R-114-oil mixtures boiling from a smooth copper tube. Figures 2.1 and 2.2 summarize... Henrici and Hesse’s results. Figure 2.1 shows that oil generally lowers the heat-transfer coefficient, and that at high heat fluxes and high oil

  2. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, C.M.; Lindken, R.; Velthuis, J.F.M.; Westerweel, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found

  3. Aspects of subcooled boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankoff, S.G. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Subcooled boiling boiling refers to boiling from a solid surface where the bulk liquid temperature is below the saturation temperature (subcooled). Two classes are considered: (1) nucleate boiling, where, for large subcoolings, individual bubbles grow and collapse while remaining attached to the solid wall, and (2) film boiling, where a continuous vapor film separates the solid from the bulk liquid. One mechanism by which subcooled nucleate boiling results in very large surface heat transfer coefficient is thought to be latent heat transport within the bubble, resulting from simultaneous evaporation from a thin residual liquid layer at the bubble base, and condensation at the polar bubble cap. Another is the increased liquid microconvection around the oscillating bubble. Two related problems have been attacked. One is the rupture of a thin liquid film subject to attractive and repulsive dispersion forces, leading to the formation of mesoscopic drops, which then coalesce and evaporate. Another is the liquid motion in the vicinity of an oscillating contact line, where the bubble wall is idealized as a wedge of constant angle sliding on the solid wall. The subcooled film boiling problem has been attacked by deriving a general long-range nonlinear evolution equation for the local thickness of the vapor layer. Linear and weakly-nonlinear stability results have been obtained. A number of other related problems have been attacked.

  4. Experimental investigation of time and repeated cycles in nucleate pool boiling of alumina/water nanofluid on polished and machined surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabzadeh Dareh, F.; Haghshenasfard, M.; Nasr Esfahany, M.; Salimi Jazi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer of pure water and nanofluids on a copper block has been studied experimentally. Nanofluids with various concentrations of 0.0025, 0.005 and 0.01 vol.% are employed and two simple surfaces (polished and machined copper surface) are used as the heating surfaces. The results indicated that the critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling of fluids on the polished surface is 7% higher than CHF on the machined surface. In the case of machined surface, the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of 0.01 vol.% nanofluid is about 37% higher than HTC of base fluid, while in the polished surface the average HTC of 0.01% nanofluid is about 19% lower than HTC of the pure water. The results also showed that the boiling time and boiling cycles on the polished surface changes the heat transfer performance. By increasing the boiling time from 5 to 10 min, the roughness enhances about 150%, but by increasing the boiling time to 15 min, the roughness enhancement is only 8%.

  5. Downward transfer of a sub-cooled cryoliquid

    CERN Document Server

    Wertelaers, P

    2016-01-01

    An alternative is proposed to the traditional transfer of a cryo fluid in gaseous -- and warm -- form, a method of low productivity and high energy cost. In order to prevent the much-feared geysering, focus is on sub-cooling of the liquid, and the safe maintaining of such state all along the journey. A cryogenic transfer line of simplest construction is proposed, and the difficulties with such line extending over a transfer depth of the order of the kilometre, are discussed.

  6. Liquid Acquisition Device Testing with Sub-Cooled Liquid Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurns, John M.; McQuillen, John B.

    2008-01-01

    When transferring propellant in space, it is most efficient to transfer single phase liquid from a propellant tank to an engine. In earth s gravity field or under acceleration, propellant transfer is fairly simple. However, in low gravity, withdrawing single-phase fluid becomes a challenge. A variety of propellant management devices (PMD) are used to ensure single-phase flow. One type of PMD, a liquid acquisition device (LAD) takes advantage of capillary flow and surface tension to acquire liquid. Previous experimental test programs conducted at NASA have collected LAD data for a number of cryogenic fluids, including: liquid nitrogen (LN2), liquid oxygen (LOX), liquid hydrogen (LH2), and liquid methane (LCH4). The present work reports on additional testing with sub-cooled LOX as part of NASA s continuing cryogenic LAD development program. Test results extend the range of LOX fluid conditions examined, and provide insight into factors affecting predicting LAD bubble point pressures.

  7. Consideration of sub-cooled LN2 circulation system for HTS power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hirai, Hirokazu; Nara, N.; Nagasaka, T.; Hirokawa, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We consider a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The planned circulation system consists of a sub-cool heat exchanger (subcooler) and a circulation pump. The sub-cooler will be connected to a neon turbo- Brayton cycle refrigerator with a cooling power of 2 kW at 65 K. Sub-cooled LN will be delivered into the sub-cooler by the pump and cooled within it. Sub-cooled LN is adequate fluid for cooling HTS power equipment, because its dielectric strength is high and it supports a large critical current. However, a possibility of LN solidification in the sub-cooler is a considerable issue. The refrigerator will produce cold neon gas of about 60 K, which is lower than the nitrogen freezing temperature of 63 K. Therefore, we designed two-stage heat exchangers which are based on a plate-fin type and a tube-intube type. Process simulations of those heat exchangers indicate that sub-cooled LN is not frozen in either sub-cooler. The plate-fin type sub-cooler is consequently adopted for its reliability and compactness. Furthermore, we found that a cooling system with a Brayton refrigerator has the same total cooling efficiency as a cooling system with a Stirling refrigerator.

  8. Experimental Study on Boiling Crisis in Pool Boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Satbyoul; Kim, Hyungdae [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    They postulated that failure in re-wetting of a dry patch by a cooling liquid is governed by microhydrodynamics near the wall. Chu et al. commonly observed that active coalescence of newly generated bubbles with preexisting bubbles results in a residual dry patch and prevents the complete rewetting of the dry patch, leading to CHF. In this work, to reveal the key physical mechanism of CHF during the rewetting process of a dry patch, dynamics of dry patches and thermal pattern of a boiling surface are simultaneously observed using TR and IR thermometry techniques. Local dynamics of dry patch and thermal pattern on a boiling surface in synchronized manner for both space and time using TR and IR thermometry were measured during pool boiling of water. Observation and quantitative examination of CHF was performed. - The hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of irreversible dry patch were observed. The dry patches coalesce into a large dry patch and it locally dried out. Due to the failure of liquid rewetting, the dry patch is not completely rewetted, resulting in the burn out at which temperature is -140°C. - When temperature of a dry patch rises beyond the instantaneous nucleation temperature, several bubbles nucleate at the head of the advancing liquid meniscus and prevents the liquid front, and eventually the overheated dry patch remains alive after the departure of the massive bubble.

  9. Influence of sub-cooling on the energy performance of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of sub-cooling on the energy performance of two ecofriendly R22 alternative refrigerants. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... They also exhibited lower power per ton of refrigeration (PPTR) than that of R22, but R433A emerged as the most energy efficient refrigerant among all the investigated ...

  10. Pool boiling inversion through bubble induced macroconvection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikumar, A.; Kandlikar, S. G.

    2017-02-01

    While numerous surface geometries have been explored to achieve enhancements in pool boiling critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient (HTC), their mechanistic contributions towards the characteristics of the pool boiling curve are not clear. Recently reported pool boiling curves in literature have shown a trend where an increase in heat flux leads to a decrease in wall superheat. Consequently, a negative slope in the pool boiling curve accompanied by a sharp increase in HTC, termed here as boiling inversion, is observed. We demonstrate that this inversion is due to vapor stream induced reinforcement of an impinging liquid jet over the non-boiling regions. This behavior is characteristic of surfaces developed using separate liquid-vapor pathways and macroconvection enhancement mechanism resulting in a highly efficient self-sustained boiling configuration. The increased jet impingement velocities lead to higher HTCs with lower wall superheats. The analytical models available in literature are employed to quantitatively explain this trend. Furthermore, a self-adjusting boiling mechanism is seen at play wherein a reduction in nucleation activity due to lowering of wall superheat counters the increase in HTC induced by the macroconvective currents.

  11. Some specific features of subcooled boiling heat transfer and crisis at extremely high heat flux densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotovsky, M.A. [Polzunov Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Forced convection boiling is the process used widely in a lot of industry branches including NPP. Heat transfer intensity under forced convection boiling is considered in different way in dependence on conditions. One of main problems for the process considered is an influence of interaction between forced flow and boiling on heat transfer character. For saturated water case a transition from ''pure'' forced convection to nucleate boiling can be realized in smooth form. (author)

  12. Boiling heat transfer in narrow channels with offset strip fins: Application to electronic chipsets cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Pulvirenti, B.; Matalone, A.; Barucca, U.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An experimental study on saturated flow boiling heat transfer of HFE-7100 in vertical rectangular channels with offset strip fins is presented. The experiments have been carried out at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of vapour quality and heat fluxes up to 1.8?105 W/m2. The local boiling heat transfer coefficient has been obtained from experiments and analysed by means of Chen superposition method. Some correlations for convective boiling and nucleate boiling heat ...

  13. Numerical simulation of pool boiling of a Lennard-Jones liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Inaoka, Hajime

    2013-09-01

    We performed a numerical simulation of pool boiling by a molecular dynamics model. In the simulation, a liquid composed of Lennard-Jones particles in a uniform gravitational field is heated by a heat source at the bottom of the system. The model successfully reproduces the change in regimes of boiling from nucleate boiling to film boiling with the increase of the heat source temperature. We present the pool boiling curve by the model, whose general behavior is consistent with those observed in experiments of pool boiling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. GreenChill Store Certification Protocol for Sub-Cooling Contained on Racks Separate from Refrigeration Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Document describes the protocol used to determine the total load and refrigerant charge of stores that have placed all sub-cooling on a rack separate from all other commercial refrigeration equipment.

  15. Boiling radial flow in fractures of varying wall porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, Robb Allan

    2000-06-01

    The focus of this report is the coupling of conductive heat transfer and boiling convective heat transfer, with boiling flow in a rock fracture. A series of experiments observed differences in boiling regimes and behavior, and attempted to quantify a boiling convection coefficient. The experimental study involved boiling radial flow in a simulated fracture, bounded by a variety of materials. Nonporous and impermeable aluminum, highly porous and permeable Berea sandstone, and minimally porous and permeable graywacke from The Geysers geothermal field. On nonporous surfaces, the heat flux was not strongly coupled to injection rate into the fracture. However, for porous surfaces, heat flux, and associated values of excess temperature and a boiling convection coefficient exhibited variation with injection rate. Nucleation was shown to occur not upon the visible surface of porous materials, but a distance below the surface, within the matrix. The depth of boiling was a function of injection rate, thermal power supplied to the fracture, and the porosity and permeability of the rock. Although matrix boiling beyond fracture wall may apply only to a finite radius around the point of injection, higher values of heat flux and a boiling convection coefficient may be realized with boiling in a porous, rather than nonporous surface bounded fracture.

  16. Experimental study of an upward sub-cooled forced convection in a rectangular channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidri, A.; Madani, B.; Roubi, B.; Hamadouche, A.

    2016-07-01

    The upward sub-cooled forced convection in a rectangular channel is investigated experimentally. The aim of the present work is the studying of the local heat transfer phenomena. Concerning the experimentation: the n-pentane is used as a working fluid, the independent variables are: the velocity in the range from 0.04 to 0.086 m/s and heat flux density with values between 1.8 and 7.36 W/cm2. The results show that the local Nusselt number distribution is not uniform along the channel; however, uniformity is observed in the mean Nusselt number for Reynolds under 1600. On the other hand, a new correlation to predict the local fluid temperature is established as a function of local wall temperature. The wall's heat is dissipated under the common effect of the sub-cooled regime; therefore, the local heat transfer coefficient is increased. The study of the thermal equilibrium showed that for Reynolds less than 1500; almost all of the heat flux generated by the heater cartridges is absorbed by the fluid.

  17. A high-fidelity approach towards simulation of pool boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Miad; Radcliff, Thomas; Soteriou, Marios; Alahyari, Abbas A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel numerical approach is developed to simulate the multiscale problem of pool-boiling phase change. The particular focus is to develop a simulation technique that is capable of predicting the heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics of nucleate boiling and the transition to critical heat flux on surfaces of arbitrary shape and roughness distribution addressing a critical need to design enhanced boiling heat transfer surfaces. The macro-scale of the phase change and bubble dynamics is addressed through employing off-the-shelf Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods for interface tracking and interphase mass and energy transfer. The micro-scale of the microlayer, which forms at early stage of bubble nucleation near the wall, is resolved through asymptotic approximation of the thin-film theory which provides a closed-form solution for the distribution of the micro-layer and its influence on the evaporation process. In addition, the sub-grid surface roughness is represented stochastically through probabilistic density functions and its role in bubble nucleation and growth is then represented based on the thermodynamics of nucleation process. This combination of deterministic CFD, local approximation, and stochastic representation allows the simulation of pool boiling on any surface with known roughness and enhancement characteristics. The numerical model is validated for dynamics and hydrothermal characteristics of a single nucleated bubble on a flat surface against available literature data. In addition, the prediction of pool-boiling heat transfer coefficient is verified against experimental measurements as well as reputable correlations for various roughness distributions and different surface orientations. Finally, the model is employed to demonstrate pool-boiling phenomenon on enhanced structures with reentrance cavities and to explore the effect of enhancement feature design on thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of these surfaces.

  18. Performance Assessment of 239 Series Sub-cooling Heat Exchangers for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Riddone, G; Roussel, P; Moracchioli, R; Tavian, L

    2006-01-01

    Helium sub-cooling heat exchangers of the counter-flow type are used to minimize the vapor fraction produced in the final expansion of the 1.9 K distributed cooling loops used for cooling the superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These components are of compact design, featuring low-pressure drop and handling very low pressure vapor at low temperature. Following a qualification phase of prototypes, a contract has been placed in European industry for the supply of 239 heat exchanger units. Different levels of extracted heat load require three different variants of heat exchangers. This paper will describe the manufacturing phase with emphasis on the main difficulties encountered to keep the production quality after a brief recall of the prototype phase. Finally, the acceptance tests performed at room temperature and at the nominal cryogenic condition at the factory and at CEA-Grenoble will be presented.

  19. Surface boiling of superheated liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-01-01

    A basic vaporization mechanism that possibly affects the qualitative and quantitative prediction of the consequences of accidental releases of hazardous superheated liquids was experimentally and analytically investigated. The studies are of relevance for the instantaneous failure of a containment vessel filled with liquefied gas. Even though catastrophical vessel failure is a rare event, it is considered to be a major technological hazard. Modeling the initial phase of depressurisation and vaporization of the contents is an essential step for the subsequent analysis of the spread and dispersion of the materials liberated. There is only limited understanding of this inertial expansion stage of the superheated liquid, before gravity and atmospheric turbulence begin to dominate the expansion. This work aims at a better understanding of the vaporization process and to supply more precise source-term data. It is also intended to provide knowledge for the prediction of the behavior of large-scale releases by the investigation of boiling on a small scale. Release experiments with butane, propane, R-134a and water were conducted. The vaporization of liquids that became superheated by sudden depressurisation was studied in nucleation-site-free glass receptacles. Several novel techniques for preventing undesired nucleation and for opening the test-section were developed. Releases from pipes and from a cylindrical geometry allowed both linear one-dimensional, and radial-front two-dimensional propagation to be investigated. Releases were made to atmospheric pressure over a range of superheats. It was found that, above a certain superheat temperature, the free surface of the metastable liquid rapidly broke up and ejected a high-velocity vapor/liquid stream. The zone of intense vaporization and liquid fragmentation proceeded as a front that advanced into the test fluids. No nucleation of bubbles in the bulk of the superheated liquid was observed. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  20. CFD analysis of flow boiling in the ITER first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domalapally, Phani, E-mail: phani.domalapally@polito.it [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Rizzo, Enrico [Institut fuer Technische Physik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Savoldi Richard, Laura; Subba, Fabio; Zanino, Roberto [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two boiling models, Rohsenow model for nucleate boiling, switching to the Volume of Fluid for film boiling using STAR-CCM+ and Bergles-Rohsenow model, for which we developed a User Defined Function, implemented in FLUENT, are tested and compared on a flat-channel geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance is checked in terms of accuracy and computational cost. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As a first approximation analysis Bergles-Rohsenow model may be a good choice, if more accurate information on thermal behavior or flow field is required, the other should be preferred. - Abstract: This paper compares two Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) approaches for the analysis of flow boiling inside the first wall (FW) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER): (1) the Rohsenow model for nucleate boiling, seamlessly switching to the Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach for film boiling, as available in the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+, (2) the Bergles-Rohsenow (BR) model, for which we developed a User Defined Function (UDF), implemented in the commercial code FLUENT. The physics of both models is described, and the results with different inlet conditions and heating levels are compared with experimental results obtained at the Efremov Institute, Russia. The performance of both models is compared in terms of accuracy and computational cost.

  1. Nanoparticle Deposition During Cu-Water Nanofluid Pool Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doretti, L.; Longo, G. A.; Mancin, S.; Righetti, G.; Weibel, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    The present research activity aims to rigorously investigate nanofluid pool boiling in order to definitively assess this as a technique for controlled nanoparticle coating of surfaces, which can enhance the nucleate boiling performance. This paper presents preliminary nanoparticle deposition results obtained during Cu-water (0.13 wt%) nanofluid pool boiling on a smooth copper surface. The tests were run in an experimental setup designed expressly to study water and nanofluid pool boiling. The square test sample block (27.2 mm × 27.2 mm) is equipped with a rake of four calibrated T-type thermocouples each located in a 13.6-mm deep holes drilled every 5 mm from 1 mm below the top surface. The imposed heat flux and wall superheat can be estimated from measurement of the temperature gradient along the four thermocouples. The samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse the morphological characteristics of the obtained thin, Cu nanoparticle coating.

  2. Pool boiling visualization on open microchannel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniowski Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents visualization investigations into pool boiling heat transfer for open minichannel surfaces. The experiments were carried out wih saturated water at atmospheric pressure. Parallel microchannels fabricated by machining were about 0.3 mm wide and 0.2 to 0.4 mm deep. High-speed videos were used as an aid to understanding the heat transfer mechanism. The visualization study aimed at identifying nucleation sites of the departing bubbles and determining their diameters and frequency at various superheats.

  3. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  4. Sub-cooled nitrogen cryostat for 66 kV/750 A superconducting fault current limiter magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtani, Y; Inoue, K; Kuriyama, T; Nomura, S; Ohkuma, T; Takahashi, Y; Yazawa, T

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the Super-conductive AC Equipment (Super-ACE) project presently being performed, an AC magnet for a fault current limiter (FCL) is being developed. The goal of the project is the development of 66 kV/750 A high Tc superconducting (HTS) FCL magnet, which is composed of six HTS coils operating at around 65 K. This paper describes a design of a sub-cooled nitrogen cryostat for the FCL magnet. Three sets of Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler were used for cooling liquid nitrogen in the cryostat. Experimental results of cooling down and temperature stability during current flowing tests of the magnet were reported in this paper. The sub-cooled nitrogen of 65 K was successfully obtained in the vessel with 2.6 m/sup 3/ in volume. And the temperature uniformity was observed in both of the cooling down process and the coil energizing process.

  5. Strength analysis of CARR-CNS with crescent-shape moderator cell and helium sub-cooling jacket covering cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingfeng; Feng, Quanke; Kawai, Takeshi; Shen, Feng; Yuan, Luzheng; Cheng, Liang

    2005-12-01

    The new type of the moderator cell was developed for the cold neutron source (CNS) of the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) which is now being constructed at the China Institute of Atomic Energy in Beijing. A crescent-shape moderator cell covered by the helium sub-cooling jacket is adopted. The structure of the moderator cell is optimized by the stress FEM analysis. A crescent-shape would help to increase the volume of the moderator cell for fitting it to the four cold neutron guide tubes, even if liquid hydrogen, not liquid deuterium, was used as a cold moderator. The helium sub-cooling jacket covering the moderator cell removes the nuclear heating of the outer shell wall of the cell. It contributes to reduce the void fraction of liquid hydrogen in the outer shell of the moderator cell. Such a type of a moderator cell is suitable for the CNS with higher nuclear heating. The cold helium gas flows down first into the helium sub-cooling jacket and then flows up to the condenser. The theory of the self-regulation suitable to the thermo-siphon type of the CNS is also applicable and validated.

  6. Sorption and agglutination phenomenon of nanofluids on a plain heating surface during pool boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhen-hua; Liao, Liang [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 200030 Shanghai (China)

    2008-05-15

    The pool nucleate boiling heat transfer experiments of water (H{sub 2}O) based and alcohol (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) based nanofluids and nanoparticles-suspensions on the plain heated copper surface were carried out. The study was focused on the sorption and agglutination phenomenon of nanofluids on a heated surface. The nanofluids consisted of the base liquid, the nanoparticles and the surfactant. The nanoparticles-suspensions consisted of the base liquid and nanoparticles. The both liquids of water and alcohol and both nanoparticles of CuO and SiO{sub 2} were used. The surfactant was sodium dodecyl benzene sulphate (SDBS). The experimental results show that for nanofluids, the agglutination phenomenon occurred on the heated surface when the wall temperature was over 112{sup o}C and steady nucleated boiling experiment could not be carried out. The reason was that an unsteady porous agglutination layer was formed on the heated surface. However, for nanoparticles-suspensions, no agglutination phenomenon occurred on the heating surface and the steady boiling could be carried out in the whole nucleate boiling region. For the both of alcohol based nanofluids and nano-suspensions, no agglutination phenomenon occurred on the heating surface and steady nucleate boiling experiment could be carried out in the whole nucleate boiling region whose wall temperature did not exceed 112{sup o}C. The boiling heat transfer characteristics of the nanofluids and nanoparticles-suspensions are somewhat poor compared with that of the base fluids, since the decrease of the active nucleate cavities on the heating surface with a very thin nanoparticles sorption layer. The very thin nanoparticles sorption layer also caused a decrease in the solid-liquid contact angle on the heating surface which leaded to an increase of the critical heat flux (CHF). (author)

  7. Pool Boiling Characteristics on the Microstructure surfaces with Both Rectangular Cavities and Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Eok; Myung, Byung-Soo [Kyungpook Nat’l Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su Cheong; Yu, Dong In [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Ho Seon [Incheon Nat’l Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Based on a surface design with rectangular cavities and channels, we investigated the effects of gravity and capillary pressure on pool-boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF). The microcavity structures could prevent liquid flow by the capillary pressure effect. In addition, the microchannel structures contributed to induce one-dimensional liquid flow on the boiling surface. The relationship between the CHF and capillary flow was clearly established. The driving potentials for the liquid supply into a boiling surface can be generated by the gravitational head and capillary pressure. Through an analysis of pool boiling and visualization data, we reveal that the liquid supplement to maintain the nucleate boiling condition on a boiling surface is closely related to the gravitational pressure head and capillary pressure effect.

  8. Cavitation Bubble Nucleation by Energetic Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    1998-12-01

    In the early sixties, experimental measurements using a bubble chamber confirmed quantitatively the thermal spike theory of bubble nucleation by energetic particles: the energy of the slow, heavy alpha decay recoils used in those experiments matched the calculated bubble nucleation energy to within a few percent. It was a triumph, but was soon to be followed by a puzzle. Within a couple of years, experiments on similar liquids, but well below their normal boiling points, placed under tensile stress showed that the calculated bubble nucleation energy was an order of magnitude less than the recoil energy. Why should the theory work so well in the one case and so badly in the other? How did the liquid, or the recoil particle, "know" the difference between the two experiments? Another mathematical model of the same physical process, introduced in 1967, showed qualitatively why different analyses would be needed for liquids with high and low vapor pressures under positive or negative pressures. But, the quantitative agreement between the calculated nucleation energy and the recoil energy was still poor--the former being smaller by a factor of two to three. In this report, the 1967 analysis is extended and refined: the qualitative understanding of the difference between positive and negative pressure nucleation, "boiling" and "cavitation" respectively, is retained, and agreement between the negative pressure calculated to be needed for nucleation and the energy calculated to be available is much improved. A plot of the calculated negative pressure needed to induce bubble formation against the measured value now has a slope of 1.0, although there is still considerable scatter in the individual points.

  9. CHF Phenomena by Photographic Study of Boiling Behavior due to Transient Heat Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongdoc Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient boiling heat transfer characteristics in a pool of water and highly wetting liquids such as ethanol and FC-72 due to an exponentially increasing heat input of various rates were investigated using the 1.0 mm diameter experimental heater shaped in a horizontal cylinder for wide ranges of pressure and subcooling. The trend of critical heat flux (CHF values in relation to the periods was divided into three groups. The CHF belonging to the 1st group with a longer period occurs with a fully developed nucleate boiling (FDNB heat transfer process. For the 2nd group with shorter periods, the direct transition to film boiling from non boiling occurs as an explosive boiling. The direct boiling transition at the CHF from non-boiling regime to film boiling occurred without a heat flux increase. It was confirmed that the initial boiling behavior is significantly affected by the property and the wettability of the liquid. The photographic observations on the vapor bubble behavior during transitions to film boiling were performed using a high-speed video camera system.

  10. Heat Transfer of Single and Binary Systems inPool Boiling

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas J. Sultan; Balasim A. Abid

    2010-01-01

    The present research focuses on the study of the effect of mass transfer resistance on the rate of heat transfer in pool boiling. The nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for binary mixtures (ethanol-n-butanol, acetone-n-butanol, acetone-ethanol, hexane-benzene, hexane-heptane, and methanol-water) were measured at different concentrations of the more volatile components. The systems chosen covered a wide range of mixture behaviors.The experimental set up for the present investigat...

  11. A high-fidelity approach towards heat transfer prediction of pool boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Miad; Alahyari, Abbas; Radcliff, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    A novel numerical approach is developed to simulate the multiscale problem of pool-boiling phase change with an unprecedented fidelity and cost. The particular focus is to predict the heat transfer coefficient of pool-boiling regime and its transition to critical heat flux on surfaces of arbitrary shape and roughness distribution. The large-scale of the phase change and bubble dynamics is addressed through employing off-the-shelf methods for interface tracking and interphase mass and energy transfer. The small-scale of the microlayer which forms at early stage of bubble nucleation is resolved through asymptotic approximation of the thin-film theory which provides a closed-form solution for the distribution of the micro-layer and its influence on the evaporation process. In addition, the surface roughness and its role in bubble nucleation and growth is represented based on thermodynamics of nucleation process which allows the simulation of pool boiling on any surface with known roughness and enhancement characteristics. The numerical model is validated for dynamics and hydrothermal characteristics of a single nucleated bubble on a flat surface against available literature data. In addition, the model's prediction of pool-boiling heat transfer coefficient is verified against reputable correlations for various roughness distributions and different surface alignment. Finally, the model is employed to demonstrate pool-boiling phenomenon on enhanced structures with reentrance cavities and to explore the effect of enhancement features on thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of these surfaces.

  12. An investigation into the influence of different parameters on the onset of boiling in minichannels

    OpenAIRE

    Piasecka Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents experimental studies on boiling heat transfer in rectangular minichannels. The investigations focus on the transition from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, i.e., in the zone of boiling incipience. The experiment has been carried out with FC-72, R-123 and R-11 at the Reynolds number below 4700, corresponding to mass flow rate range 95-710 kg/(m s). The main part of the test section is a minichannel of pre-set depth from 0.7 to 2 mm and width (20, 40 and 60...

  13. Dynamics of homogeneous nucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The classical nucleation theory for homogeneous nucleation is formulated as a theory for a density fluctuation in a supersaturated gas at a given temperature. But molecular dynamics simulations reveal that it is small cold clusters which initiates the nucleation. The temperature in the nucleating...... or shrink by accretion or evaporation of monomers only but also by an exponentially declining change in cluster size per time step equal to the cluster distribution in the supersaturated gas....

  14. Boiling crisis and non-equilibrium drying transition

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolayev, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    Boiling crisis is the rapid formation of the quasi-continuous vapor film between the heater and the liquid when the heat supply exceeds a critical value. We propose a mechanism for the boiling crisis that is based on the spreading of the dry spot under a vapor bubble. The spreading is initiated by the vapor recoil force, a force coming from the liquid evaporation into the bubble. Since the evaporation intensity increases sharply near the triple contact line, the influence of the vapor recoil can be described as a change of the apparent contact angle. Therefore, for the most usual case of complete wetting of the heating surface by the liquid, the boiling crisis can be understood as a drying transition from complete to partial wetting. The state of nucleate boiling, which is boiling in its usual sense, is characterized by a very large rate of heat transfer from the heating surface to the bulk because the superheated liquid is carried away from the heating surface by the departing vapor bubbles. If the heating p...

  15. MTD-MFC: unified framework for investigation of diversity of boiling heat transfer curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekriladze, I.G. [Georgian Technical University, Tbilisi (Georgia)], e-mail: shekri@geo.net.ge

    2009-07-01

    A keynote paper presents just the next attempt to promote a discussion of modern state of art in the field of boiling heat transfer research. It is shown how longstanding disregard of internal contradictions of applicable approaches has resulted theoretical deadlock. Alternatively, it also is shown how resolution of these contradictions opens the ways to breakthrough in boiling heat transfer theory. Basic experimental facts, physical models and correlations are reconsidered. Principal contradictions between experimental knowledge and traditional model of 'the theatre of actors' (MTA) are discussed. Crucial role of pumping effect of growing bubble (PEGB) in boiling heat transfer and hydrodynamics is shown. Basic role of control of HTC by thermodynamic conditions on nucleation sites is demonstrated and consequent model of 'the theatre of director' (MTD) is discussed. Universal MTD-based correlation of boiling HTC of all types of liquids is considered. Unified consistent research framework for developed boiling heat transfer and diverse specific boiling heat transfer regimes is outlined through supplementing MTD by so-called multifactoring concept (MFC). The latter links transition from developed boiling mode to diverse boiling curves to a phenomenon of multiplication of factors influencing HTC. The ways of further research of the boiling problem are discussed. (author)

  16. Explosive Boiling in Z-pinch Plasmas*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, John S.; Bauer, Bruno S.

    2002-11-01

    Recently, high resolution x-ray backlighting (radiography), experiments [1] have shown complex small-scale (typical sizes of 2-30 µm) structure of the exploding wire cores of both single-wire and multiwire loads subjected to 2-5 kA per 7.5-25 µm diameter wire for 1µs. The radiographs show features implying that the core has become a foam-like, liquid-vapor mixture. This foam-like state is apparently caused by explosive boiling. The point is that the wires are heated so rapidly that normal boiling (vapor bubbles are formed heterogeneously in the liquid) cannot occur. In explosive boiling, the liquid is superheated to a temperature close to the critical temperature and the phase change occurs explosively in times as short as a few ns. Homogeneous bubble nucleation occurs and the wire makes a very rapid transition from superheated liquid to a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets. This behavior will have very important effects on wire initiation in Z-pinch driven wire arrays and breakdown in MITLs. The ablation of the wire to form the coronal plasma and the remaining core plasma will be quite different for the mixed state. The mixed state is not modeled in the MHD codes that are being used to model wire initiation. We are developing models of the mixed state to include in the MHD codes. We are also developing experiments to improve the understanding of this curious state of matter. 1. Pikuz, S. A., Shelkovenko, T. A., Sinars, D. B., Greenly, J. B., Dimant, Y. S., and Hammer, D. A., Phys. Rev. Letters 83, 4313-4316 (1999). *Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy Under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Boiling liquid cauldron status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1980-12-28

    The progress made over the past year in assessing the feasibility of the high-temperature, boiling cauldron blanket concept for the tanden mirror reactor is reviewed. The status of the proposed experiments and recently revised estimates of the vapor void fraction in the boiling pool are discussed.

  18. HORIZONTAL BOILING REACTOR SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treshow, M.

    1958-11-18

    Reactors of the boiling water type are described wherein water serves both as the moderator and coolant. The reactor system consists essentially of a horizontal pressure vessel divided into two compartments by a weir, a thermal neutronic reactor core having vertical coolant passages and designed to use water as a moderator-coolant posltioned in one compartment, means for removing live steam from the other compartment and means for conveying feed-water and water from the steam compartment to the reactor compartment. The system further includes auxiliary apparatus to utilize the steam for driving a turbine and returning the condensate to the feed-water inlet of the reactor. The entire system is designed so that the reactor is self-regulating and has self-limiting power and self-limiting pressure features.

  19. Numerical investigation of boiling heat transfer on hydrocarbon mixture refrigerant in vertical rectangular minichannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixing Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the characteristics of boiling heat transfer for hydrocarbon mixture refrigerant in plate-fin heat exchanger which is used in the petrochemical industry field, a model was established on boiling heat transfer in vertical rectangular channel. The simulated results were compared with the experimental data from literature. The results show that the deviation between the simulated results and experimental data is within ±15%. Meanwhile, the characteristic of boiling heat transfer was investigated in vertical rectangular minichannel of plate-fin heat exchanger. The results show that the boiling heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase in quality and mass flux and is slightly impacted by the heat flux. This is because that the main boiling mechanism is forced convective boiling while the contribution of nucleate boiling is slight. The correlation of Liu and Winterton is in good agreement with the simulation results. The deviation between correlation calculations and simulation results is mostly less than ±15%. These results will provide some constructive instructions for the understanding of saturated boiling mechanism in a vertical rectangular minichannel and the prediction of heat transfer performance in plate-fin heat exchanger.

  20. Numerical simulation of pool boiling for steady state and transient heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ying; Shoji, Masahiro; Maruyama, Shigeo

    1999-07-01

    It's believed that the macrolayer plays an important role in nucleate and transition boiling heat transfer at high heat flux. Many experiments have been carried out to support the macrolayer evaporation model, however, little has been conducted in the numerical simulation of boiling heat transfer. In this study, based on the macrolayer evaporation model of Maruyama et al. (1992), a numerical simulation of pool boiling for steady state was carried out. The key points of the simulation are: (1) It is modeled that the macrolayer containing vapor stems occupies the region immediately next to the wall and that the vapor stems are formed on the active cavity sites. (2) Not only does the evaporation occur at the vapor bubble-macrolayer interface, but also at the liquid-vapor stem interface. (3) The macrolayers form periodically. No liquid is supplied to the macrolayers during the hovering period. While the vapor mass departs from the surface, the macrolayers replenish immediately despite the complicity of the transition period between the departures of two vapor masses. The major results are: (1) The boiling curves of water and FC-72 (C{sub 6}F{sub 14}) were reasonably predicted. (2) The temporal variations in surface temperature for different boiling regimes were obtained. Secondly, the simulation of transient pool boiling was conducted. It was realized with following assumptions: (1) The macrolayer evaporation model can be extended to the transient pool boiling. The macrolayer forms cyclically and its thickness is determined by the surface heat flux when the vapor mass takes off. (2) One-dimensional transient heat conduction within the heater coupled with the macrolayer model was considered. Being employed explicit FDM, the instantaneous surface temperature can be obtained. Therefore, the instantaneous heat flux can be calculated by applying the surface temperature into the macrolayer model. (3) In the transition-boiling regime, the initial thickness of macrolayer

  1. A molecular dynamics study of phobic/philic nano-patterning on pool boiling heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ricardo; Guo, Zhixiong

    2017-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to investigate the pool boiling heat transfer of a liquid argon thin film on a flat, horizontal copper wall structured with vertical nanoscale pillars. The efficacy of phobic/philic nano-patterning for enhancing boiling heat transfer was scrutinized. Both nucleate and explosive boiling modes were considered. An error analysis demonstrated that the typical 2.5σ cutoff in MD simulations could under-predict heat flux by about 8.7 %, and 6σ cutoff was chosen here in order to maintain high accuracy. A new coordination number criterion was also introduced to better quantify evaporation characteristics. Results indicate that the argon-phobic/philic patterning tends to either have no effect, or decrease overall boiling heat flux, while the argon-philic nano-pillar/argon-philic wall shows the best heat transfer performance.

  2. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) enhancement of boiling heat transfer of R113+WT4% ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Si Doek [Hyosung Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Ho Young [Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer for refrigerants, R113, and R113+wt14% ethanol mixture, an azeotropic mixture under electric field was investigated experimentally in a single-tube shell/tube heat exchanger. A special electrode configuration which provides a more uniform electric field that produces more higher voltage limit against the dielectric breakdown was used in this study. Experimental study has revealed that the electrical charge relaxation time is an important parameter for the boiling heat transfer enhancement under electric field. Up to 1210% enhancement of boiling heat transfer was obtained for R113+wt4% ethanol mixture which has the electrical charge relaxation time of 0.0053 sec whereas only 280% enhancement obtained for R113 which has relaxation time of 0.97 sec. With artificially machined boiling surface, more enhancement in the heat transfer coefficient in the azeotropic mixture was obtained.

  3. Pool boiling enhancement through contact line augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, P. A.; Kandlikar, S. G.

    2017-05-01

    In addition to transient conduction, microconvection, and microlayer evaporation, contact line region heat transfer has been identified as an important mode of heat transfer during boiling. In this work, we demonstrate that generating additional contact line regions within the base of a nucleating bubble leads to critical heat flux (CHF) enhancement. The creation of a liquid meniscus adjacent to 10-20 μm deep microgrooves in the bubble base area was responsible for the generation of the additional contact line regions. The depth of the microgrooves was determined such that a sufficient reservoir of liquid is present in the meniscus to sustain evaporation in the contact line region throughout the bubble cycle. The effective contact line length at the base of the bubble was seen to be a good indicator of the CHF (wetted area) over the surface. The microgroove geometry played a significant role in influencing the bubble dynamics and bubble departure diameter during boiling. It was seen that the bubbles were able to bridge and grow over the shallow microgrooves of 10-20 μm depth and generate additional contact line regions but were pinned and constrained within the grooves in the case of the microgrooves deeper than 100 μm. For shallow grooves, narrow grooves resulted in smaller bubbles, which in turn reduced the contact line length. The findings of this work could be used to design heat transfer surfaces that significantly enhance the contact line region contribution and CHF by placing shallow enhancement features on the surface of the heater.

  4. Criticality in the slowed-down boiling crisis at zero gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charignon, T; Lloveras, P; Chatain, D; Truskinovsky, L; Vives, E; Beysens, D; Nikolayev, V S

    2015-05-01

    Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. It occurs at a threshold value of the heat flux from the heater called CHF (critical heat flux). Usually, boiling crisis studies are hindered by the high CHF and short transition duration (below 1 ms). Here we report on experiments in hydrogen near its liquid-vapor critical point, in which the CHF is low and the dynamics slow enough to be resolved. As under such conditions the surface tension is very small, the experiments are carried out in the reduced gravity to preserve the conventional bubble geometry. Weightlessness is created artificially in two-phase hydrogen by compensating gravity with magnetic forces. We were able to reveal the fractal structure of the contour of the percolating cluster of the dry areas at the heater that precedes the boiling crisis. We provide a direct statistical analysis of dry spot areas that confirms the boiling crisis at zero gravity as a scale-free phenomenon. It was observed that, in agreement with theoretical predictions, saturated boiling CHF tends to zero (within the precision of our thermal control system) in zero gravity, which suggests that the boiling crisis may be observed at any heat flux provided the experiment lasts long enough.

  5. Nucleation in food colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, Malcolm J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Nucleation in food colloids has been studied in detail using ultrasound spectroscopy. Our data show that classical nucleation theory (CNT) remains a sound basis from which to understand nucleation in food colloids and analogous model systems using n-alkanes. Various interpretations and modifications of CNT are discussed with regard to their relevance to food colloids. Much of the evidence presented is based on the ultrasound velocity spectrometry measurements which has many advantages for the study of nucleating systems compared to light scattering and NMR due to its sensitivity at low solid contents and its ability to measure true solid contents in the nucleation and early crystal growth stages. Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy also responds to critical fluctuations in the induction region. We show, however, that a periodic pressure fluctuation such as a quasi-continuous (as opposed to a pulse comprising only a few pressure cycles) ultrasound field can alter the nucleation process, even at very low acoustic intensity. Thus care must be taken when using ultrasound techniques that the measurements do not alter the studied processes. Quasi-continuous ultrasound fields may enhance or suppress nucleation and the criteria to determine such effects are derived. The conclusions of this paper are relevant to colloidal systems in foods, pharmaceuticals, agro-chemicals, cosmetics, and personal products.

  6. Effect of Uniformly and Nonuniformly Coated Al2O3 Nanoparticles over Glass Tube Heater on Pool Boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Doifode

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of uniformly and nonuniformly coated Al2O3 nanoparticles over plain glass tube heater on pool boiling heat transfer was studied experimentally. A borosilicate glass tube coated with Al2O3 nanoparticle was used as test heater. The boiling behaviour was studied by using high speed camera. Result obtained for pool boiling shows enhancement in heat transfer for nanoparticle coated surface heater and compared with plain glass tube heater. Also heat transfer coefficient for nonuniformly coated nanoparticles was studied and compared with uniformly coated and plain glass tube. Coating effect of nanoparticles over glass tube increases its surface roughness and thereby creates more nucleation sites.

  7. Experimental study on pool boiling of distilled water and HFE7500 fluid under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-jie; Chen, Xiao-qian; Huang, Yi-yong; Li, Guang-yu

    2018-02-01

    The experimental study on bubble behavior and heat transfer of pool boiling for distilled water and HFE7500 fluid under microgravity has been conducted by using drop tower in the National Microgravity Laboratory of China (NMLC). Two MCH ceramic plates of 20 mm(L) × 10 mm(W) × 1.2 mm(H) were used as the heaters. The nucleate boiling evolution under microgravity was observed during the experiment. It has been found that at the same heat flux, the bubbles of HFE7500 (which has smaller contact angle) grew faster and bigger, moved quickly on the heater surface, and were easier to merge into a central big bubble with other bubbles than that of distilled water. The whole process of bubbles coalescence from seven to one was recorded by using video camera. For distilled water (with bigger contact angle), the bubbles tended to keep at the nucleate location on heater surface, and the central big bubble evolved at its nucleate cite by absorbing smaller bubbles nearby. Compared with the bubbles under normal gravity, bubble radius of distilled water under microgravity was about 1.4 times bigger and of HFE7500 was about more than 6 times bigger till the end of experiment. At the beginning, pool boiling heat transfer of distilled water was advanced and then impeded under microgravity. As to HFE7500, the pool boiling impedes the heat transfer from heater to liquid under microgravity throughout the experiment.

  8. Single-bubble dynamics in pool boiling of one-component fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2014-06-04

    We numerically investigate the pool boiling of one-component fluids with a focus on the effects of surface wettability on the single-bubble dynamics. We employed the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], a diffuse-interface model for liquid-vapor flows involving liquid-vapor transition in nonuniform temperature fields. We first perform simulations for bubbles on homogeneous surfaces. We find that an increase in either the contact angle or the surface superheating can enhance the bubble spreading over the heating surface and increase the bubble departure diameter as well and therefore facilitate the transition into film boiling. We then examine the dynamics of bubbles on patterned surfaces, which incorporate the advantages of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The central hydrophobic region increases the thermodynamic probability of bubble nucleation while the surrounding hydrophilic region hinders the continuous bubble spreading by pinning the contact line at the hydrophobic-hydrophilic intersection. This leads to a small bubble departure diameter and therefore prevents the transition from nucleate boiling into film boiling. With the bubble nucleation probability increased and the bubble departure facilitated, the efficiency of heat transfer on such patterned surfaces is highly enhanced, as observed experimentally [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 57, 733 (2013)]. In addition, the stick-slip motion of contact line on patterned surfaces is demonstrated in one-component fluids, with the effect weakened by surface superheating.

  9. Correlation for the Prediction of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Small Diameter Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kazushi; Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

    The objective of the present study is to develop a correlation applicable to a prediction of an axially local heat transfer coefficient in flow boiling within small diameter tubes. From experimental data of authors obtained previously, it was found that, for the accurate prediction of the heat transfer in small diameter tubes, it was necessary to evaluate precisely the contribution of evaporation heat transfer of thin liquid film around vapor plugs in slug flow, adding to the forced convection heat transfer and nucleate boiling heat transfer. There are, however, only conventional heat transfer correlations which consider any two of the three contributions; forced convection and nucleate boiling in most cases. In this study, a new correlation considering all of three contributions was developed based on data of R 410A by authors and data of other Freons, water and CO2 by other researchers. In the new correlation, the liquid film evaporation heat transfer is evaluated using liquid film thickness correlated with the Capillary number, the forced convection heat transfer is calculated by use of the Dittus-Boelter correlation and the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter, and the nucleate boiling heat transfer is predicted from the Stephan-Abdelsalam correlation with the suppression factor. The new correlation showed higher prediction performance compared with conventional heat transfer correlations.

  10. Ice nucleation terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, G.; DeMott, P.; Möhler, O.; Whale, T. F.

    2014-08-01

    Progress in the understanding of ice nucleation is being hampered by the lack of uniformity in how some terms are used in the literature. This even extends to some ambiguity of meanings attached to some terms. Suggestions are put forward here for common use of terms. Some are already well established and clear of ambiguities. Others are less engrained and will need a conscious effort in adoption. Evolution in the range of systems where ice nucleation is being studied enhances the need for a clear nomenclature. The ultimate limit in the clarity of definitions is, of course, the limited degree to which ice nucleation processes are understood.

  11. Bubble and boundary layer behaviour in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurus, Reinhold; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The horizontal orientated test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and good optical access. Various optical observation techniques were applied to study the bubble behaviour and the characteristics of the fluid phase. The bubble behaviour was recorded by the high-speed cinematography and by a digital high resolution camera. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, the bubbles were automatically analysed and the bubble size, bubble lifetime, waiting time between two cycles were evaluated. Due to the huge number of observed bubbles a statistical analysis was performed and distribution functions were derived. Using a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm, the averaged axial phase boundary velocity profile could be extracted. In addition, the fluid phase velocity profile was characterised by means of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the single phase flow as well as under subcooled flow boiling conditions. The results indicate that the bubbles increase the flow resistance. The impact on the flow exceeds by far the bubbly region and it depends on the magnitude of the boiling activity. Finally, the ratio of the averaged phase boundary velocity and of the averaged fluid velocity was evaluated for the bubbly region. (authors)

  12. Prediction of subcooled flow boiling characteristics using two-fluid Eulerian CFD model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B., E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br; Caldeira, Alexandre D.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • CFD multiphase model is used to predict subcooled flow boiling characteristics. • Better agreement is achieved for higher saturation pressures. • Onset of nucleate boiling and saturated boiling are well predicted. • CFD multiphase model tends to underestimate the void fraction. • Factors were adjusted in order to improve the void fraction results. - Abstract: The present study concerns a detailed analysis of flow boiling phenomena under high pressure systems using a two-fluid Eulerian approach provided by a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver. For this purpose, a vertical heated pipe made of stainless steel with an internal diameter of 15.4 mm was considered as the modeled domain. Two different uniform heat fluxes and three saturation pressures were applied to the channel wall, whereas water mass flux of 900 kg/m{sup 2} s was considered for all simulation cases. The model was validated against a set of experimental data and results have indicated a promising use of the CFD technique for estimation of the wall temperature, the liquid bulk temperature and the location of the departure of nucleate boiling. Changes in factors applied in the modeling of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and bubble departure frequency were suggested, allowing a better prediction of the void fraction along the heated channel. The commercial CFD solver FLUENT 14.5 was used for the model implementation.

  13. Design, Construction, and Qualification of a Microscale Heater Array for Use in Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, T. D.; Kim, J.; Kalkur, T. S.

    1998-01-01

    Boiling heat transfer is an efficient means of heat transfer because a large amount of heat can be removed from a surface using a relatively small temperature difference between the surface and the bulk liquid. However, the mechanisms that govern boiling heat transfer are not well understood. Measurements of wall temperature and heat flux near the wall would add to the database of knowledge which is necessary to understand the mechanisms of nucleate boiling. A heater array has been developed which contains 96 heater elements within a 2.5 mm square area. The temperature of each heater element is held constant by an electronic control system similar to a hot-wire anemometer. The voltage that is being applied to each heater element can be measured and digitized using a high-speed A/D converter, and this digital information can be compiled into a series of heat-flux maps. Information for up to 10,000 heat flux maps can be obtained each second. The heater control system, the A/D system and the heater array construction are described in detail. Results are presented which show that this is an effective method of measuring the local heat flux during nucleate and transition boiling. Heat flux maps are obtained for pool boiling in FC-72 on a horizontal surface. Local heat flux variations are shown to be three to six times larger than variations in the spatially averaged heat flux.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Single Bubble Growth under High-Pressure Pool Boiling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Murallidharan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Component-scale modeling of boiling is predominantly based on the Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach. Within this framework, wall boiling is accounted for via the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI model and, within this model, the bubble is characterized using three main parameters: departure diameter (D, nucleation site density (N, and departure frequency (f. Typically, the magnitudes of these three parameters are obtained from empirical correlations. However, in recent years, efforts have been directed toward mechanistic modeling of the boiling process. Of the three parameters mentioned above, the departure diameter (D is least affected by the intrinsic uncertainties of the nucleate boiling process. This feature, along with its prominence within the RPI boiling model, has made it the primary candidate for mechanistic modeling ventures. Mechanistic modeling of D is mostly carried out through solving of force balance equations on the bubble. Forces incorporated in these equations are formulated as functions of the radius of the bubble and have been developed for, and applied to, low-pressure conditions only. Conversely, for high-pressure conditions, no mechanistic information is available regarding the growth rates of bubbles and the forces acting on them. In this study, we use direct numerical simulation coupled with an interface tracking method to simulate bubble growth under high (up to 45 bar pressure, to obtain the kind of mechanistic information required for an RPI-type approach. In this study, we compare the resulting bubble growth rate curves with predictions made with existing experimental data.

  15. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  16. LMFBR safety and sodium boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, W.D.; Tschamper, P.M.; Fontana, M.H.; Henry, R.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Within the U.S. Fast Breeder Reactor Safety R and D Work Breakdown Structure for Line of Assurance 2, Limit Core Damage, the influence of sodium boiling upon the progression and termination of accidents is being studied in loss of flow, transient overpower, loss of piping integrity, loss of shutdown heat removal system and local fault situations. The pertinent analytical and experimental results of this research to date are surveyed and compared with the requirements for demonstrating the effectiveness of this line of assurance. A discussion of specific technical issues concerned with sodium boiling and the need for future development work is also presented.

  17. Boiling flow through diverging microchannel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Heat Transfer ASME 1301–1310. Lee P C and Pan C 2008 Boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow of water in a single shallow microchannel with a uniform or diverging cross section. J. Micromechanics and Microengineering 13: 18. Lee P C, Tseng F G and Pan C 2004 Bubble dynamics in microchannels: Part I. Single ...

