WorldWideScience

Sample records for sub-cloud base fluxes

  1. Eddy covariance based methane flux in Sundarbans mangroves, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eddy covariance based methane flux in Sundarbans mangroves, India ... Eddy covariance; mangrove forests; methane flux; Sundarbans. ... In order to quantify the methane flux in mangroves, an eddy covariance flux tower was recently erected in the largest unpolluted and undisturbed mangrove ecosystem in Sundarbans ...

  2. OpenFLUX: efficient modelling software for 13C-based metabolic flux analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Lars K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quantitative analysis of metabolic fluxes, i.e., in vivo activities of intracellular enzymes and pathways, provides key information on biological systems in systems biology and metabolic engineering. It is based on a comprehensive approach combining (i tracer cultivation on 13C substrates, (ii 13C labelling analysis by mass spectrometry and (iii mathematical modelling for experimental design, data processing, flux calculation and statistics. Whereas the cultivation and the analytical part is fairly advanced, a lack of appropriate modelling software solutions for all modelling aspects in flux studies is limiting the application of metabolic flux analysis. Results We have developed OpenFLUX as a user friendly, yet flexible software application for small and large scale 13C metabolic flux analysis. The application is based on the new Elementary Metabolite Unit (EMU framework, significantly enhancing computation speed for flux calculation. From simple notation of metabolic reaction networks defined in a spreadsheet, the OpenFLUX parser automatically generates MATLAB-readable metabolite and isotopomer balances, thus strongly facilitating model creation. The model can be used to perform experimental design, parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis either using the built-in gradient-based search or Monte Carlo algorithms or in user-defined algorithms. Exemplified for a microbial flux study with 71 reactions, 8 free flux parameters and mass isotopomer distribution of 10 metabolites, OpenFLUX allowed to automatically compile the EMU-based model from an Excel file containing metabolic reactions and carbon transfer mechanisms, showing it's user-friendliness. It reliably reproduced the published data and optimum flux distributions for the network under study were found quickly ( Conclusion We have developed a fast, accurate application to perform steady-state 13C metabolic flux analysis. OpenFLUX will strongly facilitate and

  3. OpenFLUX: efficient modelling software for 13C-based metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Lake-Ee; Wittmann, Christoph; Nielsen, Lars K; Krömer, Jens O

    2009-05-01

    The quantitative analysis of metabolic fluxes, i.e., in vivo activities of intracellular enzymes and pathways, provides key information on biological systems in systems biology and metabolic engineering. It is based on a comprehensive approach combining (i) tracer cultivation on 13C substrates, (ii) 13C labelling analysis by mass spectrometry and (iii) mathematical modelling for experimental design, data processing, flux calculation and statistics. Whereas the cultivation and the analytical part is fairly advanced, a lack of appropriate modelling software solutions for all modelling aspects in flux studies is limiting the application of metabolic flux analysis. We have developed OpenFLUX as a user friendly, yet flexible software application for small and large scale 13C metabolic flux analysis. The application is based on the new Elementary Metabolite Unit (EMU) framework, significantly enhancing computation speed for flux calculation. From simple notation of metabolic reaction networks defined in a spreadsheet, the OpenFLUX parser automatically generates MATLAB-readable metabolite and isotopomer balances, thus strongly facilitating model creation. The model can be used to perform experimental design, parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis either using the built-in gradient-based search or Monte Carlo algorithms or in user-defined algorithms. Exemplified for a microbial flux study with 71 reactions, 8 free flux parameters and mass isotopomer distribution of 10 metabolites, OpenFLUX allowed to automatically compile the EMU-based model from an Excel file containing metabolic reactions and carbon transfer mechanisms, showing it's user-friendliness. It reliably reproduced the published data and optimum flux distributions for the network under study were found quickly (studies. By providing the software open source, we hope it will evolve with the rapidly growing field of fluxomics.

  4. Flux variability scanning based on enforced objective flux for identifying gene amplification targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In order to reduce time and efforts to develop microbial strains with better capability of producing desired bioproducts, genome-scale metabolic simulations have proven useful in identifying gene knockout and amplification targets. Constraints-based flux analysis has successfully been employed for such simulation, but is limited in its ability to properly describe the complex nature of biological systems. Gene knockout simulations are relatively straightforward to implement, simply by constraining the flux values of the target reaction to zero, but the identification of reliable gene amplification targets is rather difficult. Here, we report a new algorithm which incorporates physiological data into a model to improve the model’s prediction capabilities and to capitalize on the relationships between genes and metabolic fluxes. Results We developed an algorithm, flux variability scanning based on enforced objective flux (FVSEOF) with grouping reaction (GR) constraints, in an effort to identify gene amplification targets by considering reactions that co-carry flux values based on physiological omics data via “GR constraints”. This method scans changes in the variabilities of metabolic fluxes in response to an artificially enforced objective flux of product formation. The gene amplification targets predicted using this method were validated by comparing the predicted effects with the previous experimental results obtained for the production of shikimic acid and putrescine in Escherichia coli. Moreover, new gene amplification targets for further enhancing putrescine production were validated through experiments involving the overexpression of each identified targeted gene under condition-controlled batch cultivation. Conclusions FVSEOF with GR constraints allows identification of gene amplification targets for metabolic engineering of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of desired bioproducts. The algorithm was validated through the

  5. Hadroproduction experiments to constrain accelerator-based neutrino fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Laura

    2017-09-01

    The precise knowledge of (anti-)neutrino fluxes is one of the largest limitation in accelerator-based neutrino experiments. The main limitations arise from the poorly known production properties of neutrino parents in hadron-nucleus interactions. Strategies used by neutrino experiment to constrain their fluxes using external hadroproduction data will be described and illustrated with an example of a tight collaboration between T2K and NA61/SHINE experiments. This enabled a reduction of the T2K neutrino flux uncertainty from ∼25% (without external constraints) down to ∼10%. On-going developments to further constrain the T2K (anti-)neutrino flux are discussed and recent results from NA61/SHINE are reviewed. As the next-generation long baseline experiments aim for a neutrino flux uncertainty at a level of a few percent, the future data-taking plans of NA61/SHINE are discussed.

  6. Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    Med udgangspunkt i kompleksistetsforskning og studiet af selvorganiserende systemer beskriver lb Ravn den fysiske og biologiske evolution og menneskets udvikling. Han fortolker begreber som kultur, sprog, frihed, værdier, mening, smerte og det ondes problem i lyset af en procesbaseret ontologi...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...

  7. Finding elementary flux modes in metabolic networks based on flux balance analysis and flux coupling analysis: application to the analysis of Escherichia coli metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabe-Bordbar, Shayan; Marashi, Sayed-Amir

    2013-12-01

    Elementary modes (EMs) are steady-state metabolic flux vectors with minimal set of active reactions. Each EM corresponds to a metabolic pathway. Therefore, studying EMs is helpful for analyzing the production of biotechnologically important metabolites. However, memory requirements for computing EMs may hamper their applicability as, in most genome-scale metabolic models, no EM can be computed due to running out of memory. In this study, we present a method for computing randomly sampled EMs. In this approach, a network reduction algorithm is used for EM computation, which is based on flux balance-based methods. We show that this approach can be used to recover the EMs in the medium- and genome-scale metabolic network models, while the EMs are sampled in an unbiased way. The applicability of such results is shown by computing “estimated” control-effective flux values in Escherichia coli metabolic network.

  8. Decoupling Suspension Controller Based on Magnetic Flux Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module’s antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.

  9. SPECTRAL data-based estimation of soil heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.K.; Irmak, A.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth; Verma, S.B.; Suyker, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous existing spectral-based soil heat flux (G) models have shown wide variation in performance for maize and soybean cropping systems in Nebraska, indicating the need for localized calibration and model development. The objectives of this article are to develop a semi-empirical model to estimate G from a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and net radiation (Rn) for maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) fields in the Great Plains, and present the suitability of the developed model to estimate G under similar and different soil and management conditions. Soil heat fluxes measured in both irrigated and rainfed fields in eastern and south-central Nebraska were used for model development and validation. An exponential model that uses NDVI and Rn was found to be the best to estimate G based on r2 values. The effect of geographic location, crop, and water management practices were used to develop semi-empirical models under four case studies. Each case study has the same exponential model structure but a different set of coefficients and exponents to represent the crop, soil, and management practices. Results showed that the semi-empirical models can be used effectively for G estimation for nearby fields with similar soil properties for independent years, regardless of differences in crop type, crop rotation, and irrigation practices, provided that the crop residue from the previous year is more than 4000 kg ha-1. The coefficients calibrated from particular fields can be used at nearby fields in order to capture temporal variation in G. However, there is a need for further investigation of the models to account for the interaction effects of crop rotation and irrigation. Validation at an independent site having different soil and crop management practices showed the limitation of the semi-empirical model in estimating G under different soil and environment conditions.

  10. Performance verification of an epithermal neutron flux monitor using accelerator-based BNCT neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, X.; Murata, I.; Wang, T.

    2017-09-01

    The performance of an epithermal neutron flux monitor developed for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is verified by Monte Carlo simulations using accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs). The results indicate that the developed epithermal neutron flux monitor works well and it can be efficiently used in practical applications to measure the epithermal neutron fluxes of ABNSs in a high accuracy.

  11. Prediction of Metabolic Flux Distribution from Gene Expression Data Based on the Flux Minimization Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae , and wild-type and mutant Escherichia coli strains, our method achieved high prediction accuracy, as gauged by correlation...the aerobic growth of S. cerevisiae . We used experimental data collected by Lee et al., which included RNA-seq transcriptomic data and exchange flux...measurements of S. cerevisiae aerobically growing in chemostat cultures. This study provides data under two different growth conditions, i.e., glucose

  12. Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensing-Based Steel Cable NDE Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Seunghee; Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Changgil; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2014-01-01

    .... This inspection system measures magnetic flux to detect the local faults (LF) of steel cable. To verify the feasibility of the proposed damage detection technique, an 8-channel MFL sensor head prototype was designed and fabricated...

  13. Flux Design: In silico design of cell factories based on correlation of pathway fluxes to desired properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittmann Christoph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of genetic target genes is a key step for rational engineering of production strains towards bio-based chemicals, fuels or therapeutics. This is often a difficult task, because superior production performance typically requires a combination of multiple targets, whereby the complex metabolic networks complicate straightforward identification. Recent attempts towards target prediction mainly focus on the prediction of gene deletion targets and therefore can cover only a part of genetic modifications proven valuable in metabolic engineering. Efficient in silico methods for simultaneous genome-scale identification of targets to be amplified or deleted are still lacking. Results Here we propose the identification of targets via flux correlation to a chosen objective flux as approach towards improved biotechnological production strains with optimally designed fluxes. The approach, we name Flux Design, computes elementary modes and, by search through the modes, identifies targets to be amplified (positive correlation or down-regulated (negative correlation. Supported by statistical evaluation, a target potential is attributed to the identified reactions in a quantitative manner. Based on systems-wide models of the industrial microorganisms Corynebacterium glutamicum and Aspergillus niger, up to more than 20,000 modes were obtained for each case, differing strongly in production performance and intracellular fluxes. For lysine production in C. glutamicum the identified targets nicely matched with reported successful metabolic engineering strategies. In addition, simulations revealed insights, e.g. into the flexibility of energy metabolism. For enzyme production in A.niger flux correlation analysis suggested a number of targets, including non-obvious ones. Hereby, the relevance of most targets depended on the metabolic state of the cell and also on the carbon source. Conclusions Objective flux correlation analysis

  14. Very low speed performance of active flux based sensorless control: interior permanent magnet synchronous motor vector control versus direct torque and flux control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paicu, M. C.; Boldea, I.; Andreescu, G. D.

    2009-01-01

    This study is focused on very low speed performance comparison between two sensorless control systems based on the novel ‘active flux' concept, that is, the current/voltage vector control versus direct torque and flux control (DTFC) for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives...... with space vector modulation (SVM), without signal injection. The active flux, defined as the flux that multiplies iq current in the dq-model torque expression of all ac machines, is easily obtained from the stator-flux vector and has the rotor position orientation. Therefore notable simplification...... in the rotor position and speed estimation is obtained. For IPMSM, a stator-flux observer is employed based on combined current and voltage models, with speed-dependent smooth transition between them using a PI compensator of flux error. Comparative experimental results using both sensorless control systems...

  15. Particle Filter-Based Recursive Data Fusion With Sensor Indexing for Large Core Neutron Flux Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Prakash Kumar; Duttagupta, Siddhartha P.; Roy, Kallol

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a sequential importance sampling particle filter (PF)-based multisensor multivariate nonlinear estimator for estimating the in-core neutron flux distribution for pressurized heavy water reactor core. Many critical applications such as reactor protection and control rely upon neutron flux information, and thus their reliability is of utmost importance. The point kinetic model based on neutron transport conveniently explains the dynamics of nuclear reactor. The neutron flux in the large core loosely coupled reactor is sensed by multiple sensors measuring point fluxes located at various locations inside the reactor core. The flux values are coupled to each other through diffusion equation. The coupling facilitates redundancy in the information. It is shown that multiple independent data about the localized flux can be fused together to enhance the estimation accuracy to a great extent. We also propose the sensor anomaly handling feature in multisensor PF to maintain the estimation process even when the sensor is faulty or generates data anomaly.

  16. Eddy covariance based methane flux in Sundarbans mangroves, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    West Bengal Forest Department, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098, India. ∗. Corresponding author. e-mail: surajking123@gmail.com ... Eddy covariance; mangrove forests; methane flux; Sundarbans. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 123, No. 5, July 2014, pp. 1089–1096 .... terrestrial biomes in India. The main objective of this paper is to present.

  17. Very high flux research reactors based on particle fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.R.; Takahashi, H.

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to high flux research reactors is described, the VHFR (Very High Flux Reactor). The VHFR fuel region(s) are packed beds of HTGR-type fuel particles through which coolant (e.g., D/sub 2/O) flows directly. The small particle diameter (typically on the order of 500 microns) results in very large surface areas for heat transfer (approx. 100 cm/sup 2//cm/sup 3/ of bed), high power densities (approx. 10 megawatts per liter), and minimal ..delta..T between fuel and coolant (approx. 10 K) VHFR designs are presented which achieve steady-state fluxes of approx. 2x10/sup 16/ n/cm/sup 2/sec. Deuterium/beryllium combinations give the highest flux levels. Critical mass is low, approx. 2 kg /sup 235/U for 20% enriched fuel. Refueling can be carried out continuously on-line, or in a batch process with a short daily shutdown. Fission product inventory is very low, approx. 100 to 300 grams, depending on design.

  18. An intercomparison and validation of satellite-based surface radiative flux estimates over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihelä, Aku; Key, Jeffrey; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Palo, Timo; Karlsson, Karl-Göran

    2017-04-01

    Accurate determination of radiative energy fluxes over the Arctic is of crucial importance for understanding atmosphere-surface interactions, melt and refreezing cycles of the snow and ice cover, and the role of the Arctic in the global energy budget. Satellite-based estimates can provide comprehensive spatiotemporal coverage, but the accuracy and comparability of the existing datasets must be ascertained to facilitate their use. Here we compare radiative flux estimates from CERES SYN/EBAF, GEWEX SRB and our own experimental Fluxnet-CLARA data against in situ observations over Arctic sea ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet during summer of 2007. In general, CERES SYN1deg flux estimates agree best with in situ measurements, although with two particular limitations. 1) Over sea ice the upwelling shortwave flux in CERES SYN1deg appears to be underestimated because of an underestimated surface albedo. And 2), the CERES SYN1deg upwelling longwave flux over sea ice saturates during midsummer. The AVHRR-based GEWEX and Fluxnet-CLARA flux estimates generally show a larger range in retrieval errors relative to CERES, with contrasting tendencies relative to each other. The largest source of retrieval error in the Fluxnet-CLARA downwelling shortwave flux is shown to be an overestimated cloud optical thickness. The results illustrate that satellite-based flux estimates over the Arctic are not yet homogeneous and further efforts are necessary to investigate the differences in the surface and cloud properties which lead to disagreements in flux retrievals.

  19. An intercomparison and validation of satellite-based surface radiative energy flux estimates over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihelä, Aku; Key, Jeffrey R.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Palo, Timo; Karlsson, Karl-Göran

    2017-05-01

    Accurate determination of radiative energy fluxes over the Arctic is of crucial importance for understanding atmosphere-surface interactions, melt and refreezing cycles of the snow and ice cover, and the role of the Arctic in the global energy budget. Satellite-based estimates can provide comprehensive spatiotemporal coverage, but the accuracy and comparability of the existing data sets must be ascertained to facilitate their use. Here we compare radiative flux estimates from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Synoptic 1-degree (SYN1deg)/Energy Balanced and Filled, Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) surface energy budget, and our own experimental FluxNet / Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring cLoud, Albedo and RAdiation (CLARA) data against in situ observations over Arctic sea ice and the Greenland Ice Sheet during summer of 2007. In general, CERES SYN1deg flux estimates agree best with in situ measurements, although with two particular limitations: (1) over sea ice the upwelling shortwave flux in CERES SYN1deg appears to be underestimated because of an underestimated surface albedo and (2) the CERES SYN1deg upwelling longwave flux over sea ice saturates during midsummer. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer-based GEWEX and FluxNet-CLARA flux estimates generally show a larger range in retrieval errors relative to CERES, with contrasting tendencies relative to each other. The largest source of retrieval error in the FluxNet-CLARA downwelling shortwave flux is shown to be an overestimated cloud optical thickness. The results illustrate that satellite-based flux estimates over the Arctic are not yet homogeneous and that further efforts are necessary to investigate the differences in the surface and cloud properties which lead to disagreements in flux retrievals.

  20. Virtual Damping Flux-Based LVRT Control for DFIG-Based Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Rongwu; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    to support grid voltage for symmetrical grid faults. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is examined by the simulation with a 2-MW DFIG in MATLAB/Simulink and verified by the experimental results from a scaled-down 7.5-kW DFIG controlled by a DSPACE1006. In addition, the impacts of the magnetic......This paper proposes a virtual damping flux-based low-voltage ride through (LVRT) control strategy for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbine. During the transient states of grid voltage drop and recovery, the proposed virtual damping flux-based strategy can suppress rotor...... nonlinearity characteristics of a practical DFIG are investigated under asymmetrical grid faults. Although the magnetic nonlinearity characteristics degrade the control effects, the proposed strategies can still improve the DFIG performances during asymmetrical grid faults. The results clearly demonstrate...

  1. A comparison of sap flux-based evapotranspiration estimates with catchment-scale water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; Robert M. Hubbard; Brian D. Kloeppel; James M. Vose

    2007-01-01

    Many researchers are using sap flux to estimate tree-level transpiration, and to scale to stand- and catchment-level transpiration; yet studies evaluating the comparability of sap flux-based estimates of transpiration (E) with alternative methods for estimating Et at this spatial scale are rare. Our ability to...

  2. Optimizing laboratory-based radon flux measurements for sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanyotha, Supitcha; Kranrod, Chutima; Kritsananuwat, Rawiwan; Lane-Smith, Derek; Burnett, William C

    2016-07-01

    Radon flux via diffusion from sediments and other materials may be determined in the laboratory by circulating air through the sample and a radon detector in a closed loop. However, this approach is complicated by the necessity of having to determine the total air volume in the system and accounting for any small air leaks that can arise if using extended measurement periods. We designed a simple open-loop configuration that includes a measured mass of wet sediment and water inside a gas-tight reaction flask connected to a drying system and a radon-in-air analyzer. Ambient air flows through two charcoal columns before entering the reaction vessel to eliminate incoming radon. After traveling through the reaction flask, the air passes the drier and the radon analyzer and is then vented. After some time, the radon activity will reach a steady state depending upon the airflow rate. With this approach, the radon flux via diffusion is simply the product of the steady-state radon activity (Bq/m(3)) multiplied by the airflow rate (mL/min). We demonstrated that this setup could produce good results for materials that produce relatively high radon fluxes. We also show that a modified closed system approach, including radon removal of the incoming air by charcoal filtration in a bypass, can produce very good results including samples with very low emission rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Yearly Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  4. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Monthly Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  5. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, Daily Grid F10 V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  6. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Seasonal Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  7. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, Daily Grid F08 V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  8. Sensorless sliding mode torque control of an IPMSM drive based on active flux concept

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, A.A.; El-Sawy, A.M.; Mohamed, Y.S.; Shehata, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates a novel direct torque control of a sensorless interior permanent magnet synchronous motor based on a sliding mode technique. The speed and position of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor are estimated online based on active flux concept. To overcome the large ripple content associated with the direct torque, a torque/flux sliding mode controller has been employed. Two integral surface functions are used to construct the sliding mode controller. The command ...

  9. Regional CO2 flux estimates for 2009-2010 based on GOSAT and ground-based CO2 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, S.; Takagi, H.; Valsala, V. K.; Saito, M.; Oda, T.; Saeki, T.; Belikov, D. A.; Saito, R.; Ito, A.; Yoshida, Y.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Andres, R. J.; Yokota, T.

    2013-09-01

    We present the application of a global carbon cycle modeling system to the estimation of monthly regional CO2 fluxes from the column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2) retrieved from spectral observations made by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). The regional flux estimates are to be publicly disseminated as the GOSAT Level 4 data product. The forward modeling components of the system include an atmospheric tracer transport model, an anthropogenic emissions inventory, a terrestrial biosphere exchange model, and an oceanic flux model. The atmospheric tracer transport was simulated using isentropic coordinates in the stratosphere and was tuned to reproduce the age of air. We used a fossil fuel emission inventory based on large point source data and observations of nighttime lights. The terrestrial biospheric model was optimized by fitting model parameters to observed atmospheric CO2 seasonal cycle, net primary production data, and a biomass distribution map. The oceanic surface pCO2 distribution was estimated with a 4-D variational data assimilation system based on reanalyzed ocean currents. Monthly CO2 fluxes of 64 sub-continental regions, between June 2009 and May 2010, were estimated from GOSAT FTS SWIR Level 2 XCO2 retrievals (ver. 02.00) gridded to 5° × 5° cells and averaged on a monthly basis and monthly-mean GLOBALVIEW-CO2 data. Our result indicated that adding the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals to the GLOBALVIEW data in the flux estimation brings changes to fluxes of tropics and other remote regions where the surface-based data are sparse. The uncertainties of these remote fluxes were reduced by as much as 60% through such addition. Optimized fluxes estimated for many of these regions, were brought closer to the prior fluxes by the addition of the GOSAT retrievals. In most of the regions and seasons considered here, the estimated fluxes fell within the range of natural flux variabilities estimated with the component models.

  10. Regional CO2 flux estimates for 2009–2010 based on GOSAT and ground-based CO2 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maksyutov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of a global carbon cycle modeling system to the estimation of monthly regional CO2 fluxes from the column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2 retrieved from spectral observations made by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. The regional flux estimates are to be publicly disseminated as the GOSAT Level 4 data product. The forward modeling components of the system include an atmospheric tracer transport model, an anthropogenic emissions inventory, a terrestrial biosphere exchange model, and an oceanic flux model. The atmospheric tracer transport was simulated using isentropic coordinates in the stratosphere and was tuned to reproduce the age of air. We used a fossil fuel emission inventory based on large point source data and observations of nighttime lights. The terrestrial biospheric model was optimized by fitting model parameters to observed atmospheric CO2 seasonal cycle, net primary production data, and a biomass distribution map. The oceanic surface pCO2 distribution was estimated with a 4-D variational data assimilation system based on reanalyzed ocean currents. Monthly CO2 fluxes of 64 sub-continental regions, between June 2009 and May 2010, were estimated from GOSAT FTS SWIR Level 2 XCO2 retrievals (ver. 02.00 gridded to 5° × 5° cells and averaged on a monthly basis and monthly-mean GLOBALVIEW-CO2 data. Our result indicated that adding the GOSAT XCO2 retrievals to the GLOBALVIEW data in the flux estimation brings changes to fluxes of tropics and other remote regions where the surface-based data are sparse. The uncertainties of these remote fluxes were reduced by as much as 60% through such addition. Optimized fluxes estimated for many of these regions, were brought closer to the prior fluxes by the addition of the GOSAT retrievals. In most of the regions and seasons considered here, the estimated fluxes fell within the range of natural flux variabilities estimated with the component models.

  11. Towards the spatial rectification of tower-based eddy-covariance flux observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K.; Metzger, S.; Kljun, N.; Taylor, J. R.; Desai, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Eddy-covariance (EC) observations of ecologically relevant trace gas and energy fluxes are too sparse spatially for direct assimilation into gridded earth system models (ESMs). The spatial coverage of a tower EC measurement may represent less than 1% of a grid cell resolved by ESMs. For advancing ecological inference it is hence desirable to improve the spatial representativeness of EC measurements. The objectives of this study are (i) to map the spatio-temporally variable flux field around tower EC measurements, and (ii) to quantify spatial representativeness when surrogating the flux over an ESM grid cell with EC observations that source a spatio-temporally variable patch of surface close to the tower. The present study employs environmental response functions (ERFs) for this purpose. The underlying principle is to extract the relationship between biophysical drivers and ecological responses from measurements in the time-domain under varying environmental conditions. The resulting ERF can then be used for projecting the fluxes into target areas. Based on the probability density functions of resulting flux grids, the representativeness of tower measurements is quantified. We apply ERF to EC measurements from July and August 2011 at the AmeriFlux Park Falls tall tower, Wisconsin, U.S.A. With the ERF procedure, the spatial coverage can be increased to >70% for target areas around the tower of 400 km2. From this we determine that 85% and 24% of the tower flux observations can capture the mean turbulent flux and its variability over a 900 km2 target area, respectively, at 5% significance and 80% representativeness level. Lastly, we determine an uncertainty budget for this methodology. Our companion presentation "Assessing and correcting spatial representativeness of tower eddy-covariance flux measurements" shows the applicability of the ERF procedure to provide consistent flux time series for target regions under different climatic and ecological environments.

  12. On the limit of neutron fluxes in the fission-based pulsed neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, V. L.; Ananiev, V. D.; Komyshev, G. G.; Rogov, A. D.; Shabalin, E. P.

    2017-09-01

    The upper limit of the density of the thermal neutron flux from pulsed sources based on the fission reaction is established. Three types of sources for research on ejected beams are considered: a multiplying target of the proton accelerator (a booster), a booster with the reactivity modulation (a superbooster), and a pulsing reactor. Comparison with other high-flux sources is carried out. The investigation has been performed at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics of JINR.

  13. Soil moisture storage estimation based on steady vertical fluxes under equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvrosiadi, Nino; Bishop, Kevin; Seibert, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Soil moisture is an important variable for hillslope and catchment hydrology. There are various computational methods to estimate soil moisture and their complexity varies greatly: from one box with vertically constant volumetric soil water content to fully saturated-unsaturated coupled physically-based models. Different complexity levels are applicable depending on the simulation scale, computational time limitations, input data and knowledge about the parameters. The Vertical Equilibrium Model (VEM) is a simple approach to estimate the catchment-wide soil water storage at a daily time-scale on the basis of water table level observations, soil properties and an assumption of hydrological equilibrium without vertical fluxes above the water table. In this study VEM was extended by considering vertical fluxes, which allows conditions with evaporation and infiltration to be represented. The aim was to test the hypothesis that the simulated volumetric soil water content significantly depends on vertical fluxes. The water content difference between the no-flux, equilibrium approach and the new constant-flux approach greatly depended on the soil textural class, ranging between ∼1% for silty clay and ∼44% for sand at an evapotranspiration rate of 5 mm·d-1. The two approaches gave a mean volumetric soil water content difference of ∼1 mm for two case studies (sandy loam and organic rich soils). The results showed that for many soil types the differences in estimated storage between the no-flux and the constant flux approaches were relatively small.

  14. A physically-based hybrid framework to estimate daily-mean surface fluxes over complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Yuan; Hall, Alex

    2016-06-01

    In this study we developed and examined a hybrid modeling approach integrating physically-based equations and statistical downscaling to estimate fine-scale daily-mean surface turbulent fluxes (i.e., sensible and latent heat fluxes) for a region of southern California that is extensively covered by varied vegetation types over a complex terrain. The selection of model predictors is guided by physical parameterizations of surface flux used in land surface models and analysis showing net shortwave radiation that is a major source of variability in the surface energy budget. Through a structure of multivariable regression processes with an application of near-surface wind estimates from a previous study, we successfully reproduce dynamically-downscaled 3 km resolution surface flux data. The overall error in our estimates is less than 20 % for both sensible and latent heat fluxes, while slightly larger errors are seen in high-altitude regions. The major sources of error in estimates include the limited information provided in coarse reanalysis data, the accuracy of near-surface wind estimates, and an ignorance of the nonlinear diurnal cycle of surface fluxes when using daily-mean data. However, with reasonable and acceptable errors, this hybrid modeling approach provides promising, fine-scale products of surface fluxes that are much more accurate than reanalysis data, without performing intensive dynamical simulations.

  15. Flux control-based design of furfural-resistance strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for lignocellulosic biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrean, Pornkamol

    2017-04-01

    We have previously developed a dynamic flux balance analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for elucidation of genome-wide flux response to furfural perturbation (Unrean and Franzen, Biotechnol J 10(8):1248-1258, 2015). Herein, the dynamic flux distributions were analyzed by flux control analysis to identify target overexpressed genes for improved yeast robustness against furfural. The flux control coefficient (FCC) identified overexpressing isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1), a rate-controlling flux for ethanol fermentation, and dicarboxylate carrier (DIC1), a limiting flux for cell growth, as keys of furfural-resistance phenotype. Consistent with the model prediction, strain characterization showed 1.2- and 2.0-fold improvement in ethanol synthesis and furfural detoxification rates, respectively, by IDH1 overexpressed mutant compared to the control. DIC1 overexpressed mutant grew at 1.3-fold faster and reduced furfural at 1.4-fold faster than the control under the furfural challenge. This study hence demonstrated the FCC-based approach as an effective tool for guiding the design of robust yeast strains.

  16. An analytical method based on multipole moment expansion to calculate the flux distribution in Gammacell-220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, P.; Ataenia, V.; Shafiei, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the flux of photons inside the irradiation cell of the Gammacell-220 is calculated using an analytical method based on multipole moment expansion. The flux of the photons inside the irradiation cell is introduced as the function of monopole, dipoles and quadruples in the Cartesian coordinate system. For the source distribution of the Gammacell-220, the values of the multipole moments are specified by direct integrating. To confirm the validation of the presented methods, the flux distribution inside the irradiation cell was determined utilizing MCNP simulations as well as experimental measurements. To measure the flux inside the irradiation cell, Amber dosimeters were employed. The calculated values of the flux were in agreement with the values obtained by simulations and measurements, especially in the central zones of the irradiation cell. In order to show that the present method is a good approximation to determine the flux in the irradiation cell, the values of the multipole moments were obtained by fitting the simulation and experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The present method leads to reasonable results for the all source distribution even without any symmetry which makes it a powerful tool for the source load planning.

  17. Neutron flux assessment of a neutron irradiation facility based on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztejnberg Gonçalves-Carralves, M L; Miller, M E

    2015-12-01

    Neutron generators based on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion were considered for the design of a neutron irradiation facility for explanted organ Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) that could be installed in a health care center as well as in research areas. The chosen facility configuration is "irradiation chamber", a ~20×20×40 cm(3) cavity near or in the center of the facility geometry where samples to be irradiated can be placed. Neutron flux calculations were performed to study different manners for improving scattering processes and, consequently, optimize neutron flux in the irradiation position. Flux distributions were assessed through numerical simulations of several models implemented in MCNP5 particle transport code. Simulation results provided a wide spectrum of combinations of net fluxes and energy spectrum distributions. Among them one can find a group that can provide thermal neutron fluxes per unit of production rate in a range from 4.1·10(-4) cm(-2) to 1.6·10(-3) cm(-2) with epithermal-to-thermal ratios between 0.3% and 13% and fast-to-thermal ratios between 0.01% to 8%. Neutron generators could be built to provide more than 10(10) n s(-1) and, consequently, with an arrangement of several generators appropriate enough neutron fluxes could be obtained that would be useful for several BNCT-related irradiations and, eventually, for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel flux estimator based on SOGI with FLL for induction machine drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Rende; Xin, Zhen; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    by the initial conditions with no need for the magnitude and phase compensation. Because the dc and harmonic components are inversely proportional to the speed in the estimated flux, the performance of the single SOGI-based estimator become worse at low speed. A multiple SOGI-based flux estimator is the proposed...... to solve the problem. It can deeply attenuate the dc and harmonic components and then it has an excellent performance in a wide speed range. Theoretical study, simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed estimator....

  19. Sea spray aerosol flux estimation based on long-term variation of wave statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Myrhaug

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This note provides estimates of the mean sea spray aerosol flux based on long-term wave statistics using the whitecap method based on the limiting steepness and threshold vertical acceleration criteria. The aim is to present a procedure demonstrating how global wave statistics can be used to give estimates of the long-term aerosol flux. These estimates are obtained by using bivariate distributions of significant wave height and characteristic wave period, representing open ocean deep water waves in the Northern North Sea and the North Atlantic.

  20. Genetic algorithm based adaptive neural network ensemble and its application in predicting carbon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y.; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Yang, J.; Chen, Q.

    2007-01-01

    To improve the accuracy in prediction, Genetic Algorithm based Adaptive Neural Network Ensemble (GA-ANNE) is presented. Intersections are allowed between different training sets based on the fuzzy clustering analysis, which ensures the diversity as well as the accuracy of individual Neural Networks (NNs). Moreover, to improve the accuracy of the adaptive weights of individual NNs, GA is used to optimize the cluster centers. Empirical results in predicting carbon flux of Duke Forest reveal that GA-ANNE can predict the carbon flux more accurately than Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN), Bagging NN ensemble, and ANNE. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  1. New advances in Dial-Lidar-based remote sensing of the volcanic CO2 flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; D'Aleo, Roberto; Liuzzo, Marco; Maio, Giovanni; Nuvoli, Marcello

    2017-02-01

    We report here on the results of a proof-of-concept study aimed at remotely sensing the volcanic CO2 flux using a Differential Adsorption lidar (DIAL-lidar). The observations we report on were conducted on June 2014 on Stromboli volcano, where our lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) was used to scan the volcanic plume from 3 km distance from the summit vents. The obtained results prove that a remotely operating lidar can resolve a volcanic CO2 signal of a few tens of ppm (in excess to background air) over km-long optical paths. We combine these results with independent estimates of plume transport speed (from processing of UV Camera images) to derive volcanic CO2 flux time-series of ≈16-33 minutes temporal resolution. Our lidar-based CO2 fluxes range from 1.8±0.5 to 32.1±8.0 kg/s, and constrain the daily averaged CO2 emissions from Stromboli at 8.3±2.1 to 18.1±4.5 kg/s (or 718-1565 tons/day). These inferred fluxes fall within the range of earlier observations at Stromboli. They also agree well with contemporaneous CO2 flux determinations (8.4-20.1 kg/s) obtained using a standard approach that combines Multi-GAS-based in-plume readings of the CO2/SO2 ratio (≈ 8) with UV-camera sensed SO2 fluxes (1.5-3.4 kg/s). We conclude that DIAL-lidars offer new prospects for safer (remote) instrumental observations of the volcanic CO2 flux.

  2. Obtaining and Characterization of Flux-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina Maria Bogăţean

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of creating this assortment was to remind the public of a long forgotten sugar based product, with a high energy value and which can be easily associated both with plain or mineral water consumption. Also we have taken into consideration the well-known '' home-made'' and ''vintage'' concepts. The purpose of this scientific research is to obtain a laboratory created product, as well as obtaining both the cocoa and the lemon sorbet. In the technological process this type of products can be redefined under a new form. The great advantage comes with the fact that it dosen't currently exit on the market and so it can be considered as being a brand new product. The anbalyses both on the raw materials and on the final deliverable product were done in the Faculty's laboratories and it was proven to meet the standars.

  3. Comparison of heat flux estimations from two turbulent exchange models based on thermal UAV data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Helene; Nieto, Hector; Jensen, Rasmus; Friborg, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Advantages of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) data-collection, compared to more traditional data-collections are numerous and already well-discussed (Berni et al., 2009; Laliberte et al., 2011; Turner et al., 2012). However studies investigating the quality and applications of UAV-data are crucial if advantages are to be beneficial for scientific purposes. In this study, thermal data collected over an agricultural site in Denmark have been obtained using a fixed-wing UAV and investigated for the estimation of heat fluxes. Estimation of heat fluxes requires high precision data and careful data processing. Latent, sensible and soil heat fluxes are estimates through two models of the two source energy modelling scheme driven by remotely sensed observations of land surface temperature; the original TSEB (Norman et al., 1995) and the DTD (Norman et al., 2000) which builds on the TSEB. The DTD model accounts for errors arising when deriving radiometric temperatures and can to some extent compensate for the fact that thermal cameras rarely are accurate. The DTD model requires an additional set of remotely sensed data during morning hours of the day at which heat fluxes are to be determined. This makes the DTD model ideal to use when combined with UAV data, because acquisition of data is not limited by fixed time by-passing tracks like satellite images (Guzinski et al., 2013). Based on these data, heat fluxes are computed from the two models and compared with fluxes from an eddy covariance station situated within the same designated agricultural site. This over-all procedure potentially enables an assessment of both the collected thermal UAV-data and of the two turbulent exchange models. Results reveal that both TSEB and DTD models compute heat fluxes from thermal UAV data that is within a very reasonable range and also that estimates from the DTD model is in best agreement with the eddy covariance system.

  4. ) Mold Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Myung-Duk; Shi, Cheng-Bin; Cho, Jung-Wook; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2014-10-01

    The effects of basicity (CaO/SiO2), B2O3, and Li2O addition on the crystallization behaviors of lime-silica-based mold fluxes have been investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and single hot thermocouple technique. It was found that the crystallization temperature of cuspidine increased with increasing the basicity of mold fluxes. The crystallization of wollastonite was suppressed with increasing the mold flux basicity due to the enhancement of cuspidine crystallization. The addition of B2O3 suppresses the crystallization of mold flux. The crystallization temperature of mold flux decreases with Li2O addition. The size of cuspidine increases, while the number of cuspidine decreases with increasing mold flux basicity. The morphology of cuspidine in mold fluxes with lower basicity is largely dendritic. The dendritic cuspidine in mold fluxes is composed of many fine cuspidine crystals. On the contrary, in mold fluxes with higher basicity, the cuspidine crystals are larger in size with mainly faceted morphology. The crystalline phase evolution was also calculated using a thermodynamic database, and compared with the experimental results determined by DSC and XRD. The results of thermodynamic calculation of crystalline phase formation are in accordance with the results determined by DSC and XRD.

  5. Nonlinearity measurements of solar cells with an LED-based combinatorial flux addition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Behrang H; Shore, Andrew; Roller, John; Yoon, Howard W; Campanelli, Mark

    2016-02-01

    We present a light emitting diode (LED)-based system utilizing a combinatorial flux addition method to investigate the nonlinear relationship in solar cells between the output current of the cell and the incident irradiance level. The magnitude of the light flux is controlled by the supplied currents to two LEDs (or two sets of them) in a combinatorial fashion. The signals measured from the cell are arranged within a related overdetermined linear system of equations derived from an appropriately chosen Nth degree polynomial representing the relationship between the measured signals and the incident fluxes. The flux values and the polynomial coefficients are then solved for by linear least squares to obtain the best fit. The technique can be applied to any solar cell, under either monochromatic or broadband spectrum. For the unscaled solution, no reference detectors or prior calibrations of the light flux are required. However, if at least one calibrated irradiance value is known, then the entire curve can be scaled to an appropriate spectral responsivity value. Using this technique, a large number of data points can be obtained in a relatively short time scale over a large signal range.

  6. Sensorless sliding mode torque control of an IPMSM drive based on active flux concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Hassan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a novel direct torque control of a sensorless interior permanent magnet synchronous motor based on a sliding mode technique. The speed and position of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor are estimated online based on active flux concept. To overcome the large ripple content associated with the direct torque, a torque/flux sliding mode controller has been employed. Two integral surface functions are used to construct the sliding mode controller. The command voltage is estimated from the torque and flux errors based on the two switching functions. The idea of the total sliding mode is used to eliminate the problem of reaching phase stability. The space vector modulation is combined with the sliding mode controller to ensure minimum torque and flux ripples and provides high resolution voltage control. The proposed scheme has the advantages of simple implementation, and does not require an external signal injection. In addition, it combines the merits of the direct torque control, sliding mode controller, and space vector modulation besides to the sensorless control. Simulation works are carried out to demonstrate the ability of the proposed scheme at different operating conditions. The results confirm the high performance of the proposed scheme at standstill, low and high speeds including load disturbance and parameters variation.

  7. Generation of twist on magnetic flux tubes at the base of the solar convection zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, H.; Yokoyama, T.

    2012-12-01

    Using two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics calculations, we investigate a twist generation mechanism on a magnetic flux tube at the base of the solar convection zone based on the idea of Choudhuri (2003, Sol. Phys., 215, 31) in which a toroidal magnetic field is wrapped by a surrounding mean poloidal field. During generation of the twist, the flux tube follows four phases. (1) It quickly splits into two parts with vortex motions rolling up the poloidal magnetic field. (2) Owing to the physical mechanism similar to that of the magneto-rotational instability, the rolled-up poloidal field is bent and amplified. (3) The magnetic tension of the disturbed poloidal magnetic field reduces the vorticity, and the lifting force caused by vortical motion decreases. (4) The flux tube gets twisted and begins to rise again without splitting. Investigation of these processes is significant because it shows that a flux tube without any initial twist can rise to the surface in relatively weak poloidal fields.

  8. Chamber and Diffusive Based Carbon Flux Measurements in an Alaskan Arctic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkman, E.; Oechel, W. C.; Zona, D.

    2013-12-01

    consumption, whereas chamber and eddy covariance methodologies only document net production from the surface. Also, the capability to measure spring, summer and fall chamber fluxes, and to continuously determine year-round CO2 and CH4 fluxes under even the most extreme weather conditions, allows an unprecedented level of data continuity and local spatial coverage. Comparison to a nearby eddy covariance tower measuring CO2 and CH4 fluxes with an LGR Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer add additional power to this set of measurements. Thus, inter-comparison between diffusive, chamber, and tower-based carbon fluxes should lend much insight into the spatial and temporal controls on carbon cycling in this ecosystem.