  18. Bubble spreading during the boiling crisis: modelling and experimenting in microgravity

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolayev, Vadim; Garrabos, Y; Lecoutre, C; Chatain, D

    2016-01-01

    Boiling is a very efficient way to transfer heat from a heater to the liquid carrier. We discuss the boiling crisis, a transition between two regimes of boiling: nucleate and film boiling. The boiling crisis results in a sharp decrease in the heat transfer rate, which can cause a major accident in industrial heat exchangers. In this communication, we present a physical model of the boiling crisis based on the vapor recoil effect. Under the action of the vapor recoil the gas bubbles begin to spread over the heater thus forming a germ for the vapor film. The vapor recoil force not only causes its spreading, it also creates a strong adhesion to the heater that prevents the bubble departure, thus favoring the further spreading. Near the liquid-gas critical point, the bubble growth is very slow and allows the kinetics of the bubble spreading to be observed. Since the surface tension is very small in this regime, only microgravity conditions can preserve a convex bubble shape. In the experiments both in the Mir spa...

  19. Thermal hydraulic test for reactor safety system; a visualization study on flow boiling and bubble behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Soon Heung; Baek, Won Pil; Ban, In Cheol [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The project contribute to understand and to clarify the physical mechanism of flow nucleate boiling and CHF phenomena through the visualization experiments. the results are useful in the development of the enhancement device of heat transfer and to enhance nuclear fuel safety 1. Visual experimental facility 2. Application method of visualization Technique 3. Visualization results of flow nucleate boiling regime - Overall Bubble Behavior on the Heated Surface - Bubble Behavior near CHF Condition - Identification of Flow Structure - Three-layer flow structure 4. Quantifying of bubble parameter through a digital image processing - Image Processing Techniques - Classification of objects and measurements of the size - Three dimensional surface plot with using the luminance 5. Development and estimation of a correlation between bubble diameter and flow parameter - The effect of system parameter on bubble diameter - The development of a bubble diameter correlation . 49 refs., 42 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  20. Microlayer formation characteristics in pool isolated bubble boiling of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Tomohide; Nakabeppu, Osamu

    2017-05-01

    Investigation of microlayer formation characteristics is important for developing a reliable nucleate boiling heat transfer model based on accurate physical mechanisms. Although formation mechanisms of the thin liquid film in two-phase flow of confined spaces, such as micro-tubes and closely positioned parallel plates, have been thoroughly studied, microlayer formation mechanisms of pool boiling have been sparsely studied. In a previous study (Yabuki and Nakabeppu in Int J Heat Mass Transf 76:286-297, 2014; Int J Heat Mass Transf 100:851-860, 2016), the spatial distribution of initial microlayer thickness under pool boiling bubbles was calculated by transient heat conduction analysis using the local wall temperature measured with a MEMS sensor. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of microlayer formation in pool boiling were investigated using the relationship between derived initial microlayer thickness and microlayer formation velocity determined by transient local heat flux data. The trend of microlayer thickness was found to change depending on the thickness of the velocity boundary layer outside the bubble foot. When the boundary layer thickness was thin, the initial microlayer thickness was determined by the boundary layer thickness, and the initial microlayer thickness proportionally increased with increasing boundary layer thickness. On the other hand, when the boundary layer was thick, the initial microlayer thickness decreased with increasing boundary layer thickness. In this thick boundary layer region, the momentum balance in the dynamic meniscus region became important, in addition to the boundary layer thickness, and the microlayer thickness, made dimensionless using boundary layer thickness, correlated with the Bond number.

  1. Colloids and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the work funded under this grant were to develop a microphotographic technique and use it to monitor the nucleation and growth of crystals of hard colloidal spheres. Special attention is given to the possible need for microgravity studies in future experiments. A number of persons have been involved in this work. A masters student, Keith Davis, began the project and developed a sheet illumination apparatus and an image processing system for detection and analysis. His work on a segmentation program for image processing was sufficient for his master's research and has been published. A post doctoral student Bernie Olivier and a graduate student Yueming He, who originally suggested the sheet illumination, were funded by another source but along with Keith made photographic series of several samples (that had been made by Keith Davis). Data extraction has been done by Keith, Bernie, Yueming and two undergraduates employed on the grant. Results are published in Langmuir. These results describe the sheet lighting technique as one which illuminates not only the Bragg scattering crystal, but all the crystals. Thus, accurate crystal counts can be made for nucleation rate measurements. The strange crystal length scale reduction, observed in small angle light scattering (SALS) studies, following the initial nucleation and growth period, has been observed directly. The Bragg scattering (and dark) crystal size decreases in the crossover region. This could be an effect due to gravitational forces or due to over- compression of the crystal during growth. Direct observations indicate a complex morphology for the resulting hard sphere crystals. The crystal edges are fairly sharp but the crystals have a large degree of internal structure. This structure is a result of (unstable) growth and not aggregation. As yet unpublished work compares growth exponents data with data obtained by SALS. The nucleation rate density is determined over a broad volume fraction range

  2. The effects of geometric, flow, and boiling parameters on bubble growth and behavior in subcooled flow boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaroo, Randy

    Air bubble injection and subcooled flow boiling experiments have been performed to investigate the liquid flow field and bubble nucleation, growth, and departure, in part to contribute to the DOE Nuclear HUB project, Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). The main objective was to obtain quantitative data and compartmentalize the many different interconnected aspects of the boiling process -- from the channel geometry, to liquid and gas interactions, to underlying heat transfer mechanisms. The air bubble injection experiments were performed in annular and rectangular geometries and yielded data on bubble formation and departure from a small hole on the inner tube surface, subsequent motion and deformation of the detached bubbles, and interactions with laminar or turbulent water flow. Instantaneous and ensemble- average liquid velocity profiles have been obtained using a Particle Image Velocimetry technique and a high speed video camera. Reynolds numbers for these works ranged from 1,300 to 7,700. Boiling experiments have been performed with subcooled water at atmospheric pres- sure in the same annular channel geometry as the air injection experiments. A second flow loop with a slightly larger annular channel was constructed to perform further boiling experiments at elevated pressures up to 10 bar. High speed video and PIV measurements of turbulent velocity profiles in the presence of small vapor bubbles on the heated rod are presented. The liquid Reynolds number for this set of experiments ranged from 5,460 to 86,000. It was observed that as the vapor bubbles are very small compared to the injected air bubbles, further experiments were performed using a microscopic objective to obtain higher spatial resolution for velocity fields near the heated wall. Multiple correlations for the bubble liftoff diameter, liftoff time and bub- ble history number were evaluated against a number of experimental datasets from previous works, resulting in a

  3. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a

  4. Transition process leading to microbubble emission boiling on horizontal circular heated surface in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Ichiro; Ando, Jun; Horiuchi, Kazuna; Saiki, Takahito; Kaneko, Toshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Microbubble emission boiling (MEB) produces a higher heat flux than critical heat flux (CHF) and therefore has been investigated in terms of its heat transfer characteristics as well as the conditions under which MEB occurs. Its physical mechanism, however, is not yet clearly understood. We carried out a series of experiments to examine boiling on horizontal circular heated surfaces of 5 mm and of 10 mm in diameter, in a subcooled pool, paying close attention to the transition process to MEB. High-speed observation results show that, in the MEB regime, the growth, condensation, and collapse of the vapor bubbles occur within a very short time. In addition, a number of fine bubbles are emitted from the collapse of the vapor bubbles. By tracking these tiny bubbles, we clearly visualize that the collapse of the vapor bubbles drives the liquid near the bubbles towards the heated surface, such that the convection field around the vapor bubbles under MEB significantly differs from that under nucleate boiling. Moreover, the axial temperature gradient in a heated block (quasi-heat flux) indicates a clear difference between nucleate boiling and MEB. A combination of quasi-heat flux and the measurement of the behavior of the vapor bubbles allows us to discuss the transition to MEB. This work was financially supported by the 45th Research Grant in Natural Sciences from The Mitsubishi Foundation (2014 - 2015), and by Research Grant for Boiler and Pressurized Vessels from The Japan Boiler Association (2016).

  5. Two-phase structure above hot surfaces in jet impingement boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanic, L.; Auracher, H.; Ziegler, F.

    2009-05-01

    Jet impingement boiling is very efficient in cooling of hot surfaces as a part of the impinging liquid evaporates. Several studies have been carried out to measure and correlate the heat transfer to impinging jets as a function of global parameters such as jet subcooling, jet velocity, nozzle size and distance to the surface, etc. If physically based mechanistic models are to be developed, studies on the fundamentals of two-phase dynamics near the hot surface are required. In the present study the vapor-liquid structures underneath a subcooled (20 K) planar (1 mm × 9 mm) water jet, impinging the heated plate vertically with a velocity of 0.4 m/s, were analyzed by means of a miniaturized optical probe. It has a tip diameter of app. 1.5 μm and is moved toward the plate by a micrometer device. The temperature controlled experimental technique enabled steady-state experiments in all boiling regimes. The optical probe data provides information about the void fraction, the contact frequencies and the distribution of the vapor and liquid contact times as a function of the distance to the surface. The measured contact frequencies range from 40 Hz at the onset of nucleate boiling to nearly 20,000 Hz at the end of the transition boiling regime. Due to condensation in the subcooled jet vapor disappears at a distance to the surface of app. 1.2 mm in nucleate boiling. This vapor layer becomes smaller with increasing wall superheat. In film boiling a vapor film thickness of 8 ± 2 μm was found.

  6. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C.; Androsch, R.; Schmelzer, J. W. P.

    2017-11-01

    The pathway of crystal nucleation significantly influences the structure and properties of semi-crystalline polymers. Crystal nucleation is normally heterogeneous at low supercooling, and homogeneous at high supercooling, of the polymer melt. Homogeneous nucleation in bulk polymers has been, so far, hardly accessible experimentally, and was even doubted to occur at all. This topical review summarizes experimental findings on homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers. Recently developed fast scanning calorimetry, with cooling and heating rates up to 106 K s-1, allows for detailed investigations of nucleation near and even below the glass transition temperature, including analysis of nuclei stability. As for other materials, the maximum homogeneous nucleation rate for polymers is located close to the glass transition temperature. In the experiments discussed here, it is shown that polymer nucleation is homogeneous at such temperatures. Homogeneous nucleation in polymers is discussed in the framework of the classical nucleation theory. The majority of our observations are consistent with the theory. The discrepancies may guide further research, particularly experiments to progress theoretical development. Progress in the understanding of homogeneous nucleation is much needed, since most of the modelling approaches dealing with polymer crystallization exclusively consider homogeneous nucleation. This is also the basis for advancing theoretical approaches to the much more complex phenomena governing heterogeneous nucleation.

  7. Solid state and sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures of substituted dicarboxylic acids using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Booth

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid state vapour pressures of a selection of atmospherically important substituted dicarboxylic acids have been measured using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS over a range of 20 K (298–318 K. Enthalpies of fusion and melting points obtained using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC were used to obtain sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures. They have been compared to estimation methods used on the E-AIM website. These methods are shown to poorly represent – OH groups in combination with COOH groups. Partitioning calculations have been performed to illustrate the impact of the different estimation methods on organic aerosol mass compared to the use of experimental data.

  8. Numerical simulation in a subcooled water flow boiling for one-sided high heat flux in reactor divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P., E-mail: pinliu@aust.edu.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Peng, X.B., E-mail: pengxb@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Song, Y.T. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fang, X.D. [Institute of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Huang, S.H. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Mao, X. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The Eulerian multiphase models coupled with Non-equilibrium Boiling model can effectively simulate the subcooled water flow boiling. • ONB and FDB appear earlier and earlier with the increase of heat fluxes. • The void fraction increases gradually along the flow direction. • The inner CuCrZr tube deteriorates earlier than the outer tungsten layer and the middle OFHC copper layer. - Abstract: In order to remove high heat fluxes for plasma facing components in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor, a numerical simulation of subcooled water flow boiling heat transfer in a vertically upward smooth tube was conducted in this paper on the condition of one-sided high heat fluxes. The Eulerian multiphase model coupled with Non-equilibrium Boiling model was adopted in numerical simulation of the subcooled boiling two-phase flow. The heat transfer regions, thermodynamic vapor quality (x{sub th}), void fraction and temperatures of three components on the condition of the different heat fluxes were analyzed. Numerical results indicate that the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and fully developed boiling (FDB) appear earlier and earlier with increasing heat flux. With the increase of heat fluxes, the inner CuCrZr tube will deteriorate earlier than the outer tungsten layer and the middle oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper layer. These results provide a valuable reference for the thermal-hydraulic design of a water-cooled W/Cu divertor.

  9. Overview: Nucleation of clathrate hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Pramod; Khan, M. Naveed; Srivastava, Vishal; Maupin, C. Mark; Koh, Carolyn A.

    2016-12-01

    Molecular level knowledge of nucleation and growth of clathrate hydrates is of importance for advancing fundamental understanding on the nature of water and hydrophobic hydrate formers, and their interactions that result in the formation of ice-like solids at temperatures higher than the ice-point. The stochastic nature and the inability to probe the small length and time scales associated with the nucleation process make it very difficult to experimentally determine the molecular level changes that lead to the nucleation event. Conversely, for this reason, there have been increasing efforts to obtain this information using molecular simulations. Accurate knowledge of how and when hydrate structures nucleate will be tremendously beneficial for the development of sustainable hydrate management strategies in oil and gas flowlines, as well as for their application in energy storage and recovery, gas separation, carbon sequestration, seawater desalination, and refrigeration. This article reviews various aspects of hydrate nucleation. First, properties of supercooled water and ice nucleation are reviewed briefly due to their apparent similarity to hydrates. Hydrate nucleation is then reviewed starting from macroscopic observations as obtained from experiments in laboratories and operations in industries, followed by various hydrate nucleation hypotheses and hydrate nucleation driving force calculations based on the classical nucleation theory. Finally, molecular simulations on hydrate nucleation are discussed in detail followed by potential future research directions.

  10. An investigation into the influence of different parameters on the onset of boiling in minichannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecka Magdalena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental studies on boiling heat transfer in rectangular minichannels. The investigations focus on the transition from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, i.e., in the zone of boiling incipience. The experiment has been carried out with FC-72, R-123 and R-11 at the Reynolds number below 4700, corresponding to mass flow rate range 95-710 kg/(m s. The main part of the test section is a minichannel of pre-set depth from 0.7 to 2 mm and width (20, 40 and 60 mm, with different spatial orientations from vertical to horizontal and 30% inclination angle adjustment. The objective of the paper includes the impact of selected parameters (liquid flow velocity, pressure and inlet liquid subcooling, channel dimensions and spatial orientation on the boiling incipience in minichannels. The investigations are intended to develop a correlation for the calculations of the Nusselt number under the conditions of boiling incipience in the minichannel as a function of changeable parameters.

  11. An investigation into the influence of different parameters on the onset of boiling in minichannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecka, Magdalena

    2013-02-01

    The paper presents experimental studies on boiling heat transfer in rectangular minichannels. The investigations focus on the transition from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, i.e., in the zone of boiling incipience. The experiment has been carried out with FC-72, R-123 and R-11 at the Reynolds number below 4700, corresponding to mass flow rate range 95-710 kg/(m s). The main part of the test section is a minichannel of pre-set depth from 0.7 to 2 mm and width (20, 40 and 60 mm), with different spatial orientations from vertical to horizontal and 30% inclination angle adjustment. The objective of the paper includes the impact of selected parameters (liquid flow velocity, pressure and inlet liquid subcooling, channel dimensions and spatial orientation) on the boiling incipience in minichannels. The investigations are intended to develop a correlation for the calculations of the Nusselt number under the conditions of boiling incipience in the minichannel as a function of changeable parameters.

  12. Boils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection: Antibacterial soaps Antiseptic (germ-killing) washes Keeping clean (such as thorough hand washing) Alternative Names Furuncle Images Hair follicle anatomy References Habif TP. Bacterial infections. In: ...

  13. CHIMNEY FOR BOILING WATER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, M.

    1961-08-01

    A boiling-water reactor is described which has vertical fuel-containing channels for forming steam from water. Risers above the channels increase the head of water radially outward, whereby water is moved upward through the channels with greater force. The risers are concentric and the radial width of the space between them is somewhat small. There is a relatively low rate of flow of water up through the radially outer fuel-containing channels, with which the space between the risers is in communication. (AE C)

  14. A genetic algorithm-based optimization model for pool boiling heat transfer on horizontal rod heaters at isolated bubble regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi Fazel, S. Ali

    2017-09-01

    A new optimized model which can predict the heat transfer in the nucleate boiling at isolated bubble regime is proposed for pool boiling on a horizontal rod heater. This model is developed based on the results of direct observations of the physical boiling phenomena. Boiling heat flux, wall temperature, bubble departing diameter, bubble generation frequency and bubble nucleation site density have been experimentally measured. Water and ethanol have been used as two different boiling fluids. Heating surface was made by several metals and various degrees of roughness. The mentioned model considers various mechanisms such as latent heat transfer due to micro-layer evaporation, transient conduction due to thermal boundary layer reformation, natural convection, heat transfer due to the sliding bubbles and bubble super-heating. The fractional contributions of individual mentioned heat transfer mechanisms have been calculated by genetic algorithm. The results show that at wall temperature difference more that about 3 K, bubble sliding transient conduction, non-sliding transient conduction, micro-layer evaporation, natural convection, radial forced convection and bubble super-heating have higher to lower fractional contributions respectively. The performance of the new optimized model has been verified by comparison of the existing experimental data.

  15. Gamma heated subassembly for sodium boiling experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artus, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a system to boil sodium in an LMFBR is examined. This design should be regarded as a first step in a series of boiling experiments. The reactor chosen for the design of the boiling apparatus is the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), located at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho. Criteria broadly classified as design objectives and design requirements are discussed.

  16. Instability in flow boiling in microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This Brief addresses the phenomena of instability in flow boiling in microchannels occurring in high heat flux electronic cooling. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” and "Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,"by the same author team, this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  17. An experimental investigation of liquid methane convection and boiling in rocket engine cooling channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Abraham Gerardo

    In the past decades, interest in developing hydrocarbon-fueled rocket engines for deep spaceflight missions has continued to grow. In particular, liquid methane (LCH4) has been of interest due to the weight efficiency, storage, and handling advantages it offers over several currently used propellants. Deep space exploration requires reusable, long life rocket engines. Due to the high temperatures reached during combustion, the life of an engine is significantly impacted by the cooling system's efficiency. Regenerative (regen) cooling is presented as a viable alternative to common cooling methods such as film and dump cooling since it provides improved engine efficiency. Due to limited availability of experimental sub-critical liquid methane cooling data for regen engine design, there has been an interest in studying the heat transfer characteristics of the propellant. For this reason, recent experimental studies at the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) have focused on investigating the heat transfer characteristics of sub-critical CH4 flowing through sub-scale cooling channels. To conduct the experiments, the csETR developed a High Heat Flux Test Facility (HHFTF) where all the channels are heated using a conduction-based thermal concentrator. In this study, two smooth channels with cross sectional geometries of 1.8 mm x 4.1 mm and 3.2 mm x 3.2 mm were tested. In addition, three roughened channels all with a 3.2 mm x 3.2 mm square cross section were also tested. For the rectangular smooth channel, Reynolds numbers ranged between 68,000 and 131,000, while the Nusselt numbers were between 40 and 325. For the rough channels, Reynolds numbers ranged from 82,000 to 131,000, and Nusselt numbers were between 65 and 810. Sub-cooled film-boiling phenomena were confirmed for all the channels presented in this work. Film-boiling onset at Critical Heat Flux (CHF) was correlated to a Boiling Number (Bo) of

  18. On the Ice Nucleation Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a novel formulation of the ice nucleation spectrum, i.e. the function relating the ice crystal concentration to cloud formation conditions and aerosol properties. The new formulation is physically-based and explicitly accounts for the dependency of the ice crystal concentration on temperature, supersaturation, cooling rate, and particle size, surface area and composition. This is achieved by introducing the concepts of ice nucleation coefficient (the number of ice germs present in a particle) and nucleation probability dispersion function (the distribution of ice nucleation coefficients within the aerosol population). The new formulation is used to generate ice nucleation parameterizations for the homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and the heterogeneous deposition ice nucleation on dust and soot ice nuclei. For homogeneous freezing, it was found that by increasing the dispersion in the droplet volume distribution the fraction of supercooled droplets in the population increases. For heterogeneous ice nucleation the new formulation consistently describes singular and stochastic behavior within a single framework. Using a fundamentally stochastic approach, both cooling rate independence and constancy of the ice nucleation fraction over time, features typically associated with singular behavior, were reproduced. Analysis of the temporal dependency of the ice nucleation spectrum suggested that experimental methods that measure the ice nucleation fraction over few seconds would tend to underestimate the ice nuclei concentration. It is shown that inferring the aerosol heterogeneous ice nucleation properties from measurements of the onset supersaturation and temperature may carry significant error as the variability in ice nucleation properties within the aerosol population is not accounted for. This work provides a simple and rigorous ice nucleation framework where theoretical predictions, laboratory measurements and field campaign data can be

  19. On the ice nucleation spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barahona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel formulation of the ice nucleation spectrum, i.e. the function relating the ice crystal concentration to cloud formation conditions and aerosol properties. The new formulation is physically-based and explicitly accounts for the dependency of the ice crystal concentration on temperature, supersaturation, cooling rate, and particle size, surface area and composition. This is achieved by introducing the concepts of ice nucleation coefficient (the number of ice germs present in a particle and nucleation probability dispersion function (the distribution of ice nucleation coefficients within the aerosol population. The new formulation is used to generate ice nucleation parameterizations for the homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and the heterogeneous deposition ice nucleation on dust and soot ice nuclei. For homogeneous freezing, it was found that by increasing the dispersion in the droplet volume distribution the fraction of supercooled droplets in the population increases. For heterogeneous ice nucleation the new formulation consistently describes singular and stochastic behavior within a single framework. Using a fundamentally stochastic approach, both cooling rate independence and constancy of the ice nucleation fraction over time, features typically associated with singular behavior, were reproduced. Analysis of the temporal dependency of the ice nucleation spectrum suggested that experimental methods that measure the ice nucleation fraction over few seconds would tend to underestimate the ice nuclei concentration. It is shown that inferring the aerosol heterogeneous ice nucleation properties from measurements of the onset supersaturation and temperature may carry significant error as the variability in ice nucleation properties within the aerosol population is not accounted for. This work provides a simple and rigorous ice nucleation framework where theoretical predictions, laboratory measurements and field campaign

  20. Pool Boiling of Hydrocarbon Mixtures on Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boee, R.

    1996-09-01

    In maritime transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) there is a risk of spilling cryogenic liquid onto water. The present doctoral thesis discusses transient boiling experiments in which liquid hydrocarbons were poured onto water and left to boil off. Composition changes during boiling are believed to be connected with the initiation of rapid phase transition in LNG spilled on water. 64 experimental runs were carried out, 14 using pure liquid methane, 36 using methane-ethane, and 14 using methane-propane binary mixtures of different composition. The water surface was open to the atmosphere and covered an area of 200 cm{sup 2} at 25 - 40{sup o}C. The heat flux was obtained by monitoring the change of mass vs time. The void fraction in the boiling layer was measured with a gamma densitometer, and a method for adapting this measurement concept to the case of a boiling cryogenic liquid mixture is suggested. Significant differences in the boil-off characteristics between pure methane and binary mixtures revealed by previous studies are confirmed. Pure methane is in film boiling, whereas the mixtures appear to enter the transitional boiling regime with only small amounts of the second component added. The results indicate that the common assumption that LNG will be in film boiling on water because of the high temperature difference, may be questioned. Comparison with previous work shows that at this small scale the results are influenced by the experimental apparatus and procedures. 66 refs., 76 figs., 28 tabs.

  1. Homogeneous nucleation of magnesium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D H; Smith, M D; Driy, J A

    1967-08-01

    The rate of homogeneous nucleation of magnesium hydroxide has been determined as a function of solution concentration, using a quasi-homogeneous precipitation technique and electronic particle counting. The nucleation rate becomes measurable at super-saturations of about 4, and is dependent on the 33rd power of the product aMgaOH(2). The experimental results are consistent with nucleation theory. The nucleus-solution interfacial energy is calculated to be 115 erg/cm(2).

  2. Nanosecond laser texturing of uniformly and non-uniformly wettable micro structured metal surfaces for enhanced boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupančič, Matevž, E-mail: matevz.zupancic@fs.uni-lj.si; Može, Matic; Gregorčič, Peter; Golobič, Iztok

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Surfaces with periodically changed wettability were produced by a ns marking laser. • Heat transfer was investigated on uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces. • Microporous surfaces with non-uniform wettability enhance boiling heat transfer. • The most bubble nucleations were observed in the vicinity of the microcavities. • Results agree with the predictions of the nucleation criteria. - Abstract: Microstructured uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces were created on 25-μm-thin stainless steel foils by laser texturing using a marking nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) and utilizing various laser fluences and scan line separations. High-speed photography and high-speed IR thermography were used to investigate nucleate boiling heat transfer on the microstructured surfaces. The most pronounced results were obtained on a surface with non-uniform microstructure and non-uniform wettability. The obtained results show up to a 110% higher heat transfer coefficients and 20–40 times higher nucleation site densities compared to the untextured surface. We show that the number of active nucleation sites is significantly increased in the vicinity of microcavities that appeared in areas with the smallest (10 μm) scan line separation. Furthermore, this confirms the predictions of nucleation criteria and proves that straightforward, cost-effective nanosecond laser texturing allows the production of cavities with diameters of up to a few micrometers and surfaces with non-uniform wettability. Additionally, this opens up important possibilities for a more deterministic control over the complex boiling process.

  3. Transient boiling crisis of cryogenic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deev, [No Value; Kharitonov, VS; Kutsenko, KV; Lavrukhin, AA

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a new physical model of boiling crisis under rapid increase of power on the heated surface. The calculation of the time interval of the transition to film boiling in cryogenic liquids was carried out depending on heat flux and pressure. The obtained results are in good

  4. Boiling turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakkaraju, R.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of liquid-vapor phase transitions, mainly boiling phenomenon, is essential due to its omnipresence in science and technology. In industries, many empirical correlations exist on the heat transport to get an optimized and efficient thermal design of the boiling equipment.

  5. Neutralized wettability effect of superhydrophilic Cr-layered surface on pool boiling critical heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hong Hyun; Jeong, Ui Ju; Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Kim, Sung Joong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The former method is deemed challenging due to longer development period and license issue. In this regard, FeCrAl, Cr, and SiC have been received positive attention as ATF coating materials because they are highly resistant to high temperature steam reaction causing massive hydrogen generation. In this study, Cr was selected as a target deposition material on the metal substrate because we found that Cr-layered surface becomes superhydrophilic, favorable to delaying the triggering of the critical heat flux (CHF). Thus in order to investigate the effect of Cr-layered superhydrophilic surfaces (under explored coating conditions) on pool boiling heat transfer, pool boiling experiment was conducted in the saturated deionized water under atmospheric pressure. As a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method, the DC magnetron sputtering technique was introduced to develop Cr-layered nanostructure. As a control variable of DC sputtering, substrate temperature was selected. Surface wettability and nanostructure were analyzed as major surface parameters on the CHF. We believe that highly dense micro/nano structure without nucleation cavities and inner pores neutralized the wettability effect on the CHF. Moreover, superhydrophilic surface with deficient cavity density rather hinders active nucleation. This emphasizes the importance of micro/nano structure surface for enhanced boiling heat transfer.

  6. Boiling as household water treatment in Cambodia: a longitudinal study of boiling practice and microbiological effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joseph; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-09-01

    This paper focuses on the consistency of use and microbiological effectiveness of boiling as it is practiced in one study site in peri-urban Cambodia. We followed 60 randomly selected households in Kandal Province over 6 months to collect longitudinal data on water boiling practices and effectiveness in reducing Escherichia coli in household drinking water. Despite > 90% of households reporting that they used boiling as a means of drinking water treatment, an average of only 31% of households had boiled water on hand at follow-up visits, suggesting that actual use may be lower than self-reported use. We collected 369 matched untreated and boiled water samples. Mean reduction of E. coli was 98.5%; 162 samples (44%) of boiled samples were free of E. coli (boiled water in a covered container was associated with safer product water than storage in an uncovered container.

  7. Correlation between Flow Pattern and Refrigerant Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Microchannel Heat Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. V.; Kozulin, I. A.; Shamirzaev, A. S.

    2012-11-01

    Flow boiling in microchannel heat sinks is significantly influenced by capillary forces and by boundary constrains affecting the flow pattern and the heat transfer. In the present work, some characteristics of flow boiling heat transfer are explained using measurements of statistical parameters of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a rectangular microchannel. Such statistical characteristics of the flow as length distributions of elongated bubbles and liquid plugs, and also velocity distribution of the elongated bubbles are determined by dual laser scanning of the horizontal adiabatic nitrogen-water flow in a microchannel with the cross-section of 370×217 μm. Pressure gradients in gas-liquid flow are measured, and the results found well matching the predictions that account for capillary pressure on the gas-liquid interface. Heat transfer coefficients are measured for a horizontal copper microchannel heat sink with refrigerant R-21 as the working fluid. The heat sink contains 21 channels with cross section dimensions 930×335-μm. Distribution of local heat transfer coefficients along the length and the width of the microchannel plate is measured in the range of heat fluxes from 14 to 63 kW/m2; vapour quality was varied within 0.05-0.8, and pressure was about 1.6 bar. For flow boiling of R-21 refrigerant, contributions of nucleate boiling and forced convection are comparable. This allows us to examine the heat transfer mechanism for these complex conditions.

  8. A sensitivity analysis of the mass balance equation terms in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Caldeira, Alexandre D.; Borges, Eduardo M., E-mail: fbraz@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: eduardo@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    In a heated vertical channel, the subcooled flow boiling occurs when the fluid temperature reaches the saturation point, actually a small overheating, near the channel wall while the bulk fluid temperature is below this point. In this case, vapor bubbles are generated along the channel resulting in a significant increase in the heat flux between the wall and the fluid. This study is particularly important to the thermal-hydraulics analysis of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT uses the Eulerian multiphase model to analyze the subcooled flow boiling. In a previous paper, the comparison of the FLUENT results with experimental data for the void fraction presented a good agreement, both at the beginning of boiling as in nucleate boiling at the end of the channel. In the region between these two points the comparison with experimental data was not so good. Thus, a sensitivity analysis of the mass balance equation terms, steam production and condensation, was performed. Factors applied to the terms mentioned above can improve the agreement of the FLUENT results to the experimental data. Void fraction calculations show satisfactory results in relation to the experimental data in pressures values of 15, 30 and 45 bars. (author)

  9. Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Two-Phase Micro Channel Heat Sink at Low Water Mass Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir V.; Shamirzaev, Alisher S.

    2009-08-01

    Boiling heat transfer at water flow with low mass flux in heat sink which contained rectangular microchannels was studied. The stainless steel heat sink contained ten parallel microchannels with a size of 640 × 2050 μm in cross-section with typical wall roughness of 10-15 μm. The local flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were measured at mass velocity of 17 and 51 kg/m2s, heat flux on 30 to 150 kW/m2 and vapor quality of up to 0.8 at pressure in the channels closed to atmospheric one. It was observed that Kandlikar nucleate boiling correlation is in good agreement with the experimental data at mass flow velocity of 85 kg/m2s. At smaller mass flux the Kandlikar model and Zhang, Hibiki and Mishima model demonstrate incorrect trend of heat transfer coefficients variation with vapor quality.

  10. Experimental Study on Boiling Heat Transfer of Liquid Film Flow on a Structural Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Koichi; Mizuno, Itsuo; Nakata, Daisuke; Ouchi, Masaki

    An experimental study on the boiling heat transfer characteristics of liquid films flowing downward along vertically positioned plane and constant curvature surface (CCS) with isolated fine cavities was conducted. The effects of structural surfaces were examined, comparing with the case of smooth plane. The main results of these experiments are summarized as follows; (1) In the case of structual plane surface, there are remarkable enhancements of heat transfer rate in the nucleate boiling region. (2) In the case of CCS, it takes large values of heatflux in the region which strongly governed by the surface evaporation. (3)CCS avoids effectively the occurrence of splitting of the liquid film into rivulets. This study aims to put practical use of the heat transfer enhancement for the evaporator of a two-phase closed thermosiphon.

  11. Heat transfer at boiling of R114/R21 refrigerants mixture film on microstructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodin, O. A.; Pecherkin, N. I.; Pavlenko, A. N.; Zubkov, N. N.; Bityutskaya, Yu L.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental study of heat transfer in the film flow of R114/R21 refrigerant mixture on the vertical thin-wall copper cylinders with microstructured outer surfaces. Microstructuring is made by the method of deforming cutting with subsequent rolling by a straight knurl roller along the fin tops. The pitch of micro-finning was 100 or 200 μm and height was 220 or 440 μm, respectively. The knurling pitch in both cases was 318 μm. The film Reynolds number was varied in the range of 300-1500. The heat flux density was step-by-step increased from zero to the values corresponding to the boiling crisis. It is shown that the heat transfer coefficients at nucleate boiling on the studied surfaces with microstructuring exceed the corresponding values for a smooth surface more than by 3 times, the critical heat flux increases more than twice.

  12. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  13. The effect of direction for hydrophobic lines on subcooled flow boiling: Critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Man; Yu, Dong In; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A lot of time and effort were dedicated on study of BHT and CHF to understand and control boiling characteristics. To enhance boiling performance, structure and coating have been focused on recently. Coating can change wettability of the surface by controlling surface energy. Structure can affect nucleation cavity or wettability. These techniques make differences for boiling phenomena. From many reports, structures have received much attention due to facileness of manipulation for wetting, and so much data were collected about structures and boiling characteristics. In comparison to the structure, the study of coating technique is less active. Hydrophilic surface without structure is difficult to make for lasting during boiling condition, and hydrophobic surface impoverish CHF due to early dryout. For this reason, the study of coating effect is deficient relatively. However, hydrophobic pattern can be a brilliant method to enhance boiling performance. Betz et al. manufactured superbiphilic surfaces having juxtaposing hexagonal hydrophobic dots on the superhydrophilic surface. This surface improved HTC up to three times higher than on reported nanostructured surfaces. They reported that results were from increasing nucleation site due to hydrophobicity and constraining of bubble expansion on the surface to prevent formation of vapor blanket. In this study, hydrophobic patterns with stripe lines were achieved to study direction effect of hydrophobic pattern using Teflon solution, and further research is suggested. From the analysis of bubble dynamics with pattern effects, the following conclusions can be summarized. 1. Teflon coating can make many bubbles at early stage, so it showed the highest HTC, but lowest CHF due to early formation of vapor blanket. 2. Parallel patterns are advantageous higher CHF due to segregated vapor path in flow direction. 3. Cross patterns are unfavorable to delay CHF because merged vapor jets could cover hydrophilic line.

  14. Multi-scale Control and Enhancement of Reactor Boiling Heat Flux by Reagents and Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manglik, R M; Athavale, A; Kalaikadal, D S; Deodhar, A; Verma, U

    2011-09-02

    The phenomenological characterization of the use of non-invasive and passive techniques to enhance the boiling heat transfer in water has been carried out in this extended study. It provides fundamental enhanced heat transfer data for nucleate boiling and discusses the associated physics with the aim of addressing future and next-generation reactor thermal-hydraulic management. It essentially addresses the hypothesis that in phase-change processes during boiling, the primary mechanisms can be related to the liquid-vapor interfacial tension and surface wetting at the solidliquid interface. These interfacial characteristics can be significantly altered and decoupled by introducing small quantities of additives in water, such as surface-active polymers, surfactants, and nanoparticles. The changes are fundamentally caused at a molecular-scale by the relative bulk molecular dynamics and adsorption-desorption of the additive at the liquid-vapor interface, and its physisorption and electrokinetics at the liquid-solid interface. At the micro-scale, the transient transport mechanisms at the solid-liquid-vapor interface during nucleation and bubblegrowth can be attributed to thin-film spreading, surface-micro-cavity activation, and micro-layer evaporation. Furthermore at the macro-scale, the heat transport is in turn governed by the bubble growth and distribution, macro-layer heat transfer, bubble dynamics (bubble coalescence, collapse, break-up, and translation), and liquid rheology. Some of these behaviors and processes are measured and characterized in this study, the outcomes of which advance the concomitant fundamental physics, as well as provide insights for developing control strategies for the molecular-scale manipulation of interfacial tension and surface wetting in boiling by means of polymeric reagents, surfactants, and other soluble surface-active additives.

  15. Boiling as Household Water Treatment in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Study of Boiling Practice and Microbiological Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Joseph; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the consistency of use and microbiological effectiveness of boiling as it is practiced in one study site in peri-urban Cambodia. We followed 60 randomly selected households in Kandal Province over 6 months to collect longitudinal data on water boiling practices and effectiveness in reducing Escherichia coli in household drinking water. Despite > 90% of households reporting that they used boiling as a means of drinking water treatment, an average of only 31% of households...

  16. SUPERHEATING IN A BOILING WATER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treshow, M.

    1960-05-31

    A boiling-water reactor is described in which the steam developed in the reactor is superheated in the reactor. This is accomplished by providing means for separating the steam from the water and passing the steam over a surface of the fissionable material which is not in contact with the water. Specifically water is boiled on the outside of tubular fuel elements and the steam is superheated on the inside of the fuel elements.

  17. Numerical simulation of single bubble boiling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of a single bubble boiling process are studied with numerical modeling. The mass, momentum, energy and level set equations are solved using COMSOL multi-physics software. The bubble boiling dynamics, the transient pressure field, velocity field and temperature field in time are analyzed, and reasonable results are obtained. The numeral model is validated by the empirical equation of Fritz and could be used for various applications.

  18. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling water...

  19. Propagation of Local Bubble Parameters of Subcooled Boiling Flow in a Pressurized Vertical Annulus Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, In-Cheol; Lee, Seung Jun; Youn, Young Jung; Park, Jong Kuk; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    CMFD (Computation Multi-Fluid Dynamics) tools have been being developed to simulate two-phase flow safety problems in nuclear reactor, including the precise prediction of local bubble parameters in subcooled boiling flow. However, a lot of complicated phenomena are encountered in the subcooled boiling flow such as bubble nucleation and departure, interfacial drag of bubbles, lateral migration of bubbles, bubble coalescence and break-up, and condensation of bubbles, and the constitutive models for these phenomena are not yet complete. As a result, it is a difficult task to predict the radial profile of bubble parameters and its propagation along the flow direction. Several experiments were performed to measure the local bubble parameters for the validation of the CMFD code analysis and improvement of the constitutive models of the subcooled boiling flow, and to enhance the fundamental understanding on the subcooled boiling flow. The information on the propagation of the local flow parameters along the flow direction was not provided because the measurements were conducted at the fixed elevation. In SUBO experiments, the radial profiles of local bubble parameters, liquid velocity and temperature were obtained for steam-water subcooled boiling flow in a vertical annulus. The local flow parameters were measured at six elevations along the flow direction. The pressure was in the range of 0.15 to 0.2 MPa. We have launched an experimental program to investigate quantify the local subcooled boiling flow structure under elevated pressure condition in order to provide high precision experimental data for thorough validation of up-to-date CMFD codes. In the present study, the first set of experimental data on the propagation of the radial profile of the bubble parameters was obtained for the subcooled boiling flow of R-134a in a pressurized vertical annulus channel. An experimental program was launched for an in-depth investigation of a subcooled boiling flow in an elevated

  20. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  1. Homogeneous nucleation and the Ostwald step rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde, P.R. ten; Frenkel, D.

    1999-01-01

    We compare the pathways for homogeneous nucleation in a number of different systems. In most cases, the simulations show that the nucleation pathways are markedly different from what is assumed in classical nucleation theory. We find that homogeneous nucleation exhibits, at the microscopic level,

  2. Injection of Nucleate-Boiling Slug Flows into a Heat Exchange Chamber in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    alternatives in case of unsatisfactory performance. At the same time we started preparing the software tools for the image processing and for the numerical...gas only) 15b) Burster Typ 8227 16 Pressure regulator valve Festo VPPM-6L-L-1-G18-0L2H-A4N 17 Air filter Festo LF-D-5M-MINI XN43 18 Pressured air

  3. Assessment of RANS at low Prandtl number and simulation of sodium boiling flows with a CMFD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimouni, S., E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.fr; Guingo, M.; Lavieville, J.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Modelling of boiling sodium flows in a multiphase flow solver. • Rod heated with a constant heat flux in a pipe liquid metal flow. • Sodium boiling flow around a rod heated with a constant heat. • Computations in progress in an assembly constituted of 19 pins equipped with a wrapped wire. - Abstract: In France, Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) have recently received a renewed interest. In 2006, the decision was taken by the French Government to initiate research in order to build a first Generation IV prototype (called ASTRID) by 2020. The improvement in the safety of SFR is one of the key points in their conception. Accidental sequences may lead to a significant increase of reactivity. This is for instance the case when the sodium coolant is boiling within the fissile zone. As a consequence, incipient boiling superheat of sodium is an important parameter, as it can influence boiling process which may appear during some postulated accidents as the unexpected loss of flow (ULOF). The problem is that despite the reduction in core power, when boiling conditions are reached, the flow decreases progressively and vapour expands into the heating zone. A crucial investigating way is to optimize the design of the fissile assemblies of the core in order to lead to stable boiling during a ULOF accident, without voiding of the fissile zone. Moreover, in order to evaluate nuclear plant design and safety, a CFD tool has been developed at EDF in the framework of the nuclear industry. Advanced models dedicated to boiling flows have been implemented and validated against experimental data for ten years now including a wall law for boiling flows, wall transfer for nucleate boiling, turbulence and polydispersion model. This paper aims at evaluating the generalization of these models to SFR. At least two main issues are encountered. Firstly, at low Prandtl numbers such as those of liquid metal, classical approaches derived for unity or close to unity fail to

  4. Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, David W.; Guzik, Monica C.

    2014-03-01

    A computational model of the cryogenic boil-off reduction system being developed by NASA as part of the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer technology maturation project has been applied to a range of propellant storage tanks sizes for high-performing in-space cryogenic propulsion applications. This effort focuses on the scaling of multi-layer insulation (MLI), cryocoolers, broad area cooling shields, radiators, solar arrays, and tanks for liquid hydrogen propellant storage tanks ranging from 2 to 10 m in diameter. Component scaling equations were incorporated into the Cryogenic Analysis Tool, a spreadsheet-based tool used to perform system-level parametric studies. The primary addition to the evolution of this updated tool is the integration of a scaling method for reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocoolers, as well as the development and inclusion of Self-Supporting Multi-Layer Insulation. Mass, power, and sizing relationships are traded parametrically to establish the appropriate loiter period beyond which this boil-off reduction system application reduces mass. The projected benefit compares passive thermal control to active thermal control, where active thermal control is evaluated for reduced boil-off with a 90 K shield, zero boil-off with a single heat interception stage at the tank wall, and zero boil-off with a second interception stage at a 90 K shield. Parametric studies show a benefit over passive storage at loiter durations under one month, in addition to showing a benefit for two-stage zero boil-off in terms of reducing power and mass as compared to single stage zero boil-off. Furthermore, active cooling reduces the effect of varied multi-layer insulation performance, which, historically, has been shown to be significant.

  5. Effect of latent heat in boiling water on the synthesis of gold nanoparticles of different sizes by using the Turkevich method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenchao; Zhang, Peina; Li, Yijing; Xia, Haibing; Wang, Dayang; Tao, Xutang

    2015-02-02

    The Turkevich method, involving the reduction of HAuCl4 with citrate in boiling water, allows the facile production of monodisperse, quasispherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Although, it is well-known that the size of the AuNPs obtained with the same recipe vary slightly (as little as approximately 4 nm), but noticeably, from one report to another, it has rarely been studied. The present work demonstrates that this size variation can be reconciled by the small, but noticeable, effect that the latent heat in boiling water has on the size of the AuNPs obtained by using the Turkevich method. The increase in latent heat during water boiling caused an approximately 3 nm reduction in the size of the as-prepared AuNPs; this reduction in size is mainly a result of accelerated nucleation driven by the extra heat. It was further demonstrated that, the heating temperature can be utilized as an additional measure to adjust the growth rate of AuNPs during the reduction of HAuCl4 with citrate in boiling water. Therefore, the latent heat of boiling solvents may provide one way to control nucleation and growth in the synthesis of monodisperse nanoparticles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. IR-thermography-based investigation of critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling of water at atmospheric and high pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucci, Matteo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Seong, Jee H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jdacopo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Richenderfer, Andrew [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kossolapov, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Here we report on MIT’s THM work in Q4 2016 and Q1 2017. The goal of this project is to design, construct and execute tests of flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) at high-pressure using high-resolution and high-speed video and infrared (IR) thermometry, to generate unique data to inform the development of and validate mechanistic boiling heat transfer and CHF models. In FY2016, a new test section was designed and fabricated. Data was collected at atmospheric conditions at 10, 25 and 50 K subcoolings, and three mass fluxes, i.e. 500, 750 and 1000 kg/m2/s. Starting in Q4 2016 and continuing forward, new post-processing techniques have been developed to analyze the data collected. These new algorithms analyze the time-dependent temperature and heat flux distributions to calculate nucleation site density, nucleation frequency, growth and wait time, dry area fraction, and the complete heat flux partitioning. In Q1 2017 a new flow boiling loop was designed and constructed to support flow boiling tests up 10 bar pressure and 180 °C. Initial shakedown and testing has been completed. The flow loop and test section are now ready to begin high-pressure flow boiling testing.

  7. Structural Changes of Malt Proteins During Boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the physicochemical properties and structure of proteins derived from two malt varieties (Baudin and Guangmai during wort boiling were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results showed that both protein content and amino acid composition changed only slightly during boiling, and that boiling might cause a gradual unfolding of protein structures, as indicated by the decrease in surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl content and enthalpy value, as well as reduced α-helix contents and markedly increased random coil contents. It was also found that major component of both worts was a boiling-resistant protein with a molecular mass of 40 kDa, and that according to the two-dimensional electrophoresis and SE-HPLC analyses, a small amount of soluble aggregates might be formed via hydrophobic interactions. It was thus concluded that changes of protein structure caused by boiling that might influence beer quality are largely independent of malt variety.

  8. NUCLEAR SUPERHEATER FOR BOILING WATER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, R.J.; Klecker, R.W.; Graham, C.B.

    1962-05-15

    A description is given of a boiling water reactor having a superheating region integral with the core. The core consists essentially of an annular boiling region surrounding an inner superheating region. Both regions contain fuel elements and are separated by a cylindrical wall, perforations being provided in the lower portion of the cylindrical wall to permit circulation of a common water moderator between the two regions. The superheater region comprises a plurality of tubular fuel assemblies through which the steam emanating from the boiling region passes to the steam outlet. Each superheater fuel assembly has an outer double-walled cylinder, the double walls being concentrically spaced and connected together at their upper ends but open at the bottom to provide for differential thermal expansion of the inner and outer walls. Gas is entrapped in the annulus between the walls which acts as an insulating space between the fissionable material inside and the moderator outside. (AEC)

  9. Bubble detachment and lift-off diameters at a vertical heated wall for subcooled boiling flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montout, Michael; Haynes, Pierre-Antoine; Peturaud, Pierre [EDF, R and D Division, Fluid Dynamics, Power Generation and Environnement Department, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou Cedex (France); Colin, Catherine [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Allee du Professeur Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2008-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the NEPTUNE project jointly carried on by EDF, CEA, AREVA NP and IRSN (Guelfi et al. (2007)), the development of the NEPTUNE-CFD code aims at (among others) improving the prediction of the Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). In this prospect, the modeling of boiling flows up to the DNB is of prime importance, and this presentation is devoted to one major related phenomenon, the wall-to-flow heat transfer in subcooled boiling flow. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of subcooled nucleate boiling has to provide the net vapor generation rate at the heated wall, as well as its related geometrical characteristic - either bubble diameter or interfacial area concentration (its velocity might also be useful). For this purpose, mechanistic models are used. Previous models (such as the widely used Kurul and Podowski model (1990)) are based on the bubble lift-off diameter, diameter from which the bubble leaves the wall to be swept along the bulk liquid flow. However, for a few years, new models (Basu et al. (2005) or Yeoh et al. (2008)) account for a finer phenomenology (bubble sliding along the heated wall) and require the knowledge of the bubble detachment diameter, diameter from which the bubble leaves its nucleation site to slide along the heated wall. Modeling these diameters is still an issue. On the one hand, several (semi-) empirical correlations are available in the open literature making it possible to provide the liftoff diameter (Uenal (1976), for instance), but they are still questionable; on the other hand, there is a great lack of information with respect to the evaluation of the detachment diameter. Therefore to progress on these concerns, an analytical work has been carried out. In a first step, a methodology providing detachment and lift-off diameters is proposed and applied. This approach is based on the resolution of a force balance model acting on a

  10. Comparative study of heat transfer and pressure drop during flow boiling and flow condensation in minichannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikielewicz Dariusz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a method developed earlier by authors is applied to calculations of pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling and also flow condensation for some recent data collected from literature for such fluids as R404a, R600a, R290, R32,R134a, R1234yf and other. The modification of interface shear stresses between flow boiling and flow condensation in annular flow structure are considered through incorporation of the so called blowing parameter. The shear stress between vapor phase and liquid phase is generally a function of nonisothermal effects. The mechanism of modification of shear stresses at the vapor-liquid interface has been presented in detail. In case of annular flow it contributes to thickening and thinning of the liquid film, which corresponds to condensation and boiling respectively. There is also a different influence of heat flux on the modification of shear stress in the bubbly flow structure, where it affects bubble nucleation. In that case the effect of applied heat flux is considered. As a result a modified form of the two-phase flow multiplier is obtained, in which the nonadiabatic effect is clearly pronounced.

  11. Preliminary Study on CHF Enhancement of Cellulose Nano Fiber (CNF) Fluid with Wire Pool Boiling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Won Ki; Lee, Yun Seok; Lim, Dong Young; Song, Sub Lee; Lee, Jae Young; Lee, Kwon Yeong [Hanyang Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Dong Soo [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is enhancement of a boiling system will make more compact and effective cooling systems, for examples, nuclear reactors, and air conditioning units. For decades, researchers have been trying to develop more efficient working fluid for heat transfer. This is where nano-fluid could play a key role. There have been a lot of researches for CHF enhancements in nucleate boiling by using nano-fluid which are composed of metal such as copper, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ceramic. And a critical factor of the enhancement is deposition of nano-particles on heating surface, although some results of recent studies are contrary. Also, previous nano-fluid are expensive and have a problem in mass production, so they are difficult to apply to practical industries. Therefore we chose a new material, cellulose nano fiber (CNF) as a solution. CNF can be applied to real situation because it has some advantages which are cost-effectiveness, easiness to get and to make it in nano scale. CHF performance of CNF fluid was different from that of distilled water. Compared to CHF of distilled water, CHF of the CNF fluid which had 0.001V%, 0.01V%, and 0.1V% volumetric concentrations were enhanced to 1%, 104%, and 13% respectively. Likewise other nano-fluid, deposition phenomena was observed in this CNF fluid boiling experiment.