  9. Study the Effect of SiO2 Based Flux on Dilution in Submerged Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    kumar, Aditya; Maheshwari, Sachin

    2017-08-01

    This paper highlights the method for prediction of dilution in submerged arc welding (SAW). The most important factors of weld bead geometry are governed by the weld dilution which controls the chemical and mechanical properties. Submerged arc welding process is used generally due to its very easy control of process variables, good penetration, high weld quality, and smooth finish. Machining parameters, with suitable weld quality can be achieved with the different composition of the flux in the weld. In the present study Si02-Al2O3-CaO flux system was used. In SiO2 based flux NiO, MnO, MgO were mixed in various proportions. The paper investigates the relationship between the process parameters like voltage, % of flux constituents and dilution with the help of Taguchi’s method. The experiments were designed according to Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, while varying the voltage at two different levels in addition to alloying elements. Then the optimal results conditions were verified by confirmatory experiments.

  10. Methane fluxes at upland forests in Japan based on the micrometeorological and chamber methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Takagi, K.; Kominami, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Characterizing methane fluxes at upland forests are important to understand the global methane budget. We continuously measured methane fluxes based on the hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation (HREA) and automated dynamic closed chamber methods at three temperature forests: a mature larch plantation on a volcanic soil (FHK) since 2011, a young larch plantation on a Gambisol (TSE) since 2013, and deciduous broadleaf forest on an immature soil (YMS) since 2014. According to the chamber measurements, the three forests acted as a methane sink in the warm periods when the chamber measurements were conducted. In contrast, canopy-scale methane fluxes by the HREA often showed emission signals except FHK; in summer months, canopy-scale methane fluxes showed emissions in TSE and YMS, although those by chambers showed uptake. Consequently, missing sources at the canopy-scale were suggested in the measurements. In FHK at the uniform volcanic dry soil, both the HREA and chamber measurements showed a sink with similar magnitudes; the forest consumed methane except the winter. Canopy-scale annual methane budgets were a sink of 810 mg m-2 yr-1 for FHK, source of 190 mg m-2 yr-1 for TSE, and sink of 90 mg m-2 yr-1 for YMS.

  11. Pilot-Scale Test of Dephosphorization in Steelmaking Using Red Mud-Based Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengshan; Zhang, Yanling; Guo, Zhancheng

    2017-09-01

    Bayer red mud is characterized by its highly oxidizing nature and high alkalinity. It can act as an ideal flux and dephosphorizer in steelmaking. In this study, pilot-scale tests applying the Bayer red mud-based flux in steelmaking have been conducted in a 200-kg, medium-frequency induction furnace. Good slag fluidity and no rephosphorization phenomena are observed. High dephosphorization rates ( 90%) and low final [P] (mud-based slag can reach as high as 34.05 wt.%, far higher than the 6.73 wt.% in ordinary industrial slag. This suggests that the Al2O3, TiO2 in Bayer red mud can enhance the solid solubility of phosphorus in the P-rich phase. The data obtained are important for promoting the large-scale application of red mud in steelmaking.

  12. Experimental Study on Hot Metal Desulfurization Using Sintered Red Mud-Based Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengshan; Zhang, Yanling; Guo, Zhancheng

    2017-09-01

    This research presents the results of laboratory and pilot-scale tests conducted on the use of sintered red mud (RM)-based flux in the hot metal desulfurization (HMD) process. Al2O3/Na2O in RM can decrease the melting point of lime-based slag and can work as a flux in the HMD process. Good slag fluidity was observed throughout the process, and high desulfurization rates ( 80%) with a low final S content (<0.02%) were experimentally obtained when the RM:CaO ratio was between 1.2:1 and 2.4:1. The pilot-scale test results indicated that a desulfurization rate as high as 91% and a S content <0.0099% could be acquired when RM:lime = 1:1, verifying the feasibility of using sintered RM-based flux in HMD. The data obtained provide important information for promoting the large-scale application of sintered RM in steelmaking.

  13. Q-Axis Flux-Based Sensorless Vector Control of Induction Motor Taking into Account Iron Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Mineo; Chen, Shuo; Kai, Toshihiro; Hamasaki, Shin-Ichi

    This paper presents a sensorless vector control system for induction motors by taking into account iron loss, in which a flux-observer-based method is applied. Since the flux observer is constructed in a synchronously rotating reference frame with respect to the rotor flux of a current model and the iron loss resistance of parallel exiting circuit is used, the proposed system is very simple and the compensation of iron loss related to the operating frequency is directly realized while calculating rotor fluxes and slip frequency. The accuracies of estimated torque and speed are improved. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been verified by digital simulation and experimentation.

  14. Determining Accuracy of Thermal Dissipation Methods-based Sap Flux in Japanese Cedar Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Man-Ping; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Laplace, Sophie; Lin, Song-Jin; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    Thermal dissipation method, one kind of sap flux measurement method that can estimate individual tree transpiration, have been widely used because of its low cost and uncomplicated operation. Although thermal dissipation method is widespread, the accuracy of this method is doubted recently because some tree species materials in previous studies were not suitable for its empirical formula from Granier due to difference of wood characteristics. In Taiwan, Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) is one of the dominant species in mountainous area, quantifying the transpiration of Japanese cedar trees is indispensable to understand water cycling there. However, no one have tested the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux for Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. Thus, in this study we conducted calibration experiment using twelve Japanese cedar stem segments from six trees to investigate the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux in Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. By pumping water from segment bottom to top and inserting probes into segments to collect data simultaneously, we compared sap flux densities calculated from real water uptakes (Fd_actual) and empirical formula (Fd_Granier). Exact sapwood area and sapwood depth of each sample were obtained from dying segment with safranin stain solution. Our results showed that Fd_Granier underestimated 39 % of Fd_actual across sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 150 (cm3m-2s-1); while applying sapwood depth corrected formula from Clearwater, Fd_Granier became accurately that only underestimated 0.01 % of Fd_actual. However, when sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 50 (cm3m-2s-1)which is similar with the field data of Japanese cedar trees in a mountainous area of Taiwan, Fd_Granier underestimated 51 % of Fd_actual, and underestimated 26 % with applying Clearwater sapwood depth corrected formula. These results suggested sapwood depth significantly impacted on the accuracy of thermal dissipation

  15. Position Sensorless Control of IPMSMs Based on a Novel Flux Model Suitable for Maximum Torque Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Masaru; Matsui, Keiju

    In this paper, a novel position sensorless control method for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs) that is based on a novel flux model suitable for maximum torque control has been proposed. Maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control is often utilized for driving IPMSMs with the maximum efficiency. In order to implement this control, generally, the parameters are required to be accurate. However, the inductance varies dramatically because of magnetic saturation, which has been one of the most important problems in recent years. Therefore, the conventional MTPA control method fails to achieve maximum efficiency for IPMSMs because of parameter mismatches. In this paper, first, a novel flux model has been proposed for realizing the position sensorless control of IPMSMs, which is insensitive to Lq. In addition, in this paper, it has been shown that the proposed flux model can approximately estimate the maximum torque control (MTC) frame, which as a new coordinate aligned with the current vector for MTPA control. Next, in this paper, a precise estimation method for the MTC frame has been proposed. By this method, highly accurate maximum torque control can be achieved. A decoupling control algorithm based on the proposed model has also been addressed in this paper. Finally, some experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Exploring a Plume-Based Mass-Flux Scheme in the Boundary-Layer Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismüller, M.; Heus, T.; Neggers, R.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the behavior of plume-based mass flux parameterizations in the gray zone of boundary layer convection, to inform the development of scale-aware and scale-adaptive parameterizations. To this end, the Eddy Diffusivity Mass Flux scheme with multiple plumes, named ED(MF)n, is implemented in a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model. This way, the LES is used as a non-hydrostatic larger-scale model, providing a convenient platform for investigating the behavior of parameterizations across the boundary-layer gray zone. First, as a feasibility study, a single plume is launched in every column of the LES in an offline, diagnostic way, without affecting the simulation. We find that the plumes are sensitive to the LES columns in which they rise, feeling the presence of LES clouds. A plume budget analysis shows that the plume termination height is mostly determined by the mixing term, and not so much by the buoyancy term. Then, the ED(MF)n is made interactive with the resolved flow, replacing the LES-subgrid scheme. The work performed by the scheme reduces with increasing LES resolution, due to the size-filtering applied in the ED(MF)n framework. An encouraging result is that the total specific humidity flux is conserved across the investigated range of LES resolutions, covering the gray zone between 10m (large-eddy resolving) and 10km (regional-scale). The sensitivity of the results to various model parameters is assessed.

  17. [Simulation of water and carbon fluxes in harvard forest area based on data assimilation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Long; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Model simulation and in situ observation are the two most important means in studying the water and carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems, but have their own advantages and shortcomings. To combine these two means would help to reflect the dynamic changes of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes more accurately. Data assimilation provides an effective way to integrate the model simulation and in situ observation. Based on the observation data from the Harvard Forest Environmental Monitoring Site (EMS), and by using ensemble Kalman Filter algorithm, this paper assimilated the field measured LAI and remote sensing LAI into the Biome-BGC model to simulate the water and carbon fluxes in Harvard forest area. As compared with the original model simulated without data assimilation, the improved Biome-BGC model with the assimilation of the field measured LAI in 1998, 1999, and 2006 increased the coefficient of determination R2 between model simulation and flux observation for the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration by 8.4% and 10.6%, decreased the sum of absolute error (SAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of NEE by 17.7% and 21.2%, and decreased the SAE and RMSE of the evapotranspiration by 26. 8% and 28.3%, respectively. After assimilated the MODIS LAI products of 2000-2004 into the improved Biome-BGC model, the R2 between simulated and observed results of NEE and evapotranspiration was increased by 7.8% and 4.7%, the SAE and RMSE of NEE were decreased by 21.9% and 26.3%, and the SAE and RMSE of evapotranspiration were decreased by 24.5% and 25.5%, respectively. It was suggested that the simulation accuracy of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes could be effectively improved if the field measured LAI or remote sensing LAI was integrated into the model.

  18. Modeling turbulent fluxes at a winter wheat stand -possibilities and limitations of ground-based thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrends, H. E.; Haseneder-Lind, R.; Schickling, A.; Crewell, S.; Rascher, U.

    2013-12-01

    Aircraft and satellite sensors operating in the thermal infrared (TIR) region of the spectrum provide spatially comprehensive information on the radiometric surface temperature (TR), representing an integrated temperature based on the radiation emitted from different surface components. TR data are commonly applied as a proxy for the (theoretical) aerodynamic temperature, which satisfies the bulk resistance formulation for the sensible heat transport. The quantitative relation between the radiometric and the aerodynamic temperature is however complex and strongly affected by ambient conditions and surface characteristics. Consequently, TR-based estimates of the latent and sensible heat flux can have high levels of uncertainty. Ground-based studies for the validation of remotely sensed TR data and for the evaluation of TR-based models are crucial. Ground-based TIR cameras, allowing for a high observation frequency and for studying the spatial variability of temperatures, might provide a suitable tool for such studies. We aim at testing the limitations and the possibilities of passive ground-based thermography for the application in studies on the diurnal and seasonal changes of land-atmosphere interactions. Operating at a frequency of 5 min., a TIR camera is mounted at a height of 2m at a winter wheat stand (TR32 research site, Germany), capturing images of a 1m x 1m area (320 × 240 pixel) during spring and summer 2013. Radiometric temperatures are corrected for the influence of cloud cover and evaluated using observations from thermocouples (leaf temperature), RTDs (canopy temperature profile) and an IR radiometer (spatially integrated temperature). Simultaneous hyperspectral and sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are used as a proxy for plant functioning and status. Spatial image information is integrated into the framework of different flux modeling approaches, ranging from established one-source to complex, multi-layer models. Modelled fluxes are

  19. Regional carbon dioxide and energy fluxes from airborne observations using flight-path segmentation based on landscape characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vellinga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of regional fluxes obtained with a small aircraft over heterogeneous terrain in the south-west of France, during the large scale field experiment CERES'07. We use a method combining variable flight-path segmentation with basic airborne footprint analysis. The segmentation is based on topography, land use and soil type, using a.o. satellite imagery and digital maps. The segments are delineated using an average footprint length, based on all flights, and segment lengths, which are variable in space but not in time. The method results in segment averaged carbon and energy fluxes, which are shown to be representative of regional fluxes. Our analysis is focussed on carbon dioxide, heat and evaporative fluxes around solar noon. We will show that spatial and seasonal variations in the fluxes can be linked to the underlying landscape. In addition, a comparison between the airborne data and ground flux data is made to support our results. However, due to the incompleteness of ground data for some predominant vegetation types (even in such a data dense context, upscaling of ground data to regional fluxes was not possible. Without the comparison, we are still able to demonstrate that aircraft can provide direct and meaningful estimates of regional fluxes of energy and carbon dioxide.

  20. Comparison of two regression-based approaches for determining nutrient and sediment fluxes and trends in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas; Hirsch, Robert M.; Hyer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient and sediment fluxes and changes in fluxes over time are key indicators that water resource managers can use to assess the progress being made in improving the structure and function of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The U.S. Geological Survey collects annual nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) and sediment flux data and computes trends that describe the extent to which water-quality conditions are changing within the major Chesapeake Bay tributaries. Two regression-based approaches were compared for estimating annual nutrient and sediment fluxes and for characterizing how these annual fluxes are changing over time. The two regression models compared are the traditionally used ESTIMATOR and the newly developed Weighted Regression on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS). The model comparison focused on answering three questions: (1) What are the differences between the functional form and construction of each model? (2) Which model produces estimates of flux with the greatest accuracy and least amount of bias? (3) How different would the historical estimates of annual flux be if WRTDS had been used instead of ESTIMATOR? One additional point of comparison between the two models is how each model determines trends in annual flux once the year-to-year variations in discharge have been determined. All comparisons were made using total nitrogen, nitrate, total phosphorus, orthophosphorus, and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at the nine U.S. Geological Survey River Input Monitoring stations located on the Susquehanna, Potomac, James, Rappahannock, Appomattox, Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Patuxent, and Choptank Rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Two model characteristics that uniquely distinguish ESTIMATOR and WRTDS are the fundamental model form and the determination of model coefficients. ESTIMATOR and WRTDS both predict water-quality constituent concentration by developing a linear relation between the natural logarithm of observed constituent

  1. Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controllers for Rotor Flux Oriented Control of Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Rohollah; Farhangi, Reza; Yarahmadi, Ali

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents design and evaluation of a novel approach based on emotional learning to improve the speed control system of rotor flux oriented control of induction motor. The controller includes a neuro-fuzzy system with speed error and its derivative as inputs. A fuzzy critic evaluates the present situation, and provides the emotional signal (stress). The controller modifies its characteristics so that the critics stress is reduced. The comparative simulation results show that the proposed controller is more robust and hence found to be a suitable replacement of the conventional PI controller for the high performance industrial drive applications.

  2. OpenMebius: An Open Source Software for Isotopically Nonstationary 13C-Based Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Kajihata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo measurement of metabolic flux by 13C-based metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA provides valuable information regarding cell physiology. Bioinformatics tools have been developed to estimate metabolic flux distributions from the results of tracer isotopic labeling experiments using a 13C-labeled carbon source. Metabolic flux is determined by nonlinear fitting of a metabolic model to the isotopic labeling enrichment of intracellular metabolites measured by mass spectrometry. Whereas 13C-MFA is conventionally performed under isotopically constant conditions, isotopically nonstationary 13C metabolic flux analysis (INST-13C-MFA has recently been developed for flux analysis of cells with photosynthetic activity and cells at a quasi-steady metabolic state (e.g., primary cells or microorganisms under stationary phase. Here, the development of a novel open source software for INST-13C-MFA on the Windows platform is reported. OpenMebius (Open source software for Metabolic flux analysis provides the function of autogenerating metabolic models for simulating isotopic labeling enrichment from a user-defined configuration worksheet. Analysis using simulated data demonstrated the applicability of OpenMebius for INST-13C-MFA. Confidence intervals determined by INST-13C-MFA were less than those determined by conventional methods, indicating the potential of INST-13C-MFA for precise metabolic flux analysis. OpenMebius is the open source software for the general application of INST-13C-MFA.

  3. Continuous measurements of methane flux in two Japanese temperate forests based on the micrometeorological and chamber methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Ueyama, M.; Takagi, K.; Kominami, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) budget in forest ecosystems have not been accurately quantified due to limited measurements and considerable spatiotemporal heterogeneity. In order to quantify CH4 fluxes at temperate forest at various spatiotemporal scales, we have continuously measured CH4 fluxes at two upland forests based on the micrometeorological hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation (HREA) and automated dynamic closed chamber methods.The measurements have been conducted at Teshio experimental forest (TSE) since September 2013 and Yamashiro forest meteorology research site (YMS) since November 2014. Three automated chambers were installed on each site. Our system can measure CH4 flux by the micrometeorological HREA, vertical concentration profile at four heights, and chamber measurements by a laser-based gas analyzer (FGGA-24r-EP, Los Gatos Research Inc., USA).Seasonal variations of canopy-scale CH4 fluxes were different in each site. CH4 was consumed during the summer, but was emitted during the fall and winter in TSE; consequently, the site acted as a net annual CH4 source. CH4 was steadily consumed during the winter, but CH4 fluxes fluctuated between absorption and emission during the spring and summer in YMS. YMS acted as a net annual CH4 sink. CH4 uptake at the canopy scale generally decreased with rising soil temperature and increased with drying condition for both sites. CH4 flux measured by most of chambers showed the consistent sensitivity examined for the canopy scale to the environmental variables. CH4 fluxes from a few chambers located at a wet condition were independent of variations in soil temperature and moisture at both sites. Magnitude of soil CH4 uptake was higher than the canopy-scale CH4 uptake. Our results showed that the canopy-scale CH4 fluxes were totally different with the plot-scale CH4 fluxes by chambers, suggesting the considerable spatial heterogeneity in CH4 flux at the temperate forests.

  4. Global Monthly CO2 Flux Inversion Based on Results of Terrestrial Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, F.; Chen, J.; Peters, W.; Krol, M.

    2008-12-01

    Most of our understanding of the sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2 has come from inverse studies of atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. However, the number of currently available observation stations and our ability to simulate the diurnal planetary boundary layer evolution over continental regions essentially limit the number of regions that can be reliably inverted globally, especially over continental areas. In order to overcome these restrictions, a nested inverse modeling system was developed based on the Bayesian principle for estimating carbon fluxes of 30 regions in North America and 20 regions for the rest of the globe. Inverse modeling was conducted in monthly steps using CO2 concentration measurements of 5 years (2000 - 2005) with the following two models: (a) An atmospheric transport model (TM5) is used to generate the transport matrix where the diurnal variation n of atmospheric CO2 concentration is considered to enhance the use of the afternoon-hour average CO2 concentration measurements over the continental sites. (b) A process-based terrestrial ecosystem model (BEPS) is used to produce hourly step carbon fluxes, which could minimize the limitation due to our inability to solve the inverse problem in a high resolution, as the background of our inversion. We will present our recent results achieved through a combination of the bottom-up modeling with BEPS and the top-down modeling based on TM5 driven by offline meteorological fields generated by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMFW).

  5. Liver vessel segmentation and identification based on oriented flux symmetry and graph cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ye-Zhan; Zhao, Yu-Qian; Tang, Ping; Liao, Miao; Liang, Yi-Xiong; Liao, Sheng-Hui; Zou, Bei-Ji

    2017-10-01

    Accurate segmentation of liver vessels from abdominal computer tomography angiography (CTA) volume is very important for liver-vessel analysis and living-related liver transplants. This paper presents a novel liver-vessel segmentation and identification method. Firstly, an anisotropic diffusion filter is used to smooth noise while preserving vessel boundaries. Then, based on the gradient symmetry and antisymmetry pattern of vessel structures, optimal oriented flux (OOF) and oriented flux antisymmetry (OFA) measures are respectively applied to detect liver vessels and their boundaries, and further to slenderize vessels. Next, according to vessel geometrical structure, a centerline extraction measure based on height ridge traversal and leaf node line-growing (LNLG) is proposed for the extraction of liver-vessel centerlines, and an intensity model based on fast marching is integrated into graph cuts (GCs) for effective segmentation of liver vessels. Finally, a distance voting mechanism is applied to separate the hepatic vein and portal vein. The experiment results on abdominal CTA images show that the proposed method can effectively segment liver vessels, achieving an average accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 97.7%, 79.8%, and 98.6%, respectively, and has a good performance on thin-vessel extraction. The proposed method does not require manual selection of the centerlines and vessel seeds, and can effectively segment liver vessels and identify hepatic vein and portal vein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multi-objective experimental design for (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvin, Jeroen; Cajot, Simon; D'Huys, Pieter-Jan; Ampofo-Asiama, Jerry; Anné, Jozef; Van Impe, Jan; Geeraerd, Annemie; Bernaerts, Kristel

    2015-10-01

    (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis is an excellent technique to resolve fluxes in the central carbon metabolism but costs can be significant when using specialized tracers. This work presents a framework for cost-effective design of (13)C-tracer experiments, illustrated on two different networks. Linear and non-linear optimal input mixtures are computed for networks for Streptomyces lividans and a carcinoma cell line. If only glucose tracers are considered as labeled substrate for a carcinoma cell line or S. lividans, the best parameter estimation accuracy is obtained by mixtures containing high amounts of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose combined with uniformly labeled glucose. Experimental designs are evaluated based on a linear (D-criterion) and non-linear approach (S-criterion). Both approaches generate almost the same input mixture, however, the linear approach is favored due to its low computational effort. The high amount of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose in the optimal designs coincides with a high experimental cost, which is further enhanced when labeling is introduced in glutamine and aspartate tracers. Multi-objective optimization gives the possibility to assess experimental quality and cost at the same time and can reveal excellent compromise experiments. For example, the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% position one labeled glutamine and the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% uniformly labeled glutamine perform equally well for the carcinoma cell line, but the first mixture offers a decrease in cost of $ 120 per ml-scale cell culture experiment. We demonstrated the validity of a multi-objective linear approach to perform optimal experimental designs for the non-linear problem of (13)C-metabolic flux analysis. Tools and a workflow are provided to perform multi-objective design. The effortless calculation of the D-criterion can be exploited to perform high-throughput screening of possible (13)C-tracers, while the illustrated benefit of multi

  7. Co-evolution of strain design methods based on flux balance and elementary mode analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Daniel; Herrgard, Markus

    2015-01-01

    More than a decade ago, the first genome-scale metabolic models for two of the most relevant microbes for biotechnology applications, Escherichia coli and Saccaromyces cerevisiae, were published. Shortly after followed the publication of OptKnock, the first strain design method using bilevel...... optimization to couple cellular growth with the production of a target product. This initiated the development of a family of strain design methods based on the concept of flux balance analysis. Another family of strain design methods, based on the concept of elementary mode analysis, has also been growing....... Although the computation of elementary modes is hindered by computational complexity, recent breakthroughs have allowed applying elementary mode analysis at the genome scale. Here we review and compare strain design methods and look back at the last 10 years of in silico strain design with constraint-based...

  8. Analytical Model-Based Design Optimization of a Transverse Flux Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Iftekhar; Husain, Tausif; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2017-02-16

    This paper proposes an analytical machine design tool using magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC)-based particle swarm optimization (PSO) for a double-sided, flux-concentrating transverse flux machine (TFM). The magnetic equivalent circuit method is applied to analytically establish the relationship between the design objective and the input variables of prospective TFM designs. This is computationally less intensive and more time efficient than finite element solvers. A PSO algorithm is then used to design a machine with the highest torque density within the specified power range along with some geometric design constraints. The stator pole length, magnet length, and rotor thickness are the variables that define the optimization search space. Finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to verify the performance of the MEC-PSO optimized machine. The proposed analytical design tool helps save computation time by at least 50% when compared to commercial FEA-based optimization programs, with results found to be in agreement with less than 5% error.

  9. Detectability of CO2 Flux Signals by a Space-Based Lidar Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit M.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Schaefer, Kevin; Doney, Scott; Michalak, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) offer novel and distinctive opportunities for improving our quantitative understanding of the carbon cycle. Prospective observations include those from space-based lidar such as the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. Here we explore the ability of such a mission to detect regional changes in CO2 fluxes. We investigate these using three prototypical case studies, namely the thawing of permafrost in the Northern High Latitudes, the shifting of fossil fuel emissions from Europe to China, and changes in the source-sink characteristics of the Southern Ocean. These three scenarios were used to design signal detection studies to investigate the ability to detect the unfolding of these scenarios compared to a baseline scenario. Results indicate that the ASCENDS mission could detect the types of signals investigated in this study, with the caveat that the study is based on some simplifying assumptions. The permafrost thawing flux perturbation is readily detectable at a high level of significance. The fossil fuel emission detectability is directly related to the strength of the signal and the level of measurement noise. For a nominal (lower) fossil fuel emission signal, only the idealized noise-free instrument test case produces a clearly detectable signal, while experiments with more realistic noise levels capture the signal only in the higher (exaggerated) signal case. For the Southern Ocean scenario, differences due to the natural variability in the ENSO climatic mode are primarily detectable as a zonal increase.

  10. Combining graph and flux-based structures to decipher phenotypic essential metabolites within metabolic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frioux, Clémence; Nicolas, Jacques; Baroukh, Caroline; Cortes, Maria-Paz; Got, Jeanne; Trottier, Camille; Eveillard, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Background The emergence of functions in biological systems is a long-standing issue that can now be addressed at the cell level with the emergence of high throughput technologies for genome sequencing and phenotyping. The reconstruction of complete metabolic networks for various organisms is a key outcome of the analysis of these data, giving access to a global view of cell functioning. The analysis of metabolic networks may be carried out by simply considering the architecture of the reaction network or by taking into account the stoichiometry of reactions. In both approaches, this analysis is generally centered on the outcome of the network and considers all metabolic compounds to be equivalent in this respect. As in the case of genes and reactions, about which the concept of essentiality has been developed, it seems, however, that some metabolites play crucial roles in system responses, due to the cell structure or the internal wiring of the metabolic network. Results We propose a classification of metabolic compounds according to their capacity to influence the activation of targeted functions (generally the growth phenotype) in a cell. We generalize the concept of essentiality to metabolites and introduce the concept of the phenotypic essential metabolite (PEM) which influences the growth phenotype according to sustainability, producibility or optimal-efficiency criteria. We have developed and made available a tool, Conquests, which implements a method combining graph-based and flux-based analysis, two approaches that are usually considered separately. The identification of PEMs is made effective by using a logical programming approach. Conclusion The exhaustive study of phenotypic essential metabolites in six genome-scale metabolic models suggests that the combination and the comparison of graph, stoichiometry and optimal flux-based criteria allows some features of the metabolic network functionality to be deciphered by focusing on a small number of

  11. Combining graph and flux-based structures to decipher phenotypic essential metabolites within metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniau, Julie; Frioux, Clémence; Nicolas, Jacques; Baroukh, Caroline; Cortes, Maria-Paz; Got, Jeanne; Trottier, Camille; Eveillard, Damien; Siegel, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of functions in biological systems is a long-standing issue that can now be addressed at the cell level with the emergence of high throughput technologies for genome sequencing and phenotyping. The reconstruction of complete metabolic networks for various organisms is a key outcome of the analysis of these data, giving access to a global view of cell functioning. The analysis of metabolic networks may be carried out by simply considering the architecture of the reaction network or by taking into account the stoichiometry of reactions. In both approaches, this analysis is generally centered on the outcome of the network and considers all metabolic compounds to be equivalent in this respect. As in the case of genes and reactions, about which the concept of essentiality has been developed, it seems, however, that some metabolites play crucial roles in system responses, due to the cell structure or the internal wiring of the metabolic network. We propose a classification of metabolic compounds according to their capacity to influence the activation of targeted functions (generally the growth phenotype) in a cell. We generalize the concept of essentiality to metabolites and introduce the concept of the phenotypic essential metabolite (PEM) which influences the growth phenotype according to sustainability, producibility or optimal-efficiency criteria. We have developed and made available a tool, Conquests, which implements a method combining graph-based and flux-based analysis, two approaches that are usually considered separately. The identification of PEMs is made effective by using a logical programming approach. The exhaustive study of phenotypic essential metabolites in six genome-scale metabolic models suggests that the combination and the comparison of graph, stoichiometry and optimal flux-based criteria allows some features of the metabolic network functionality to be deciphered by focusing on a small number of compounds. By considering the best

  12. Evaluation of ship-based sediment flux measurements by ADCPs in tidal flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Grünler, Steffen; Winter, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In the past decades acoustic backscatter calibration developed into a frequently applied technique to measure fluxes of suspended sediments in rivers and estuaries. Data is mainly acquired using single-frequency profiling devices, such as ADCPs. In this case, variations of acoustic particle properties may have a significant impact on the calibration with respect to suspended sediment concentration, but associated effects are rarely considered. Further challenges regarding flux determination arise from incomplete vertical and lateral coverage of the cross-section, and the small ratio of the residual transport to the tidal transport, depending on the tidal prism. We analyzed four sets of 13h cross-sectional ADCP data, collected at different locations in the range of the turbidity zone of the Weser estuary, North Sea, Germany. Vertical LISST, OBS and CTD measurements were taken very hour. During the calibration sediment absorption was taken into account. First, acoustic properties were estimated using LISST particle size distributions. Due to the tidal excursion and displacement of the turbidity zone, acoustic properties of particles changed during the tidal cycle, at all locations. Applying empirical functions, the lowest backscattering cross-section and highest sediment absorption coefficient were found in the center of the turbidity zone. Outside the tidally averaged location of the turbidity zone, changes of acoustic parameters were caused mainly by advection. In the turbidity zone, these properties were also affected by settling and entrainment, inducing vertical differences and systematic errors in concentration. In general, due to the iterative correction of sediment absorption along the acoustic path, local errors in concentration propagate and amplify exponentially. Based on reference concentration obtained from water samples and OBS data, we quantified these errors and their effect on cross-sectional averaged concentration and sediment flux. We found that

  13. Differences in estimating terrestrial water flux from three satellite-based Priestley-Taylor algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yunjun; Liang, Shunlin; Yu, Jian; Zhao, Shaohua; Lin, Yi; Jia, Kun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Cheng, Jie; Xie, Xianhong; Sun, Liang; Wang, Xuanyu; Zhang, Lilin

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimates of terrestrial latent heat of evaporation (LE) for different biomes are essential to assess energy, water and carbon cycles. Different satellite- based Priestley-Taylor (PT) algorithms have been developed to estimate LE in different biomes. However, there are still large uncertainties in LE estimates for different PT algorithms. In this study, we evaluated differences in estimating terrestrial water flux in different biomes from three satellite-based PT algorithms using ground-observed data from eight eddy covariance (EC) flux towers of China. The results reveal that large differences in daily LE estimates exist based on EC measurements using three PT algorithms among eight ecosystem types. At the forest (CBS) site, all algorithms demonstrate high performance with low root mean square error (RMSE) (less than 16 W/m2) and high squared correlation coefficient (R2) (more than 0.9). At the village (HHV) site, the ATI-PT algorithm has the lowest RMSE (13.9 W/m2), with bias of 2.7 W/m2 and R2 of 0.66. At the irrigated crop (HHM) site, almost all models algorithms underestimate LE, indicating these algorithms may not capture wet soil evaporation by parameterization of the soil moisture. In contrast, the SM-PT algorithm shows high values of R2 (comparable to those of ATI-PT and VPD-PT) at most other (grass, wetland, desert and Gobi) biomes. There are no obvious differences in seasonal LE estimation using MODIS NDVI and LAI at most sites. However, all meteorological or satellite-based water-related parameters used in the PT algorithm have uncertainties for optimizing water constraints. This analysis highlights the need to improve PT algorithms with regard to water constraints.

  14. Converter-flux-based current control of voltage source PWM rectifiers - analysis and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R.

    2003-07-01

    Pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) rectifier technology is increasingly used in industrial applications like variable-speed motor drives, since it offers several desired features such as sinusoidal input currents, controllable power factor, bidirectional power flow and high quality DC output voltage. To achieve these features, however, an effective control system with fast and accurate current and DC voltage responses is required. From various control strategies proposed to meet these control objectives, in most cases the commonly known principle of the synchronous-frame current vector control along with some space-vector PWM scheme have been applied. Recently, however, new control approaches analogous to the well-established direct torque control (DTC) method for electrical machines have also emerged to implement a high-performance PWM rectifier. In this thesis the concepts of classical synchronous-frame current control and DTC-based PWM rectifier control are combined and a new converter-flux-based current control (CFCC) scheme is introduced. To achieve sufficient dynamic performance and to ensure a stable operation, the proposed control system is thoroughly analysed and simple rules for the controller design are suggested. Special attention is paid to the estimation of the converter flux, which is the key element of converter-flux-based control. Discrete-time implementation is also discussed. Line-voltage-sensorless reactive reactive power control methods for the L- and LCL-type line filters are presented. For the L-filter an open-loop control law for the d-axis current reference is proposed. In the case of the LCL-filter the combined open-loop control and feedback control is proposed. The influence of the erroneous filter parameter estimates on the accuracy of the developed control schemes is also discussed. A new zero vector selection rule for suppressing the zero-sequence current in parallel-connected PWM rectifiers is proposed. With this method a truly standalone and

  15. New welding fluxes based on silicomanganese slag for deposition and welding of canopies and crib bed of mine support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, R. E.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Usoltsev, A. A.; Kozyreva, O. E.

    2017-09-01

    The paper considers the possibility of efficient use of silicomanganese slag for the production of welding fluxes. The results of studying the use of metallurgical wastes as components of welding fluxes are given. Analysis of the results of mechanical properties of the samples made it possible to determine the optimum content of the pulverized fraction less than 0.45 mm in the flux. The composition and technology of manufacturing a new welding flux using slag of silicomanganese production was developed. The effect of fractional composition on the welding-technological properties of fluxes was studied. The optimal content of liquid glass in the flux, which allows a favorable complex of mechanical properties to be obtained, is 20-30%. To reduce the level of contamination of the weld metal with non-metallic oxide inclusions and to increase the mechanical properties of the welded joint, it is proposed to introduce a carbon-fluorine-containing additive FD-UFS into fluxes based on the slag.

  16. High luminous flux from single crystal phosphor-converted laser-based white lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Cantore, Michael

    2015-12-14

    The efficiency droop of light emitting diodes (LEDs) with increasing current density limits the amount of light emitted per wafer area. Since low current densities are required for high efficiency operation, many LED die are needed for high power white light illumination systems. In contrast, the carrier density of laser diodes (LDs) clamps at threshold, so the efficiency of LDs does not droop above threshold and high efficiencies can be achieved at very high current densities. The use of a high power blue GaN-based LD coupled with a single crystal Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) sample was investigated for white light illumination applications. Under CW operation, a single phosphor-converted LD (pc-LD) die produced a peak luminous efficacy of 86.7 lm/W at 1.4 A and 4.24 V and a peak luminous flux of 1100 lm at 3.0 A and 4.85 V with a luminous efficacy of 75.6 lm/W. Simulations of a pc-LD confirm that the single crystal YAG:Ce sample did not experience thermal quenching at peak LD operating efficiency. These results show that a single pc-LD die is capable of emitting enough luminous flux for use in a high power white light illumination system.

  17. Measurements of the thermal neutron flux for an accelerator-based photoneutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Ali; Pazirandeh, Ali

    2016-12-01

    To have access to an appropriate neutron source is one of the most demanding requirements for neutron studies. This is important specially in laboratory and clinical applications, which need more compact and accessible sources. The most known neutron sources are fission reactors and natural isotopes, but there is an increasing interest for using accelerator based neutron sources because of their advantages. In this paper, we shall present a photo-neutron source prototype which is designed and fabricated to be used for different neutron researches including in-laboratory neutron activation analysis and neutron imaging, and also preliminary studies in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Series of experimental tests were conducted to examine the intensity and quality of the neutron field produced by this source. Monte-Carlo simulations were also utilized to provide more detailed evaluation of the neutron spectrum, and determine the accuracy of the experiments. The experiments demonstrated a thermal neutron flux in the order of 10(7) (n/cm(2).s), while simulations affirmed this flux and showed a neutron spectrum with a sharp peak at thermal energy region. According to the results, about 60 % of produced neutrons are in the range of thermal to epithermal neutrons.

  18. Ground-Based Remote Sensing of Volcanic CO2 Fluxes at Solfatara (Italy—Direct Versus Inverse Bayesian Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Queißer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 is the second most abundant volatile species of degassing magma. CO2 fluxes carry information of incredible value, such as periods of volcanic unrest. Ground-based laser remote sensing is a powerful technique to measure CO2 fluxes in a spatially integrated manner, quickly and from a safe distance, but it needs accurate knowledge of the plume speed. The latter is often difficult to estimate, particularly for complex topographies. So, a supplementary or even alternative way of retrieving fluxes would be beneficial. Here, we assess Bayesian inversion as a potential technique for the case of the volcanic crater of Solfatara (Italy, a complex terrain hosting two major CO2 degassing fumarolic vents close to a steep slope. Direct integration of remotely sensed CO2 concentrations of these vents using plume speed derived from optical flow analysis yielded a flux of 717 ± 121 t day−1, in agreement with independent measurements. The flux from Bayesian inversion based on a simple Gaussian plume model was in excellent agreement under certain conditions. In conclusion, Bayesian inversion is a promising retrieval tool for CO2 fluxes, especially in situations where plume speed estimation methods fail, e.g., optical flow for transparent plumes. The results have implications beyond volcanology, including ground-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases and verification of satellite soundings.

  19. A field robot for autonomous laser-based N2O flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molstad, Lars; Reent Köster, Jan; Bakken, Lars; Dörsch, Peter; Lien, Torgrim; Overskeid, Øyvind; Utstumo, Trygve; Løvås, Daniel; Brevik, Anders

    2014-05-01

    N2O measurements in multi-plot field trials are usually carried out by chamber-based manual gas sampling and subsequent laboratory-based gas chromatographic N2O determination. Spatial and temporal resolution of these measurements are commonly limited by available manpower. However, high spatial and temporal variability of N2O fluxes within individual field plots can add large uncertainties to time- and area-integrated flux estimates. Detailed mapping of this variability would improve these estimates, as well as help our understanding of the factors causing N2O emissions. An autonomous field robot was developed to increase the sampling frequency and to operate outside normal working hours. The base of this system was designed as an open platform able to carry versatile instrumentation. It consists of an electrically motorized platform powered by a lithium-ion battery pack, which is capable of autonomous navigation by means of a combined high precision real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) system. On this platform an elevator is mounted, carrying a lateral boom with a static chamber on each side of the robot. Each chamber is equipped with a frame of plastic foam to seal the chamber when lowered onto the ground by the elevator. N2O flux from the soil covered by the two chambers is sequentially determined by circulating air between each chamber and a laser spectrometer (DLT-100, Los Gatos Research, Mountain View, CA, USA), which monitors the increase in N2O concentration. The target enclosure time is 1 - 2 minutes, but may be longer when emissions are low. CO2 concentrations are determined by a CO2/H2O gas analyzer (LI-840A, LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA). Air temperature and air pressure inside both chambers are continuously monitored and logged. Wind speed and direction are monitored by a 3D sonic anemometer on top of the elevator boom. This autonomous field robot can operate during day and night time, and its working hours are only

  20. Glass-fiber-based neutron detectors for high- and low-flux environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Mary; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Craig, Richard A.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Knopf, Michael A.; Miley, Harry S.; Perkins, Richard W.; Reeder, Paul L.; Sunberg, Debra S.; Warner, Ray A.; Wogman, Ned A.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has fabricated cerium-activated lithium silicate scintillating fibers via a hot-downdraw process. These fibers typically have a operational transmission length (e(superscript -1) length) of greater than 2 meters. This permits the fabrication of devices which were not possible to consider. Scintillating fibers permit conformable devices, large-area devices, and extremely small devices; in addition, as the thermal-neutron sensitive elements in a fast neutron detection system, scintillating fibers can be dispersed within moderator, improving neutron economy, over that possible with commercially available (superscript 3)He or BF(subscript 3) proportional counters. These fibers can be used for national-security applications, in medical applications, in the nuclear-power industry, and for personnel protection at experimental facilities. Data are presented for devices based on single fibers and devices made up of ribbons containing many fibers under high-and low-flux conditions.

  1. Rotor speed estimation for indirect stator flux oriented induction motor drive based on MRAS scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Agrebi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a conventional indirect stator flux oriented controlled (ISFOC induction motor drive is presented. In order to eliminate the speed sensor, an adaptation algorithm for tuning the rotor speed is proposed. Based on the model reference adaptive system (MRAS scheme, the rotor speed is tuned to obtain an exact ISFOC induction motor drive. The reference and adjustable models, developed in stationary stator reference frame, are used in the MRAS scheme to estimate induction rotor peed from measured terminal voltages and currents. The IP gains speed controller and PI gains current controller are calculated and tuned at each sampling time according to the new estimated rotor speed. The proposed algorithm has been tested by numerical simulation, showing the capability of driving active load; and stability is preserved. Experimental results obtained with a general-purpose 1-kW induction machine are presented showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of dynamic performance.

  2. Timing discriminator based on single-flux-quantum circuit toward high time-resolved photon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Miki, Shigehito; Yabuno, Masahiro; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka

    2017-12-01

    We propose a new time discriminating method based on a single-flux quantum (SFQ) circuit to realize a high time-resolved single-photon detection scheme that uses a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD). The timing discriminator consists of an SFQ comparator and an interface circuit for converting the output signals of an SSPD into SFQ pulses. Prior to connecting with the SSPD, we evaluated the timing jitters of the SFQ timing discriminator itself by applying external electrical pulses. The timing jitters of the SFQ timing discriminator were found to be dominated by the timing jitters in the interface circuit. However, it was estimated to be below 10 ps even with an input pulse amplitude of 20 μA, which is close to the typical output amplitude of the SSPD.

  3. Suspension force control of bearingless permanent magnet slice motor based on flux linkage identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Suming; Zhu, Huangqiu

    2015-07-01

    The control accuracy and dynamic performance of suspension force are confined in the traditional bearingless permanent magnet slice motor (BPMSM) control strategies because the suspension force control is indirectly achieved by adopting a closed loop of displacement only. Besides, the phase information in suspension force control relies on accurate measurement of rotor position, making the control system more complex. In this paper, a new suspension force control strategy with displacement and radial suspension force double closed loops is proposed, the flux linkage of motor windings is identified based on voltage-current model and the flexibility of motor control can be improved greatly. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed suspension force control strategy is effective to realize the stable operation of the BPMSM. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Choice of satellite-based CO2 product (XCO¬2, vertical profile) alters surface CO2 flux estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Lee, M.; Henze, D. K.; Fisher, J. B.; Frankenberg, C.; Polhamus, A.