  12. Visualization of dynamic boiling processes using high-speed optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Lars; Domaschke, Thomas; Schneider, Clemens; Walther, Julia; Meissner, Sven; Hampel, Rainer; Koch, Edmund

    2015-03-01

    Investigating microscale nucleate boiling processes with high heat flux requires experimental visualization and quantification with high spatial resolution in the micrometer range as well as a sufficient temporal resolution. Numerous measurement techniques are employed for providing comprehensive experimental data on microscale boiling processes and other multiphase flows. In this context, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been introduced recently for the visualization of quasistatic growing vapor bubbles in turbid fluids with a high spatial resolution. Since OCT detects backscattered light, only one optical access is necessary and OCT is feasible for measurements in turbid media, where other imaging techniques fail. Within this study, a high-speed OCT system is utilized for visualizing dynamic nucleate boiling processes at a heated surface with a frame rate of about 234 Hz. The bubble contour is extracted out of the OCT images using segmentation and tracking algorithm, which provide bubble contours and the course of the bubble area for individual vapor bubbles over time. Additionally, high-speed Doppler OCT imaging is presented revealing the velocity component of the fluid in beam direction up to 30 mm/s unambiguously. The present proof of principle study suggests high-speed OCT imaging as a promising and alternative technique for the simultaneous measurement of bubble geometries and fluid velocities in dynamic processes with a high spatial resolution of 16 µm. Due to the ongoing development and availability of ultra high-speed OCT systems, the perspective temporal resolution will be comparable to the frame rates provided by presently established techniques, such as particle image velocimetry or high-speed camera imaging.

  13. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  14. Big Bubbles in Boiling Liquids: Students' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costu, Bayram

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elicit students' conceptions about big bubbles in boiling liquids (water, ethanol and aqueous CuSO[subscript 4] solution). The study is based on twenty-four students at different ages and grades. The clinical interviews technique was conducted to solicit students' conceptions and the interviews were analyzed to…

  15. An Investigation of Graduate Scientists' Understandings of Evaporation and Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan; Orlik, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    Uses a video presentation of six situations relating to the evaporation and boiling of liquids and the escape of dissolved gases from solution and investigates graduate scientists' understanding of the concepts of boiling and evaporation. (Author/YDS)

  16. Automated high-speed video analysis of the bubble dynamics in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurus, Reinhold; Ilchenko, Volodymyr; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and a very good optical access. For the optical observation of the bubble behaviour the high-speed cinematography is used. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, a huge number of bubble cycles could be analysed. The structure of the developed algorithms for the detection of the bubble diameter, the bubble lifetime, the lifetime after the detachment process and the waiting time between two bubble cycles is described. Subsequently, the results from using these automated procedures are presented. A remarkable novelty is the presentation of all results as distribution functions. This is of physical importance because the commonly applied spatial and temporal averaging leads to a loss of information and, moreover, to an unjustified deterministic view of the boiling process, which exhibits in reality a very wide spread of bubble sizes and characteristic times. The results show that the mass flux dominates the temporal bubble behaviour. An increase of the liquid mass flux reveals a strong decrease of the bubble life - and waiting time. In contrast, the variation of the heat flux has a much smaller impact. It is shown in addition that the investigation of the bubble history using automated algorithms delivers novel information with respect to the bubble lift-off probability. (Author)

  17. Influence of Transient Thermal Response of Solid Wall on Bubble Dynamics in Pool Boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of single bubble pool boiling process including transient thermal response of solid wall is performed using the ghost fluid method and the level set method for the sharp interface representation. The results show that non-physical initial condition in the numerical simulation deeply affects the process of bubble growth, and then multi-cycle simulation is necessary to eliminate its influence. It is shown by the present results that two nucleate criteria, i.e. constant waiting time and constant nucleate superheat, for determining the appearance time for the subsequent bubble lead to the same quasi-steady process of bubble growth if they are matched with each other. A periodically expanding and receding thermal “hollow” can be observed inside solid wall underneath the growing bubble. The recovery of the temperature on the nucleate site and the thermal boundary layer near the heating surface is influenced by transient heat conduction inside solid wall, which can affect evidently bubble thermal dynamics and heat transfer.

  18. Influence of Transient Thermal Response of Solid Wall on Bubble Dynamics in Pool Boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of single bubble pool boiling process including transient thermal response of solid wall is performed using the ghost fluid method and the level set method for the sharp interface representation. The results show that non-physical initial condition in the numerical simulation deeply affects the process of bubble growth, and then multicycle simulation is necessary to eliminate its influence. It is shown by the present results that two nucleate criteria, i.e. constant waiting time and constant nucleate superheat, for determining the appearance time for the subsequent bubble lead to the same quasi-steady process of bubble growth if they are matched with each other. A periodically expanding and receding thermal “hollow” can be observed inside solid wall underneath the growing bubble. The recovery of the temperature on the nucleate site and the thermal boundary layer near the heating surface is influenced by transient heat conduction inside solid wall, which can affect evidently bubble thermal dynamics and heat transfer.

  19. The effect of heating direction on flow boiling heat transfer of R134a in micro-channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingchen; Jia, Li; Dang, Chao; Peng, Qi

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents effects of heating directions on heat transfer performance of R134a flow boiling in micro- channel heat sink. The heat sink has 30 parallel rectangular channels with cross-sectional dimensions of 500μm width 500μm depth and 30mm length. The experimental operation condition ranges of the heat flux and the mass flux were 13.48 to 82.25 W/cm2 and 373.3 to 1244.4 kg/m2s respectively. The vapor quality ranged from 0.07 to 0.93. The heat transfer coefficients of top heating and bottom heating both were up to 25 kW/m2 K. Two dominate transfer mechanisms of nucleate boiling and convection boiling were observed according to boiling curves. The experimental results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient of bottom heating was 13.9% higher than top heating in low heat flux, while in high heat flux, the heat transfer coefficient of bottom heating was 9.9%.higher than the top heating, because bubbles were harder to divorce the heating wall. And a modified correlation was provided to predict heat transfer of top heating.

  20. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  1. Flow boiling in microgap channels experiment, visualization and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna; Jin, Li-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Flow Boiling in Microgap Channels: Experiment, Visualization and Analysis presents an up-to-date summary of the details of the confined to unconfined flow boiling transition criteria, flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics, instability characteristics, two phase flow pattern and flow regime map and the parametric study of microgap dimension. Advantages of flow boiling in microgaps over microchannels are also highlighted. The objective of this Brief is to obtain a better fundamental understanding of the flow boiling processes, compare the performance between microgap and c

  2. Ice nucleation activity of polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, Magdalena; Felgitsch, Laura; Haeusler, Thomas; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in the atmosphere. It shows direct impact on our climate by triggering ice cloud formation and therefore it has much influence on the radiation balance of our planet (Lohmann et al. 2002; Mishchenko et al. 1996). The process itself is not completely understood so far and many questions remain open. Different substances have been found to exhibit ice nucleation activity (INA). Due to their vast differences in chemistry and morphology it is difficult to predict what substance will make good ice nuclei and which will not. Hence simple model substances must be found and be tested regarding INA. Our work aims at gaining to a deeper understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation. We intend to find some reference standards with defined chemistry, which may explain the mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation. A particular focus lies on biological carbohydrates in regards to their INA. Biological carbohydrates are widely distributed in all kingdoms of life. Mostly they are specific for certain organisms and have well defined purposes, e.g. structural polysaccharides like chitin (in fungi and insects) and pectin (in plants), which has also water-binding properties. Since they are widely distributed throughout our biosphere and mostly safe to use for nutrition purposes, they are well studied and easily accessible, rendering them ideal candidates as proxies. In our experiments we examined various carbohydrates, like the already mentioned chitin and pectin, as well as their chemical modifications. Lohmann U.; A Glaciation Indirect Aerosol Effect Caused by Soot Aerosols; J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 24 No.4; pp 11-1 - 11-4; 2002 Mishchenko M.I., Rossow W.B., Macke A., Lacis A. A.; Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Albedo, Bidirectional Reflectance and Optical Thickness Retrieval Accuracy to Ice Particle Shape, J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 101, No D12; pp. 16,973 - 16,985; 1996

  3. Unorthodox bubbles when boiling in cold water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Scott; Granick, Steve

    2014-01-01

    High-speed movies are taken when bubbles grow at gold surfaces heated spotwise with a near-infrared laser beam heating water below the boiling point (60-70 °C) with heating powers spanning the range from very low to so high that water fails to rewet the surface after bubbles detach. Roughly half the bubbles are conventional: They grow symmetrically through evaporation until buoyancy lifts them away. Others have unorthodox shapes and appear to contribute disproportionately to heat transfer efficiency: mushroom cloud shapes, violently explosive bubbles, and cavitation events, probably stimulated by a combination of superheating, convection, turbulence, and surface dewetting during the initial bubble growth. Moreover, bubbles often follow one another in complex sequences, often beginning with an unorthodox bubble that stirs the water, followed by several conventional bubbles. This large dataset is analyzed and discussed with emphasis on how explosive phenomena such as cavitation induce discrepancies from classical expectations about boiling.

  4. Boiling point of volatile liquids at various pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Valencia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water, under normal conditions, tends to boil at a “normal boiling temperature” at which the atmospheric pressure fixes the average amount of kinetic energy needed to reach its boiling point. Yet, the normal boiling temperature of different substances varies depending on their nature, for which substances like alcohols, known as volatile, boil faster than water under same conditions. In response to this phenomenon, an investigation on the coexistence of both gas and liquid phases of a volatile substance in a closed system was made, establishing vapor pressure as the determining tendency of a substance to vaporize, which increases exponentially with temperature until a critical point is reached. Since atmospheric pressure is fixed, the internal pressure of the system was varied to determine its relationship with vapor pressure and thus with the boiling point of the substance, concluding that the internal pressure and boiling point of a volatile liquid in a closed system are negatively proportional.

  5. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.H. [comp.

    1995-08-01

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C{sub 4}F{sub 10} weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd.

  6. Critical heat flux enhancement regarding to the thickness of graphene films under pool boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Man; Park, Hyun Sun [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Youngjae; Kim, Hyungdae [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Eok [Kyungpook Nat. Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Ho Seon [Incheon Nat. Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The large thermal conductivity of the graphene films inhibits the formation of hot spots, thereby increasing the CHF. An infrared high-speed visualization showed graphene effect on boiling characteristics during operation. The graphene-coated heater showed an increase in BHT and CHF. As the thickness of the graphene films increased, the CHF also increased up to an asymptotic limit when the graphene layer was approximately 150 nm thick. The increased BHT was explained by the slight decrease in the wettability and the folded edges of the RGO flakes, which led to a decrease in the diameter of the departing bubbles, a larger bubble generation frequency, and an increase in the areal density of the bubble nucleation sites. The increase in the CHF was explained by considering the thermal activity of the graphene films, and the dependence thereof on the thickness and thermal properties of the layer, which was calculated based on high-speed IR visualization data.

  7. Boiling phenomena in near-critical SF6 observed in weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, Carole; Garrabos, Yves; Beysens, Daniel; Nikolayev, Vadim; Hahn, Inseob

    2014-07-01

    tension), by precise control of the distance to the critical point. We present the new observations of the gas bubble spreading over the heating surface which characterizes the regime where vapor bubbles nucleate separately and grow, as well as liquid drying, vapor film formation, triple contact line motion, which are the key mechanisms at the origin of the boiling crisis when the formed vapor film reduces the heat transfer drastically at the heater wall.

  8. Study on nucleation kinetics of lysozyme crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jing J.; Wang, Xue Z.

    2017-07-01

    The nucleation kinetics of hen egg-white lysozyme crystallization was investigated using a hot stage cooling crystallizer and a microscope to monitor the solution crystallization process in real time. Images of crystals were continuously recorded under varied precipitant and protein concentrations. The nucleation rate was found to be higher at higher precipitant concentration, and increase monotonically with protein concentration if the precipitant concentration was held constant. Attempt was made to interpret the experimental data using classical nucleation theory. It was found that the model predictions are lower than the experimental values at low supersaturations but agree well with experimental data at high supersaturations. The trends in the experimental data suggest that two nucleation mechanisms might co-exist: heterogeneous nucleation seems to be the dominant at low supersaturation while at higher supersaturation homogeneous nucleation seems to play the major role.

  9. Experiments on Nucleation in Different Flow Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuzick, R. J.; Hofmeister, W. H.; Morton, C. M.; Robinson, M. B.

    1999-01-01

    The vast majority of metallic engineering materials are solidified from the liquid phase. Understanding the solidification process is essential to control microstructure, which in turn, determines the properties of materials. The genesis of solidification is nucleation, where the first stable solid forms from the liquid phase. Nucleation kinetics determine the degree of undercooling and phase selection. As such, it is important to understand nucleation phenomena in order to control solidification or glass formation in metals and alloys. Early experiments in nucleation kinetics were accomplished by droplet dispersion methods. Dilatometry was used by Turnbull and others, and more recently differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry have been used for kinetic studies. These techniques have enjoyed success; however, there are difficulties with these experiments. Since materials are dispersed in a medium, the character of the emulsion/metal interface affects the nucleation behavior. Statistics are derived from the large number of particles observed in a single experiment, but dispersions have a finite size distribution which adds to the uncertainty of the kinetic determinations. Even though temperature can be controlled quite well before the onset of nucleation, the release of the latent heat of fusion during nucleation of particles complicates the assumption of isothermality during these experiments. Containerless processing has enabled another approach to the study of nucleation kinetics. With levitation techniques it is possible to undercool one sample to nucleation repeatedly in a controlled manner, such that the statistics of the nucleation process can be derived from multiple experiments on a single sample. The authors have fully developed the analysis of nucleation experiments on single samples following the suggestions of Skripov. The advantage of these experiments is that the samples are directly observable. The nucleation temperature

  10. Surface Structure Enhanced Microchannel Flow Boiling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangying; Antao, Dion Savio; Chu, Kuang-Han; Chen, Siyu; Hendricks, Terry J.; Zhang, Tiejun; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of surface microstructures in two-phase microchannels on suppressing flow instabilities and enhancing heat transfer. We designed and fabricated microchannels with well-defined silicon micropillar arrays on the bottom heated microchannel wall to promote capillary flow for thin film evaporation while facilitating nucleation only from the sidewalls. Our experimental results show significantly reduced temperature and pressure drop fluctuation especially at high heat fluxe...

  11. Water boiling inside carbon nanotubes: toward efficient drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2011-07-26

    We show using molecular dynamics simulation that spatial confinement of water inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) substantially increases its boiling temperature and that a small temperature growth above the boiling point dramatically raises the inside pressure. Capillary theory successfully predicts the boiling point elevation down to 2 nm, below which large deviations between the theory and atomistic simulation take place. Water behaves qualitatively different inside narrow CNTs, exhibiting transition into an unusual phase, where pressure is gas-like and grows linearly with temperature, while the diffusion constant is temperature-independent. Precise control over boiling by CNT diameter, together with the rapid growth of inside pressure above the boiling point, suggests a novel drug delivery protocol. Polar drug molecules are packaged inside CNTs; the latter are delivered into living tissues and heated by laser. Solvent boiling facilitates drug release.

  12. Boiling heat transfer modern developments and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Lahey, Jr, RT

    2013-01-01

    This volume covers the modern developments in boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow, and is intended to provide industrial, government and academic researchers with state-of-the-art research findings in the area of multiphase flow and heat transfer technology. Special attention is given to technology transfer, indicating how recent significant results may be used for practical applications. The chapters give detailed technical material that will be useful to engineers and scientists who work in the field of multiphase flow and heat transfer. The authors of all chapters are members of the

  13. Heat transfer coeffcient for boiling carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The pipe is heated by condensing R22 outside the pipe. The heat input is supplied by an electrical heater wich evaporates the R22. With the heat flux assumed constant over...... the whole surface and with measured temperature difference between the inner surface and the evaporation temperature a mean heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The calculated heat transfer coefficient has been compared with the Chart Correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predicts too low heat...

  14. Ice Nucleation on Carbon Surface Supports the Classical Theory for Heterogeneous Nucleation

    CERN Document Server

    Cabriolu, Raffaela

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of heterogeneous nucleation in nature was explained qualitatively by the classical theory for heterogeneous nucleation established over more than 60 years ago, but the quantitative validity and the key conclusions of the theory have remained unconfirmed. Employing the forward flux sampling method and the coarse-grained water model mW, we explicitly computed the heterogeneous ice nucleation rates in the supercooled water on a graphitic surface at various temperatures. The independently calculated ice nucleation rates were found to fit well according to the classical theory for heterogeneous nucleation. The fitting procedure further yields the estimate of the potency factor which measures the ratio of the heterogeneous nucleation barrier to the homogeneous nucleation barrier. Remarkably, the estimated potency factor agrees quantitatively with the volumetric ratio of the critical nuclei between the heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation. Our numerical study thus provides a strong support to the ...

  15. Water Boiling inside Carbon Nanotubes: Towards Efficient Drug Release

    OpenAIRE

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2012-01-01

    We show using molecular dynamics simulation that spatial confinement of water inside carbon nanotubes (CNT) substantially increases its boiling temperature and that a small temperature growth above the boiling point dramatically raises the inside pressure. Capillary theory successfully predicts the boiling point elevation down to 2 nm, below which large deviations between the theory and atomistic simulation take place. Water behaves qualitatively different inside narrow CNTs, exhibiting trans...

  16. Modal control of unstable boiling states in three-dimensional nonlinear pool-boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, R.W.; Speetjens, M.F.M; Zwart, Heiko J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2014-01-01

    Topic is feedback stabilisation of a nonlinear pool-boiling system in three spatial dimensions (3D). Regulation of its unstable (non-uniform) equilibria has great potential for application in micro-electronics cooling and thermal-management systems. Here, as a first step, stabilisation of such 3D

  17. Flow boiling heat transfer of carbon dioxide inside a small-sized microfin tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Chaobin; Haraguchi, Nobori; Hihara, Eiji [Department of Human and Engineered Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated the flow boiling heat transfer of carbon dioxide inside a small-sized microfin tube (mean inner diameter: 2.0 mm; helix angle: 6.3 ) at a saturation temperature of 15 C, and heat and mass flux ranges of 4.5-18 kW m{sup -2} and 360-720 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. Although, experimental results indicated that heat flux has a significant effect on the heat transfer coefficient, the coefficient does not always increase with mass flux, as in the case of conventional refrigerants such as HFCs or HCFCs. Under certain conditions, the heat transfer coefficient at a high mass flux was lower than that at a lower mass flux, indicating that convective heat transfer had a suppression effect on nucleate boiling. The heat transfer coefficients in the microfin tubes were 1.9{proportional_to}2.3 times the values in smooth tubes of the same diameter under the same experimental conditions, and the dryout quality was much higher, ranging from 0.9 to 0.95. The experimental results indicated that using microfin tubes may considerably increase the overall heat transfer performance. (author)

  18. Enhanced flow boiling in microchannels through integrating multiple micro-nozzles and reentry microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenming; Qu, Xiaopeng; Alam, Tamanna; Yang, Fanghao; Chang, Wei; Khan, Jamil; Li, Chen

    2017-01-01

    In a microchannel system, a higher mass velocity can lead to enhanced flow boiling performances, but at a cost of two-phase pressure drop. It is highly desirable to achieve a high heat transfer rate and critical heat flux (CHF) exceeding 1 kW/cm2 without elevating the pressure drop, particularly, at a reduced mass velocity. In this study, we developed a microchannel configuration that enables more efficient utilization of the coolant through integrating multiple microscale nozzles connected to auxiliary channels as well as microscale reentry cavities on sidewalls of main microchannels. We achieved a CHF of 1016 W/cm2 with a 50% less mass velocity, i.e., 680 kg/m2s, compared to the two-nozzle configuration developed in our previous studies. Two primary enhancement mechanisms are: (a) the enhanced global liquid supply by four evenly distributed micronozzles, particularly near the outlet region and (b) the effective management of local dryout by the capillary flow-induced sustainable thin liquid film resulting from an array of microscale cavities. A significantly improved heat transfer coefficient of 131 kW/m2 K at a mass velocity of 680 kg/m2s is attributed to the enhanced nucleate boiling, the established capillary/thin film evaporation, and the induced advection from the present microchannel configuration. All these significant enhancements have been achieved with a ˜55% lower two-phase pressure drop.

  19. Enhancement of pool boiling heat transfer in water using sintered copper microporous coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Seong Chul; KIm, Jin Sub; You, Seung M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson (United States); Son, Dong Gun; KIm, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Pool boiling heat transfer of water saturated at atmospheric pressure was investigated experimentally on Cu surfaces with high-temperature, thermally-conductive, microporous coatings (HTCMC). The coatings were created by sintering Cu powders on Cu surfaces in a nitrogen gas environment. A parametric study of the effects of particle size and coating thickness was conducted using three average particle sizes (APSs) of 10 μm, 25 μm, and 67 μm and various coating thicknesses. It was found that nucleate boiling heat transfer (NBHT) and critical heat flux (CHF) were enhanced significantly for sintered microporous coatings. This is believed to have resulted from the random porous structures that appear to include reentrant type cavities. The maximum NBHT coefficient was measured to be approximately 400 kW/m2k with APS 67 μm and 296 μm coating thicknesses. This value is approximately eight times higher than that of a plain Cu surface. The maximum CHF observed was 2.1 MW/m2 at APS 67 μm and 428 μm coating thicknesses, which is approximately double the CHF of a plain Cu surface. The enhancement of NBHT and CHF appeared to increase as the particle size increased in the tested range. However, two larger particle sizes (25 μm and 67 μm) showed a similar level of enhancement.

  20. Effect of diameter of metal nanowires on pool boiling heat transfer with FC-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar G., Udaya; S., Suresh; M. R., Thansekhar; Babu P., Dinesh

    2017-11-01

    Effect of varying diameter of metal nanowires on pool boiling heat transfer performance is presented in this study. Copper nanowires (CuNWs) of four different diameters (∼35 nm, ∼70 nm, ∼130 nm and ∼200 nm) were grown directly on copper specimen using template-based electrodeposition technique. Both critical heat flux (CHF) and boiling heat transfer coefficient (h) were found to be improved in surfaces with nanowires as compared to the bare copper surface. Moreover, both the parameters were found to increase with increasing diameter of the nanowires. The percentage increases observed in CHF for the samples with nanowires were 38.37%, 40.16%, 48.48% and 45.57% whereas the percentage increase in the heat transfer coefficient were 86.36%, 95.45%, 184.1% and 131.82% respectively as compared to the bare copper surface. Important reasons believed for this enhancement were improvement in micron scale cavity density and cavity size which arises as a result of the coagulation and grouping of nanowires during the drying process. In addition to this, superhydrophilic nature, capillary effect, and enhanced bubble dynamics parameters (bubble frequency, bubble departure diameter, and nucleation site density) were found to be the concurring mechanisms responsible for this enhancement in heat transfer performance. Qualitative bubble dynamics analysis was done for the surfaces involved and the visual observations are provided to support the results presented and discussed.

  1. Structuring effects in binary nucleation : Molecular dynamics simulatons and coarse-grained nucleation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, S.; Kraska, T.; Kalikmanov, V.I.

    2013-01-01

    Binary clusters formed by vapor-liquid nucleation are frequently nonhomogeneous objects in which components are not well mixed. The structure of a cluster plays an important role in nucleation and cluster growth. We demonstrate structuring effects by studying high-pressure nucleation and cluster

  2. New trends in the nucleation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M. P.; Hopke, P. K.

    2017-09-01

    During the last half of century the most of efforts have been directed towards small molecule system modeling using intermolecular potentials. Summarizing the nucleation theory, it can be concluded that the nowadays theory is far from complete. The vapor-gas nucleation theory can produce values that deviate from the experimental results by several orders of magnitude currently. Experiments on the vapor-gas nucleation rate measurements using different devices show significant inconsistencies in the measured rates as well. Theoretical results generally are quite reasonable for sufficiently low vapor nucleation rates where the capillary approximation is applicable. In the present research the advantages and current problems of the vapor-gas nucleation experiments are discussed briefly and a view of the future studies is presented. Using the brake points of the first derivative for the nucleation rate surface as markers of the critical embryos phase change is fresh idea to show the gas-pressure effect for the nucleating vapor-gas systems. To test the accuracy of experimental techniques, it is important to have a standard system that can be measured over a range of nucleation conditions. Several results illustrate that high-pressure techniques are needed to study multi-channel nucleation. In practical applications, parametric theories can be used for the systems of interest. However, experimental measurements are still the best source of information on nucleation rates. Experiments are labor intensive and costly, and thus, it is useful to extend the value of limited experimental measurements to a broader range of nucleation conditions. Only limited experimental data one needs for use in normalizing the slopes of the linearized nucleation rate surfaces. The nucleation rate surface is described in terms of steady-state nucleation rates. It is supposed that several new measuring systems, such as High Pressure Flow Diffusion Chamber for pressure limit up to 150 bar will be

  3. Development boiling to sprinkled tube bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracík Petr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a studied heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a sprinkled tube bundle where boiling occurs. Research in the area of sprinkled exchangers can be divided into two major parts. The first part is research on heat transfer and determination of the heat transfer coefficient at sprinkled tube bundles for various liquids, whether boiling or not. The second part is testing of sprinkle modes for various tube diameters, tube pitches and tube materials and determination of individual modes’ interface. All results published so far for water as the falling film liquid apply to one to three tubes for which the mentioned relations studied are determined in rigid laboratory conditions defined strictly in advance. The sprinkled tubes were not viewed from the operational perspective where there are more tubes and various modes may occur in different parts with various heat transfer values. The article focuses on these processes. The tube is located in a low-pressure chamber where vacuum is generated using an exhauster via ejector. The tube consists of smooth copper tubes of 12 mm diameter placed horizontally one above another.

  4. Zero boil-off system testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, D. W.; Johnson, W. L.; Feller, J. R.

    2016-03-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) are a part of NASA's future space exploration plans due to their high specific impulse for rocket motors of upper stages. However, the low storage temperatures of LH2 and LO2 cause substantial boil-off losses for long duration missions. These losses can be eliminated by incorporating high performance cryocooler technology to intercept heat load to the propellant tanks and modulating the cryocooler temperature to control tank pressure. The technology being developed by NASA is the reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocooler and its integration to the propellant tank through a distributed cooling tubing network coupled to the tank wall. This configuration was recently tested at NASA Glenn Research Center in a vacuum chamber and cryoshroud that simulated the essential thermal aspects of low Earth orbit, its vacuum and temperature. This test series established that the active cooling system integrated with the propellant tank eliminated boil-off and robustly controlled tank pressure.

  5. Nucleated red blood cells and artifactual hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaron, C I; Kadri, A; Macaron, Z

    1981-01-01

    A patient with chronic hemolytic anemia presented with an acute hemolytic crisis, a high count of nucleated red blood cells (NRBC), and artifactual hypoglycemia. Temporal events showed a parallel relationship between an increased number of nucleated RBCs and an excess in vitro consumption of glucose.

  6. Flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop of pure HFC-152a in a horizontal mini-channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdar, M.; Zoughaib, A.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Center for Energy and Processes, 60, boulevard Saint-Michel, F 75272 Paris Cedex 06 (France)

    2010-05-15

    This study investigates boiling heat transfer and two-phase pressure drop of HFC-152a in a horizontal square mini-channel of 1 mm in diameter. Convection heat fluxes were obtained using an inverse heat transfer method. Tests were performed at a nearly constant system pressure of 600 kPa and under saturated conditions. Local heat transfer coefficients were determined as a function of vapor quality along the length of the test section. Tests were carried out for mass flux ranging from 200 to 600 kg/m{sup 2}s and for heat flux ranging from 10 to 60 kW/m{sup 2}. Experimental results were compared to predictive models from the literature for two-phase flow pressure drop and boiling heat transfer. The correlation of was found to give a good agreement for prediction of mini-channel frictional pressure losses. The heat transfer mechanism was found to be dominated by nucleate boiling, and the heat transfer coefficient independent of vapor quality and mass flux. A new correlation for Nusselt number was developed based on the correlation, which was able to predict the present experimental data with respective average and maximum absolute deviations of 3.7% and 11%. (author)

  7. Motivation and results of a long-term research on pool boiling heat transfer in low gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Marco, P.; Grassi, W. Lothar [Low gravity and Thermal Advanced Research Laboratory, Dipartimento di Energetica ' ' L. Poggi' ' , Universita di Pisa (Italy)

    2002-06-01

    This paper summarises the main results of a long-term research, begun more than ten years ago, about the influence of gravity and electric fields on heat transfer. After a somehow detailed analysis of the impact of heat transfer on modern society and of the motivation of low gravity research on this subject, the authors describe their own research work on the effects of gravitational and electric forces on single-phase convection and pool boiling. This research has the twofold aim to investigate the basic mechanisms of convective heat transfer, without the masking effect of gravity, and to identify methods to make free convection possible also in the absence of buoyancy, for space applications. It has been experimentally shown that the application of an external electric field generally enhances the heat exchange between a heated wire and a liquid pool. The single-phase heat transfer coefficient is improved, the nucleate boiling region is extended to higher heat fluxes, by increasing the critical heat flux, CHF, as well as the heat transfer rate in film boiling is augmented. The convective heat exchange is an increasing function of gravity, therefore heat transfer generally deteriorates in low gravity. The application of a sufficiently intense electric field restores the same value of heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux measured on earth, thus demonstrating the progressive overwhelming of the electrical force on the buoyancy one. (authors)

  8. The kinetics of solid nucleation in zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, C.W. [Teledyne Advanced Materials, La Vergne, TN (United States); Hofmeister, W.H.; Bayuzick, R.J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Rulison, A.J.; Watkins, J.L. [Space Systems/Loral, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1998-11-02

    The framework of classical nucleation theory coupled with statistical analysis was used to evaluate nucleation data from zirconium undercooling experiments. Bulk samples of high purity zirconium were processed in a containerless, high vacuum environment using electrostatic levitation at Space Systems/Loral in order to obtain sets of nucleation temperature data. The relationships between undercooling and initial material purity have been investigated. The nucleation rate equation parameters, preexponential factor and work of cluster formation, were determined using a statistical analysis technique. The mean undercooling values ranged from 326 to 348 K for material purities between 99.8 and 99.995%, respectively. The range of values for the preexponential factors, 10{sup 32}--10{sup 43}, and the activation energies, 64--88kT, for the classical nucleation rate equation also scaled with the purity levels.

  9. Role of stacking disorder in ice nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Laura; Hudait, Arpa; Peters, Baron; Grünwald, Michael; Gotchy Mullen, Ryan; Nguyen, Andrew H.; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-11-01

    The freezing of water affects the processes that determine Earth’s climate. Therefore, accurate weather and climate forecasts hinge on good predictions of ice nucleation rates. Such rate predictions are based on extrapolations using classical nucleation theory, which assumes that the structure of nanometre-sized ice crystallites corresponds to that of hexagonal ice, the thermodynamically stable form of bulk ice. However, simulations with various water models find that ice nucleated and grown under atmospheric temperatures is at all sizes stacking-disordered, consisting of random sequences of cubic and hexagonal ice layers. This implies that stacking-disordered ice crystallites either are more stable than hexagonal ice crystallites or form because of non-equilibrium dynamical effects. Both scenarios challenge central tenets of classical nucleation theory. Here we use rare-event sampling and free energy calculations with the mW water model to show that the entropy of mixing cubic and hexagonal layers makes stacking-disordered ice the stable phase for crystallites up to a size of at least 100,000 molecules. We find that stacking-disordered critical crystallites at 230 kelvin are about 14 kilojoules per mole of crystallite more stable than hexagonal crystallites, making their ice nucleation rates more than three orders of magnitude higher than predicted by classical nucleation theory. This effect on nucleation rates is temperature dependent, being the most pronounced at the warmest conditions, and should affect the modelling of cloud formation and ice particle numbers, which are very sensitive to the temperature dependence of ice nucleation rates. We conclude that classical nucleation theory needs to be corrected to include the dependence of the crystallization driving force on the size of the ice crystallite when interpreting and extrapolating ice nucleation rates from experimental laboratory conditions to the temperatures that occur in clouds.

  10. Acentrosomal microtubule nucleation in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Anne-Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Higher plants have developed a unique pathway to control their cytoskeleton assembly and dynamics. In most other eukaryotes, microtubules are nucleated in vivo at the nucleation and organizing centers and are involved in the establishment of polarity. Although the major cytoskeletal components are common to plant and animal cells, which suggests conserved regulation mechanisms, plants do not possess centrosome-like organelles. Nevertheless, they are able to build spindles and have developed their own specific cytoskeletal arrays: the cortical arrays, the preprophase band, and the phragmoplast, which all participate in basic developmental processes, as shown by defective mutants. New approaches provide essential clues to understanding the fundamental mechanisms of microtubule nucleation. Gamma-tubulin, which is considered to be the universal nucleator, is the essential component of microtubule-nucleating complexes identified as gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRC) in centriolar cells. A gamma-tubulin small complex (gamma-TuSC) forms a minimal nucleating unit recruited at specific sites of activity. These components--gamma-tubulin, Spc98p, and Spc97p--are present in higher plants. They play a crucial role in microtubule nucleation at the nuclear surface, which is known as the main functional plant microtubule-organizing center, and also probably at the cell cortex and at the phragmoplast, where secondary nucleation sites may exist. Surprisingly, plant gamma-tubulin is distributed along the microtubule length. As it is not associated with Spc98p, it may not be involved in microtubule nucleation, but may preferably control microtubule dynamics. Understanding the mechanisms of microtubule nucleation is the major challenge of the current research.

  11. Complete Numerical Simulation of Subcooled Flow Boiling in the Presence of Thermal and Chemical Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.K. Dhir

    2003-04-28

    At present, guidelines for fuel cycle designs to prevent axial offset anomalies (AOA) in pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores are based on empirical data from several operating reactors. Although the guidelines provide an ad-hoc solution to the problem, a unified approach based on simultaneous modeling of thermal-hydraulics, chemical, and nuclear interactions with vapor generation at the fuel cladding surface does not exist. As a result, the fuel designs are overly constrained with a resulting economic penalty. The objective of present project is to develop a numerical simulation model supported by laboratory experiments that can be used for fuel cycle design with respect to thermal duty of the fuel to avoid economic penalty, as well as, AOA. At first, two-dimensional numerical simulation of the growth and departure of a bubble in pool boiling with chemical interaction is considered. A finite difference scheme is used to solve the equations governing conservation of mass, momentum, energy, and species concentration. The Level Set method is used to capture the evolving liquid-vapor interface. A dilute aqueous boron solution is considered in the simulation. From numerical simulations, the dynamic change in concentration distribution of boron during the bubble growth shows that the precipitation of boron can occur near the advancing and receding liquid-vapor interface when the ambient boron concentration level is 3,000 ppm by weight. Secondly, a complete three-dimensional numerical simulation of inception, growth and departure of a single bubble subjected to forced flow parallel to the heater surface was developed. Experiments on a flat plate heater with water and with boron dissolved in the water were carried out. The heater was made out of well-polished silicon wafer. Numbers of nucleation sites and their locations were well controlled. Bubble dynamics in great details on an isolated nucleation site were obtained while varying the wall superheat, liquid subcooling

  12. Critical heat flux in flow boiling in microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This Brief concerns the important problem of critical heat flux in flow boiling in microchannels. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to “Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” by the same author team, this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  13. Direct Numerical Simulation and Visualization of Subcooled Pool Boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Kunugi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation of the boiling phenomena is one of the promising approaches in order to clarify their heat transfer characteristics and discuss the mechanism. During these decades, many DNS procedures have been developed according to the recent high performance computers and computational technologies. In this paper, the state of the art of direct numerical simulation of the pool boiling phenomena during mostly two decades is briefly summarized at first, and then the nonempirical boiling and condensation model proposed by the authors is introduced into the MARS (MultiInterface Advection and Reconstruction Solver developed by the authors. On the other hand, in order to clarify the boiling bubble behaviors under the subcooled conditions, the subcooled pool boiling experiments are also performed by using a high speed and high spatial resolution camera with a highly magnified telescope. Resulting from the numerical simulations of the subcooled pool boiling phenomena, the numerical results obtained by the MARS are validated by being compared to the experimental ones and the existing analytical solutions. The numerical results regarding the time evolution of the boiling bubble departure process under the subcooled conditions show a very good agreement with the experimental results. In conclusion, it can be said that the proposed nonempirical boiling and condensation model combined with the MARS has been validated.

  14. A QSPR STUDY OF NORMAL BOILING POINT OF ORGANIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... Keywords: QSPR; Model; Molecular descriptors; Normal Boiling point; multiple linear regression "Stepwise" . 1. INTRODUCTION. Being firstly and easily measured as a property of a compound, the normal boiling point (NBP) is an important property for the simulation of processes in chemical and petroleum ...

  15. Proximate, Functional and Anti-Nutritional Properties of Boiled Ukpo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxalate, tannin, saponin, phenol and phytate contents decreased significantly (p .0.05) with increasing boiling time. The values at 60 minutes boiling time were 0.14%, 0.182%, 0.434%, 0.146% and 0.719% respectively. These results suggest that heat treatment improves the performance of the Ukpo flour in soup ...

  16. Effect of boiling on the physicochemical properties of Roselle seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of boiling on the physicochemical composition of Roselle seeds (Hibiscus sabdariffa) grown in Mali was shown. Proximate analysis indicated that boiled whole Roselle seeds (BWRS) are potential high protein source. Moreover, the results of lipid analysis indicated that the seeds were good source of unsaturated fatty ...

  17. Prospective Primary School Teachers' Perceptions on Boiling and Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senocak, Erdal

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of prospective primary school teachers on the physical state of water during the processes of boiling and freezing. There were three stages in the investigation: First, open-ended questions concerning the boiling and freezing of water were given to two groups of prospective primary school…

  18. Chemical composition and nutritional value of boiled Christmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and the nutritive value of boiled Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia) for starter broiler chickens. Dried Christmas bush fruits (Capsules + seed) were boiled for 30 minutes, sundried and ground into meal. The meal was analyzed for proximate composition and ...

  19. Low-Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer on Vertical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe Andersen, J. G.; Dix, G. E.; Leonard, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The phenomenon of film boiling heat transfer for high wall temperatures has been investigated. Based on the assumption of laminar flow for the film, the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the vapor film are solved and a Bromley-type analytical expression for the heat transfer...... length, an average film boiling heat transfer coefficient is obtained....

  20. Boiling treatment of ABS and PS plastics for flotation separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-qing; Wang, Hui; Wu, Bao-xin; Liu, Qun

    2014-07-01

    A new physical method, namely boiling treatment, was developed to aid flotation separation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) plastics. Boiling treatment was shown to be effective in producing a hydrophilic surface on ABS plastic. Fourier Transform Infrared analysis was conducted to investigate the mechanism of boiling treatment of ABS. Surface rearrangement of polymer may be responsible for surface change of boiling treated ABS, and the selective influence of boiling treatment on the floatability of boiling treated plastics may be attributed to the difference in the molecular mobility of polymer chains. The effects of flotation time, frother concentration and particle size on flotation behavior of simple plastic were investigated. Based on flotation behavior of simple plastic, flotation separation of boiling treatment ABS and PS with different particle sizes was achieved efficiently. The purity of ABS and PS was up to 99.78% and 95.80%, respectively; the recovery of ABS and PS was up to 95.81% and 99.82%, respectively. Boiling treatment promotes the industrial application of plastics flotation and facilitates plastic recycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the Application of Image Processing Methods for Bubble Recognition to the Study of Subcooled Flow Boiling of Water in Rectangular Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Concepción; Conde, Marcos; Porteiro, Jacobo; Concheiro, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    This work introduces the use of machine vision in the massive bubble recognition process, which supports the validation of boiling models involving bubble dynamics, as well as nucleation frequency, active site density and size of the bubbles. The two algorithms presented are meant to be run employing quite standard images of the bubbling process, recorded in general-purpose boiling facilities. The recognition routines are easily adaptable to other facilities if a minimum number of precautions are taken in the setup and in the treatment of the information. Both the side and front projections of subcooled flow-boiling phenomenon over a plain plate are covered. Once all of the intended bubbles have been located in space and time, the proper post-process of the recorded data become capable of tracking each of the recognized bubbles, sketching their trajectories and size evolution, locating the nucleation sites, computing their diameters, and so on. After validating the algorithm’s output against the human eye and data from other researchers, machine vision systems have been demonstrated to be a very valuable option to successfully perform the recognition process, even though the optical analysis of bubbles has not been set as the main goal of the experimental facility. PMID:28632158

  2. On the Application of Image Processing Methods for Bubble Recognition to the Study of Subcooled Flow Boiling of Water in Rectangular Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Concepción; Conde, Marcos; Porteiro, Jacobo; Concheiro, Miguel

    2017-06-20

    This work introduces the use of machine vision in the massive bubble recognition process, which supports the validation of boiling models involving bubble dynamics, as well as nucleation frequency, active site density and size of the bubbles. The two algorithms presented are meant to be run employing quite standard images of the bubbling process, recorded in general-purpose boiling facilities. The recognition routines are easily adaptable to other facilities if a minimum number of precautions are taken in the setup and in the treatment of the information. Both the side and front projections of subcooled flow-boiling phenomenon over a plain plate are covered. Once all of the intended bubbles have been located in space and time, the proper post-process of the recorded data become capable of tracking each of the recognized bubbles, sketching their trajectories and size evolution, locating the nucleation sites, computing their diameters, and so on. After validating the algorithm's output against the human eye and data from other researchers, machine vision systems have been demonstrated to be a very valuable option to successfully perform the recognition process, even though the optical analysis of bubbles has not been set as the main goal of the experimental facility.

  3. On the Application of Image Processing Methods for Bubble Recognition to the Study of Subcooled Flow Boiling of Water in Rectangular Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Paz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces the use of machine vision in the massive bubble recognition process, which supports the validation of boiling models involving bubble dynamics, as well as nucleation frequency, active site density and size of the bubbles. The two algorithms presented are meant to be run employing quite standard images of the bubbling process, recorded in general-purpose boiling facilities. The recognition routines are easily adaptable to other facilities if a minimum number of precautions are taken in the setup and in the treatment of the information. Both the side and front projections of subcooled flow-boiling phenomenon over a plain plate are covered. Once all of the intended bubbles have been located in space and time, the proper post-process of the recorded data become capable of tracking each of the recognized bubbles, sketching their trajectories and size evolution, locating the nucleation sites, computing their diameters, and so on. After validating the algorithm’s output against the human eye and data from other researchers, machine vision systems have been demonstrated to be a very valuable option to successfully perform the recognition process, even though the optical analysis of bubbles has not been set as the main goal of the experimental facility.

  4. Hybrid modelling of a sugar boiling process

    CERN Document Server

    Lauret, Alfred Jean Philippe; Gatina, Jean Claude

    2012-01-01

    The first and maybe the most important step in designing a model-based predictive controller is to develop a model that is as accurate as possible and that is valid under a wide range of operating conditions. The sugar boiling process is a strongly nonlinear and nonstationary process. The main process nonlinearities are represented by the crystal growth rate. This paper addresses the development of the crystal growth rate model according to two approaches. The first approach is classical and consists of determining the parameters of the empirical expressions of the growth rate through the use of a nonlinear programming optimization technique. The second is a novel modeling strategy that combines an artificial neural network (ANN) as an approximator of the growth rate with prior knowledge represented by the mass balance of sucrose crystals. The first results show that the first type of model performs local fitting while the second offers a greater flexibility. The two models were developed with industrial data...

  5. Microbiological effectiveness of disinfecting water by boiling in rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Miller, Laura; Clasen, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Boiling is the most common means of treating water in the home and the benchmark against which alternative point-of-use water treatment options must be compared. In a 5-week study in rural Guatemala among 45 households who claimed they always or almost always boiled their drinking water, boiling was associated with a 86.2% reduction in geometric mean thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) (N = 206, P water, 71.2% of stored water samples from self-reported boilers met the World Health Organization guidelines for safe drinking water (0 TTC/100 mL), and 10.7% fell within the commonly accepted low-risk category of (1-10 TTC/100 mL). As actually practiced in the study community, boiling significantly improved the microbiological quality of drinking water, though boiled and stored drinking water is not always free of fecal contaminations.

  6. Boiling in porous media; Ebullition en milieux poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-11

    This conference day of the French society of thermal engineers was devoted to the analysis of heat transfers and fluid flows during boiling phenomena in porous media. This book of proceedings comprises 8 communications entitled: `boiling in porous medium: effect of natural convection in the liquid zone`; `numerical modeling of boiling in porous media using a `dual-fluid` approach: asymmetrical characteristic of the phenomenon`; `boiling during fluid flow in an induction heated porous column`; `cooling of corium fragment beds during a severe accident. State of the art and the SILFIDE experimental project`; `state of knowledge about the cooling of a particulates bed during a reactor accident`; `mass transfer analysis inside a concrete slab during fire resistance tests`; `heat transfers and boiling in porous media. Experimental analysis and modeling`; `concrete in accidental situation - influence of boundary conditions (thermal, hydric) - case studies`. (J.S.)

  7. Enceladus Plumes: A Boiling Liquid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Miki; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2012-10-01

    Following the discovery of H2O vapor and particle plumes from the tiger stripes at the south pole of Enceladus (Porco et al., 2006), observational and theoretical studies have been conducted to understand the plume mechanism (e.g., Schmidt et al., 2008; Kieffer et al., 2009; Ingersoll and Pankine, 2010). Although the “Ice Chamber Model”, which assumes that ice sublimation under the stripes causes the plumes, has successfully explained the plume mass flux (e.g., Nimmo et al., 2007; Ingersoll and Pankine, 2010), it cannot explain the high salinity in the plume (Postberg et al., 2009). Ice particles condensing from a vapor are relatively salt free, but ice particles derived from a salty liquid can have high salinity. Therefore we have investigated the “Boiling Liquid Model”, which assumes that liquid H2O under the stripes causes the plumes. With conservation of mass, momentum and energy, we built a simple atmospheric model that includes controlled boiling and gas-ice wall interaction. We first assumed that the heat radiated to space comes entirely from the heat generated by condensation of the gas onto the ice wall. We varied the width (0.1-1 m) and the height (5-4000 m) of the crack as parameters. We find that the escaping vapor flux can be relatively close to the observed value (250±100 kg/s, Hansen et al., 2006, 2008) but the radiated heat flux is only 1 GW, which is much less than the observed value (15.8 GW, Howett et al., 2011). Other models (Nimmo et al., 2007; Abramov and Spencer, 2009) also have the same difficulty accounting for the observed value. We then investigated the additional heat radiated by the particles after they come out of the crack. We built a simple model to estimate the size distributions of these condensed ice particles and their radiative properties.

  8. The initiation of boiling during pressure transients. [water boiling on metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, J.; Bussell, G.; Jashnani, I. L.; Hsieh, T.

    1973-01-01

    The initiation of boiling of water on metal surfaces during pressure transients has been investigated. The data were obtained by a new technique in which light beam fluctuations and a pressure signal were simultaneously recorded on a dual beam oscilloscope. The results obtained agreed with those obtained using high speed photography. It was found that, for water temperatures between 90-150 C, the wall superheat required to initiate boiling during a rapid pressure transient was significantly higher than required when the pressure was slowly reduced. This result is explained by assuming that a finite time is necessary for vapor to fill the cavity at which the bubble originates. Experimental measurements of this time are in reasonably good agreement with calculations based on the proposed theory. The theory includes a new procedure for estimating the coefficient of vaporization.

  9. Effect of local phenomena on subcooled boiling oscillations in natural circulation boiling loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmakar, Arnab [Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Jharkhand 835215 (India); Dey, Runa [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004 (India); Paruya, Swapan, E-mail: swapanparuya@gmail.com [National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, West Bengal 713209 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The estimations of bubble frequency and oscillation of local void fraction α in a natural circulation boiling loop. • The effect of inlet subcooling on the bubble frequency and the oscillations of local α and local pressure. • Effect of local dynamic phenomena on the system oscillations in terms of loop flow rate. • The α-oscillations due to the presence of large bubbles trigger the high-amplitude system-oscillations with a time delay. - Abstract: In this paper, the authors report the estimations of bubble frequency and oscillation of local void fraction and their role in subcooled boiling oscillations in a low-pressure natural circulation boiling loop. The estimations primarily rely on the measurements of impedance using inductance L–capacitance C–resistance R (LCR) meter. The bubble frequencies determined from the impedance signals and the images are comparable. The effect of inlet subcooling on the bubble frequency and the oscillation of local void fraction has been studied and found to be remarkable. Based on the comparison of the oscillations of local void fraction, local pressure and loop flow rate, the effect of local dynamic phenomena on the system oscillations clearly demonstrates that the oscillations of void fraction trigger high-amplitude flow oscillations with a delay between the oscillations of void fraction and loop flow rate.

  10. Impact of surface nanostructure on ice nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Xiong; Chen, Min; Fu, Ming

    2014-09-28

    Nucleation of water on solid surface can be promoted noticeably when the lattice parameter of a surface matches well with the ice structure. However, the characteristic length of the surface lattice reported is generally less than 0.5 nm and is hardly tunable. In this paper, we show that a surface with nanoscale roughness can also remarkably promote ice nucleation if the characteristic length of the surface structure matches well with the ice crystal. A series of surfaces composed of periodic grooves with same depth but different widths are constructed in molecular dynamics simulations. Water cylinders are placed on the constructed surfaces and frozen at constant undercooling. The nucleation rates of the water cylinders are calculated in the simulation using the mean first-passage time method and then used to measure the nucleation promotion ability of the surfaces. Results suggest that the nucleation behavior of the supercooled water is significantly sensitive to the width of the groove. When the width of the groove matches well with the specific lengths of the ice crystal structure, the nucleation can be promoted remarkably. If the width does not match with the ice crystal, this kind of promotion disappears and the nucleation rate is even smaller than that on the smooth surface. Simulations also indicate that even when water molecules are adsorbed onto the surface structure in high-humidity environment, the solid surface can provide promising anti-icing ability as long as the characteristic length of the surface structure is carefully designed to avoid geometric match.

  11. Nonclassical nucleation pathways in protein crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fajun

    2017-11-01

    Classical nucleation theory (CNT), which was established about 90 years ago, has been very successful in many research fields, and continues to be the most commonly used theory in describing the nucleation process. For a fluid-to-solid phase transition, CNT states that the solute molecules in a supersaturated solution reversibly form small clusters. Once the cluster size reaches a critical value, it becomes thermodynamically stable and favored for further growth. One of the most important assumptions of CNT is that the nucleation process is described by one reaction coordinate and all order parameters proceed simultaneously. Recent studies in experiments, computer simulations and theory have revealed nonclassical features in the early stage of nucleation. In particular, the decoupling of order parameters involved during a fluid-to-solid transition leads to the so-called two-step nucleation mechanism, in which a metastable intermediate phase (MIP) exists between the initial supersaturated solution and the final crystals. Depending on the exact free energy landscapes, the MIPs can be a high density liquid phase, mesoscopic clusters, or a pre-ordered state. In this review, we focus on the studies of nonclassical pathways in protein crystallization and discuss the applications of the various scenarios of two-step nucleation theory. In particular, we focus on protein solutions in the presence of multivalent salts, which serve as a model protein system to study the nucleation pathways. We wish to point out the unique features of proteins as model systems for further studies.

  12. Heterogeneous nucleation in solutions: generalized Gibbs' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, Alexander S; Schmelzer, Jürn W P

    2014-06-28

    Heterogeneous nucleation in solutions on planar solid surfaces is modeled taking into account changes of the state parameters of the critical clusters in dependence on supersaturation. The account of the variation of the state parameters of the cluster phase on nucleation is performed in the framework of the generalized Gibbs' approach. A regular solution is chosen as a model for the analysis of the basic qualitative characteristics of the process. It is shown that, employing the generalized Gibbs approach, contact angle and catalytic activity factor for heterogeneous nucleation become dependent on the degree of metastability (supersaturation) of the solution. For the case of formation of a cluster in supersaturated solutions on a surface of low wettability (the macroscopic equilibrium contact angles being larger than 90°), the solid surface has only a minor influence on nucleation. In the alternative case of high wettability (for macroscopic equilibrium contact angles being less than 90°), nucleation is significantly enhanced by the solid surface. Effectively, the existence of the solid surface results in a significant shift of the spinodal to lower supersaturations as compared with homogeneous nucleation. Qualitatively, the same behavior is observed now near the new (solid surface induced) limits of instability of the solution as compared with the behavior near to the spinodal curve in the case of homogeneous nucleation.

  13. Effects of clustered nucleation on recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Søren; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    the experimentally observed clustering is not very strong, it changes the kinetics and the recrystallized microstructural morphology plus leads to a recrystallized grain size distribution, which is significantly broadened compared to that of random nucleation simulations. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd......Computer simulations are used to study effects of an experimentally determined 3D distribution of nucleation sites on the recrystallization kinetics and on the evolution of the recrystallized microstructure as compared to simulations with random nucleation. It is found that although...

  14. Viscosity of interfacial water regulates ice nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kaiyong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qiaolan; Zhang, Yifan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of Green Printing, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Shun; Zhou, Xin [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cui, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun, E-mail: wangj220@iccas.ac.cn; Song, Yanlin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of Green Printing, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-03-10

    Ice formation on solid surfaces is an important phenomenon in many fields, such as cloud formation and atmospheric icing, and a key factor for applications in preventing freezing. Here, we report temperature-dependent nucleation rates of ice for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The results show that hydrophilic surface presents a lower ice nucleation rate. We develop a strategy to extract the thermodynamic parameters, J{sub 0} and Γ, in the context of classical nucleation theory. From the extracted J{sub 0} and Γ, we reveal the dominant role played by interfacial water. The results provide an insight into freezing mechanism on solid surfaces.

  15. Modelling of a DNB mechanism by dry-out of a nucleation site; Modelisation du mecanisme de crise d`ebullition par assechement d`un site de nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricard, P.

    1995-10-01

    This study deals with the modelling of a nucleation site dry-out DNB mechanism which unifies those of Kirby et al. (1967) and Fiori and Bergles (1970). A first model based on a simplified heat balance in the wall at the location of the dry spot is developed and a set of closure relations is proposed. The model is then quantitatively and qualitatively compared to CHF data. In order to support the likelihood of the mechanism, we develop a more elaborated model which couples the unsteady thermal behavior of the wall and the thermal-hydraulics of the fluid described by the different phases of the nucleation cycle. The conditions which enable the boiling crisis to be reached are given.

  16. Investigation of nucleation in undercooled metal melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Stefan [Institut fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), 51170 Koeln (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Herlach, Dieter M. [Institut fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), 51170 Koeln (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Containerless processing is an effective tool for undercooling metallic melts far below their equilibrium melting temperatures. By using such levitation techniques the dominating heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is completely eliminated. Furthermore, if the experiments are performed under clean environmental conditions, heterogeneous nucleation on free surfaces is also greatly reduced. In this work both electromagnetic and electrostatic levitation techniques are used for a comparative investigation of nucleation in undercooled metallic metals. In case of electromagnetic levitation samples in a diameter of 7 mm are processed within high purity inert gas atmosphere while in case of electrostatic levitation samples in a diameter of 2 mm are processed in ultra high vacuum. With a modified model by Skripov a statistical analysis of the distribution function of the undercoolings measured in one experiment run consisting of at least 100 undercooling cycles is conducted which provides information about the physical nature of different nucleation mechanism depending on experiment conditions.

  17. Nucleation and superstabilization in small systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, T.

    2017-09-01

    Phase transitions are known to present peculiarities in small systems that are related to depletion effects of the ambient phase. Mass conservation affects the conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium between a nucleus of the new phase and the matrix as compared with nucleation in infinite systems. This finite-size effect is known to delay the phase transition but can also impede nucleation in very small systems as it stabilizes the initial state, originally metastable in infinite systems. In this work, we investigate this superstabilization effect in the context of classical nucleation theory in multicomponent solutions and we derive an analytical expression for the system size below which nucleation becomes thermodynamically impossible. Comparing with the exact solution, our simple result is shown to accurately predict the superstabilization effect, and can therefore be used, for instance, as a guideline for the design of novel nanomaterials.

  18. Actin nucleation: spire - actin nucleator in a class of its own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Buzz; Kunda, Patricia

    2005-04-26

    The rate limiting step for actin filament polymerisation is nucleation, and two types of nucleator have been described: the Arp2/3 complex and the formins. A recent study has now identified in Spire a third class of actin nucleator. The four short WH2 repeats within Spire bind four consecutive actin monomers to form a novel single strand nucleus for 'barbed end' actin filament elongation.

  19. Activity of different proteinaceous ice nucleating particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Susann; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Grawe, Sarah; Ling, Meilee; Hellner, Lisa; Zapf, Jean-Michel; Šantl-Temkiv, Tina; Pummer, Bernhard; Boesen, Thomas; Wex, Heike; Finster, Kai; Stratmann, Frank

    2017-04-01

    A variety of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, lichen) from land produce protein structures, which act as a template for ice nucleation [1]. Also marine sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) came in focus in the recent years. The atmospheric spatio-temporal distribution of INPs from microorganisms is still not well known. However, it is often assumed that the observed onset of atmospheric ice nucleation (T>-20°C) is due to the existence of ice-nucleation active biological particles. In this study we compare the ice nucleation activity of different proteinaceous particles produced by bacteria and fungi. For bacteria we investigate (i) cells and fragments of Pseudomonas syringae from commercially available SnomaxTM and (ii) the Pseudomonas syringae INA protein expressed in living Escherichia coli bacteria. We also analyzed freeze-dried leaves [2] where we assume that proteinaceous particles are responsible for the ice nucleation activity. For fungi the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina was investigated which had been extracted from natural soil [3]. Immersion freezing experiments are performed at the cold stage LINA (Leipzig Ice Nucleation Array). We attempt to describe the activity of a single proteinaceous ice nucleating particle [4] in order to achieve direct comparability. Further, the results are compared with complex natural systems e.g. soil dust. The objectives of this study are to clarify potential differences in the ice nucleation potential of proteinaceous particles and to draw conclusions concerning the need to differentiate them for modelling purposes. 1. Szyrmer, W. and I. Zawadzki, Biogenic and anthropogenic sources of ice-forming nuclei: A review, Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 1997. 2. Schnell, R.C. and G. Vali, Biogenic ice nucleai .1: Terrestrial and marine sources, doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1976)0332.0.co;2, 1976. 3. Froehlich-Nowoisky, J. et al., Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina, doi: 10.5194/bg-12

  20. Nucleation versus instability race in strained films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kailang; Berbezier, Isabelle; David, Thomas; Favre, Luc; Ronda, Antoine; Abbarchi, Marco; Voorhees, Peter; Aqua, Jean-Noël

    2017-10-01

    Under the generic term "Stranski-Krastanov" are grouped two different growth mechanisms of SiGe quantum dots. They result from the self-organized Asaro-Tiller-Grinfel'd (ATG) instability at low strain, while at high strain, from a stochastic nucleation. While these regimes are well known, we elucidate here the origin of the transition between these two pathways thanks to a joint theoretical and experimental work. Nucleation is described within the master equation framework. By comparing the time scales for ATG instability development and three-dimensional (3D) nucleation onset, we demonstrate that the transition between these two regimes is simply explained by the crossover between their divergent evolutions. Nucleation exhibits a strong exponential deviation at low strain while ATG behaves only algebraically. The associated time scale varies with exp(1 /x4) for nucleation, while it only behaves as 1 /x8 for the ATG instability. Consequently, at high (low) strain, nucleation (instability) occurs faster and inhibits the alternate evolution. It is then this different kinetic evolution which explains the transition from one regime to the other. Such a kinetic view of the transition between these two 3D growth regimes was not provided before. The crossover between nucleation and ATG instability is found to occur both experimentally and theoretically at a Ge composition around 50% in the experimental conditions used here. Varying the experimental conditions and/or the system parameters does not allow us to suppress the transition. This means that the SiGe quantum dots always grow via ATG instability at low strain and nucleation at high strain. This result is important for the self-organization of quantum dots.

  1. Self-Sustaining Thorium Boiling Water Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Greenspan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A thorium-fueled water-cooled reactor core design approach that features a radially uniform composition of fuel rods in stationary fuel assembly and is fuel-self-sustaining is described. This core design concept is similar to the Reduced moderation Boiling Water Reactor (RBWR proposed by Hitachi to fit within an ABWR pressure vessel, with the following exceptions: use of thorium instead of depleted uranium for the fertile fuel; elimination of the internal blanket; and elimination of absorbers from the axial reflectors, while increasing the length of the fissile zone. The preliminary analysis indicates that it is feasible to design such cores to be fuel-self-sustaining and to have a comfortably low peak linear heat generation rate when operating at the nominal ABWR power level of nearly 4000 MWth. However, the void reactivity feedback tends to be too negative, making it difficult to have sufficient shutdown reactivity margin at cold zero power condition. An addition of a small amount of plutonium from LWR used nuclear fuel was found effective in reducing the magnitude of the negative void reactivity effect and enables attaining adequate shutdown reactivity margin; it also flattens the axial power distribution. The resulting design concept offers an efficient incineration of the LWR generated plutonium in addition to effective utilization of thorium. Additional R&D is required in order to arrive at a reliable practical and safe design.

  2. Visualization of boiling flow structure in a natural circulation boiling loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmakar, Arnab; Paruya, Swapan, E-mail: swapanparuya@gmail.com

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Vapor–liquid jet flows in natural circulation boiling loop. • Flow patterns and their transitions during geysering instability in the loop. • Evaluation of the efficiency of the needle probe in detecting the vapor–liquid and boiling flow structure. - Abstract: The present study reports vapor–liquid jet flows, flow patterns and their transitions during geysering instability in a natural circulation boiling loop under varied inlet subcooling ΔT{sub sub} (30–50 °C) and heater power Q (4–5 kW). Video imaging, voltage measurement using impedance needle probe, measurement of local pressure and loop flow rate have been carried out in this study. Power spectra of the voltage, the pressure and the flow rate reveal that at a high ΔT{sub sub} the jet flows have long period (21.36–86.95 s) and they are very irregular with a number of harmonics. The period decreases and becomes regular with a decrease of ΔT{sub sub}. The periods of the jet flows at ΔT{sub sub} = 30–50 °C and Q = 4 kW are in close agreement with those obtained from the video imaging. The probe was found to be more efficient than the pressure sensor in detecting the jet flows within an uncertainty of 9.5% and in detecting a variety of bubble classes. Both the imaging and the probe consistently identify the bubbly flow/vapor-mushrooms transition or the bubbly flow/slug flow transition on decreasing ΔT{sub sub} or on increasing Q.

  3. Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ground Water Rule - Boil Water Advisory - Public Notification Template can be use to issue a Tier 1 Public Notification when it has been determined that source ground water is contaminated with E. Coli bacteria.

  4. Effect Of Green Leaves And Germination And Boiling Treatments Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trigonella foenum graecum L.) were commercial, Giza 2 and Giza 30 and fenugreek green leaves and raw, boiled and germinated commercial sweet lupin seeds (lupinus termis forssk L.) were analyzed for its chemical composition, alkaloids and ...

  5. Boiling local heat transfer enhancement in minichannels using nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehade, Ali Ahmad; Gualous, Hasna Louahlia; Le Masson, Stephane; Fardoun, Farouk; Besq, Anthony

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on nanofluid convective boiling heat transfer in parallel rectangular minichannels of 800 μm hydraulic diameter. Experiments are conducted with pure water and silver nanoparticles suspended in water base fluid. Two small volume fractions of silver nanoparticles suspended in water are tested: 0.000237% and 0.000475%. The experimental results show that the local heat transfer coefficient, local heat flux, and local wall temperature are affected by silver nanoparticle concentration in water base fluid. In addition, different correlations established for boiling flow heat transfer in minichannels or macrochannels are evaluated. It is found that the correlation of Kandlikar and Balasubramanian is the closest to the water boiling heat transfer results. The boiling local heat transfer enhancement by adding silver nanoparticles in base fluid is not uniform along the channel flow. Better performances and highest effect of nanoparticle concentration on the heat transfer are obtained at the minichannels entrance.

  6. Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed boiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed boiled cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp) and or black common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) meal diets. HF Defang, A Teguia, J Awah-Ndukum, A Kenfack, F Ngoula, F Metuge ...

  7. Zero Boil Off System for Cryogen Storage Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to develop a zero boil off (ZBO) dewar using a two-stage pulse-tube cooler together with two innovative, continuous-flow cooling loops and an...

  8. Boiling local heat transfer enhancement in minichannels using nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on nanofluid convective boiling heat transfer in parallel rectangular minichannels of 800 μm hydraulic diameter. Experiments are conducted with pure water and silver nanoparticles suspended in water base fluid. Two small volume fractions of silver nanoparticles suspended in water are tested: 0.000237% and 0.000475%. The experimental results show that the local heat transfer coefficient, local heat flux, and local wall temperature are affected by silver nanoparticle concentration in water base fluid. In addition, different correlations established for boiling flow heat transfer in minichannels or macrochannels are evaluated. It is found that the correlation of Kandlikar and Balasubramanian is the closest to the water boiling heat transfer results. The boiling local heat transfer enhancement by adding silver nanoparticles in base fluid is not uniform along the channel flow. Better performances and highest effect of nanoparticle concentration on the heat transfer are obtained at the minichannels entrance. PMID:23506445

  9. Experimental Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Microgravity in the Presence of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Cila

    1999-01-01

    In boiling high heat fluxes are possible driven by relatively small temperature differences, which make its use increasingly attractive in aerospace applications. The objective of the research is to develop ways to overcome specific problems associated with boiling in the low gravity environment by substituting the buoyancy force with the electric force to enhance bubble removal from the heated surface. Previous studies indicate that in terrestrial applications nucleate boiling heat transfer can be increased by a factor of 50, as compared to values obtained for the same system without electric fields. The goal of our research is to experimentally explore the mechanisms responsible for EHD heat transfer enhancement in boiling in low gravity conditions, by visualizing the temperature distributions in the vicinity of the heated surface and around the bubble during boiling using real-time holographic interferometry (HI) combined with high-speed cinematography. In the first phase of the project the influence of the electric field on a single bubble is investigated. Pool boiling is simulated by injecting a single bubble through a nozzle into the subcooled liquid or into the thermal boundary layer developed along the flat heater surface. Since the exact location of bubble formation is known, the optical equipment can be aligned and focused accurately, which is an essential requirement for precision measurements of bubble shape, size and deformation, as well as the visualization of temperature fields by HI. The size of the bubble and the frequency of bubble departure can be controlled by suitable selection of nozzle diameter and mass flow rate of vapor. In this approach effects due to the presence of the electric field can be separated from effects caused by the temperature gradients in the thermal boundary layer. The influence of the thermal boundary layer can be investigated after activating the heater at a later stage of the research. For the visualization experiments a

  10. Laser-induced boiling of biological liquids in medical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovskii, V. M.; Yusupov, V. I.; Dydykin, A. V.; Nevozhai, V. I.; Kisilev, A. Yu.; Zhukov, S. A.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2017-05-01

    Using optical and acoustic methods we study thermal and transport processes related to the boiling of biological liquids under the action of continuous-wave laser radiation having moderate power (1 - 10 W) in the near-IR range (0.97 - 1.94 μm). These processes are investigated in the course of a few particular clinical procedures aimed at the modification and removal of pathological tissues (veins, mammary gland cyst, Baker’s cyst) and tissue regeneration (intervertebral discs). In the proposed approach, the modification and destruction of biotissues are due to the fast delivery of heat by two-phase jet flows, formed in the course of liquid boiling, rather than the direct laser heating. This provides the high rate of heat delivery to the pathological biotissue, avoiding its overheating (the temperature higher than 100 °C) and undesired heating of adjacent tissues. Two main regimes of laser-induced boiling near the optical fibre tip were revealed, namely, the heterogeneous jet boiling (arising when the fibre with a blackened tip is used) and the homogeneous boiling (with the radiation absorbed in the liquid volume). Both studied regimes allow one to obtain high specific heat flows, and the domination of one of the boiling regimes is determined by the presence of absorbing coating on the fibre tip, the tissue type, as well as by its shape (e.g., the presence of channels or cavities in the tissue). It is established that the heterogeneous jet boiling at the fibre tip corresponds to the regime of superintensive bubble boiling.

  11. Subcooled boiling heat transfer in a short vertical SUS304-tube at liquid Reynolds number range 5.19 x 10{sup 4} to 7.43 x 10{sup 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, Koichi, E-mail: hata@iae.kyoto-u.ac.j [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto Univ., Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Masuzaki, Suguru, E-mail: masuzaki@LHD.nifs.ac.j [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The subcooled boiling heat transfer and the steady-state critical heat fluxes (CHFs) in a short vertical SUS304-tube for the flow velocities (u = 17.28-40.20 m/s), the inlet liquid temperatures (T{sub in} = 293.30-362.49 K), the inlet pressures (P{sub in} = 842.90-1467.93 kPa) and the exponentially increasing heat input (Q = Q{sub 0} exp(t/tau), tau = 8.5 s) are systematically measured by the experimental water loop comprised of a multistage canned-type circulation pump with high pump head. The SUS304 test tubes of inner diameters (d = 3 and 6 mm), heated lengths (L = 33 and 59.5 mm), effective lengths (L{sub eff} = 23.3 and 49.1 mm), L/d (=11 and 9.92), L{sub eff}/d (=7.77 and 8.18), and wall thickness (delta = 0.5 mm) with average surface roughness (Ra = 3.18 mum) are used in this work. The inner surface temperature and the heat flux from non-boiling to CHF are clarified. The subcooled boiling heat transfer for SUS304 test tube is compared with our Platinum test tube data and the values calculated by other workers' correlations for the subcooled boiling heat transfer. The influence of flow velocity on the subcooled boiling heat transfer and the CHF is investigated into details and the widely and precisely predictable correlation of the subcooled boiling heat transfer for turbulent flow of water in a short vertical SUS304-tube is given based on the experimental data. The correlation can describe the subcooled boiling heat transfer obtained in this work within 15% difference. Nucleate boiling surface superheats for the SUS304 test tube become very high. Those at the high flow velocity are close to the lower limit of Heterogeneous Spontaneous Nucleation Temperature. The dominant mechanisms of the flow boiling CHF in a short vertical SUS304-tube are discussed.

  12. Heterogeneous Catalysis: On Bathroom Mirrors and Boiling Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipse, Albert P.

    2011-01-01

    Though heterogeneous nucleation of liquid droplets on a smooth surface (such as a bathroom mirror) is a classical topic in nucleation theory, it is not well-known that this topic is actually a pedagogical example of heterogeneous catalysis: the one and only effect of the surface is to lower the activation Gibbs energy of droplet formation. In…

  13. Nucleate Pool Boiling Performance of Smooth and Finned Tube Bundles in R-113 and R-114/Oil Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    finned tube. Both investigators used oil concentrations in the range of zero to ten percent by mass. Henrici and Hesse (Ref. 11], on the other hand...showed that the surface tension of R-113/oil mixtures increases monotonically with increasing oil concentration. Henrici and Hesse (Ref. 11) determined...Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, September 1987. 606 11. Henrici , H. and Hesse, G., "Unteersuchunger uber den

  14. Fundamental study of FC-72 pool boiling surface temperature fluctuations and bubble behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Alison R.

    a bubble growing over the TFTC junction on both the sapphire and fused silica heater surfaces. When the fused silica heater produced a temperature drop of 1.4°C, the sapphire heater produced a drop of only 0.04°C under the same conditions. These results verified that the lack of temperature drops present in the sapphire data was due to the thermal properties of the sapphire layer. By observing the bubble departure frequency and site density on the heater, as well as the bubble departure diameter, the contribution of nucleate boiling to the overall heat removal from the surface could be calculated. These results showed that bubble vapor generation contributed to approximately 10% at 1 W/cm2, 23% at 1.75 W/cm2, and 35% at 2.9 W/cm 2 of the heat removed from a fused silica heater. Bubble growth and contact ring growth were observed and measured from images obtained with the high-speed camera. Bubble data recorded on a fused silica heater at 3 W/cm2, 4 W/cm2, and 5 W/cm 2 showed that bubble departure diameter and lifetime were negligibly affected by the increase in heat flux. Bubble and contact ring growth rates demonstrated significant differences when compared on the fused silica and sapphire heaters at 3 W/cm2. The bubble departure diameters were smaller, the bubble lifetimes were longer, and the bubble departure frequency was larger on the sapphire heater, while microlayer evaporation was faster on the fused silica heater. Additional considerations revealed that these differences may be due to surface conditions as well as differing thermal properties. Nucleate boiling curves were recorded on the fused silica and sapphire heaters by adjusting the heat flux input and monitoring the local surface temperature with the TFTCs. The resulting curves showed a temperature drop at the onset of nucleate boiling due to the increase in heat transfer coefficient associated with bubble nucleation. One of the TFTC locations on the sapphire heater frequently experienced a second

  15. A simple model of burst nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronov, Alexandr; Bufkin, Kevin; Shaw, Dan W; Johnson, Brad L; Patrick, David L

    2015-08-28

    We introduce a comprehensive quantitative treatment for burst nucleation (BN)-a kinetic pathway toward self-assembly or crystallization defined by an extended post-supersaturation induction period, followed by a burst of nucleation, and finally the growth of existing stable assemblages absent the formation of new ones-based on a hybrid mean field rate equation model incorporating thermodynamic treatment of the saturated solvent from classical nucleation theory. A key element is the inclusion of a concentration-dependent critical nucleus size, determined self-consistently along with the subcritical cluster population density. The model is applied to an example experimental study of crystallization in tetracene films prepared by organic vapor-liquid-solid deposition, where good agreement is observed with several aspects of the experiment using a single, physically well-defined adjustable parameter. The model predicts many important features of the experiment, and can be generalized to describe other self-organizing systems exhibiting BN kinetics.

  16. ON THE PRECISION OF THE NUCLEATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier González-Villa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The nucleator is a design unbiased method of local stereology for estimating the volume of a bounded object. The only information required lies in the intersection of the object with an isotropic random ray emanating from a fixed point (called the pivotal point associated with the object. For instance, the volume of a neuron can be estimated from a random ray emanating from its nucleolus. The nucleator is extensively used in biosciences because it is efficient and easy to apply. The estimator variance can be reduced by increasing the number of rays. In an earlier paper a systematic sampling design was proposed, and theoretical variance predictors were derived, for the corresponding volume estimator. Being the only variance predictors hitherto available for the nucleator, our basic goal was to check their statistical performance by means of Monte Carlo resampling on computer reconstructions of real objects. As a plus, the empirical distribution of the volume estimator revealed statistical properties of practical relevance.

  17. Study of film boiling collapse behavior during vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masahiro; Yamano, Norihiro; Sugimoto, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi

    1996-06-01

    Possible large scale vapor explosions are safety concern in nuclear power plants during severe accident. In order to identify the occurrence of the vapor explosion and to estimate the magnitude of the induced pressure pulse, it is necessary to investigate the triggering condition for the vapor explosion. As a first step of this study, scooping analysis was conducted with a simulation code based on thermal detonation model. It was found that the pressure at the collapse of film boiling much affects the trigger condition of vapor explosion. Based on this analytical results, basic experiments were conducted to clarify the collapse conditions of film boiling on a high temperature solid ball surface. Film boiling condition was established by flooding water onto a high temperature stainless steel ball heated by a high frequency induction heater. After the film boiling was established, the pressure pulse generated by a shock tube was applied to collapse the steam film on the ball surface. As the experimental boundary conditions, materials and size of the balls, magnitude of pressure pulse and initial temperature of the carbon and stainless steel balls were varied. The transients of pressure and surface temperature were measured. It was found that the surface temperature on the balls sharply decreased when the pressure wave passed through the film on balls. Based on the surface temperature behavior, the film boiling collapse pattern was found to be categorized into several types. Especially, the pattern for stainless steel ball was categorized into three types; no collapse, collapse and reestablishment after collapse. It was thus clarified that the film boiling collapse behavior was identified by initial conditions and that the pressure required to collapse film boiling strongly depended on the initial surface temperature. The present results will provide a useful information for the analysis of vapor explosions based on the thermal detonation model. (J.P.N.)

  18. Earthquake nucleation scaling from laboratory to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Stefan; Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Harbord, Chris; Latour, Soumaya; Carpenter, Brett; De Paola, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Migrating foreshock sequences along major plate boundaries and geodetic transient anomalies have been interpreted as indicators of aseismic creep for days to months prior to the initiation of earthquakes. In other cases no significant precursory activity is detected, even at well-instrumented sites, suggesting an abrupt rupture initiation. Both the nucleation size (e.g. Rice and Ruina's hRR∗ or Andrew's Lc) or its duration can be highly variable. Here we analyse the scaling of nucleation and the controls on stick-slip instability based on a review of recent laboratory experimental results. (1) Rupture propagation experiments on smooth model faults show a two-phase nucleation process with variable size and duration depending on loading rate, normal stress and frictional parameters. These results can be reproduced by numerical models incorporating rate-and-state friction laws, and can be up-scaled to simulate the nucleation process of crustal earthquakes. We used frictional properties from samples of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) to model the nucleation phase for magnitude˜2 repeating earthquakes at a 2.8-km depth. We predict that the nucleation could be detectable a few hours before the earthquake by strain measurements in the existing borehole. (2) An alternative set of experiments on rough model faults, instead, shows that initiation of rupture is primarily controlled by the size and the amount of heterogeneity induced by the fault topography and its interplay with the normal stress. In this case the onset of stick-slip is not predicted by the stability analysis within the rate-and-state framework, but rather by energy considerations more akin to Griffith's criterion in the presence of flaws. Although these two sets of experimental observations and their modelling are difficult to reconcile, they may be representative end members of earthquake faults with different degrees of heterogeneity.

  19. A unified kinetic approach to binary nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Physics, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road]|[E.O.H.S.I., Rutgers University]|[UMDNJ, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States); Lazaridis, M. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Instittutvein 18, P. O. Box 100, N-2007 Kjeller (Norway); Drossinos, Y. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Georgopoulos, P.G. [E.O.H.S.I., Rutgers University]|[UMDNJ, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Two different methods to calculate the steady-state nucleation rate in heteromolecular systems proposed by Stauffer (1976) and Langer (1969) are analyzed. Their mathematical equivalence is explicitly demonstrated, thereby obtaining a generic expression for the rate of binary nucleation. Its numerical evaluation does not entail rotation of the coordinate system at the saddle point, but it only requires data in the natural coordinate system of number fluctuations, namely molecular impingement rates, the droplet free energy and its second order derivatives at the saddle point, and the total density of condensible vapors. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Effect of Air Injection on Nucleation Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capellades Mendez, Gerard; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    From disruption of the supersaturated solution to improved mass transfer in the crystallizing suspension, the introduction of a moving gas phase in a crystallizer could lead to improved rates of nucleation and crystal growth. In this work, saturated air has been injected to batch crystallizers...... of the distributions were studied independently, allowing the simultaneous determination of the mean induction time and a certain detection delay related to the rate of crystal growth after formation of the first nucleus. When saturated air was injected in aqueous glycine solutions, the average detection delay...... of this technique for reduction in nucleation induction time and improved mass deposition rates in crystallization operations....

  1. Effects of Vapor Path Structures on Critical Heat Flux and Boiling Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Most of industry areas which have used the boiling heat transfer determine the safety margin of the power systems based on the CHF point. If the power density of the systems exceed the CHF region, the systems will be damaged because vapor films, which have much lower heat transfer capabilities, will cover the heating surface. Therefore, numerous studies related to the CHF prediction models have been extensively studied over the last 60 years, in terms of its physical mechanisms. Hydrodynamic instability, macrolayer dryout, hot/dry spot, and bubble interaction theories have been proposed as the CHF triggering and prediction models. One theory widely used to predict the CHF mechanism is hydrodynamic instability theory proposed by Zuber and modified hydrodynamic theories have been proposed and developed to analyze the CHF enhancement mechanisms. The paper concluded that the RT instability should consider the effect of heater characteristics to predict the CHF values more accurately. The CHF studies related to the hydrodynamic instabilities have been focused on finding the change of the RT instability wavelength and making a relation between the RT instability and KH instability wavelengths, but the effect of the critical height for the vapor path which can represent the KH instability wavelength has not been reported. Therefore, the effect of the critical height of the vapor path was examined using various types of intended vapor path with different heights of the structures. The effect of the vapor path with various heights of the structures was considered in the plate pool boiling facility to find the hydrodynamic instability mechanisms. The critical height of the intended vapor path was found when the height was less than 3 mm. The modified KH instability wavelength by considering numerical constant of the Zuber's prediction model predicted the critical height of the vapor path as the similar value of the experimental results. The results indicated that the

  2. Enhanced pool boiling critical heat flux induced by capillary wicking effect of a Cr-sputtered superhydrophilic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hong Hyun; Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In light of boiling heat transfer, the smooth surface potentially reduces active nucleation of bubbles and rewetting of dry spots near the critical heat flux (CHF). This kind of process is highly likely to deteriorate the CHF. Thus, it is essential to produce appropriate microstructures on the surface for the enhancement of the CHF. In this study, to investigate the microstructural effect of thin film-fabricated surfaces on the pool boiling CHF, we controlled the surface roughness in a narrow range of 0.1-0.25 μm and its morphologies, in the form of micro-scratches using PVD sputtering technique. Specifically for DC magnetron sputtering, pure chromium (Cr) was selected as a target material owing to its high oxidation resistance. In order to analyze the CHF trend with changes in roughness, we introduced existing capillary wicking-based models because superhydrophilic characteristics of microstructures are highly related to the capillary wicking behaviors in micro-flow channels. After Cr sputtering under given conditions, the Cr-sputtered surfaces showed superhydrophilic characteristics and its capability became more enhanced with an increase of surface roughness. Judging from spreading behavior of a liquid droplet, the presence of micro-wicking channels, coupled with Cr nanostructures, effectively enhanced the advancing rate of drop base diameter. The CHF exhibited an increasing trend with increasing surface roughness. However, the enhancement ratio agreed poorly with the predictions of the roughness factor-based models, all of which originated from a conventional static force balance.

  3. Gravity and Heater Size Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungho; Raj, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The current work is based on observations of boiling heat transfer over a continuous range of gravity levels between 0g to 1.8g and varying heater sizes with a fluorinert as the test liquid (FC-72/n-perfluorohexane). Variable gravity pool boiling heat transfer measurements over a wide range of gravity levels were made during parabolic flight campaigns as well as onboard the International Space Station. For large heaters and-or higher gravity conditions, buoyancy dominated boiling and heat transfer results were heater size independent. The power law coefficient for gravity in the heat transfer equation was found to be a function of wall temperature under these conditions. Under low gravity conditions and-or for smaller heaters, surface tension forces dominated and heat transfer results were heater size dependent. A pool boiling regime map differentiating buoyancy and surface tension dominated regimes was developed along with a unified framework that allowed for scaling of pool boiling over a wide range of gravity levels and heater sizes. The scaling laws developed in this study are expected to allow performance quantification of phase change based technologies under variable gravity environments eventually leading to their implementation in space based applications.

  4. Enhanced boiling heat transfer in horizontal test bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewin, R.R.; Jensen, M.K.; Bergles, A.E.

    1994-08-01

    Two-phase flow boiling from bundles of horizontal tubes with smooth and enhanced surfaces has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in pure refrigerant R-113, pure R-11, and mixtures of R-11 and R-113 of approximately 25, 50, and 75% of R-113 by mass. Tests were conducted in two staggered tube bundles consisting of fifteen rows and five columns laid out in equilateral triangular arrays with pitch-to-diameter ratios of 1.17 and 1.5. The enhanced surfaces tested included a knurled surface (Wolverine`s Turbo-B) and a porous surface (Linde`s High Flux). Pool boiling tests were conducted for each surface so that reference values of the heat transfer coefficient could be obtained. Boiling heat transfer experiments in the tube bundles were conducted at pressures of 2 and 6 bar, heat flux values from 5 to 80 kW/m{sup 2}s, and qualities from 0% to 80%, Values of the heat transfer coefficients for the enhanced surfaces were significantly larger than for the smooth tubes and were comparable to the values obtained in pool boiling. It was found that the performance of the enhanced tubes could be predicted using the pool boiling results. The degradation in the smooth tube heat transfer coefficients obtained in fluid mixtures was found to depend on the difference between the molar concentration in the liquid and vapor.

  5. An Enhanced VOF Method Coupled with Heat Transfer and Phase Change to Characterise Bubble Detachment in Saturated Pool Boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Georgoulas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present numerical investigation identifies quantitative effects of fundamental controlling parameters on the detachment characteristics of isolated bubbles in cases of pool boiling in the nucleate boiling regime. For this purpose, an improved Volume of Fluid (VOF approach, developed previously in the general framework of OpenFOAM Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD Toolbox, is further coupled with heat transfer and phase change. The predictions of the model are quantitatively verified against an existing analytical solution and experimental data in the literature. Following the model validation, four different series of parametric numerical experiments are performed, exploring the effect of the initial thermal boundary layer (ITBL thickness for the case of saturated pool boiling of R113 as well as the effects of the surface wettability, wall superheat and gravity level for the cases of R113, R22 and R134a refrigerants. It is confirmed that the ITBL is a very important parameter in the bubble growth and detachment process. Furthermore, for all of the examined working fluids the bubble detachment characteristics seem to be significantly affected by the triple-line contact angle (i.e., the wettability of the heated plate for equilibrium contact angles higher than 45°. As expected, the simulations revealed that the heated wall superheat is very influential on the bubble growth and detachment process. Finally, besides the novelty of the numerical approach, a last finding is the fact that the effect of the gravity level variation in the bubble detachment time and the volume diminishes with the increase of the ambient pressure.

  6. The rate of bubble growth in a superheated liquid in pool boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Mohammad Reza; Jafarian, Mehdi; Jamialahmadi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    A semi-empirical model for the estimation of the rate of bubble growth in nucleate pool boiling is presented, considering a new equation to estimate the temperature history of the bubble in the bulk of liquid. The conservation equations of energy, mass and momentum have been firstly derived and solved analytically. The present analytical model of the bubble growth predicts that the radius of the bubble grows as a function of √{t}.{\\operatorname{erf}}( N√{t}) , while so far the bubble growth rate has been mainly correlated to √{t} in the previous studies. In the next step, the analytical solutions were used to develop a new semi-empirical equation. To achieve this, firstly the analytical solution were non-dimensionalised and then the experimental data, available in the literature, were applied to tune the dimensionless coefficients appeared in the dimensionless equation. Finally, the reliability of the proposed semi-empirical model was assessed through comparison of the model predictions with the available experimental data in the literature, which were not applied in the tuning of the dimensionless parameters of the model. The comparison of the model predictions with other proposed models in the literature was also performed. These comparisons show that this model enables more accurate predictions than previously proposed models with a deviation of less than 10% in a wide range of operating conditions.

  7. Investigations on nucleation thermodynamical parameters of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 2. Investigations on nucleation thermodynamical parameters of NdBa2Cu3O7– (Nd123) crystallization by high temperature solution growth. D P Paul R Jayavel C Subramanian P Ramasamy. Materials Synthesis Volume 23 Issue 2 April 2000 pp 79-82 ...

  8. Investigations on nucleation thermodynamical parameters of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, India. ‡Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 1331, Bangladesh. Abstract. Investigations on nucleation thermodynamical parameters are very essential for the successful growth of good quality single crystals from high temperature solution.

  9. Temperature Dependence in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw R. L.; Winkler, P. M.; Wagner, P. E.

    2017-08-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation on stable (sub-2 nm) nuclei aids the formation of atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) by circumventing or reducing vapor pressure barriers that would otherwise limit condensation and new particle growth. Aerosol and cloud formation depend largely on the interaction between a condensing liquid and the nucleating site. A new paper published this year reports the first direct experimental determination of contact angles as well as contact line curvature and other geometric properties of a spherical cap nucleus at nanometer scale using measurements from the Vienna Size Analyzing Nucleus Counter (SANC) (Winkler et al., 2016). For water nucleating heterogeneously on silver oxide nanoparticles we find contact angles around 15 degrees compared to around 90 degrees for the macroscopically measured equilibrium angle for water on bulk silver. The small microscopic contact angles can be attributed via the generalized Young equation to a negative line tension that becomes increasingly dominant with increasing curvature of the contact line. These results enable a consistent theoretical description of heterogeneous nucleation and provide firm insight to the wetting of nanosized objects.

  10. Nucleation kinetics of emulsified triglyceride mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Walstra, P.; Vliet, T.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine characteristic nucleation parameters such as the surface free energy for nucleus formation in mixtures of fully hydrogenated palm oil (HP) in sunflower oil (SF). These parameters will be used to model the bulk crystallization kinetics of the same mixtures.

  11. NUCLEATION STUDIES OF GOLD ON CARBON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SOBRI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest has grown in developing non-toxic electrolytes for gold electrodeposition to replace the conventional cyanide-based bath for long term sustainability of gold electroplating. A solution containing thiosulphate and sulphite has been developed specially for microelectronics applications. However, at the end of the electrodeposition process, the spent electrolyte can contain a significant amount of gold in solution. This study has been initiated to investigate the feasibility of gold recovery from a spent thiosulphate-sulphite electrolyte. We have used flat-plate glassy carbon and graphite electrodes to study the mechanism of nucleation and crystal growth of gold deposition from the spent electrolyte. It was found that at the early stages of reduction process, the deposition of gold on glassy carbon exhibits an instantaneous nucleation of non-overlapping particles. At longer times, the particles begin to overlap and the deposition follows a classic progressive nucleation phenomenon. On the other hand, deposition of gold on graphite does not follow the classical nucleation phenomena.

  12. Surface nucleation in complex rheological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfurth, J.; Ulrich, J.

    2017-07-01

    Forced nucleation induced by suitable foreign seeds is an important tool to control the production of defined crystalline products. The quality of a surface provided by seed materials represents an important variable in the production of crystallizing layers that means for the nucleation process. Parameters like shape and surface structure, size and size distribution of the seed particles as well as the ability to hold up the moisture (the solvent), can have an influence on the nucleation process of different viscous supersaturated solutions. Here the properties of different starch powders as seeds obtained from corn, potato, rice, tapioca and wheat were tested. It could be found, that the best nucleation behavior of a sugar solution could be reached with the use of corn starch as seed material. Here the surface of the crystallized sugar layer is smooth, crystallization time is short (seed materials are therefore an edged, uneven surface, small particle sizes as well as low moisture content at ambient conditions within the seed materials.

  13. Transformation kinetics for surface and bulk nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Elena, E-mail: elena.villa@unimi.it [University of Milan, Department of Mathematics, via Saldini 50, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rios, Paulo R., E-mail: prrios@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Escola de Engenharia Industrial Metalurgica de Volta Redonda, Av. dos Trabalhadores 420, 27255-125 Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)] [RWTH Aachen University, Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    A rigorous mathematical approach based on the causal cone and stochastic geometry concepts is used to derive new exact expressions for transformation kinetics theory. General expressions for the mean volume density and the volume fraction are derived for both surface and bulk nucleation in a general Borel subset of R{sup 3}. In practice, probably any specimen shape of engineering interest is going to be a Borel set. An expression is also derived for the important case of polyhedral shape, in which surface nucleation may take place on the faces, edges and vertices of the polyhedron as well as within the bulk. Moreover, explicit expressions are given for surface and bulk nucleation for three specific shapes of engineering relevance: two parallel planes, an infinitely long cylinder and a sphere. Superposition is explained in detail and it permits the treatment of situations in which surface and bulk nucleation take place simultaneously. The new exact expressions presented here result in a significant increase in the number of exactly solvable cases available to formal kinetics.

  14. Cavitation nucleation in gelatin: Experiment and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wonmo; Adnan, Ashfaq; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas; Bagchi, Amit

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic cavitation in soft materials is becoming increasingly relevant due to emerging medical implications such as the potential of cavitation-induced brain injury or cavitation created by therapeutic medical devices. However, the current understanding of dynamic cavitation in soft materials is still very limited, mainly due to lack of robust experimental techniques. To experimentally characterize cavitation nucleation under dynamic loading, we utilize a recently developed experimental instrument, the integrated drop tower system. This technique allows quantitative measurements of the critical acceleration (a cr ) that corresponds to cavitation nucleation while concurrently visualizing time evolution of cavitation. Our experimental results reveal that a cr increases with increasing concentration of gelatin in pure water. Interestingly, we have observed the distinctive transition from a sharp increase (pure water to 1% gelatin) to a much slower rate of increase (∼10× slower) between 1% and 7.5% gelatin. Theoretical cavitation criterion predicts the general trend of increasing a cr , but fails to explain the transition rates. As a likely mechanism, we consider concentration-dependent material properties and non-spherical cavitation nucleation sites, represented by pre-existing bubbles in gels, due to possible interplay between gelatin molecules and nucleation sites. This analysis shows that cavitation nucleation is very sensitive to the initial configuration of a bubble, i.e., a non-spherical bubble can significantly increase a cr . This conclusion matches well with the experimentally observed liquid-to-gel transition in the critical acceleration for cavitation nucleation. From a medical standpoint, understanding dynamic cavitation within soft materials, i.e., tissues, is important as there are both potential injury implications (blast-induced cavitation within the brain) as well as treatments utilizing the phenomena (lithotripsy). In this regard, the main

  15. Boiling heat transfer on fins – experimental and numerical procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orzechowski T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research methodology, the test facility and the results of investigations into non-isothermal surfaces in water boiling at atmospheric pressure, together with a discussion of errors. The investigations were conducted for two aluminium samples with technically smooth surfaces and thickness of 4 mm and 10 mm, respectively. For the sample of lower thickness, on the basis of the surface temperature distribution measured with an infrared camera, the local heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient were determined and shown in the form of a boiling curve. For the thicker sample, for which 1-D model cannot be used, numerical calculations were conducted. They resulted in obtaining the values of the local heat flux on the surface the invisible to the infrared, camera i.e. on the side on which the boiling of the medium proceeds.

  16. Changes of enthalpy slope in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J.; Monne, Carlos [Universidad de Zaragoza-CPS, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica-Motores Termicos, Zaragoza (Spain); Pascau, Antonio [Universidad de Zaragoza-CPS, Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales y Fluidos-Mecanica de Fluidos, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-03-01

    Void fraction data in subcooled flow boiling of water at low pressure measured by General Electric in the 1960s are analyzed following the classical model of Griffith et al. (in Proceedings of ASME-AIChE heat transfer conference, 58-HT-19, 1958). In addition, a new proposal for analyzing one-dimensional steady flow boiling is used. This is based on the physical fact that if the two phases have different velocities, they cannot cover the same distance - the control volume length - in the same time. So a slight modification of the heat balance is suggested, i.e., the explicit inclusion of the vapor-liquid velocity ratio or slip ratio as scaling time factor between the phases, which is successfully checked against the data. Finally, the prediction of void fraction using correlations of the net rate of change of vapor enthalpy in the fully developed regime of subcooled flow boiling is explored. (orig.)

  17. Study on Boiling Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Micro-channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Namgyun [Inha Technical College, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Recently, efficient heat dissipation has become necessary because of the miniaturization of devices, and research on boiling on micro-channels has attracted attention. However, in the case of micro-channels, the friction coefficient and heat transfer characteristics are different from those in macro-channels. This leads to large errors in the micro scale results, when compared to correlations derived from the macro scale. In addition, due to the complexity of the mechanism, the boiling phenomenon in micro-channels cannot be approached only by experimental and theoretical methods. Therefore, numerical methods should be utilized as well, to supplement these methods. However, most numerical studies have been conducted on macro-channels. In this study, we applied the lattice Boltzmann method, proposed as an alternative numerical tool to simulate the boiling phenomenon in the micro-channel, and predicted the bubble growth process in the channel.

  18. Nucleation Pathways For Freezing Of Two Grades Of Zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Rulison, Aaron; Bayuzick, Robert; Hofmeister, William; Morton, Craig

    1996-01-01

    Report discusses classical nucleation theory of freezing and describes experimental study of nucleation mechanisms that predominate during freezing of spherical specimens of initially molten zirconium levitated electrostatically in vacuum.

  19. Critical Nucleation Length for Accelerating Frictional Slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldam, Michael; Weikamp, Marc; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2017-11-01

    The spontaneous nucleation of accelerating slip along slowly driven frictional interfaces is central to a broad range of geophysical, physical, and engineering systems, with particularly far-reaching implications for earthquake physics. A common approach to this problem associates nucleation with an instability of an expanding creep patch upon surpassing a critical length Lc. The critical nucleation length Lc is conventionally obtained from a spring-block linear stability analysis extended to interfaces separating elastically deformable bodies using model-dependent fracture mechanics estimates. We propose an alternative approach in which the critical nucleation length is obtained from a related linear stability analysis of homogeneous sliding along interfaces separating elastically deformable bodies. For elastically identical half-spaces and rate-and-state friction, the two approaches are shown to yield Lc that features the same scaling structure, but with substantially different numerical prefactors, resulting in a significantly larger Lc in our approach. The proposed approach is also shown to be naturally applicable to finite-size systems and bimaterial interfaces, for which various analytic results are derived. To quantitatively test the proposed approach, we performed inertial Finite-Element-Method calculations for a finite-size two-dimensional elastically deformable body in rate-and-state frictional contact with a rigid body under sideway loading. We show that the theoretically predicted Lc and its finite-size dependence are in reasonably good quantitative agreement with the full numerical solutions, lending support to the proposed approach. These results offer a theoretical framework for predicting rapid slip nucleation along frictional interfaces.

  20. Defluoridation of drinking water by boiling with brushite and calcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M J; Pearce, E I F

    2002-01-01

    Existing methods for defluoridating drinking water involve expensive high technology or are slow, inefficient and/or unhygienic. A new method is now suggested, encompassing brushite and calcite suspension followed by boiling. Our aim was to examine the efficiency of the method and the chemical reactions involved. Brushite, 0.3-0.5 g, and an equal weight of calcite were suspended in 1 litre water containing 5-20 ppm fluoride. The suspensions were boiled in an electric kettle, left to cool and the calcium salts to sediment. Solution ion concentrations were determined and sediments were examined by X-ray diffraction. In distilled water initially containing 5, 10 and 20 ppm fluoride the concentration was reduced to 0.06, 0.4 and 5.9 ppm, respectively. Using Aarhus tap water which contained 2.6 mmol/l calcium the final concentrations were 1.2, 2.5 and 7.7 ppm, respectively, and runs without calcite gave results similar to those with calcite. Without boiling the fluoride concentration remained unaltered, as did the brushite and calcite salts, despite occasional agitation by hand. All solutions were supersaturated with respect to fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite and close to saturation with respect to brushite. Boiling produced well-crystallised apatite and traces of calcite, while boiling of brushite alone left a poorly crystallised apatite. We conclude that boiling a brushite/calcite suspension rapidly converts the two salts to apatite which incorporates fluoride if present in solution, and that this process may be exploited to defluoridate drinking water. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Intensive cooling metallic bodies with low thermal conductivity in film boiling of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabirov, A. R.; Yagov, V. V.; Kanin, P. K.

    2017-10-01

    Film boiling regime occurs when temperature of solid surface exceeds the attainable limiting temperature of the cooling liquid. In unsteady conditions, this boiling regime has applications in safety systems of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) and in metal-processing. Nonsteady film boiling of subcooled water has unresolved issues relating to the conditions when low-intensive stable film boiling regime turns to a high intensive mode. The present paper considers the new experimental results on unsteady film boiling of ethanol over a wide range of subcoolings. On the basis of the experimental data, a hypothesis has been developed to explain appearance of the intensive heat transfer during film boiling.

  2. Hysteresis of boiling for different tunnel-pore surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszko Robert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of boiling hysteresis on structured surfaces covered with perforated foil is proposed. Hysteresis is an adverse phenomenon, preventing high heat flux systems from thermal stabilization, characterized by a boiling curve variation at an increase and decrease of heat flux density. Experimental data were discussed for three kinds of enhanced surfaces: tunnel structures (TS, narrow tunnel structures (NTS and mini-fins covered with the copper wire net (NTS-L. The experiments were carried out with water, R-123 and FC-72 at atmospheric pressure. A detailed analysis of the measurement results identified several cases of type I, II and III for TS, NTS and NTS-L surfaces.