    2011-12-01

    The ACOS (Atmospheric CO2 Observations from Space) algorithm provides column-averaged CO2 products in units of dry-air mole fraction (XCO2) based on GOSAT radiances. However, XCO2 is derived from a linear transformation of the CO2 vertical profiles estimated from the ACOS retrieval algorithm. In theory, XCO2 vertical columns should provide no more information than the original CO2 profiles. However, the different sensitivities of either CO2 profiles or XCO2 to transport errors can significantly alter surface CO2 flux estimates. Though it has been argued that XCO2 may be less sensitive to transport error than CO2 vertical profiles, there is no study so far investigating the actual impact on surface CO2 flux estimation due to the choice of observation format, which could have significant impact on future satellite CO2 profile mission concepts. In this presentation, we will present the sensitivity of surface CO2 flux estimation to a suite of CO2 observation products, which includes CO2 vertical profiles, XCO2, and the lowest 3 levels of CO2 from CO2 vertical profiles. The CO2 observations are ACOS products covering from July 2009 to June 2010. We will present both OSSE and real observation experiments. In the OSSE experiments, we will present both perfect model experiments and experiments with model errors that are introduced by changing the planetary boundary height. In the real observations, we will show the annual and seasonal CO2 flux as function of regions from using the three observation products. The accuracy of CO2 flux estimation will be examined by comparing CO2 concentrations forced by posterior CO2 flux to independent CO2 observations. The surface CO2 flux estimation framework is based on GEOS-Chem adjoint model that is developed by the Carbon Monitoring Study flux pilot project.

  5. Spatial Partitioning of CO2 Fluxes Based on Canopy Structure Within a Heterogeneous Managed Boreal Wetland Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L.; Petrone, R.; Quinton, W.; Brown, S.; Hopkinson, C.

    2009-05-01

    Vegetation canopy structural characteristics play an important role in the transfer of mass and energy exchanges through time. The spatial variability of biomass surrounding the eddy covariance flux measurement system (EC) will result in differences in a) the amount of surface area available for flux exchanges, b) aerodynamic roughness of the ecosystem, and c) the source area (biophysical influences) on fluxes, depending on wind direction. The following study classifies CO2 fluxes based on wind direction and land cover/vegetation type using a combination of EC flux measurements, footprint model parameterization, and airborne lidar within a heterogeneous boreal wetland ecosystem. CO2 and H2O fluxes have been examined within the Utikuma Regional Study Area, Alberta, using EC methods since 2005. This site is unique because, in most cases, EC are deployed in flat and homogeneous land cover types with large fetch. The wetland/upland complex examined here is heterogeneous and is characterised by low-lying wetlands to the south and south-west of the EC and upland aspen forests to the north and north-east. Further, airborne lidar provides spatially explicit, high resolution three-dimensional measurements of the vegetation canopy, understory, and ground surface that are both time consuming and expensive to measure using typical forest mensuration/survey methods. The influences of vegetation structure, specifically surface area of leaves (leaf area index), aerodynamic properties of vegetation surrounding the EC, and land cover types on fluxes are examined. Spatial partitioning of fluxes based on land cover type and wind direction is used to examine both wetland and upland exchange processes.

  6. An Improved Flux Observer for Field-Oriented Control of Induction Motors Based on Dual Second-Order Generalized Integrator Frequency-Locked Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Zhen; Zhao, Rende; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    and performance of the DSOGI-FLL based flux estimation method are analyzed in comparison with the SOGI-FLL, demonstrating its improved dynamic response. Simulations and experimental results on an 11-kW three-phase induction motor verify the excellent performance of the proposed DSOGI-FLL based flux estimation......Flux estimation is of great importance for high-performance motor drives. In order to improve flux estimation accuracy and reduce system complexity, a new flux estimation method based on Second-Order Generalized Integrator Frequency-Locked Loop (SOGI-FLL) was presented recently. Compared...

  7. Complementarity of flux- and biometric-based data to constrain parameters in a terrestrial carbon model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenggang Du

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve models for accurate projections, data assimilation, an emerging statistical approach to combine models with data, have recently been developed to probe initial conditions, parameters, data content, response functions and model uncertainties. Quantifying how many information contents are contained in different data streams is essential to predict future states of ecosystems and the climate. This study uses a data assimilation approach to examine the information contents contained in flux- and biometric-based data to constrain parameters in a terrestrial carbon (C model, which includes canopy photosynthesis and vegetation–soil C transfer submodels. Three assimilation experiments were constructed with either net ecosystem exchange (NEE data only or biometric data only [including foliage and woody biomass, litterfall, soil organic C (SOC and soil respiration], or both NEE and biometric data to constrain model parameters by a probabilistic inversion application. The results showed that NEE data mainly constrained parameters associated with gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (RE but were almost invalid for C transfer coefficients, while biometric data were more effective in constraining C transfer coefficients than other parameters. NEE and biometric data constrained about 26% (6 and 30% (7 of a total of 23 parameters, respectively, but their combined application constrained about 61% (14 of all parameters. The complementarity of NEE and biometric data was obvious in constraining most of parameters. The poor constraint by only NEE or biometric data was probably attributable to either the lack of long-term C dynamic data or errors from measurements. Overall, our results suggest that flux- and biometric-based data, containing different processes in ecosystem C dynamics, have different capacities to constrain parameters related to photosynthesis and C transfer coefficients, respectively. Multiple data sources could also

  8. Constraining future terrestrial carbon cycle projections using observation-based water and carbon flux estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystakidis, Stefanos; Davin, Edouard L; Gruber, Nicolas; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-06-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is currently acting as a sink for about a third of the total anthropogenic CO2  emissions. However, the future fate of this sink in the coming decades is very uncertain, as current earth system models (ESMs) simulate diverging responses of the terrestrial carbon cycle to upcoming climate change. Here, we use observation-based constraints of water and carbon fluxes to reduce uncertainties in the projected terrestrial carbon cycle response derived from simulations of ESMs conducted as part of the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We find in the ESMs a clear linear relationship between present-day evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP), as well as between these present-day fluxes and projected changes in GPP, thus providing an emergent constraint on projected GPP. Constraining the ESMs based on their ability to simulate present-day ET and GPP leads to a substantial decrease in the projected GPP and to a ca. 50% reduction in the associated model spread in GPP by the end of the century. Given the strong correlation between projected changes in GPP and in NBP in the ESMs, applying the constraints on net biome productivity (NBP) reduces the model spread in the projected land sink by more than 30% by 2100. Moreover, the projected decline in the land sink is at least doubled in the constrained ensembles and the probability that the terrestrial biosphere is turned into a net carbon source by the end of the century is strongly increased. This indicates that the decline in the future land carbon uptake might be stronger than previously thought, which would have important implications for the rate of increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and for future climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Reconciling Airborne Basin Scale Methane Flux Estimates with Ground Based Quantification of Methane and VOC Emissions from Well Pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S. M.; Field, R. A.; Soltis, J.; Snare, D.; Edie, R.

    2014-12-01

    Data was collected in the Pinedale Anticline and Jonah Fields in Wyoming, both of which are among the top ten wet gas fields in the USA in terms of production. We present an estimate of total methane flux from these two gas fields derived from airborne measurements and relate this flux to ground-based measurements of methane leakage from ~50 individual well pads within the fields. The fraction of basin-wide methane flux that can be accounted for by leaks from individual well pads will be discussed as well as the fraction of methane production that is leaked. We outline the difficulties and strengths of the EPA-developed methodology, referred to as Geospatial Measurement of Air Pollution Remote Emission Quantification, that was used to determined individual well-pad leakage rates using detailed wind measurements without tracers. Often the ratio of VOC:methane concentrations is combined with a known methane flux to determine VOC emission rates. In this study, we measured the flux of volatile organic compounds (VOC) independently of methane by using a proton-transfer-reactor time-of-flight mass-spectrometer and rapid 3-D wind measurements. This allows us to distinguish sources that emit primarily VOC, those that emit a mix of VOC and methane, and those that emit primarily methane. The relationship of VOC and methane fluxes from a number of different oil and gas operations will be discussed.

  10. Air-sea fluxes and satellite-based estimation of water masses formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Roberto; Klockmann, Marlene; Fernandez-Prieto, Diego; Donlon, Craig

    2015-04-01

    Recent work linking satellite-based measurements of sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST) with traditional physical oceanography has demonstrated the capability of generating routinely satellite-derived surface T-S diagrams [1] and analyze the distribution/dynamics of SSS and its relative surface density with respect to in-situ measurements. Even more recently [2,3], this framework has been extended by exploiting these T-S diagrams as a diagnostic tool to derive water masses formation rates and areas. A water mass describes a water body with physical properties distinct from the surrounding water, formed at the ocean surface under specific conditions which determine its temperature and salinity. The SST and SSS (and thus also density) at the ocean surface are largely determined by fluxes of heat and freshwater. The surface density flux is a function of the latter two and describes the change of the density of seawater at the surface. To obtain observations of water mass formation is of great interest, since they serve as indirect observations of the thermo-haline circulation. The SSS data which has become available through the SMOS [4] and Aquarius [5] satellite missions will provide the possibility of studying also the effect of temporally-varying SSS fields on water mass formation. In the present study, the formation of water masses as a function of SST and SSS is derived from the surface density flux by integrating the latter over a specific area and time period in bins of SST and SSS and then taking the derivative of the total density flux with respect to density. This study presents a test case using SMOS SSS, OSTIA SST, as well as Argo ISAS SST and SSS for comparison, heat fluxes from the NOCS Surface Flux Data Set v2.0, OAFlux evaporation and CMORPH precipitation. The study area, initially referred to the North Atlantic, is extended over two additional ocean basins and the study period covers the 2011-2012 timeframe. Yearly, seasonal

  11. Field-based observations confirm linear scaling of sand flux with wind stress

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Raleigh L

    2016-01-01

    Wind-driven sand transport generates atmospheric dust, forms dunes, and sculpts landscapes. However, it remains unclear how the sand flux scales with wind speed, largely because models do not agree on how particle speed changes with wind shear velocity. Here, we present comprehensive measurements from three new field sites and three published studies, showing that characteristic saltation layer heights, and thus particle speeds, remain approximately constant with shear velocity. This result implies a linear dependence of saltation flux on wind shear stress, which contrasts with the nonlinear 3/2 scaling used in most aeolian process predictions. We confirm the linear flux law with direct measurements of the stress-flux relationship occurring at each site. Models for dust generation, dune migration, and other processes driven by wind-blown sand on Earth, Mars, and several other planetary surfaces should be modified to account for linear stress-flux scaling.

  12. GRCop-84: A High Temperature Copper-based Alloy For High Heat Flux Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David L.

    2005-01-01

    While designed for rocket engine main combustion chamber liners, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) offers potential for high heat flux applications in industrial applications requiring a temperature capability up to approximately 700 C (1292 F). GRCop-84 is a copper-based alloy with excellent elevated temperature strength, good creep resistance, long LCF lives and enhanced oxidation resistance. It also has a lower thermal expansion than copper and many other low alloy copper-based alloys. GRCop-84 can be manufactured into a variety of shapes such as tubing, bar, plate and sheet using standard production techniques and requires no special production techniques. GRCop-84 forms well, so conventional fabrication methods including stamping and bending can be used. GRCop-84 has demonstrated an ability to be friction stir welded, brazed, inertia welded, diffusion bonded and electron beam welded for joining to itself and other materials. Potential applications include plastic injection molds, resistance welding electrodes and holders, permanent metal casting molds, vacuum plasma spray nozzles and high temperature heat exchanger applications.

  13. TreeEFM: calculating elementary flux modes using linear optimization in a tree-based algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Jon; Villar, Juan A; Tobalina, Luis; Rezola, Alberto; García, José Manuel; Beasley, John E; Planes, Francisco J

    2015-03-15

    Elementary flux modes (EFMs) analysis constitutes a fundamental tool in systems biology. However, the efficient calculation of EFMs in genome-scale metabolic networks (GSMNs) is still a challenge. We present a novel algorithm that uses a linear programming-based tree search and efficiently enumerates a subset of EFMs in GSMNs. Our approach is compared with the EFMEvolver approach, demonstrating a significant improvement in computation time. We also validate the usefulness of our new approach by studying the acetate overflow metabolism in the Escherichia coli bacteria. To do so, we computed 1 million EFMs for each energetic amino acid and then analysed the relevance of each energetic amino acid based on gene/protein expression data and the obtained EFMs. We found good agreement between previous experiments and the conclusions reached using EFMs. Finally, we also analysed the performance of our approach when applied to large GSMNs. The stand-alone software TreeEFM is implemented in C++ and interacts with the open-source linear solver COIN-OR Linear program Solver (CLP). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Gas chromatography vs. quantum cascade laser-based N2O flux measurements using a novel chamber design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brümmer, Christian; Lyshede, Bjarne; Lempio, Dirk; Delorme, Jean-Pierre; Rüffer, Jeremy J.; Fuß, Roland; Moffat, Antje M.; Hurkuck, Miriam; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2017-03-01

    , the consistency between GC and QCL-based campaign averages was better under low than under high N2O efflux conditions, although single flux values were highly scattered during the low efflux campaign. Furthermore, the QCL technology provides a useful tool to accurately investigate the highly debated topic of diurnal courses of N2O fluxes and its controlling factors. Our new chamber design protects the measurement spot from unintended shading and minimizes disturbance of throughfall, thereby complying with high quality requirements of long-term observation studies and research infrastructures.

  15. Validity of Five Satellite-Based Latent Heat Flux Algorithms for Semi-arid Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of latent heat flux (LE is critical in characterizing semiarid ecosystems. Many LE algorithms have been developed during the past few decades. However, the algorithms have not been directly compared, particularly over global semiarid ecosystems. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of five LE models over semiarid ecosystems such as grassland, shrub, and savanna using the Fluxnet dataset of 68 eddy covariance (EC sites during the period 2000–2009. We also used a modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications (MERRA dataset, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Fractional Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS products; the leaf area index (LAI from the global land surface satellite (GLASS products; and the digital elevation model (DEM from shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM30 dataset to generate LE at region scale during the period 2003–2006. The models were the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer LE (MOD16 algorithm, revised remote sensing based Penman–Monteith LE algorithm (RRS, the Priestley–Taylor LE algorithm of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL, the modified satellite-based Priestley–Taylor LE algorithm (MS-PT, and the semi-empirical Penman LE algorithm (UMD. Direct comparison with ground measured LE showed the PT-JPL and MS-PT algorithms had relative high performance over semiarid ecosystems with the coefficient of determination (R2 ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 and root mean squared error (RMSE of approximately 20 W/m2. Empirical parameters in the structure algorithms of MOD16 and RRS, and calibrated coefficients of the UMD algorithm may be the cause of the reduced performance of these LE algorithms with R2 ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 and RMSE ranging from 20 to 35 W/m2 for MOD16, RRS and UMD. Sensitivity analysis showed that radiation and vegetation terms were the dominating variables affecting LE

  16. High-frequency measurements of aeolian saltation flux: Field-based methodology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Raleigh L.; Kok, Jasper F.; Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Barchyn, Thomas E.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Ellis, Jean T.

    2018-02-01

    Aeolian transport of sand and dust is driven by turbulent winds that fluctuate over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales. However, commonly used aeolian transport models do not explicitly account for such fluctuations, likely contributing to substantial discrepancies between models and measurements. Underlying this problem is the absence of accurate sand flux measurements at the short time scales at which wind speed fluctuates. Here, we draw on extensive field measurements of aeolian saltation to develop a methodology for generating high-frequency (up to 25 Hz) time series of total (vertically-integrated) saltation flux, namely by calibrating high-frequency (HF) particle counts to low-frequency (LF) flux measurements. The methodology follows four steps: (1) fit exponential curves to vertical profiles of saltation flux from LF saltation traps, (2) determine empirical calibration factors through comparison of LF exponential fits to HF number counts over concurrent time intervals, (3) apply these calibration factors to subsamples of the saltation count time series to obtain HF height-specific saltation fluxes, and (4) aggregate the calibrated HF height-specific saltation fluxes into estimates of total saltation fluxes. When coupled to high-frequency measurements of wind velocity, this methodology offers new opportunities for understanding how aeolian saltation dynamics respond to variability in driving winds over time scales from tens of milliseconds to days.

  17. Evaluation of satellite and reanalysis-based global net surface energy flux and uncertainty estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Richard; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    The net surface energy flux is central to the climate system yet observational limitations lead to substantial uncertainty (Trenberth and Fasullo, 2013; Roberts et al., 2016). A combination of satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) adjusted using the latest estimation of the net heat uptake of the Earth system, and the atmospheric energy tendencies and transports from the ERA-Interim reanalysis are used to estimate surface energy flux globally (Liu et al., 2015). Land surface fluxes are adjusted through a simple energy balance approach using relations at each grid point with the consideration of snowmelt to improve regional realism. The energy adjustment is redistributed over the oceans using a weighting function to avoid meridional discontinuities. Uncertainties in surface fluxes are investigated using a variety of approaches including comparison with a range of atmospheric reanalysis input data and products. Zonal multiannual mean surface flux uncertainty is estimated to be less than 5 Wm-2 but much larger uncertainty is likely for regional monthly values. The meridional energy transport is calculated using the net surface heat fluxes estimated in this study and the result shows better agreement with observations in Atlantic than before. The derived turbulent fluxes (difference between the net heat flux and the CERES EBAF radiative flux at surface) also have good agreement with those from OAFLUX dataset and buoy observations. Decadal changes in the global energy budget and the hemisphere energy imbalances are quantified and present day cross-equator heat transports is re-evaluated as 0.22±0.15 PW southward by the atmosphere and 0.32±0.16 PW northward by the ocean considering the observed ocean heat sinks (Roemmich et al., 2006) . Liu et al. (2015) Combining satellite observations and reanalysis energy transports to estimate global net surface energy fluxes 1985-2012. J. Geophys. Res., Atmospheres. ISSN 2169-8996 doi: 10.1002/2015JD

  18. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jordan O.; Shi, Hai; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hebbelmann, Inga; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schwender, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae) developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM) standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using B. napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA) with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA). Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two B. napus genotypes contrasting in starch and oil content. PMID

  19. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan eHay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using Brassica napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA. Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two Brassica napus genotypes contrasting in starch and

  20. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with (13)C-metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jordan O; Shi, Hai; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hebbelmann, Inga; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schwender, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae) developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM) standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using B. napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for (13)C-Metabolic Flux Analysis ((13)C-MFA) with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from (13)C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA). Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two B. napus genotypes contrasting in starch and oil content.

  1. Active-flux based motion sensorless vector control of biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coroban-Schramel, Vasile; Boldea, Ion; Andreescu, Gheorghe-Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel, active-flux based, motion-sensorless vector control structure for biaxial excitation generator for automobiles (BEGA) for wide speed range operation. BEGA is a hybrid excited synchronous machine having permanent magnets on q-axis and a dc excitation on daxis. Using...

  2. A New Energy-Based Method for 3-D Finite-Element Nonlinear Flux Linkage computation of Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    introduced in this paper is much easier to use and is computational faster. This method is derived based on the “apparent energy.” Calculation of the nonlinear flux linkage from this energy avoids numerical differentiation, which is sensitive to numerical errors but is required in the traditional energy...

  3. Ignition and flame spread properties of wood, elaborated during a new test method based on convective heat flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    Ignition and flame spread properties on selected types of wood and wall papers are elaborated. Tests are established in a new test setup in which the test specimen can be fixed in different angles due to a horizontal level. The heat exposing the test objects is arranged as a convective flux......, established from a Bunsen burners pilot flame. This principal is somewhat in contrast to the more typical radiation established fluxes. For instance, the ISO 9239 (DS 2000) test method is based on a gas fired radiant panel. And in the ISO 5657 standard, the ignition properties are investigated on test...

  4. A Novel Diffuse Fraction-Based Two-Leaf Light Use Efficiency Model: An Application Quantifying Photosynthetic Seasonality across 20 AmeriFlux Flux Tower Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Yu, Kai-Liang; Wang, Bin; Yu, Qin; Bohrer, Gil; Billesbach, Dave; Bracho, Rosvel; Rahman, Faiz; Shugart, Herman H.

    2017-10-01

    Diffuse radiation can increase canopy light use efficiency (LUE). This creates the need to differentiate the effects of direct and diffuse radiation when simulating terrestrial gross primary production (GPP). Here, we present a novel GPP model, the diffuse-fraction-based two-leaf model (DTEC), which includes the leaf response to direct and diffuse radiation, and treats maximum LUE for shaded leaves (ɛmsh defined as a power function of the diffuse fraction (Df)) and sunlit leaves (ɛmsu defined as a constant) separately. An Amazonian rainforest site (KM67) was used to calibrate the model by simulating the linear relationship between monthly canopy LUE and Df. This showed a positive response of forest GPP to atmospheric diffuse radiation, and suggested that diffuse radiation was more limiting than global radiation and water availability for Amazon rainforest GPP on a monthly scale. Further evaluation at 20 independent AmeriFlux sites showed that the DTEC model, when driven by monthly meteorological data and MODIS leaf area index (LAI) products, explained 70% of the variability observed in monthly flux tower GPP. This exceeded the 51% accounted for by the MODIS 17A2 big-leaf GPP product. The DTEC model's explicit accounting for the impacts of diffuse radiation and soil water stress along with its parameterization for C4 and C3 plants was responsible for this difference. The evaluation of DTEC at Amazon rainforest sites demonstrated its potential to capture the unique seasonality of higher GPP during the diffuse radiation-dominated wet season. Our results highlight the importance of diffuse radiation in seasonal GPP simulation.Plain Language SummaryAs diffuse radiation can increase canopy light use efficiency (LUE), there is a need to differentiate the effects of direct and diffuse radiation in simulating terrestrial gross primary production (GPP). A novel diffuse-fraction (Df)-based two leaf GPP model (DTEC) developed by this study considers these effects. Evaluation

  5. Flux-P: Automating Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta E. Ebert

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative knowledge of intracellular fluxes in metabolic networks is invaluable for inferring metabolic system behavior and the design principles of biological systems. However, intracellular reaction rates can not often be calculated directly but have to be estimated; for instance, via 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, a model-based interpretation of stable carbon isotope patterns in intermediates of metabolism. Existing software such as FiatFlux, OpenFLUX or 13CFLUX supports experts in this complex analysis, but requires several steps that have to be carried out manually, hence restricting the use of this software for data interpretation to a rather small number of experiments. In this paper, we present Flux-P as an approach to automate and standardize 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, using the Bio-jETI workflow framework. Exemplarily based on the FiatFlux software, it demonstrates how services can be created that carry out the different analysis steps autonomously and how these can subsequently be assembled into software workflows that perform automated, high-throughput intracellular flux analysis of high quality and reproducibility. Besides significant acceleration and standardization of the data analysis, the agile workflow-based realization supports flexible changes of the analysis workflows on the user level, making it easy to perform custom analyses.

  6. A new virtual-flux-vector based droop control strategy for parallel connected inverters in microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Jiefeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Qu, Yanqing

    2013-01-01

    Voltage and frequency droop method is commonly used in microgrids to achieve proper autonomous power sharing without rely on intercommunication systems. This paper proposes a new control strategy for parallel connected inverters in microgrid applications by drooping the flux instead of the inverter...... the flux ripple, a model predictive control (MPC) scheme is integrated into the DFC. The obtained results shows that the proposed flux droop strategy can achieve active and reactive power sharing with much lower frequency deviation and better transient performance than the conventional droop method, thus....... In addition, a small- signal model is developed in order to design the main control parameters and study the system dynamics and stability. The proposed control scheme includes a direct flux control (DFC) algorithm, which avoids the use of PI controllers and PWM modulators. Furthermore, in order to reduce...

  7. Tundish Cover Flux Thickness Measurement Method and Instrumentation Based on Computer Vision in Continuous Casting Tundish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thickness of tundish cover flux (TCF plays an important role in continuous casting (CC steelmaking process. Traditional measurement method of TCF thickness is single/double wire methods, which have several problems such as personal security, easily affected by operators, and poor repeatability. To solve all these problems, in this paper, we specifically designed and built an instrumentation and presented a novel method to measure the TCF thickness. The instrumentation was composed of a measurement bar, a mechanical device, a high-definition industrial camera, a Siemens S7-200 programmable logic controller (PLC, and a computer. Our measurement method was based on the computer vision algorithms, including image denoising method, monocular range measurement method, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT, and image gray gradient detection method. Using the present instrumentation and method, images in the CC tundish can be collected by camera and transferred to computer to do imaging processing. Experiments showed that our instrumentation and method worked well at scene of steel plants, can accurately measure the thickness of TCF, and overcome the disadvantages of traditional measurement methods, or even replace the traditional ones.

  8. High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfon, S. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Feinberg, G. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel) and Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I. [Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel)

    2013-04-19

    A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

  9. Genome-based metabolic mapping and 13C flux analysis reveal systematic properties of an oleaginous microalga Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-02-01

    Integrated and genome-based flux balance analysis, metabolomics, and (13)C-label profiling of phototrophic and heterotrophic metabolism in Chlorella protothecoides, an oleaginous green alga for biofuel. The green alga Chlorella protothecoides, capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic growth with rapid lipid synthesis, is a promising candidate for biofuel production. Based on the newly available genome knowledge of the alga, we reconstructed the compartmentalized metabolic network consisting of 272 metabolic reactions, 270 enzymes, and 461 encoding genes and simulated the growth in different cultivation conditions with flux balance analysis. Phenotype-phase plane analysis shows conditions achieving theoretical maximum of the biomass and corresponding fatty acid-producing rate for phototrophic cells (the ratio of photon uptake rate to CO2 uptake rate equals 8.4) and heterotrophic ones (the glucose uptake rate to O2 consumption rate reaches 2.4), respectively. Isotope-assisted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry reveals higher metabolite concentrations in the glycolytic pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in heterotrophic cells compared with autotrophic cells. We also observed enhanced levels of ATP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), reduced, acetyl-Coenzyme A, and malonyl-Coenzyme A in heterotrophic cells consistently, consistent with a strong activity of lipid synthesis. To profile the flux map in experimental conditions, we applied nonstationary (13)C metabolic flux analysis as a complementing strategy to flux balance analysis. The result reveals negligible photorespiratory fluxes and a metabolically low active tricarboxylic acid cycle in phototrophic C. protothecoides. In comparison, high throughput of amphibolic reactions and the tricarboxylic acid cycle with no glyoxylate shunt activities were measured for heterotrophic cells. Taken together, the metabolic network modeling assisted by experimental metabolomics and (13)C

  10. Comparison of Sea-Air CO2 Flux Estimates Using Satellite-Based Versus Mooring Wind Speed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, A. J.; Sabine, C. L.; Feely, R. A.; Wanninkhof, R. H.

    2016-12-01

    The global ocean is a major sink of anthropogenic CO2, absorbing approximately 27% of CO2 emissions since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Any variation or change in the ocean CO2 sink has implications for future climate. Observations of sea-air CO2 flux have relied primarily on ship-based underway measurements of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) combined with satellite, model, or multi-platform wind products. Direct measurements of ΔpCO2 (seawater - air pCO2) and wind speed from moored platforms now allow for high-resolution CO2 flux time series. Here we present a comparison of CO2 flux calculated from moored ΔpCO2 measured on four moorings in different biomes of the Pacific Ocean in combination with: 1) Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) winds or 2) wind speed measurements made on ocean reference moorings excluded from the CCMP dataset. Preliminary results show using CCMP winds overestimates CO2 flux on average by 5% at the Kuroshio Extension Observatory, Ocean Station Papa, WHOI Hawaii Ocean Timeseries Station, and Stratus. In general, CO2 flux seasonality follows patterns of seawater pCO2 and SST with periods of CO2 outgassing during summer and CO2 uptake during winter at these locations. Any offsets or seasonal biases in CCMP winds could impact global ocean sink estimates using this data product. Here we present patterns and trends between the two CO2 flux estimates and discuss the potential implications for tracking variability and change in global ocean CO2 uptake.

  11. Monitoring carbon dioxide from space: Retrieval algorithm and flux inversion based on GOSAT data and using CarbonTracker-China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongxu; Zhang, Huifang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Baozhang; Cai, Zhaonan; Lü, Daren

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from space-borne state-of-the-art hyperspectral instruments can provide a high precision global dataset to improve carbon flux estimation and reduce the uncertainty of climate projection. Here, we introduce a carbon flux inversion system for estimating carbon flux with satellite measurements under the support of "The Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences—Climate Change: Carbon Budget and Relevant Issues". The carbon flux inversion system is composed of two separate parts: the Institute of Atmospheric Physics Carbon Dioxide Retrieval Algorithm for Satellite Remote Sensing (IAPCAS), and CarbonTracker-China (CT-China), developed at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) measurements are used in the carbon flux inversion experiment. To improve the quality of the IAPCAS-GOSAT retrieval, we have developed a post-screening and bias correction method, resulting in 25%-30% of the data remaining after quality control. Based on these data, the seasonal variation of XCO2 (column-averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction) is studied, and a strong relation with vegetation cover and population is identified. Then, the IAPCAS-GOSAT XCO2 product is used in carbon flux estimation by CT-China. The net ecosystem CO2 exchange is -0.34 Pg C yr-1 (±0.08 Pg C yr-1), with a large error reduction of 84%, which is a significant improvement on the error reduction when compared with in situ-only inversion.

  12. Turbulent fluxes and transfer of trace gases from ship-based measurements during TexAQS 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey A.; Bariteau, Ludovic; Fairall, Christopher W.; Hare, Jeffrey E.; Helmig, Detlev; Hueber, Jacques; Lang, E. Kathrin

    2011-07-01

    Air-sea/land turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone are discussed on the basis of eddy covariance measurements made aboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) in August-September 2006. The TexAQS 2006 field campaign focused on air pollution meteorology associated primarily with ozone and aerosol transport in the Houston/Galveston region and the nearby coastal zone. The ship-based complement of instrumentation was used for the boundary layer measurements over water (the Gulf of Mexico and various harbors/bay areas) and "over land" (specifically, 80 km inside the Houston Ship Channel). In this study we focus on direct comparisons of TexAQS 2006 flux observations with the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) bulk flux algorithm to investigate possible coastal and urban area influences. It is found that the average neutral drag coefficient can be about an order of magnitude larger over very rough urban areas than over the sea surface. However, a similar effect was not observed for the scalar transfer; that is, the neutral Stanton and Dalton numbers do not change significantly over different footprint surfaces. Our data suggest that the TexAQS 2006 region was generally a sink for surface ozone whether over water or over land. The turbulent flux of carbon dioxide was mostly negative (uptake by the surface) for measurements over waters of the Gulf of Mexico and some bays, but the flux becomes positive (release to the air) for inland regions. Both ozone and carbon dioxide turbulent fluxes above land were larger in magnitude compared to the over water measurements.

  13. Progress Toward Measuring CO2 Isotopologue Fluxes in situ with the LLNL Miniature, Laser-based CO2 Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, J. L.; Bora, M.; Bond, T.

    2015-12-01

    One method to constrain photosynthesis and respiration independently at the ecosystem scale is to measure the fluxes of CO2­ isotopologues. Instrumentation is currently available to makes these measurements but they are generally costly, large, bench-top instruments. Here, we present progress toward developing a laser-based sensor that can be deployed directly to a canopy to passively measure CO2 isotopologue fluxes. In this study, we perform initial proof-of-concept and sensor characterization tests in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate performance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) tunable diode laser flux sensor. The results shown herein demonstrate measurement of bulk CO2 as a first step toward achieving flux measurements of CO2 isotopologues. The sensor uses a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in the 2012 nm range. The laser is mounted in a multi-pass White Cell. In order to amplify the absorption signal of CO2 in this range we employ wave modulation spectroscopy, introducing an alternating current (AC) bias component where f is the frequency of modulation on the laser drive current in addition to the direct current (DC) emission scanning component. We observed a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.998 and r2 = 0.978 at all and low CO2 concentrations, respectively) between the 2f signal and the CO2 concentration in the cell across the range of CO2 concentrations relevant for flux measurements. We use this calibration to interpret CO2 concentration of a gas flowing through the White cell in the laboratory and deployed over a grassy field. We will discuss sensor performance in the lab and in situ as well as address steps toward achieving canopy-deployed, passive measurements of CO2 isotopologue fluxes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675788

  14. Dry friction aspects of Ni-based self-fluxing flame sprayed coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, C.; Chicet, D.; Paleu, V.; Benchea, M.; Lupescu, Ş.; Munteanu, C.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present the results tribological obtained in the course of dry wear tests on samples coated with three types of coatings produced from self-fluxing Ni-based powders. In this purpose were used three commercial NiCrBSi powders produced by various manufacturers, which have been sprayed against a low alloyed steel substrate using the flame spray thermal deposition method followed by flame remelting, resulting three different samples, denoted as: A, M and P. The first test was conducted on an Amsler type machine, with rolling motion between tribological contacts of third class. The analysed coating was deposited on the generator of the low alloy steel disc and the shoe was realized from a grindstone. The test was conducted for two situations: (a) constant load of 10 kg and 6 kg applied for 5 hours; (b) progressive load starting from 2 to 10 kg for two different speeds of rotation of the disc. The second test was the one of sliding wear and it was conducted on the UMTR 2M-CTR tribometer. The analysed layers were deposited on the flat surface of a low alloy steel lamella, and the friction was achieved with a conical grinding stone. The working parameters were as follows: 20N constant load, constant speed of 10 mm / s, sliding linear length of 30mm, the test duration being 45 minutes. After conducting the tests and after analysing the results, the following conclusions are drawn: a) during the first test has been obtained a global friction coefficient between 0.3 and 0.4 - typical for dry friction, highlighting some lower values in the case of sample A, in which case there were recorded smaller mass losses; b) at the second test was recorded an approximately linear behaviour of the three samples, with a gradual increase of the friction coefficient and a superficial wear mark revealed both by SEM microscopy and by profilometry.

  15. Overview of the NASA Glenn Flux Reconstruction Based High-Order Unstructured Grid Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Seth C.; DeBonis, James R.; Huynh, H. T.

    2016-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics code based on the flux reconstruction (FR) method is currently being developed at NASA Glenn Research Center to ultimately provide a large- eddy simulation capability that is both accurate and efficient for complex aeropropulsion flows. The FR approach offers a simple and efficient method that is easy to implement and accurate to an arbitrary order on common grid cell geometries. The governing compressible Navier-Stokes equations are discretized in time using various explicit Runge-Kutta schemes, with the default being the 3-stage/3rd-order strong stability preserving scheme. The code is written in modern Fortran (i.e., Fortran 2008) and parallelization is attained through MPI for execution on distributed-memory high-performance computing systems. An h- refinement study of the isentropic Euler vortex problem is able to empirically demonstrate the capability of the FR method to achieve super-accuracy for inviscid flows. Additionally, the code is applied to the Taylor-Green vortex problem, performing numerous implicit large-eddy simulations across a range of grid resolutions and solution orders. The solution found by a pseudo-spectral code is commonly used as a reference solution to this problem, and the FR code is able to reproduce this solution using approximately the same grid resolution. Finally, an examination of the code's performance demonstrates good parallel scaling, as well as an implementation of the FR method with a computational cost/degree- of-freedom/time-step that is essentially independent of the solution order of accuracy for structured geometries.

  16. Modeling Water Flux at the Base of the Rooting Zone for Soils with Varying Glacial Parent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, S.; Ellett, K. M.; Ficklin, D. L.; Olyphant, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Soils of varying glacial parent materials in the Great Lakes Region (USA) are characterized by thin unsaturated zones and widespread use of agricultural pesticides and nutrients that affect shallow groundwater. To better our understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants, improved models of water fluxes through the vadose zones of various hydrogeologic settings are warranted. Furthermore, calibrated unsaturated zone models can be coupled with watershed models, providing a means for predicting the impact of varying climate scenarios on agriculture in the region. To address these issues, a network of monitoring sites was developed in Indiana that provides continuous measurements of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), soil volumetric water content (VWC), and soil matric potential to parameterize and calibrate models. Flux at the base of the root zone is simulated using two models of varying complexity: 1) the HYDRUS model, which numerically solves the Richards equation, and 2) the soil-water-balance (SWB) model, which assumes vertical flow under a unit gradient with infiltration and evapotranspiration treated as separate, sequential processes. Soil hydraulic parameters are determined based on laboratory data, a pedo-transfer function (ROSETTA), field measurements (Guelph permeameter), and parameter optimization. Groundwater elevation data are available at three of six sites to establish the base of the unsaturated zone model domain. Initial modeling focused on the groundwater recharge season (Nov-Feb) when PET is limited and much of the annual vertical flux occurs. HYDRUS results indicate that base of root zone fluxes at a site underlain by glacial ice-contact parent materials are 48% of recharge season precipitation (VWC RMSE=8.2%), while SWB results indicate that fluxes are 43% (VWC RMSE=3.7%). Due in part to variations in surface boundary conditions, more variable fluxes were obtained for a site underlain by alluvium with the SWB model (68

  17. Digital Real-Time Multiple Channel Multiple Mode Neutron Flux Estimation on FPGA-based Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thevenin Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete custom full-digital instrumentation device that was designed for real-time neutron flux estimation, especially for nuclear reactor in-core measurement using subminiature Fission Chambers (FCs. Entire fully functional small-footprint design (about 1714 LUTs is implemented on FPGA. It enables real-time acquisition and analysis of multiple channels neutron's flux both in counting mode and Campbelling mode. Experimental results obtained from this brand new device are consistent with simulation results and show good agreement within good uncertainty. This device paves the way for new applications perspectives in real-time nuclear reactor monitoring.

  18. Comparison of 210Po, 234Th and Sediment-Trap Based Export Fluxes in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, K.; Bosu, S.; D'Sa, E. J.; Sutor, M.; Adhikari, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) is one of the well-studied areas of global ocean, especially after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010 and yet direct estimates of upper ocean POC fluxes from this region is practically nonexistent. In oligotrophic waters of the open Gulf of Mexico, particulate carbon is the main source of particles and POC flux is the key mechanism for the removal of metals and other particle reactive contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the upper ocean. Disequilibria between natural radioisotope pairs 238U-234Th and 210Pb-210Po as well as sediment traps have been widely used to measure particle export fluxes from the upper ocean on time scale of few days to months. The present work measured the vertical profiles of total and particle size-fractionated 210Pb, 210Po and 234Th activities, together with particulate carbon concentrations in the Gulf of Mexico during April 2012 and 2013. In spite of the difference in time scale both 210Po and 234Th based estimates are in reasonably agreement with sinking POC fluxes, caught in sediment traps, and each tracer provides unique information about the magnitude and efficiency of the ocean's biological pump. POC flux estimates ranged between 22-41 mgCm-2day-1 at 150m to 9-29 mgCm-2day-1 at 350m. POC export efficiencies ranged between 0.04- 0.10 at 150m which is similar to export efficiencies of 0.11-0.15 calculated from satellite based export production models.

  19. TMX1 determines cancer cell metabolism as a thiol-based modulator of ER-mitochondria Ca2+ flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raturi, Arun; Gutiérrez, Tomás; Ortiz-Sandoval, Carolina; Ruangkittisakul, Araya; Herrera-Cruz, Maria Sol; Rockley, Jeremy P; Gesson, Kevin; Ourdev, Dimitar; Lou, Phing-How; Lucchinetti, Eliana; Tahbaz, Nasser; Zaugg, Michael; Baksh, Shairaz; Ballanyi, Klaus; Simmen, Thomas

    2016-08-15

    The flux of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria regulates mitochondria metabolism. Within tumor tissue, mitochondria metabolism is frequently repressed, leading to chemotherapy resistance and increased growth of the tumor mass. Therefore, altered ER-mitochondria Ca(2+) flux could be a cancer hallmark, but only a few regulatory proteins of this mechanism are currently known. One candidate is the redox-sensitive oxidoreductase TMX1 that is enriched on the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM), the site of ER-mitochondria Ca(2+) flux. Our findings demonstrate that cancer cells with low TMX1 exhibit increased ER Ca(2+), accelerated cytosolic Ca(2+) clearance, and reduced Ca(2+) transfer to mitochondria. Thus, low levels of TMX1 reduce ER-mitochondria contacts, shift bioenergetics away from mitochondria, and accelerate tumor growth. For its role in intracellular ER-mitochondria Ca(2+) flux, TMX1 requires its thioredoxin motif and palmitoylation to target to the MAM. As a thiol-based tumor suppressor, TMX1 increases mitochondrial ATP production and apoptosis progression. Copyright © 2016 Raturi et al.

  20. High flux nanofiltration membranes based on layer-by-layer assembly modified electrospun nanofibrous substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo-Rong; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Jian-Mei; Li, Lu; Su, Hui-Chao; Zhao, He-Li; Feng, Hou-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Herein, high flux nanofiltration (NF) membranes were fabricated by combined procedures of electrospinning, layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly, and phase inversion. The membranes displayed three-dual structure constituted polyether sulfone (PES) coating layer, LBL assembly modified electrospun polyester (PET) nanofibrous mats, and non-woven supports. High flux NF membranes thus prepared are characterized by ultrathin phase inversion layer (∼10 μm) while that of conventional membranes are 100-150 μm, implying that very high flux could be expected. Various factors including electrospinning conditions, chitosan (CHI)/alginate (ALG) concentration, PES concentration, exposed time, coagulating temperature, thermal treatment, and sulfonated poly ether ketone (SPEEK) content were systematically investigated. Structures of the membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), mechanical properties test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and static contact angle measurements. The separation experiments indicated that thus prepared membranes exhibited high flux of as high as ∼75 L m-2 h-1 with Mg SO4 rejection of ∼80%.

  1. USDA-ARS GRACEnet Project Protocols, Chapter 3. Chamber-based trace gas flux measurements4

    Science.gov (United States)

    This protocol addresses N2O, CO2 and CH4 flux measurement by soil chamber methodology. The reactivities of other gasses of interest such as NOx O3, CO, and NH3 will require different chambers and associated instrumentation. Carbon dioxide is included as an analyte with this protocol; however, when p...

  2. Microwave testing of high-Tc based direct current to a single flux quantum converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Fischer, Gerd Michael; Ivanov, Z. G.

    1994-01-01

    Design, simulation, and experimental investigations of a direct current to a single flux quantum converter loaded with a Josephson transmission line and driven by an external 70 GHz microwave oscillator are reported. The test circuit includes nine YBaCuO Josephson junctions aligned on the grain...