  3. Heat Transfer in Boiling Dilute Emulsion with Strong Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburg, Eric Thomas

    Little attention has been given to the boiling of emulsions compared to that of boiling in pure liquids. The advantages of using emulsions as a heat transfer agent were first discovered in the 1970s and several interesting features have since been studied by few researchers. Early research focuses primarily on pool and flow boiling and looks to determine a mechanism by which the boiling process occurs. This thesis looks at the boiling of dilute emulsions in fluids with strong buoyant forces. The boiling of dilute emulsions presents many favorable characteristics that make it an ideal agent for heat transfer. High heat flux electronics, such as those seen in avionics equipment, produce high heat fluxes of 100 W/cm2 or more, but must be maintained at low temperatures. So far, research on single phase convection and flow boiling in small diameter channels have yet to provide an adequate solution. Emulsions allow the engineer to tailor the solution to the specific problem. The fluid can be customized to retain the high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of the continuous phase while enhancing the heat transfer coefficient through boiling of the dispersed phase component. Heat transfer experiments were carried out with FC-72 in water emulsions. FC-72 has a saturation temperature of 56 °C, far below that of water. The parameters were varied as follows: 0% ≤ epsilon ≤ 1% and 1.82 x 1012 ≤ RaH ≤ 4.42 x 1012. Surface temperatures along the heated surface reached temperature that were 20 °C in excess of the dispersed phase saturation temperature. An increase of ˜20% was seen in the average Nusselt numbers at the highest Rayleigh numbers. Holography was used to obtain images of individual and multiple FC-72 droplets in the boundary layer next to the heated surface. The droplet diameters ranged from 0.5 mm to 1.3 mm. The Magnus effect was observed when larger individual droplets were injected into the boundary layer, causing the droplets to be pushed

  4. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V

    2015-01-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  5. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2016-02-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  6. Flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of R-134a/R-290/R-600a mixture in a smooth horizontal tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Raja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on in-tube flow boiling heat transfer of R-134a/R-290/R-600a (91%/4.068%/4.932% by mass refrigerant mixture has been carried out in a varied heat flux condition using a tube-in-tube counter-flow test section. The boiling heat transfer coefficients at temperatures between -5 and 5°C for mass flow rates varying from 3 to 5 g/s were experimentally arrived. Acetone is used as hot fluid, which flows in the outer tube of diameter 28.57 mm, while the test fluid flows in the inner tube of diameter 9.52 mm. By regulating the acetone flow rate and its entry temperature, different heat flux conditions between 2 and 8 kW/m2 were maintained. The pressure of the refrigerant was maintained at 3.5, 4, and 5 bar. Flow pattern maps constructed for the considered operating conditions indicated that the flow was predominantly stratified and stratified wavy. The heat transfer coefficient was found to vary between 500 and 2200 W/m2K. The effect of nucleate boiling prevailing even at high vapor quality in a low mass and heat flux application is high-lighted. The comparison of experimental results with the familiar correlations showed that the correlations over predict the heat transfer coefficients of this mixture.

  7. Phase field model for the study of boiling; Modele de champ de phase pour l'etude de l'ebullition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyer, P

    2006-07-15

    This study concerns both the modeling and the numerical simulation of boiling flows. First we propose a review concerning nucleate boiling at high wall heat flux and focus more particularly on the current understanding of the boiling crisis. From this analysis we deduce a motivation for the numerical simulation of bubble growth dynamics. The main and remaining part of this study is then devoted to the development and analyze of a phase field model for the liquid-vapor flows with phase change. We propose a thermodynamic quasi-compressible formulation whose properties match the one required for the numerical study envisaged. The system of governing equations is a thermodynamically consistent regularization of the sharp interface model, that is the advantage of the di use interface models. We show that the thickness of the interface transition layer can be defined independently from the thermodynamic description of the bulk phases, a property that is numerically attractive. We derive the kinetic relation that allows to analyze the consequences of the phase field formulation on the model of the dissipative mechanisms. Finally we study the numerical resolution of the model with the help of simulations of phase transition in simple configurations as well as of isothermal bubble dynamics. (author)

  8. Mechanism of cube grain nucleation during recrystallization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The subject of cube texture nucleation i.e. cube grain nucleation, from the deformed state of aluminium and copper is of scientific curiosity with concurrent technological implications. There are essentially two models currently in dispute over the mechanism of cube grain nucleation i.e. the differential stored energy model ...

  9. Nucleation, Melting Behaviour and Mechanical Properties of Poly(L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    competitive with commercial thermoplastics. Usually, the most viable method of increasing the overall crystallization rate is to use a nucleating agent. Talc is often chosen as a nucleating agent for PLLA. It has been shown that talc nucleates the crystallization of polymers through an epitaxial mechanism6. Kolstad studied the ...

  10. Microcanonical molecular simulations of methane hydrate nucleation and growth: evidence that direct nucleation to sI hydrate is among the multiple nucleation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengcai; Walsh, Matthew R; Guo, Guang-Jun

    2015-04-14

    The results of six high-precision constant energy molecular dynamics (MD) simulations initiated from methane-water systems equilibrated at 80 MPa and 250 K indicate that methane hydrates can nucleate via multiple pathways. Five trajectories nucleate to an amorphous solid. One trajectory nucleates to a structure-I hydrate template with long-range order which spans the simulation box across periodic boundaries despite the presence of several defects. While experimental and simulation data for hydrate nucleation with different time- and length-scales suggest that there may exist multiple pathways for nucleation, including metastable intermediates and the direct formation of the globally-stable phase, this work provides the most compelling evidence that direct formation to the globally stable crystalline phase is one of the multiple pathways available for hydrate nucleation.

  11. Effect of Boiling on the Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of boiling on in vitro bioactivities potency of Balanites aegyptiaca L. Delile (desert date) aqueous extract, a juice used traditionally for cooking ready-to-eat millet flour paste. Methods: Desert date fruits (1.5 kg) were soaked in water (1:2, fruit: water) for 24 h and sieved. The extract was divided ...

  12. Investigation Status of Heat Exchange while Boiling Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Obukhov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of heat exchange investigations while boiling hydrocarbon fuel. The obtained data are within the limits of the S.S. Kutateladze dependence proposed in 1939. Heat exchange at non-stationary heat release has not been investigated. The data for hydrocarbon fuel with respect to critical density of heat flow are not available even for stationary conditions.

  13. Steam turbines with a low-boiling working agent

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, N.; Karasev, V.

    2010-01-01

    The subject of the article is the assembly of a steam-generator plant with a natural working agent. A method of calculation for steam turbines with a low-boiling working agent is offered, which accounts for the correlation between the adiabatic curve indication, pressure and temperature in the overheated vapor area.

  14. Electrochemical study of aluminum corrosion in boiling high purity water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draley, J. E.; Legault, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electrochemical study of aluminum corrosion in boiling high-purity water includes an equation relating current and electrochemical potential derived on the basis of a physical model of the corrosion process. The work involved an examination of the cathodic polarization behavior of 1100 aluminum during aqueous oxidation.

  15. Effects of Ixeris Chinensis (Thunb.) Nakai boiling water extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma are major diseases that affect the Taiwanese population. Therefore, the development of an alternative herbal medicine that can effectively treat these diseases is a research target. In this study, we tested Ixeris Chinensis (Thunb.) Nakai boiling ...

  16. Making Sense of Boiling Points and Melting Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 6. Making Sense of Boiling Points and Melting Points. S Prahlada Rao Shravan Sunkada. General Article Volume 12 Issue 6 June 2007 pp 43-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Making Sense of Boiling Points and Melting Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion and dispersion forces, collectively called non-covalent inter- actions. They are attractive at distances of ~1 nm. These interac- tions have energy comparable to thermal energy, k n. T and hence are disrupted easily. They affect the bulk properties like melting point, boiling point, viscosity, surface tension, chromatographic.

  18. Heat transfer research on enhanced heating surfaces in pool boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalawa, Wojciech; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.; Piasecka, Magdalena

    The paper focuses on the analysis of the enhanced surfaces in such applications as boiling heat transfer. The testing measurement module with enhanced heating surfaces was used for pool boiling research. Pool boiling experiments were conducted with distilled water at atmospheric pressure in the vessel using an enhanced sample as the bottom heating surface. The samples are soldered to a copper heating block of the round cross-section .They were placed: in the fluid (saturation temperature measurement), under the sample for temperature determination. A vessel made of four flat glass panes was used for visualization. The heated surfaces in contact with the fluid differed in roughness were smooth or enhanced. This paper analyzes the effects of the microstructured heated surface on the heat transfer coefficient. The results are presented as relationships between the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux and as boiling curves. The experimental data obtained for the two types of enhanced heated surfaces was compared with the results recorded for the smooth heated surface. The highest local values of the heat transfer coefficient were reported for the enhanced surfaces.

  19. EPA Statement on Flint Water Main Break, Boil Water Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLINT, MICH. -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is working closely with the City of Flint and Michigan Department of Environmental Quality on the recent water main break and boil order. After the water transmission line broke on Feb. 9, EPA coordi

  20. Effects of Fermentation, Boiling and Roasting on Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of processing methods such as fermentation, boiling and roasting on some micronutrients and antinutrient composition of jackfruit seed flour were evaluated. The mineral, vitamin and antinutrient composition of raw and processed jackfruit seed flours were determined using standard methods. Iron, calcium and ...

  1. Glycaemic Index Of Boiled Cocoyam And Stew | Alegbejo | Sahel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoyam can be processed in several ways. It contains digestible starch, protein and other valuable nutrients. Consumption of cocoyam is very high all over Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the glycaemic response of diabetic and healthy subjects to equal amounts of carbohydrate in the form of boiled ...

  2. How long does it take to boil an egg? Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buay, D [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Foong, S K [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Kiang, D [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Kuppan, L [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Centre for Research in Pedagogy and Practice, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Liew, V H [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

    2006-01-01

    How long does it take to boil an egg? Theoretical prediction, based on a simple adaptation of the solution to the exact thermal diffusion equation for a sphere, is consistent with experiments. The experimental data are also used to estimate an average value for the thermal diffusivity of an egg.

  3. Boiling process in oil coolers on porous elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genbach Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Holography and high-speed filming were used to reveal movements and deformations of the capillary and porous material, allowing to calculate thermo-hydraulic characteristics of boiling liquid in the porous structures. These porous structures work at the joint action of capillary and mass forces, which are generalised in the form of dependences used in the calculation for oil coolers in thermal power plants (TPP. Furthermore, the mechanism of the boiling process in porous structures in the field of mass forces is explained. The development process of water steam formation in the mesh porous structures working at joint action of gravitational and capillary forces is investigated. Certain regularities pertained to the internal characteristics of boiling in cells of porous structure are revealed, by means of a holographic interferometry and high-speed filming. Formulas for calculation of specific thermal streams through thermo-hydraulic characteristics of water steam formation in mesh structures are obtained, in relation to heat engineering of thermal power plants. This is the first calculation of heat flow through the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the boiling process in a reticulated porous structure obtained by a photo film and holographic observations.

  4. Effect of Different Soaking Time and Boiling on the Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of soaking time on the proximate composition and functional properties of sprouted sesame seed flour were investigated. Sesame seed samples were cleaned and pretreated by soaking in clean water for 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 h. One batch was sprouted for 36 h and another portion was sprouted and then boiled ...

  5. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.'' DATES...

  6. 76 FR 14437 - Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor Standard Design: GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Issuance of... GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) for the economic simplified boiling water reactor (ESBWR) standard...

  7. Nucleation in an ultra low ionisation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    In this work we have studied aerosol formation at ultra-low ionisation levels, using the existing deep underground science facility at Boulby mine, UK. At 1100 m depth, with a corresponding factor 106 reduction in cosmic ray muon flux, the Boulby facility is an ideal place to study the role of ions...... in aerosol nucleation. By exposing a controlled volume of air to varying levels of ionising radiation, and with the minimum ionisation level vastly reduced compared to normal surface laboratory conditions, we have provided both a validation of earlier studies of ion-induced nucleation and extended...... the measurements to ionisation levels approximately 3 order of magnitudes lower than any earlier study. Getting this close to zero ionisation allows us to distinguish between the neutral and charged contribution better than previously. The effect is explored over a range of sulphuric acid concentrations....

  8. Dislocation nucleation facilitated by atomic segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lianfeng; Yang, Chaoming; Lei, Yinkai; Zakharov, Dmitri; Wiezorek, Jörg M. K.; Su, Dong; Yin, Qiyue; Li, Jonathan; Liu, Zhenyu; Stach, Eric A.; Yang, Judith C.; Qi, Liang; Wang, Guofeng; Zhou, Guangwen

    2018-01-01

    Surface segregation--the enrichment of one element at the surface, relative to the bulk--is ubiquitous to multi-component materials. Using the example of a Cu-Au solid solution, we demonstrate that compositional variations induced by surface segregation are accompanied by misfit strain and the formation of dislocations in the subsurface region via a surface diffusion and trapping process. The resulting chemically ordered surface regions acts as an effective barrier that inhibits subsequent dislocation annihilation at free surfaces. Using dynamic, atomic-scale resolution electron microscopy observations and theory modelling, we show that the dislocations are highly active, and we delineate the specific atomic-scale mechanisms associated with their nucleation, glide, climb, and annihilation at elevated temperatures. These observations provide mechanistic detail of how dislocations nucleate and migrate at heterointerfaces in dissimilar-material systems.

  9. Buckyball Nucleation of HiPco Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation is to enhance nucleation of single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) in the HiPco process, selectively producing 10,10 tubes, something which until now has not been thought possible. This is accomplished by injecting C60, or a derivative of C60, solubilized in supercritical CO2 together with a transition metal carboneal cocatalyst into the HiPco reactor. This is a variant on the supercritical disclosure. C60 has never been used to nucleate carbon nanotubes in the gas phase. C60 itself may not have adequate solubility in supercritical CO2. However, fluorinated C60, e.g., C60F36, is easy to make cheaply and should have much enhanced solubility.

  10. Nucleation of {sup (4)}R brane universes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de FIsica, Escuela Superior de FIsica y Matematicas del IPN, Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rojas, EfraIn [Facultad de FIsica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, Sebastian Camacho 5, Xalapa, Veracruz, 91000 (Mexico)

    2004-09-07

    The creation of brane universes induced by a totally antisymmetric tensor living in a fixed background spacetime is presented, where a term involving the intrinsic curvature of the brane is considered. A canonical quantum mechanical approach employing the Wheeler-DeWitt equation is used. The probability nucleation for the brane is calculated by means of the corresponding instanton and the WKB approximation. Some cosmological implications from the model are presented.

  11. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenthal Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual

  12. Numerical Investigation of Microgravity Tank Pressure Rise Due to Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Sonya; Ibrahim, Mounir; Kartuzova, Olga; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control self-pressurization in cryogenic storage tanks is essential for NASAs long-term space exploration missions. Predictions of the tank pressure rise in Space are needed in order to inform the microgravity design and optimization process. Due to the fact that natural convection is very weak in microgravity, heat leaks into the tank can create superheated regions in the liquid. The superheated regions can instigate microgravity boiling, giving rise to pressure spikes during self-pressurization. In this work, a CFD model is developed to predict the magnitude and duration of the microgravity pressure spikes. The model uses the Schrage equation to calculate the mass transfer, with a different accommodation coefficient for evaporation at the interface, condensation at the interface, and boiling in the bulk liquid. The implicit VOF model was used to account for the moving interface, with bounded second order time discretization. Validation of the models predictions was carried out using microgravity data from the Tank Pressure Control Experiment, which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Mission STS-52. Although this experiment was meant to study pressurization and pressure control, it underwent boiling during several tests. The pressure rise predicted by the CFD model compared well with the experimental data. The ZBOT microgravity experiment is scheduled to fly on February 2016 aboard the ISS. The CFD model was also used to perform simulations for setting parametric limits for the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiments Test Matrix in an attempt to avoid boiling in the majority of the test runs that are aimed to study pressure increase rates during self-pressurization. *Supported in part by NASA ISS Physical Sciences Research Program, NASA HQ, USA

  13. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 degrees C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not

  14. Acoustic Effects in Classical Nucleation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J. K.; Su, C.-H.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of sound wave oscillations on the rate of nucleation in a parent phase can be calculated by expanding the free energy of formation of a nucleus of the second phase in powers of the acoustic pressure. Since the period of sound wave oscillation is much shorter than the time scale for nucleation, the acoustic effect can be calculated as a time average of the free energy of formation of the nucleus. The leading non-zero term in the time average of the free energy is proportional to the square of the acoustic pressure. The Young-Laplace equation for the surface tension of the nucleus can be used to link the time average of the square of the pressure in the parent phase to its time average in the nucleus of the second phase. Due to the surface tension, the pressure in the nuclear phase is higher than the pressure in the parent phase. The effect is to lower the free energy of formation of the nucleus and increase the rate of nucleation.

  15. Leipzig Ice Nucleation chamber Comparison (LINC): intercomparison of four online ice nucleation counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert-Kohn, Monika; Wex, Heike; Welti, André; Hartmann, Susan; Grawe, Sarah; Hellner, Lisa; Herenz, Paul; Atkinson, James D.; Stratmann, Frank; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2017-09-01

    Ice crystal formation in atmospheric clouds has a strong effect on precipitation, cloud lifetime, cloud radiative properties, and thus the global energy budget. Primary ice formation above 235 K is initiated by nucleation on seed aerosol particles called ice-nucleating particles (INPs). Instruments that measure the ice-nucleating potential of aerosol particles in the atmosphere need to be able to accurately quantify ambient INP concentrations. In the last decade several instruments have been developed to investigate the ice-nucleating properties of aerosol particles and to measure ambient INP concentrations. Therefore, there is a need for intercomparisons to ensure instrument differences are not interpreted as scientific findings.In this study, we intercompare the results from parallel measurements using four online ice nucleation chambers. Seven different aerosol types are tested including untreated and acid-treated mineral dusts (microcline, which is a K-feldspar, and kaolinite), as well as birch pollen washing waters. Experiments exploring heterogeneous ice nucleation above and below water saturation are performed to cover the whole range of atmospherically relevant thermodynamic conditions that can be investigated with the intercompared chambers. The Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS) and the Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber coupled to the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PIMCA-PINC) performed measurements in the immersion freezing mode. Additionally, two continuous-flow diffusion chambers (CFDCs) PINC and the Spectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN) are used to perform measurements below and just above water saturation, nominally presenting deposition nucleation and condensation freezing.The results of LACIS and PIMCA-PINC agree well over the whole range of measured frozen fractions (FFs) and temperature. In general PINC and SPIN compare well and the observed differences are explained by the ice crystal growth and different residence times in

  16. 77 FR 38339 - Dairyland Power Cooperative, La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Dairyland Power Cooperative, La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security Requirements 1.0 Background The La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR) is owned and was operated by the..., which utilized a forced-circulation, direct-cycle boiling water reactor as its heat source. The plant is...

  17. 77 FR 36014 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear...-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling- Water Reactors.'' This... testing features of emergency core cooling systems (ECCSs) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs). DATES...

  18. Inorganic Nanoparticle Nucleation on Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteleski, Adrian John

    The introduction of inorganic nanoparticles into organic materials enhances both the mechanical and chemical properties of the material. Metallic nanoparticles, like silver and gold, have been introduced into polymers for use as antimicrobial coatings or dielectric materials, respectively. The challenge in creating these materials currently is the difficulty to homogeneously disperse the particles throughout the polymer matrix. The uneven dispersion of nanoparticles can lead to less than optimal quality and undesired properties. By creating a polymer nanocomposite material with well-controlled size inorganic materials that are evenly dispersed throughout the polymer matrix; we can improve the materials performance and properties. The objective for this research is to use polymer networks for the in situ mineralization of silver and other metallic materials to create intricate inorganic structures. The work performed here studied the ability to nucleate silver nanoparticles using poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) as the templating agent. Ionic silver was chemically reduced by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of PAA. The effect of varying reactant concentrations of silver, NaBH 4, and PAA on particle size was studied. Reaction conditions in terms of varying temperature and pH levels of the reaction solution were monitored to observe the effect of silver nanoparticle size, shape, and concentration. By monitoring the UV spectra over time the reaction mechanism of the silver reduction process was determined to be an autocatalytic process: a period of slow, continuous nucleation followed by rapid, autocatalytic growth. The reaction kinetics for this autocatalytic process is also reported. PAA was crosslinked both chemically and physically to 3 biopolymers; ELP, an elastin like peptide, cotton fabrics, and calcium alginate hydrogels. Various compositions of PAA were physically crosslinked with calcium alginate gels to design an antimicrobial hydrogel for use in wound

  19. The ice nucleation activity of biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, H.; Pummer, B.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.

    2012-04-01

    Primary Biological Aerosol Particles (PBAPs), including bacteria, spores and pollen may be important for several atmospheric processes. Particularly, the ice nucleation caused by PBAPs is a topic of growing interest, since their impact on ice cloud formation and thus on radiative forcing, an important parameter in global climate is not yet fully understood. In laboratory model studies we investigated the ice nucleation activity of selected PBAPs. We studied the immersion mode freezing using water-oil emulsion, which we observed by optical microscopy. We particularly focused on pollen. We show that pollen of different species strongly differ in their ice nucleation behavior. The average freezing temperatures in laboratory experiments range from 240 K to 255 K. As the most efficient nuclei (silver birch, Scots pine and common juniper pollen) have a distribution area up to the Northern timberline, their ice nucleation activity might be a cryoprotective mechanism. For comparison the ice nucleation activity of Snomax, fungal spores, and mushrooms will be discussed as well. In the past, pollen have been rejected as important atmospheric IN, as they are not as abundant in the atmosphere as bacteria or mineral dust and are too heavy to reach higher altitudes. However, in our experiments (Pummer et al. 2011) it turned out that water, which had been in contact with pollen and then been separated from the bodies, nucleates as good as the pollen grains themselves. So the ice nuclei have to be easily-suspendable macromolecules (100-300 kDa) located on the pollen. Once extracted, they can be distributed further through the atmosphere than the heavy pollen grains and so augment the impact of pollen on ice cloud formation even in the upper troposphere. It is widely known, that material from the pollen, like allergens and sugars, can indeed leave the pollen body and be distributed independently. The most probable mechanism is the pollen grain bursting by rain, which releases

  20. Carbon dioxide and R410A flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop, and flow pattern in horizontal tubes at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Yong

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been seriously considered as an alternate refrigerant for HCFC and HFC fluids, due to the increasing interest of environmentally safe refrigerants in air-conditioning and refrigeration systems. In this study, CO2 flow boiling heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop are measured in macro-scale (6.1 and 3.5 mm) tubes at evaporation temperatures of -15 and -30°C. The measured results show that the nucleate boiling is a main heat transfer mechanism in the 6.1 mm tube and the contribution of convective boiling becomes greater with the decrease of tube diameters and the increase of mass fluxes. The surface roughness of the 6.1 and 3.5 mm tube are presented by SEM and AFM images and surface profiles, and it is shown that the rougher surface of the 6.1 mm tube can affect the flow boiling heat transfer. The CO2 heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop are measured in a mini-scale (0.89 mm) multi-ported tube at the evaporation temperature of -30°C. Also, R410A and R22 flow boiling heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop in a macro-scale (6.1 mm) tube were measured, and they are compared with CO2. This comparison presents that the CO2 flow boiling heat transfer coefficients are higher than R410A and R22 at low vapor qualities, and CO2 pressure drop is significantly lower than R410A and R22. This advantageous characteristic for CO2 could be explained by properties such as surface tension, reduced pressure, and the density ratio of liquid to vapor. The prediction of heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop was performed by general correlations and the calculation results are compared with measured values. Two-phase flow patterns were visualized for CO2 and R410A in the 6 and 3 mm glass tubes, and they are compared with the Weisman et al. and the Wojtan et al. flow pattern maps. The flow pattern maps can determine the flow patterns relatively well, except the transition from intermittent to annular flow.

  1. Development of a mechanistic model for forced convection subcooled boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Dillon R.

    The focus of this work is on the formulation, implementation, and testing of a mechanistic model of subcooled boiling. Subcooled boiling is the process of vapor generation on a heated wall when the bulk liquid temperature is still below saturation. This is part of a larger effort by the US DoE's CASL project to apply advanced computational tools to the simulation of light water reactors. To support this effort, the formulation of the dispersed field model is described and a complete model of interfacial forces is formulated. The model has been implemented in the NPHASE-CMFD computer code with a K-epsilon model of turbulence. The interfacial force models are built on extensive work by other authors, and include novel formulations of the turbulent dispersion and lift forces. The complete model of interfacial forces is compared to experiments for adiabatic bubbly flows, including both steady-state and unsteady conditions. The same model is then applied to a transient gas/liquid flow in a complex geometry of fuel channels in a sodium fast reactor. Building on the foundation of the interfacial force model, a mechanistic model of forced-convection subcooled boiling is proposed. This model uses the heat flux partitioning concept and accounts for condensation of bubbles attached to the wall. This allows the model to capture the enhanced heat transfer associated with boiling before the point of net generation of vapor, a phenomenon consistent with existing experimental observations. The model is compared to four different experiments encompassing flows of light water, heavy water, and R12 at different pressures, in cylindrical channels, an internally heated annulus, and a rectangular channel. The experimental data includes axial and radial profiles of both liquid temperature and vapor volume fraction, and the agreement can be considered quite good. The complete model is then applied to simulations of subcooled boiling in nuclear reactor subchannels consistent with the

  2. Partitioning of ice nucleating particles: Which modes matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, Luke; Hoose, Corinna

    2017-04-01

    Ice particles in clouds have a large impact on cloud lifetime, precipitation amount, and cloud radiative properties through the indirect aerosol effect. Thus, correctly modelling ice formation processes is important for simulations preformed on all spatial and temporal scales. Ice forms on aerosol particles through several different mechanisms, namely deposition nucleation, immersion freezing, and contact freezing. However there is conflicting evidence as to which mode dominates, and the relative importance of the three heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms, as well as homogeneous nucleation, remains an open question. The environmental conditions, and hence the cloud type, have a large impact on determining which nucleation mode dominates. In order to understand this, simulations were performed with the COSMO-LES model, utilising state of the art parameterisations to describe the different nucleation mechanisms for several semi-idealised cloud types commonly occurring over central Europe. The cloud types investigated include a semi-idealised, and an idealised convective cloud, an orographic cloud, and a stratiform cloud. Results show that immersion and contact freezing dominate at warmer temperatures, and under most conditions, deposition nucleation plays only a minor role. In clouds where sufficiently high levels of water vapour are present at colder temperatures, deposition nucleation can play a role, however in general homogeneous nucleation dominates at colder temperatures. Since contact nucleation depends on the environmental relative humidity, enhancements in this nucleation mode can be seen in areas of dry air entrainment. The results indicate that ice microphysical processes are somewhat sensitve to the environmental conditions and therefore the cloud type.

  3. Overview: Experimental studies of crystal nucleation: Metals and colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlach, Dieter M.; Palberg, Thomas; Klassen, Ina; Klein, Stefan; Kobold, Raphael

    2016-12-01

    Crystallization is one of the most important phase transformations of first order. In the case of metals and alloys, the liquid phase is the parent phase of materials production. The conditions of the crystallization process control the as-solidified material in its chemical and physical properties. Nucleation initiates the crystallization of a liquid. It selects the crystallographic phase, stable or meta-stable. Its detailed knowledge is therefore mandatory for the design of materials. We present techniques of containerless processing for nucleation studies of metals and alloys. Experimental results demonstrate the power of these methods not only for crystal nucleation of stable solids but in particular also for investigations of crystal nucleation of metastable solids at extreme undercooling. This concerns the physical nature of heterogeneous versus homogeneous nucleation and nucleation of phases nucleated under non-equilibrium conditions. The results are analyzed within classical nucleation theory that defines the activation energy of homogeneous nucleation in terms of the interfacial energy and the difference of Gibbs free energies of solid and liquid. The interfacial energy acts as barrier for the nucleation process. Its experimental determination is difficult in the case of metals. In the second part of this work we therefore explore the potential of colloidal suspensions as model systems for the crystallization process. The nucleation process of colloids is observed in situ by optical observation and ultra-small angle X-ray diffraction using high intensity synchrotron radiation. It allows an unambiguous discrimination of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation as well as the determination of the interfacial free energy of the solid-liquid interface. Our results are used to construct Turnbull plots of colloids, which are discussed in relation to Turnbull plots of metals and support the hypothesis that colloids are useful model systems to investigate crystal

  4. Atmospheric nucleation: highlights of the EUCAARI project and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. Kerminen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the project EUCAARI (European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions, atmospheric nucleation was studied by (i developing and testing new air ion and cluster spectrometers, (ii conducting homogeneous nucleation experiments for sulphate and organic systems in the laboratory, (iii investigating atmospheric nucleation mechanism under field conditions, and (iv applying new theoretical and modelling tools for data interpretation and development of parameterisations. The current paper provides a synthesis of the obtained results and identifies the remaining major knowledge gaps related to atmospheric nucleation. The most important technical achievement of the project was the development of new instruments for measuring sub-3 nm particle populations, along with the extensive application of these instruments in both the laboratory and the field. All the results obtained during EUCAARI indicate that sulphuric acid plays a central role in atmospheric nucleation. However, also vapours other than sulphuric acid are needed to explain the nucleation and the subsequent growth processes, at least in continental boundary layers. Candidate vapours in this respect are some organic compounds, ammonia, and especially amines. Both our field and laboratory data demonstrate that the nucleation rate scales to the first or second power of the nucleating vapour concentration(s. This agrees with the few earlier field observations, but is in stark contrast with classical thermodynamic nucleation theories. The average formation rates of 2-nm particles were found to vary by almost two orders of magnitude between the different EUCAARI sites, whereas the formation rates of charged 2-nm particles varied very little between the sites. Overall, our observations are indicative of frequent, yet moderate, ion-induced nucleation usually outweighed by much stronger neutral nucleation events in the continental lower troposphere. The most concrete

  5. Differences in ice nucleation behavior of arable and desert soil dust in deposition nucleation regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Romy; Vogel, Franziska; Möhler, Ottmar; Höhler, Kristina; Schiebel, Thea

    2017-04-01

    Soil dust from arid and semi-arid regions is one of the most abundant aerosol types in the atmosphere with emission rates of about 1600 Tg per year (Andreae et al. (2009)). Therewith, soil dust plays an important role for the atmospheric radiative transfer and also for the formation of clouds. Soil dust refers to dust sampled from agricultural used areas, to dust from bare soil as well as to dust from desert regions. By mass-spectrometric measurements of the chemical composition of ice residuals, mineral dust as component of soil dust was found to be the major heterogeneous ice nucleating particle (INP) type (e.g. Cziczo et al. (2013)), in particular in the upper troposphere. Also in laboratory studies the ice nucleation efficiency of the different soil dusts was investigated. It was shown that desert dusts (Ullrich et al. (2017)) as well as soil dusts from arable regions (O'Sullivan et al. (2014), Tobo et al. (2014)) are efficient INP. However, there is still a lack of data for ice nucleation on soil dusts for temperatures below about 220 K. With the AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber, we are able to characterize the ice nucleation efficiency for different aerosol types to temperatures down to 180 K and high ice supersaturations. In order to extend the already existing AIDA data base for deposition nucleation on desert dusts and agricultural soil dusts, new experiments were done in the upper tropospheric temperature regime. This contribution will show the results of the new experiments with desert dust in comparison to existing data for higher temperatures. The first data analysis confirms the temperature dependent trend of the ice nucleation activity as discussed and parameterized in a recent paper by Ullrich et al. (2017). Furthermore, the update and extension of the recently published parameterization of deposition nucleation for desert dust to lower temperatures will be discussed. The experiments with agricultural soil

  6. Radon depletion in xenon boil-off gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenner, S.; Cichon, D.; Lindemann, S.; Undagoitia, T.M.; Simgen, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    An important background in detectors using liquid xenon for rare event searches arises from the decays of radon and its daughters. We report for the first time a reduction of {sup 222}Rn in the gas phase above a liquid xenon reservoir. We show a reduction factor of >or similar 4 for the {sup 222}Rn concentration in boil-off xenon gas compared to the radon enriched liquid phase. A semiconductor-based α-detector and miniaturized proportional counters are used to detect the radon. As the radon depletion in the boil-off gas is understood as a single-stage distillation process, this result establishes the suitability of cryogenic distillation to separate radon from xenon down to the 10{sup -15} mol/mol level. (orig.)

  7. SELF-REGULATING BOILING-WATER NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, J.A.; Plawchan, J.D.

    1960-08-16

    A boiling-water reactor was designed which comprises a pressure vessel containing a mass of water, a reactor core submerged within the water, a reflector tank disposed within the reactor, the reflector tank being open at the top to the interior of the pressure vessel, and a surge tank connected to the reflector tank. In operation the reflector level changes as a function of the pressure witoin the reactor so that the reactivity of the reactor is automatically controlled.

  8. Nucleation of gold nanoparticle superclusters from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H; Cingarapu, S; Klabunde, K J; Chakrabarti, A; Sorensen, C M

    2009-03-06

    Measurements of the solubility curve of a quasi-monodisperse gold nanoparticle solution are given. Temperature quenches from the one-phase to the two-phase regime yielded superclusters of the nanoparticle solid phase with sizes that depended on the quench depth. Classical nucleation theory was used to describe these sizes using a value of the surface tension for the nanoparticle solid phase of 0.042 erg/cm2. This value is consistent with molecule size scaling of the surface tension. In total these results show that suspensions of nanoparticles act like molecular solutions.

  9. Ubiquity of biological ice nucleators in snowfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Brent C; Morris, Cindy E; Foreman, Christine M; Cai, Rongman; Sands, David C

    2008-02-29

    Despite the integral role of ice nucleators (IN) in atmospheric processes leading to precipitation, their sources and distributions have not been well established. We examined IN in snowfall from mid- and high-latitude locations and found that the most active were biological in origin. Of the IN larger than 0.2 micrometer that were active at temperatures warmer than -7 degrees C, 69 to 100% were biological, and a substantial fraction were bacteria. Our results indicate that the biosphere is a source of highly active IN and suggest that these biological particles may affect the precipitation cycle and/or their own precipitation during atmospheric transport.

  10. Nucleation of Ordered Phases in Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiuyuan; Lin, Ling; E, Weinan; Zhang, Pingwen; Shi, An-Chang

    2010-04-01

    Nucleation of various ordered phases in block copolymers is studied by examining the free-energy landscape within the self-consistent field theory. The minimum energy path (MEP) connecting two ordered phases is computed using a recently developed string method. The shape, size, and free-energy barrier of critical nuclei are obtained from the MEP, providing information about the emergence of a stable ordered phase from a metastable phase. In particular, structural evolution of embryonic gyroid nucleus is predicted to follow two possible MEPs, revealing an interesting transition pathway with an intermediate perforated layered structure.

  11. Solute Nucleation and Growth in Supercritical Fluid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Gregory T.; Wilemski, Gerald; Rawlins, W. Terry; Joshi, Prakash; Oakes, David B.; Durgin, William W.

    1996-01-01

    This research effort is directed toward two primary scientific objectives: (1) to determine the gravitational effect on the measurement of nucleation and growth rates near a critical point and (2) to investigate the nucleation process in supercritical fluids to aid in the evaluation and development of existing theoretical models and practical applications. A nucleation pulse method will be employed for this investigation using a rapid expansion to a supersaturated state that is maintained for approximately 1 ms followed by a rapid recompression to a less supersaturated state that effectively terminates nucleation while permitting growth to continue. Nucleation, which occurs during the initial supersaturated state, is decoupled from growth by producing rapid pressure changes. Thermodynamic analysis, condensation modeling, apparatus design, and optical diagnostic design necessary for the initiation of a theoretical and experimental investigation of naphthalene nucleation from supercritical CO2 have been completed.

  12. Pool Boiling Enhancement of R-123 Using Perforated Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nae-Hyun [Incheon Nat’l Univ., Incheon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, we investigate the pool boiling enhancement caused by perforated plates on top of a smooth surface. We conduct tests using R-123 at atmospheric pressure. It was shown that perforated plates significantly enhanced the pool boiling of the smooth surface. The reason may be attributed to the increased bubble contact area between the plates. The results showed that the enhancement ratio was dependent on the heat flux. At high heat flux, the enhancement ratio increased as the porosity increased. However, at low heat flux, the enhancement ratio decreased as the porosity increased. For the present investigation, the optimum configuration had a pore diameter of 2.0 mm, pore pitch of 2.5 mm×5.0 mm or 5.0 mm×5.0 mm, and a gap width of 0.5 mm, which yielded heat-transfer coefficients that are close to those of GEWA-T. The optimum porosity for R-123 was significantly larger than that of water or ethanol. The reason for this may be the large liquid-to-vapor density ratio along with the small latent heat of vaporization of R-123. The perforated plates yielded smaller boiling hysteresis compared with that of the smooth surface.

  13. Mixed calcium-magnesium pre-nucleation clusters enrich calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Verch, Andreas; Antonietti, Markus; Cölfen, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that magnesium and carbonate ions can form pre-nucleation clusters in analogy to calcium carbonate. If a mixed calcium and magnesium solution is brought in contact with carbonate ions, mixed pre-nucleation clusters form. The equilibrium constants for their formation are reported revealing that over the entire range of possible cation mixing ratios, calcium gets enriched over magnesium in the pre-nucleation clusters. This can explain high magnesium contents in amorphous calc...

  14. Microtubule nucleation by γ-tubulin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollman, Justin M; Merdes, Andreas; Mourey, Lionel; Agard, David A

    2011-10-12

    Microtubule nucleation is regulated by the γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC) and related γ-tubulin complexes, providing spatial and temporal control over the initiation of microtubule growth. Recent structural work has shed light on the mechanism of γTuRC-based microtubule nucleation, confirming the long-standing hypothesis that the γTuRC functions as a microtubule template. The first crystallographic analysis of a non-γ-tubulin γTuRC component (γ-tubulin complex protein 4 (GCP4)) has resulted in a new appreciation of the relationships among all γTuRC proteins, leading to a refined model of their organization and function. The structures have also suggested an unexpected mechanism for regulating γTuRC activity via conformational modulation of the complex component GCP3. New experiments on γTuRC localization extend these insights, suggesting a direct link between its attachment at specific cellular sites and its activation.

  15. Aerosol droplets: Nucleation dynamics and photokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorell, Ruth

    This talk addresses two fundamental aerosol processes that play a pivotal role in atmospheric processes: The formation dynamics of aerosol particles from neutral gas phase precursors and photochemical reactions in small aerosol droplets induced by ultraviolet and visible light. Nucleation is the rate determining step of aerosol particle formation. The idea behind nucleation is that supersaturation of a gas leads to the formation of a critical cluster, which quickly grows into larger aerosol particles. We discuss an experiment for studying the size and chemical composition of critical clusters at the molecular level. Much of the chemistry happening in planetary atmospheres is driven by sunlight. Photochemical reactions in small aerosol particles play a peculiar role in this context. Sunlight is strongly focused inside these particles which leads to a natural increase in the rates of photochemical reactions in small particles compared with the bulk. This ubiquitous phenomenon has been recognised but so far escaped direct observation and quantification. The development of a new experimental setup has finally made it possible to directly observe this nanofocusing effect in droplet photokinetics. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) and ETH Zurich.

  16. Thermodynamics of ice nucleation in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Shui; Xu, Qinzhi; Mi, Jianguo

    2015-01-29

    We present a density functional theory approach to investigate the thermodynamics of ice nucleation in supercooled water. Within the theoretical framework, the free-energy functional is constructed by the direct correlation function of oxygen-oxygen of the equilibrium water, and the function is derived from the reference interaction site model in consideration of the interactions of hydrogen-hydrogen, hydrogen-oxygen, and oxygen-oxygen. The equilibrium properties, including vapor-liquid and liquid-solid phase equilibria, local structure of hexagonal ice crystal, and interfacial structure and tension of water-ice are calculated in advance to examine the basis for the theory. The predicted phase equilibria and the water-ice surface tension are in good agreement with the experimental data. In particular, the critical nucleus radius and free-energy barrier during ice nucleation are predicted. The critical radius is similar to the simulation value, suggesting that the current theoretical approach is suitable in describing the thermodynamic properties of ice crystallization.

  17. Wall Area of Influence and Growing Wall Heat Transfer due to Sliding Bubbles in Subcooled Boiling Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Junsoo; Estrada-Perez, Carlos E.; Hassan, Yassin A.

    2016-04-01

    A variety of dynamical features of sliding bubbles and their impact on wall heat transfer were observed at subcooled flow boiling conditions in a vertical square test channel. Among the wide range of parameters observed, we particularly focus in this paper on (i) the sliding bubbles’ effect on wall heat transfer (supplemantry discussion to the authors’ previous work in Yoo et al. (2016a,b)) and (ii) the wall area influenced by sliding bubbles in subcooled boiling flow. At first, this study reveals that the degree of wall heat transfer improvement due to sliding bubbles depended less on the wall superheat condition as the mass flux increased. Also, the sliding bubble trajectory was found to be one of the critical factors in order to properly describe the wall heat transfer associated with sliding bubbles. In particular, the wall area influenced by sliding bubbles depended strongly on both sliding bubble trajectory and sliding bubble size; the sliding bubble trajectory was also observed to be closely related to the sliding bubble size. Importantly, these results indicate the limitation of current approach in CFD analyses especially for the wall area of bubble influence. In addition, the analyses on the temporal fraction of bubbles’ residence (FR) along the heated wall show that the sliding bubbles typically travel through narrow path with high frequency while the opposite was observed downstream. That is, both FR and sliding bubble trajectory depended substantially on the distance from nucleation site, which is expected to be similar for the quenching heat transfer mode induced by sliding bubbles.

  18. Development of Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment on the International Space Station- Normal and Low Gravity Flow Boiling Experiment Development and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Hall, Nancy R.; Hasan, Mohammad M.; Wagner, James D.; May, Rochelle L.; Mackey, Jeffrey R.; Kolacz, John S.; Butcher, Robert L.; Frankenfield, Bruce J.; Mudawar, Issam; hide

    2013-01-01

    Flow boiling and condensation have been identified as two key mechanisms for heat transport that are vital for achieving weight and volume reduction as well as performance enhancement in future space systems. Since inertia driven flows are demanding on power usage, lower flows are desirable. However, in microgravity, lower flows are dominated by forces other than inertia (like the capillary force). It is of paramount interest to investigate limits of low flows beyond which the flow is inertial enough to be gravity independent. One of the objectives of the Flow Boiling and Condensation Flight Experiment sets to investigate these limits for flow boiling and condensation. A two-phase flow loop consisting of a Flow Boiling Module and two Condensation Modules has been developed to experimentally study flow boiling condensation heat transfer in the reduced gravity environment provided by the reduced gravity platform. This effort supports the development of a flow boiling and condensation facility for the International Space Station (ISS). The closed loop test facility is designed to deliver the test fluid, FC-72 to the inlet of any one of the test modules at specified thermodynamic and flow conditions. The zero-g-aircraft tests will provide subcooled and saturated flow boiling critical heat flux and flow condensation heat transfer data over wide range of flow velocities. Additionally, these tests will verify the performance of all gravity sensitive components, such as evaporator, condenser and accumulator associated with the two-phase flow loop. We will present in this paper the breadboard development and testing results which consist of detailed performance evaluation of the heater and condenser combination in reduced and normal gravity. We will also present the design of the reduced gravity aircraft rack and the results of the ground flow boiling heat transfer testing performed with the Flow Boiling Module that is designed to investigate flow boiling heat transfer and

  19. Nucleation of domains under the influence of temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the forward motion of the tips of the wedge-shaped domain as well as the lateral motion of the domain walls. However, there is no fresh nucleation of the domains. Generally, the nucleation of domain does not take place under the influence of temperature except under highly stressed conditions. However, in the ferroelectric.

  20. Epitaxial Nucleation on Rationally Designed Peptide Functionalized Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    tectonic ” nucleation and growth,24 and we apply our biomimetic interfacially confined peptide to explore this phenomenon at an addressable air...template functional hybrid materials. Figure 2. Tectonic hypothesis for nucleation and growth. 23 Figure 3. Objectives and progress. Progress in...greater number of smaller aggregates. Additional experiments were conducted with various salt concentrations in the subphase support the hypothesis

  1. Cohesive zone modelling of nucleation, growth and coalesce of cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Stigh, U.

    2017-01-01

    peaks-the first is associated with nucleation of cavities at a stress level conforming to predictions of void nucleation in rubber elasticity. The second stress peak is associated with fracture of stretched walls between fully-grown cavities. After this second peak, a macroscopic crack is formed...

  2. Bubble nucleation in an explosive micro-bubble actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, D.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    Explosive evaporation occurs when a thin layer of liquid reaches a temperature close to the critical temperature in a very short time. At these temperatures spontaneous nucleation takes place. The nucleated bubbles instantly coalesce forming a vapour film followed by rapid growth due to the pressure

  3. Aerosol nucleation in an ultra-low ion density environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Paling, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    sulfuric acid–water clusters over a range of sulfuric acid concentrations although neutral nucleation mechanisms remain evident at low ionization levels. The effect of ions is found both to enhance the nucleation rate of stable clusters and the initial growth rate. The effects of possible contaminations...

  4. An analysis of dislocation nucleation near a free surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yufu; Van der Giessen, Erik; Needleman, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics analyses of defect-free aluminum single crystals subject to bending are carried out to investigate dislocation nucleation from free surfaces. A principal aim of the analyses is to provide background for the development of dislocation nucleation criteria for use in discrete

  5. New Ion-Nucleation Mechanism Relevant for the Earth's Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Svensmark, Henrik; Marsh, N.D.

    Nucleation in the presence of ions has been studied experimentally under conditions that prevail in the lower atmosphere. In order to observe the properties of nucleation processes below 3 nm, which cannot be detected using standard techniques for measuring atmospheric aerosol, the sub 3 nm...

  6. Limitations of a Fokker-Planck description of nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832049; Barkema, G.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101275080

    2010-01-01

    In most nucleation theories, the dynamics of nucleation is characterized by the evolution in time of the mass of droplets, and this time evolution is described as a combination of drift and diffusion. This assumes that the mass fluctations are described by a Markovian, i.e., memoryless, stochastic

  7. Nucleation of superconductivity under rapid cycling of an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Malay

    2008-10-01

    The effect of an externally applied high-frequency oscillating electric field on the critical nucleation field of superconductivity in the bulk as well as at the surface of a superconductor is investigated in detail in this work. Starting from the linearized time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDLG) theory, and using the variational principle, I have shown the analogy between a quantum harmonic oscillator with that of the nucleation of superconductivity in the bulk and a quantum double oscillator with that of the nucleation at the surface of a finite sample. The effective Hamiltonian approach of Cook et al (1985 Phys. Rev. A 31 564) is employed to incorporate the effect of an externally applied highly oscillating electric field. The critical nucleation field ratio is also calculated from the ground state energy method. The results obtained from these two approximate theories agree very well with the exact results for the case of an undriven system, which establishes the validity of these two approximate theories. It is observed that the highly oscillating electric field actually increases the bulk critical nucleation field (Hc2) as well as the surface critical nucleation field (Hc3) of superconductivity as compared to the case of absent electric field (ɛ0 = 0). But the externally applied rapidly oscillating electric field accentuates the surface critical nucleation field more than the bulk critical nucleation field, i.e. the increase of Hc3 is 1.6592 times larger than that of Hc2.

  8. Nucleation and growth of polycrystalline SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, M.; Schimmel, S.; Jokubavicius, V.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleation and bulk growth of polycrystalline SiC in a 2 inch PVT setup using isostatic and pyrolytic graphite as substrates was studied. Textured nucleation occurs under near-thermal equilibrium conditions at the initial growth stage with hexagonal platelet shaped crystallites of 4H, 6H and ...

  9. Local structure of liquid carbon controls diamond nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiringhelli, L.M.; Valeriani, C.; Meijer, E.J.; Frenkel, D.

    2009-01-01

    Diamonds melt at temperatures above 4000 K. There are no measurements of the steady-state rate of the reverse process: diamond nucleation from the melt, because experiments are difficult at these extreme temperatures and pressures. Using numerical simulations, we estimate the diamond nucleation rate

  10. Calcium Carbonate Nucleation Investigated in a Double Pulse Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, B.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; Otto, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    The nucleation rate is essential in a number of research fields in order to control crystal formation. The purpose of this study is to test and optimize the double pulse procedure as a method to investigate nucleation of calcium carbonate. The induction time, interpreted as time of formation of

  11. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    2011-01-01

    -effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions that resemble the Earth's atmosphere. By comparison with ionization using a gamma source we further show that the nature of the ionizing particles is not important for the ion-induced component of the nucleation. This implies that inexpensive...

  12. Preparation and nucleation of spherical metallic droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-ge Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and solidification of metallic droplets attract more and more attention for their significance in both engineering and scientific fields. In this paper, the preparation and characterization of Sn-based alloy droplets using different methods such as atomization and consumable electrode direct current arc (CDCA technique are reviewed. The morphology and structure of these droplets were determined by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The solidification behavior of single droplet was systematically studied by means of scanning calorimetry (DSC, and the nucleation kinetics was also calculated. In particular, the development of fast scanning calorimetry (FSC made it possible to investigate the evolution of undercooling under ultrafast but controllable heating and cooling conditions. The combination of CDCA technique and FSC measurements opens up a new door for quantitative studies on droplet solidification, which is accessible to demonstrate some theories by experiments.

  13. Nucleation in an ultra low ionization environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Paling, Sean

    Atmospheric ions can enhance the nucleation of aerosols, as has been established by experiments, observation, and theory. In the clean marine atmosphere ionization is mainly caused by cosmic rays which in turn are controlled by the activity of the Sun, thus providing a potential link between solar...... Laboratory, located 1100 meters below ground, thus reducing the flux of ionizing cosmic radiation by six orders of magnitude. Similarly we have reduced the gamma background by shielding the experiment in lead and copper. Finally we have used air stored for several weeks and passed through an active charcoal...... at near atmospheric conditions. The chamber contains clean air with the addition of water vapour, ozone, and SO2. Using UV lights at 254 nm ozone is photolyzed, leading to the production of sulphuric acid and thus aerosols. An 18 MBq Caesium-137 gamma ray source with various amounts of lead in front...

  14. Trapping crystal nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.; Kjær, K.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline nucleation of cholesterol at the air-water interface has been studied via grazing incidence x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The various stages of cholesterol molecular assembly from monolayer to three bilayers incorporating interleaving hydrogen-bonded water layers...... in a monoclinic cholesterol . H2O phase, has been monitored and their structures characterized to near atomic resolution. Crystallographic evidence is presented that this multilayer phase is similar to that of a reported metastable cholesterol phase of undetermined structure obtained from bile before...... transformation to the triclinic phase of cholesterol . H2O, the thermodynamically stable macroscopic form. According to grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements and crystallographic data, a transformation from the monoclinic film structure to a multilayer of the stable monohydrate phase involves...

  15. Propane hydrate nucleation: Experimental investigation and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In this work the nucleation kinetics of propane gas hydrate has been investigated experimentally using a stirred batch reactor. The experiments have been performed isothermally recording the pressure as a function of time. Experiments were conducted at different stirring rates, but in the same...... supersaturation region. The experiments showed that the gas dissolution rate rather than the induction time of propane hydrate is influenced by a change in agitation. This was especially valid at high stirring rates when the water surface was severely disturbed.Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP...... the presence of additives. In most cases reasonable agreement between the data and the model could be obtained. The results revealed that especially the effective surface energy between propane hydrate and water is likely to change when the stirring rate varies from very high to low. The prolongation...

  16. 'Dew nucleation' by hygroscopic particles on leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, J.; Hunsche, M.; Pariyar, S.

    2010-07-01

    Theoretical explanations of dew formation usually consider a pure, plain surface and do not include any contributions of hygroscopic material present on this surface. A significant amount of hygroscopic material, however, is present on most real leaves, due to accumulated deposited aerosols, salt exudations, leached ions, or agricultural sprays. Similarly to cloud nucleation, hygroscopic material on leaves leads to a significant reduction of saturation vapor pressure and enables 'dew nucleation', where the condensation of minute amounts of water is still too small to be visible without a microscope. This may happen at humidities far below saturation, dependent on the composition and deliquescence point of the particles; additionally plant transpiration often raises the humidity on the leaf surface. While the amounts of water involved are not significant in terms of the energy or water balance, the ecological consequences of such condensation mechanisms on leaves may be considerable. Highly concentrated but mobile solutions are formed by the deliquescence of hygroscopic particles, which may provide important nutrients for the plant. Their chemistry differs considerably from dilute solutions. When viewed by an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), oscillating humidity led to the expansion of salts even on hydrophobic leaf surfaces. This may lead to the ’hydraulic activation of stomata (HAS)’, a process leading to the extension of liquid water films into the plant and subsequent transport of liquid water and solutes on the stomatal pathway, a meanwhile well-proven contradiction to previous concepts. Apart from the nutritional aspects, hygroscopic substances on leaves will interact with plant water relations. Depending on the degree of stomatal activation, this may trigger useful hydraulic signaling or provoke deleterious wicking and reduced drought tolerance of the plant.

  17. Unraveling the pressure effect on nucleation processes of amyloidogenic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzielanek, Stefan; Zhai, Yong; Winter, Roland

    2010-06-21

    The influence of pressure on the nucleation rate of insulin under fibril-forming conditions was studied and subsequently analysed using classical nucleation theory. The aim was a better understanding and quantification of the influence of pressure on protein aggregation/fibrillation reactions. The application of pressure has a drastic accelerating effect on the nucleation and growth process of insulin fibrils. We show that this effect arises from a volume decrease upon nucleus formation, due to formation of a less hydrated and more compact transition state that can be quantified extending nucleation theory by a pressure-volume term. Conversely, the absolute values of the lag time and the critical size of the nucleus cannot be satisfactorily described by the classical nucleation theory, which might be due to the presence of secondary effects, such as parallel aggregation pathways or fragmentation processes.

  18. Nucleation of protein crystals in a wide continuous supersaturation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, A; Chayen, N; Saridakis, E; Nanev, Chr N

    2002-10-01

    By using a supersaturation gradient along a protein solution contained in a glass capillary tube, we modified the classical double pulse technique, thus substantially accelerating the procedure of measurement of nucleation parameters. Data for the number of crystal nuclei, n vs nucleation time, t, were obtained for hen-egg-white lysozyme, chosen as a model because of the availability of reliable solubility data in the literature. The stationary nucleation rate and the nucleation time lag have been measured. Quantitative data for the work required for nucleus formation (A(k) = 4.3 x 10 (-1)3 erg) and the size of the critical cluster (three molecules) were also obtained. Besides, it was observed that Ostwald ripening seems to play an important role for nucleation times longer than 150 min. Using the same technique, semi-quantitative investigations were performed with porcine pancreatic trypsin.

  19. Energetics of protein nucleation on rough polymeric surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Efrem; Curcio, Valerio; Di Profio, Gianluca; Fontananova, Enrica; Drioli, Enrico

    2010-11-04

    Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm of the two-dimensional Ising model is used to study the heterogeneous nucleation of protein crystals on rough polymeric surfaces. The theoretical findings are compared to those obtained from classical nucleation theory (CNT), and to experimental data from protein model hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) crystallized on poly(vinylidene fluoride) or PVDF, poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS and Hyflon homemade membranes. The reduction of the activation energy for the nucleation process on polymeric membranes, predicted to occur at increasing surface roughness, results in a nucleation kinetics that is many orders of magnitude faster than in homogeneous phase. In general, MC stochastic dynamics offers the unique opportunity to investigate the effects of collective molecular aggregation at site level on the nucleation rate and, consequently, allows to identify optimal morphological and structural properties of polymeric membranes for a fine control of the crystallization kinetics.

  20. DIRECT-CYCLE, BOILING-WATER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, J.M.; Fromm, L.W. Jr.; Kolba, V.M.

    1962-08-14

    A direct-cycle boiling-water nuclear reactor is described that employs a closed vessel and a plurality of fuel assemblies, each comprising an outer tube closed at its lower end, an inner tube, fuel rods in the space between the tubes and within the inner tube. A body of water lying within the pressure vessel and outside the fuel assemblies is converted to saturated steam, which enters each fuel assembly at the top and is converted to superheated steam in the fuel assembly while it is passing therethrough first downward through the space between the inner and outer tubes of the fuel assembly and then upward through the inner tube. (AEC)

  1. Droplet and bubble nucleation modeled by density gradient theory – cubic equation of state versus saft model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrubý Jan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study presents some preliminary results of the density gradient theory (GT combined with two different equations of state (EoS: the classical cubic equation by van der Waals and a recent approach based on the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT, namely its perturbed-chain (PC modification. The results showed that the cubic EoS predicted for a given surface tension the density profile with a noticeable defect. Bulk densities predicted by the cubic EoS differed as much as by 100 % from the reference data. On the other hand, the PC-SAFT EoS provided accurate results for density profile and both bulk densities in the large range of temperatures. It has been shown that PC-SAFT is a promising tool for accurate modeling of nucleation using the GT. Besides the basic case of a planar phase interface, the spherical interface was analyzed to model a critical cluster occurring either for nucleation of droplets (condensation or bubbles (boiling, cavitation. However, the general solution for the spherical interface will require some more attention due to its numerical difficulty.

  2. Nucleation rate analysis of methane hydrate from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhara, Daisuke; Barnes, Brian C; Suh, Donguk; Knott, Brandon C; Beckham, Gregg T; Yasuoka, Kenji; Wu, David T; Sum, Amadeu K

    2015-01-01

    Clathrate hydrates are solid crystalline structures most commonly formed from solutions that have nucleated to form a mixed solid composed of water and gas. Understanding the mechanism of clathrate hydrate nucleation is essential to grasp the fundamental chemistry of these complex structures and their applications. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is an ideal method to study nucleation at the molecular level because the size of the critical nucleus and formation rate occur on the nano scale. Various analysis methods for nucleation have been developed through MD to analyze nucleation. In particular, the mean first-passage time (MFPT) and survival probability (SP) methods have proven to be effective in procuring the nucleation rate and critical nucleus size for monatomic systems. This study assesses the MFPT and SP methods, previously used for monatomic systems, when applied to analyzing clathrate hydrate nucleation. Because clathrate hydrate nucleation is relatively difficult to observe in MD simulations (due to its high free energy barrier), these methods have yet to be applied to clathrate hydrate systems. In this study, we have analyzed the nucleation rate and critical nucleus size of methane hydrate using MFPT and SP methods from data generated by MD simulations at 255 K and 50 MPa. MFPT was modified for clathrate hydrate from the original version by adding the maximum likelihood estimate and growth effect term. The nucleation rates calculated by MFPT and SP methods are within 5%, and the critical nucleus size estimated by the MFPT method was 50% higher, than values obtained through other more rigorous but computationally expensive estimates. These methods can also be extended to the analysis of other clathrate hydrates.

  3. Probing methane hydrate nucleation through the forward flux sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuanfei; Li, Tianshu

    2014-11-26

    Understanding the nucleation of hydrate is the key to developing effective strategies for controlling methane hydrate formation. Here we present a computational study of methane hydrate nucleation, by combining the forward flux sampling (FFS) method and the coarse-grained water model mW. To facilitate the application of FFS in studying the formation of methane hydrate, we developed an effective order parameter λ on the basis of the topological analysis of the tetrahedral network. The order parameter capitalizes the signature of hydrate structure, i.e., polyhedral cages, and is capable of efficiently distinguishing hydrate from ice and liquid water while allowing the formation of different hydrate phases, i.e., sI, sII, and amorphous. Integration of the order parameter λ with FFS allows explicitly computing hydrate nucleation rates and obtaining an ensemble of nucleation trajectories under conditions where spontaneous hydrate nucleation becomes too slow to occur in direct simulation. The convergence of the obtained hydrate nucleation rate was found to depend crucially on the convergence of the spatial distribution for the spontaneously formed hydrate seeds obtained from the initial sampling of FFS. The validity of the approach is also verified by the agreement between the calculated nucleation rate and that inferred from the direct simulation. Analyzing the obtained large ensemble of hydrate nucleation trajectories, we show hydrate formation at 220 K and 500 bar is initiated by the nucleation events occurring in the vicinity of water-methane interface, and facilitated by a gradual transition from amorphous to crystalline structure. The latter provides the direct support to the proposed two-step nucleation mechanism of methane hydrate.

  4. Acoustic monitoring of sodium boiling in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor from autoregressive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Issa Cherif [Laboratoire d’Automatique, Génie Informatique et Signal (LAGIS UMR CNRS 8219), Université Lille 1, Sciences et technologies, Avenue Paul Langevin, BP 48, 59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq CEDEX (France); Bose, Tanmoy [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Pekpe, Komi Midzodzi, E-mail: midzodzi.pekpe@univ-lille1.fr [Laboratoire d’Automatique, Génie Informatique et Signal (LAGIS UMR CNRS 8219), Université Lille 1, Sciences et technologies, Avenue Paul Langevin, BP 48, 59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq CEDEX (France); Cassar, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire d’Automatique, Génie Informatique et Signal (LAGIS UMR CNRS 8219), Université Lille 1, Sciences et technologies, Avenue Paul Langevin, BP 48, 59651 Villeneuve d’Ascq CEDEX (France); Mohanty, A.R. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Paumel, Kévin [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The work deals with sodium boiling detection in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. • The authors choose to use acoustic data instead of thermal data. • The method is designed to not to be disturbed by the environment noises. • A real time boiling detection methods are proposed in the paper. - Abstract: This paper deals with acoustic monitoring of sodium boiling in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) based on auto regressive (AR) models which have low computational complexities. Some authors have used AR models for sodium boiling or sodium–water reaction detection. These works are based on the characterization of the difference between fault free condition and current functioning of the system. However, even in absence of faults, it is possible to observe a change in the AR models due to the change of operating mode of the LMFBR. This sets up the delicate problem of how to distinguish a change in operating mode in absence of faults and a change due to presence of faults. In this paper we propose a new approach for boiling detection based on the estimation of AR models on sliding windows. Afterwards, classification of the models into boiling or non-boiling models is made by comparing their coefficients by two statistical methods, multiple linear regression (LR) and support vectors machines (SVM). The proposed approach takes into account operating mode information in order to avoid false alarms. Experimental data include non-boiling background noise data collected from Phenix power plant (France) and provided by the CEA (Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives, France) and boiling condition data generated in laboratory. High boiling detection rates as well as low false alarms rates obtained on these experimental data show that the proposed method is efficient for boiling detection. Most importantly, it shows that the boiling phenomenon introduces a disturbance into the AR models that can be clearly detected.

  5. Numerical investigation of boiling heat transfer on hydrocarbon mixture refrigerant in vertical rectangular minichannel

    OpenAIRE

    Huixing Li; Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of boiling heat transfer for hydrocarbon mixture refrigerant in plate-fin heat exchanger which is used in the petrochemical industry field, a model was established on boiling heat transfer in vertical rectangular channel. The simulated results were compared with the experimental data from literature. The results show that the deviation between the simulated results and experimental data is within ±15%. Meanwhile, the characteristic of boiling heat t...

  6. Experimental Investigation of Coolant Boiling in a Half-Heated Circular Tube - Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wenhua [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Singh, Dileep [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); France, David M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Coolant subcooled boiling in the cylinder head regions of heavy-duty vehicle engines is unavoidable at high thermal loads due to high metal temperatures. However, theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of coolant subcooled flow boiling under these specific application conditions are generally lacking in the engineering literature. The objective of this project was to provide such much-needed information, including the coolant subcooled flow boiling characteristics and the corresponding heat transfer coefficients, through experimental investigations.

  7. The effect of boiling water on disinfection by-product exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, Stuart W; Wright, J Michael

    2005-03-01

    Chloraminated and chlorinated waters containing bromide were used to determine the impact of boiling on disinfection by-product (DBP) concentrations. No significant changes were detected in the concentrations of the dihalogenated haloacetic acids (DXAAs) (i.e., dichloro-, bromochloro-, dibromoacetic acid) upon boiling of chloraminated water, whereas the levels of the trihalogenated haloacetic acids (TXAAs) (i.e., trichloro- (TCAA), bromodichloro- (BDCAA), dibromochloroacetic acid (DBCAA)) decreased over time (e.g., 9-37% for TCAA). Increased DXAA concentrations (58-68%) were detected in the boiled chlorinated sample, which likely resulted from residual chlorine reacting with DXAA precursors. TCAA concentration was unchanged after boiling chlorinated water for 1 min, but a 30% reduction was observed after 5 min of boiling. BDCAA concentrations decreased 57% upon boiling for 1 min and were completely removed after 2 min of boiling, whereas DBCAA was removed after boiling chlorinated water for 1 min. Trihalomethane concentrations were reduced in both chloraminated (74-98%) and chlorinated (64-98%) water upon boiling. Boiling chloraminated water for 1 min reduced chloroform concentration by 75%. Chloroform was reduced by only 34% in chlorinated water after a 1 min boil, which indicates that simultaneous formation and volatilization of chloroform was occurring. Most of the remaining DBPs (e.g. haloketones, chloral hydrate, haloacetonitriles) were removed by at least 90% after 1 min of boiling in both samples. These data suggest that other mechanisms (e.g., hydrolysis) may have been responsible for removal of the non-volatile DBPs and further highlight the importance of examining individual species when estimating thermal effects on DBP concentrations.

  8. Assessment of CTF Boiling Transition and Critical Heat Flux Modeling Capabilities Using the OECD/NRC BFBT and PSBT Benchmark Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Avramova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC has prepared, organized, conducted, and summarized two international benchmarks based on the NUPEC data—the OECD/NRC Full-Size Fine-Mesh Bundle Test (BFBT Benchmark and the OECD/NRC PWR Sub-Channel and Bundle Test (PSBT Benchmark. The benchmarks’ activities have been conducted in cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency/Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD and the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety (JNES Organization. This paper presents an application of the joint Penn State University/Technical University of Madrid (UPM version of the well-known sub-channel code COBRA-TF (Coolant Boiling in Rod Array-Two Fluid, namely, CTF, to the steady state critical power and departure from nucleate boiling (DNB exercises of the OECD/NRC BFBT and PSBT benchmarks. The goal is two-fold: firstly, to assess these models and to examine their strengths and weaknesses; and secondly, to identify the areas for improvement.

  9. Flow boiling of refrigerant-oil mixtures; Transferts de chaleur dans un melange constitue de fluide frigorigene et d'huile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feidt, M.

    1999-10-13

    The phase out of chlorine containing refrigerants (CFC and HCFC) has led to the introduction of new refrigerants and lubricants to the market. The interest in using HFC fluids as working fluids to replace fluids harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer. The study presents the influence of synthetic oil (POE ISO 68) on flow boiling of refrigerants R134a (pure fluid) and R410A (R32/R125 50%/50%). Local and average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops have been measured for a smooth horizontal tube. The distribution of the heat transfer coefficient at the inner wall has been obtained from solving the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) and resulted in a local combination of nucleate and convective contributions to flow boiling. Local heat transfer coefficients have been averaged and displayed as a function of the vapour quality. For R134a: small amounts of oil (1% to 6%) in the liquid phase increased the heat transfer coefficient at low and intermediate vapour qualities (less than 0.60) compared to pure fluid. However a hugh reduction of the heat transfer has been observed at higher vapour qualities. For R410A : oil dramatically decreases the heat transfer coefficient compared to pure fluid. Pressure drops are also affected by small amounts of lubricant: an important increase has been noted for both fluids. Available design methods for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient (superposition, enhancement, asymptotic) badly predict the experimental results. Nevertheless a new design method accounting for flow patterns has shown good agreements. The influence of the lubricant on the heat transfer is discussed and a new proposition is made to calculate pressure drops. (author)

  10. Study of pool boiling of distilled water on SiO2 nanoparticle-coated wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryazhnikov, M. I.; Minakov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Experimental results of pool boiling of distilled water on bare nichrome wire and SiO2 nanoparticle-coated wire are presented. Nano-coated wires were obtained by first boiling them in SiO2-water nanofluid. The nanofluid was prepared based on distilled water and SiO2 nanoparticles. The average size of the nanoparticles was 100 nm. The volume concentration of particles was equal 2%. Boiling curves of distilled water were obtained on bare nichrome wire and SiO2 nanoparticles coated wire. The coating increased the critical heat flux during boiling of water.

  11. Corrosion Behavior of Amorphous Nickel-Valve Metal Alloys in Boiling Concentrated Nitric and Hydrochloric Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo, SHIMAMURA; Asahi, Kawashima; Katsuhiko, Asami; Koji, Hashimoto; Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.; The Research Institute for Iron, Steel and Other Metals

    1986-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of amorphous nickel-base alloys containing titanium, zirconium, niobium, tantalum and/or phosphorus in boiling 9 N HNO_3 solutions with and without Cr^ ion and in a boiling 6 N HCl solution was investigated. In boiling 9 N HNO_3 solutions alloys containing 20 at% or more tantalum were immune to corrosion, maintaining the metallic luster, and Ni-40~60Nb alloys showed low corrosion rates of the order of μm/year. In the boiling 6 N HCl solution only tantalum-containing all...

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Amorphous Nickel-Valve Metal Alloys in Boiling Concentrated Nitric and Hydrochloric Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Shimamura, Kazuo; Kawashima, Asahi; ASAMI, Katsuhiko; Hashimoto, Koji

    1986-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of amorphous nickel-base alloys containing titanium, zirconium, niobium, tantalum and/or phosphorus in boiling 9 N HNO_3 solutions with and without Cr^ ion and in a boiling 6 N HCl solution was investigated. In boiling 9 N HNO_3 solutions alloys containing 20 at% or more tantalum were immune to corrosion, maintaining the metallic luster, and Ni-40?60Nb alloys showed low corrosion rates of the order of μm/year. In the boiling 6 N HCl solution only tantalum-containing all...

  13. Development and Capabilities of ISS Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry; Hasan, Mohammad; Balasubramaniam, R.; Patania, Michelle; Hall, Nancy; Wagner, James; Mackey, Jeffrey; Frankenfield, Bruce; Hauser, Daniel; Harpster, George; hide

    2015-01-01

    An experimental facility to perform flow boiling and condensation experiments in long duration microgravity environment is being designed for operation on the International Space Station (ISS). This work describes the design of the subsystems of the FBCE including the Fluid subsystem modules, data acquisition, controls, and diagnostics. Subsystems and components are designed within the constraints of the ISS Fluid Integrated Rack in terms of power availability, cooling capability, mass and volume, and most importantly the safety requirements. In this work we present the results of ground-based performance testing of the FBCE subsystem modules and test module which consist of the two condensation modules and the flow boiling module. During this testing, we evaluated the pressure drop profile across different components of the fluid subsystem, heater performance, on-orbit degassing subsystem, heat loss from different modules and components, and performance of the test modules. These results will be used in the refinement of the flight system design and build-up of the FBCE which is manifested for flight in late 2017-early 2018.

  14. Boiling water neutronic reactor incorporating a process inherent safety design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1985-02-19

    A boiling-water reactor core is positioned within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel of a size which will hold a supply of coolant water sufficient to submerge and cool the reactor core by boiling for a period of at least one week after shutdown. Separate volumes of hot, clean (nonborated) water for cooling during normal operation and cool highly borated water for emergency cooling and reactor shutdown are separated by an insulated wall during normal reactor operation with contact between the two water volumes being maintained at interfaces near the top and bottom ends of the reactor vessel. Means are provided for balancing the pressure of the two water volumes at the lower interface zone during normal operation to prevent entry of the cool borated water into the reactor core region, for detecting the onset of excessive power to coolant flow conditions in the reactor core and for detecting low water levels of reactor coolant. Cool borated water is permitted to flow into the reactor core when low reactor coolant levels or excessive power to coolant flow conditions are encountered.

  15. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  16. The decrease of cylindrical pempek quality during boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karneta, R.; Gultom, N. F.

    2017-09-01

    The research objective was to study the effects of temperature and formulation on quality of pempek lenjer during boiling. Treatments in this study were four levels of pempek formulation and five levels of temperature. Data was processed by using analysis of variance (Anova). If test results showed that samples were significantly different or highly significantly different, then further test was conducted by using Honestly Significant Different. The results showed that chemical analysis showed that fish dominant formula of cylindrical pempek had higher water content, protein content, lipid content and ash content than that of tapioca starch dominant formula, but it had lower carbohydrate content and fibre content than that of tapioca starch dominant formula.The higher the temperature at center point of cylindrical pempek, the lower the chemical quality of cylindrical pempek. The effect of formula on physical quality of cylindrical pempek showed that tapioca starch dominant formula had more rubbery texture, more neutral pH and brighter color than that of fish dominant formula.The temperature change had no significant effect on texture and pH of cylindrical pempek, but it had significant effect on lightness, intensity and chromatic color especially after exceeding optimum time of boiling.

  17. Effect of size sprinkled heat exchange surface on developing boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kracík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research of sprinkled heat exchangers. This type of research has become rather topical in relation to sea water desalination. This process uses sprinkling of exchangers which rapidly separates vapour phase from a liquid phase. Applications help better utilize low-potential heat which is commonly wasted in utility systems. Low-potential heat may increase utilization of primary materials. Our ambition is to analyse and describe the whole sprinkled exchanger. Two heat exchangers were tested with a similar tube pitch: heat exchanger no. 1 had a four-tube bundle and heat exchanger no. 2 had eight-tube bundle. Efforts were made to maintain similar physical characteristics. They were tested at two flow rates (ca 0.07 and 0.11 kg s−1 m−1 and progress of boiling on the bundle was observed. Initial pressure was ca 10 kPa (abs at which no liquid was boiling at any part of the exchanger; the pressure was then lowered. Other input parameters were roughly similar for both flow rates. Temperature of heating water was ca 50°C at a constant flow rate of ca 7.2 L min−1. Results of our experiments provide optimum parameters for the given conditions for both tube bundles.

  18. Reconciling disparate views of template-directed nucleation through measurement of calcite nucleation kinetics and binding energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Laura M; Giuffre, Anthony J; Han, Nizhou; Tao, Jinhui; Wang, Debin; De Yoreo, James J; Dove, Patricia M

    2014-01-28

    The physical basis for how macromolecules regulate the onset of mineral formation in calcifying tissues is not well established. A popular conceptual model assumes the organic matrix provides a stereochemical match during cooperative organization of solute ions. In contrast, another uses simple binding assays to identify good promoters of nucleation. Here, we reconcile these two views and provide a mechanistic explanation for template-directed nucleation by correlating heterogeneous nucleation barriers with crystal-substrate-binding free energies. We first measure the kinetics of calcite nucleation onto model substrates that present different functional group chemistries (carboxyl, thiol, phosphate, and hydroxyl) and conformations (C11 and C16 chain lengths). We find rates are substrate-specific and obey predictions of classical nucleation theory at supersaturations that extend above the solubility of amorphous calcium carbonate. Analysis of the kinetic data shows the thermodynamic barrier to nucleation is reduced by minimizing the interfacial free energy of the system, γ. We then use dynamic force spectroscopy to independently measure calcite-substrate-binding free energies, ΔGb. Moreover, we show that within the classical theory of nucleation, γ and ΔGb should be linearly related. The results bear out this prediction and demonstrate that low-energy barriers to nucleation correlate with strong crystal-substrate binding. This relationship is general to all functional group chemistries and conformations. These findings provide a physical model that reconciles the long-standing concept of templated nucleation through stereochemical matching with the conventional wisdom that good binders are good nucleators. The alternative perspectives become internally consistent when viewed through the lens of crystal-substrate binding.

  19. Evolution of steam-water flow structure under subcooled water boiling at smooth and structured heating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, N. V.; Zeigarnik, Yu A.; Khodakov, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    Experimentally studying of subcooled water boiling in rectangular channel electrically heated from one side was conducted. Flat surfaces, both smooth and coated by microarc oxidation technology, were used as heating surfaces. The tests were conducted at atmospheric pressure in the range of mass flow rate from 650 to 1300 kg/(m2 s) and water subcooling relative to saturation temperature from 23 to 75 °C. Using high-speed filming a change in the two-phase flow structure and its statistic characteristics (nucleation sites density, vapor bubble distribution by size, etc.) were studied. With an increase in the heat flux density (with the mass flow rate and subcooling being the same) and amount and size of the vapor bubbles increased also. At a relatively high heat flux density, non-spherical vapor agglomerates appeared at the heating surface as a result of coalescence of small bubbles. They originated in chaotic manner in arbitrary points of the heating surface and then after random evolution in form and size collapsed. The agglomerate size reached several millimeters and their duration of life was several milliseconds. After formation of large vapor agglomerates, with a further small increase in heat flux density a burnout of the heating surface occurred. In most cases the same effect took place if the large agglomerates were retained for several minutes.

  20. On the Stress Corrosion Cracking and Hydrogen Embrittlement Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steels in Boiling Saturated Magnesium Chloride Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Alyousif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress corrosion cracking (SCC and hydrogen embrittlement (HE behaviors for types 304, 310, and 316 austenitic stainless steels were investigated in boiling saturated magnesium chloride solutions using a constant load method under different conditions including test temperature, applied stress, and sensitization. Both of type 304 and type 316 stainless steels showed quite similar behavior characteristics, whereas type 310 stainless steel showed a different behavior. The time to failure (tf parameter was used among other parameters to characterize the materials behavior in the test solution and to develop a mathematical model for predicting the time to failure in the chloride solution. The combination of corrosion curve parameters and fracture surface micrographs gave some explanation for the cracking modes as well as an indication for the cracking mechanisms. On the basis of the results obtained, it was estimated that intergranular cracking was resulted from hydrogen embrittlement due to strain-induced formation of martensite along the grain boundaries, while transgranular cracking took place by propagating cracks nucleated at slip steps by dissolution.

  1. Mechanisms and rates of nucleation of amyloid fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Tai; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2017-09-01

    The classical nucleation theory finds the rate of nucleation proportional to the monomer concentration raised to the power, which is the "critical nucleus size," nc. The implicit assumption, that amyloids nucleate in the same way, has been recently challenged by an alternative two-step mechanism, when the soluble monomers first form a metastable aggregate (micelle) and then undergo conversion into the conformation rich in β -strands that are able to form a stable growing nucleus for the protofilament. Here we put together the elements of extensive knowledge about aggregation and nucleation kinetics, using a specific case of Aβ1-42 amyloidogenic peptide for illustration, to find theoretical expressions for the effective rate of amyloid nucleation. We find that at low monomer concentrations in solution and also at low interaction energy between two peptide conformations in the micelle, the nucleation occurs via the classical route. At higher monomer concentrations, and a range of other interaction parameters between peptides, the two-step "aggregation-conversion" mechanism of nucleation takes over. In this regime, the effective rate of the process can be interpreted as a power of monomer concentration in a certain range of parameters; however, the exponent is determined by a complicated interplay of interaction parameters and is not related to the minimum size of the growing nucleus (which we find to be ˜7-8 for Aβ1 -42).

  2. Heterogeneous nucleation of protein crystals on fluorinated layered silicate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Ino

    Full Text Available Here, we describe an improved system for protein crystallization based on heterogeneous nucleation using fluorinated layered silicate. In addition, we also investigated the mechanism of nucleation on the silicate surface. Crystallization of lysozyme using silicates with different chemical compositions indicated that fluorosilicates promoted nucleation whereas the silicates without fluorine did not. The use of synthesized saponites for lysozyme crystallization confirmed that the substitution of hydroxyl groups contained in the lamellae structure for fluorine atoms is responsible for the nucleation-inducing property of the nucleant. Crystallization of twelve proteins with a wide range of pI values revealed that the nucleation promoting effect of the saponites tended to increase with increased substitution rate. Furthermore, the saponite with the highest fluorine content promoted nucleation in all the test proteins regardless of their overall net charge. Adsorption experiments of proteins on the saponites confirmed that the density of adsorbed molecules increased according to the substitution rate, thereby explaining the heterogeneous nucleation on the silicate surface.

  3. Nucleation of insulin crystals in a wide continuous supersaturation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Anita; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Nanev, Christo

    2004-11-01

    Modifying the classical double pulse technique, by using a supersaturation gradient along an insulin solution contained in a glass capillary tube, we found conditions appropriate for the direct measurement of nucleation parameters. The nucleation time lag has been measured. Data for the number of crystal nuclei versus the nucleation time were obtained for this hormone. Insulin was chosen as a model protein because of the availability of solubility data in the literature. A comparison with the results for hen-egg-white lysozyme, HEWL was performed.

  4. Main features of nucleation in model solutions of blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Solodyankina, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The regularities of nucleation in a model solution of human blood plasma under the conditions similar to physiological have been investigated. The induction order and constants are determined. It is shown that an increase in supersaturation leads to a transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous nucleation of crystallites. The critical nucleus size is estimated for a pure model system and for a system containing a number of additives. The impurities under study are found to form the following descending sequence with respect to their effect on nucleation: alanine > glucose > glycine > citric acid > milky acid > magnesium ions.

  5. Understanding nanoparticle-mediated nucleation pathways of anisotropic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramy, Christine R.; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Jones, Matthew R.; O'Brien, Matthew N.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2017-09-01

    Several seed-mediated syntheses of low symmetry anisotropic nanoparticles yield broad product distributions with multiple defect structures. This observation challenges the role of the nanoparticle precursor as a seed for certain syntheses and suggests the possibility of alternate nucleation pathways. Herein, we report a method to probe the role of the nanoparticle precursor in anisotropic nanoparticle nucleation with compositional and structural 'labels' to track their fate. We use the synthesis of gold triangular nanoprisms (Au TPs) as a model system. We propose a mechanism in which, rather than acting as a template, the nanoparticle precursor catalyzes homogenous nucleation of Au TPs.

  6. Primary nucleation of sodium perborate in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, A.; Contaldi, A.; Mazzarotta, B.

    1986-11-01

    The nucleation kinetics of sodium perborate in aqueous solutions, have been studied at different contents of sodium metaborate. Measurements of metastable zone width and induction periods, carried out under controlled conditions of temperature, supersaturation, and stirring rate, show the great influence of sodium metaborate content over both the sodium perborate solubility and its nucleation kinetics. Furthermore, from the experimental results, nucleation rate relationships and interfacial tension values for the examined systems have been determined. An interesting result of the study has been the good agreement obtained between the interfacial tension values derived from two different sets of experimental data regarding the metastable zone width and the induction period respectively.

  7. Molecular simulation of crystal nucleation of an n-alkane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Peng; Rutledge, Gregory

    2008-03-01

    We report the results of molecular simulations to study crystal nucleation of n-octane from the melt. A realistic united atom force field was employed for n-octane. The melting behavior was first determined by ramping temperature in a set of Monte Carlo simulations. The adiabatic nucleation trajectory was then sampled using the umbrella sampling technique with a set of proposed global and local order parameters, and analyzed for selection of best order parameter. The transition state ensemble has been verified by molecular dynamics simulation. The structure of critical nuclei in the nucleation process is analyzed and the effect of intermediate phases discussed.

  8. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    atmospheric conditions using a 580 MeV electron beam to ionize the volume of the reaction chamber. We find a clear and significant contribution from ion induced nucleation and consider this to be an unambiguous observation of the ion-effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions not far...... from the Earth's atmosphere. By comparison with ionization using a gamma source we further show that the nature of the ionizing particles is not important for the ion component of the nucleation....

  9. Modelling ice nucleation due to dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickovic, Slobodan; Petkovic, Slavko; Pejanovic, Goran; Madonna, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Formation of cold clouds is enhanced if ice nuclei (IN) are available. Cold clouds contribute at global scale with 60% in average in precipitation and their presence significantly affects the atmospheric radiation properties. It is expected that better description of the IN process should substantially improve cloud parameterization in climate and numerical weather prediction models. Observations show that mineral dust particles are the dominant residuals found in cloud ice. In this study we employ the regional dust DREAM model based on high horizontal and vertical grid resolution to parameterize IN caused by mineral dust. DREAM has been already deployed in a study related to IN process (Klein et al, 2010), also in model experiments using several IN parameterization schemes in support of the IN field experiment CALIMA over Canaries. The model has been also extended by adding the major dust mineral fractions as tracers in order to facilitate staying a role of dust mineralogy in ice nucleation. This study will present parameterization of IN using the simulated dust concentration, water moisture and temperature. Preliminary results of simulated IN will be shown, as well as IN validation against lidar aerosol profiles and ice cloud water profiles observed by cloud radar in the Potenza EARLINET site. This study is an initial step in improving a cloud physics parameterization using IN as an input variable in an integrated dust-atmospheric modelling system.

  10. Nucleation and growth of geological faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stoyan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model of fault nucleation and growth based on the Weibull theory, already widely used in fracture research engineering. We propose that, according to a birth-and-growth process, germs (nuclei are born at random instants at random spatial locations and then grow with time. This leads to a satisfactory formulation of fault length distribution, different from classical statistical laws. Especially, this formulation reconciles previous analyses of fault datasets displaying power-law and/or exponential behaviors. The Weibull parameters can be statistically estimated in a simple way. We show that the model can be successfully fitted to natural data in Kenya and Ethiopia. In contrast to existing descriptive models developed for geological fault systems, such as fractal approaches, the Weibull theory allows to characterize the strength of the material, i.e. its resistance to deformation. Since this model is very general, we expect that it can be applied in many situations, and for simulations of geological fracture processes. The model is independent of deformation intensity and type and therefore allows a better constraint of the seismic risk in threatened regions.

  11. High conversion pressurized water reactor with boiling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margulis, M., E-mail: maratm@post.bgu.ac.il [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Shwageraus, E., E-mail: es607@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design of partially boiling PWR core was proposed and studied. • Self-sustainable Th–{sup 233}U fuel cycle was utilized in this study. • Seed-blanket fuel assembly lattice optimization was performed. • A coupled Monte Carlo, fuel depletion and thermal-hydraulics studies were carried out. • Thermal–hydraulic analysis assured that the design matches imposed safety constraints. - Abstract: Parametric studies have been performed on a seed-blanket Th–{sup 233}U fuel configuration in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with boiling channels to achieve high conversion ratio. Previous studies on seed-blanket concepts suggested substantial reduction in the core power density is needed in order to operate under nominal PWR system conditions. Boiling flow regime in the seed region allows more heat to be removed for a given coolant mass flow rate, which in turn, may potentially allow increasing the power density of the core. In addition, reduced moderation improves the breeding performance. A two-dimensional design optimization study was carried out with BOXER and SERPENT codes in order to determine the most attractive fuel assembly configuration that would ensure breeding. Effects of various parameters, such as void fraction, blanket fuel form, number of seed pins and their dimensions, on the conversion ratio were examined. The obtained results, for which the power density was set to be 104 W/cm{sup 3}, created a map of potentially feasible designs. It was found that several options have the potential to achieve end of life fissile inventory ratio above unity, which implies potential feasibility of a self-sustainable Thorium fuel cycle in PWRs without significant reduction in the core power density. Finally, a preliminary three-dimensional coupled neutronic and thermal–hydraulic analysis for a single seed-blanket fuel assembly was performed. The results indicate that axial void distribution changes drastically with burnup. Therefore

  12. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, van M.; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, van T.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee

  13. 78 FR 46378 - La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact... of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) for the La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor...

  14. 77 FR 27097 - LaCrosse Boiling Water Reactor, Exemption From Certain Requirements, Vernon County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LaCrosse Boiling Water Reactor, Exemption From Certain Requirements, Vernon County, WI AGENCY...) 73.55, for the LaCrosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR). This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been...

  15. 76 FR 61118 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR...

  16. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. 154.706 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel lines must not pass through accommodation, service, or control spaces. Each gas fuel line passing...

  17. Introduction of image analysis for the quantification of the boiling flow heat transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferret, C.; Falk, L.; d'Ortona, U.; Chenu, A.; Veenstra, T.T.

    2004-01-01

    Heat transfer performances for non-boiling and boiling flow of a micro-vaporizer have been measured by standard methods (temperatures, flow rates, effective power input). The study was carried out for laminar flow (Re<25) in silicon micro-channels (5 mm×3 cm×200 μm) filled with ordered obstacles to

  18. Theoretical and experimental investigation into the explosive boiling potential of thermally stratified liquid-liquid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabiano, B.; Kersten, R.J.A.; Opschoor, G.; Pastorino, R.

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of a rapid phase transition, or so-called explosive boiling, when a cold volatile liquid comes into contact with a hot liquid or hot surface is a potential hazard in industry. This study was focused on the explosive boiling potential of thermally stratified liquid-liquid systems that

  19. Microwave super-heated boiling of organic liquids: Origin, effect and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chemat, F.; Esveld, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the state of the art of the microwave super-heated boiling phenomenon. When a liquid is heated by microwaves, the temperature increases rapidly to reach a steady temperature while refluxing. It happens that this steady state temperature can be up to 40 K higher than the boiling

  20. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  1. Two-phase flow boiling in small channels: A brief review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boiling flows are encountered in a wide range of industrial applications such as boilers, core and steam generators in nuclear reactors, petroleum transportation, electronic cooling and various types of chemical reactors. Many of these applications involve boiling flows in conventional channels (channel size ≥ 3 mm).

  2. Replacement Value of Soybean Meal and Maize with Raw or Boiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replacement Value of Soybean Meal and Maize with Raw or Boiled Pigeon Pea Seed Meal in Exotic Pullet Diets. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Science ... Abstract. A study to determine the replacement value of raw or boiled pigeon pea seed meal (PSM) for soybean meal and maize in the diets of exotic pullets (1-56 d) was ...

  3. Thermodynamic and Gasdynamic Aspects of a Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, M.

    2013-01-01

    The risk of explosion due to rupture of a tank filled with pressurized liquefied gas (PLG) is one of the risks to be considered in the context of studies on tunnel safety. When a vessel containing liquid well above its boiling point at normal atmospheric pressure fails catastrophically a Boiling

  4. Theoretical modeling of CHF for near-saturated pool boiling and flow boiling from short heaters using the interfacial lift-off criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudawar, I.; Galloway, J.E.; Gersey, C.O. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Pool boiling and flow boiling were examined for near-saturated bulk conditions in order to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) trigger mechanism for each. Photographic studies of the wall region revealed features common to both situations. At fluxes below CHF, the vapor coalesces into a wavy layer which permits wetting only in wetting fronts, the portions of the liquid-vapor interface which contact the wall as a result of the interfacial waviness. Close examination of the interfacial features revealed the waves are generated from the lower edge of the heater in pool boiling and the heater`s upstream region in flow boiling. Wavelengths follow predictions based upon the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability criterion. Critical heat flux in both cases occurs when the pressure force exerted upon the interface due to interfacial curvature, which tends to preserve interfacial contact with the wall prior to CHF, is overcome by the momentum of vapor at the site of the first wetting front, causing the interface to lift away from the wall. It is shown this interfacial lift-off criterion facilitates accurate theoretical modeling of CHF in pool boiling and in flow boiling in both straight and curved channels.

  5. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  6. Pool boiling of nanoparticle-modified surface with interlaced wettability

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Chin-Chi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pool boiling heat transfer under heating surfaces with various interlaced wettability. Nano-silica particles were used as the coating element to vary the interlaced wettability of the surface. The experimental results revealed that when the wettability of a surface is uniform, the critical heat flux increases with the more wettable surface; however, when the wettability of a surface is modified interlacedly, regardless of whether the modified region becomes more hydrophilic or hydrophobic, the critical heat flux is consistently higher than that of the isotropic surface. In addition, this study observed that critical heat flux was higher when the contact angle difference between the plain surface and the modified region was smaller. © 2012 Hsu et al.

  7. Theoretical prediction method of subcooled flow boiling CHF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Min; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A theoretical critical heat flux (CHF ) model, based on lateral bubble coalescence on the heated wall, is proposed to predict the subcooled flow boiling CHF in a uniformly heated vertical tube. The model is based on the concept that a single layer of bubbles contacted to the heated wall prevents a bulk liquid from reaching the wall at near CHF condition. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental data result in satisfactory agreement within less than 9.73% root-mean-square error by the appropriate choice of the critical void fraction in the bubbly layer. The present model shows comparable performance with the CHF look-up table of Groeneveld et al.. 28 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  8. Quantifying the Effect of Stress on Sn Whisker Nucleation Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chason, Eric; Vasquez, Justin; Pei, Fei; Jain, Nupur; Hitt, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Although Sn whiskers have been studied extensively, there is still a need to understand the driving forces behind whisker nucleation and growth. Many studies point to the role of stress, but confirming this requires a quantitative comparison between controlled stress and the resulting whisker evolution. Recent experimental studies applied stress to a Sn layer via thermal cycling and simultaneously monitored the evolution of the temperature, stress and number of nuclei. In this work, we analyze these nucleation kinetics in terms of classical nucleation theory to relate the observed behavior to underlying mechanisms including a stress dependent activation energy and a temperature and stress-dependent whisker growth rate. Non-linear least squares fitting of the data taken at different temperatures and strain rates to the model shows that the results can be understood in terms of stress decreasing the barrier for whisker nucleation.

  9. Laser ablation for protein crystal nucleation and seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Murai, Ryota; Adachi, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Maruyama, Mihoko; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Takano, Kazufumi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Masuhara, Hiroshi; Mori, Yusuke

    2014-04-07

    With the recent development in pulsed lasers with ultrashort pulse widths or wavelengths, spatially precise, low-damage processing by femtosecond or deep-UV laser ablation has shown promise for the production of protein single crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography. Femtosecond laser processing of supersaturated solutions can shorten the protein nucleation period or can induce nucleation at low supersaturation, which improves the crystal quality of various proteins including membrane proteins and supra-complexes. In addition to nucleation, processing of protein crystals by femtosecond or deep-UV laser ablation can produce single crystalline micro- or macro-seeds without deterioration of crystal quality. This tutorial review gives an overview of the successful application of laser ablation techniques to nucleation and seeding for the production of protein single crystals, and also describes the advantages from a physico-chemical perspective.

  10. Analysis of nucleation modelling in ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tutum, Cem Celal; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation of nodular graphite at inclusions in ductile iron during eutectic solidification has been investigated. The experimental part of this work deals with casting of ductile iron samples with two different inoculants in four different thicknesses. Chemical analysis...

  11. The role of ammonia in sulfuric acid ion induced nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Ortega

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new multi-step strategy for quantum chemical calculations on atmospherically relevant cluster structures that makes calculation for large clusters affordable with a good accuracy-to-computational effort ratio. We have applied this strategy to evaluate the relevance of ternary ion induced nucleation; we have also performed calculations for neutral ternary nucleation for comparison. The results for neutral ternary nucleation agree with previous results, and confirm the important role of ammonia in enhancing the growth of sulfuric acid clusters. On the other hand, we have found that ammonia does not enhance the growth of ionic sulfuric acid clusters. The results also confirm that ion-induced nucleation is a barrierless process at high altitudes, but at ground level there exists a barrier due to the presence of a local minimum on the free energy surface.

  12. Mediating conducting polymer growth within hydrogels by controlling nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Patton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the efficacy of primary and secondary nucleation for electrochemical polymerisation of conductive polymers within poly(vinyl alcohol methacrylate hydrogels. The two methods of nucleation investigated were a primary heterogeneous mechanism via introduction of conductive bulk metallic glass (Mg64Zn30Ca5Na1 particles and a secondary mechanism via introduction of “pre-polymerised” conducting polymer within the hydrogel (PEDOT:PSS. Evidence of nucleation was not seen in the bulk metallic glass loaded gels, however, the PEDOT:PSS loaded gels produced charge storage capacities over 15 mC/cm2 when sufficient polymer was loaded. These studies support the hypothesis that secondary nucleation is an efficient approach to producing stand-alone conducting hydrogels.

  13. Preface: Special Topic on Nucleation: New Concepts and Discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, K F; Frenkel, Daan

    2016-12-07

    Many phenomena in the world around us depend on infrequent, yet short-lived, events that completely alter how a system subsequently develops in time. In the physical sciences, there are many examples of such crucial "rare events." Among the most important of these are nucleation processes, in which, due to a rare fluctuation, a new phase forms spontaneously within a meta-stable parent phase. Because nucleation processes are both rare and rapid and happen on a microscopic spatial scale, their experimental study is challenging. In recent years, there have been major developments both in the experimental study of nucleation phenomena and in the numerical simulation of such processes. As the articles in this special issue demonstrate, these recent advances in the ability to probe nucleation phenomena have transformed our understanding of the field.

  14. Investigation of nucleation in undercooled melts of pure metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Stefan [Institut fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Herlach, Dieter M. [Institut fuer Materialphysik im Weltraum, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Containerless processing is an effective tool for undercooling metallic melts far below their equilibrium melting temperatures. By using such levitation techniques the dominating heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is completely eliminated. Furthermore, if the experiments are performed under clean environmental conditions, heterogeneous nucleation on free surfaces is also greatly reduced. In this work both electromagnetic and electrostatic levitation techniques are used for a comparative investigation of nucleation in undercooled metallic metals. In case of electromagnetic levitation samples in a diameter of 7 mm are processed within high purity inert gas atmosphere while in case of electrostatic levitation samples in a diameter of 2 mm are processed in ultra high vacuum. With a modified model by Skripov a statistical analysis of the distribution function of the undercoolings measured in one experiment run consisting of at least 100 undercooling cycles is conducted which provides information about the physical nature of different nucleation mechanism depending on experiment conditions.

  15. Evaluation of correlations of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in horizontal channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhanru; Fang, Xiande; Li, Dingkun

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels is required in a variety of applications, such as chemical process cooling systems, refrigeration, and air conditioning. A number of correlations for flow boiling heat transfer in channels have been proposed. This work evaluates the existing correlations for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient with 1669 experimental data points of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 collected from 18 published papers. The top two correlations for R22 are those of Liu and Winterton (1991) and Fang (2013), with the mean absolute deviation of 32.7% and 32.8%, respectively. More studies should be carried out to develop better ones. Effects of channel dimension and vapor quality on heat transfer are analyzed, and the results provide valuable information for further research in the correlation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels.

  16. Sensory quality and appropriateness of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Thybo, Anette

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensory attributes, dry matter and sugar content of five varieties of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and their relation to the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. RESULTS: Sensory evaluation of raw and boiled...... Jerusalem artichoke tubers was performed by a trained sensory panel and a semi-trained consumer panel of 49 participants, who also evaluated the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. The appropriateness of raw Jerusalem artichoke tubers was related to Jerusalem artichoke flavour...... attributes can be used as predictors of the appropriateness of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for raw and boiled consumption. Knowledge on the quality of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers can be used to inform consumers on the right choice of rawmaterial and thereby increase the consumption...

  17. Total sulphate vs. sulphuric acid monomer in nucleation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Neitola, K.; Brus, D.; Makkonen, U.; Sipilä, M; R. L. Mauldin III; N. Sarnela; Jokinen, T; H. Lihavainen; M. Kulmala

    2014-01-01

    Sulphuric acid is known to be a key component for atmospheric nucleation. Precise determination of sulphuric acid concentration is crucial factor for prediction of nucleation rates and subsequent growth. In our study, we have noticed a substantial discrepancy between sulphuric acid monomer and total sulphate concentrations measured from the same source of sulphuric acid vapour. The discrepancy of about one to two orders of magnitude was found with similar formation rates. To...

  18. Children's Understanding of Changes of State Involving the Gas State, Part 1: Boiling Water and the Particle Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Explores the development of children's conception of a substance and reports the findings in relation to children's understanding of boiling water and particle ideas. Argues that boiling water should have a broad significance in the curriculum. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  19. Ice nucleation by particles immersed in supercooled cloud droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, B J; O'Sullivan, D; Atkinson, J D; Webb, M E

    2012-10-07

    The formation of ice particles in the Earth's atmosphere strongly affects the properties of clouds and their impact on climate. Despite the importance of ice formation in determining the properties of clouds, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) was unable to assess the impact of atmospheric ice formation in their most recent report because our basic knowledge is insufficient. Part of the problem is the paucity of quantitative information on the ability of various atmospheric aerosol species to initiate ice formation. Here we review and assess the existing quantitative knowledge of ice nucleation by particles immersed within supercooled water droplets. We introduce aerosol species which have been identified in the past as potentially important ice nuclei and address their ice-nucleating ability when immersed in a supercooled droplet. We focus on mineral dusts, biological species (pollen, bacteria, fungal spores and plankton), carbonaceous combustion products and volcanic ash. In order to make a quantitative comparison we first introduce several ways of describing ice nucleation and then summarise the existing information according to the time-independent (singular) approximation. Using this approximation in combination with typical atmospheric loadings, we estimate the importance of ice nucleation by different aerosol types. According to these estimates we find that ice nucleation below about -15 °C is dominated by soot and mineral dusts. Above this temperature the only materials known to nucleate ice are biological, with quantitative data for other materials absent from the literature. We conclude with a summary of the challenges our community faces.