  3. LMI-based Gain Scheduled Robust Flux Observer for Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a robust flux observer for an induction motor is developed through an LMI approach. The observer is robust to changes in rotational speed and in rotor and stator resistances. The problem is formulated as complex-valued rank constrained LMIs and solved through alternating projections...

  4. Satellite data based approach for the estimation of anthropogenic heat flux over urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitis, Theodoros; Tsegas, George; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Gounaridis, Dimitrios; Bliziotis, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    Anthropogenic effects in urban areas influence the thermal conditions in the environment and cause an increase of the atmospheric temperature. The cities are sources of heat and pollution, affecting the thermal structure of the atmosphere above them which results to the urban heat island effect. In order to analyze the urban heat island mechanism, it is important to estimate the anthropogenic heat flux which has a considerable impact on the urban energy budget. The anthropogenic heat flux is the result of man-made activities (i.e. traffic, industrial processes, heating/cooling) and thermal releases from the human body. Many studies have underlined the importance of the Anthropogenic Heat Flux to the calculation of the urban energy budget and subsequently, the estimation of mesoscale meteorological fields over urban areas. Therefore, spatially disaggregated anthropogenic heat flux data, at local and city scales, are of major importance for mesoscale meteorological models. The main objectives of the present work are to improve the quality of such data used as input for mesoscale meteorological models simulations and to enhance the application potential of GIS and remote sensing in the fields of climatology and meteorology. For this reason, the Urban Energy Budget concept is proposed as the foundation for an accurate determination of the anthropogenic heat discharge as a residual term in the surface energy balance. The methodology is applied to the cities of Athens and Paris using the Landsat ETM+ remote sensing data. The results will help to improve our knowledge on Anthropogenic Heat Flux, while the potential for further improvement of the methodology is also discussed.

  5. Comparative analysis of the structure of palladium-based bulk metallic glasses prepared by treatment of melts with flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Bazlov, A. I.; Churyumov, A. Yu.; Georgarakis, K.; Yavari, A. R.

    2013-10-01

    A comparative analysis has been presented of structural features of palladium-based bulk metallic glasses prepared by argon gas casting into a copper mold after treatment of melts with a flux and studied using X-ray synchrotron radiation. The radial distribution functions have been calculated. The short-range order (in the first and second coordination shells) and the medium-range order (from the third to several subsequent coordination shells) in atomic arrangement have been analyzed.

  6. Measurement of angular distribution of neutron flux for the 6 MeV race-track microtron based pulsed neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, B.J., E-mail: bjp@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Chavan, S.T.; Pethe, S.N.; Krishnan, R. [SAMEER, IIT Powai Campus, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-09-15

    The 6 MeV race track microtron based pulsed neutron source has been designed specifically for the elemental analysis of short lived activation products, where the low neutron flux requirement is desirable. Electrons impinges on a e-{gamma} target to generate bremsstrahlung radiations, which further produces neutrons by photonuclear reaction in {gamma}-n target. The optimisation of these targets along with their spectra were estimated using FLUKA code. The measurement of neutron flux was carried out by activation of vanadium at different scattering angles. Angular distribution of neutron flux indicates that the flux decreases with increase in the angle and are in good agreement with the FLUKA simulation.

  7. Neutron Flux Monitoring Based on Blind Source Separation Algorithms in Moroccan TRIGA MARK II Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Arahmane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of fission chamber’s functioning modes, theoretical aspects of the nonnegative matrix factorization methods, and the opportunities that offer neutron data processing in order to achieve neutron flux monitoring tasks. Indeed, it is a part of research project that aimed at applying Blind Source Separation methods for in-core and ex-core neutron flux monitoring while analyzing the outputs of fission chamber. The latter could be used as a key issue for control, fuel management, safety concerns, and material irradiation experiments. The Blind Source Separation methods had been used in many scientific fields such as biomedical engineering and telecommunications. Recently, they were used for gamma spectrometry data processing. The originality of this research work is to apply these powerful methods to process the fission chamber output signals. We illustrated the effectiveness of this tool using simulated fission chamber signals.

  8. Optimization-based design of heat flux manipulation devices with emphasis on fabricability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Ignacio; Fachinotti, Víctor D

    2017-07-24

    In this work, we present a new method for the design of heat flux manipulating devices, with emphasis on their fabricability. The design is obtained as solution of a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function represents the given heat flux manipulation task, and the design variables define the material distribution in the device. In order to facilitate the fabrication of the device, the material at a given point is chosen from a set of predefined metamaterials. Each candidate material is assumed to be a laminate of materials with high conductivity contrast, so it is a metamaterial with a highly anisotropic effective conductivity. Following the discrete material optimization (DMO) approach, the fraction of each material at a given finite element of the mesh is defined as a function of continuous variables, which are ultimately the design variables. This DMO definition forces the fraction of each candidate to tend to either zero or one at the optimal solution. As an application example, we designed an easy-to-make device for heat flux concentration and cloaking.

  9. Rotor cage fault diagnosis in three-phase induction motors based on a current and virtual flux approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Dulce F. [Escola Sup. Tecnologia Setubal/Inst. Politecnico Setubal, Setubal (Portugal); Pires, V. Fernao [Escola Sup. Tecnologia Setubal/Inst. Politecnico Setubal, Setubal (Portugal)]|[LabSEI - Laboratorio de Sistemas Electricos Industriais, Setubal (Portugal); Martins, J.F. [CTS, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia/UNL, Lisboa (Portugal); Pires, A.J. [Escola Sup. Tecnologia Setubal/Inst. Politecnico Setubal, Setubal (Portugal)]|[LabSEI - Laboratorio de Sistemas Electricos Industriais, Setubal (Portugal)]|[CTS, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia/UNL, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    This paper focuses on the detection of a rotor cage fault in a three-phase PWM feed induction motor. In inverter-fed machines there are some difficulties for the detection of a rotor cage fault. These difficulties are due to the fault signature that will be contained in the currents or voltages applied to the machine. In this way, a new approach based on the current and a virtual flux is proposed. The use of the virtual flux allows the improving of the signal to noise ratio. This approach also allows the identification of a rotor cage fault independently of the type of control used in the ac drive. The theoretical principle of this method is discussed. Simulation and experimental results are presented in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (author)

  10. Bayesian integration of flux tower data into a process-based simulator for quantifying uncertainty in simulated output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Rahul; van der Tol, Christiaan; Hamm, Nicholas Alexander Samuel; Stein, Alfred

    2018-01-01

    Parameters of a process-based forest growth simulator are difficult or impossible to obtain from field observations. Reliable estimates can be obtained using calibration against observations of output and state variables. In this study, we present a Bayesian framework to calibrate the widely used process-based simulator Biome-BGC against estimates of gross primary production (GPP) data. We used GPP partitioned from flux tower measurements of a net ecosystem exchange over a 55-year-old Douglas fir stand as an example. The uncertainties of both the Biome-BGC parameters and the simulated GPP values were estimated. The calibrated parameters leaf and fine root turnover (LFRT), ratio of fine root carbon to leaf carbon (FRC : LC), ratio of carbon to nitrogen in leaf (C : Nleaf), canopy water interception coefficient (Wint), fraction of leaf nitrogen in RuBisCO (FLNR), and effective soil rooting depth (SD) characterize the photosynthesis and carbon and nitrogen allocation in the forest. The calibration improved the root mean square error and enhanced Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency between simulated and flux tower daily GPP compared to the uncalibrated Biome-BGC. Nevertheless, the seasonal cycle for flux tower GPP was not reproduced exactly and some overestimation in spring and underestimation in summer remained after calibration. We hypothesized that the phenology exhibited a seasonal cycle that was not accurately reproduced by the simulator. We investigated this by calibrating the Biome-BGC to each month's flux tower GPP separately. As expected, the simulated GPP improved, but the calibrated parameter values suggested that the seasonal cycle of state variables in the simulator could be improved. It was concluded that the Bayesian framework for calibration can reveal features of the modelled physical processes and identify aspects of the process simulator that are too rigid.

  11. Comparison of Source Partitioning Methods for CO2 and H2O Fluxes Based on High Frequency Eddy Covariance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhalfen, Anne; Moene, Arnold; Schmidt, Marius; Ney, Patrizia; Graf, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Source partitioning of eddy covariance (EC) measurements of CO2 into respiration and photosynthesis is routinely used for a better understanding of the exchange of greenhouse gases, especially between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The most frequently used methods are usually based either on relations of fluxes to environmental drivers or on chamber measurements. However, they often depend strongly on assumptions or invasive measurements and do usually not offer partitioning estimates for latent heat fluxes into evaporation and transpiration. SCANLON and SAHU (2008) and SCANLON and KUSTAS (2010) proposed an promising method to estimate the contributions of transpiration and evaporation using measured high frequency time series of CO2 and H2O fluxes - no extra instrumentation necessary. This method (SK10 in the following) is based on the spatial separation and relative strength of sources and sinks of CO2 and water vapor among the sub-canopy and canopy. Assuming that air from those sources and sinks is not yet perfectly mixed before reaching EC sensors, partitioning is estimated based on the separate application of the flux-variance similarity theory to the stomatal and non-stomatal components of the regarded fluxes, as well as on additional assumptions on stomatal water use efficiency (WUE). The CO2 partitioning method after THOMAS et al. (2008) (TH08 in the following) also follows the argument that the dissimilarities of sources and sinks in and below a canopy affect the relation between H2O and CO2 fluctuations. Instead of involving assumptions on WUE, TH08 directly screens their scattergram for signals of joint respiration and evaporation events and applies a conditional sampling methodology. In spite of their different main targets (H2O vs. CO2), both methods can yield partitioning estimates on both fluxes. We therefore compare various sub-methods of SK10 and TH08 including own modifications (e.g., cluster analysis) to each other, to established

  12. Active-Flux-Based, V/f-with-Stabilizing-Loops Versus Sensorless Vector Control of IPMSM Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Ana; Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, Ion

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes two control methods for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) Drives. The first one is a V/f control with two stabilizing loops: one loop based on active flux balance for voltage magnitude correction and a second, based on speed error, with voltage phase correction....... By this control strategy, a fast dynamic speed response, without steady state error and without speed or current regulators, for all AC machines is obtained. The second control method is a sensorless vector control strategy which also has been implemented and tested, just for comparison....

  13. The GEWEX LandFlux project: evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally-gridded forcing data

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2015-08-24

    Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With recent international efforts guiding the development of long-term and globally distributed flux estimates, continued product assessments are required to inform upon the selection of suitable model structures and also to establish the appropriateness of these multi-model simulations for global application. In support of the objectives of the GEWEX LandFlux project, four commonly used evaporation models are evaluated against data from tower-based eddy-covariance observations, distributed across a range of biomes and climate zones. The selected schemes include the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) approach, the Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model, the Penman-Monteith based Mu model (PM-Mu) and the Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM). Here we seek to examine the fidelity of global evaporation simulations by examining the multi-model response to varying sources of forcing data. To do this, we perform parallel and collocated model simulations using tower-based data together with a global-scale grid-based forcing product. Through quantifying the multi-model response to high-quality tower data, a better understanding of the subsequent model response to coarse-scale globally gridded data that underlies the LandFlux product can be obtained, while also providing a relative evaluation and assessment of model performance.

    Using surface flux observations from forty-five globally distributed eddy-covariance stations as independent metrics of performance, the tower-based analysis indicated that PT-JPL provided the highest overally statistical performance (0.72; 61 W m−2; 0.65), followed closely by GLEAM (0.68; 64 W m

  14. The GEWEX LandFlux project: evaluation of model evaporation using tower-based and globally gridded forcing data

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2016-01-26

    Determining the spatial distribution and temporal development of evaporation at regional and global scales is required to improve our understanding of the coupled water and energy cycles and to better monitor any changes in observed trends and variability of linked hydrological processes. With recent international efforts guiding the development of long-term and globally distributed flux estimates, continued product assessments are required to inform upon the selection of suitable model structures and also to establish the appropriateness of these multi-model simulations for global application. In support of the objectives of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Exchanges (GEWEX) LandFlux project, four commonly used evaporation models are evaluated against data from tower-based eddy-covariance observations, distributed across a range of biomes and climate zones. The selected schemes include the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) approach, the Priestley–Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model, the Penman–Monteith-based Mu model (PM-Mu) and the Global Land Evaporation Amsterdam Model (GLEAM). Here we seek to examine the fidelity of global evaporation simulations by examining the multi-model response to varying sources of forcing data. To do this, we perform parallel and collocated model simulations using tower-based data together with a global-scale grid-based forcing product. Through quantifying the multi-model response to high-quality tower data, a better understanding of the subsequent model response to the coarse-scale globally gridded data that underlies the LandFlux product can be obtained, while also providing a relative evaluation and assessment of model performance.

    Using surface flux observations from 45 globally distributed eddy-covariance stations as independent metrics of performance, the tower-based analysis indicated that PT-JPL provided the highest overall statistical performance (0.72; 61 W m−2; 0.65), followed

  15. Crystal growth of iron-based superconductor FeSe{sub 0.94} by KCl flux method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, M.W.; Yuan, D.N.; Wu, Y.; Dong, X.L.; Zhou, F., E-mail: fzhou@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • SC crystals of FeSe{sub 0.94} bigger than previous reports are grown by KCl flux method. • The crystal sizes are 6 × 3 × 0.1–0.2 mm{sup 3} or 5 × 5 × 0.1–0.2 mm{sup 3}; the T{sub C} is around 10 K. • Relatively big crystal size is realized by optimizing crystal growth conditions. • Optimized are the dissolution and convection, temperature gradient and flux content. - Abstract: Single crystals of iron-based superconductor FeSe{sub 0.94}, the 11 phase, have been grown using KCl as flux. The size of as-grown crystals is up to 6 × 3 mm{sup 2} or 5 × 5 mm{sup 2}. The relatively big crystal size is achieved by optimizing the experimental scheme. The main phase of the crystal samples is identified to be tetragonal β-FeSe by X-ray diffraction analysis. The superconducting transition temperature is determined to be around 10 K by both electron transport and diamagnetism measurements.

  16. New turbulent resistance parameterization for soil evaporation based on a pore-scale model: Impact on surface fluxes in CABLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Mark; Or, Dani; Pitman, Andy; Ukkola, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land surface model overestimates evapotranspiration (E) at numerous flux tower sites during boreal spring. The overestimation of E is not eliminated when the nonlinear dependence of soil evaporation on soil moisture or a simple litter layer is introduced into the model. New resistance terms, previously developed from a pore-scale model of soil evaporation, are incorporated into the treatment of under canopy water vapor transfer in CABLE. The new resistance terms reduce the large positive bias in spring time E at multiple flux tower sites and also improve the simulation of daily sensible heat flux. The reduction in the spring E bias allows the soil to retain water into the summer, improving the seasonality of E. The simulation of daily E is largely insensitive to the details of the implementation of the pore model resistance scheme. The more physically based treatment of soil evaporation presented here eliminates the need for empirical functions that reduce evaporation as a function of soil moisture that are included in many land surface models.

  17. Estimation of Stator Resistance and Rotor Flux Linkage in SPMSM Using CLPSO with Opposition-Based-Learning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic parameters are important for controller design and condition monitoring of permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM system. In this paper, an improved comprehensive learning particle swarm optimization (CLPSO with opposition-based-learning (OBL strategy is proposed for estimating stator resistance and rotor flux linkage in surface-mounted PMSM; the proposed method is referred to as CLPSO-OBL. In the CLPSO-OBL framework, an opposition-learning strategy is used for best particles reinforcement learning to improve the dynamic performance and global convergence ability of the CLPSO. The proposed parameter optimization not only retains the advantages of diversity in the CLPSO but also has inherited global exploration capability of the OBL. Then, the proposed method is applied to estimate the stator resistance and rotor flux linkage of surface-mounted PMSM. The experimental results show that the CLPSO-OBL has better performance in estimating winding resistance and PM flux compared to the existing peer PSOs. Furthermore, the proposed parameter estimation model and optimization method are simple and with good accuracy, fast convergence, and easy digital implementation.

  18. Residual-based a posteriori error estimation for multipoint flux mixed finite element methods

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Shaohong

    2015-10-26

    A novel residual-type a posteriori error analysis technique is developed for multipoint flux mixed finite element methods for flow in porous media in two or three space dimensions. The derived a posteriori error estimator for the velocity and pressure error in L-norm consists of discretization and quadrature indicators, and is shown to be reliable and efficient. The main tools of analysis are a locally postprocessed approximation to the pressure solution of an auxiliary problem and a quadrature error estimate. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the competitive behavior of the estimator.

  19. Acid-base and ionic fluxes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during exposure to chloramine-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, M.D.; Perry, S.F. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    The effects of chloramine-T and its degradation products, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and para-toluenesulphonamide (pTSA), on whole body acid-base and branchial and renal ion (Na{sup +}and Cl{sup -}) fluxes were examined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Exposure to chloramine-T (3.5 h, 18 mg l{sup -1}) resulted in increases in plasma total CO{sub 2} but no coincident rise in P{sub a}CO{sub 2} or reduction in blood pH. Exposure of fish to 2, 9 or 18 mg l{sup -1} chloramine-T (3.5 h duration) resulted in a reduction in net acid uptake suggesting the development of a metabolic alkalosis. Exposure to the chloramine-T breakdown product pTSA (dissolved in DMSO) resulted in increased net acid uptake (decreased acid excretion) suggesting a metabolic acidosis. Whole body ion fluxes demonstrated increases in the losses of both Na{sup +}and Cl{sup -} with chloramine-T, NaOCl and pTSA. However, the effect of DMSO alone could not be isolated. Confirmatory studies using fish in which the urinary bladder (to allow collection of urine) and dorsal aorta (to allow injection of [{sup 14}C]polyethylene glycol 4000 ([{sup 14}C]PEG), an extracellular fluid marker) were catheterised, revealed that changes in whole body ion fluxes during chloramine-T exposure could not be explained by increased renal efflux through urine flow, glomerular filtration or renal clearance. Branchial effluxes of [{sup 14}C]PEG were not significantly affected by chloramine-T exposure suggesting that the changes in whole body ionic fluxes were caused by transcellular rather than paracellular processes. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Flux Analysis of the Trypanosoma brucei Glycolysis Based on a Multiobjective-Criteria Bioinformatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Ghozlane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite of major of interest in discovering new genes for drug targets. This parasite alternates its life cycle between the mammal host(s (bloodstream form and the insect vector (procyclic form, with two divergent glucose metabolism amenable to in vitro culture. While the metabolic network of the bloodstream forms has been well characterized, the flux distribution between the different branches of the glucose metabolic network in the procyclic form has not been addressed so far. We present a computational analysis (called Metaboflux that exploits the metabolic topology of the procyclic form, and allows the incorporation of multipurpose experimental data to increase the biological relevance of the model. The alternatives resulting from the structural complexity of networks are formulated as an optimization problem solved by a metaheuristic where experimental data are modeled in a multiobjective function. Our results show that the current metabolic model is in agreement with experimental data and confirms the observed high metabolic flexibility of glucose metabolism. In addition, Metaboflux offers a rational explanation for the high flexibility in the ratio between final products from glucose metabolism, thsat is, flux redistribution through the malic enzyme steps.

  1. The Structure and The Crystallization Behaviour of The CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-Based Mold Flux for High-Al Steels Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinxing; Wen, Guanghua; Huang, Ting; Tang, Ping

    The reaction between [Al] and SiO2 sharply converted the original CaO-SiO2-based flux into CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based flux during the continuous casting of high-Al steels, promoting the crystallization and deteriorating the mold lubrication. Therefore, study on the structure and crystallization behavior of CaO-SiO2-based and CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based flux is important to solve this problem. The structure and crystallization behavior were investigated by Raman spectra and the single hot thermocouple technique. The results show that the [AlO4]5- entered the silicate network (CaO-SiO2-based) and the melt converted into the aluminosilicates structure (CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based), the formation of Al-O-Al linkages and Si-O-Al linkages increased the instability of network structure. From the time temperature transformation diagrams, the strong crystallization tendency and the variety of crystals are mainly the properties of slag film in the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based flux. Hence, the improvement of the structural stability and suppression the crystallization tendency of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-based flux are key to design a high-Al steel mold flux.

  2. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25 x 0.25 deg, Monthly Grid V3 (GSSTFM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  3. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF), at GES DISC V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....

  4. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25 x 0.25 deg, Daily Grid V3 (GSSTF) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....

  5. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Monthly Grid, V3, (GSSTFM), at GES DISC V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  6. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25 x 0.25 deg, Daily Grid F15 V3 (GSSTF_F15) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  7. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25 x 0.25 deg, Daily Grid F13 V3 (GSSTF_F13) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  8. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25 x 0.25 deg, Daily Grid F08 V3 (GSSTF_F08) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  9. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F13) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  10. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_11) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  11. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F14) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  12. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, 0.25 x 0.25 deg, Seasonal Grid V3 (GSSTFSC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  13. Experimental and MCNP5 based evaluation of neutron and gamma flux in the irradiation ports of the University of Utah research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Brooklyn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron and gamma flux environment of various irradiation ports in the University of Utah training, research, isotope production, general atomics reactor were experimentally assessed and fully modeled using the MCNP5 code. The experimental measurements were based on the cadmium ratio in the irradiation ports of the reactor, flux profiling using nickel wire, and gamma dose measurements using thermo luminescence dosimeter. Full 3-D MCNP5 reactor model was developed to obtain the neutron flux distributions of the entire reactor core and to compare it with the measured flux focusing at the irradiation ports. Integration of all these analysis provided the updated comprehensive neutron-gamma flux maps of the existing irradiation facilities of the University of Utah TRIGA reactor.

  14. Applicability/evaluation of flux based representations for linear/higher order elements for heat transfer in structures - Generalized gamma(T)-family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namburu, R. R.; Tamma, K. K.

    1991-01-01

    The applicability and evaluation of a generalized gamma(T) family of flux-based representations are examined for two different thermal analysis formulations for structures and materials which exhibit no phase change effects. The so-called H-theta and theta forms are demonstrated for numerous test models and linear and higher-order elements. The results show that the theta form with flux-based representations is generally superior to traditional approaches.

  15. Numerical determination of vertical water flux based on soil temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbagh, Alain; Cheviron, Bruno; Henine, Hocine; Guérin, Roger; Bechkit, Mohamed-Amine

    2017-07-01

    High sensitivity temperature sensors (0.001 K sensitivity Pt100 thermistors), positioned at intervals of a few centimetres along a vertical soil profile, allow temperature measurements to be made which are sensitive to water flux through the soil. The development of high data storage capabilities now makes it possible to carry out in situ temperature recordings over long periods of time. By directly applying numerical models of convective and conductive heat transfer to experimental data recorded as a function of depth and time, it is possible to calculate Darcy's velocity from the convection transfer term, thus allowing water infiltration/exfiltration through the soil to be determined as a function of time between fixed depths. In the present study we consider temperature data recorded at the Boissy-le-Châtel (Seine et Marne, France) experimental station between April 16th, 2009 and March 8th, 2010, at six different depths and 10-min time intervals. We make use of two numerical finite element models to solve the conduction/convection heat transfer equation and compare their merits. These two models allow us to calculate the corresponding convective flux rate every day using a group of three sensors. The comparison of the two series of calculated values centred at 24 cm shows reliable results for periods longer than 8 days. These results are transformed in infiltration/exfiltration value after determining the soil volumetric heat capacity. The comparison with the rainfall and evaporation data for periods of ten days shows a close accordance with the behaviour of the system governed by rainfall evaporation rate during winter and spring.

  16. An epidemiological assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury in Southern European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.sicard@acri-he.fr [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); De Marco, Alessandra [ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), 76, Lungotevere Thaon de Revel, Rome (Italy); Dalstein-Richier, Laurence [GIEFS (Groupe International d' Etudes des Forêts Sud-européennes), 60, Avenue des Hespérides, 06300 Nice (France); Tagliaferro, Francesco [IPLA (Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l‘Ambiente), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Renou, Camille [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Paoletti, Elena [IPSP-CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche — Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Southern forests are at the highest ozone (O{sub 3}) risk in Europe where ground-level O{sub 3} is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. Exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. A biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. This innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to O{sub 3} was carried out in 54 plots in Southeastern France and Northwestern Italy in 2012 and 2013. Three O{sub 3} indices, namely the accumulated exposure AOT40, and the accumulated stomatal flux with and without an hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) were compared. Stomatal O{sub 3} fluxes were modeled (DO3SE) and correlated to measured forest-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation, crown discoloration and visible foliar O{sub 3} injury. Soil water content, a key variable affecting the severity of visible foliar O{sub 3} injury, was included in DO3SE. Based on flux–effect relationships, we developed species-specific flux-based critical levels (CLef) for forest protection against visible O{sub 3} injury. For O{sub 3} sensitive conifers, CLef of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus cembra (high O{sub 3} sensitivity) and 32 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus halepensis (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) were calculated. For broadleaved species, we obtained a CLef of 25 mmol m{sup −2} for Fagus sylvatica (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) and of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Fraxinus excelsior (high O{sub 3} sensitivity). We showed that an assessment based on PODY and on real plant symptoms is more appropriated than the concentration-based method. Indeed, POD0 was better correlated with visible foliar O{sub 3} injury than AOT40, whereas AOT40 was better correlated with crown discoloration and defoliation (aspecific indicators). To avoid an underestimation of the real O{sub 3} uptake, we recommend the use of POD0 calculated for

  17. Aeronet Solar Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SolRad-Net (Solar Radiation Network) is an established network of ground-based sensors providing high-frequency solar flux measurements in quasi-realtime to the...

  18. Calibration and evaluation of CCD spectroradiometers for ground-based and airborne measurements of spectral actinic flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Birger; Lohse, Insa

    2017-09-01

    The properties and performance of charge-coupled device (CCD) array spectroradiometers for the measurement of atmospheric spectral actinic flux densities (280-650 nm) and photolysis frequencies were investigated. These instruments are widely used in atmospheric research and are suitable for aircraft applications because of high time resolutions and high sensitivities in the UV range. The laboratory characterization included instrument-specific properties like the wavelength accuracy, dark signal, dark noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Spectral sensitivities were derived from measurements with spectral irradiance standards. The calibration procedure is described in detail, and a straightforward method to minimize the influence of stray light on spectral sensitivities is introduced. From instrument dark noise, minimum detection limits ≈ 1 × 1010 cm-2 s-1 nm-1 were derived for spectral actinic flux densities at wavelengths around 300 nm (1 s integration time). As a prerequisite for the determination of stray light under field conditions, atmospheric cutoff wavelengths were defined using radiative transfer calculations as a function of the solar zenith angle (SZA) and total ozone column (TOC). The recommended analysis of field data relies on these cutoff wavelengths and is also described in detail taking data from a research flight on HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft) as an example. An evaluation of field data was performed by ground-based comparisons with a double-monochromator-based, highly sensitive reference spectroradiometer. Spectral actinic flux densities were compared as well as photolysis frequencies j(NO2) and j(O1D), representing UV-A and UV-B ranges, respectively. The spectra expectedly revealed increased daytime levels of stray-light-induced signals and noise below atmospheric cutoff wavelengths. The influence of instrument noise and stray-light-induced noise was found to be insignificant for j(NO2) and rather limited for j(O1D

  19. Generic flux coupling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reimers, Arne; Goldstein, Y.; Bockmayr, A.

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractFlux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algo...

  20. Heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Hae-Jin, E-mail: haejin0216@gmail.com [Changwon National University, 20 Changwondaehak-ro, Changwon, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Go, Byeong-Soo [Changwon National University, 20 Changwondaehak-ro, Changwon, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Jiang, Zhenan [Robinson Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 33436 (New Zealand); Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, 20 Changwondaehak-ro, Changwon, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 20 Changwondaehak-ro, Changwon, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A large-scale HTS generator module has been suggested to avoid issues such as a huge vacuum vessel and higher reliability. • The challenging heat loss analysis of a large-scale HTS generator has successfully been performed, enabling the design of an optimal support structure having a total heat loss of 43 W/400 kW. • The results prove the potential of a large-scale superconducting wind-power generator to operate efficiently, and support further development of the concept. - Abstract: The development of an effective high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generator is currently a research focus; however, the reduction of heat loss of a large-scale HTS generator is a challenge. This study deals with a heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter. The generator module consists of an HTS rotor of the generator and an HTS flux pump exciter. The specifications of the module were described, and the detailed configuration of the module was illustrated. For the heat loss analysis of the module, the excitation loss of the flux pump exciter, eddy current loss of all of the structures in the module, radiation loss, and conduction loss of an HTS coil supporter were assessed using a 3D finite elements method program. In the case of the conduction loss, different types of the supporters were compared to find out the supporter of the lowest conduction loss in the module. The heat loss analysis results of the module were reflected in the design of the generator module and discussed in detail. The results will be applied to the design of large-scale superconducting generators for wind turbines including a cooling system.

  1. FeNi-based flat magnetoimpedance nanostructures with open magnetic flux: New topological approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Dpto. de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Chlenova, A.A. [Ural Federal University, Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Dpto. de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Lodewijk, K.J. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Dpto. de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Department of Material Sciences, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Classic flat MI multilayers consist of top and bottom ferromagnetic parts of equal thickness separated by a conductive lead. In previous studies symmetric MI structures were considered because they provide the highest sensitivity with respect to uniform external magnetic fields. There are a number of applications where non-uniform magnetic fields of complex configurations must be detected. Non-symmetric MI structures can be advantageous in this particular case. We describe our experience in design, fabrication and characterization of symmetric and non-symmetric MI multilayers with open magnetic flux. Non-symmetry of the structures was obtained by the deposition of top and bottom ferromagnetic parts of MI element of different thickness. MI responses of the structures with even or odd configurations of the FeNi layers were also considered. - Highlights: • Classic flat MI multilayer consists of ferromagnetic parts of equal thickness separated by a conductive lead. • In previous studies symmetric MI structures were considered. • Non-symmetric MI structures can be advantageous for applications where non-uniform magnetic fields are detected. • MI responses of the structures with even or odd configuration can be very different.

  2. Methane Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Methane (CH4) flux is the net rate of methane exchange between an ecosystem and the atmosphere. Data of this variable were generated by the USGS LandCarbon project...

  3. Validating Long-term Consistency of MODIS EVI Time Series Using Ground-based Radiation Flux Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A.; Miura, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time series from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) has exceeded a decade in length. It is, thus, desirable to evaluate how well the time series captures inter-annual variability of vegetation phenology. Previous studies calculated a two-band version of the EVI (EVI2) from tower radiation flux data and used it to validate satellite VI time series. Differences in view angle, bandpass, and spatial representativeness between flux and satellite data, however, may lead to landcover-dependent biases when they are compared directly. The objective of this study was to validate long-term consistency of MODIS EVI time series with radiation flux-derived EVI2 time series by comparing phenological metrics derived from these datasets. Ten years of MODIS EVI and ground-based EVI2 (Tower EVI2) were obtained for 10 AmeriFlux sites. Asymmetric double logistic functions were fitted to each of VIs, from which SOSs were derived. After the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization of the derived SOSs, the standard deviation (SD) in horizontal direction (inter-annual variability) was compared with SD in perpendicular direction (differences) to assess consistency of MODIS EVI in tracking vegetation dynamics. Temporal profiles of MODIS EVI showed analogous patterns with those of tower EVI2 across five biomes although site specific differences were seen in the VI amplitude. Cross plots of SOS from MODIS and Tower VIs closely aligned to the 1:1 line (slope > 0.865, R2>0.896). The SD in inter-annual variability (≈ 20 days) was more than twice larger than the SD of SOS difference averaged for five biomes (≈ 9 days). MODIS consistently captured SOSs with 2.7-4.9-day differences at deciduous broad leaf forest and clopland sites, and also agreed well at a wooded savanna site (< 6 days). Grassland sites showed more than a week difference due to a failure in model fitting of the year with subtle VI amplitude and the year with multiple growing seasons

  4. Application of an online ion-chromatography-based instrument for gradient flux measurements of speciated nitrogen and sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Walker, John T.

    2016-06-01

    The dry component of total nitrogen and sulfur atmospheric deposition remains uncertain. The lack of measurements of sufficient chemical speciation and temporal extent make it difficult to develop accurate mass budgets and sufficient process level detail is not available to improve current air-surface exchange models. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of continuous air sampling measurement techniques, resulting with instruments of sufficient sensitivity and temporal resolution to directly quantify air-surface exchange of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. However, their applicability is generally restricted to only one or a few of the compounds within the deposition budget. Here, the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA 2S), a commercially available online ion-chromatography-based analyzer is characterized for the first time as applied for air-surface exchange measurements of HNO3, NH3, NH4+, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-. Analytical accuracy and precision are assessed under field conditions. Chemical concentrations gradient precision are determined at the same sampling site. Flux uncertainty measured by the aerodynamic gradient method is determined for a representative 3-week period in fall 2012 over a grass field. Analytical precision and chemical concentration gradient precision were found to compare favorably in comparison to previous studies. During the 3-week period, percentages of hourly chemical concentration gradients greater than the corresponding chemical concentration gradient detection limit were 86, 42, 82, 73, 74 and 69 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. As expected, percentages were lowest for aerosol species, owing to their relatively low deposition velocities and correspondingly smaller gradients relative to gas phase species. Relative hourly median flux uncertainties were 31, 121, 42, 43, 67 and 56 % for NH3, NH4+, HNO3, NO3-, SO2 and SO42-, respectively. Flux

  5. Feedback system for divertor impurity seeding based on real-time measurements of surface heat flux in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, D.; Burke, W.; Kuang, A. Q.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Wolfe, S.

    2016-02-01

    Mitigation of the intense heat flux to the divertor is one of the outstanding problems in fusion energy. One technique that has shown promise is impurity seeding, i.e., the injection of low-Z gaseous impurities (typically N2 or Ne) to radiate and dissipate the power before it arrives to the divertor target plate. To this end, the Alcator C-Mod team has created a first-of-its-kind feedback system to control the injection of seed gas based on real-time surface heat flux measurements. Surface thermocouples provide real-time measurements of the surface temperature response to the plasma heat flux. The surface temperature measurements are inputted into an analog computer that "solves" the 1-D heat transport equation to deliver accurate, real-time signals of the surface heat flux. The surface heat flux signals are sent to the C-Mod digital plasma control system, which uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm to control the duty cycle demand to a pulse width modulated piezo valve, which in turn controls the injection of gas into the private flux region of the C-Mod divertor. This paper presents the design and implementation of this new feedback system as well as initial results using it to control divertor heat flux.

  6. Development of an artificial neural network to predict critical heat flux based on the look up tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terng, Nilton; Carajilescov, Pedro, E-mail: Nil.terng@gmail.com, E-mail: pedro.carajilescov@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais

    2015-07-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) is one of the principal thermal hydraulic limits of PWR type nuclear reactors. The present work consists in the development of an artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate the CHF, based on Look Up Table CHF data, published by Groeneveld (2006). Three parameters were considered in the development of the ANN: the pressure in the range of 1 to 21 MPa, the mass flux in the range of 50 to 8000 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1} and the thermodynamic quality in the range of - 0.5 to 0.9. The ANN model considered was a multi feed forward net, which have two feedforward ANN. The first one, called main neural network, is used to calculate the result of CHF, and the second, denominated spacenet, is responsible to modify the main neural network according to the input. Comparing the ANN predictions with the data of the Look Up Table, it was observed an average of the ratio of 0.993 and a root mean square error of 13.3%. With the developed ANN, a parametric study of CHF was performed to observe the influence of each parameter in the CHF. It was possible to note that the CHF decreases with the increase of pressure and thermodynamic quality, while CHF increases with the mass flow rate, as expected. However, some erratic trends were also observed which can be attributed to either unknown aspect of the CHF phenomenon or uncertainties in the data. (author)

  7. Influence of condensation on heat flux and pressure measurements in a detonation-based short-duration facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.; Olivier, H.

    2017-10-01

    Detonation-based short-duration facilities provide hot gas with very high stagnation pressures and temperatures. Due to the short testing time, complex and expensive cooling techniques of the facility walls are not needed. Therefore, they are attractive for economical experimental investigations of high-enthalpy flows such as the flow in a rocket engine. However, cold walls can provoke condensation of the hot combustion gas at the walls. This has already been observed in detonation tubes close behind the detonation wave, resulting in a loss of tube performance. A potential influence of condensation at the wall on the experimental results, like wall heat fluxes and static pressures, has not been considered so far. Therefore, in this study the occurrence of condensation and its influence on local heat flux and pressure measurements has been investigated in the nozzle test section of a short-duration rocket-engine simulation facility. This facility provides hot water vapor with stagnation pressures up to 150 bar and stagnation temperatures up to 3800 K. A simple method has been developed to detect liquid water at the wall without direct optical access to the flow. It is shown experimentally and theoretically that condensation has a remarkable influence on local measurement values. The experimental results indicate that for the elimination of these influences the nozzle wall has to be heated to a certain temperature level, which exclusively depends on the local static pressure.

  8. Statistical uncertainty of eddy flux-based estimates of gross ecosystem carbon exchange at Howland Forest, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, S. C.; Braswell, B. H.; Linder, E.; Frolking, S.; Richardson, A. D.; Hollinger, D. Y.

    2006-04-01

    We present an uncertainty analysis of gross ecosystem carbon exchange (GEE) estimates derived from 7 years of continuous eddy covariance measurements of forest-atmosphere CO2 fluxes at Howland Forest, Maine, USA. These data, which have high temporal resolution, can be used to validate process modeling analyses, remote sensing assessments, and field surveys. However, separation of tower-based net ecosystem exchange (NEE) into its components (respiration losses and photosynthetic uptake) requires at least one application of a model, which is usually a regression model fitted to nighttime data and extrapolated for all daytime intervals. In addition, the existence of a significant amount of missing data in eddy flux time series requires a model for daytime NEE as well. Statistical approaches for analytically specifying prediction intervals associated with a regression require, among other things, constant variance of the data, normally distributed residuals, and linearizable regression models. Because the NEE data do not conform to these criteria, we used a Monte Carlo approach (bootstrapping) to quantify the statistical uncertainty of GEE estimates and present this uncertainty in the form of 90% prediction limits. We explore two examples of regression models for modeling respiration and daytime NEE: (1) a simple, physiologically based model from the literature and (2) a nonlinear regression model based on an artificial neural network. We find that uncertainty at the half-hourly timescale is generally on the order of the observations themselves (i.e., ˜100%) but is much less at annual timescales (˜10%). On the other hand, this small absolute uncertainty is commensurate with the interannual variability in estimated GEE. The largest uncertainty is associated with choice of model type, which raises basic questions about the relative roles of models and data.

  9. Weathering fluxes to the Gulf of Mexico from the Pliocene to Holocene based on radiogenic isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portier, A. M.; Martin, E. E.; Hemming, S. R.; Thierens, M. M.; Raymo, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical weathering of the continents plays a key role in the global carbon cycle and delivers solutes to the ocean. Past studies, documented using radiogenic isotopes of detrital and seawater samples, show the intensity of weathering varies with climate over a range of time scales.. We analyzed Pb and Nd isotopic values of seawater extracted from dispersed Fe-Mn oxides, Gulf of Mexico ODP Site 625B to evaluate long term variations in weathering fluxes for three time slices: the Pliocene/early Pleistocene, Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT), and late Pleistocene/Holocene. We also examine short term glacial/interglacial variations. Little variation is seen in Nd isotopes of detrital fractions with age, suggesting little change in the average age of material delivered to the Gulf. Seawater Nd values become less radiogenic over the Pleistocene, consistent with observed changes in Caribbean seawater. Pb isotopes of silt fractions are also relatively constant through time, but clay fractions are more radiogenic at the MPT and dispersed Fe-Mn oxides trend to more radiogenic values in the late Pleistocene. Consequently, the Pb isotopes of dispersed Fe-Mn oxides tend to be less radiogenic than the detrital fractions in samples older than 2000 ka and more radiogenic than the detrital fractions, particularly clays, at the MPT. This may reflect greater incongruent silicate weathering during the MPT, a change in weathering conditions that could be consistent with the Regolith Hypothesis. Over glacial/interglacial timescales, dispersed Fe-Mn oxides Pb isotopes become more radiogenic than detrital fractions, and clay fractions become more radiogenic than silt fractions, during glacial periods. However, all fractions have similar values during interglacials. This pattern is distinct from previous studies that found enhanced incongruent silicate weathering during warm intervals, but is consistent with recent work finding a correlation with carbonate content, whereby low carbonate

  10. Progress on the realization of a new GEM based neutron diagnostic concept for high flux neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croci, G.; Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano, Italy and INFN, Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy and INFN, Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Cazzaniga, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Tollin, M. [Consorzio RFX - Associazione Euratom-Enea sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy); Grosso, G.; Muraro, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Murtas, F.; Claps, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy)

    2014-08-21

    Fusion reactors will need high flux neutron detectors to diagnose the deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium. A candidate detection technique is the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). New GEM based detectors are being developed for application to a neutral deuterium beam test facility. The proposed detection system is called Close-contact Neutron Emission Surface Mapping (CNESM). The diagnostic aims at providing the map of the neutron emission due to interaction of the deuterium beam with the deuterons implanted in the beam dump surface. This is done by placing a detector in close contact, right behind the dump. CNESM uses nGEM detectors, i.e. GEM detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron-proton converter foil. After the realization and test of several small area prototypes, a full size prototype has been realized and tested with laboratory sources. Test on neutron beams are foreseen for the next months.

  11. Improvement of the dual-heat-flux method for deep body temperature measurement based on a finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Nemoto, Tetsu; Tamura, Toshiyo

    2013-01-01

    Based on finite element method, this study was dedicated to improve the performance of the newly proposed dual-heat-flux method (DHF) for noninvasive deep body temperature (DBT) measurement. This study focused mainly on the dimensions, e.g., the height and radius, of the probe of DHF to improve its performance, in terms of the measurement depth beneath the skin. This paper was also engaged in confirmation of the improved probe's performance on a physiological significant temperature range, 35 to 40 °C. The results showed that a probe with lower in height and larger in radius would have better performance. It suggests that we should reduce the height of the probe to half of the original and keep the radius unchanged for a better performance.

  12. Structure and phases in nickel-base self-fluxing alloy coating containing high chromium and boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, F.; Era, H.; Kishitake, K.