  20. Reaction coordinate of incipient methane clathrate hydrate nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brian C; Knott, Brandon C; Beckham, Gregg T; Wu, David T; Sum, Amadeu K

    2014-11-20

    Nucleation from solution is a ubiquitous phenomenon with relevance to myriad scientific disciplines, including pharmaceuticals, biomineralization, and disease. One prominent example is the nucleation of clathrate hydrates, multicomponent crystalline inclusion compounds relevant to the energy industry where they block pipelines and also constitute a potential vast energy resource. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of incipient hydrate formation remains unknown. Herein, we employ advanced molecular simulation tools (pB histogram, equilibrium path sampling) to provide a statistical-mechanical basis for extracting physical insight into the molecular steps by which clathrates form. Through testing the Mutually Coordinated Guest (MCG) order parameter, we demonstrate that both guest (methane) and host (water) structuring are crucial to accurately describe the nucleation of hydrates and determine a critical nucleus size of MCG-1 = 16 at 255 K and 500 bar. Equipped with a validated (and novel) reaction coordinate, subsequent equilibrium path sampling simulations yield the free energy barrier and nucleation rate. The resulting quantitative nucleation process is described by the MCG clustering mechanism. This constitutes a significant advance in the field of hydrates research, as the fitness of a molecular descriptor has never been statistically verified. More broadly, this work has significance to a wide range of multicomponent nucleation contexts wherein the formation mechanism depends on contributions from both solute and solvent.

  1. Investigation of Nucleation Events in Wintertime Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ma, Yan; Yang, Dongsen; Shi, Xiaowen; Wang, Xing

    2017-04-01

    Nucleation processes contribute substantial secondary aerosols in the atmosphere, which often lead to severe air pollution episodes in China, especially in heavily populated urban area. In this work, we conducted field observations of nucleation events in a rural site of Beijing, from January to March 2016. Nucleation events were frequently observed during the measurement period. The nucleation rates of 1.0 nm diameter aerosol (J1) were determined from direct measurements of particle size distribution of 1.4 - 3.0 nm by a particle size magnifier (PSM) with a value up to a few hundreds particles cm-3 s-1, significantly higher than what we observed during CAREBeijing 2008. Meanwhile, gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was measured with an atmospheric pressure ionization high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (API-HR-ToF-CIMS). H2SO4 dimers and sub-3 nm aerosols showed excellent correlations during the nucleation events. NH3 was also observed by another chemical ionization mass spectrometer with a value ranging from a few ppbv up to 20 ppbv. Cold ambient temperature (less than -10°C) and high NH3 concentration may explain the unusually high nucleation rates, which could contribute to the winder haze formation in the urban area of Beijing and should be investigated in more details.

  2. Effect of nucleating agents on crystallization kinetics of PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of three nucleating agents concluding talc, sodium benzoate (SB and an ionomer (Ion., Na+ on crystallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and polarized optical microscope (POM, the parameters of crystallization kinetics were obtained through Avrami and Ozawa equations. The fold surface free energy σe of pure PET and PET/nucleating agent blends were calculated by Hoffman-Lauritzen theory. The results indicate that the three kinds of nucleating agents increase the crystallization rate constant through promoting their nucleating effect for PET crystallization, among which SB is the best one with the same content. The crystallization mode of PET might shift from three-dimensional growth to two-dimensional growth by the addition of the nucleating agents. The values of σe of PET/nucleating agent blends are much less than that of pure PET, and PET/SB (99:1 blend has the least value of σe (18.2 mJ/m2. The conclusion based on Hoffman theory is similar to the analysis by Avrami and Ozawa equations.

  3. Effects of ensembles on methane hydrate nucleation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengcai; Liu, Chan-Juan; Walsh, Matthew R; Guo, Guang-Jun

    2016-06-21

    By performing molecular dynamics simulations to form a hydrate with a methane nano-bubble in liquid water at 250 K and 50 MPa, we report how different ensembles, such as the NPT, NVT, and NVE ensembles, affect the nucleation kinetics of the methane hydrate. The nucleation trajectories are monitored using the face-saturated incomplete cage analysis (FSICA) and the mutually coordinated guest (MCG) order parameter (OP). The nucleation rate and the critical nucleus are obtained using the mean first-passage time (MFPT) method based on the FS cages and the MCG-1 OPs, respectively. The fitting results of MFPT show that hydrate nucleation and growth are coupled together, consistent with the cage adsorption hypothesis which emphasizes that the cage adsorption of methane is a mechanism for both hydrate nucleation and growth. For the three different ensembles, the hydrate nucleation rate is quantitatively ordered as follows: NPT > NVT > NVE, while the sequence of hydrate crystallinity is exactly reversed. However, the largest size of the critical nucleus appears in the NVT ensemble, rather than in the NVE ensemble. These results are helpful for choosing a suitable ensemble when to study hydrate formation via computer simulations, and emphasize the importance of the order degree of the critical nucleus.

  4. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T. W.; Ladino, L. A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Breckels, M. N.; Brooks, I. M.; Browse, J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Huffman, J. A.; Judd, C.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; McFiggans, Gordon; Miller, L. A.; Najera, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Rae, S.; Schiller, C. L.; Si, M.; Vergara Temprado, J.; Whale, Thomas; Wong, J P S; Wurl, O.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Abbatt, JPD; Aller, Josephine Y.; Bertram, Allan K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Murray, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-09

    The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice nucleating particles1,2. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice3–11. Here we show that material in the sea surface microlayer, which is enriched in surface active organic material representative of that found in sub-micron sea- spray aerosol12–21, nucleates ice under conditions that occur in mixed-phase clouds and high-altitude ice clouds. The ice active material is likely biogenic and is less than ~0.2 ?m in size. We also show that organic material (exudate) released by a common marine diatom nucleates ice when separated from cells and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates are a candidate for the observed ice nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. By combining our measurements with global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, we show that ice nucleating particles of marine origin are dominant in remote marine environments, such as the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic.

  5. Immersion freezing of ice nucleation active protein complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilising the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS, the immersion freezing behaviour of droplet ensembles containing monodisperse particles, generated from a Snomax™ solution/suspension, was investigated. Thereto ice fractions were measured in the temperature range between −5 °C to −38 °C. Snomax™ is an industrial product applied for artificial snow production and contains Pseudomonas syringae} bacteria which have long been used as model organism for atmospheric relevant ice nucleation active (INA bacteria. The ice nucleation activity of such bacteria is controlled by INA protein complexes in their outer membrane. In our experiments, ice fractions increased steeply in the temperature range from about −6 °C to about −10 °C and then levelled off at ice fractions smaller than one. The plateau implies that not all examined droplets contained an INA protein complex. Assuming the INA protein complexes to be Poisson distributed over the investigated droplet populations, we developed the CHESS model (stoCHastic modEl of similar and poiSSon distributed ice nuclei which allows for the calculation of ice fractions as function of temperature and time for a given nucleation rate. Matching calculated and measured ice fractions, we determined and parameterised the nucleation rate of INA protein complexes exhibiting class III ice nucleation behaviour. Utilising the CHESS model, together with the determined nucleation rate, we compared predictions from the model to experimental data from the literature and found good agreement. We found that (a the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate expression quantifying the ice nucleation behaviour of the INA protein complex is capable of describing the ice nucleation behaviour observed in various experiments for both, Snomax™ and P. syringae bacteria, (b the ice nucleation rate, and its temperature dependence, seem to be very similar regardless of whether the INA protein complexes inducing ice

  6. Measurements of the Effects of Spacers on the Burnout Conditions for Flow of Boiling Water in a Vertical Annulus and a Vertical 7-Rod Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Kurt M.

    1965-03-15

    An analysis for predicting the burnout conditions for flow of boiling water in vertical round ducts is presented. The analysis which is based on the Vanderwater flow model predicts that the burnout conditions are independent of the inlet subcooling and the heated length, and depends only on the local values at the burnout position of pressure, heat flux, steam quality and, mass velocity and the duct diameter. The results of an experimental investigation covering 811 burnout measurements in the pressure range from 41 to 101 kg/cm{sup 2} is presented. These results together with 488 of our earlier burnout measurements at the pressures of 2, 7, 10, 20 and 30 kg/cm{sup 2} were used to determine two constants in the analytical results. The final correlation predicted the burnout heat fluxes of the 1299 measurements within 8 per cent and with an RMS error of 5.3 per cent. The measurements covered the following ranges of variables Diameter d, 3.93-24.95 mm; Heated length L 400-3,500 mm; L/d-ratio L/d 40-890; Pressure p, 2.7-101 kg/cm{sup 2}; Inlet sub-cooling {delta}t{sub sub} 30-240 deg C; Mass velocity G 120-5450 kg/m{sup 3}/s; Heat flux q/A 35-686 W/cm{sup 3}; Burnout steam quality X{sub BO} 0-1.00. The Columbia data and the Winfrith data were also analysed in terms of the measured and predicted burnout heat fluxes and enthalpies, and it was found, that a very good agreement existed between the present results and the Columbia and the Winfrith data. The Columbia data were on the average 3 per cent lower comparing the measured and predicted burnout heat fluxes. The scatter of the data was within + 10 and - 15 per cent and the RMS error was 8.4 per cent. The Winfrith data were on the average 6 per cent higher than the predicted heat fluxes and the deviations of the measured heat fluxes were within + 25 and - 15 per cent of the predictions. The RMS error was 10.8 per cent.

  7. Controlled ice nucleation in the field of freeze-drying: fundamentals and technology review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidobler, R; Winter, G

    2013-10-01

    In the scientific community as well as in commercial freeze-drying, controlled ice nucleation has received a lot of attention because increasing the ice nucleation temperature can significantly reduce primary drying duration. Furthermore, controlled ice nucleation enables to reduce the randomness of the ice nucleation temperature, which can be a serious scale-up issue during process development. In this review, fundamentals of ice nucleation in the field of freeze-drying are presented. Furthermore, the impact of controlled ice nucleation on product qualities is discussed, and methods to achieve controlled ice nucleation are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 35990 - All Operating Boiling-Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I And Mark II Containments; Docket Nos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... COMMISSION All Operating Boiling-Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I And Mark II Containments; Docket Nos... Licensees operate boiling-water reactors (BWRs) with Mark I and Mark II containment designs. II. The events... Boiling Water Reactors with Mark I and Mark II Containments'' (November 26, 2012). Option 2 in SECY-12...

  9. 78 FR 63516 - Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors AGENCY... Cooling Systems for New Boiling-Water Reactors.'' This RG describes testing methods the NRC staff...)-1277, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling-Water Reactors.'' DG-1277...

  10. 75 FR 26967 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory.'' This guidance is intended to advise food manufacturers that once a boil-water advisory has been...

  11. An assessment of boiling as a method of household water treatment in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Luke; MacDonald, Morgan C

    2014-12-01

    This article scrutinizes the boiling of water in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India. Boiling, as it is commonly practiced, improves water quality, but its full potential is not being realized. Thus, the objective is to refine the method in practice, promote acceptability, and foster the scalability of boiling and household water treatment (HWT) writ large. The study is based on bacteriological samples from 300 households and 80 public standposts, 14 focus group discussions (FGDs), and 74 household interviews. Collectively, the data fashion both an empirical and ethnographic understanding of boiling. The rate and efficacy of boiling, barriers to and caveats of its adoption, and recommendations for augmenting its practice are detailed. While boiling is scientifically proven to eliminate bacteria, data demonstrate that pragmatics inhibit their total destruction. Furthermore, data and the literature indicate that a range of cultural, economic, and ancillary health factors challenge the uptake of boiling. Fieldwork and resultant knowledge arrive at strategies for overcoming these impediments. The article concludes with recommendations for selecting, introducing, and scaling up HWT mechanisms. A place-based approach that can be sustained over the long-term is espoused, and prolonged exposure by the interveners coupled with meaningful participation of the target population is essential.

  12. Microbiologic effectiveness of boiling and safe water storage in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodha, Samir V; Menon, M; Trivedi, K; Ati, A; Figueroa, M E; Ainslie, R; Wannemuehler, K; Quick, R

    2011-09-01

    In Indonesia, where diarrhea remains a major cause of mortality among children boiling of drinking water. We assessed the impact of boiling on water quality in South Sulawesi. We surveyed randomly selected households with at least one child water samples for Escherichia coli contamination. Among 242 households, 96% of source and 51% of stored water samples yielded E. coli. Unboiled water samples, obtained from 15% of households, were more likely to yield E. coli than boiled samples [prevalence ratios (PR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-2.5]. Water stored in wide-mouthed (PR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8) or uncovered (PR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.3-2.4) containers, or observed to be touched by the respondent's hands (PR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3-2.1) was more likely to yield E. coli. A multivariable model showed that households that did not boil water were more likely to have contaminated stored water than households that did boil water (PR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.3). Although this study demonstrated the effectiveness of boiling in reducing contamination, overall impact on water quality was suboptimal. Future studies are needed to identify factors behind the success of boiling water in Indonesia to inform efforts to scale up other effective water treatment practices.

  13. Hypergravity to Explore the Role of Buoyancy in Boiling in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioumbas, John S.; Krause, Jutta; Karapantsios, Thodoris D.

    2013-02-01

    Boiling in porous media is an active topic of research since it is associated with various applications, e.g. microelectronics cooling, wetted porous media as thermal barriers, food frying. Theoretical expressions customary scale boiling heat and mass transfer rates with the value of gravitational acceleration. Information obtained at low gravity conditions show a deviation from the above scaling law but refers exclusively to non-porous substrates. In addition, the role of buoyancy in boiling at varying gravitational levels (i.e. from microgravity—important to satellites and future Lunar and Martial missions, to high-g body forces—associated with fast aerial maneuvers) is still unknown since most experiments were conducted over a limited range of g-value. The present work aims at providing evidence regarding boiling in porous media over a broad range of hypergravity values. For this, a special device has been constructed for studying boiling inside porous media in the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC at ESA/ESTEC). LDC offers the unique opportunity to cancel the shear stresses and study only the effect of increased normal forces on boiling in porous media. The device permits measurement of the temperature field beneath the surface of the porous material and video recordings of bubble activity over the free surface of the porous material. The preliminary results presented from experiments conducted at terrestrial and hypergravity conditions, reveal for the first time the influence of increased levels of gravity on boiling in porous media.

  14. Thermodynamic Derivation of the Activation Energy for Ice Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cirrus clouds play a key role in the radiative and hydrological balance of the upper troposphere. Their correct representation in atmospheric models requires an understanding of the microscopic processes leading to ice nucleation. A key parameter in the theoretical description of ice nucleation is the activation energy, which controls the flux of water molecules from the bulk of the liquid to the solid during the early stages of ice formation. In most studies it is estimated by direct association with the bulk properties of water, typically viscosity and self-diffusivity. As the environment in the ice-liquid interface may differ from that of the bulk, this approach may introduce bias in calculated nucleation rates. In this work a theoretical model is proposed to describe the transfer of water molecules across the ice-liquid interface. Within this framework the activation energy naturally emerges from the combination of the energy required to break hydrogen bonds in the liquid, i.e., the bulk diffusion process, and the work dissipated from the molecular rearrangement of water molecules within the ice-liquid interface. The new expression is introduced into a generalized form of classical nucleation theory. Even though no nucleation rate measurements are used to fit any of the parameters of the theory the predicted nucleation rate is in good agreement with experimental results, even at temperature as low as 190 K, where it tends to be underestimated by most models. It is shown that the activation energy has a strong dependency on temperature and a weak dependency on water activity. Such dependencies are masked by thermodynamic effects at temperatures typical of homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets; however, they may affect the formation of ice in haze aerosol particles. The new model provides an independent estimation of the activation energy and the homogeneous ice nucleation rate, and it may help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and the

  15. Boiling water jet outflow from a thin nozzle: spatial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnova, R. Kh.; Korobchinskaya, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    This study presents dual-temperature two-phase model for liquid-vapor mixture with account for evaporation and inter-phase heat transfer (taken in single-velocity single-pressure approximation). Simulation was performed using the shock-capturing method and moving Lagrangian grids. Analysis was performed for simulated and experimental values of nucleation frequency (for refining the initial number and radius of microbubbles) which affect the evaporation rate. Validity of 2D and 1D simulation was examined through comparison with experimental data. The peculiarities of the water-steam formation at the initial stage of outflow through a thin nozzle were studied for different initial equilibrium states of water for the conditions close to chosen experimental conditions.

  16. Models and Stability Analysis of Boiling Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Dorning

    2002-04-15

    We have studied the nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic stability of boiling water reactors (BWRs) using a model that includes: space-time modal neutron kinetics based on spatial w-modes; single- and two-phase flow in parallel boiling channels; fuel rod heat conduction dynamics; and a simple model of the recirculation loop. The BR model is represented by a set of time-dependent nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and is studied as a dynamical system using the modern bifurcation theory and nonlinear dynamical systems analysis. We first determine the stability boundary (SB) - or Hopf bifurcation set- in the most relevant parameter plane, the inlet-subcooling-number/external-pressure-drop plane, for a fixed control rod induced external reactivity equal to the 100% rod line value; then we transform the SB to the practical power-flow map used by BWR operating engineers and regulatory agencies. Using this SB, we show that the normal operating point at 100% power is very stable, that stability of points on the 100% rod line decreases as the flow rate is reduced, and that operating points in the low-flow/high-power region are least stable. We also determine the SB that results when the modal kinetics is replaced by simple point reactor kinetics, and we thereby show that the first harmonic mode does not have a significant effect on the SB. However, we later show that it nevertheless has a significant effect on stability because it affects the basin of attraction of stable operating points. Using numerical simulations we show that, in the important low-flow/high-power region, the Hopf bifurcation that occurs as the SB is crossed is subcritical; hence, growing oscillations can result following small finite perturbations of stable steady-states on the 100% rod line at points in the low-flow/high-power region. Numerical simulations are also performed to calculate the decay ratios (DRs) and frequencies of oscillations for various points on the 100% rod line. It is

  17. Modeling of Inverted Annular Film Boiling using an integral method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Arunkumar

    In modeling Inverted Annular Film Boiling (IAFB), several important phenomena such as interaction between the liquid and the vapor phases and irregular nature of the interface, which greatly influence the momentum and heat transfer at the interface, need to be accounted for. However, due to the complexity of these phenomena, they were not modeled in previous studies. Since two-phase heat transfer equations and relationships rely heavily on experimental data, many closure relationships that were used in previous studies to solve the problem are empirical in nature. Also, in deriving the relationships, the experimental data were often extrapolated beyond the intended range of conditions, causing errors in predictions. In some cases, empirical correlations that were derived from situations other than IAFB, and whose applicability to IAFB was questionable, were used. Moreover, arbitrary constants were introduced in the model developed in previous studies to provide good fit to the experimental data. These constants have no physical basis, thereby leading to questionable accuracy in the model predictions. In the present work, modeling of Inverted Annular Film Boiling (IAFB) is done using Integral Method. Two-dimensional formulation of IAFB is presented. Separate equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy are derived from first principles, for the vapor film and the liquid core. Turbulence is incorporated in the formulation. The system of second-order partial differential equations is integrated over the radial direction to obtain a system of integral differential equations. In order to solve the system of equations, second order polynomial profiles are used to describe the nondimensional velocity and temperatures. The unknown coefficients in the profiles are functions of the axial direction alone. Using the boundary conditions that govern the physical problem, equations for the unknown coefficients are derived in terms of the primary dependent variables

  18. Critical heat flux for free convection boiling in thin rectangular channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Tichler, P. R.

    A review of the experimental data on free convection boiling critical heat flux (CHF) in vertical rectangular channels reveals three mechanisms of burnout. They are the pool boiling limit, the circulation limit, and the flooding limit associated with a transition in flow regime from churn to annular flow. The dominance of a particular mechanism depends on the dimensions of the channel. Analytical models were developed for each free convection boiling limit. Limited agreement with data is observed. A CHF correlation, which is valid for a wide range of gap sizes, was constructed from the CHF's calculated according to the three mechanisms of burnout.

  19. Kandlikar third number map for flow boiling in micro-channels and micro-gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an extension of the recent work of Baldassari and Marengo (Baldassari C., Marengo M., Flow Boiling in Microchannels and Microgravity, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 39 (2013 1, pp. 1-36, this note presents Kandlikar third number (K3 map for flow boiling in microchannels and microgravity. Using several data points available in the literature, Kandlikar third number (K3 map was plotted versus the hydraulic diameter (dh as the characteristic dimension for flow boiling in microchannels and microgravity. The ranges of the Kandlikar third number (K3, calculated using the hydraulic diameter (dh, are presented.

  20. Advances in heterogeneous ice nucleation research: Theoretical modeling and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, Hassan

    In the atmosphere, cloud droplets can remain in a supercooled liquid phase at temperatures as low as -40 °C. Above this temperature, cloud droplets freeze via heterogeneous ice nucleation whereby a rare and poorly understood subset of atmospheric particles catalyze the ice phase transition. As the phase state of clouds is critical in determining their radiative properties and lifetime, deficiencies in our understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation poses a large uncertainty on our efforts to predict human induced global climate change. Experimental challenges in properly simulating particle-induced freezing processes under atmospherically relevant conditions have largely contributed to the absence of a well-established model and parameterizations that accurately predict heterogeneous ice nucleation. Conversely, the sparsity of reliable measurement techniques available struggle to be interpreted by a single consistent theoretical or empirical framework, which results in layers of uncertainty when attempting to extrapolate useful information regarding ice nucleation for use in atmospheric cloud models. In this dissertation a new framework for describing heterogeneous ice nucleation is developed. Starting from classical nucleation theory, the surface of an ice nucleating particle is treated as a continuum of heterogeneous ice nucleating activity and a particle specific distribution of this activity g is derived. It is hypothesized that an individual particle species exhibits a critical surface area. Above this critical area the ice nucleating activity of a particle species can be described by one g distribution, g, while below it g expresses itself expresses externally resulting in particle to particle variability in ice nucleating activity. The framework is supported by cold plate droplet freezing measurements for dust and biological particles in which the total surface area of particle material available is varied. Freezing spectra above a certain surface area

  1. Nonstoichiometric nucleation and growth of multicomponent nanocrystals in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yuho; Kwak, Junghyeok; Soon, Aloysius; Jeong, Unyong

    2014-10-21

    The ability to assemble nanoscale functional building blocks is a useful and modular way for scientists to design valuable materials with specific physical and chemical properties. Chemists expect multicomponent, heterostructured nanocrystals to show unique electrical, thermal, and optical properties not seen in homogeneous, single-phase nanocrystals. Although researchers have made remarkable advances in heterogeneous nucleation and growth, design of synthetic conditions for obtaining nanocrystals with a target composition and shape is still a big challenge. There are several outstanding issues that chemists need to address before they can successfully carry out the design-based synthesis of multicomponent nanocrystals. For instance, small changes in the reaction parameters, such as the precursor, solvent, surfactant, reducing agent, and the reaction temperature, often result in changes in the structure and chemical composition of the final product. Although scientists do not fully understand the mechanisms underlying the nucleation and growth processes involved in the synthesis of these multicomponent nanocrystals, recent progress in understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors have improved our control over their final structure and chemical composition. In this Account, we summarize our recent advances in understanding of the nucleation and growth mechanisms involved in the solution-based synthesis of multicomponent nanocrystals. We also discuss the various challenges encountered in their synthesis, emphasizing what still needs special consideration. We first discuss the three different nucleation paths from a thermodynamics perspective: amorphous nucleation, crystalline nucleation, and two-step nucleation. Amorphous nucleation and two-step nucleation involve the generation of nonstoichiometric nuclei. We initiate this process mainly by introducing an imbalance in the concentrations of the reduced elements. When the nonstoichiometric nuclei grow, we

  2. Urediospores of Puccinia spp. and other rusts are warm-temperature ice nucleators and harbor ice nucleation active bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Glaux, C.; Samsatly, J.; Asaad, S.; Moukahel, A. R.; Gonçalves, F. L. T.; Bigg, E. K.

    2012-10-01

    In light of various features of the biology of the rust fungi and of the epidemiology of the plant diseases they cause that illustrate the important role of rainfall in their life history, we have characterized the ice nucleation activity (INA) of the aerially disseminated spores (urediospores) of this group of fungi. Urediospores of this obligate plant parasite were collected from natural infections from 7 species of weeds in France, from coffee in Brazil and from field and greenhouse-grown wheat in France, the USA, Turkey and Syria. Immersion freezing was used to determine freezing onset temperatures and the abundance of ice nuclei in suspensions of washed spores. Microbiological analyses of spores and subsequent tests of the ice nucleation activity of the bacteria associated with spores were deployed to quantify the contribution of bacteria to the ice nucleation activity of the spores. All samples of spores were ice nucleation active having freezing onset temperatures as warm as -4 °C. Spores in most of the samples carried cells of ice nucleation-active strains of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (at rates of less than 1 bacterial cell per 100 urediospores), but bacterial INA accounted for only a small fraction of the INA observed in spore suspensions. Changes in the INA of spore suspensions after treatment with lysozyme suggest that the INA of urediospores involves a polysaccharide. Based on data from the literature, we have estimated the concentrations of urediospores in air at cloud height and in rainfall. These quantities are very similar to those reported for other biological ice nucleators in these same substrates. We suggest that air sampling techniques have ignored the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric concentrations that occur under conditions propitious for precipitation that could increase their local abundance intermittently. Nevertheless, we propose that the relative low abundance of warm-temperature biological ice nucleators in the

  3. Using Ice Nucleating Particles to Enable Desublimation on Chilled Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Julia; Failor, Kevin; Bisbano, Caitlin; Mulroe, Megan; Nath, Saurabh; Vinatzer, Boris; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    On a subfreezing surface, nucleating embryos usually form as supercooled condensate that later freeze into ice, as opposed to desublimation. Ice nucleating particles (INPs) have been widely used to freeze existing water; however, nobody has studied how they might affect the initial mode of nucleation. Here, we show that INPs deposited on a substrate can switch the mode of embryo nucleation to desublimation, rather than supercooled condensation. Deposition was achieved by evaporating a water droplet containing INPs on a hydrophobic silicon wafer. A Peltier stage was used to cool the wafer down inside of a controlled humidity chamber, such that the desired set point temperature correlated with the dew point and onset of nucleation. Beneath a critical surface temperature, microscopy indicated that desublimation occurred on the circular patch of deposited INPs, compared to supercooled condensation outside the circle. The hydrophobic surface was then patterned with hydrophilic stripe arrays, which facilitated the deposition of stripes of INPs via the same evaporation method. The resulting array of desublimating ice stripes created dry zones free of condensation or frost in the intermediate areas, as the hygroscopic ice stripes served as overlapping humidity sinks.

  4. Templated nucleation of acetaminophen on spherical excipient agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Justin L; Chadwick, Keith; Wood, Geoffrey P F; Sheu, Iris; Brettmann, Blair K; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2013-03-12

    We investigated the effect of spherical agglomeration of heterogeneous crystalline substrates on the nucleation of acetaminophen (AAP). Optical and electron microscopy showed that the surface morphologies of single crystal triclinic lactose and D-mannitol differed significantly from their counterparts formed via spherical agglomeration. Spherical agglomerates of lactose were shown to enhance the nucleation rate of acetaminophen (AAP) by a factor of 11 compared to single crystal lactose; however, no such enhancement was observed for D-mannitol. X-ray powder diffraction identified the presence of new crystal faces of lactose present only in the spherical agglomerates However, D-mannitol did not show any significant change in crystal morphology. The new crystal faces of triclinic lactose were analyzed using geometric lattice matching software and molecular dynamics simulations to establish any new and significant epitaxial matches between lactose and AAP. A coincident lattice match and a large favorable energy interaction from hydrogen bonding were observed between the (141¯) and (001) crystal faces of lactose and AAP, respectively. The enhanced nucleation kinetics, X-ray data, and computational studies indicated that the spherical crystallization of lactose exposed the (141¯) face on the surface of the agglomerates, which subsequently enhanced the nucleation rate of AAP through geometric lattice matching and molecular functionality. This study highlights the importance of exploring different heterogeneous substrate morphologies for enhancing nucleation kinetics.

  5. Self Nucleation and Crystallization of Poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Cebe, Peggy

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a hydrophilic, biodegradable, semi-crystalline polymer with uses ranging from textiles to medicine. Film samples of PVA were investigated to assess crystallization and melting behavior during self-nucleation experiments, and thermal degradation, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, respectively. TG results show that degradation occurred at temperatures close to the observed peak melting temperature of 223 C. Using conventional DSC, PVA was heated at a rate of 10 C/min to various self-nucleation temperatures, Ts, within its melting range, briefly annealed, cooled and reheated. Three distinct crystallization regimes were observed upon cooling, depending upon self nucleation temperature. At low values of Ts, below 227 C, PVA only partially melts; residual crystal anneals while new, less perfect crystals form during cooling. Between 228 C and 234 C, PVA was found to crystallize exclusively by self-nucleation. For Ts above 235 C the PVA melts completely. Fast scanning chip-based calorimetry was used to heat and cool at 2000 K/s, to prevent degradation. Results of self nucleation experiments using fast scanning and conventional DSC will be compared. NSF DMR-1206010.

  6. Nucleated red blood cells in infants of mothers with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littner, Yoav; Mandel, Dror; Sheffer-Mimouni, Galit; Mimouni, Francis B; Deutsch, Varda; Dollberg, Shaul

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the absolute nucleated red blood cell and lymphocyte count is elevated in term, appropriate-for-gestational-age infants born to women with asthma. We compared absolute nucleated red blood cell counts taken during the first 12 hours of life in two groups of term, vaginally delivered, appropriate-for-gestational-age infants; one group was born to mothers with active asthma during pregnancy (n = 28 infants), and the other group was born to control mothers (n = 29 infants). Asthma severity was classified according to the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. We excluded infants of women with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, alcohol, and tobacco or drug abuse and infants with fetal heart rate abnormalities, hemolysis, blood loss, or chromosomal anomalies. There were no differences between groups in birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal analgesia during labor, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, and infant sex. The hematocrit level, red blood cell count, absolute nucleated red blood cell count, and corrected leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the asthma group than in the control group. The platelet count was not significantly different between groups. The absolute nucleated red blood cell count correlated significantly with the asthma severity score (r (2) = 28%, P cell count with the presence of asthma and its severity (P mothers with asthma have increased circulating absolute nucleated red blood cell and lymphocyte counts compared with control infants.

  7. Nucleated red blood cells in infants of smoking mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruchimovich, M; Dollberg, S; Green, D W; Mimouni, F B

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate whether the absolute nucleated red blood cell (RBC) count is elevated in term, appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants born to smoking women. We compared absolute nucleated RBC counts taken during the first 12 hours of life in two groups of term, vaginally delivered, AGA infants, one group born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy (n = 30) and the other born to mothers who did not smoke (n = 30). We excluded infants of women with diabetes, hypertension, or alcohol or drug abuse, and infants with heart rate abnormalities, hemolysis, blood loss, or chromosomal anomalies. There were no differences between the groups in birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal analgesia during labor, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, corrected white blood cell counts, lymphocyte counts, or hematocrits. The median absolute nucleated RBC count in infants of smoking mothers was 0.5 x 10(9)/L (range 0 to 5.0) versus 0.0005 x 10(9)/L (range 0 to 0.6) in nonsmoking controls (P mothers have increased circulating absolute nucleated RBC counts compared with controls. The absolute nucleated RBC count in newborns correlates with the number of cigarettes smoked during pregnancy.

  8. Boiling water reactor radiation shielded Control Rod Drive Housing Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baversten, B.; Linden, M.J. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Operations, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Control Rod Drive (CRD) mechanisms are located in the area below the reactor vessel in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Specifically, these CRDs are located between the bottom of the reactor vessel and above an interlocking structure of steel bars and rods, herein identified as CRD Housing Supports. The CRD Housing Supports are designed to limit the travel of a Control Rod and Control Rod Drive in the event that the CRD vessel attachement went to fail, allowing the CRD to be ejected from the vessel. By limiting the travel of the ejected CRD, the supports prevent a nuclear overpower excursion that could occur as a result of the ejected CRD. The Housing Support structure must be disassembled in order to remove CRDs for replacement or maintenance. The disassembly task can require a significant amount of outage time and personnel radiation exposure dependent on the number and location of the CRDs to be changed out. This paper presents a way to minimize personal radiation exposure through the re-design of the Housing Support structure. The following paragraphs also delineate a method of avoiding the awkward, manual, handling of the structure under the reactor vessel during a CRD change out.

  9. Model for boiling and dryout in particle beds. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, R. J.

    1982-06-01

    Over the last ten years experiments and modeling of dryout in particle beds have produced over fifty papers. Considering only volume-heated beds, over 250 dryout measurements have been made, and are listed in this work. In addition, fifteen models to predict dryout have been produced and are discussed. A model is developed in this report for one-dimensional boiling and dryout in a porous medium. It is based on conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy. The initial coupled differential equations are reduced to a single first-order differential equation with an algebraic equation for the upper boundary condition. The model includes the effects of both laminar and turbulent flow, two-phase friction, and capillary force. The boundary condition at the bed bottom includes the possibility of inflowing liquid and either an adiabatic or a bottom-cooled support structure. The top of the bed may be either channeled or subcooled. In the first case the channel length and the saturation at the base of the channels are predicted. In the latter case, a criterion for penetration of the subcooled zone by channels is obtained.

  10. TOBI: A nonlinear model for boiling water reactor stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehle, F. (Siemens/KWU, Offenbach (West Germany)); Pruitt, D.W.

    1990-06-01

    The magnitude and the divergent nature of the oscillations during the LaSalle unit 2 nuclear power plant even on March 9, 1988, renewed concern about the state of knowledge on boiling water reactor (BWR) instabilities and was followed by many activities, e.g., the Idaho Stability Symposium. For appropriate representation of the physical processes, typical BWR time-domain stability calculations with, e.g., TRAC, RETRAN, or THERMIT require a large number of axial nodes and are very costly with regard to computer time. Linear models are inexpensive, but only valid as long as the parameters have no large deviation from the reference operating conditions. The objective of this work is the development of a physical model that is applicable for stability analysis in the nonlinear regime, but without the disadvantage of numerical problems and excessive computing times. The basic concept of the model TOBI is the integral study of the interaction between the time-dependent single- and two-phase regions. A series of calculations for purely thermal-hydraulic systems and BWRs has shown that TOBI is a convenient tool for stability analysis. Because of the simple but physically realistic modeling, it is very helpful in achieving an improved understanding of the mechanisms that affect BWR stability, and it is inexpensive, with regard to computer time, to perform extensive parameter sensitivity studies, even in the nonlinear regime.

  11. [Devitalization of salmonellal bacteria in boiled and smoked sausages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanov, I; Zakhariev, Ts; Dimitrov, Ia

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory and production experiments were carried for devitalizing bouillon cultures of 7 serological types of salmonella. The laboratory experiments (73) were made in water bath, the bouillon cultures being heated following the thermic curve for the production of boiled-fumigated sausages. The production experiments (11) were carried out on sausages having a diameter of: 30-40 mm, 50-60mm and 80-100 mm. The density of bacterial cells in the bouillon and in the meat mass was 2-42.10(6)/cm3. It was proved that in vitro the critical temperature for the devitalization of salmonellas was 62 degrees C (S. enteritidis, S. agona, S. typhimurium, S. oranienburg, S. choleraesnis, S. anatum, S. lexington). During the production experiments on the sausage 'in the Macedonian fashion', the 'Kamchia' sausage (ø50-60 mm) and the 'Roussé' sausage, the salmonellas tested (S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. oranienburg, S. choleraesnis ans S. dublin) showed a critical devitalization temperature of 64 degrees C. It was proved that the devitalization of salmonellas depended on the critical temperature reached and was not influenced by the type of salmonella, the diameter and the structure of the sausages. For the isolation of salmonella bacteria from thermically treated meat products a preliminary enrichment in peptone water is necessary during 18-20 hours and a second sowing on hard and in liquid selective food media.

  12. Stability analysis on natural circulation boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Peter

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of the study is a stability analysis of the simplified boiling water reactor concept. A fluid dynamics code, DYNOS, was developed and successfully validated against FRIGG and DESIRE data and a stability benchmark on the Ringhals 1 forced circulation BWR. Three simplified desings were considered in the analysis: The SWRIOOO by Siemens and the SBWR and ESBWR from the General Electric Co. For all three design operational characteristics, i.e. power versus flow rate maps, were calculated. The effects which different geometric and operational parameters, such as the riser height, inlet subcooling etc., have on the characteristics have been investigated. Dynamic simulations on the three simplified design revealed the geysering and the natural circulation oscillations modes only. They were, however, only encountered at pressure below 0.6 MPa. Stability maps for all tree simplified BWRs were calculated and plotted. The study concluded that a fast pressurisation of the reactor vessel is necessary to eliminate the possibility of geysering or natural circulation oscillations mode instability. (au) 26 tabs., 88 ills.

  13. Enzymatic maceration of bone: a gentler technique than boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhre, Marie-Louise; Eriksen, Anne Marie; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær; Rasmussen, Arne Redsted; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-04-01

    This proof of concept study investigates the removal of soft tissue from human ribs with the use of two common methods: boiling with a laundry detergent and using enzymes. Six individuals were autopsied, and one rib from each individual was removed for testing. Each rib was cut into pieces and afterwards macerated by one of the two methods. DNA extraction was performed to see the effect of the macerations on DNA preservation. Furthermore, the bone pieces were examined in a stereomicroscope to assess for any bone damage. The results demonstrated that both methods removed all flesh/soft tissue from the bones. The DNA analysis showed that DNA was preserved on all the pieces of bones which were examined. Finally, the investigation suggests that enzyme maceration could be gentler on the bones, as the edges appeared less frayed. The enzyme maceration was also a quicker method; it took three hours compared with the traditional method which took about 24 hours. However, a more standardised study should be performed to confirm this. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Fluorescence Studies of Protein Crystal Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc; Sumida, John

    2000-01-01

    -association process is a function of the protein concentration relative to the saturation concentration, and observing it in dilute solution (conc. less than or equal to 10(exp -5)M) requires that the experiments be performed under low solubility conditions, i.e., low temperatures and high salt concentrations. Data from preliminary steady state FRET studies with N-terminal bound pyrene acetic acid (PAA-lys, donor, Ex 340 nm, Em 376 nm) and asp101 LY-lys as an acceptor showed a consistent trend of decreasing donor fluorescence intensity with increasing total protein concentration. The FRET data have been obtained at pH 4.6, 0.1M NaAc buffer, at 5 and 7% NaCl, 4 C. The corresponding C(sub sat) values are 0.471 and 0.362 mg/ml (approx. 3.3 and approx. 2.5 x 10(exp -5)M respectively). The donor fluorescence decrease is more pronounced at7% NaCl, consistent with the expected increased intermolecular interactions at higher salt concentrations as reflected in the lower solubility. Results from these and other ongoing studies will be discussed in conjunction with an emerging model for how tetragonal lysozyme crystals nucleate and the relevance of that model to other proteins.

  15. Limitations of a Fokker-Planck description of nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, J.; Barkema, G. T.

    2010-07-01

    In most nucleation theories, the dynamics of nucleation is characterized by the evolution in time of the mass of droplets, and this time evolution is described as a combination of drift and diffusion. This assumes that the mass fluctations are described by a Markovian, i.e., memoryless, stochastic process. This paper presents a method to assess in how far this assumption of Markovianity is valid. The method is employed in nucleation studies in a two-dimensional Ising model at temperature T=0.88Tc , both with spin flip dynamics and with local spin exchange dynamics. In the first case, it shows that the evolution of droplet masses might be effectively described by a Markov process on large time scales. In the latter case, however, the dynamics are far from Markovian. We argue that this is due to the presence of a locally conserved quantity.

  16. Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper; Sengupta, Kamalika; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K; Wagner, Robert; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill; Dias, antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Onnela, antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Pringle, Kirsty; Rap, Alexandru; Richards, Nigel A D; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Seinfeld, John H; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander L; Wagner, Andrea C; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere and that ions have a relatively minor role. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded. Here we present evidence for the formation of aerosol particles from highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions. The highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) are produced by ozonolysis of $\\alpha$-pinene. We find that ions from Galactic cosmic rays increase the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation. Our experimental findings are supported...

  17. Measuring the nucleation rate of Lysozyme using microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimović, Šeila; Jia, Yanwei; Fraden, Seth

    2009-01-01

    We employ the PhaseChip, a (poly)dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device, for statistical studies of protein crystal nucleation. The PhaseChip is designed to decouple nucleation and growth of protein crystals and so improve their yield and quality. Two layers of fluidic channels containing salt reservoirs and nanoliter-sized wells for protein drops in oil are separated by a thin PDMS membrane, which is permeable to water, but not to salt or macromolecules such as protein. We reversibly vary the supersaturation of protein inside the stored droplets by controlling the chemical potential of the reservoir. Lysozyme in the presence of sodium chloride is used as a model system. We determine the crystal nucleation rate as a function of protein supersaturation by counting the number of crystal nuclei per droplet, as demonstrated by Galkin and Vekilov.1 PMID:20161207

  18. Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Hasan, Mohammad M.; Kharangate, Chirag; O'Neill, Lucas; Konishi, Chris; Nahra, Henry; Hall, Nancy; Balasubramaniam, R.; Mackey, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research aims to develop an integrated two-phase flow boiling/condensation facility for the International Space Station (ISS) to serve as primary platform for obtaining two-phase flow and heat transfer data in microgravity.

  19. Passive Capillary Pumped Cryocooling System for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage Tanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant cost and weight savings of a space mission can be achieved by improving the cryogenic storage technology. Added cryogen mass due to the cryogen boil-off,...

  20. Boiling heat transfer on single phosphor bronze and copper mesh microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orman Łukasz J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental results of boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethyl alcohol on surfaces covered with single layers of wire mesh structures made of phosphor bronze and copper. For each material two kinds of structures have been considered (higher and lower in order to determine the impact of the height of the structure on boiling heat transfer. The wire diameter of the copper meshes was 0,25 mm and 0,32 mm, while of the bronze meshes: 0,20 mm and 0,25 mm. The structures had the same mesh aperture (distance between the wires – 0,50 mm for copper and 0,40 for bronze but different wire diameter and, consequently, different height of the layers. The tests have been performed under ambient pressure in the pool boiling mode. The obtained results indicate a visible impact of the layer height on the boiling heat transfer performance of the analysed microstructures.

  1. The Leipzig Ice Nucleation chamber Comparison (LINC): An overview of ice nucleation measurements observed with four on-line ice nucleation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Monika; Wex, Heike; Grawe, Sarah; Hartmann, Susan; Hellner, Lisa; Herenz, Paul; Welti, André; Stratmann, Frank; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2016-04-01

    Mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) are found to be the most relevant cloud type leading to precipitation in mid-latitudes. The formation of ice crystals in MPCs is not completely understood. To estimate the effect of aerosol particles on the radiative properties of clouds and to describe ice nucleation in models, the specific properties of aerosol particles acting as ice nucleating particles (INPs) still need to be identified. A number of devices are able to measure INPs in the lab and in the field. However, methods can be very different and need to be tested under controlled conditions with respect to aerosol generation and properties in order to standardize measurement and data analysis approaches for subsequent ambient measurements. Here, we present an overview of the LINC campaign hosted at TROPOS in September 2015. We compare four ice nucleation devices: PINC (Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber, Chou et al., 2011) and SPIN (SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei) are operated in deposition nucleation and condensation freezing mode. LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, Hartmann et al., 2011) and PIMCA (Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chamber) measure in the immersion freezing mode. PIMCA is used as a vertical extension to PINC and allows activation and droplet growth prior to exposure to the investigated ice nucleation temperature. Size-resolved measurements of multiple aerosol types were performed including pure mineral dust (K-feldspar, kaolinite) and biological particles (Birch pollen washing waters) as well as some of them after treatment with sulfuric or nitric acid prior to experiments. LACIS and PIMCA-PINC operated in the immersion freezing mode showed very good agreement in the measured frozen fraction (FF). For the comparison between PINC and SPIN, which were scanning relative humidity from below to above water vapor saturation, an agreement was found for the obtained INP concentration. However, some differences were observed, which may result from ice

  2. Transgranular Crack Nucleation in Carrara Marble of Brittle Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi; Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen; Maruvanchery, Varun

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the microcrack nucleation is of a fundamental importance in the study of rock fracturing process. Due to variations in texture and mineralogy, different rocks may show different distinctive microcrack nucleation mechanisms. In order to understand the microcrack nucleation mechanisms in Carrara marble comprehensively, localized damage zones are artificially produced by loading specimens containing an array of en-echelon flaws in this study. Then, representative samples were cut from those loaded specimens and prepared for optical observation. Four types of microcrack nucleation mechanisms leading to the formation of transgranular cracks have been identified in Carrara marble. Type I and II mechanisms are favored by the distinctive polygonal shape of the crystal grains in Carrara marble. Local tensile stress concentration in these two mechanisms is attributed to grain sliding and divergent normal contact force, respectively. Type III mechanism is associated with the gliding along twin lamellae. The resultant tensile stress concentration could nucleate microcracks within the grain containing these lamellae or in the grain boundary. No microcracks in the adjoining grains were observed in this study. Our statistical analysis suggests that type III mechanism favors the nucleation of new cracks which are nearly perpendicular to the gently inclined twin lamellae and thus have a small angle with the maximum loading direction (about 15°). Type IV mechanism operates in grains failed mainly due to compressive stress rather than tensile stress concentration. Sets of parallel microcracks of this mechanism seem to be related to the crystallographic planes of calcite. The microcracking results also suggest that most of the grain boundaries in damaged zone have been cracked at the loading about 80 % of the specimen strength, while transgranular cracks begin to occur at that time and flourish after about 90 % loading of the strength.

  3. Nitric acid trihydrate nucleation and denitrification in the Arctic stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooß, J.-U.; Engel, I.; Borrmann, S.; Frey, W.; Günther, G.; Hoyle, C. R.; Kivi, R.; Luo, B. P.; Molleker, S.; Peter, T.; Pitts, M. C.; Schlager, H.; Stiller, G.; Vömel, H.; Walker, K. A.; Müller, R.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles in the polar stratosphere have been shown to be responsible for vertical redistribution of reactive nitrogen (NOy). Recent observations by Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the CALIPSO satellite have been explained in terms of heterogeneous nucleation of NAT on foreign nuclei, revealing this to be an important formation pathway for the NAT particles. In state of the art global- or regional-scale models, heterogeneous NAT nucleation is currently simulated in a very coarse manner using a constant, saturation-independent nucleation rate. Here we present first simulations for the Arctic winter 2009/2010 applying a new saturation-dependent parametrisation of heterogeneous NAT nucleation rates within the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). The simulation shows good agreement of chemical trace species with in situ and remote sensing observations. The simulated polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) optical properties agree much better with CALIOP observations than those simulated with a constant nucleation rate model. A comparison of the simulated particle size distributions with observations made using the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) aboard the high altitude research aircraft Geophysica, shows that the model reproduces the observed size distribution, except for the very largest particles above 15 μm diameter. The vertical NOy redistribution caused by the sedimentation of the NAT particles, in particular the denitrification and nitrification signals observed by the ACE-FTS satellite instrument and the in situ SIOUX instrument aboard the Geophysica, are reproduced by the improved model, and a small improvement with respect to the constant nucleation rate model is found.

  4. International Workshop on Comparing Ice Nucleation Measuring Systems 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cziczo, Daniel [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-04-30

    The relationship of ambient aerosol particles to the formation of ice-containing clouds is one of the largest uncertainties in understanding the Earth’s climate. The uncertainty is due to several poorly understood processes and measurements including, but not limited to: (1) the microphysics of how particles nucleate ice, (2) the number of ice forming particles as a function of atmospheric properties such as temperature and relative humidity, (3) the atmospheric distribution of ice forming particles and (4) the role of anthropogenic activities in producing or changing the behavior of ice forming particles. The ways in which ice forming particles can impact climate is also multi-faceted. More ice forming particles can lead to clouds with more ice crystals and different optical properties than clouds with less ice forming particles. More effective ice forming particles can lead to ice at higher temperature and/or lower saturation, resulting in clouds at lower altitude or latitude which also changes the Earth’s radiative balance. Ice nucleation also initiates most of the Earth’s precipitation, even in the mid- and low-latitudes, since cloud-top temperatures are often below freezing. The limited measurements and lack of understanding directly translates to restrictions in our ability to model atmospheric ice formation and project changes into the future. The importance of ice nucleation research is further exemplified by Figure 1 which shows the publications per decade and citations per year on the topic of ice nucleation [DeMott et al., 2011]. After a lull at the end of the last century, there has been a dramatic increase in both publications and citations related to ice nucleation; this directly corresponds to the importance of ice nucleation on the Earth’s climate and the uncertainty in this area noted by the Solomon [2007].

  5. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures.

  6. The impact of capillary structure properties on heat transfer from boiling in limited space

    OpenAIRE

    Баскова, Александра Александровна; Кравец, Владимир Юрьевич; Алексеик, Ольга Сергеевна; Лебедь, Наталия Леонидовна

    2015-01-01

    Modern cooling systems for radio and electronic equipment widely use heat pipes. The main element of heat pipes is capillary and porous structure (CPS), on which a heat transfer agent boils and condensates. Previous studies showed that intensity of heat transfer depends on geometric parameters of the CPS. Our research is devoted to analyzing experimental data on the intensity of heat transfer from boiling in limited space on the CPS with various fiber lengths. We have determined the impact of...

  7. Boiling of simulated tap water: effect on polar brominated disinfection byproducts, halogen speciation, and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Xiangru; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Osiol, Jennifer; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Tap water typically contains numerous halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) as a result of disinfection, especially of chlorination. Among halogenated DBPs, brominated ones are generally significantly more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. In this study, with the aid of ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry by setting precursor ion scans of m/z 79/81, whole spectra of polar brominated DBPs in simulated tap water samples without and with boiling were revealed. Most polar brominated DBPs were thermally unstable and their levels were substantially reduced after boiling via decarboxylation or hydrolysis; the levels of a few aromatic brominated DBPs increased after boiling through decarboxylation of their precursors. A novel adsorption unit for volatile total organic halogen was designed, which enabled the evaluation of halogen speciation and mass balances in the simulated tap water samples during boiling. After boiling for 5 min, the overall level of brominated DBPs was reduced by 62.8%, of which 39.8% was volatilized and 23.0% was converted to bromide; the overall level of chlorinated DBPs was reduced by 61.1%, of which 44.4% was volatilized and 16.7% was converted to chloride; the overall level of halogenated DBPs was reduced by 62.3%. The simulated tap water sample without boiling was cytotoxic in a chronic (72 h) exposure to mammalian cells; this cytotoxicity was reduced by 76.9% after boiling for 5 min. The reduction in cytotoxicity corresponded with the reduction in overall halogenated DBPs. Thus, boiling of tap water can be regarded as a "detoxification" process and may reduce human exposure to halogenated DBPs through tap water ingestion.