    2000-03-01

    The structure of a nickel-base, self-fluxing alloy coating, containing chromium and boron thermal sprayed and fused, was investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A lumpy M6C carbide, a rodlike M3B2 boride of tetragonal structure, a rodlike M7C3 carbide of hexagonal structure, and a Ni-Ni3B eutectic phase formed in the coating after fusing. Metals of M6C, M3B2, and M7C3 phases are composed of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel; chromium and molybdenum; and mainly chromium, respectively. The nickel phase in the coating has the L12 type superlattice structure.

  13. Dynamic modeling and performance evaluation of axial flux PMSG based wind turbine system with MPPT control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Behjat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work develops dynamic model of a gearless small scale wind power generation system based on a direct driven single sided outer rotor AFPMSG with coreless armature winding. Dynamic modeling of the AFPMSG based wind turbine requires machine parameters. To this end, a 3D FEM model of the generator is developed and from magnetostatic and transient analysis of the FEM model, machine parameters are calculated and utilized in dynamic modeling of the system. A maximum power point tracking (MPPT-based FOC control approach is used to obtain maximum power from the variable wind speed. The simulation results show the proper performance of the developed dynamic model of the AFPMSG, control approach and power generation system.

  14. Enhanced control of DFIG wind turbine based on stator flux decay compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Rongwu; Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    period and its output voltage amplitude is half of the stator voltage variation, during the grid voltage drop and recovery, respectively. As a consequence, the DVR can be rated for lower power saving cost. The simulation results based on Matlab/Simulink using a 2 MW DFIG and the experimental results...... is significantly reduced during grid faults. The experimental results based on the 7.5 kW DFIG setup is carried to validate the correctness and feasibility of the proposed strategy. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) can be one of the applications. With the proposed strategy, the DVR only works in a half fundamental...

  15. Fast in situ airborne and ground-based flux measurement of ammonia using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, J. B.; Yu, X.; Hubbe, J.; Kluzek, C. D.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Fischer, M. L.; Reichl, K.; Gupta, M.

    2012-12-01

    A pair of new ammonia (NH3) spectrometers were developed based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy. These ammonia gas analyzers consist of an optical cell, a quantum-cascade laser, a HgCdTe detector, gas sampling system, electronics for control and data acquisition, and data-analysis software. The NH3 mixing ratio is determined from high-resolution NH3 absorption line shapes by tuning the laser wavelength over the fundamental vibration band near 9.6 μm. Excellent linearity is obtained in a wide range (0- 500 ppb) with a precision of 75 ppt (1σ in 1 second). The analyzers' 1/e response time to step changes in ammonia concentration are 2.4 Hz and 8.1 Hz for the airborne and flux instruments, respectively. Feasibility was demonstrated in airborne test flights in the troposphere on board of the Department of Energy (DOE) Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft. Two research flights were conducted over Sunnyside, Washington. In the first test flight, the ammonia gas sensor was used to identify signatures of feedstock from local dairy farms with high vertical spatial resolution under low wind and stable atmospheric conditions. In the second flight, the NH3 spectrometer showed high sensitivity in capturing feedstock emission signals under windy and less stable conditions. Mixing ratios aloft were measured between 0.75 ppb above the boundary layer and 100 ppb over large feedlots. Eddy covariance estimates of NH3 flux from a manure slurry amendment were performed in a pasture near Two Rock, California from May 18, 2012 to July 5, 2012. Measurement spanned pasture conditions from forage growth, cut-to-ground, manure slurry amendment (estimated to be 95 ± 33% kg NH3-N ha-1) and re-growth. An exponential decay fit to the NH3 flux data after slurry amendment provides an estimate of cumulative emission of 6.6 ± 0.5 kg NH3-N ha-1 (or 7 ± 0.24% of the total applied nitrogen) as a result of the slurry amendment. These results demonstrate that the new ammonia spectrometers

  16. A Novel Method to Magnetic Flux Linkage Optimization of Direct-Driven Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based on Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to magnetic flux linkage optimization of a direct-driven surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (D-SPMSG. A new compact representation of the D-SPMSG nonlinear dynamic differential equations to reduce system parameters is established. Furthermore, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of new D-SPMSG equations in the process of varying magnetic flux linkage are considered, which are illustrated by Lyapunov exponent spectrums, phase orbits, Poincaré maps, time waveforms and bifurcation diagrams, and the magnetic flux linkage stable region of D-SPMSG is acquired concurrently. Based on the above modeling and analyses, a novel method of magnetic flux linkage optimization is presented. In addition, a 2 MW D-SPMSG 2D/3D model is designed by ANSYS software according to the practical design requirements. Finally, five cases of D-SPMSG models with different magnetic flux linkages are simulated by using the finite element analysis (FEA method. The nephograms of magnetic flux density are agreement with theoretical analysis, which both confirm the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN): a statistically based estimate of global surface turbulent fluxes and gross primary productivity using solar-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed Alemohammad, Seyed; Fang, Bin; Konings, Alexandra G.; Aires, Filipe; Green, Julia K.; Kolassa, Jana; Miralles, Diego; Prigent, Catherine; Gentine, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    A new global estimate of surface turbulent fluxes, latent heat flux (LE) and sensible heat flux (H), and gross primary production (GPP) is developed using a machine learning approach informed by novel remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and other radiative and meteorological variables. This is the first study to jointly retrieve LE, H, and GPP using SIF observations. The approach uses an artificial neural network (ANN) with a target dataset generated from three independent data sources, weighted based on a triple collocation (TC) algorithm. The new retrieval, named Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN), provides estimates of LE, H, and GPP from 2007 to 2015 at 1° × 1° spatial resolution and at monthly time resolution. The quality of ANN training is assessed using the target data, and the WECANN retrievals are evaluated using eddy covariance tower estimates from the FLUXNET network across various climates and conditions. When compared to eddy covariance estimates, WECANN typically outperforms other products, particularly for sensible and latent heat fluxes. Analyzing WECANN retrievals across three extreme drought and heat wave events demonstrates the capability of the retrievals to capture the extent of these events. Uncertainty estimates of the retrievals are analyzed and the interannual variability in average global and regional fluxes shows the impact of distinct climatic events - such as the 2015 El Niño - on surface turbulent fluxes and GPP.

  18. Calibration and evaluation of CCD spectroradiometers for ground-based and airborne measurements of spectral actinic flux densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bohn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The properties and performance of charge-coupled device (CCD array spectroradiometers for the measurement of atmospheric spectral actinic flux densities (280–650 nm and photolysis frequencies were investigated. These instruments are widely used in atmospheric research and are suitable for aircraft applications because of high time resolutions and high sensitivities in the UV range. The laboratory characterization included instrument-specific properties like the wavelength accuracy, dark signal, dark noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. Spectral sensitivities were derived from measurements with spectral irradiance standards. The calibration procedure is described in detail, and a straightforward method to minimize the influence of stray light on spectral sensitivities is introduced. From instrument dark noise, minimum detection limits  ≈  1  ×  1010 cm−2 s−1 nm−1 were derived for spectral actinic flux densities at wavelengths around 300 nm (1 s integration time. As a prerequisite for the determination of stray light under field conditions, atmospheric cutoff wavelengths were defined using radiative transfer calculations as a function of the solar zenith angle (SZA and total ozone column (TOC. The recommended analysis of field data relies on these cutoff wavelengths and is also described in detail taking data from a research flight on HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft as an example. An evaluation of field data was performed by ground-based comparisons with a double-monochromator-based, highly sensitive reference spectroradiometer. Spectral actinic flux densities were compared as well as photolysis frequencies j(NO2 and j(O1D, representing UV-A and UV-B ranges, respectively. The spectra expectedly revealed increased daytime levels of stray-light-induced signals and noise below atmospheric cutoff wavelengths. The influence of instrument noise and stray-light-induced noise was found to be

  19. Estimation of surface energy fluxes in the Arctic tundra using the remote sensing thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jordi; Prakash, Anupma; Anderson, Martha C.; Kustas, William P.; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Kane, Douglas L.

    2017-03-01

    The Arctic has become generally a warmer place over the past decades leading to earlier snow melt, permafrost degradation and changing plant communities. Increases in precipitation and local evaporation in the Arctic, known as the acceleration components of the hydrologic cycle, coupled with land cover changes, have resulted in significant changes in the regional surface energy budget. Quantifying spatiotemporal trends in surface energy flux partitioning is key to forecasting ecological responses to changing climate conditions in the Arctic. An extensive local evaluation of the Two-Source Energy Balance model (TSEB) - a remote-sensing-based model using thermal infrared retrievals of land surface temperature - was performed using tower measurements collected over different tundra types in Alaska in all sky conditions over the full growing season from 2008 to 2012. Based on comparisons with flux tower observations, refinements in the original TSEB net radiation, soil heat flux and canopy transpiration parameterizations were identified for Arctic tundra. In particular, a revised method for estimating soil heat flux based on relationships with soil temperature was developed, resulting in significantly improved performance. These refinements result in mean turbulent flux errors generally less than 50 W m-2 at half-hourly time steps, similar to errors typically reported in surface energy balance modeling studies conducted in more temperate climatic regimes. The MODIS leaf area index (LAI) remote sensing product proved to be useful for estimating energy fluxes in Arctic tundra in the absence of field data on the local biomass amount. Model refinements found in this work at the local scale build toward a regional implementation of the TSEB model over Arctic tundra ecosystems, using thermal satellite remote sensing to assess response of surface fluxes to changing vegetation and climate conditions.

  20. Finite-Element Model-Based Design Synthesis of Axial Flux PMBLDC Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasil, Muhammed; Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses design synthesis of a permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) machine using a finite element (FE) model. This work differentiates itself from the past studies by following a synthesis approach, in which many designs that satisfy performance criteria are considered instead...... of a unique solution. The designer can later select a design, based on comparing parameters of the designs, which are critical to the application that the motor will be used. The presented approach makes it easier to define constraints for a design synthesis problem. A detailed description of the setting up...... is demonstrated by designing a segmented axial torus PMBLDC motor for an electric two-wheeler....

  1. Comparison of two closed-path cavity-based spectrometers for measuring air–water CO2 and CH4 fluxes by eddy covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years several commercialised closed-path cavity-based spectroscopic instruments designed for eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and water vapour (H2O have become available. Here we compare the performance of two leading models – the Picarro G2311-f and the Los Gatos Research (LGR Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (FGGA at a coastal site. Both instruments can compute dry mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4 based on concurrently measured H2O, temperature, and pressure. Additionally, we used a high throughput Nafion dryer to physically remove H2O from the Picarro airstream. Observed air–sea CO2 and CH4 fluxes from these two analysers, averaging about 12 and 0.12 mmol m−2 day−1 respectively, agree within the measurement uncertainties. For the purpose of quantifying dry CO2 and CH4 fluxes downstream of a long inlet, the numerical H2O corrections appear to be reasonably effective and lead to results that are comparable to physical removal of H2O with a Nafion dryer in the mean. We estimate the high-frequency attenuation of fluxes in our closed-path set-up, which was relatively small ( ≤  10 % for CO2 and CH4 but very large for the more polar H2O. The Picarro showed significantly lower noise and flux detection limits than the LGR. The hourly flux detection limit for the Picarro was about 2 mmol m−2 day−1 for CO2 and 0.02 mmol m−2 day−1 for CH4. For the LGR these detection limits were about 8 and 0.05 mmol m−2 day−1. Using global maps of monthly mean air–sea CO2 flux as reference, we estimate that the Picarro and LGR can resolve hourly CO2 fluxes from roughly 40 and 4 % of the world's oceans respectively. Averaging over longer timescales would be required in regions with smaller fluxes. Hourly flux detection limits of CH4 from both instruments are generally higher than the expected emissions from the open ocean, though the signal to noise of this measurement may

  2. Comparison of two closed-path cavity-based spectrometers for measuring air-water CO2 and CH4 fluxes by eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Prytherch, John; Kozlova, Elena; Yelland, Margaret J.; Parenkat Mony, Deepulal; Bell, Thomas G.

    2016-11-01

    In recent years several commercialised closed-path cavity-based spectroscopic instruments designed for eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapour (H2O) have become available. Here we compare the performance of two leading models - the Picarro G2311-f and the Los Gatos Research (LGR) Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (FGGA) at a coastal site. Both instruments can compute dry mixing ratios of CO2 and CH4 based on concurrently measured H2O, temperature, and pressure. Additionally, we used a high throughput Nafion dryer to physically remove H2O from the Picarro airstream. Observed air-sea CO2 and CH4 fluxes from these two analysers, averaging about 12 and 0.12 mmol m-2 day-1 respectively, agree within the measurement uncertainties. For the purpose of quantifying dry CO2 and CH4 fluxes downstream of a long inlet, the numerical H2O corrections appear to be reasonably effective and lead to results that are comparable to physical removal of H2O with a Nafion dryer in the mean. We estimate the high-frequency attenuation of fluxes in our closed-path set-up, which was relatively small ( ≤ 10 %) for CO2 and CH4 but very large for the more polar H2O. The Picarro showed significantly lower noise and flux detection limits than the LGR. The hourly flux detection limit for the Picarro was about 2 mmol m-2 day-1 for CO2 and 0.02 mmol m-2 day-1 for CH4. For the LGR these detection limits were about 8 and 0.05 mmol m-2 day-1. Using global maps of monthly mean air-sea CO2 flux as reference, we estimate that the Picarro and LGR can resolve hourly CO2 fluxes from roughly 40 and 4 % of the world's oceans respectively. Averaging over longer timescales would be required in regions with smaller fluxes. Hourly flux detection limits of CH4 from both instruments are generally higher than the expected emissions from the open ocean, though the signal to noise of this measurement may improve closer to the coast.

  3. Generic flux coupling analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Reimers (Arne); Y. Goldstein; A. Bockmayr

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractFlux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the

  4. Power handling of a liquid-metal based CPS structure under high steady-state heat and particle fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Morgan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metal infused capillary porous structures (CPSs are considered as a potential divertor solution for DEMO due to their potential power handling capability and resilience to long term damage. In this work the power handling and performance of such Sn-based CPS systems is assessed both experimentally and via modelling. A Sn-CPS target was exposed to heat fluxes of up to 18.1 MW m−2 in He plasma in the Pilot-PSI linear device. Post-mortem the target showed no damage to nor any surface exposure of the underlying W-CPS felt. The small pore size (∼40µm employed resulted in no droplet formation from the target in agreement with calculated Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmoholtz instability thresholds. The temperature response of the Sn-target was used to determine the thermal conductivity of the mixed Sn-CPS material using COMSOL modelling. These values were then used via further finite element analysis to extrapolate to DEMO relevant monoblock designs and estimate the maximum power handling achievable based on estimated temperature windows for all component elements of the design. For an optimized design a heat-load of up to 20 MW m−2 may be received while the use of CPS also offers other potential design advantages such as the removal of interlayer requirements.

  5. Development of an improved wearable device for core body temperature monitoring based on the dual heat flux principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jingjie; Zhou, Congcong; He, Cheng; Li, Yuan; Ye, Xuesong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a miniaturized wearable core body temperature (CBT) monitoring system based on the dual heat flux (DHF) principle was developed. By interspersing calcium carbonate powder in PolyDimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a reformative heat transfer medium was produced to reduce the thermal equilibrium time. Besides, a least mean square (LMS) algorithm based active noise cancellation (ANC) method was adopted to diminish the impact of ambient temperature fluctuations. Theoretical analyses, finite element simulation, experiments on a hot plate and human volunteers were performed. The results showed that the proposed system had the advantages of small size, reduced initial time (~23.5 min), and good immunity to fluctuations of the air temperature. For the range of 37-41 °C on the hot plate, the error compared with a Fluke high accuracy thermometer was 0.08  ±  0.20 °C. In the human experiments, the measured temperature in the rest trial (34 subjects) had a difference of 0.13  ±  0.22 °C compared with sublingual temperature, while a significant increase of 1.36  ±  0.44 °C from rest to jogging was found in the exercise trial (30 subjects). This system has the potential for reliable continuous CBT measurement in rest and can reflect CBT variations during exercise.

  6. Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from legumes based rotations under conventional and organic practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Fernández, Juan A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study we assessed the effect of two different rotations based on winter (faba bean) or summer (cowpea) legumes on the direct emissions of CO2 and CH4. Faba bean was rotated with the summer melon crop (Cucumis melo) while cowpea was rotated with the winter broccoli crop (Brassica oleracea). We also assessed if different legume cultivars and management practices (conventional and organic) significantly influenced gas emissions. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2, during two complete cycles. Gas samples were taken in different times (0, 30 and 60 minutes) once a week using the static gas chamber technique for each crop. Results showed that cumulative CO2 emissions in broccoli decreased after the rotation with both cowpea cultivars under conventional management practices. Faba bean cultivars and management practices had no influence on cumulative CO2 emissions in melon crop. Cumulative CH4 emissions in broccoli crop were lowest after the rotation with Grey-eyed pea than Black-eyed pea cultivar, under both management practices. However, faba bean cultivars and management practices had no influence on cumulative CH4 emissions in melon crop. Cumulative CH4 emissions in melon crop were highest than in the rest of crops. Cowpea cultivar and management practice influenced cumulative CH4 and CO2 emissions of broccoli crop, respectively. Faba bean cultivar and management practice had no effect on cumulative CH4 and CO2 emissions of melon crop. Acknowledgements: This research was financed by the FP7 European Project Eurolegume (FP7-KBBE-613781).

  7. Turbidity-based methods for continuous estimates of suspended sediment, particulate carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Alsuliman, Malek; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A good evaluation of surface water pollution is mainly limited by the monitoring strategy and sampling frequencies. Carbon and nutrient monitoring at finer time intervals is still very difficult and expensive. Therefore, establishing relationships between grab sampling and continuous commonly available data can be considered as a favorable solution to turn this problem. The aim of this study was to develop a method to continuously estimate instream sediment, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations based on high resolution measurement of turbidity, discharge, electrical conductivity and oxygen concentration. To achieve our gaols, high frequency data (30 min interval) were generated during 3 years at the UFZ- TERENO platform Bode (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories). Samples were analysed for suspended sediment concentration (SSC), particulate organic carbon (POC), total organic carbon (TOC), particulate nitrogen (PN) and particulate phosphorus (PP) using simple and multiple linear regression models. For this study, measurements from six sub-catchments with different geographical characteristics were considered. The available data sets were divided into two years (2010-2012) calibration and one year (2012-2013) validation periods. Results revealed that the turbidity was the most predictor variable in all models, particularly for suspended sediment concentrations. For all gauging stations, the SSC could be explained using simple linear regression model by the turbidity with a lowest correlation coefficient of 0.93. The non-uniqueness of the simple linear equation obtained between the stations reflected the sensitivity of the turbidity signal to the differences in land use and agriculture management between the sub-catchments. Best predictions of POC, TOC, PP and PN were achieved when multiple linear regression models were used including discharge, electrical conductivity and oxygen concentrations as predictor variables in addition to turbidity (lowest

  8. High-flux ionic diodes, ionic transistors and ionic amplifiers based on external ion concentration polarization by an ion exchange membrane: a new scalable ionic circuit platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gongchen; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2016-04-07

    A microfluidic ion exchange membrane hybrid chip is fabricated using polymer-based, lithography-free methods to achieve ionic diode, transistor and amplifier functionalities with the same four-terminal design. The high ionic flux (>100 μA) feature of the chip can enable a scalable integrated ionic circuit platform for micro-total-analytical systems.

  9. High-flux ionic diodes, ionic transistors and ionic amplifiers based on external ion concentration polarization by an ion exchange membrane: a new scalable ionic circuit platform†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gongchen; Senapati, Satyajyoti

    2016-01-01

    A microfluidic-ion exchange membrane hybrid chip is fabricated by polymer-based, lithography-free methods to achieve ionic diode, transistor and amplifier functionalities with the same four-terminal design. The high ionic flux (> 100 μA) feature of the chip can enable a scalable integrated ionic circuit platform for micro-total-analytical systems. PMID:26960551

  10. Improved interface growth and enhanced flux pinning in YBCO films deposited on an advanced IBAD-MgO based template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Z.; Zhao, Y.; Wu, X.; Malmivirta, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Paturi, P.

    2018-02-01

    The growth mechanism is studied from the flux pinning point of view in small-scale YBa2Cu3O6+x (YBCO) thin films deposited on a polycrystalline hastelloy with advanced IBAD-MgO based buffer layer architecture. When compared the situation with YBCO films grown on single crystal substrates, the most critical issues that affect the suitable defect formation and thus the optimal vortex pinning landscape, have been studied as a function of the growth temperature and the film thickness evolution. We can conclude that the best critical current property in a wide applied magnetic field range is observed in films grown at relatively low temperature and having intermediate thickness. These phenomena are linked to the combination of the improved interface growth, to the film thickness related crystalline relaxation and to the formation of linear array of edge dislocations that forms the low-angle grain boundaries through the entire film thickness and thus improve the vortex pinning properties. Hence, the optimized buffer layer structure proved to be particularly suitable for new coated conductor solutions.

  11. Carbon export fluxes in the Southern Ocean: results from inverse modeling and comparison with satellite based estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Schlitzer, Reiner

    2002-01-01

    The usage of dissolved nutrients and carbon for photosynthesis in the euphotic zone and the subsequent downward transport of particulate and dissolved organic material strongly affect the carbon concentrations in surface water and thus the air-sea exchange of CO2. Efforts to quantify the downward carbon flux for the whole ocean or on basin-scales are hampered by the sparseness of direct productivity or flux measurements. Here, a global ocean circulation, biogeochemical model is used to determ...

  12. Genome-Based Metabolic Mapping and 13C Flux Analysis Reveal Systematic Properties of an Oleaginous Microalga Chlorella protothecoides1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    Integrated and genome-based flux balance analysis, metabolomics, and 13C-label profiling of phototrophic and heterotrophic metabolism in Chlorella protothecoides, an oleaginous green alga for biofuel. The green alga Chlorella protothecoides, capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic growth with rapid lipid synthesis, is a promising candidate for biofuel production. Based on the newly available genome knowledge of the alga, we reconstructed the compartmentalized metabolic network consisting of 272 metabolic reactions, 270 enzymes, and 461 encoding genes and simulated the growth in different cultivation conditions with flux balance analysis. Phenotype-phase plane analysis shows conditions achieving theoretical maximum of the biomass and corresponding fatty acid-producing rate for phototrophic cells (the ratio of photon uptake rate to CO2 uptake rate equals 8.4) and heterotrophic ones (the glucose uptake rate to O2 consumption rate reaches 2.4), respectively. Isotope-assisted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry reveals higher metabolite concentrations in the glycolytic pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in heterotrophic cells compared with autotrophic cells. We also observed enhanced levels of ATP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), reduced, acetyl-Coenzyme A, and malonyl-Coenzyme A in heterotrophic cells consistently, consistent with a strong activity of lipid synthesis. To profile the flux map in experimental conditions, we applied nonstationary 13C metabolic flux analysis as a complementing strategy to flux balance analysis. The result reveals negligible photorespiratory fluxes and a metabolically low active tricarboxylic acid cycle in phototrophic C. protothecoides. In comparison, high throughput of amphibolic reactions and the tricarboxylic acid cycle with no glyoxylate shunt activities were measured for heterotrophic cells. Taken together, the metabolic network modeling assisted by experimental metabolomics and 13C labeling

  13. Assessing the British Isles CH4 flux using aircraft and ground-based sampling: a case study on 12 May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    Aircraft and ground-based sampling of atmospheric greenhouse gas composition over the British Isles was conducted between 2014 and 2016 as part of the Greenhouse gAs UK and Global Emissions (GAUGE) project. We report a case study focussing on two research aircraft flights conducted on 12 May 2015 to sample inflow and outflow across the British Isles. We have employed the NAME Lagrangian dispersion model to simulate CH4 mole fraction enhancements corresponding to aircraft and ground-based sample times and locations, using CH4 surface fluxes derived from a composite flux inventory, which included both anthropogenic and natural sources. For each sampling location, variations in the baseline CH4 mole fraction were derived using the MOZART global chemical transport model, and added to the NAME enhancements to produce a dataset of modelled CH4 mole fractions which can be compared to the measurements. Using a multiple variable regression technique, we derive CH4 fluxes for the British Isles region from both aircraft and ground-based datasets. We discuss the applicability of our approach for both datasets, and conclude that in this case the assumptions inherent in our method are much better satisfied for the aircraft data than for the ground-based data. Using the aircraft data we derive a possible range of scale factors for the prior inventory flux of 0.53 - 0.97, with a central estimate of 0.82 based on our assessment of the most likely apportionment of model uncertainty. This leads to a posterior estimate of the British Isles CH4 flux of 67 kg s-1 - 121 kg s-1, with a central value of 103 kg s-1.

  14. From elementary flux modes to elementary flux vectors: Metabolic pathway analysis with arbitrary linear flux constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamt, Steffen; Gerstl, Matthias P.; Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Müller, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Elementary flux modes (EFMs) emerged as a formal concept to describe metabolic pathways and have become an established tool for constraint-based modeling and metabolic network analysis. EFMs are characteristic (support-minimal) vectors of the flux cone that contains all feasible steady-state flux vectors of a given metabolic network. EFMs account for (homogeneous) linear constraints arising from reaction irreversibilities and the assumption of steady state; however, other (inhomogeneous) linear constraints, such as minimal and maximal reaction rates frequently used by other constraint-based techniques (such as flux balance analysis [FBA]), cannot be directly integrated. These additional constraints further restrict the space of feasible flux vectors and turn the flux cone into a general flux polyhedron in which the concept of EFMs is not directly applicable anymore. For this reason, there has been a conceptual gap between EFM-based (pathway) analysis methods and linear optimization (FBA) techniques, as they operate on different geometric objects. One approach to overcome these limitations was proposed ten years ago and is based on the concept of elementary flux vectors (EFVs). Only recently has the community started to recognize the potential of EFVs for metabolic network analysis. In fact, EFVs exactly represent the conceptual development required to generalize the idea of EFMs from flux cones to flux polyhedra. This work aims to present a concise theoretical and practical introduction to EFVs that is accessible to a broad audience. We highlight the close relationship between EFMs and EFVs and demonstrate that almost all applications of EFMs (in flux cones) are possible for EFVs (in flux polyhedra) as well. In fact, certain properties can only be studied with EFVs. Thus, we conclude that EFVs provide a powerful and unifying framework for constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. PMID:28406903

  15. INNOVATIVE HEAT FLUX SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Lukyanov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study.We present a method for heat flux measuring with the use of polarization properties of ferroelectric ceramics. Heat flux innovative sensor is developed on the basis of the proposed method. Its experimental verification is carried out. Method. The measurements are based on maintaining a balance between the processes caused by thermal energy and the energy of the electric field in the ferroelectric ceramics. Main Results. The testing of the proposed heat flux sensor has been organized in two stages. At the first stage the primary calibration has been performed by calibrated sensors ITP MG4.03/x(y “Potok”. At the second stage the testing of heat flux sensor has been carried out for calculating the quantity of heat. The comparison of the results to the readings of serial heat meters VKT-7 and STK-15 has been performed. Experiments have shown that the polarization properties of the ferroelectric ceramics can be used to measure the heat flow. Practical Relevance. The proposed sensor can be recommended as an apartment-level heat meter. The calibration of the proposed heat flux sensor with more accurate measurement tools gives the possibility to include it on the State Register of Measuring Instruments.

  16. Adaptive Rule-Based Piece-Wise Regression Models for Estimating Regional Net Ecosystem Exchange in Grassland and Shrubland Ecoregions Using Regional and Flux Tower Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosnight, E. A.; Wylie, B. K.; Zhang, L.

    2005-12-01

    The scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle requires quantitative documentation, monitoring, and projection of carbon stocks and fluxes at various scales across the landscape. The challenge is to develop predictive models using carbon flux towers at site-specific locations, and to extrapolate these models to landscapes and regions. We use remote sensing and national climate and soil databases within data-driven models to estimate carbon fluxes. To accommodate the study of coupled human-environmental relationships and their influences on carbon dynamics, a coherent suite of models is being developed for agricultural, wooded and wetland ecosystems within predominantly grassland and shrubland ecoregions. In previous work, we have mapped carbon fluxes in terms of Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Production (GPP), and Respiration (Re) in the Northern Great Plains, the Sagebrush Steppes and the Kazakh Steppes at 1-km resolution and 10-day time steps. We now extend this work beyond fairly uniform ecological conditions to accommodate more complex spatial mixtures of ecological types within ecoregions. The models need to adapt to both the complexity of the environmental variables and the land cover patterns. Our rule-based models adapt to local climatic, soil and phenology through the definition of piece-wise regression models. A suite of such models is needed to capture the phenologic and climatic variability across the wide range of shrubland and grassland ecoregions that exist. The result is a multi-year time series of 1-km maps of carbon flux that are suitable for trend and anomaly analysis. We seek sensitive models that permit the effective study of localized carbon dynamics while avoiding over-fitting the available carbon flux tower measurement data. Two critical components of the project are (1) sensitivity and cross-validation studies to evaluate the internal consistencies of the models and (2) intercomparison studies to help isolate

  17. The Net Carbon Flux due to Deforestation and Forest Re-Growth in the Brazilian Amazon: Analysis using a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, A. I.; Little, W. S.; Houghton, R. A.; Scott, N. A.; White, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a process-based model of forest growth, carbon cycling, and land cover dynamics named CARLUC (for CARbon and Land Use Change) to estimate the size of terrestrial carbon pools in terra firme (non-flooded) forests across the Brazilian Legal Amazon and the net flux of carbon resulting from forest disturbance and forest recovery from disturbance. Our goal in building the model was to construct a relatively simple ecosystem model that would respond to soil and climatic heterogeneity that allows us to study of the impact of Amazonian deforestation, selective logging, and accidental fire on the global carbon cycle. This paper focuses on the net flux caused by deforestation and forest re-growth over the period from 1970-1998. We calculate that the net flux to the atmosphere during this period reached a maximum of approx. 0.35 PgC/yr (1PgC = 1 x 10(exp I5) gC) in 1990, with a cumulative release of approx. 7 PgC from 1970- 1998. The net flux is higher than predicted by an earlier study by a total of 1 PgC over the period 1989-1 998 mainly because CARLUC predicts relatively high mature forest carbon storage compared to the datasets used in the earlier study. Incorporating the dynamics of litter and soil carbon pools into the model increases the cumulative net flux by approx. 1 PgC from 1970-1998, while different assumptions about land cover dynamics only caused small changes. The uncertainty of the net flux, calculated with a Monte-Carlo approach, is roughly 35% of the mean value (1 SD).

  18. Control of grid integrated voltage source converters under unbalanced conditions: development of an on-line frequency-adaptive virtual flux-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suul, Jon Are

    2012-03-15

    Three-Phase Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are finding widespread applications in grid integrated power conversion systems. The control systems of such VSCs are in an increasing number of these applications required to operate during voltage disturbances and unbalanced conditions. Control systems designed for grid side voltagesensor-less operation are at the same time becoming attractive due to the continuous drive for cost reduction and increased reliability of VSCs, but are not commonly applied for operation during unbalanced conditions. Methods for voltage-sensor-less grid synchronization and control of VSCs under unbalanced grid voltage conditions will therefore be the main focus of this Thesis. Estimation methods based on the concept of Virtual Flux, considering the integral of the converter voltage in analogy to the flux of an electric machine, are among the simplest and most well known techniques for achieving voltage-sensor-less grid synchronization. Most of the established techniques for Virtual Flux estimation are, however, either sensitive to grid frequency variations or they are not easily adaptable for operation under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. This Thesis addresses both these issues by proposing a simple approach for Virtual Flux estimation by utilizing a frequency-adaptive filter based on a Second Order Generalized Integrator (SOGI). The proposed approach can be used to achieve on-line frequency-adaptive varieties of conventional strategies for Virtual Flux estimation. The main advantage is, however, that the SOGI-based Virtual Flux estimation can be arranged in a structure that achieves inherent symmetrical component sequence separation under unbalanced conditions. The proposed method for Virtual Flux estimation can be used as a general basis for voltage-sensor-less grid synchronization and control during unbalanced conditions. In this Thesis, the estimated Virtual Flux signals are used to develop a flexible strategy for control of active

  19. Mobile mapping and eddy covariance flux measurements of NH3 emissions from cattle feedlots with a portable laser-based open-path sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L.; Sun, K.; Pan, D.; Golston, L.; Stanton, L. G.; Ham, J. M.; Shonkwiler, K. B.; Nash, C.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is the dominant alkaline species in the atmosphere and an important compound in the global nitrogen cycle. There is a large uncertainty in NH3 emission inventory from agriculture, which is the largest source of NH3, including livestock farming and fertilizer applications. In recent years, a quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based open-path sensor has been developed to provide high-resolution, fast-response and high-sensitivity NH3 measurements. It has a detection limit of 150 pptv with a sample rate up to 20 Hz. This sensor has been integrated into a mobile platform mounted on the roof of a car to perform measurement of multiple trace gases. We have also used the sensor for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. The mobile sensing method provides high spatial resolution and fast mapping of measured gases. Meanwhile, the EC flux method offers accurate flux measurements and resolves the diurnal variability of NH3emissions. During the DISCOVER-AQ and FRAPPÉ field campaigns in 2014, this mobile platform was used to study NH3 emissions from cattle feedlot near Fort Morgan, Colorado. This specific feedlot was mapped multiple times in different days to study the variability of its plume characteristics. At the same time, we set up another open-path NH3 sensor with LICOR open-path sensors to perform EC flux measurements of NH3, CH4 and CO2 simultaneously in the same cattle feedlot as shown in Fig. 1. NH3/CH4 emission flux ratio show a strong temperature dependence from EC flux measurements. The median value of measured NH3 and CH4 emission flux ratio is 0.60 ppmv/ppmv. In contrast, the median value of ΔNH3/ΔCH4 ratios measured from mobile platform is 0.53 ppmv/ppmv for the same farm. The combination of mobile mapping and EC flux measurements with the same open-path sensors greatly improves understanding of NH3 emissions both spatially and temporally.

  20. Alternative method for thermal neutron flux measurements based on common boric acid as converter and Lr-15 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, D.; Greaves, E. D.; Sajo B, L.; Barros, H. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ingles, R. [Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Av. de la Cultura No. 733, Cusco (Peru)

    2010-02-15

    A method to determine the flux and angular distribution of thermal neutrons with the use of Lr-115 detectors was developed. The use of the Lr-115 detector involves the exposure of a pressed boric acid sample (tablet) as a target, in tight contact with the track detector, to a flux of thermalized neutrons. The self-absorption effects in thin films or foil type thermal neutron detectors can be neglected by using the Lr-115 detector and boric acid tablet setup to operate via backside irradiation. The energy window and the critical angle-residual energy curve were determined by comparisons between the experimental and simulated track parameters. A computer program was developed to calculate the detector registration efficiency, so that the thermal neutron flux can be calculated from the track densities induced in the Lr-115 detector using the derived empirical formula. The proposed setup can serves as directional detector of thermal neutrons. (Author)

  1. A new lattice hydrodynamic model based on control method considering the flux change rate and delay feedback signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shunda; Ge, Hongxia; Cheng, Rongjun

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a new lattice hydrodynamic model is proposed by taking delay feedback and flux change rate effect into account in a single lane. The linear stability condition of the new model is derived by control theory. By using the nonlinear analysis method, the mKDV equation near the critical point is deduced to describe the traffic congestion. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the advantage of the new model in suppressing traffic jam with the consideration of flux change rate effect in delay feedback model.

  2. Gas chromatography vs. quantum cascade laser-based N2O flux measurements using a novel chamber design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruemmer, Christian; Lyshede, Bjarne; Lempio, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    automated chamber system against a conventional gas chromatography (GC) approach using the same chambers plus an automated gas sampling unit with septum capped vials and subsequent laboratory GC analysis. Through its high precision and time resolution, data of the QCL system were used for quantifying...... conditions, although single flux values were highly scattered during the low efflux campaign. Furthermore, the QCL technology provides a useful tool to accurately investigate the highly debated topic of diurnal courses of N2O fluxes and its controlling factors. Our new chamber design protects the measurement...

  3. Ra Tracer-Based Study of Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Associated Nutrient Fluxes into the Bohai Sea, China: A Highly Human-Affected Marginal Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianan; Du, Jinzhou; Yi, Lixin

    2017-11-01

    Nutrient concentrations in coastal bays and estuaries are strongly influenced by not only riverine input but also submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Here we estimate the SGD and the fluxes of the associated dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphorus (DIP), and silicon (DSi) into the Bohai Sea based on a 226Ra and 228Ra mass balance model. This procedure shows that in the Bohai Sea the average radium activities (dpm 100 L-1) are 42.8 ± 6.3 (226Ra) and 212 ± 41.7 (228Ra) for the surface water and 43.0 ± 6.1 (226Ra) and 216 ± 38.4 (228Ra) for the near-bottom water. According to the 228Ra/226Ra age model, the residence time in the Bohai Sea is calculated to be 1.7 ± 0.8 yrs. The mass balance of 226Ra and 228Ra suggests that the yearly SGD flux into the whole Bohai Sea is (2.0 ± 1.3) × 1011 m3 yr-1, of which the percentage of submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) to the total SGD is approximately (5.1 ± 4.1)%. However, the DIN and DSi fluxes from SFGD constitute 29% and 10%, respectively, of the total fluxes from the SGD. Moreover, nutrient loads, which exhibit high DIN/DIP from SGD, especially the SFGD, may substantially contribute to the nutrient supplies, resulting in the occurrence of red tide in the Bohai Sea.

  4. Simulation of e-{gamma}-n targets by FLUKA and measurement of neutron flux at various angles for accelerator based neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, B.J., E-mail: bjp@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Chavan, S.T.; Pethe, S.N.; Krishnan, R. [SAMEER, IIT Powai Campus, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-10-15

    A 6 MeV Race track Microtron (an electron accelerator) based pulsed neutron source has been designed specifically for the elemental analysis of short lived activation products where the low neutron flux requirement is desirable. The bremsstrahlung radiation emitted by impinging 6 MeV electron on the e-{gamma} primary target, was made to fall on the {gamma}-n secondary target to produce neutrons. The optimisation of bremsstrahlung and neutron producing target along with their spectra were estimated using FLUKA code. The measurement of neutron flux was carried out by activation of vanadium and the measured fluxes were 1.1878 x 10{sup 5}, 0.9403 x 10{sup 5}, 0.7428 x 10{sup 5}, 0.6274 x 10{sup 5}, 0.5659 x 10{sup 5}, 0.5210 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}/s at 0{sup o}, 30{sup o}, 60{sup o}, 90{sup o}, 115{sup o}, 140{sup o} respectively. The results indicate that the neutron flux was found to be decreased as increase in the angle and in good agreement with the FLUKA simulation.

  5. Isoprene and monoterpene fluxes from Central Amazonian rainforest inferred from tower-based and airborne measurements, and implications on the atmospheric chemistry and the local carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kuhn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the isoprene and monoterpene source strengths of a pristine tropical forest north of Manaus in the central Amazon Basin using three different micrometeorological flux measurement approaches. During the early dry season campaign of the Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (LBA-CLAIRE-2001, a tower-based surface layer gradient (SLG technique was applied simultaneously with a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA system. Airborne measurements of vertical profiles within and above the convective boundary layer (CBL were used to estimate fluxes on a landscape scale by application of the mixed layer gradient (MLG technique. The mean daytime fluxes of organic carbon measured by REA were 2.1 mg C m−2 h−1 for isoprene, 0.20 mg C m−2 h−1 for α-pinene, and 0.39 mg C m−2 h−1 for the sum of monoterpenes. These values are in reasonable agreement with fluxes determined with the SLG approach, which exhibited a higher scatter, as expected for the complex terrain investigated. The observed VOC fluxes are in good agreement with simulations using a single-column chemistry and climate model (SCM.

    In contrast, the model-derived mixing ratios of VOCs were by far higher than observed, indicating that chemical processes may not be adequately represented in the model. The observed vertical gradients of isoprene and its primary degradation products methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR suggest that the oxidation capacity in the tropical CBL is much higher than previously assumed. A simple chemical kinetics model was used to infer OH radical concentrations from the vertical gradients of (MVK+MACR/isoprene. The estimated range of OH concentrations during the daytime was 3–8×106 molecules cm−3, i.e., an order of magnitude higher than is estimated for the tropical CBL by current state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry and transport models

  6. Generic flux coupling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Arne C; Goldstein, Yaron; Bockmayr, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Flux coupling analysis (FCA) has become a useful tool for aiding metabolic reconstructions and guiding genetic manipulations. Originally, it was introduced for constraint-based models of metabolic networks that are based on the steady-state assumption. Recently, we have shown that the steady-state assumption can be replaced by a weaker lattice-theoretic property related to the supports of metabolic fluxes. In this paper, we further extend our approach and develop an efficient algorithm for generic flux coupling analysis that works with any kind of qualitative pathway model. We illustrate our method by thermodynamic flux coupling analysis (tFCA), which allows studying steady-state metabolic models with loop-law thermodynamic constraints. These models do not satisfy the lattice-theoretic properties required in our previous work. For a selection of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions, we discuss both theoretically and practically, how thermodynamic constraints strengthen the coupling results that can be obtained with classical FCA. A prototype implementation of tFCA is available at http://hoverboard.io/L4FC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ignition and flame spread properties of wood, elaborated during a new test method based on convective heat flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Poulsen, Annemarie

    2007-01-01

    Ignition and flame spread properties on selected types of wood are elaborated. The tests are established in a new test setup in which the test specimen can be fixed in different angles due to a horizontal level. The heat exposing the test objects is arranged as a convective flux. This principle...

  8. Development of an accumulation-based system for cost-effective chamber measurements of inert trace gas fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, Per; Skiba, U.; Drewer, J.

    2010-01-01

    As soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases are characterized by high temporal fluctuations, frequent measurements in the range of hours to days need to be deployed, resulting in high analytical costs. We have therefore developed a new low-cost system that combines high-frequency automated...

  9. The effect of heat fluxes on ammonia emission from swine waste lagoon based on neural network analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding factors that affect ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoons or any animal waste receptacles is a necessary first step in deploying potential remediation options. In this study, we examined the various meteorological factors (i.e., air temperatures, solar radiation, and heat fluxes)...

  10. Regional carbon dioxide and energy fluxes from airborne observations using flight-path segmentation based on landscape characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, O.S.; Gioli, B.; Elbers, J.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Kabat, P.; Hutjes, R.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of regional fluxes obtained with a small aircraft over heterogeneous terrain in the south-west of France, during the large scale field experiment CERES’07. We use a method combining variable flight-path segmentation with basic airborne footprint analysis. The

  11. Phase locked 270-440 GHz local oscillator based on flux flow in long Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Shitov, S.V.; Filippenko, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    The combination of narrow linewidth and wide band tunability makes the Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) a perfect on-chip local oscillator for integrated sub-mm wave receivers for, e.g., spectral radio astronomy. The feasibility of phase locking the FFO to an external reference oscillator is ...

  12. An analysis on the influence of spatial scales on sensible heat fluxes in the north Tibetan Plateau based on Eddy covariance and large aperture scintillometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Genhou; Hu, Zeyong; Sun, Fanglin; Wang, Jiemin; Xie, Zhipeng; Lin, Yun; Huang, Fangfang

    2017-08-01

    The influence of spatial scales on surface fluxes is an interesting but not fully investigated question. This paper presents an analysis on the influence of spatial scales on surface fluxes in the north Tibetan Plateau based on eddy covariance (EC) and large aperture scintillometer (LAS) data at site Nagqu/BJ, combined with the land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS). The analysis shows that sensible heat fluxes calculated with LAS data (H_LAS) agree reasonably well with sensible heat fluxes calculated with EC data (H_EC) in the rain and dry seasons. The difference in their footprints due to the wind direction is an important reason for the differences in H_EC and H_LAS. The H_LAS are statistically more consistent with H_EC when their footprints overlap than when their footprints do not. A detailed analysis on H_EC and H_LAS changes with net radiation and wind direction in rain and dry season indicates that the spatial heterogeneity in net radiation created by clouds contributes greatly to the differences in H_EC and H_LAS in short-term variations. A significant relationship between the difference in footprint-weighted averages of LST and difference in H_EC and H_LAS suggests that the spatial heterogeneity in LST at two spatial scales is a reason for the differences in H_EC and H_LAS and that LST has a positive correlation with the differences in H_EC and H_LAS. A significant relationship between the footprint-weighted averages of NDVI and the ratio of sensible heat fluxes at two spatial scales to net radiation (H/Rn) in the rain season supports the analysis that the spatial heterogeneity in canopy at two spatial scales is another reason for differences in H_EC and H_LAS and that canopy has a negative correlation with (H/Rn). An analysis on the influence of the difference in aerodynamic roughness lengths at two spatial scales on sensible heat fluxes shows that the

  13. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation in an open orchard using the remote sensing-based two-source model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammalleri, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Ciraolo, G.; Durso, G.; Kustas, W. P.; La Loggia, G.; Minacapilli, M.

    2010-12-01

    For open orchard and vineyard canopies containing significant fractions of exposed soil (>50%), typical of Mediterranean agricultural regions, the energy balance of the vegetation elements is strongly influenced by heat exchange with the bare soil/substrate. For these agricultural systems a "two-source" approach, where radiation and turbulent exchange between the soil and canopy elements are explicitly modelled, appears to be the only suitable methodology for reliably assessing energy fluxes. In strongly clumped canopies, the effective wind speed profile inside and below the canopy layer can strongly influence the partitioning of energy fluxes between the soil and vegetation components. To assess the impact of in-canopy wind profile on model flux estimates, an analysis of three different formulations is presented, including algorithms from Goudriaan (1977), Massman (1987) and Lalic et al. (2003). The in-canopy wind profile formulations are applied to the thermal-based two-source energy balance (TSEB) model developed by Norman et al. (1995) and modified by Kustas and Norman (1999). High resolution airborne remote sensing images, collected over an agricultural area located in the western part of Sicily (Italy) comprised primarily of vineyards, olive and citrus orchards, are used to derive all the input parameters needed to apply the TSEB. The images were acquired from June to October 2008 and include a relatively wide range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions. A preliminary sensitivity analysis of the three wind profile algorithms highlights the dependence of wind speed just above the soil/substrate to leaf area index and canopy height over the typical range of canopy properties encountered in these agricultural areas. It is found that differences among the models in wind just above the soil surface are most significant under sparse and medium fractional cover conditions (15-50%). The TSEB model heat flux estimates are compared with micro

  14. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation in an open orchard using the remote sensing-based two-source model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cammalleri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For open orchard and vineyard canopies containing significant fractions of exposed soil (>50%, typical of Mediterranean agricultural regions, the energy balance of the vegetation elements is strongly influenced by heat exchange with the bare soil/substrate. For these agricultural systems a "two-source" approach, where radiation and turbulent exchange between the soil and canopy elements are explicitly modelled, appears to be the only suitable methodology for reliably assessing energy fluxes. In strongly clumped canopies, the effective wind speed profile inside and below the canopy layer can strongly influence the partitioning of energy fluxes between the soil and vegetation components. To assess the impact of in-canopy wind profile on model flux estimates, an analysis of three different formulations is presented, including algorithms from Goudriaan (1977, Massman (1987 and Lalic et al. (2003. The in-canopy wind profile formulations are applied to the thermal-based two-source energy balance (TSEB model developed by Norman et al. (1995 and modified by Kustas and Norman (1999. High resolution airborne remote sensing images, collected over an agricultural area located in the western part of Sicily (Italy comprised primarily of vineyards, olive and citrus orchards, are used to derive all the input parameters needed to apply the TSEB. The images were acquired from June to October 2008 and include a relatively wide range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions. A preliminary sensitivity analysis of the three wind profile algorithms highlights the dependence of wind speed just above the soil/substrate to leaf area index and canopy height over the typical range of canopy properties encountered in these agricultural areas. It is found that differences among the models in wind just above the soil surface are most significant under sparse and medium fractional cover conditions (15–50%. The TSEB model heat flux estimates are compared with micro

  15. Advances on Sensitive Electron-injection based Cameras for Low-Flux, Short-Wave-Infrared Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vala Fathipour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Short-wave infrared (SWIR photon detection has become an essential technology in the modern world. Sensitive SWIR detector arrays with high pixel density, low noise levels and high signal-to-noise-ratios are highly desirable for a variety of applications including biophotonics, light detection and ranging, optical tomography, and astronomical imaging. As such many efforts in infrared detector research are directed towards improving the performance of the photon detectors operating in this wavelength range.We review the history, principle of operation, present status and possible future developments of a sensitive SWIR detector technology, which has demonstrated to be one of the most promising paths to high pixel density focal plane arrays for low flux applications. The so-called electron-injection (EI detector was demonstrated for the first time (in 2007. It offers an overall system-level sensitivity enhancement compared to the p-i-n diode due to a stable internal avalanche-free gain. The amplification method is inherently low noise, and devices exhibit an excess noise of unity. The detector operates in linear-mode and requires only bias voltage of a few volts. The stable detector characteristics, makes formation of high yield large-format, and high pixel density focal plane arrays less challenging compared to other detector technologies such as avalanche photodetectors. Detector is based on the mature InP material system (InP/InAlAs/GaAsSb/InGaAs, and has a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. It takes advantage of a unique three-dimensional geometry and combines the efficiency of a large absorbing volume with the sensitivity of a low-dimensional switch (injector to sense and amplify signals. Current devices provide high-speed response ~ 5 ns rise time, and low jitter ~ 12 ps at room temperature. The internal dark current density is ~ 1 μA/cm2 at room temperature decreasing to 0.1 nA/cm2 at 160 K.EI detectors have been designed, fabricated, and

  16. Advances on Sensitive Electron-injection based Cameras for Low-Flux, Short-Wave-Infrared Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathipour, Vala; Bonakdar, Alireza; Mohseni, Hooman

    2016-08-01

    Short-wave infrared (SWIR) photon detection has become an essential technology in the modern world. Sensitive SWIR detector arrays with high pixel density, low noise levels and high signal-to-noise-ratios are highly desirable for a variety of applications including biophotonics, light detection and ranging, optical tomography, and astronomical imaging. As such many efforts in infrared detector research are directed towards improving the performance of the photon detectors operating in this wavelength range. We review the history, principle of operation, present status and possible future developments of a sensitive SWIR detector technology, which has demonstrated to be one of the most promising paths to high pixel density focal plane arrays for low flux applications. The so-called electron-injection (EI) detector was demonstrated for the first time (in 2007). It offers an overall system-level sensitivity enhancement compared to the p-i-n diode due to a stable internal avalanche-free gain. The amplification method is inherently low noise, and devices exhibit an excess noise of unity. The detector operates in linear-mode and requires only bias voltage of a few volts. The stable detector characteristics, makes formation of high yield large-format, and high pixel density focal plane arrays less challenging compared to other detector technologies such as avalanche photodetectors. Detector is based on the mature InP material system (InP/InAlAs/GaAsSb/InGaAs), and has a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. It takes advantage of a unique three-dimensional geometry and combines the efficiency of a large absorbing volume with the sensitivity of a low-dimensional switch (injector) to sense and amplify signals. Current devices provide high-speed response ~ 5 ns rise time, and low jitter ~ 12 ps at room temperature. The internal dark current density is ~ 1 μA/cm2 at room temperature decreasing to 0.1 nA/cm2 at 160 K. EI detectors have been designed, fabricated, and tested during two

  17. Initial analysis of ion fluxes in the magnetotail of Mars based on simultaneous measurements on Mars Express and Maven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, V. N.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Vaisberg, O. L.; Sementsov, E. A.; Dubinin, E. M.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Shuvalov, S. D.

    2017-09-01

    Simultaneous operation of two Mars satellites, equipped with instruments for the study of the plasma environment close to Mars, the European satellite Mars Express and American satellite MAVEN, allows one to investigate the influence of the interplanetary environment on the Martian magnetosphere and atmospheric losses, induced by the solar wind, for the first time, with a sufficient degree of confidence. In this paper, the data from measurements on the Mars Express satellite (MEX) of heavy ion losses are analyzed in comparison with the solar wind and magnetic field measurements on the MAVEN satellite. The main issue is the spatial structure of the escaping ion flux and the influence of the nonstationarity of the solar wind flux on the escape rate.

  18. High flux and antifouling filtration membrane based on non-woven fabric with chitosan coating for membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chanchan; Yang, Fenglin; Meng, Fangang; Zhang, Hanmin; Xue, Yuan; Fu, Gang

    2010-07-01

    To prepare a high flux and antifouling filtration membrane used for submerged membrane bioreactors, non-woven fabric (NWF) was modified by coating chitosan (CS) on both internal and outer surface. Chemical structural and morphological changes were characterized. The changes of surface free energy were monitored by dynamic contact angle, which showed an increase after modification. The CS/NWF composite membranes were found to be with high flux, high effluent quality and excellent antifouling property. The results of fouling resistance distribution indicated that irreversible fouling resistance was decreased by coating CS. Especially, there were fewer gel layers existing on the outer surface. The adsorption of EPS on the NWF membrane internal surface decreased after being coated with CS. Modification improved filtration performance, and made fouling less troublesome and membrane regeneration efficient. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  20. The flux-based PIN allocation mechanism can generate either canalyzed or diffuse distribution patterns depending on geometry and boundary conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Luke Walker

    Full Text Available Growth and morphogenesis in plants require controlled transport of the plant hormone auxin. An important participant is the auxin effluxing protein PIN, whose polarized subcellular localization allows it to effectively transport auxin large distances through tissues. The flux-based model, in which auxin flux through a wall stimulates PIN allocation to that wall, is a dominant contender among models determining where and in what quantity PIN is allocated to cell walls. In this paper we characterise the behaviour of flux-based PIN allocation models in various tissues of the shoot apical meristem. Arguing from both mathematical analysis and computer simulations, we describe the natural behaviours of this class of models under various circumstances. In particular, we demonstrate the important dichotomy between sink- and source- driven systems, and show that both diffuse and canalized PIN distributions can be generated simultaneously in the same tissue, without model hybridization or variation of PIN-related parameters. This work is performed in the context of the shoot apical and floral meristems and is applicable to the construction of a unified PIN allocation model.

  1. Flux States and Topological Phases from Spontaneous Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking in CrSi (Ge )Te3 -Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianpeng; Park, Se Young; Garrity, Kevin F.; Vanderbilt, David

    2016-12-01

    We study adatom-covered single layers of CrSiTe3 and CrGeTe3 using first-principles calculations based on hybrid functionals. We find that the insulating ground state of a monolayer of La (Lu) deposited on single-layer CrSiTe3 (CrGeTe3 ) carries spontaneously generated current loops around the Cr sites. These "flux states" induce antiferromagnetically ordered orbital moments on the Cr sites and are also associated with nontrivial topological properties. The calculated Chern numbers for these systems are predicted to be ±1 even in the absence of spin-orbit coupling, with sizable gaps on the order of 100 meV. The flux states and the associated topological phases result from spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking due to the presence of nonlocal Coulomb interactions.

  2. Doppler lidar observations of sensible heat flux and intercomparisons with a ground-based energy balance station and WRF model output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Davis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During the Convective and Orographically induced Precipitation Study (COPS, a scanning Doppler lidar was deployed at Achern, Baden-Wüttemberg, Germany from 13th June to 16th August 2007. Vertical velocity profiles ('rays' through the boundary layer were measured every 3 seconds with vertical profiles of horizontal wind velocity being derived from performing azimuth scans every 30 minutes. During Intense Observation Periods radiosondes were launched from the site. In this paper, a case study of convective boundary layer development on 15th July 2007 is investigated. Estimates of eddy dissipation rate are made from the vertically pointing lidar data and used as one input to the velocity-temperature co-variance equation to estimate sensible heat flux. The sensible heat flux values calculated from Doppler lidar data are compared with a surface based energy balance station and output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model.

  3. Particulate flux calculation based on metal contents and suspended sediment concentrations relationship: case study of turbid alpine river (Isere, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutordoir, Solene; Nemery, Julien; Guedron, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jérémy; Minaudo, Camille; Belleudy, Philippe; Landas-Maneval, Jacqueline; Rivière, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    In the context of increasing stress on aquatic environment, the improvement of pollutant flux quantification in large rivers presents a strong stake. Isere at Grenoble city (5570 km2) is an alpine river in the Northern French Alps with high suspended sediment transport reaching 10 to 20 g L-1 during floods. It is known that for elements like P, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb, Fe et Al, most of river transport is done under particulate forms. Isere River is susceptible to transport particulate pollutants such as metals, given mining history and industrial activities at the upstream watershed. Moreover, this river receives Grenoble city's effluents (500 000 inhabitants) and stormwaters during rain events. Three metals (Hg, Ni, Pb) identified as priority substances regarding European Water Framework Directive and As known to be one of the most metal of concern were chosen in this study. High frequency samplings of suspended sediments were realized between 2011 and 2012 in order to evaluate the temporal variation of metals contents and to determine geochemical background during high flow periods. In the same sampling site (situated upstream urban effluents of Grenoble city), discharge and suspended sediment concentration by turbidity were measured at 30 min frequency by a monitoring station. The use of historical and new databases ranging between low and high discharge (10 years return flood) allowed determining relationships between metal contents and suspended sediment concentrations and discharges. Results show a good correlation for the studied metals and permit to defined the geochemical backgrounds for each metals measured above 0.5 g L-1, (Hg = 68 +/- 48 ng g-1, Ni = 30 +/- 10 mg g-1, Pb = 43 +/-13 mg g-1, As = 15 +/- 4 mg g-1). These models were validated on a separated period than the one used for the calibration and applied to calculate particulate metals concentrations and associated incertitude at 30 min frequency using SSC and discharge database. Cumulative 30 minutes

  4. High-flux solar photon processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorents, D C; Narang, S; Huestis, D C; Mooney, J L; Mill, T; Song, H K; Ventura, S [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    This study was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of identifying high-flux photoprocesses that would lead to beneficial national and commercial applications. The specific focus on high-flux photoprocesses is based on the recent development by NREL of solar concentrator technology capable of delivering record flux levels. We examined photolytic and photocatalytic chemical processes as well as photothermal processes in the search for processes where concentrated solar flux would offer a unique advantage. 37 refs.

  5. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus...

  6. [Error analysis of CO2 storage flux in a temperate deciduous broadleaved forest based on different scalar variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xing-chang; Wang, Chuan-kuan

    2013-04-01

    Using the measurement data from an 8-level vertical profile of CO2/H2 0 in a temperate deciduous broadleaved forest at the Maoershan Forest Ecosystem Research Station, Northeast China, this paper quantified the errors of CO2 storage flux (Fs ) calculated with three scalar variables, i. e. , CO2 density (rho c), molar fraction (cc), and molar mixing ratio relative to dry air (Xc). The dry air storage in the control volume of flux measurement was not a constant, and thus, the fluctuation of the dry air storage could cause the CO2 molecules transporting out of or into the control volume, i. e. , the variation of the dry air storage adjustment term (Fsd). During nighttime and day-night transition periods, the relative magnitude of Fsd to eddy flux was larger, and ignoring the Fsd could introduce errors in calculating the net CO2 exchange between the forest ecosystem and the atmosphere. Three error sources in the Fs calculation could be introduced from the atmospheric hydrothermal processes, i. e. , 1) air temperature fluctuation, which could cause the largest error, with one order of magnitude larger than that caused by atmospheric pressure (P) , 2) water vapor, its effect being larger than that of P in warm and moist summer but smaller in cold and dry winter, and 3) P, whose effect was generally smaller throughout the year. In estimating the effective CO2 storage (Fs_E) , the Fs value calculated with rho c, cc, and Xc was overestimated averagely by 8. 5%, suggested that in the calculation of Fs, adopting the Xc conservation to atmospheric hydrothermal processes could be more appropriate to minimize the potential errors.

  7. I-f Starting and Active Flux Based Sensorless Vector Control of Reluctance Synchronous Motors, with Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarlita, Sorin-Christian; Fatu, M.; Tutelea, L. N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, hybrid, motion sensorless control of an axially laminated anisotropic (ALA) reluctance synchronous machine (RSM). By separately controlling Id and Iq currents with the reference currents Id*, Iq* being held constant, and ramping the reference frequency, the motor starts...... with a robust start-up method called I-f control. This kind of control strategy also allows the motor to experience low speeds without initial position estimation or machine parameters identification. The control uses first order lag compensators to ensure smooth transitions from I-f control to active flux...

  8. Mass spectrometry-based microassay of (2)H and (13)C plasma glucose labeling to quantify liver metabolic fluxes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenour, Clinton M; Wall, Martha L; Ridley, D Emerson; Hughey, Curtis C; James, Freyja D; Wasserman, David H; Young, Jamey D

    2015-07-15

    Mouse models designed to examine hepatic metabolism are critical to diabetes and obesity research. Thus, a microscale method to quantitatively assess hepatic glucose and intermediary metabolism in conscious, unrestrained mice was developed. [(13)C3]propionate, [(2)H2]water, and [6,6-(2)H2]glucose isotopes were delivered intravenously in short- (9 h) and long-term-fasted (19 h) C57BL/6J mice. GC-MS and mass isotopomer distribution (MID) analysis were performed on three 40-μl arterial plasma glucose samples obtained during the euglycemic isotopic steady state. Model-based regression of hepatic glucose and citric acid cycle (CAC)-related fluxes was performed using a comprehensive isotopomer model to track carbon and hydrogen atom transitions through the network and thereby simulate the MIDs of measured fragment ions. Glucose-6-phosphate production from glycogen diminished, and endogenous glucose production was exclusively gluconeogenic with prolonged fasting. Gluconeogenic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) remained stable, whereas that from glycerol modestly increased from short- to long-term fasting. CAC flux [i.e., citrate synthase (VCS)] was reduced with long-term fasting. Interestingly, anaplerosis and cataplerosis increased with fast duration; accordingly, pyruvate carboxylation and the conversion of oxaloacetate to PEP were severalfold higher than VCS in long-term fasted mice. This method utilizes state-of-the-art in vivo methodology and comprehensive isotopomer modeling to quantify hepatic glucose and intermediary fluxes during physiological stress in mice. The small plasma requirements permit serial sampling without stress and the affirmation of steady-state glucose kinetics. Furthermore, the approach can accommodate a broad range of modeling assumptions, isotope tracers, and measurement inputs without the need to introduce ad hoc mathematical approximations. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Observationally based surface fluxes of CH4 and N2O, and fossil fuel-derived CO2 for a 300x100 km region (the Netherlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, S. V.; Karstens, U.; Neubert, R.; Laan-Luijkx, I. V.; Meijer, H. A.

    2010-12-01

    Fossil fuel-derived CO2 (FFCO2), CH4 and N2O are the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases that are held responsible for most of the observed increase in global surface temperature. Currently, their mixing ratios are monitored very accurately and with high precision at many stations around the world. However, quantitative knowledge about their sources and sinks on relative small temporal and spatial scales is still not satisfactory. This makes it also difficult to independently validate the emission reductions as reported by countries who are committed to internationally agreed reduction targets. The reported emissions are based on statistical methods and inventories of known sources and sinks. This method, however, relies heavily on the availability and correctness of the data and can be biased if relevant information is missing (or wrong). We use a customized version of the 222Radon-flux approach to determine regional fluxes of FFCO2, CH4 and N2O from their mixing ratios and 222Rn concentrations observed at station Lutjewad in the Netherlands. The radioactive noble gas 222Rn is used as a tracer for atmospheric mixing and dilution. After surface emanation 222Rn experiences the same atmospheric mixing and dilution as any other constituent released from, or close to, the surface. A coefficient is determined from the ratio of the 222Rn concentrations to the 222Rn soil flux (assumed to be well-known) and applied to calculate surface fluxes from the mixing ratios of (e.g.) FFCO2, CH4 and N2O, sampled at the same height. The mixing ratios of FFCO2 are determined from CO mixing ratios, calibrated with 14CO2 measurements. Since CO2 from fossil fuels does not contain any 14C, and the sources of CO are closely linked to that of FFCO2, a high temporal resolution proxy record can be made from which surface fluxes can be calculated. A back trajectory model is used to select emissions representative for the Netherlands and to distinguish between local sources and those

  10. A Remote Sensing-based Characterization of the Urban Heat Island and its Implications for Modeled Estimates of Urban Biogenic Carbon Fluxes in Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Friedl, M. A.; Hutyra, L.; Hardiman, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    Urban land use occupies a small but critical proportion of global land area for the carbon cycle, and in the coming decades, urban land area is expected to nearly double. Conversion of natural land cover to urban land cover imposes myriad ecological effects, including increased land surface and air temperatures via the urban heat island effect. In this study, we characterize the seasonal and spatial characteristics of the urban heat island over Boston, MA and estimate its consequences on biogenic carbon fluxes with a remote sensing-based model. Using a 12-year time series of emissivity- and atmospherically-corrected land surface temperatures from Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery, we find a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and consistent seasonal patterns in the thermal properties of Boston, controlled mainly by variations in vegetative cover. Field measurements of surface air temperature across an urbanization gradient show season- and vegetation-dependent patterns consistent with those observed in the Landsat data. With a fused data set that combines surface air temperature, MODIS, and Landsat observations, we modify and run the Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM) to explore 1) how elevated temperatures affect diurnal and seasonal patterns of hourly urban biogenic carbon fluxes in Massachusetts in 2013 and 2014 and 2) to what extent these fluxes follow spatial patterns found in the urban heat island. Model modifications simulate the ecological effects of urbanization, including empirical adjustments to reanalysis-driven air temperatures (up to 5 K) and ecosystem respiration reduced by impervious surface area. Model results reveal spatio-temporal patterns consistent with strong land use and vegetation cover controls on biogenic carbon fluxes, with non-trivial biogenic annual net ecosystem exchange occurring in urban and suburban areas (up to -2.5 MgC/ha/yr). We specifically consider the feedbacks between Boston's urban heat island and landscape

  11. Observation-based modelling of permafrost carbon fluxes with accounting for deep carbon deposits and thermokarst activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schneider von Deimling

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High-latitude soils store vast amounts of perennially frozen and therefore inert organic matter. With rising global temperatures and consequent permafrost degradation, a part of this carbon stock will become available for microbial decay and eventual release to the atmosphere. We have developed a simplified, two-dimensional multi-pool model to estimate the strength and timing of future carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes from newly thawed permafrost carbon (i.e. carbon thawed when temperatures rise above pre-industrial levels. We have especially simulated carbon release from deep deposits in Yedoma regions by describing abrupt thaw under newly formed thermokarst lakes. The computational efficiency of our model allowed us to run large, multi-centennial ensembles under various scenarios of future warming to express uncertainty inherent to simulations of the permafrost carbon feedback. Under moderate warming of the representative concentration pathway (RCP 2.6 scenario, cumulated CO2 fluxes from newly thawed permafrost carbon amount to 20 to 58 petagrams of carbon (Pg-C (68% range by the year 2100 and reach 40 to 98 Pg-C in 2300. The much larger permafrost degradation under strong warming (RCP8.5 results in cumulated CO2 release of 42 to 141 Pg-C and 157 to 313 Pg-C (68% ranges in the years 2100 and 2300, respectively. Our estimates only consider fluxes from newly thawed permafrost, not from soils already part of the seasonally thawed active layer under pre-industrial climate. Our simulated CH4 fluxes contribute a few percent to total permafrost carbon release yet they can cause up to 40% of total permafrost-affected radiative forcing in the 21st century (upper 68% range. We infer largest CH4 emission rates of about 50 Tg-CH4 per year around the middle of the 21st century when simulated thermokarst lake extent is at its maximum and when abrupt thaw under thermokarst lakes is taken into account. CH4 release from newly thawed carbon in

  12. Torque characteristic analysis and measurement of axial flux-type non-contact permanent magnet device with Halbach array based on 3D analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-Hyeon Jang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the torque characteristic analysis of an axial flux-type non-contact permanent magnet device with a Halbach magnet array using a 3D analytical method based on transfer relations. We obtain the magnetic field distribution due to the permanent magnet. The magnetic torque is derived from the magnetic field using a Maxwell stress tensor. The analytical results are validated extensively by comparison with 3D finite element analysis. Therefore, we derive an accurate analytical solution to reduce the analysis time, and we present an experimental verification using a manufactured model.

  13. Assessing transient response of DFIG based wind turbines during voltage dips regarding main flux saturation and rotor deep-bar effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Zhanfeng; Xia, Changliang; Shi, Tingna [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-10-15

    With increasing wind power penetration, transient responses of doubly-fed-induction-generator (DFIG) based wind turbines gain attentive focus. Accurate prediction of transient performance of DFIG under grid faults is required with increasing wind power penetration. Taking into account the main flux saturation and deep-bar effect, this paper concentrates on transient responses and stability of the DFIG system under symmetrical grid faults. Their roles played in the enhancement of system transient stability are clarified. The analyses proposed contribute greatly to proper selection, design and coordination of protection devices and control strategies as well as stability studies. (author)

  14. Validating soil denitrification models based on laboratory N_{2} and N_{2}O fluxes and underlying processes derived by stable isotope approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Reinhard; Böttcher, Jürgen; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael; Deppe, Marianna; Dittert, Klaus; Dörsch, Peter; Horn, Marcus; Ippisch, Olaf; Mikutta, Robert; Müller, Carsten; Müller, Christoph; Senbayram, Mehmet; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Robust denitrification data suitable to validate soil N2 fluxes in denitrification models are scarce due to methodical limitations and the extreme spatio-temporal heterogeneity of denitrification in soils. Numerical models have become essential tools to predict denitrification at different scales. Model performance could either be tested for total gaseous flux (NO + N2O + N2), individual denitrification products (e.g. N2O and/or NO) or for the effect of denitrification factors (e.g. C-availability, respiration, diffusivity, anaerobic volume, etc.). While there are numerous examples for validating N2O fluxes, there are neither robust field data of N2 fluxes nor sufficiently resolved measurements of control factors used as state variables in the models. To the best of our knowledge there has been only one published validation of modelled soil N2 flux by now, using a laboratory data set to validate an ecosystem model. Hence there is a need for validation data at both, the mesocosm and the field scale including validation of individual denitrification controls. Here we present the concept for collecting model validation data which is be part of the DFG-research unit "Denitrification in Agricultural Soils: Integrated Control and Modelling at Various Scales (DASIM)" starting this year. We will use novel approaches including analysis of stable isotopes, microbial communities, pores structure and organic matter fractions to provide denitrification data sets comprising as much detail on activity and regulation as possible as a basis to validate existing and calibrate new denitrification models that are applied and/or developed by DASIM subprojects. The basic idea is to simulate "field-like" conditions as far as possible in an automated mesocosm system without plants in order to mimic processes in the soil parts not significantly influenced by the rhizosphere (rhizosphere soils are studied by other DASIM projects). Hence, to allow model testing in a wide range of conditions

  15. Observation-based parameterization of air-sea fluxes in terms of wind speed and atmospheric stability under low-to-moderate wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhongshui; Zhao, Dongliang; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Jun A.; Huang, Jian

    2017-05-01

    This study explores the behavior of the exchange coefficients for wind stress (CD), sensible heat flux (CH), and water vapor flux (CE) as functions of surface wind speed (U10) and atmospheric stability using direct turbulent flux measurements obtained from a platform equipped with fast-response turbulence sensors in a low-to-moderate wind region. Turbulent fluxes are calculated using the eddy-correlation method with extensive observations. The total numbers of quality-controlled 30 min flux runs are 12,240, 5813, and 5637 for estimation of CD, CH, and CE, respectively. When adjusted to neutral stability using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST), we found that CDN, CHN, and CEN decrease with neutral-adjusted wind speed when wind speed is less than 5 m/s. CDN is constant over the range 5 m/s 12 m/s. In contrast, CHN and CEN exhibit no clear dependence on wind speed and are generally constant, with mean values of 0.96 × 10-3 and 1.2 × 10-3, respectively. This behavior of neutral exchange coefficients is consistent with the findings of previous studies. We also found that CDN under offshore winds is generally greater than that under onshore wind conditions, which is ascribed to the younger wind waves present due to the shorter fetch in the former case. However, this behavior is not exhibited by CHN or CEN. The original CD, CH, and CE values without MOST adjustment are also investigated to develop a new parameterization based on wind speed and stability. Three stability parameters are tested, including the bulk Richardson number, stability as defined in COARE 3.0, and a simplified Richardson number using the Charnock parameter. This new parameterization is free of MOST and the associated self-correlation. Compared with previous studies and COARE 3.0 results, the new parameterization using the simplified Richardson number performs well, with an increased correlation coefficient and reduction of root-mean-square error and bias.

  16. A New Method of Defects Identification for Wire Rope Based on Three-Dimensional Magnetic Flux Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D L [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen (China); Cao, Y N [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen (China); Wang, C [Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen (China); Xu, D G [Electrical Engineering and Automation School, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2006-10-15

    Most traditional wire rope sensors produce the integrated volume of magnetic leakage around the whole circumference of wire rope, which is insensitive to the circumferential distribution of wire rope defects. In this paper the three-dimensional magnetic flux leakage of rope surface is obtained by the aid of Hall sensors array distributed around the wire rope. Then a spatial notch filter is designed to eliminate the strand-waveform signal, and the real defect signal is emphasized. The signal of any defect is transformed to the corresponding gray-scale map. Then an algorithm of two-dimensional image recognition is introduced to extract features from these gray-scale maps and identify defects. The experiment results show the degree and the width of defects, the circumferential distribution of localized flaw such as concentrated or dispersive broken wire can be well distinguished. The discrimination of this method for several typical defects under the condition of laboratory can reach 90%.

  17. TERRECO: A Flux-Based Approach to Understanding Landscape Change, Potentials of Resilience and Sustainability in Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhunen, J. D.; Kang, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Millenium Assessment has provided a broad perspective on the ways and degree to which global change has stressed ecosystems and their potential to deliver goods and services to mankind. Management of natural resources at regional scale requires a clear understanding of the ways that ongoing human activities modify or create new system stressors, leading to net gains or losses in ecosystem services. Ever since information from the International Biological Program (IBP) was summarized in the 1960s, we know that ecosystem stress response, recovery and resilience are related to changes in ecosystem turnover of materials, nutrient retention or loss, resource use efficiencies, and additional ecosystem properties that determine fluxes of carbon, water and nutrients. At landscape or regional scale, changes in system drivers influence land-surface to atmosphere gas exchange (water, carbon and trace gas emissions), the seasonal course of soil resource stores, hydrology, and transport of nutrients and carbon into and through river systems. In today's terminology, shifts in these fluxes indicate a modification of potential ecosystem services provided to us by the landscape or region of interest, and upon which we depend. Ongoing modeling efforts of the TERRECO project carried out in S. Korea focus on describing landscape and regional level flow networks for carbon, water, and nutrients, but in addition monetary flows associated with gains and losses in ecosystem services (cf. Fig. 1). The description is embedded within a framework which examines the trade-offs between agricultural intensification versus yield of high quality water to reservoirs for drinking water supply. The models also quantify hypothetical changes in flow networks that would occur in the context of climate, land use and social change scenarios.

  18. Thermal-based modeling of coupled carbon, water, and energy fluxes using nominal light use efficiencies constrained by leaf chlorophyll observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, M. A.; Anderson, M. C.; Houborg, R.; Gitelson, A.; Kustas, W. P.

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that estimates of leaf chlorophyll content (Chl), defined as the combined mass of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b per unit leaf area, can be useful for constraining estimates of canopy light use efficiency (LUE). Canopy LUE describes the amount of carbon assimilated by a vegetative canopy for a given amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and is a key parameter for modeling land-surface carbon fluxes. A carbon-enabled version of the remote-sensing-based two-source energy balance (TSEB) model simulates coupled canopy transpiration and carbon assimilation using an analytical sub-model of canopy resistance constrained by inputs of nominal LUE (βn), which is modulated within the model in response to varying conditions in light, humidity, ambient CO2 concentration, and temperature. Soil moisture constraints on water and carbon exchange are conveyed to the TSEB-LUE indirectly through thermal infrared measurements of land-surface temperature. We investigate the capability of using Chl estimates for capturing seasonal trends in the canopy βn from in situ measurements of Chl acquired in irrigated and rain-fed fields of soybean and maize near Mead, Nebraska. The results show that field-measured Chl is nonlinearly related to βn, with variability primarily related to phenological changes during early growth and senescence. Utilizing seasonally varying βn inputs based on an empirical relationship with in situ measured Chl resulted in improvements in carbon flux estimates from the TSEB model, while adjusting the partitioning of total water loss between plant transpiration and soil evaporation. The observed Chl-βn relationship provides a functional mechanism for integrating remotely sensed Chl into the TSEB model, with the potential for improved mapping of coupled carbon, water, and energy fluxes across vegetated landscapes.

  19. Thermal-based modeling of coupled carbon, water, and energy fluxes using nominal light use efficiencies constrained by leaf chlorophyll observations

    KAUST Repository

    Schull, M. A.

    2015-03-11

    Recent studies have shown that estimates of leaf chlorophyll content (Chl), defined as the combined mass of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b per unit leaf area, can be useful for constraining estimates of canopy light use efficiency (LUE). Canopy LUE describes the amount of carbon assimilated by a vegetative canopy for a given amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and is a key parameter for modeling land-surface carbon fluxes. A carbon-enabled version of the remote-sensing-based two-source energy balance (TSEB) model simulates coupled canopy transpiration and carbon assimilation using an analytical sub-model of canopy resistance constrained by inputs of nominal LUE (βn), which is modulated within the model in response to varying conditions in light, humidity, ambient CO2 concentration, and temperature. Soil moisture constraints on water and carbon exchange are conveyed to the TSEB-LUE indirectly through thermal infrared measurements of land-surface temperature. We investigate the capability of using Chl estimates for capturing seasonal trends in the canopy βn from in situ measurements of Chl acquired in irrigated and rain-fed fields of soybean and maize near Mead, Nebraska. The results show that field-measured Chl is nonlinearly related to βn, with variability primarily related to phenological changes during early growth and senescence. Utilizing seasonally varying βn inputs based on an empirical relationship with in situ measured Chl resulted in improvements in carbon flux estimates from the TSEB model, while adjusting the partitioning of total water loss between plant transpiration and soil evaporation. The observed Chl-βn relationship provides a functional mechanism for integrating remotely sensed Chl into the TSEB model, with the potential for improved mapping of coupled carbon, water, and energy fluxes across vegetated landscapes.

  20. Testing the FOODBANCS hypothesis: Seasonal variations in near-bottom particle flux, bioturbation intensity, and deposit feeding based on 234Th measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintic, Mark A.; DeMaster, David J.; Thomas, Carrie J.; Smith, Craig R.

    2008-11-01

    Naturally occurring 234Th (24-d half-life) was used on the West Antarctic continental shelf to evaluate temporal variations in the flux of particulate material reaching the seabed, bioturbation intensity, the seasonal continuity of feeding by benthic fauna, and trends in particle selection during ingestion for six common detritivores (four surface deposit feeders and two subsurface deposit feeders). These measurements were made at three stations during the five FOODBANCS cruises (December 1999, March, June, and October 2000, and March 2001) to assess the nature of pelagic-benthic coupling on the shelf and to evaluate the seabed as a potential food bank for deposit feeders when surface primary production is minimal. Two summer regimes were sampled (March 2000 and March 2001) with the latter exhibiting a distinct 1-2-cm-thick phytodetritus layer in nearly all sediment core samples. At site B, the 234Th fluxes into the near-bottom (150/170 mab) sediment traps were indistinguishable for the December-March 2000, March-June 2000, and June-October 2000 sampling intervals (fluxes ranging from 170 to 280 dpm m -2 d -1). However, the sediment-trap 234Th flux measured for the October 2000-March 2001 interval (1000 dpm m -2 d -1) was ˜5-fold greater than during the other three sampling periods, consistent with the deposition of a phytodetritus layer. The steady-state 234Th fluxes derived from seabed inventories at site B were 2.4-2.7 times greater than the sediment-trap 234Th fluxes, indicating substantial scavenging of this particle-reactive radiotracer in the bottom 150 m of the water column and/or lateral transport near the seabed. The seabed 234Th inventories at the three stations showed no variation during the first four cruises, but were significantly greater during cruise FB-V (March 2001), when the phytodetritus layer occurred. Based on 234Th distributions in the seabed, bioturbation intensities (quantified using the diffusive mixing coefficient, Db) varied from 0

  1. Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensing and Artificial Neural Network Pattern Recognition-Based Automated Damage Detection and Quantification for Wire Rope Non-Destructive Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Seunghee

    2018-01-02

    In this study, a magnetic flux leakage (MFL) method, known to be a suitable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method for continuum ferromagnetic structures, was used to detect local damage when inspecting steel wire ropes. To demonstrate the proposed damage detection method through experiments, a multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using a Hall sensor array and magnetic yokes to adapt to the wire rope. To prepare the damaged wire-rope specimens, several different amounts of artificial damages were inflicted on wire ropes. The MFL sensor head was used to scan the damaged specimens to measure the magnetic flux signals. After obtaining the signals, a series of signal processing steps, including the enveloping process based on the Hilbert transform (HT), was performed to better recognize the MFL signals by reducing the unexpected noise. The enveloped signals were then analyzed for objective damage detection by comparing them with a threshold that was established based on the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution. The detected MFL signals that exceed the threshold were analyzed quantitatively by extracting the magnetic features from the MFL signals. To improve the quantitative analysis, damage indexes based on the relationship between the enveloped MFL signal and the threshold value were also utilized, along with a general damage index for the MFL method. The detected MFL signals for each damage type were quantified by using the proposed damage indexes and the general damage indexes for the MFL method. Finally, an artificial neural network (ANN) based multi-stage pattern recognition method using extracted multi-scale damage indexes was implemented to automatically estimate the severity of the damage. To analyze the reliability of the MFL-based automated wire rope NDE method, the accuracy and reliability were evaluated by comparing the repeatedly estimated damage size and the actual damage size.

  2. Recovery behavior based on reclosing operation and a neutral line of three-phase flux-coupling type SFCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, K. H.; Choi, H. S.; Cho, Y. S.; Park, H. M.; Jung, B. I.; Choi, S. G.

    2011-11-01

    The breaking capacity of circuit breakers currently reaches the saturation point in electric power systems when a fault occurs. This is because the fault current increases due to continuous increases in electric power demand and facilities. It is not efficient to change existing circuit breakers, however, because of some problems that will increase the replacement cost and cause technical difficulties. To solve such problems, a study on the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is being actively conducted. In this paper, a three-phase flux-coupling-type SFCL was composed, and its recovery characteristic according to the change in the number of turns of its secondary coils and its reclosing operation were analyzed. The increase in the number of turns of the SFCL's secondary coils enhances its limiting efficiency by increasing its total impedance. The recovery time was delayed, however, when the number of turns of the secondary coils increased, because the superconducting element was connected in parallel to the secondary coils, which increased the voltage and current of the superconducting element. In other words, the delay in the recovery time was due to the increase in the power burden between the superconducting elements. Thus, two superconducting elements that were connected in series were used to distribute the power burden to each other, and the recovery characteristics of the SFCL with and without a neutral line were experimented on.

  3. MODIS-Based Estimation of Terrestrial Latent Heat Flux over North America Using Three Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanyu Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial latent heat flux (LE is a key component of the global terrestrial water, energy, and carbon exchanges. Accurate estimation of LE from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS data remains a major challenge. In this study, we estimated the daily LE for different plant functional types (PFTs across North America using three machine learning algorithms: artificial neural network (ANN; support vector machines (SVM; and, multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS driven by MODIS and Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA meteorology data. These three predictive algorithms, which were trained and validated using observed LE over the period 2000–2007, all proved to be accurate. However, ANN outperformed the other two algorithms for the majority of the tested configurations for most PFTs and was the only method that arrived at 80% precision for LE estimation. We also applied three machine learning algorithms for MODIS data and MERRA meteorology to map the average annual terrestrial LE of North America during 2002–2004 using a spatial resolution of 0.05°, which proved to be useful for estimating the long-term LE over North America.