  8. Starch characterization in seven raw, boiled and roasted chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars from Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, A.P.; Oliveira, I. de; Silva, M. E.; Guedes, C. M.; Borges, O.; Magalhães, B.; Gonçalves, B.

    2015-01-01

    Changes occurring in seven chestnut (Castanea sativa sp.) cultivars, caused by boiling and roasting, on starch content, cell and starch granules dimension were evaluated, and morphological changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Three clear patterns of variation were detected after processing, namely: i) decrease of starch content with processing; ii) starch increase with the applied treatments; iii) increase of starch with boiling and decrease with roasting. Starch granul...

  9. Heat transfer at boiling of refrigerants in channels with twisted tape insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, A. V.; Tarasevich, S. E.; Yakovlev, A. B.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the review results of heat transfer at boiling in channels with twisted tape inserts. Various methods and approaches to the research of heat transfer processes at boiling of refrigerants in channels with twisted tape inserts were identified, a significant difference of the influencing factors on the heat transfer depending on the range of regime parameters under study was noted and also the necessity for research in this field was shown.

  10. Gas diffusion and temperature dependence of bubble nucleation during irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreman, A. J. E.; Singh, Bachu Narain

    1986-01-01

    of the diatomic nucleation of helium bubbles, assuming helium to diffuse substitutionally, with radiation-enhanced diffusion at lower temperatures. The calculated temperature dependence of the bubble density shows excellent agreement with that observed in 600 MeV proton irradiations, including a reduction...... in activation energy below Tm/2. The coalescence of diatomic nuclei due to Brownian motion markedly improves the agreement and also provides a well-defined terminal density. Bubble nucleation by this mechanism is sufficiently fast to inhibit any appreciable initial loss of gas to grain boundaries during...

  11. Heterogeneous Nucleation and Growth of Nanoparticles at Environmental Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young-Shin; Kim, Doyoon; Neil, Chelsea W

    2016-09-20

    Mineral nucleation is a phase transformation of aqueous components to solids with an accompanying creation of new surfaces. In this evolutional, yet elusive, process, nuclei often form at environmental interfaces, which provide remarkably reactive sites for heterogeneous nucleation and growth. Naturally occurring nucleation processes significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycles of important components in the Earth's crust, such as iron and manganese oxide minerals and calcium carbonate. However, in recent decades, these cycles have been significantly altered by anthropogenic activities, which affect the aqueous chemistry and equilibrium of both surface and subsurface systems. These alterations can trigger the dissolution of existing minerals and formation of new nanoparticles (i.e., nucleation and growth) and consequently change the porosity and permeability of geomedia in subsurface environments. Newly formed nanoparticles can also actively interact with components in natural and engineered aquatic systems, including those posing a significant hazard such as arsenic. These interactions can bilaterally influence the fate and transport of both newly formed nanoparticles and aqueous components. Due to their importance in natural and engineered processes, heterogeneous nucleation at environmental interfaces has started to receive more attention. However, a lack of time-resolved in situ analyses makes the evaluation of heterogeneous nucleation challenging because the physicochemical properties of both the nuclei and surfaces significantly and dynamically change with time and aqueous chemistry. This Account reviews our in situ kinetic studies of the heterogeneous nucleation and growth behaviors of iron(III) (hydr)oxide, calcium carbonate, and manganese (hydr)oxide minerals in aqueous systems. In particular, we utilized simultaneous small-angle and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/GISAXS) to investigate in situ and in real-time the effects of

  12. Nucleation of Recrystallization studied by EBSP and 3DXRD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Stine

    2009-01-01

    When a deformed crystalline material is annealed, recrystallization will typically take place. In this process new perfect crystals nucleate and grow, consuming the deformation structure. Traditionally, nucleation theories state that the crystal orientations of these new grains were already present...... was seen between this rotation axis and the normals to {111} slip planes of high activity, which were expected to form slip plane aligned dislocation boundaries. This axis is also the axis of misorientation associated with GNBs of twist character forming on {111} planes. Experiments using the Three...

  13. New Ion-Nucleation Mechanism Relevant for the Earth's Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.D.; Svensmark, Henrik; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    Experimental studies of ultra-fine aerosol nucleation in clean atmospheric air, containing trace amounts of ozone, sulphur dioxide, and water vapour suggest that the production rate of critical clusters is sensitive to ionisation. To assess this sensitivity numerical simulations of the initial...... of critical clusters generating this distribution is a function of the number of ions present. This provides a set of boundary conditions, which constrain the properties of a possible microphysical mechanism. The role of ions in the nucleation process of critical clusters provides a source for new aerosol...

  14. Laboratory study of non-aqueous phase liquid and water co-boiling during thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C; Mumford, K G; Kueper, B H

    2014-08-01

    In situ thermal treatment technologies, such as electrical resistance heating and thermal conductive heating, use subsurface temperature measurements in addition to the analysis of soil and groundwater samples to monitor remediation performance. One potential indication of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal is an increase in temperature following observations of a co-boiling plateau, during which subsurface temperatures remain constant as NAPL and water co-boil. However, observed co-boiling temperatures can be affected by the composition of the NAPL and the proximity of the NAPL to the temperature measurement location. Results of laboratory heating experiments using single-component and multi-component NAPLs showed that local-scale temperature measurements can be mistakenly interpreted as an indication of the end of NAPL-water co-boiling, and that significant NAPL saturations (1% to 9%) remain despite observed increases in temperature. Furthermore, co-boiling of multi-component NAPL results in gradually increasing temperature, rather than a co-boiling plateau. Measurements of gas production can serve as a complementary metric for assessing NAPL removal by providing a larger-scale measurement integrated over multiple smaller-scale NAPL locations. Measurements of the composition of the NAPL condensate can provide ISTT operators with information regarding the progress of NAPL removal for multi-component sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of film boiling thermal hydraulics under FCI conditions. Results of a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, T.N.; Dinh, A.T.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Sehgal, B.R. [Div. of Nuclear Power Safety Royal Inst. of Tech. (RIT), Brinellvaegen 60, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Film boiling on the surface of a high-temperature melt jet or of a melt particle is one of key phenomena governing the physics of fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs) which may occur during the course of a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR). A number of experimental and analytical studies have been performed, in the past, to address film boiling heat transfer and the accompanying hydrodynamic aspects. Most of the experiments have, however, been performed for temperature and heat flux conditions, which are significantly lower than the prototypic conditions. For ex-vessel FCIs, high liquid subcooling can significantly affect the FCI thermal hydraulics. Presently, there are large uncertainties in predicting natural-convection film boiling of subcooled liquids on high-temperature surfaces. In this paper, research conducted at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS), Stockholm, concerning film-boiling thermal hydraulics under FCI condition is presented. Notably, the focus is placed on the effects of (1) water subcooling, (2) high-temperature steam properties, (3) the radiation heat transfer and (4) mixing zone boiling dynamics, on the vapor film characteristics. Numerical investigations are performed using a novel CFD modeling concept named as the local-homogeneous-slip model (LHSM). Results of the analytical and numerical studies are discussed with respect to boiling dynamics under FCI conditions. (author)

  16. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with boiled seed hardness in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kaori; Masuda, Ryoichi; Tsubokura, Yasutaka; Yasui, Takeshi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Koji; Nagaya, Taiko; Sayama, Takashi; Ishimoto, Masao; Hajika, Makita

    2014-01-01

    Boiled seed hardness is an important factor in the processing of soybean food products such as nimame and natto. Little information is available on the genetic basis for boiled seed hardness, despite the wide variation in this trait. DNA markers linked to the gene controlling this trait should be useful in soybean breeding programs because of the difficulty of its evaluation. In this report, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed to reveal the genetic factors associated with boiled seed hardness using a recombinant inbred line population developed from a cross between two Japanese cultivars, ‘Natto-shoryu’ and ‘Hyoukei-kuro 3’, which differ largely in boiled seed hardness, which in ‘Natto-shoryu’ is about twice that of ‘Hyoukei-kuro 3’. Two significantly stable QTLs, qHbs3-1 and qHbs6-1, were identified on chromosomes 3 and 6, for which the ‘Hyoukei-kuro 3’ alleles contribute to decrease boiled seed hardness for both QTLs. qHbs3-1 also showed significant effects in progeny of a residual heterozygous line and in a different segregating population. Given its substantial effect on boiled seed hardness, SSR markers closely linked to qHbs3-1, such as BARCSOYSSR_03_0165 and BARCSOYSSR_03_0185, could be useful for marker-assisted selection in soybean breeding. PMID:25914591

  17. Sensory quality and appropriateness of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Thybo, Anette K; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-03-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensory attributes, dry matter and sugar content of five varieties of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and their relation to the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. Sensory evaluation of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers was performed by a trained sensory panel and a semi-trained consumer panel of 49 participants, who also evaluated the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. The appropriateness of raw Jerusalem artichoke tubers was related to Jerusalem artichoke flavour, green nut flavour, sweetness and colour intensity, whereas the appropriateness of boiled tubers was related to celeriac aroma, sweet aroma, sweetness and colour intensity. In both preparations the variety Dwarf stood out from the others by being the least appropriate tuber. A few sensory attributes can be used as predictors of the appropriateness of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for raw and boiled consumption. Knowledge on the quality of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers can be used to inform consumers on the right choice of raw material and thereby increase the consumption of the vegetable. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Analysis of the Pressure Rise in a Partially Filled Liquid Tank in Microgravity with Low Wall Heat Flux and Simultaneous Boiling and Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Balasubramaniam, R.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments performed with Freon 113 in the space shuttle have shown that in a pro- cess of very slow heating, high liquid superheats can be sustained for a long period in microgravity. In a closed system explosive vaporization of superheated liquid resulted in pressure spikes of varying magnitudes. In this paper, we analyze the pressure rise in a partially lled closed tank in which a large vapor bubble (i.e., ullage) is initially present, and the liquid is subjected to a low wall heat ux. The liquid layer adjacent to the wall becomes superheated until the temperature for nucleation of the bubbles (or the incipience of boiling) is achieved. In the absence of the gravity-induced convection large quantities of superheated liquid can accumulate over time near the heated surface. Once the incipience temperature is attained, explosive boiling occurs and the vapor bubbles that are produced on the heater surface tend to quickly raise the tank pressure. The liquid-vapor saturation temperature increases as well. These two e ects tend to induce condensation of the large ullage bubble that is initially present, and tends to mitigate the tank pressure rise. As a result, the tank pressure is predicted to rise sharply, attain a maximum, and subsequently decay slowly. The predicted pressure rise is compared with experimental results obtained in the microgravity environments of the space shuttle for Freon 113. The analysis is appli- cable, in general to heating of liquid in closed containers in microgravity and to cryogenic fuel tanks, in particular where small heat leaks into the tank are unavoidable.

  19. Passive gamma analysis of the boiling-water-reactor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, D.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-09-01

    This research focused on the analysis of a set of stationary passive gamma measurements taken on the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from a boiling water reactor (BWR) using pulse height analysis data acquisition. The measurements were performed on 25 different BWR assemblies in 2014 at Sweden's Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab). This study was performed as part of the Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. The final objective of this project is to quantify the capability of several integrated NDA instruments to meet the aforementioned goals using the combined signatures of neutrons, gamma rays, and heat. This report presents a selection of the measured data and summarizes an analysis of the results. Specifically, trends in the count rates measured for spectral lines from the following isotopes were analyzed as a function of the declared burnup and cooling time: 137Cs, 154Eu, 134Cs, and to a lesser extent, 106Ru and 144Ce. From these measured count rates, predictive algorithms were developed to enable the estimation of the burnup and cooling time. Furthermore, these algorithms were benchmarked on a set of assemblies not included in the standard assemblies set used by this research team.

  20. Experiences with austenitic steels in boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, O. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Bruemmer, G. [Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke AG., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    Stabilized austenitic steels are susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) under boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions. This important finding for the German nuclear power station industry arises from the detection of cracks during the last 3 years in reactor hot water pipes made from titanium-stabilized steel AISI 321 in six BWRs and in reactor core components made from the niobium-stabilized steel AISI 347 in one BWR. All the observed cracks had a common feature: they had their origin in the chromium carbide precipitates at the grain boundaries and in the associated chromium-depleted region near the grain boundary. These microstructural features in the heat-affected zones of the hot water pipe weldments were caused by the heat input during deposition of the root bead. The TiC partially dissolved in the region near the fusion line and the released carbon reacted to form chromium-rich M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. Regarding the cracks found in the core shroud and the core grid plates, it was shown that a sensitizing heat treatment of rings taken from the same heat of steel could give rise to a microstructure susceptible to IGSCC in the region of a weldment. High carbon contents coupled with low stabilization ratios led to sensitization. Residual stresses developed during welding provided the significant contributions to the tensile stress necessary for IGSCC. With regard to the service medium, the influence of the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) was recognized as a dominant factor, together with the conductivity. The corrosion potential was mainly determined by the radiolytic formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}; with increasing distance from the core, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content decreased owing to catalytic decomposition. For the pipes the problem of IGSCC could be resolved by the use of optimized steel (lower carbon content with maximum allowable stabilization ratio).

  1. Cryogenic disturbance and its impact on soils of frost boil ecosystems of Taz peninsula, West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshonkov, Alexander; Matyshak, George; Petrzhik, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    For the last years there is an active development of permafrost zone, which is about 60% of the territory of Russia. More than 15% of this area belong to different types of tundra. Frost boil ecosystems, the formation of which is associated with the cryogenesis and cryogenic disturbance processes are one of the most specific tundra landscape. Such landscape forms of tundra ecosystems cover the area over 68000 sq. km - 20% of total Russian tundra area. Cryogenic processes leading to the formation of patterned ground (such as frost boils, non-sorted circles, ice-wedge polygons) are important mechanisms, which control the landscape distribution of soil and phytomass carbon in continuous permafrost terrain. Frost boil ecosystem's properties have been poorly studied. So, the aim of this work is to explore the functioning parameters and properties of frost boil soils. The object - frost boil ecosystems, - is located in the southern tundra of Taz peninsula, about 150 km north from Novy Urengoy (57°28 '50,6″ N, 76°42 '32,6″ E). Frost boils are small (0,5-2 m diameter and 5-15 cm height), barren, non-sorted circles separated by completely vegetated (moss-lichens and shrubs) troughs - interboils. Our monitoring section (100 sq. m.) was set on a typical frost-boil landscape. Within this area we obtained moisture content and temperature of upper layer (0-10 cm), active layer depth, CO2 flux. This analyzed site includes more than 40 frost boils. Measurements were made both on boil and interboil patches in 10-20 replicates. Samples were taken both from frost boils and interboils upper layers as well as from horizons two soil pit profiles. Different soil parameters were obtained by laboratory analysis: pH (1: 2,5), BR, SIR (Anderson, 1978), TC, DOC (Kalbitz, 2003). It is estimated that total area with frost boils is approx. twice larger than troughs area with vegetation cover within the monitoring site. The soil properties of frost boil and interboil are significantly

  2. Characteristics-based sectional modeling of aerosol nucleation and condensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederix, E.M.A.; Staniç, M.; Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Nordlund, M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2016-01-01

    A new numerical method for the solution of an internally mixed spatially homogeneous sectional model for aerosol nucleation and condensation is proposed. The characteristics method is used to predict droplet sizes within a discrete time step. The method is de- signed such that 1) a pre-specified

  3. Local Structure of Liquid Carbon Controls Diamond Nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiringhelli, L.M.; Valeriani, C.; Meijer, E.J.; Frenkel, D.

    2007-01-01

    Diamonds melt at temperatures above 4000 K. There are no measurements of the steady-state rate of the reverse process, i.e., diamond nucleation from the melt, because experiments are difficult at these extreme temperatures and pressures. Using numerical simulations, we estimate the diamond

  4. Surface or internal nucleation and crystallization of glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höland, W.; Rheinberger, V. M.; Ritzberger, C.; Apel, E.

    2013-07-01

    Fluoroapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) was precipitated in glass-ceramics via internal crystallization of base glasses. The crystals grew with a needle-like morphology in the direction of the crystallographic c-axis. Two different reaction mechanisms were analyzed: precipitation via a disordered primary apatite crystals and a solid state parallel reaction to rhenanite (NaCaPO4) precipitation. In contrast to the internal nucleation used in the formation of fluoroapatite, surface crystallization was induced to precipitate a phosphate-free oxyapatite of NaY9(SiO4)6O2-type. Internal nucleation and crystallization have been shown to be a very useful tool for developing high-strength lithium disilicate (Li2Si2O5) glass-ceramics. A very controlled process was conducted to transform the lithium metasilicate glass-ceramic precursor material into the final product of the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic without the major phase of the precursor material. The combination of all these methods allowed the driving forces of the internal nucleation and crystallization mechanisms to be explained. An amorphous phosphate primary phase was discovered in the process. Nucleation started at the interface between the amorphous phosphate phase and the glass matrix. The final products of all these glass-ceramics are biomaterials for dental restoration showing special optical properties, e.g. translucence and color close to dental teeth.

  5. Reducing the nucleation barrier in magnetocaloric Heusler alloys by nanoindentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Niemann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetocaloric materials are promising as solid state refrigerants for more efficient and environmentally friendly cooling devices. The highest effects have been observed in materials that exhibit a first-order phase transition. These transformations proceed by nucleation and growth which lead to a hysteresis. Such irreversible processes are undesired since they heat up the material and reduce the efficiency of any cooling application. In this article, we demonstrate an approach to decrease the hysteresis by locally changing the nucleation barrier. We created artificial nucleation sites and analyzed the nucleation and growth processes in their proximity. We use Ni-Mn-Ga, a shape memory alloy that exhibits a martensitic transformation. Epitaxial films serve as a model system, but their high surface-to-volume ratio also allows for a fast heat transfer which is beneficial for a magnetocaloric regenerator geometry. Nanoindentation is used to create a well-defined defect. We quantify the austenite phase fraction in its proximity as a function of temperature which allows us to determine the influence of the defect on the transformation.

  6. Collective interactions in the nucleation and growth of surface droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Chenglong; Yu, Haitao; Peng, Shuhua; Lu, Ziyang; Lei, Lei; Lohse, Detlef; Zhang, Xuehua

    2017-01-01

    In the process of solvent exchange, oil droplets nucleate and grow on a solid substrate in response to the oversaturation generated through the displacement of a good oil solvent by a poor one. The mean size of the droplets depends on flow rate, flow geometry and solution conditions. In this work,

  7. Nanocellular polymer foams nucleated by core-shell nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shanqiu; Zoetebier, Bram; Hulsman, Lars; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Duvigneau, Joost; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of low surface energy polymer grafted silica nanoparticles is reported for the utilization as highly efficient cell nucleation agents to obtain nanocellular, CO2 blown polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films in a batch process. For nanoparticle surface

  8. Nucleation and growth of a multicomponent metallic glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Nucleation and growth of a multicomponent metallic glass. @. ARUN PRATAP*, K G RAVAL†, AJAY GUPTA‡ and S K KULKARNI#. Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M S University of Baroda, Baroda 390 001, India. †Electronics Department, Narmada College of Science and ...

  9. Magnetic vortex nucleation modes in static magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Vaňatka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic vortex nucleation process in nanometer- and micrometer-sized magnetic disks undergoes several phases with distinct spin configurations called the nucleation states. Before formation of the final vortex state, small submicron disks typically proceed through the so-called C-state while the larger micron-sized disks proceed through the more complicated vortex-pair state or the buckling state. This work classifies the nucleation states using micromagnetic simulations and provides evidence for the stability of vortex-pair and buckling states in static magnetic fields using magnetic imaging techniques and electrical transport measurements. Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy and Magnetic Transmission X-ray Microscopy are employed to reveal the details of spin configuration in each of the nucleation states. We further show that it is possible to unambiguously identify these states by electrical measurements via the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect. Combination of the electrical transport and magnetic imaging techniques confirms stability of a vortex-antivortex-vortex spin configuration which emerges from the buckling state in static magnetic fields.

  10. Nucleation at hardness indentations in cold rolled Al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, C.L.; Zhang, Yubin; Wu, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleation of recrystallization near hardness indentations has been investigated in slightly cold rolled high purity aluminium. Samples were cold rolled to 12% and 20% reductions in thickness and indentations were done with two different loads (500 g and 2000 g). The samples were annealed at 300 °C...

  11. The acceleration of solid particles subjected to cavitation nucleation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkent, B.M.; Arora, M.; Ohl, C.-D.

    2008-01-01

    The cavity -particle dynamics at cavitation inception on the surface of spherical particles suspended in water and exposed to a strong tensile stress wave is experimentally studied with high-speed photography. Particles, which serve as nucleation sites for cavitation bubbles, are set into a fast...

  12. Water nucleation: A comparison between some phenomenological theories and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Thomas P; Barrett, Jonathan C

    2012-09-28

    The predictions of several homogeneous nucleation theories are compared with experimental results for water for a range of temperatures and vapor supersaturations, S. The theoretical models considered are: classical theory (including the 1/S correction factor), the Gibbs p-form, mean-field kinetic nucleation theory (MKNT), the extended modified liquid drop model-dynamical nucleation theory, and two forms of density functional theory, one without and one with a contribution due to association. The theoretical expressions for the logarithm of the nucleation rate are expanded in a series in powers of the logarithm of S. The residual dependence (once the classical dependence has been factored out) of the experimental results shows a stronger decrease with increasing temperature than all the theories except MKNT. The residual S-dependence of the experimental results decreases with increasing supersaturation whereas all the theories except the Gibbs p-form predict an increase. The first correction term to classical theory involves both the liquid compressibility and curvature correction to the surface tension (Tolman length) so the experimental results suggest that the Tolman length is zero (as assumed in the Gibbs p-form) or positive whereas the other theories predict a negative Tolman length. The effect of including a term proportional to ln(lnS) in the series expansion is also discussed.

  13. New particle formation by ion-induced nucleation during dissipation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reduced background aerosol concentration after heavy rain,; high humidity condition, and; increased ion concentration during the dissipation stage by corona discharges, favoured generation of new particles by ion-induced nucleation (IIN). Observations also suggest that generation of unipolar ions by corona discharges ...

  14. Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Jasper; Duplissy, Jonathan; Sengupta, Kamalika; Frege, Carla; Gordon, Hamish; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K; Wagner, Robert; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill; Dias, Antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Onnela, Antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Pringle, Kirsty; Rap, Alexandru; Richards, Nigel A D; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Seinfeld, John H; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander L; Wagner, Andrea C; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-05-26

    Atmospheric aerosols and their effect on clouds are thought to be important for anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate, yet remain poorly understood. Globally, around half of cloud condensation nuclei originate from nucleation of atmospheric vapours. It is thought that sulfuric acid is essential to initiate most particle formation in the atmosphere, and that ions have a relatively minor role. Some laboratory studies, however, have reported organic particle formation without the intentional addition of sulfuric acid, although contamination could not be excluded. Here we present evidence for the formation of aerosol particles from highly oxidized biogenic vapours in the absence of sulfuric acid in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions. The highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) are produced by ozonolysis of α-pinene. We find that ions from Galactic cosmic rays increase the nucleation rate by one to two orders of magnitude compared with neutral nucleation. Our experimental findings are supported by quantum chemical calculations of the cluster binding energies of representative HOMs. Ion-induced nucleation of pure organic particles constitutes a potentially widespread source of aerosol particles in terrestrial environments with low sulfuric acid pollution.

  15. Kinetic nucleation and ions in boreal forest particle formation events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laakso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to gain a more comprehensive picture on different mechanisms behind atmospheric particle formation, measurement results from QUEST 2-campaign are analyzed with an aid of an aerosol dynamic model. A special emphasis is laid on air ion and charged aerosol dynamics. Model simulations indicate that kinetic nucleation of ammonia and sulphuric acid together with condensation of sulphuric acid and low-volatile organic vapours onto clusters and particles explain basic features of particle formation events as well as ion characteristics. However, an observed excess of negative ions in the diameter range 1.5-3nm and overcharge of 3-5nm particles demonstrate that ions are also involved in particle formation. These observations can be explained by preferential condensation of sulphuric acid onto negatively charged clusters and particles and/or contribution of ion-induced nucleation on particle formation. According to model simulations, which assume that the nucleation rate is equal to the sulfuric acid collision rate, the relative contribution of ion-based particle formation seems to be smaller than kinetic nucleation of neutral clusters. Conducted model simulations also corroborate the recently-presented hypothesis according to which a large number of so-called thermodynamically stable clusters (TSCs having a diameter between 1-3nm exist in the atmosphere. TSCs were found to grow to observable sizes only under favorable conditions, e.g. when the pre-existing particle concentration was low.

  16. The role of ions in particle nucleation under atmospheric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin B.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Bondo, T.

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol nucleation has been studied experimentally in purified, atmospheric air, containing trace amounts of water vapor, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The results are compared with model calculations. It is found that an increase in ionization by a factor of 10 increases the production rate of stable...

  17. Observations of nucleation of new particles in a volcanic plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulon, Julien; Sellegri, Karine; Hervo, Maxime; Laj, Paolo

    2011-07-26

    Volcanic eruptions caused major weather and climatic changes on timescales ranging from hours to centuries in the past. Volcanic particles are injected in the atmosphere both as primary particles rapidly deposited due to their large sizes on time scales of minutes to a few weeks in the troposphere, and secondary particles mainly derived from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide. These particles are responsible for the atmospheric cooling observed at both regional and global scales following large volcanic eruptions. However, large condensational sinks due to preexisting particles within the plume, and unknown nucleation mechanisms under these circumstances make the assumption of new secondary particle formation still uncertain because the phenomenon has never been observed in a volcanic plume. In this work, we report the first observation of nucleation and new secondary particle formation events in a volcanic plume. These measurements were performed at the puy de Dôme atmospheric research station in central France during the Eyjafjallajokull volcano eruption in Spring 2010. We show that the nucleation is indeed linked to exceptionally high concentrations of sulfuric acid and present an unusual high particle formation rate. In addition we demonstrate that the binary H(2)SO(4) - H(2)O nucleation scheme, as it is usually considered in modeling studies, underestimates by 7 to 8 orders of magnitude the observed particle formation rate and, therefore, should not be applied in tropospheric conditions. These results may help to revisit all past simulations of the impact of volcanic eruptions on climate.

  18. Nucleation and growth of nanoscaled one-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongtao

    Nanoscaled one-dimensional materials have attracted great interest due to their novel physical and chemical properties. The purpose of this dissertation is to study the nucleation and growth mechanisms of carbon nanotubes and silicon nitride nanowires with their field emission applications in mind. As a result of this research, a novel methodology has been developed to deposit aligned bamboo-like carbon nanotubes on substrates using a methane and ammonia mixture in microwave plasma enhanced chemical deposition. Study of growth kinetics suggests that the carbon diffusion through bulk catalyst particles controls growth in the initial deposition process. Microstructures of carbon nanotubes are affected by the growth temperature and carbon concentration in the gas phase. High-resolution transmission electron microscope confirms the existence of the bamboo-like structure. Electron diffraction reveals that the iron-based catalyst nucleates and sustains the growth of carbon nanotubes. A nucleation and growth model has been constructed based upon experimental data and observations. In the study of silicon nitride nanoneedles, a vapor-liquid-solid model is employed to explain the nucleation and growth processes. Ammonia plasma etching is proposed to reduce the size of the catalyst and subsequently produce the novel needle-like nanostructure. High-resolution transmission electron microscope shows the structure is well crystallized and composed of alpha-silicon nitride. Other observations in the structure are also explained.

  19. Atmospheric nucleation and growth in the CLOUD experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Jasper; Cloud Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    Nucleation and growth of new particles in the atmosphere is thought to account for up to half of all cloud condensation nuclei. However the vapours and formation rates that underly this process are poorly understood, due both to the ultra low concentrations of participating vapours in the presence of high backgrounds and to the many sources of uncontrolled variability in the atmosphere. In consequence, laboratory measurements made under clean and precisely controlled conditions play an important role in identifying the vapours responsible and quantifying their associated nucleation and growth rates. The CLOUD experiment at CERN is studying the nucleation and growth of aerosol particles, and their interaction with clouds, in a 3 m stainless steel aerosol/cloud chamber. The experiment is optimised to study the influence of ions, for which the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) provides an adjustable source of 'cosmic rays'. Extraordinary care has been paid in the design and construction of CLOUD and its associated systems-gas, thermal, UV and electric field-to suppress contaminants at the technological limit. The unprecedented low contamination achieved in the CLOUD chamber has revealed that atmospheric nucleation and growth is sensitive to certain atmospheric vapours at mixing ratios of only a few parts-per-trillion by volume (pptv). Here we provide an overview of the design of CLOUD and its experimental programme over four years of operation at CERN.

  20. New Ion-Nucleation Mechanism Relevant for the Earth's Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Svensmark, Henrik; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    An experiment has been set up in order to investigate the role of ionization in Earth's climate. We have chosen to start our investigation at the smallest scales, namely by studying the effect of cosmic ray produced ions on atmospheric aerosol nucleation and growth processes. This experiment is c...

  1. Heterogeneous nucleation of a semicrystalline polymer on fiber surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangyeob Lee; Todd f. Shupe; Leslie h. Groom; Chung Y. Hse

    2006-01-01

    Nucleation phenomenon as affected by the surface conditions of six identical wood/non-wood fibers with three levels of fiber treatments were investigated by a combination of complementary techniques. This study was based on results of a preliminary study on the influence of surface characteristics of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibers on the transcrystalline layer (TLC...

  2. Copper Oxidation through Nucleation Sites of Chemical Vapor Deposited Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Birong; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf; Shivayogimath, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    and amorphous carbon. These defects would serve as a pathway for the diffusion of 02 during thermal annealing, allowing oxidation of Cu to progress gradually from the nucleation center toward the growth edge. The oxidation process follows the graphene morphology closely; the shape of the oxidized area of Cu has...

  3. Nucleation and growth kinetics of palladium nanoparticles on thin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general scheme is consisting of three stages namely, nucleation, growth and coalescence. The saturation density of clusters decreases when the substrate temperature increases following Arrhenius law. This behavior is in agreement with a recent AFM study for Ag/MgO and Au/MgO. The phenomenon of coalescence ...

  4. Modeling Studying the Role of Bacteria on ice Nucleation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.

    2006-12-01

    Certain air-borne bacteria have been recognized as active ice nuclei at the temperatures warm than - 10°C. Ice nucleating bacteria commonly found in plants and ocean surface. These ice nucleating bacteria are readily disseminated into the atmosphere and have been observed in clouds and hailstones, and their importance in cloud formation process and precipitation, as well as causing diseases in plants and animal kingdom, have been considered for over two decades, but their significance in atmospheric processes are yet to be understood. A 1.5-D non-hydrostatic cumulus cloud model with bin-resolved microphysics is developed and is to used to examine the relative importance of sulphate aerosol concentrations on the evolution of cumulus cloud droplet spectra and ice multiplication process, as well as ice initiation process by ice nucleating bacteria in the growing stage of cumulus clouds and the key role of this process on the ice multiplication in the subsequent dissipating stage of cumulus clouds. In this paper, we will present some sensitivity test results of the evolution of cumulus cloud spectra, ice concentrations at various concentrations of sulfate aerosols, and at different ideal sounding profiles. We will discuss the implication of our results in understanding of ice nucleation processes.

  5. Amyloid protofibrils of lysozyme nucleate and grow via oligomer fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shannon E; Robinson, Joshua; Matthews, Garrett; Muschol, Martin

    2009-05-06

    The mechanisms linking deposits of insoluble amyloid fibrils to the debilitating neuronal cell death characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases remain enigmatic. Recent findings implicate transiently formed intermediates of mature amyloid fibrils as the principal toxic agent. Hence, determining which intermediate aggregates represent on-pathway precursors or off-pathway side branches is critical for understanding amyloid self-assembly, and for devising therapeutic approaches targeting relevant toxic species. We examined amyloid fibril self-assembly in acidic solutions, using the model protein hen egg-white lysozyme. Combining in situ dynamic light scattering with calibrated atomic-force microscopy, we monitored the nucleation and growth kinetics of multiple transient aggregate species, and characterized both their morphologies and physical dimensions. Upon incubation at elevated temperatures, uniformly sized oligomers formed at a constant rate. After a lag period of several hours, protofibrils spontaneously nucleated. The nucleation kinetics of protofibrils and the tight match of their widths and heights with those of oligomers imply that protofibrils both nucleated and grew via oligomer fusion. After reaching several hundred nanometers in length, protofibrils assembled into mature fibrils. Overall, the amyloid fibril assembly of lysozyme followed a strict hierarchical aggregation pathway, with amyloid monomers, oligomers, and protofibrils forming on-pathway intermediates for assembly into successively more complex structures.

  6. A holistic view of nucleation and self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Yoreo, James J.

    2017-07-01

    Nucleation is the seminal process in the formation of ordered structures ranging from simple inorganic crystals to macromolecular matrices. Observations over the past 15 years have revealed a rich set of hierarchical nucleation pathways involving higher-order species ranging from multi-ion clusters to dense liquid droplets, as well as transient crystalline or amorphous phases. Despite this complexity, the pathways that lead to nucleation can be described by a holistic framework that is rooted in classical concepts, but which takes into account the coupled effects of perturbations in free-energy landscapes and the impact of dynamical factors. This article describes that framework using a series of in situ transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies on inorganic, organic, and macromolecular systems to illustrate the evolution in nucleation processes as these perturbations and dynamical factors come into play. The results provide a common basis for understanding development of order in systems as diverse as simple salt crystals, branched semiconductor nanowires, and microbial membranes.

  7. Detection of bubble nucleation event in superheated drop detector ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present work demonstrates the detection of bubble nucleation events by using the pressure sensor. The associated circuits for the measurement are described in this article. The detection of events is verified by measuring the events with the acoustic sensor. The measurement was done using drops of various sizes to ...

  8. Ordered Nucleation Sites for the Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Ginley, D.S.; Shaheen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) offer a promising route to low cost photovoltaic (PV) technology that can be inexpensively manufactured on a large scale for use in power generation and commercial products. Solar power conversion efficiencies of laboratory scale OPV devices have recently reached ~5%; however, projected efficiencies of at least 10% will be required for commercialization. An analogous approach that has arisen recently that can potentially increase efficiencies employs metal oxide semiconductors as the electron acceptor, creating a hybrid organic-inorganic device. This approach offers the advantage that the conduction band of the oxide can be tuned in a systematic way through doping, thus potentially achieving higher photovoltages in the device. Additionally, nanostructures of these materials can be easily grown from precursor solutions, providing a technique to precisely control the nanoscale geometry. This work focuses on using ZnO, which is known to have high electron mobility (>100 cm2/Vs), as the electron acceptor. Nanofibers of ZnO can be grown from precursors such as zinc acetate or zinc nitrate to form arrays of nanofibers into which a conjugated polymer can be intercalated to form a composite PV device. The morphology of the nanofiber array is critical to the performance of the device, but current methods of nanofiber growth from a flat, polycrystalline nucleation layer allow for little morphological control. To overcome this limitation, we have created ordered arrays of ZnO nucleation sites with controllable size and spacing. Toluene solutions of diblock copolymer micelles with ZnCl2 incorporated into the micellar cores were spin-coated onto glass substrates and etched with an O2 plasma to yield hexagonally ordered arrays of ZnO nanoparticles that functioned as nucleation sites. Changing the concentration of ZnCl2 and the molecular weight and ratio of the diblock copolymer resulted in systematic variation in the size and spacing of the

  9. Glassy dynamics, spinodal fluctuations, and the kinetic limit of nucleation in suspensions of colloidal hard rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, R.; Belli, S; Van Roij, R.; Dijkstra, M.

    2010-01-01

    Using simulations we identify three dynamic regimes in supersaturated isotropic fluid states of short hard rods: (i) for moderate supersaturations, we observe nucleation of multilayered crystalline clusters; (ii) at higher supersaturation, we find nucleation of small crystallites which arrange into

  10. Droplet Nucleation: Physically-Based Parameterizations and Comparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Ghan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in simulations of climate and climate change is the influence of aerosols on the optical properties of clouds. The root of this influence is the droplet nucleation process, which involves the spontaneous growth of aerosol into cloud droplets at cloud edges, during the early stages of cloud formation, and in some cases within the interior of mature clouds. Numerical models of droplet nucleation represent much of the complexity of the process, but at a computational cost that limits their application to simulations of hours or days. Physically-based parameterizations of droplet nucleation are designed to quickly estimate the number nucleated as a function of the primary controlling parameters: the aerosol number size distribution, hygroscopicity and cooling rate. Here we compare and contrast the key assumptions used in developing each of the most popular parameterizations and compare their performances under a variety of conditions. We find that the more complex parameterizations perform well under a wider variety of nucleation conditions, but all parameterizations perform well under the most common conditions. We then discuss the various applications of the parameterizations to cloud-resolving, regional and global models to study aerosol effects on clouds at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. We compare estimates of anthropogenic aerosol indirect effects using two different parameterizations applied to the same global climate model, and find that the estimates of indirect effects differ by only 10%. We conclude with a summary of the outstanding challenges remaining for further development and application.

  11. Nucleation and growth of new particles in Po Valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol number distribution measurements are reported at San Pietro Capofiume (SPC station (44°39' N, 11°37' E for the time period 2002–2005. The station is located in Po Valley, the largest industrial, trading and agricultural area in Italy with a high population density. New particle formation was studied based on observations of the particle size distribution, meteorological and gas phase parameters. The nucleation events were classified according to the event clarity based on the particle number concentrations, and the particle formation and growth rates. Out of a total of 769 operational days from 2002 to 2005 clear events were detected on 36% of the days whilst 33% are clearly non-event days. The event frequency was high during spring and summer months with maximum values in May and July, whereas lower frequency was observed in winter and autumn months. The average particle formation and growth rates were estimated as ~6 cm−3 s−1 and ~7 nm h−1, respectively. Such high growth and formation rates are typical for polluted areas. Temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, SO2 and O3 concentrations were on average higher on nucleation days than on non-event days, whereas relative and absolute humidity and NO2 concentration were lower; however, seasonal differences were observed. Backtrajectory analysis suggests that during majority of nucleation event days, the air masses originate from northern to eastern directions. We also study previously developed nucleation event correlations with environmental variables and show that they predict Po Valley nucleation events with variable success.

  12. Biological residues define the ice nucleation properties of soil dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conen, F.; Morris, C. E.; Leifeld, J.; Yakutin, M. V.; Alewell, C.

    2011-09-01

    Soil dust is a major driver of ice nucleation in clouds leading to precipitation. It consists largely of mineral particles with a small fraction of organic matter constituted mainly of remains of micro-organisms that participated in degrading plant debris before their own decay. Some micro-organisms have been shown to be much better ice nuclei than the most efficient soil mineral. Yet, current aerosol schemes in global climate models do not consider a difference between soil dust and mineral dust in terms of ice nucleation activity. Here, we show that particles from the clay and silt size fraction of four different soils naturally associated with 0.7 to 11.8 % organic carbon (w/w) can have up to four orders of magnitude more ice nucleation sites per unit mass active in the immersion freezing mode at -12 °C than montmorillonite, the nucleation properties of which are often used to represent those of mineral dusts in modelling studies. Most of this activity was lost after heat treatment. Removal of biological residues reduced ice nucleation activity to, or below that of montmorillonite. Desert soils, inherently low in organic content, are a large natural source of dust in the atmosphere. In contrast, agricultural land use is concentrated on fertile soils with much larger organic matter contents than found in deserts. It is currently estimated that the contribution of agricultural soils to the global dust burden is less than 20 %. Yet, these disturbed soils can contribute ice nuclei to the atmosphere of a very different and much more potent kind than mineral dusts.

  13. AGN Activity in Nucleated Galaxies as Measured by Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foord, Adi; Gallo, Elena; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Miller, Brendan P.; Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Gültekin, Kayhan; Gnedin, Oleg Y.

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by theoretical expectations that nuclear star clusters (NSCs) in galactic centers may provide a favorable environment for supermassive black holes to form and/or efficiently grow, we set out to measure the fraction of nearby nucleated galaxies that also host an active galactic nucleus. We targeted a distance-limited sample of 98 objects with the Chandra X-ray Telescope, down to a uniform X-ray luminosity threshold of ˜1038 erg s-1. The sample is composed of 47 late-types and 51 early-types, enabling us to further investigate the active fraction as a function of galactic morphology. After correcting for contamination to the nuclear X-ray signal from bright X-ray binaries, we measure an active fraction f=11.2{ % }-4.9+7.4 (1σ C.L.) across the whole sample, in agreement with previous estimates based on a heterogeneous combination of optical, X-ray, and radio diagnostics, by Seth et al. After accounting for the different stellar mass distributions in our samples, we find no statistically significant difference in the active fraction of early- versus late-type nucleated galaxies, with f=10.6{ % }-4.9+11.9 and 10.8{ % }-6.3+11.3, respectively. For the early-type nucleated galaxies, we are able to carry out a controlled comparison with a parent sample of non-nucleated galaxies covering the same stellar mass range, again finding no statistically significant difference in the active fraction. Taken at face value, our findings suggest that the presence of an NSC does not facilitate or enhance accretion-powered emission from a nuclear supermassive black hole. This is true even for late-type nucleated galaxies, home to bluer NSCs and arguably larger gas reservoirs.

  14. Homogenous Surface Nucleation of Solid Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Hamill, P.; Salcedo, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A general surface nucleation rate theory is presented for the homogeneous freezing of crystalline germs on the surfaces of aqueous particles. While nucleation rates in a standard classical homogeneous freezing rate theory scale with volume, the rates in a surface-based theory scale with surface area. The theory is used to convert volume-based information on laboratory freezing rates (in units of cu cm, seconds) of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD) aerosols into surface-based values (in units of sq cm, seconds). We show that a surface-based model is capable of reproducing measured nucleation rates of NAT and NAD aerosols from concentrated aqueous HNO3 solutions in the temperature range of 165 to 205 K. Laboratory measured nucleation rates are used to derive free energies for NAT and NAD germ formation in the stratosphere. NAD germ free energies range from about 23 to 26 kcal mole, allowing for fast and efficient homogeneous NAD particle production in the stratosphere. However, NAT germ formation energies are large (greater than 26 kcal mole) enough to prevent efficient NAT particle production in the stratosphere. We show that the atmospheric NAD particle production rates based on the surface rate theory are roughly 2 orders of magnitude larger than those obtained from a standard volume-based rate theory. Atmospheric volume and surface production of NAD particles will nearly cease in the stratosphere when denitrification in the air exceeds 40 and 78%, respectively. We show that a surface-based (volume-based) homogeneous freezing rate theory gives particle production rates, which are (not) consistent with both laboratory and atmospheric data on the nucleation of solid polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  15. Assessing the microbiological performance and potential cost of boiling drinking water in urban Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psutka, Rebecca; Peletz, Rachel; Michelo, Sandford; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-07-15

    Boiling is the most common method of disinfecting water in the home and the benchmark against which other point-of-use water treatment is measured. In a six-week study in peri-urban Zambia, we assessed the microbiological effectiveness and potential cost of boiling among 49 households without a water connection who reported "always" or "almost always" boiling their water before drinking it. Source and household drinking water samples were compared weekly for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), an indicator of fecal contamination. Demographics, costs, and other information were collected through surveys and structured observations. Drinking water samples taken at the household (geometric mean 7.2 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 5.4-9.7) were actually worse in microbiological quality than source water (geometric mean 4.0 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 3.1-5.1) (p water samples were reported to have actually been boiled at the time of collection from the home, suggesting over-reporting and inconsistent compliance. However, these samples were of no higher microbiological quality. Evidence suggests that water quality deteriorated after boiling due to lack of residual protection and unsafe storage and handling. The potential cost of fuel or electricity for boiling was estimated at 5% and 7% of income, respectively. In this setting where microbiological water quality was relatively good at the source, safe-storage practices that minimize recontamination may be more effective in managing the risk of disease from drinking water at a fraction of the cost of boiling.

  16. Urediospores of rust fungi are ice nucleation active at > -10 °C and harbor ice nucleation active bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Glaux, C.; Samsatly, J.; Asaad, S.; Moukahel, A. R.; Gonçalves, F. L. T.; Bigg, E. K.

    2013-04-01

    Various features of the biology of the rust fungi and of the epidemiology of the plant diseases they cause illustrate the important role of rainfall in their life history. Based on this insight we have characterized the ice nucleation activity (INA) of the aerially disseminated spores (urediospores) of this group of fungi. Urediospores of this obligate plant parasite were collected from natural infections of 7 species of weeds in France, from coffee in Brazil and from field and greenhouse-grown wheat in France, the USA, Turkey and Syria. Immersion freezing was used to determine freezing onset temperatures and the abundance of ice nuclei in suspensions of washed spores. Microbiological analyses of spores from France, the USA and Brazil, and subsequent tests of the ice nucleation activity of the bacteria associated with spores were deployed to quantify the contribution of bacteria to the ice nucleation activity of the spores. All samples of spores were ice nucleation active, having freezing onset temperatures as high as -4 °C. Spores in most of the samples carried cells of ice nucleation-active strains of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (at rates of less than 1 bacterial cell per 100 urediospores), but bacterial INA accounted for only a small fraction of the INA observed in spore suspensions. Changes in the INA of spore suspensions after treatment with lysozyme suggest that the INA of urediospores involves a polysaccharide. Based on data from the literature, we have estimated the concentrations of urediospores in air at cloud height and in rainfall. These quantities are very similar to those reported for other biological ice nucleators in these same substrates. However, at cloud level convective activity leads to widely varying concentrations of particles of surface origin, so that mean concentrations can underestimate their possible effects on clouds. We propose that spatial and temporal concentrations of biological ice nucleators active at temperatures > -10

  17. Strategies to initiate and control the nucleation behavior of bimetallic nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, Gopi; de Graaf, Sytze; Brink, ten Gert; Persson, Per O. A.; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    In this work we report strategies to nucleate bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) made by gas phase synthesis of elements showing difficulty in homogeneous nucleation. It is shown that the nucleation assisted problem of bimetallic NP synthesis can be solved via the following pathways: (i) selecting an

  18. Nucleation-dependant chemical bonding paradigm: the effect of rare earth ions on the nucleation of urea in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Sun, Congting; Wu, Sixin; Xue, Dongfeng

    2017-03-29

    Rare earth ions can be used to construct a variety of novel structures and are favorable to chemical bonding regulation and design. In this study, the chemical bonding paradigm between rare earth ions (Ln(3+)) and urea molecules in an aqueous solution can be tracked by the evolution of C[double bond, length as m-dash]O, NH2, and CN vibration bands during the urea nucleation stage. Rare earth ions such as La(3+), Gd(3+), and Lu(3+) can manipulate the nucleation time of urea via regulating the nucleation-dependant N-C[double bond, length as m-dash]OH-N hydrogen-bonding between urea molecules. Two types of chemical bondings between Ln(3+) and urea molecules have been confirmed, which are Ln(3+)O[double bond, length as m-dash]C-N and Ln(3+)NH2-C. Compared with Ln(3+)NH2-C, Ln(3+) prefers to coordinate with the O[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond in urea. With a higher concentration of rare earth ions in the solution, some N-C[double bond, length as m-dash]OH-N hydrogen bonds are broken as a consequence of the incorporation of Ln(3+) into the lattice, resulting in the decreased symmetry of local urea molecules in the crystalline nuclei and the consequent Ln(3+) concentration-dependent nucleation time of urea. Moreover, using the ionic electronegativity scale of Ln(3+), the different effects of La(3+), Gd(3+), and Lu(3+) on urea nucleation can be further distinguished. The present study provides basic data for unrevealing the chemical bonding regulation role of rare earth ions in the formation of hydrogen bonded materials, which may give insight into the design and fabrication of novel materials utilizing rare earth ions to adjust the chemical bonding process.

  19. Organic Aerosol Nucleation and Growth at the CERN CLOUD chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröstl, Jasmin; Lethipalo, Katrianne; Bianchi, Federico; Sipilä, Mikko; Nieminen, Tuomo; Wagner, Robert; Frege, Carla; Simon, Mario; Weingartner, Ernest; Gysel, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that atmospheric aerosols influence the climate by changing Earth's radiation balance (IPCC 2007 and 2013). Recent models have shown (Merikanto et al. 2009) that aerosol nucleation is one of the biggest sources of low level cloud condensation nuclei. Still, aerosol nucleation and growth are not fully understood. The driving force of nucleation and growth is sulfuric acid. However ambient nucleation and growth rates cannot be explained by solely sulfuric acid as precursor. Recent studies have shown that only traces of precursors like ammonia and dimethylamine enhance the nucleation rates dramatically (Kirkby et al. 2011, Almeida et al., 2013). Thus the role of different aerosol precursor needs to be studied not only in ambient but also in very well controlled chamber experiments. The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) experiment enables conducting experiments very close to atmospheric conditions and with a very low contaminant background. The latest CLOUD experiments focus on the role of organics in aerosol nucleation and growth. For this purpose, numerous experiments with alpha-pinene have been conducted at the CERN CLOUD chamber. Several state-of-the-art instruments were used to cover the whole complexity of the experiment. Chamber conditions were set to 40% relative humidity and 5° C. Atmospheric concentrations of SO2, O3, HONO, H2O and alpha-pinene were injected to the chamber. Different oxidation conditions were used, yielding different levels of oxidized organics: (1) OH radicals, (2) Ozone with the OH scavenger H2 (pure ozonolysis) and (3) both. SO2 was injected to allow for sulfuric acid production. Optical UV fibers were used to enable photochemical reactions. A high field cage (30 kV) can be turned on to remove all charged particles in the chamber to enable completely neutral conditions. Comparing neutral conditions to the beam conditions using CERN's proton synchrotron, the fraction of ion-induced nucleation can be studied. Using

  20. Experimental investigation of pool boiling of water-based AL2O3 nanofluid on a copper cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryazhnikov Maxim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saturated boiling of nanofluid on a copper cylinder is experimentally studied. The studied nanofluid were prepared using distilled water and Al2O3 nanoparticles. The volume concentration of the nanoparticles was equal 3 %. Cylinder diameter was equal 25 mm. The time dependence on the excess temperature at different boiling regimes were obtained. It shown increase of heat transfer coefficient under boiling of nanofluid.