  4. Complete Proteomic-Based Enzyme Reaction and Inhibition Kinetics Reveal How Monolignol Biosynthetic Enzyme Families Affect Metabolic Flux and Lignin in Populus trichocarpa[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jack P.; Naik, Punith P.; Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Shi, Rui; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Shuford, Christopher M.; Li, Quanzi; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Williams, Cranos M.; Muddiman, David C.; Ducoste, Joel J.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    We established a predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model for the 21 enzymes and 24 metabolites of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway using Populus trichocarpa secondary differentiating xylem. To establish this model, a comprehensive study was performed to obtain the reaction and inhibition kinetic parameters of all 21 enzymes based on functional recombinant proteins. A total of 104 Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters and 85 inhibition kinetic parameters were derived from these enzymes. Through mass spectrometry, we obtained the absolute quantities of all 21 pathway enzymes in the secondary differentiating xylem. This extensive experimental data set, generated from a single tissue specialized in wood formation, was used to construct the predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model to provide a comprehensive mathematical description of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway. The model was validated using experimental data from transgenic P. trichocarpa plants. The model predicts how pathway enzymes affect lignin content and composition, explains a long-standing paradox regarding the regulation of monolignol subunit ratios in lignin, and reveals novel mechanisms involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis. This model provides an explanation of the effects of genetic and transgenic perturbations of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway in flowering plants. PMID:24619611

  5. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  6. CycleFreeFlux: efficient removal of thermodynamically infeasible loops from flux distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouki, Abdelmoneim Amer; Jarre, Florian; Gelius-Dietrich, Gabriel; Lercher, Martin J

    2015-07-01

    Constraint-based metabolic modeling methods such as Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) are routinely used to predict metabolic phenotypes, e.g. growth rates, ATP yield or the fitness of gene knockouts. One frequent difficulty of constraint-based solutions is the inclusion of thermodynamically infeasible loops (or internal cycles), which add nonbiological fluxes to the predictions. We propose a simple postprocessing of constraint-based solutions, which removes internal cycles from any given flux distribution [Formula: see text] without disturbing other fluxes not involved in the loops. This new algorithm, termed CycleFreeFlux, works by minimizing the sum of absolute fluxes [Formula: see text] while (i) conserving the exchange fluxes and (ii) using the fluxes of the original solution to bound the new flux distribution. This strategy reduces internal fluxes until at least one reaction of every possible internal cycle is inactive, a necessary and sufficient condition for the thermodynamic feasibility of a flux distribution. If alternative representations of the input flux distribution in terms of elementary flux modes exist that differ in their inclusion of internal cycles, then CycleFreeFlux is biased towards solutions that maintain the direction given by [Formula: see text] and towards solutions with lower total flux [Formula: see text]. Our method requires only one additional linear optimization, making it computationally very efficient compared to alternative strategies. We provide freely available R implementations for the enumeration of thermodynamically infeasible cycles as well as for cycle-free FBA solutions, flux variability calculations and random sampling of solution spaces. lercher@cs.uni-duesseldorf.de. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Combining urban scale inversions and process-based information from sectors of economic activity in the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) to monitor CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvaux, Thomas; Calahan, Bill; Cambaliza, Maria; Davis, Kenneth; Deng, Aijun; Hardesty, Robert; Iraci, Laura; Gurney, Kevin; Karion, Anna; McGowan, Laura; Possolo, Antonio; Razlivanov, Igor; Sarmiento, Daniel; Shepson, Paul; Sweeney, Colm; Turnbull, Jocelyn; Whetstone, James

    2013-04-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims at quantifying emissions of anthropogenic carbon using top-down methods and process-based information (Hestia) at very high resolution over the city of Indianapolis (IN). At present, 9 sensors measuring continuously atmospheric mixing ratios of GHG have been deployed, with additional flask samples of isotopic ratios, one eddy-flux site measuring the surface energy and CO2 fluxes, frequent aircraft flight measurements of GHG, and a column-integrated surface based sensor (FTS-TCCON). Additional meteorological instruments were deployed to assess the accuracy of the modeling system by measuring vertical profiles of several meteorological variables (wind, turbulent mixing height, temperature), from both ground-based and airborne instruments. The inverse modeling system combines the atmospheric transport model WRF in Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation mode with a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model to simulate the local atmospheric dynamics over the area. The system was coupled to the high resolution emissions from the Hestia product at the hourly time scale for each individual economic activity sector. We present here the contribution from the different activity sectors as observed by the current atmospheric observation network. The capability of the system to detect and constrain seasonal and spatial signals in the emissions is inferred from sensitivity experiments. Whereas several sectors are widely distributed in space and observed by the whole GHG sensors network, we show that large point sources from industrial and utility sectors are less frequently observed and difficult to simulate correctly in our initial WRF simulations. However, these sectors represent a large fraction of the total emissions in the area. Consequently, seasonal changes in the atmospheric circulation and the sector emissions impact directly the distribution of the final error reduction of the inverse system. We finally estimate the potential of

  8. Insignificant enhancement of export flux in the highly productive subtropical front, east of New Zealand: a high resolution study of particle export fluxes based on 234Th: 238U disequilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Hall

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the export fluxes of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC in the Subtropical Frontal zone (STF of the SW Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. The site is characterized by enhanced primary productivity, which has been suggested to be stimulated through so-called natural iron fertilization processes where iron-depleted subantarctic water (SAW mixes with mesotrophic, iron-replete subtropical water (STW. We adopted the small-volume 234Th method to achieve the highest possible spatial sampling resolution in austral late autumn-early winter, May–June, 2008. Inventories of chlorophyll-a, particulate 234Th and POC observed in the upper 100 m were all elevated in the mid-salinity water type (34.5 34.8 salinity waters which were of STW origin with low macronutrients. However, Steady-State 234Th fluxes were similar across the salinity gradient being, 25 ± 0.78 ((1.5 ± 0.047 × 103 in the mid-salinity, and 29 ± 0.53 ((1.8 ± 0.032 × 103 and 22 ± 1.1 Bq m−2 d−1 ((1.3 ± 0.066 × 103 dpm m−2 d–1 in the high and low salinity waters respectively. Bottle POC/Th ratios at the depth of 100 m were used to convert 234Th fluxes into POC export fluxes. The derived POC flux did not appear to be enhanced in mid-salinity waters where the primary productivity was inferred to be the highest at the time of sampling, with a flux of 11 ± 0.45 mmol C m−2 d−1, compared to 14 ± 0.39 mmol C m−2 d−1 in high salinity waters and 8.5 ± 0.66 mmol C m−2 d−1 in low salinity waters. This study thus implied that natural iron fertilization does not necessarily lead to an enhancement of POC export in STF regions.

  9. Cosmic-Ray Background Flux Model based on a Gamma-Ray Large-Area Space Telescope Balloon Flight Engineering Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, T

    2004-09-03

    Cosmic-ray background fluxes were modeled based on existing measurements and theories and are presented here. The model, originally developed for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Experiment, covers the entire solid angle (4{pi} sr), the sensitive energy range of the instrument ({approx} 10 MeV to 100 GeV) and abundant components (proton, alpha, e{sup -}, e{sup +}, {mu}{sup -}, {mu}{sup +} and gamma). It is expressed in analytic functions in which modulations due to the solar activity and the Earth geomagnetism are parameterized. Although the model is intended to be used primarily for the GLAST Balloon Experiment, model functions in low-Earth orbit are also presented and can be used for other high energy astrophysical missions. The model has been validated via comparison with the data of the GLAST Balloon Experiment.

  10. Analysis and optimisation of an axial flux permanent magnet coreless motor based on the field model using the superposition principle and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowski Rafał M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, methodologies for the magnetic field simulation in an axial flux permanent magnet coreless (AFPMC motor have been proposed and discussed. Two approaches have been considered and investigated, both based on representing the 3D field distribution by superimposing axisymmetric 2D patterns. The first of studied approaches applies directly to the Biot-Savart law while the second uses a 2D axisymmetric finite element method. The selected results of magnetic field distributions and electromagnetic torque characteristics for the considered AFPMC motor have been presented and compared with results obtained using the commercial FEM package ‘Maxwell’. The elaborated algorithms have been incorporated into the design routines allowing multi-parameter optimisation of the considered motor construction.

  11. Power distribution of a co-axial dual-mechanical-port flux-switching permanent magnet machine for fuel-based extended range electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingkang; Hua, Wei; Zhang, Gan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, power distribution between the inner and outer machines of a co-axial dual-mechanical-port flux-switching permanent magnet (CADMP-FSPM) machine is investigated for fuel-based extended range electric vehicle (ER-EV). Firstly, the topology and operation principle of the CADMP-FSPM machine are introduced, which consist of an inner FSPM machine used for high-speed, an outer FSPM machine for low-speed, and a magnetic isolation ring between them. Then, the magnetic field coupling of the inner and outer FSPM machines is analyzed with more attention paid to the optimization of the isolation ring thickness. Thirdly, the power-dimension (PD) equations of the inner and outer FSPM machines are derived, respectively, and thereafter, the PD equation of the whole CADMP-FSPM machine can be given. Finally, the PD equations are validated by finite element analysis, which supplies the guidance on the design of this type of machines.

  12. Remote sensing based evapotranspiration and runoff modeling of agricultural, forest and urban flux sites in Denmark: From field to macro-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, E.; Poulsen, R.N.; Butts, M.

    2009-01-01

    conditions, and the EOS/MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to map (a) the temporal development in leaf area index for agricultural fields, (b) a dynamic “canopy” coefficient (Kc) of forests being scaled between its minimum and maximum values for use in the FAO Penman...... variability in eddy covariance latent heat fluxes. The “effective” spatial resolution needed to adopt local-scale model parameters for spatial-deterministic hydrological modeling was assessed using a high-spatial resolution (30 m) variogram analysis of the NDVI. The use of the NDVI variogram to evaluate land...... surface heterogeneity is based on the assumption that sub-class soil heterogeneity can be indirectly represented by the observed spatial variations in NDVI due to its close affiliation with vegetation growth, soil water uptake and evapotranspiration. Multiple spatial resolution water balance simulations...

  13. Utility of a Thermal-Based Two-Source Energy Balance Model for Estimating Surface Fluxes over a Wide Variety of Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustas, W. P.; Anderson, M. C.; Cammalleri, C.; Alfieri, J. G.; Semmens, K. A.; Prueger, J. H.; Hain, C.; Gao, F.; Kongoli, C.; Andreu, A.; Han, K.; Xia, T.

    2014-12-01

    Many landscapes are comprised of a variety of vegetation types with different canopy structure, rooting depth, physiological characteristics, soil/substrate conditions, etc. Even in agricultural regions, different management practices, including crop rotations, irrigation scheduling, planting density, seed varieties, tilling practices, and other factors result in complex patterns in vegetation growth stages, canopy cover, canopy architecture, cropping densities and understory soil/substrate properties. This variability at the canopy, field and landscape scale, makes it very challenging to reliably quantify spatially-distributed surface fluxes. This paper describes a robust but relatively simple thermal-based energy balance model that parameterizes the key soil/substrate and vegetation exchange processes affecting the radiative balance and turbulent energy transport with the overlying atmosphere. The thermal-based model, called the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model solves for the soil/substrate and canopy temperatures that achieves a balance in the radiation and turbulent heat flux exchange with the lower atmosphere for the soil/substrate and vegetation elements. The TSEB scheme permits interaction between soil/substrate and canopy elements which are both are coupled to the atmosphere via canopy-air temperature that is strongly correlated to the aerodynamic surface temperature. In doing so the TSEB modeling framework is applicable to a wide range in atmospheric and land cover conditions. An overview of applications of the TSEB modeling framework to a variety of landscapes will be presented that include both natural and agricultural ecosystems having a soil/substrate with standing water (flooded), snow covered and vegetated (canopy understory) requiring different levels of refinements to the TSEB formulations for these unique land cover conditions. In addition, examples using a modeling framework that allows the TSEB scheme to be applied at regional scales using

  14. Calculation of surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes from physical quantities based on ISCCP data sets. 1: Method and sensitivity to input data uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.-C.; Rossow, W. B.; Lacis, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    The largest uncertainty in upwelling shortwave (SW) fluxes (approximately equal 10-15 W/m(exp 2), regional daily mean) is caused by uncertainties in land surface albedo, whereas the largest uncertainty in downwelling SW at the surface (approximately equal 5-10 W/m(exp 2), regional daily mean) is related to cloud detection errors. The uncertainty of upwelling longwave (LW) fluxes (approximately 10-20 W/m(exp 2), regional daily mean) depends on the accuracy of the surface temperature for the surface LW fluxes and the atmospheric temperature for the top of atmosphere LW fluxes. The dominant source of uncertainty is downwelling LW fluxes at the surface (approximately equal 10-15 W/m(exp 2)) is uncertainty in atmospheric temperature and, secondarily, atmospheric humidity; clouds play little role except in the polar regions. The uncertainties of the individual flux components and the total net fluxes are largest over land (15-20 W/m(exp 2)) because of uncertainties in surface albedo (especially its spectral dependence) and surface temperature and emissivity (including its spectral dependence). Clouds are the most important modulator of the SW fluxes, but over land areas, uncertainties in net SW at the surface depend almost as much on uncertainties in surface albedo. Although atmospheric and surface temperature variations cause larger LW flux variations, the most notable feature of the net LW fluxes is the changing relative importance of clouds and water vapor with latitude. Uncertainty in individual flux values is dominated by sampling effects because of large natrual variations, but uncertainty in monthly mean fluxes is dominated by bias errors in the input quantities.

  15. Relationship between CH₄ and N₂O flux from soil and their ambient mixing ratio in a riparian rice-based agroecosystem of tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A; Santra, S C; Adhya, T K

    2011-12-01

    Temporal variations of the ambient mixing ratio of greenhouse gas (CH(4) and N(2)O) in a riparian rice-based agro-ecosystem of tropical region were studied during 2005-2006 in coastal Odisha. The endeavour was made with the hypothesis that the ambient mixing ratio of CH(4) and N(2)O depends on the changes in the flux of CH(4) and N(2)O from the rice fields in the riparian rice ecosystems. A higher ambient mixing ratio of CH(4) was recorded during the tillering to grain filling stages of the rice crop, during both dry and wet seasons. The higher ambient mixing ratio of CH(4) during the wet season may attribute to the higher CH(4) emission from the rice field. The average mixing ratio of CH(4) was recorded as 1.84 ± 0.05 ppmv and 1.85 ± 0.06 ppmv during 2005 and 2006, respectively. The ambient CH(4) mixing ratio was recorded negatively correlated with the average ambient temperature. The N(2)O mixing ratio ranged from 261.57 to 399.44 ppbv with an average of 330.57 ppbv during 2005. However, the average mixing ratio of N(2)O was recorded as 318.83 ± 20.00 ppbv during 2006. The N(2)O mixing ratio was recorded to be negatively correlated with rainfall and average ambient temperature. Significant negative correlation (r = -0.209) of N(2)O with sunshine hours may attribute to the photochemical break down of N(2)O. The temporal variation of N(2)O flux from the rice field does not affect the ambient mixing ratio of N(2)O in the same way as in the case of the ambient mixing ratio of CH(4). However, the higher mixing ratio of N(2)O during the fallow period of the post monsoon period may attribute to the N(2)O flux from soil. Results indicate that intensively cultivated coastal ecosystems can be a major source of ambient greenhouse gas.

  16. Prediction of metabolic fluxes by incorporating genomic context and flux-converging pattern analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Myoung; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Sang Yup

    2010-08-17

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) of a genome-scale metabolic model allows calculation of intracellular fluxes by optimizing an objective function, such as maximization of cell growth, under given constraints, and has found numerous applications in the field of systems biology and biotechnology. Due to the underdetermined nature of the system, however, it has limitations such as inaccurate prediction of fluxes and existence of multiple solutions for an optimal objective value. Here, we report a strategy for accurate prediction of metabolic fluxes by FBA combined with systematic and condition-independent constraints that restrict the achievable flux ranges of grouped reactions by genomic context and flux-converging pattern analyses. Analyses of three types of genomic contexts, conserved genomic neighborhood, gene fusion events, and co-occurrence of genes across multiple organisms, were performed to suggest a group of fluxes that are likely on or off simultaneously. The flux ranges of these grouped reactions were constrained by flux-converging pattern analysis. FBA of the Escherichia coli genome-scale metabolic model was carried out under several different genotypic (pykF, zwf, ppc, and sucA mutants) and environmental (altered carbon source) conditions by applying these constraints, which resulted in flux values that were in good agreement with the experimentally measured (13)C-based fluxes. Thus, this strategy will be useful for accurately predicting the intracellular fluxes of large metabolic networks when their experimental determination is difficult.

  17. Power handling of a liquid-metal based CPS structure under high steady-state heat and particle fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, T. W.; Vertkov, A.; Bystrov, K.; Lyublinski, I.; Genuit, J. W.; Mazzitelli, G.

    2017-01-01

    Liquid metal infused capillary porous structures (CPSs) are considered as a potential divertor solution for DEMO due to their potential power handling capability and resilience to long term damage. In this work the power handling and performance of such Sn-based CPS systems is assessed both

  18. Temporal Variability in Vertical Groundwater Fluxes and the Effect of Solar Radiation on Streambed Temperatures Based on Vertical High Resolution Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, E.; Karan, S.; Engesgaard, P. K.; Duque, C.

    2013-12-01

    Due to its large spatial and temporal variability, groundwater discharge to streams is difficult to quantify. Methods using vertical streambed temperature profiles to estimate vertical fluxes are often of coarse vertical spatial resolution and neglect to account for the natural heterogeneity in thermal conductivity of streambed sediments. Here we report on a field investigation in a stream, where air, stream water and streambed sediment temperatures were measured by Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) with high spatial resolution to; (i) detect spatial and temporal variability in groundwater discharge based on vertical streambed temperature profiles, (ii) study the thermal regime of streambed sediments exposed to different solar radiation influence, (iii) describe the effect of solar radiation on the measured streambed temperatures. The study was carried out at a field site located along Holtum stream, in Western Denmark. The 3 m wide stream has a sandy streambed with a cobbled armour layer, a mean discharge of 200 l/s and a mean depth of 0.3 m. Streambed temperatures were measured with a high-resolution DTS system (HR-DTS). By helically wrapping the fiber optic cable around two PVC pipes of 0.05 m and 0.075 m outer diameter over 1.5 m length, temperature measurements were recorded with 5.7 mm and 3.8 mm vertical spacing, respectively. The HR-DTS systems were installed 0.7 m deep in the streambed sediments, crossing both the sediment-water and the water-air interface, thus yielding high resolution water and air temperature data as well. One of the HR-DTS systems was installed in the open stream channel with only topographical shading, while the other HR-DTS system was placed 7 m upstream, under the canopy of a tree, thus representing the shaded conditions with reduced influence of solar radiation. Temperature measurements were taken with 30 min intervals between 16 April and 25 June 2013. The thermal conductivity of streambed sediments was calibrated in a 1D flow

  19. Physics of magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ryutova, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first account of the physics of magnetic flux tubes from their fundamental properties to collective phenomena in an ensembles of flux tubes. The physics of magnetic flux tubes is absolutely vital for understanding fundamental physical processes in the solar atmosphere shaped and governed by magnetic fields. High-resolution and high cadence observations from recent space and  ground-based instruments taken simultaneously at different heights and temperatures not only show the ubiquity of filamentary structure formation but also allow to study how various events are interconnected by system of magnetic flux tubes. The book covers both theory and observations. Theoretical models presented in analytical and phenomenological forms are tailored for practical applications. These are welded with state-of-the-art observations from early decisive ones to the most recent data that open a new phase-space for exploring the Sun and sun-like stars. Concept of magnetic flux tubes is central to various magn...

  20. Snowmelt controls on concentration-discharge relationships and the balance of oxidative and acid-base weathering fluxes in an alpine catchment, East River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, Matthew J.; Carroll, Rosemary W. H.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Maxwell, Reed M.; Dong, Wenming; Maher, Kate

    2017-03-01

    Although important for riverine solute and nutrient fluxes, the connections between biogeochemical processes and subsurface hydrology remain poorly characterized. We investigate these couplings in the East River, CO, a high-elevation shale-dominated catchment in the Rocky Mountains, using concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships for major cations, anions, and organic carbon. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) displays a positive C-Q relationship with clockwise hysteresis, indicating mobilization and depletion of DOC in the upper soil horizons and emphasizing the importance of shallow flow paths during snowmelt. Cation and anion concentrations demonstrate that carbonate weathering, which dominates solute fluxes, is promoted by both sulfuric acid derived from pyrite oxidation in the shale bedrock and carbonic acid derived from subsurface respiration. Sulfuric acid weathering dominates during base flow conditions when waters infiltrate below the inferred pyrite oxidation front, whereas carbonic acid weathering plays a dominant role during snowmelt as a result of shallow flow paths. Differential C-Q relationships between solutes suggest that infiltrating waters approach calcite saturation before reaching the pyrite oxidation front, after which sulfuric acid reduces carbonate alkalinity. This reduction in alkalinity results in CO2 outgassing when waters equilibrate to surface conditions, and reduces the riverine export of carbon and alkalinity by roughly 33% annually. Future changes in snowmelt dynamics that control the balance of carbonic and sulfuric acid weathering may substantially alter carbon cycling in the East River. Ultimately, we demonstrate that differential C-Q relationships between major solutes can provide unique insights into the complex subsurface flow and biogeochemical dynamics that operate at catchment scales.

  1. Simulating carbon stocks and fluxes of an African tropical montane forest with an individual-based forest model.

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer Rico; Ensslin Andreas; Rutten Gemma; Fischer Markus; Schellenberger Costa David; Kleyer Michael; Hemp Andreas; Paulick Sebastian; Huth Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests are carbon dense and highly productive ecosystems. Consequently they play an important role in the global carbon cycle. In the present study we used an individual based forest model (FORMIND) to analyze the carbon balances of a tropical forest. The main processes of this model are tree growth mortality regeneration and competition. Model parameters were calibrated using forest inventory data from a tropical forest at Mt. Kilimanjaro. The simulation results showed that the mod...

  2. Tree phenology and carbon dioxide fluxes - use of digital photography for process-based interpretation at the ecosystem scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrends, Hella E.; Etzold, Sophie; Kutsch, Werner L.; Stöckli, Reto; Brügger, Robert; Jeanneret, François,; Buchmann, Nina; Eugster, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important indicator of climate change and climate variability and it is strongly connected to biospheric–atmospheric gas exchange. We aimed to evaluate the applicability of phenological information derived from digital imagery for the interpretation of CO2 exchange measurements. For the years 2005–2007 we analyzed seasonal phenological development of 2 temperate mixed forests using tower-based imagery from standard RGB cameras. Phenological information was jointly a...

  3. Spatiotemporal Visualization of Time-Series Satellite-Derived CO2 Flux Data Using Volume Rendering and Gpu-Based Interpolation on a Cloud-Driven Digital Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.; Yan, Y.; Du, Z.; Zhang, F.; Liu, R.

    2017-10-01

    The ocean carbon cycle has a significant influence on global climate, and is commonly evaluated using time-series satellite-derived CO2 flux data. Location-aware and globe-based visualization is an important technique for analyzing and presenting the evolution of climate change. To achieve realistic simulation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of ocean carbon, a cloud-driven digital earth platform is developed to support the interactive analysis and display of multi-geospatial data, and an original visualization method based on our digital earth is proposed to demonstrate the spatiotemporal variations of carbon sinks and sources using time-series satellite data. Specifically, a volume rendering technique using half-angle slicing and particle system is implemented to dynamically display the released or absorbed CO2 gas. To enable location-aware visualization within the virtual globe, we present a 3D particlemapping algorithm to render particle-slicing textures onto geospace. In addition, a GPU-based interpolation framework using CUDA during real-time rendering is designed to obtain smooth effects in both spatial and temporal dimensions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method, a series of satellite data is applied to simulate the air-sea carbon cycle in the China Sea. The results show that the suggested strategies provide realistic simulation effects and acceptable interactive performance on the digital earth.

  4. SPATIOTEMPORAL VISUALIZATION OF TIME-SERIES SATELLITE-DERIVED CO2 FLUX DATA USING VOLUME RENDERING AND GPU-BASED INTERPOLATION ON A CLOUD-DRIVEN DIGITAL EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ocean carbon cycle has a significant influence on global climate, and is commonly evaluated using time-series satellite-derived CO2 flux data. Location-aware and globe-based visualization is an important technique for analyzing and presenting the evolution of climate change. To achieve realistic simulation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of ocean carbon, a cloud-driven digital earth platform is developed to support the interactive analysis and display of multi-geospatial data, and an original visualization method based on our digital earth is proposed to demonstrate the spatiotemporal variations of carbon sinks and sources using time-series satellite data. Specifically, a volume rendering technique using half-angle slicing and particle system is implemented to dynamically display the released or absorbed CO2 gas. To enable location-aware visualization within the virtual globe, we present a 3D particlemapping algorithm to render particle-slicing textures onto geospace. In addition, a GPU-based interpolation framework using CUDA during real-time rendering is designed to obtain smooth effects in both spatial and temporal dimensions. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method, a series of satellite data is applied to simulate the air-sea carbon cycle in the China Sea. The results show that the suggested strategies provide realistic simulation effects and acceptable interactive performance on the digital earth.

  5. Observations of particle extinction, PM2.5 mass concentration profile and flux in north China based on mobile lidar technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lihui; Liu, Wenqing; Zhang, Tianshu; Chen, Zhenyi; Dong, Yunsheng; Fan, Guangqiang; Xiang, Yan; Yao, Yawei; Yang, Nan; Chu, Baolin; Teng, Man; Shu, Xiaowen

    2017-09-01

    Fine particle with diameter pollution levels in Beijing were presented to evaluate the contribution of regional transport. A vehicle-based mobile lidar system was used to obtain the spatial and temporal distributions of particle extinction in the measurement route. Fixed point lidar and a particulate matter sampler were operated next to each other at the University of Chinese Academy of Science (UCAS) in Beijing to determine the relationship between the particle extinction coefficient and PM2.5 mass concentration. The correlation coefficient (R2) between the particle extinction coefficient and PM2.5 mass concentration was found to be over 0.8 when relative humidity (RH) was less than 90%. A mesoscale meteorological model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, was used to obtain profiles of the horizontal wind speed, wind direction and relative humidity. A vehicle-based mobile lidar technique was applied to estimate transport flux based on the PM2.5 profile and vertical profile of wind data. This method was applicable when hygroscopic growth can be neglected (relatively humidityBeijing during the experiments.

  6. Where is the Open Flux?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Jon A.; Downs, Cooper; Caplan, Ronald M.; Lionello, Roberto; Mikic, Zoran; Riley, Pete; Henney, Carl John; Arge, Charles; Owens, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    The Sun’s magnetic field has been observed in the photosphere from ground- and space-based observatories for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full disk magnetograms (either built up over a solar rotation, or evolved using flux transport models) are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Maps from different observatories typically agree qualitatively but often disagree quantitatively. Estimation of the coronal/solar wind physics can range from potential field source surface (PFSS) models with empirical prescriptions to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models with realistic energy transport and sub-grid scale descriptions of heating and acceleration. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) The open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes observed in emission, and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. We have investigated the July 2010 time period, using PFSS and MHD models computed using several available magnetic maps, coronal hole boundaries detected from STEREO and SDO EUV observations, and estimates of the interplanetary magnetic flux from in situ ACE measurements. We show that for all the model/map combinations, models that agree for (1) underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match (2), the modeled open field regions are larger than observed coronal holes. Alternatively, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining detected coronal hole boundaries with observatory synoptic magnetic maps, and show that this method also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. We discuss possible resolutions.Research supported by NASA, AFOSR, and NSF.

  7. Reconciling heat-flux and salt-flux estimates at a melting ice-ocean interface

    CERN Document Server

    Keitzl, Thomas; Notz, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of heat and salt flux is employed in ice-ocean models to represent ice-ocean interactions. In this study, this flux ratio is determined from direct numerical simulations of free convection beneath a melting, horizontal, smooth ice-ocean interface. We find that the flux ratio at the interface is three times as large as previously assessed based on turbulent-flux measurements in the field. As a consequence, interface salinities and melt rates are overestimated by up to 40\\% if they are based on the three-equation formulation. We also find that the interface flux ratio depends only very weakly on the far-field conditions of the flow. Lastly, our simulations indicate that estimates of the interface flux ratio based on direct measurements of the turbulent fluxes will be difficult because at the interface the diffusivities alone determine the mixing and the flux ratio varies with depth. As an alternative, we present a consistent evaluation of the flux ratio based on the total heat and salt fluxes across t...

  8. Development of a Long-Term Hydrologically-Based Dataset of Land Surface Fluxes and States for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, Q.

    2012-12-01

    The absence of long-term consistent and comprehensive land surface dataset, which frustrates the analyses of land surface variables changes and interactions, has been one of the most frequently encountered problems for assessing the performance of land-atmosphere parameterizations. While some offline model studies can provide balanced water and energy budgets at land surface, few of them has presented an evaluation of the long-term interaction of the water balance components over China. In the paper, we develop a latest, hydrologically-based, consistent and comprehensive land surface dataset of China using a land surface model driven by long-term gridded observation-based meteorological forcings. The newly developed dataset covers China domain and is at 3-hr time step with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The dataset spans the period from 1952 to near-real-time when China Meteorological Administration (CMA) observation is updated. The simulated runoff matches quite well with the observed seasonal hydrographs, inter-annual variation, and long-term trend over large river basins. The simulated soil moisture reasonably reproduces the seasonal variation of the observed soil moisture at 10 sites where the observations are available. Besides that, it also successfully captures recent severe droughts in Southwest China. The dataset, which is to be unrestricted accessible via internet, may be useful for climate diagnostic studies in China where precipitation is generally not well represented in reanalysis products.

  9. Development of A Long Term Hydrologically-Based Dataset of Land Surface Fluxes and States for China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, Q.

    2013-12-01

    The absence of long-term consistent and comprehensive land surface dataset, which frustrates the analyses of land surface variables changes and interactions, has been one of the most frequently encountered problems for assessing the performance of land-atmosphere parameterizations. While some offline model studies can provide balanced water and energy budgets at land surface, few of them has presented an evaluation of the long-term interaction of the water balance components over China. In the paper, we develop a latest, hydrologically-based, consistent and comprehensive land surface dataset of China using a land surface model (VIC) driven by long-term gridded observation-based meteorological forcings. The newly developed dataset covers China domain and is at 3-hr time step with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The dataset spans the period from 1952 to near-real-time when China Meteorological Administration (CMA) observation is updated. In the dataset, the simulated runoff matches quite well with the observed seasonal hydrographs, inter-annual variation, and long-term trend over large river basins. The simulated soil moisture reasonably reproduces the seasonal variation of the observed soil moisture at 8 stations where long-term observations are available in China. Compared with China Meteorological Forcing Dataset developed by ITPCAS, the downward radiations generally have the relative compatible patterns in spatial on seasonal means over domain though some biases at magnitude are existed. In contrast with the global products of similar nature, the dataset can provide a more accurate and meaningful estimates of land surface variables over China continent. The dataset, which is to be unrestricted accessible via internet, may be useful for climate diagnostic studies in China, especially where precipitation is hard to obtain and generally not well represented in reanalysis products.

  10. Type-2 fuzzy logic control based MRAS speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque and flux control of an induction motor drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Tejavathu; Kumar Panda, Anup; Shiva Kumar, S

    2015-07-01

    In this research study, a model reference adaptive system (MRAS) speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of an induction motor drive (IMD) using two adaptation mechanism schemes are proposed to replace the conventional proportional integral controller (PIC). The first adaptation mechanism scheme is based on Type-1 fuzzy logic controller (T1FLC), which is used to achieve high performance sensorless drive in both transient as well as steady state conditions. However, the Type-1 fuzzy sets are certain and unable to work effectively when higher degree of uncertainties presents in the system which can be caused by sudden change in speed or different load disturbances, process noise etc. Therefore, a new Type-2 fuzzy logic controller (T2FLC) based adaptation mechanism scheme is proposed to better handle the higher degree of uncertainties and improves the performance and also robust to various load torque and sudden change in speed conditions, respectively. The detailed performances of various adaptation mechanism schemes are carried out in a MATLAB/Simulink environment with a speed sensor and speed sensorless modes of operation when an IMD is operating under different operating conditions, such as, no-load, load and sudden change in speed, respectively. To validate the different control approaches, the system also implemented on real-time system and adequate results are reported for its validation. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simulating Carbon Stocks and Fluxes of an African Tropical Montane Forest with an Individual-Based Forest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Ensslin, Andreas; Rutten, Gemma; Fischer, Markus; Schellenberger Costa, David; Kleyer, Michael; Hemp, Andreas; Paulick, Sebastian; Huth, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests are carbon-dense and highly productive ecosystems. Consequently, they play an important role in the global carbon cycle. In the present study we used an individual-based forest model (FORMIND) to analyze the carbon balances of a tropical forest. The main processes of this model are tree growth, mortality, regeneration, and competition. Model parameters were calibrated using forest inventory data from a tropical forest at Mt. Kilimanjaro. The simulation results showed that the model successfully reproduces important characteristics of tropical forests (aboveground biomass, stem size distribution and leaf area index). The estimated aboveground biomass (385 t/ha) is comparable to biomass values in the Amazon and other tropical forests in Africa. The simulated forest reveals a gross primary production of 24 tcha-1yr-1. Modeling above- and belowground carbon stocks, we analyzed the carbon balance of the investigated tropical forest. The simulated carbon balance of this old-growth forest is zero on average. This study provides an example of how forest models can be used in combination with forest inventory data to investigate forest structure and local carbon balances. PMID:25915854

  12. Estimation of the hydrogen flux from a PEM electrolyzer, based in the solar irradiation measured in Zacatecas Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duron-Torres, S.M.; Villagrana-Munoz, L.E.; Garcia-Saldivar, V.M.; Escalante-Garcia, I.L. [Univ. Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico). Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas; Arriaga-Hurtado, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Pedro Escobedo (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    The current cost of obtaining hydrogen from electrolyzers is higher than the cost of producing fossil fuels. However, with advances in technology and greater use of alternative energy sources, the cost of electrolytic hydrogen production may decrease to the point of being competitive. This study calculated how much hydrogen can be produced in a typical polymer exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer. Local solar irradiation measurements were carried out from November 2007 to April 2008 at the Campus Siglo 21 Solarimetric Station at Zacatecas University in Mexico. The mean irradiation measured was 6.6 kW-h per m{sup 2}. Based on the solar data obtained at the station, the hydrogen produced by a typical solar-hydrogen (SH) system was evaluated. The study showed that an important quantity of hydrogen as an energy vector could be obtained from solar radiation. April was determined to be the month of maximum hydrogen production. The lowest hydrogen production was in November. The data obtained during this study can be used to evaluate the solar renewable energy resource expressed as hydrogen production. 19 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  13. Simulating carbon stocks and fluxes of an African tropical montane forest with an individual-based forest model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Ensslin, Andreas; Rutten, Gemma; Fischer, Markus; Schellenberger Costa, David; Kleyer, Michael; Hemp, Andreas; Paulick, Sebastian; Huth, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests are carbon-dense and highly productive ecosystems. Consequently, they play an important role in the global carbon cycle. In the present study we used an individual-based forest model (FORMIND) to analyze the carbon balances of a tropical forest. The main processes of this model are tree growth, mortality, regeneration, and competition. Model parameters were calibrated using forest inventory data from a tropical forest at Mt. Kilimanjaro. The simulation results showed that the model successfully reproduces important characteristics of tropical forests (aboveground biomass, stem size distribution and leaf area index). The estimated aboveground biomass (385 t/ha) is comparable to biomass values in the Amazon and other tropical forests in Africa. The simulated forest reveals a gross primary production of 24 tcha(-1) yr(-1). Modeling above- and belowground carbon stocks, we analyzed the carbon balance of the investigated tropical forest. The simulated carbon balance of this old-growth forest is zero on average. This study provides an example of how forest models can be used in combination with forest inventory data to investigate forest structure and local carbon balances.

  14. Acetone-CO enhancement ratios in the upper troposphere based on 7 years of CARIBIC data: new insights and estimates of regional acetone fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbeck, Garlich; Bönisch, Harald; Neumaier, Marco; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Orphal, Johannes; Brito, Joel; Becker, Julia; Sprung, Detlev; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Zahn, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Acetone and carbon monoxide (CO) are two important trace gases controlling the oxidation capacity of the troposphere; enhancement ratios (EnRs) are useful in assessing their sources and fate between emission and sampling, especially in pollution plumes. In this study, we focus on in situ data from the upper troposphere recorded by the passenger-aircraft-based IAGOS-CARIBIC (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System-Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) observatory over the periods 2006-2008 and 2012-2015. This dataset is used to investigate the seasonal and spatial variation of acetone-CO EnRs. Furthermore, we utilize a box model accounting for dilution, chemical degradation and secondary production of acetone from precursors. In former studies, increasing acetone-CO EnRs in a plume were associated with secondary production of acetone. Results of our box model question this common presumption and show increases of acetone-CO EnR over time without taking secondary production of acetone into account. The temporal evolution of EnRs in the upper troposphere, especially in summer, is not negligible and impedes the interpretation of EnRs as a means for partitioning of acetone and CO sources in the boundary layer. In order to ensure that CARIBIC EnRs represent signatures of source regions with only small influences by dilution and chemistry, we limit our analysis to temporal and spatial coherent events of high-CO enhancement. We mainly focus on North America and Southeast Asia because of their different mix of pollutant sources and the good data coverage. For both regions, we find the expected seasonal variation in acetone-CO EnRs with maxima in summer, but with higher amplitude over North America. We derive mean (± standard deviation) annual acetone fluxes of (53 ± 27) 10-13 kg m-2 s-1 and (185 ± 80) 10-13 kg m-2 s-1 for North America and Southeast Asia, respectively. The derived flux for North America

  15. Constraining spatial patterns and secular trends of springtime phenology with contrasting models based on plant phenology gardens and carbon dioxide flux networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. A.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Schwartz, M. D.

    2007-12-01

    Shifts in the timing and distribution of spring phenological events are a central feature of global change research. Most evidence, especially for multi-decade records, indicates a shift towards earlier spring but with frequent differences in the magnitude and location of trends. Here, using two phenology models, one based on first bloom dates of clonal honeysuckle and lilac and one based on initiation of net carbon uptake at eddy covariance flux towers, we upscaled observations of spring arrival to the conterminous US at 1km resolution. The models shared similar and coherent spatial and temporal patterns at large regional scales but differed at smaller scales, likely attributable to: use of cloned versus extant species; chilling requirements; model complexity; and biome characteristics. Our results constrain climatically driven shifts in 1981 to 2003 spring arrival for the conterminous US to between -2.7 and 0.1 day/23 years. Estimated trend differences were minor in the biome of model development (deciduous broad leaf forest) but diverged strongly in woody evergreen and grassland areas. Based on comparisons with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and a limited independent ground dataset, predictions from both models were consistent with observations of satellite-based greenness and measured leaf expansion. First bloom trends, which were mostly statistically insignificant, were also consistent with NDVI trends while the net carbon uptake model predicted extensive trends towards earlier spring in the western US that were not observed in the NDVI data, showing the implication of model application outside the biome range of initial development.

  16. Electron heat flux instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-02-01

    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  17. Characteristics of flux and gel layer on microfilter and non-woven fabric filter surface based on anoxic-aerobic MBRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Choi, Bo-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu-Hong; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Song, Kyung-Guen

    2012-10-01

    Non-woven fabric filter- (NWFF) and microfilter-MBR modules were made using 100 μm polypropylene and 0.25 μm polyethylene materials, respectively. The performances and mechanisms of the two processes were investigated, including additional batch filtration tests to find the function of the dynamic gel layer on the membrane surface. The HRT of both MBRs was 9 h and the operating permeate flux was 13 L/m(2)/h. The two MBRs consisted of an anoxic and aerobic reactor. The NWFF or microfilter (MF) was submerged in each of the aerobic reactors. The two MBRs showed similar performances for the removal of organic matters, suspended solids and nitrogen. Cake formation on the NWFF contributed to major resistance, while the gel layer on the microfilter or internal fouling of the pores played a key role in the fouling of the membrane surface. The amount of soluble extracellular polymer substances (EPS) (13 mg/L) of the attached sludge on the NWFF surface was larger than that (11 mg/L) of that suspended sludge. Consequently, the functional gel layer for the coarse and microfilter is established based on the relationship among the EPS, transmembrane pressure and MLSS.

  18. Real-time and in situ enzyme inhibition assay for the flux of hydrogen sulfide based on 3D interwoven AuPd-reduced graphene oxide network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Li; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhang, Lina; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2017-01-15

    A highly sensitive enzyme inhibition analytical platform was established firstly based on paper-supported 3D interwoven AuPd-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) network (NW) for real-time and in situ analysis of H2S released from cancer cells. The novel paper working electrode (PWE) with large electric conductivity, effective surface area and unusual biocompatibility, was fabricated via controllably assembling rGO and AuPd alloy nanoparticles onto the surface of cellulose fibers and into the macropores of paper, which was employed as affinity matrix for horseradish peroxidase (HRP) loading and cells capture. It was the superior performances of AuPd-rGO-NW-PWE that made the loaded HRP exhibit excellent electrocatalytic behavior to H2O2, bring the rapid enhancement of current response. After releasing H2S, the current response would be obviously decreased due to the efficient inhibition effect of H2S on HRP activity. The inhibition degree of HRP was directly proportional to the amount of H2S, and so, the flux of H2S released from cells could be recorded availably. Thus, this proposed enzyme inhibition cyto-sensor could be applied for efficient recording of the release of H2S, which had potential utility to cellular biology and pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of a detector chain using a FPGA-based time-to-digital converter to reconstruct the three-dimensional coordinates of single particles at high flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogrette, F; Heurteau, D; Chang, R; Bouton, Q; Westbrook, C I; Sellem, R; Clément, D

    2015-11-01

    We report on the development of a novel FPGA-based time-to-digital converter and its implementation in a detection chain that records the coordinates of single particles along three dimensions. The detector is composed of micro-channel plates mounted on top of a cross delay line and connected to fast electronics. We demonstrate continuous recording of the timing signals from the cross delay line at rates up to 4.1 × 10(6) s(-1) and three-dimensional reconstruction of the coordinates up to 3.2 × 10(6) particles per second. From the imaging of a calibrated structure we measure the in-plane resolution of the detector to be 140(20) μm at a flux of 3 × 10(5) particles per second. In addition, we analyze a method to estimate the resolution without placing any structure under vacuum, a significant practical improvement. While we use UV photons here, the results of this work apply to the detection of other kinds of particles.

  20. Power distribution of a co-axial dual-mechanical-port flux-switching permanent magnet machine for fuel-based extended range electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingkang Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, power distribution between the inner and outer machines of a co-axial dual-mechanical-port flux-switching permanent magnet (CADMP-FSPM machine is investigated for fuel-based extended range electric vehicle (ER-EV. Firstly, the topology and operation principle of the CADMP-FSPM machine are introduced, which consist of an inner FSPM machine used for high-speed, an outer FSPM machine for low-speed, and a magnetic isolation ring between them. Then, the magnetic field coupling of the inner and outer FSPM machines is analyzed with more attention paid to the optimization of the isolation ring thickness. Thirdly, the power-dimension (PD equations of the inner and outer FSPM machines are derived, respectively, and thereafter, the PD equation of the whole CADMP-FSPM machine can be given. Finally, the PD equations are validated by finite element analysis, which supplies the guidance on the design of this type of machines.

  1. Parameter sensitivity analysis and optimization for a satellite-based evapotranspiration model across multiple sites using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and flux data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Ma, Jinzhu; Zhu, Gaofeng; Ma, Ting; Han, Tuo; Feng, Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Global and regional estimates of daily evapotranspiration are essential to our understanding of the hydrologic cycle and climate change. In this study, we selected the radiation-based Priestly-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) model and assessed it at a daily time scale by using 44 flux towers. These towers distributed in a wide range of ecological systems: croplands, deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands, mixed forests, savannas, and shrublands. A regional land surface evapotranspiration model with a relatively simple structure, the PT-JPL model largely uses ecophysiologically-based formulation and parameters to relate potential evapotranspiration to actual evapotranspiration. The results using the original model indicate that the model always overestimates evapotranspiration in arid regions. This likely results from the misrepresentation of water limitation and energy partition in the model. By analyzing physiological processes and determining the sensitive parameters, we identified a series of parameter sets that can increase model performance. The model with optimized parameters showed better performance (R2 = 0.2-0.87; Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) = 0.1-0.87) at each site than the original model (R2 = 0.19-0.87; NSE = -12.14-0.85). The results of the optimization indicated that the parameter β (water control of soil evaporation) was much lower in arid regions than in relatively humid regions. Furthermore, the optimized value of parameter m1 (plant control of canopy transpiration) was mostly between 1 to 1.3, slightly lower than the original value. Also, the optimized parameter Topt correlated well to the actual environmental temperature at each site. We suggest that using optimized parameters with the PT-JPL model could provide an efficient way to improve the model performance.

  2. Flux Noise in a Superconducting Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, F. T.

    2017-08-01

    We study a superconducting transmission line (TL) formed by distributed L C oscillators and excited by external magnetic fluxes which are aroused from random magnetization (A ) placed in substrate or (B ) distributed at interfaces of a two-wire TL. The low-frequency dynamics of a random magnetic field is described based on the diffusion Langevin equation with a short-range source caused by (a ) a random amplitude or (b ) the gradient of magnetization. For a TL modeled as a two-port network with open and shorted ends, the effective magnetic flux at the open end has nonlocal dependency on noise distribution along the TL. The flux-flux correlation function is evaluated and analyzed for the regimes (A a ), (A b ), (B a ), and (B b ). Essential frequency dispersion takes place around the inverse diffusion time of random flux along the TL. Typically, noise effect increases with size faster than the area of the TL. The flux-flux correlator can be verified both via the population relaxation rate of the qubit, which is formed by the Josephson junction shunted by the TL with flux noises, and via random voltage at the open end of the TL.

  3. Direct Torque Control Induction Motor Drive with Improved Flux Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoopendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate flux estimation and control of stator flux by the flux control loop is the determining factor in effective implementation of DTC algorithm. In this paper a comparison of voltage-model-based flux estimation techniques for flux response improvement is carried out. The effectiveness of these methods is judged on the basis of Root Mean Square Flux Error (RMSFE, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of stator current, and dynamic flux response. The theoretical aspects of these methods are discussed and a comparative analysis is provided with emphasis on digital signal processor (DSP based controller implementation. The effectiveness of the proposed flux estimation algorithm is investigated through simulation and experimentally validated on a test drive.

  4. The SeaFlux Turbulent Flux Dataset Version 1.0 Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayson, Carol Anne; Roberts, J. Brent; Bogdanoff, Alec S.

    2012-01-01

    Under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Global Energy and Water cycle EXperiment (GEWEX) Data and Assessment Panel (GDAP), the SeaFlux Project was created to investigate producing a high-resolution satellite-based dataset of surface turbulent fluxes over the global oceans. The most current release of the SeaFlux product is Version 1.0; this represents the initial release of turbulent surface heat fluxes, associated near-surface variables including a diurnally varying sea surface temperature.

  5. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  6. Nitrous Oxide Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Nitrous Oxide (N20) flux is the net rate of nitrous oxide exchange between an ecosystem and the atmosphere. Data of this variable were generated by the USGS...

  7. Flux in Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise elektroonilise kunsti sümpoosioni ISEA2004 klubiõhtu "Flux in Tallinn" klubis Bon Bon. Eestit esindasid Ropotator, Ars Intel Inc., Urmas Puhkan, Joel Tammik, Taavi Tulev (pseud. Wochtzchee). Klubiõhtu koordinaator Andres Lõo

  8. Earth's surface heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Davies

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a revised estimate of Earth's surface heat flux that is based upon a heat flow data-set with 38 347 measurements, which is 55% more than used in previous estimates. Our methodology, like others, accounts for hydrothermal circulation in young oceanic crust by utilising a half-space cooling approximation. For the rest of Earth's surface, we estimate the average heat flow for different geologic domains as defined by global digital geology maps; and then produce the global estimate by multiplying it by the total global area of that geologic domain. The averaging is done on a polygon set which results from an intersection of a 1 degree equal area grid with the original geology polygons; this minimises the adverse influence of clustering. These operations and estimates are derived accurately using methodologies from Geographical Information Science. We consider the virtually un-sampled Antarctica separately and also make a small correction for hot-spots in young oceanic lithosphere. A range of analyses is presented. These, combined with statistical estimates of the error, provide a measure of robustness. Our final preferred estimate is 47±2 TW, which is greater than previous estimates.

  9. Flux Emergence (Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. M. Cheung

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic flux emergence from the solar convection zone into the overlying atmosphere is the driver of a diverse range of phenomena associated with solar activity. In this article, we introduce theoretical concepts central to the study of flux emergence and discuss how the inclusion of different physical effects (e.g., magnetic buoyancy, magnetoconvection, reconnection, magnetic twist, interaction with ambient field in models impact the evolution of the emerging field and plasma.

  10. Structural Control of Metabolic Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajitz-Hermstein, Max; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Organisms have to continuously adapt to changing environmental conditions or undergo developmental transitions. To meet the accompanying change in metabolic demands, the molecular mechanisms of adaptation involve concerted interactions which ultimately induce a modification of the metabolic state, which is characterized by reaction fluxes and metabolite concentrations. These state transitions are the effect of simultaneously manipulating fluxes through several reactions. While metabolic control analysis has provided a powerful framework for elucidating the principles governing this orchestrated action to understand metabolic control, its applications are restricted by the limited availability of kinetic information. Here, we introduce structural metabolic control as a framework to examine individual reactions' potential to control metabolic functions, such as biomass production, based on structural modeling. The capability to carry out a metabolic function is determined using flux balance analysis (FBA). We examine structural metabolic control on the example of the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli by the recently introduced framework of functional centrality (FC). This framework is based on the Shapley value from cooperative game theory and FBA, and we demonstrate its superior ability to assign “share of control” to individual reactions with respect to metabolic functions and environmental conditions. A comparative analysis of various scenarios illustrates the usefulness of FC and its relations to other structural approaches pertaining to metabolic control. We propose a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate FCs for large networks, based on the enumeration of elementary flux modes. We further give detailed biological interpretation of FCs for production of lactate and ATP under various respiratory conditions. PMID:24367246

  11. Concentration-Discharge Relationships, Nested Reaction Fronts, and the Balance of Oxidative and Acid-Base Weathering Fluxes in an Alpine Catchment, East River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, M.; Carroll, R. W. H.; Williams, K. H.; Maxwell, R. M.; Maher, K.

    2016-12-01

    Although important for solute production and transport, the varied interactions between biogeochemical processes and subsurface hydrology remain poorly characterized. We investigate these couplings in the headwaters of the East River, CO, a high-elevation shale-dominated catchment system in the Rocky Mountains, using concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships for major cations, anions, and organic carbon. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) displays a positive C-Q relationship with well-defined clockwise hysteresis, indicating the mobilization and depletion of DOC in the upper soil horizons and highlighting the importance of shallow flowpaths through the snowmelt period. Cation and anion concentrations demonstrate that carbonate weathering, which dominates solute fluxes, is promoted by both carbonic acid and sulfuric acid derived from oxidation of pyrite in the shale bedrock. Sulfuric acid weathering in the deep subsurface dominates during base flow conditions when waters have infiltrated below the hypothesized pyrite oxidation front, whereas carbonic acid weathering plays a dominant role during the snowmelt period as a result of shallow flowpaths. Differential C-Q relationships between solutes suggest that infiltrating waters approach calcite saturation before reaching the pyrite oxidation front, after which sulfuric acid reduces carbonate alkalinity. This increase in CO2(aq) at the expense of HCO3- results in outgassing of CO2 when waters equilibrate to surface conditions, and reduces the export of carbon and alkalinity from the East River by roughly 33% annually. Future changes in snowmelt dynamics that control the balance of carbonic and sulfuric acid weathering therefore have the capacity to substantially alter the cycling of carbon in the East River catchment. Ultimately, we demonstrate that differential C-Q relationships between major solutes can provide unique insights into the complex subsurface flow and biogeochemical dynamics that operate at catchment scales.

  12. A Novel Flux Estimator Based on Multiple Second-Order Generalized Integrators and Frequency-Locked Loop for Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Rende; Xin, Zhen; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2017-01-01

    Accurate flux estimation is essential for the implementation of a high-performance ac motor drive. However, it still faces some problems, which can better be projected by analyzing performances of existing flux estimators, implemented with either a pure integrator or a low-pass filter (LPF......). To solve the problems, an alternative flux estimator, implemented with a single second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) and a frequency-locked loop (FLL), is discussed for induction motor drives. The SOGI block included in this algorithm works for integrating the back-electromotive force, which unlike...... the pure integrator and LPF, does not experience saturation and significant dc offsets caused by different initial conditions. The single-SOGI-FLL estimator does not need additional magnitude and phase compensation, while its performance may deteriorate at low speed, caused by the inverse proportional...

  13. CO2 flux geothermometer for geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M. C.; Rowland, J. V.; Chiodini, G.; Rissmann, C. F.; Bloomberg, S.; Fridriksson, T.; Oladottir, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    A new geothermometer (TCO2 Flux) is proposed based on soil diffuse CO2 flux and shallow temperature measurements made on areas of steam heated, thermally altered ground above active geothermal systems. This CO2 flux geothermometer is based on a previously reported CO2 geothermometer that was designed for use with fumarole analysis. The new geothermometer provides a valuable additional exploration tool for estimating subsurface temperatures in high-temperature geothermal systems. Mean TCO2 Flux estimates fall within the range of deep drill hole temperatures at Wairakei (New Zealand), Tauhara (New Zealand), Rotokawa (New Zealand), Ohaaki (New Zealand), Reykjanes (Iceland) and Copahue (Argentina). The spatial distribution of geothermometry estimates is consistent with the location of major upflow zones previously reported at the Wairakei and Rotokawa geothermal systems. TCO2 Flux was also evaluated at White Island (New Zealand) and Reporoa (New Zealand), where limited sub-surface data exists. Mode TCO2 Flux at White Island is high (320 °C), the highest of the systems considered in this study. However, the geothermometer relies on mineral-water equilibrium in neutral pH reservoir fluids, and would not be reliable in such an active and acidic environment. Mean TCO2 Flux at Reporoa (310 °C) is high, which indicates Reporoa has a separate upflow from the nearby Waiotapu geothermal system; an outflow from Waiotapu would not be expected to have such high temperature.

  14. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, B.; Premaratne, M.; Lewis, P. M.; Thomson, R.; Fitzgerald, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications.

  15. The flux-flux correlation function for anharmonic barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goussev, Arseni; Schubert, Roman; Waalkens, Holger; Wiggins, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The flux-flux correlation function formalism is a standard and widely used approach for the computation of reaction rates. In this paper we introduce a method to compute the classical and quantum flux-flux correlation functions for anharmonic barriers essentially analytically through the use of the

  16. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerosa, Giacomo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Marzuoli, Riccardo [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via dei Musei 41, 20125 Brescia (Italy); Fondazione Lombardia per l' Ambiente, piazza Diaz 9, 20123 Milano (Italy); Rossini, Micol; Panigada, Cinzia; Meroni, Michele; Colombo, Roberto [Remote Sensing of Environmental Dynamics Lab., DISAT, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Faoro, Franco [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Iriti, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.iriti@unimi.i [Plant Pathology Institute, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O{sub 3} exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O{sub 3} m{sup -2}. Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, DELTAF/F{sub m}{sup '}). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress. - Ozone stomatal fluxes affect leaf cell viability, photosynthetic performance, optical properties and crop yield of bean.

  17. Flux Pinning in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  18. Flux pinning in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  19. IR-thermography-based investigation of critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling of water at atmospheric and high pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucci, Matteo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Seong, Jee H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jdacopo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Richenderfer, Andrew [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Kossolapov, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Here we report on MIT’s THM work in Q4 2016 and Q1 2017. The goal of this project is to design, construct and execute tests of flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF) at high-pressure using high-resolution and high-speed video and infrared (IR) thermometry, to generate unique data to inform the development of and validate mechanistic boiling heat transfer and CHF models. In FY2016, a new test section was designed and fabricated. Data was collected at atmospheric conditions at 10, 25 and 50 K subcoolings, and three mass fluxes, i.e. 500, 750 and 1000 kg/m2/s. Starting in Q4 2016 and continuing forward, new post-processing techniques have been developed to analyze the data collected. These new algorithms analyze the time-dependent temperature and heat flux distributions to calculate nucleation site density, nucleation frequency, growth and wait time, dry area fraction, and the complete heat flux partitioning. In Q1 2017 a new flow boiling loop was designed and constructed to support flow boiling tests up 10 bar pressure and 180 °C. Initial shakedown and testing has been completed. The flow loop and test section are now ready to begin high-pressure flow boiling testing.

  20. Acoustic noise reduction of a 6/4 SRM drive based on third harmonic real power cancellation and mutual coupling flux enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, T.-S., E-mail: thchuang@mail.mcut.edu.t [Department of Electrical Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Road, Taishan, Taipei 24301, Taiwan (China)

    2010-03-15

    In this paper, an effective technology is presented for noise reduction and torque increase in a three-phase 6/4 switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive without position sensors. Using a three-phase full bridge inverter and Y-typed connection of winding configuration, three-phase sinusoidal currents in each commutation region can be controlled to form long and short-flux paths. Long main flux can be added by short mutual coupling flux to enhance the stator flux; the resulting current-oriented control scheme can obtain a higher electromagnetic torque and cancel the third harmonic real power. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, it was applied to a 350 W three-phase 6/4 SRM drive system operating below 1500 rpm. Experimental results yield maximal acoustic noise at 74 dB and maximal torque at 21 kg cm. Moreover, the 6th harmonic real power is found to be the dominant source of acoustic noises in the SRM system.

  1. A thermal-hydraulic drift-flux based mixture-fluid model for the description of single- and two-phase flow along a general coolant channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alois Hoeld [Bernaysstr. 16A, D-80937 Munich (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Different to the very simple class of homogeneous non-equilibrium models (HEM) an one dimensional thermal-hydraulic theoretical drift-flux based and thus non-homogeneous coolant channel model and, as a result, an in itself complete thermal-hydraulic coolant channel module CCM have been established allowing to simulate in a very general way the steady state and transient behaviour of the most important parameters of a single- or two-phase fluid flowing within any type of heated or non-heated coolant channel (with an eventually varying cross flow area). To avoid mathematical discontinuities at the transition from single- to two-phase flow the coolant channel will, in its general form, be split into different regions, i.e. be looked as a basic channel (BC) which can consist of a number of different flow regimes and can, accordingly, be subdivided into a number of sub-channels (SC-s). All of them belong, obviously, to only two types of SC-s, a SC with an only single-phase or two-phase flow regime separated by corresponding time-dependent phase boundaries. After a nodalization of the BC (and thus the corresponding SC-s) and applying a 'modified finite element method' for the spatial discretization of the partial differential eqs. (PDE-s) representing the conservation equations of thermal-hydraulics and after taking into account the initial and boundary conditions together with the additional constitutive equations a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations (ODE-s) of 1-st order can be derived for each SC type (and thus also the entire BC). Since during a transient a SC boundary can cross the BC node boundaries (so that a SC can eventually shrink to an only single node or even disappear or be created anew) special attention had to be given to the possibility of variable entrance or outlet positions (representing boiling boundaries or mixture levels). A special quadratic polygon approximation procedure (PAX) had to be

  2. Surface fluxes in heterogeneous landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C.

    1997-01-01

    The surface fluxes in homogeneous landscapes are calculated by similarity scaling principles. The methodology is well establish. In heterogeneous landscapes with spatial changes in the micro scale range, i e from 100 m to 10 km, advective effects are significant. The present work focus on these effects in an agricultural countryside typical for the midlatitudes. Meteorological and satellite data from a highly heterogeneous landscape in the Rhine Valley, Germany was collected in the large-scale field experiment TRACT (Transport of pollutants over complex terrain) in 1992. Classified satellite images, Landsat TM and ERS SAR, are used as basis for roughness maps. The roughnesses were measured at meteorological masts in the various cover classes and assigned pixel by pixel to the images. The roughness maps are aggregated, i e spatially averaged, into so-called effective roughness lengths. This calculation is performed by a micro scale aggregation model. The model solves the linearized atmospheric flow equations by a numerical (Fast Fourier Transform) method. This model also calculate maps of friction velocity and momentum flux pixel wise in heterogeneous landscapes. It is indicated how the aggregation methodology can be used to calculate the heat fluxes based on the relevant satellite data i e temperature and soil moisture information. (au) 10 tabs., 49 ills., 223 refs.

  3. Estimating biological elementary flux modes that decompose a flux distribution by the minimal branching property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2014-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Elementary flux mode (EFM) is a useful tool in constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. The property that every flux distribution can be decomposed as a weighted sum of EFMs allows certain applications of EFMs to studying flux distributions. The existence of biologically infea...... knowledge, which facilitates interpretation. Comparison of the methods applied to a complex flux distribution in Lactococcus lactis similarly showed the advantages of MBD. The minimal branching EFM concept underlying MBD should be useful in other applications.......MOTIVATION: Elementary flux mode (EFM) is a useful tool in constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. The property that every flux distribution can be decomposed as a weighted sum of EFMs allows certain applications of EFMs to studying flux distributions. The existence of biologically......, i.e. minimal branching. RESULTS: We developed the concept of minimal branching EFM and derived the minimal branching decomposition (MBD) to decompose flux distributions. Testing in the core Escherichia coli metabolic network indicated that MBD can distinguish branches at branch points and greatly...

  4. Flux Vacua and Supermanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, P A

    2007-01-01

    As been recently pointed out, physically relevant models derived from string theory require the presence of non-vanishing form fluxes besides the usual geometrical constraints. In the case of NS-NS fluxes, the Generalized Complex Geometry encodes these informations in a beautiful geometrical structure. On the other hand, the R-R fluxes call for supergeometry as the underlying mathematical framework. In this context, we analyze the possibility of constructing interesting supermanifolds recasting the geometrical data and RR fluxes. To characterize these supermanifolds we have been guided by the fact topological strings on supermanifolds require the super-Ricci flatness of the target space. This can be achieved by adding to a given bosonic manifold enough anticommuting coordinates and new constraints on the bosonic sub-manifold. We study these constraints at the linear and non-linear level for a pure geometrical setting and in the presence of p-form field strengths. We find that certain spaces admit several supe...

  5. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  6. Ex-Stream: A MATLAB program for calculating fluid flux through sediment-water interfaces based on steady and transient temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Travis E.; Cardenas, M. Bayani

    2011-10-01

    Temperature is a useful environmental tracer for quantifying movement and exchange of water and heat through and near sediment-water interfaces (SWI). Heat tracing involves analyzing temperature time series or profiles from temperature probes deployed in sediments. Ex-Stream is a MATLAB program that brings together two transient and two steady one-dimensional coupled heat and fluid flux analytical models. The program includes a graphical user interface, a detailed user manual, and postprocessing capabilities that enable users to extract fluid fluxes from time-series temperature observations. Program output is written to comma-separated values files, displayed within the MATLAB command window, and may be optionally plotted. The models that are integrated into Ex-Stream can be run collectively, allowing for direct comparison, or individually.

  7. Using a thermal-based two source energy balance model with time-differencing to estimate surface energy fluxes with day-night MODIS observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzinski, Radoslaw; Anderson, M.C.; Kustas, W.P.

    2013-01-01

    of geostationary satellites, and also exploits the higher spatial resolution provided by polar orbiting satellites. A method for estimating nocturnal surface fluxes and a scheme for estimating the fraction of green vegetation are developed and evaluated. Modification for green vegetation fraction leads...... satellites at sub-hourly temporal resolution. The DTD model has been applied primarily during the active growth phase of agricultural crops and rangeland vegetation grasses, and has not been rigorously evaluated during senescence or in forested ecosystems. In this paper we present modifications to the DTD...... to significantly improved estimation of the heat fluxes from the vegetation canopy during senescence and in forests. When the modified DTD model is run with LST measurements acquired with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Terra and Aqua satellites, generally satisfactory...

  8. Benthic fluxes in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Fuller, C.; Harmon, D.; Hartman, Blayne; Korosec, M.; Miller, L.G.; Rea, R.; Warren, S.; Berelson, W.; Hager, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of benthic fluxes have been made on four occasions between February 1980 and February 1981 at a channel station and a shoal station in South San Francisco Bay, using in situ flux chambers. On each occasion replicate measurements of easily measured substances such as radon, oxygen, ammonia, and silica showed a variability (??1??) of 30% or more over distances of a few meters to tens of meters, presumably due to spatial heterogeneity in the benthic community. Fluxes of radon were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because of greater macrofaunal irrigation at the former, but showed little seasonal variability at either station. At both stations fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and silica were largest following the spring bloom. Fluxes measured during different seasons ranged over factors of 2-3, 3, 4-5, and 3-10 (respectively), due to variations in phytoplankton productivity and temperature. Fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because the net phytoplankton productivity is greater there and the organic matter produced must be rapidly incorporated in the sediment column. Fluxes of silica were greater at the shoal station, probably because of the greater irrigation rates there. N + N (nitrate + nitrite) fluxes were variable in magnitude and in sign. Phosphate fluxes were too small to measure accurately. Alkalinity fluxes were similar at the two stations and are attributed primarily to carbonate dissolution at the shoal station and to sulfate reduction at the channel station. The estimated average fluxes into South Bay, based on results from these two stations over the course of a year, are (in mmol m-2 d-1): O2 = -27 ?? 6; TCO2 = 23 ?? 6; Alkalinity = 9 ?? 2; N + N = -0.3 ?? 0.5; NH3 = 1.4 ?? 0.2; PO4 = 0.1 ?? 0.4; Si = 5.6 ?? 1.1. These fluxes are comparable in magnitude to those in other temperate estuaries with similar productivity, although the seasonal

  9. ToMI-FBA: A genome-scale metabolic flux based algorithm to select optimum hosts and media formulations for expressing pathways of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Nazem-Bokaee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Total Membrane Influx constrained Flux Balance Analysis (ToMI-FBA algorithm was developed in this research as a new tool to help researchers decide which microbial host and medium formulation are optimal for expressing a new metabolic pathway. ToMI-FBA relies on genome-scale metabolic flux modeling and a novel in silico cell membrane influx constraint that specifies the flux of atoms (not molecules into the cell through all possible membrane transporters. The ToMI constraint is constructed through the addition of an extra row and column to the stoichiometric matrix of a genome-scale metabolic flux model. In this research, the mathematical formulation of the ToMI constraint is given along with four case studies that demonstrate its usefulness. In Case Study 1, ToMI-FBA returned an optimal culture medium formulation for the production of isobutanol from Bacillus subtilis. Significant levels of L-valine were recommended to optimize production, and this result has been observed experimentally. In Case Study 2, it is demonstrated how the carbon to nitrogen uptake ratio can be specified as an additional ToMI-FBA constraint. This was investigated for maximizing medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA production from Pseudomonas putida KT2440. In Case Study 3, ToMI-FBA revealed a strategy of adding cellobiose as a means to increase ethanol selectivity during the stationary growth phase of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. This strategy was also validated experimentally. Finally, in Case Study 4, B. subtilis was identified as a superior host to Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Synechocystis PCC6803 for the production of artemisinate.

  10. The Effect of Growth Temperature and V/III Flux Ratio of MOCVD Antimony Based Semiconductors on Growth Rate and Surface Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramelan Ari Handono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial Alx Ga1-x Sb layers on GaSb and GaAs substrates have been grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using TMAl, TMGa and TMSb. Nomarski microscope and a profiler were employed to examine the surface morphology and growth rate of the samples. We report the effect of growth temperature and V/III flux ratio on growth rate and surface morphology. Growth temperatures in the range of 520°C and 680°C and V/III ratios from 1 to 5 have been investigated. A growth rate activation energy of 0.73 eV was found. At low growth temperatures between 520 and 540°C, the surface morphology is poor due to antimonide precipitates associated with incomplete decomposition of the TMSb. For layers grown on GaAs at 580°C and 600°C with a V/III ratio of 3 a high quality surface morphology is typical, with a mirror-like surface and good composition control. It was found that a suitable growth temperature and V/III flux ratio was beneficial for producing good AlGaSb layers. Undoped AlGaSb grown at 580°C with a V/III flux ratio of 3 at the rate of 3.5 μm/hour shows p-type conductivity with smooth surface morphology

  11. Gravitational Contribution to the Heat Flux in a Simple Dilute Fluid: An Approach Based on General Relativistic Kinetic Theory to First Order in the Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Brun-Battistini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Richard C. Tolman analyzed the relation between a temperature gradient and a gravitational field in an equilibrium situation. In 2012, Tolman’s law was generalized to a non-equilibrium situation for a simple dilute relativistic fluid. The result in that scenario, obtained by introducing the gravitational force through the molecular acceleration, couples the heat flux with the metric coefficients and the gradients of the state variables. In the present paper it is shown, by explicitly describing the single particle orbits as geodesics in Boltzmann’s equation, that a gravitational field drives a heat flux in this type of system. The calculation is devoted solely to the gravitational field contribution to this heat flux in which a Newtonian limit to the Schwarzschild metric is assumed. The corresponding transport coefficient, which is obtained within a relaxation approximation, corresponds to the dilute fluid in a weak gravitational field. The effect is negligible in the non-relativistic regime, as evidenced by the direct evaluation of the corresponding limit.

  12. Quantification of terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the conterminous United States combining a process-based biogeochemical model and MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing provides continuous temporal and spatial information of terrestrial ecosystems. Using these remote sensing data and eddy flux measurements and biogeochemical models, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, should provide a more adequate quantification of carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and carbon flux data of AmeriFlux to conduct such a study. We first modify the gross primary production (GPP modeling in TEM by incorporating EVI and LSWI to account for the effects of the changes of canopy photosynthetic capacity, phenology and water stress. Second, we parameterize and verify the new version of TEM with eddy flux data. We then apply the model to the conterminous United States over the period 2000–2005 at a 0.05° × 0.05° spatial resolution. We find that the new version of TEM made improvement over the previous version and generally captured the expected temporal and spatial patterns of regional carbon dynamics. We estimate that regional GPP is between 7.02 and 7.78 Pg C yr−1 and net primary production (NPP ranges from 3.81 to 4.38 Pg C yr−1 and net ecosystem production (NEP varies within 0.08–0.73 Pg C yr−1 over the period 2000–2005 for the conterminous United States. The uncertainty due to parameterization is 0.34, 0.65 and 0.18 Pg C yr−1 for the regional estimates of GPP, NPP and NEP, respectively. The effects of extreme climate and disturbances such as severe drought in 2002 and destructive Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were captured by the model. Our study provides a new independent and more adequate measure of carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, which will benefit studies of carbon-climate feedback and facilitate policy-making of carbon management and climate.

  13. Quantification of terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the conterminous United States combining a process-based biogeochemical model and MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai; Cook, D.; Coulter, Richard L.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Scott, Russell L.; Munger, J. W.; Bible, Ken

    2011-08-31

    Satellite remote sensing provides continuous temporal and spatial information of terrestrial ecosystems. Using these remote sensing data and eddy flux measurements and biogeochemical models, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), should provide a more adequate quantification of carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) and carbon flux data of AmeriFlux to conduct such a study. We first modify the gross primary production (GPP) modeling in TEM by incorporating EVI and LSWI to account for the effects of the changes of canopy photosynthetic capacity, phenology and water stress. Second, we parameterize and verify the new version of TEM with eddy flux data. We then apply the model to the conterminous United States over the period 2000-2005 at a 0.05-0.05 spatial resolution. We find that the new version of TEM made improvement over the previous version and generally captured the expected temporal and spatial patterns of regional carbon dynamics. We estimate that regional GPP is between 7.02 and 7.78 PgC yr{sup -1} and net primary production (NPP) ranges from 3.81 to 4.38 Pg Cyr{sup -1} and net ecosystem production (NEP) varies within 0.08- 0.73 PgC yr{sup -1} over the period 2000-2005 for the conterminous United States. The uncertainty due to parameterization is 0.34, 0.65 and 0.18 PgC yr{sup -1} for the regional estimates of GPP, NPP and NEP, respectively. The effects of extreme climate and disturbances such as severe drought in 2002 and destructive Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were captured by the model. Our study provides a new independent and more adequate measure of carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, which will benefit studies of carbon-climate feedback and facilitate policy-making of carbon management and climate.

  14. Quantification of Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics in the Conterminous United States Combining a Process-Based Biogeochemical Model and MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai; Cook, David R.; Coulter, Richard L.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Scott, Russell L.; Munger, J. W.; Bible, Ken

    2011-09-21

    Satellite remote sensing provides continuous temporal and spatial information of terrestrial 24 ecosystems. Using these remote sensing data and eddy flux measurements and biogeochemical 25 models, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), should provide a more adequate 26 quantification of carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use Moderate Resolution 27 Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Land Surface Water Index 28 (LSWI) and carbon flux data of AmeriFlux to conduct such a study. We first modify the gross primary 29 production (GPP) modeling in TEM by incorporating EVI and LSWI to account for the effects of the 30 changes of canopy photosynthetic capacity, phenology and water stress. Second, we parameterize and 31 verify the new version of TEM with eddy flux data. We then apply the model to the conterminous 32 United States over the period 2000-2005 at a 0.05o ×0.05o spatial resolution. We find that the new 33 version of TEM generally captured the expected temporal and spatial patterns of regional carbon 34 dynamics. We estimate that regional GPP is between 7.02 and 7.78 Pg C yr-1 and net primary 35 production (NPP) ranges from 3.81 to 4.38 Pg C yr-1 and net ecosystem production (NEP) varies 36 within 0.08-0.73 Pg C yr-1 over the period 2000-2005 for the conterminous United States. The 37 uncertainty due to parameterization is 0.34, 0.65 and 0.18 Pg C yr-1 for the regional estimates of GPP, 38 NPP and NEP, respectively. The effects of extreme climate and disturbances such as severe drought in 39 2002 and destructive Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were captured by the model. Our study provides a 40 new independent and more adequate measure of carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, 41 which will benefit studies of carbon-climate feedback and facilitate policy-making of carbon 42 management and climate.

  15. Standardized Automated CO2/H2O Flux Systems for Individual Research Groups and Flux Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Begashaw, Israel; Fratini, Gerardo; Griessbaum, Frank; Kathilankal, James; Xu, Liukang; Franz, Daniela; Joseph, Everette; Larmanou, Eric; Miller, Scott; Papale, Dario; Sabbatini, Simone; Sachs, Torsten; Sakai, Ricardo; McDermitt, Dayle

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, spatial and temporal flux data coverage improved significantly, and on multiple scales, from a single station to continental networks, due to standardization, automation, and management of data collection, and better handling of the extensive amounts of generated data. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are required to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process. Such tools are needed to maximize time dedicated to authoring publications and answering research questions, and to minimize time and expenses spent on data acquisition, processing, and quality control. Thus, these tools should produce standardized verifiable datasets and provide a way to cross-share the standardized data with external collaborators to leverage available funding, promote data analyses and publications. LI-COR gas analyzers are widely used in past and present flux networks such as AmeriFlux, ICOS, AsiaFlux, OzFlux, NEON, CarboEurope, and FluxNet-Canada, etc. These analyzers have gone through several major improvements over the past 30 years. However, in 2016, a three-prong development was completed to create an automated flux system which can accept multiple sonic anemometer and datalogger models, compute final and complete fluxes on-site, merge final fluxes with supporting weather soil and radiation data, monitor station outputs and send automated alerts to researchers, and allow secure sharing and cross-sharing of the station and data access. Two types of these research systems were developed: open-path (LI-7500RS) and enclosed-path (LI-7200RS). Key developments included: • Improvement of gas analyzer performance • Standardization and automation of final flux calculations onsite, and in real-time • Seamless integration with latest site management and data sharing tools In terms of the gas analyzer performance, the RS analyzers are based on established LI-7500/A and LI-7200

  16. The impact of in-canopy wind profile formulations on heat flux estimation using the remote sensing-based two-source model for an open orchard canopy in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammalleri, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Ciraolo, G.; D'Urso, G.; Kustas, W. P.; La Loggia, G.; Minacapilli, M.

    2010-07-01

    For open orchard and vineyard canopies containing significant fractions of exposed soil (>50%), typical of Mediterranean agricultural regions, the energy balance of the vegetation elements is strongly influenced by heat exchange with the bare soil/substrate. For these agricultural systems a "two-source" approach, where radiation and turbulent exchange between the soil and canopy elements are explicitly modelled, appears to be the only suitable methodology for reliably assessing energy fluxes. In strongly clumped canopies, the effective wind speed profile inside and below the canopy layer can highly influence the partitioning of energy fluxes between the soil and vegetation components. To assess the impact of in-canopy wind profile on model flux estimates, an analysis of three different formulations is presented, including algorithms from Goudriaan (1977), Massman (1987) and Lalic et al. (2003). The in-canopy wind profile formulations are applied to the thermal-based Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model developed by Norman et al. (1995) and modified by Kustas and Norman (1999). High resolution airborne remote sensing images, collected over an agricultural area located in the western part of Sicily (Italy) comprised primarily of vineyards, olive and citrus orchards, are used to derive all the input parameters need to apply the TSEB. The images were acquired from June to October 2008 and include a relatively wide range of meteorological and soil moisture conditions. A preliminary sensitivity analysis of the three wind profile algorithms highlight the dependence of wind speed just above the soil/substrate to leaf area index and canopy height over the typical canopy properties range of these agricultural area. It is found that differences in wind just above surface among the models is most significant under sparse and medium fractional cover conditions (20-60%). The TSEB model heat flux estimates are compared with micrometeorological measurements from a small aperture

  17. On The Vibrational Flux in Bounded Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Caturello, Naidel A M dos S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we derived a model based on general assumptions and allowed us to derive some important thermodynamic functions that are time-dependent, also we could see the behavior of these functions by surfaces. The model is based on independent movements that couple and construct a flux, which makes the system as a whole not to be independent at all.

  18. The O{sub 2} A-Band in the Fluxes and Polarization of Starlight Reflected by Earth-Like Exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauchez, Thomas [Laboratoire d’Optique Atmosphèrique (LOA), UMR 8518, Université Lille 1, Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Rossi, Loic; Stam, Daphne M. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2017-06-10

    Earth-like, potentially habitable exoplanets are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life. Information about their atmospheres and surfaces can be derived by analyzing the light of the parent star reflected by the planet. We investigate the influence of the surface albedo A {sub s}, the optical thickness b {sub cloud}, the altitude of water clouds, and the mixing ratio of biosignature O{sub 2} on the strength of the O{sub 2} A-band (around 760 nm) in the flux and polarization spectra of starlight reflected by Earth-like exoplanets. Our computations for horizontally homogeneous planets show that small mixing ratios ( η < 0.4) will yield moderately deep bands in flux and moderate-to-small band strengths in polarization, and that clouds will usually decrease the band depth in flux and the band strength in polarization. However, cloud influence will be strongly dependent on properties such as optical thickness, top altitude, particle phase, coverage fraction, and horizontal distribution. Depending on the surface albedo and cloud properties, different O{sub 2} mixing ratios η can give similar absorption-band depths in flux and band strengths in polarization, especially if the clouds have moderate-to-high optical thicknesses. Measuring both the flux and the polarization is essential to reduce the degeneracies, although it will not solve them, especially not for horizontally inhomogeneous planets. Observations at a wide range of phase angles and with a high temporal resolution could help to derive cloud properties and, once those are known, the mixing ratio of O{sub 2} or any other absorbing gas.

  19. Recurrence Analysis of Eddy Covariance Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Holger; Flach, Milan; Foken, Thomas; Hauhs, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) method is one key method to quantify fluxes in biogeochemical cycles in general, and carbon and energy transport across the vegetation-atmosphere boundary layer in particular. EC data from the worldwide net of flux towers (Fluxnet) have also been used to validate biogeochemical models. The high resolution data are usually obtained at 20 Hz sampling rate but are affected by missing values and other restrictions. In this contribution, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of EC fluxes using Recurrence Analysis (RA). High resolution data from the site DE-Bay (Waldstein-Weidenbrunnen) and fluxes calculated at half-hourly resolution from eight locations (part of the La Thuile dataset) provide a set of very long time series to analyze. After careful quality assessment and Fluxnet standard gapfilling pretreatment, we calculate properties and indicators of the recurrent structure based both on Recurrence Plots as well as Recurrence Networks. Time series of RA measures obtained from windows moving along the time axis are presented. Their interpretation is guided by three different questions: (1) Is RA able to discern periods where the (atmospheric) conditions are particularly suitable to obtain reliable EC fluxes? (2) Is RA capable to detect dynamical transitions (different behavior) beyond those obvious from visual inspection? (3) Does RA contribute to an understanding of the nonlinear synchronization between EC fluxes and atmospheric parameters, which is crucial for both improving carbon flux models as well for reliable interpolation of gaps? (4) Is RA able to recommend an optimal time resolution for measuring EC data and for analyzing EC fluxes? (5) Is it possible to detect non-trivial periodicities with a global RA? We will demonstrate that the answers to all five questions is affirmative, and that RA provides insights into EC dynamics not easily obtained otherwise.

  20. Atmospheric lepton fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaisser Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review of atmospheric muons and neutrinos emphasizes the high energy range relevant for backgrounds to high-energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. After a brief historical introduction, the main distinguishing features of atmospheric νμ and νe are discussed, along with the implications of the muon charge ratio for the νµ / ν̅µ ratio. Methods to account for effects of the knee in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum and the energy-dependence of hadronic interactions on the neutrino fluxes are discussed and illustrated in the context of recent results from IceCube. A simple numerical/analytic method is proposed for systematic investigation of uncertainties in neutrino fluxes arising from uncertainties in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum/composition and hadronic interactions.

  1. Metabolic engineering of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 for improvement of 1,3-propanediol and glycerol production based on in silico simulation of metabolic flux distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Yasutaka; Matsuo, Shingo; Hamada, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Fumio; Hanai, Taizo

    2017-11-25

    Production directly from carbon dioxide by engineered cyanobacteria is one of the promising technologies for sustainable future. Previously, we have successfully achieved 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) production using Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 with a synthetic metabolic pathway. The strain into which the synthetic metabolic pathway was introduced produced 3.48 mM (0.265 g/L) 1,3-PDO and 14.3 mM (1.32 g/L) glycerol during 20 days of incubation. In this study, the productivities of 1,3-PDO were improved by gene disruption selected by screening with in silico simulation. First, a stoichiometric metabolic model was applied to prediction of cellular metabolic flux distribution in a 1,3-PDO-producing strain of S. elongatus PCC 7942. A genome-scale model of S. elongatus PCC 7942 constructed by Knoop was modified by the addition of a synthetic metabolic pathway for 1,3-PDO production. Next, the metabolic flux distribution predicted by metabolic flux balance analysis (FBA) was used for in silico simulation of gene disruption. As a result of gene disruption simulation, NADPH dehydrogenase 1 (NDH-1) complexes were found by screening to be the most promising candidates for disruption to improve 1,3-PDO production. The effect of disruption of the gene encoding a subunit of the NDH-1 complex was evaluated in the 1,3-PDO-producing strain. During 20 days of incubation, the ndhF1-null 1,3-PDO-producing strain showed the highest titers: 4.44 mM (0.338 g/L) 1,3-PDO and 30.3 mM (2.79 g/L) glycerol. In this study, we successfully improved 1,3-PDO productivity on the basis of in silico simulation of gene disruption.

  2. A flux-based assessment of the effects of ozone on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and yield of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Borlotto Nano Lingua di Fuoco) in open-top chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Rossini, Micol; Panigada, Cinzia; Meroni, Michele; Colombo, Roberto; Faoro, Franco; Iriti, Marcello

    2009-05-01

    Stomatal ozone uptake, determined with the Jarvis' approach, was related to photosynthetic efficiency assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and reflectance measurements in open-top chamber experiments on Phaseolus vulgaris. The effects of O(3) exposure were also evaluated in terms of visible and microscopical leaf injury and plant productivity. Results showed that microscopical leaf symptoms, assessed as cell death and H(2)O(2) accumulation, preceded by 3-4 days the appearance of visible symptoms. An effective dose of ozone stomatal flux for visible leaf damages was found around 1.33 mmol O(3) m(-2). Significant linear dose-response relationships were obtained between accumulated fluxes and optical indices (PRI, NDI, DeltaF/F'(m)). The negative effects on photosynthesis reduced plant productivity, affecting the number of pods and seeds, but not seed weight. These results, besides contributing to the development of a flux-based ozone risk assessment for crops in Europe, highlight the potentiality of reflectance measurements for the early detection of ozone stress.

  3. Integrated passive flux measurement in groundwater: design and performance of iFLUX samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreydt, Goedele; Razaei, Meisam; Meire, Patrick; Van Keer, Ilse; Bronders, Jan; Seuntjens, Piet

    2017-04-01

    The monitoring and management of soil and groundwater is a challenge. Current methods for the determination of movement or flux of pollution in groundwater use no direct measurements but only simulations based on concentration measurements and Darcy velocity estimations. This entails large uncertainties which cause remediation failures and higher costs for contaminated site owners. On top of that, the lack of useful data makes it difficult to get approval for a risk-based management approach which completely avoids costly remedial actions. The iFLUX technology is a key development of Dr. Goedele Verreydt at the University of Antwerp and VITO. It is supported by the passive flux measurement technology as invented by Prof. Mike Annable and his team at the University of Florida. The iFLUX technology includes an in situ measurement device for capturing dynamic groundwater quality and quantity, the iFLUX sampler, and an associated interpretation and visualization method. The iFLUX sampler is a modular passive sampler that provides simultaneous in situ point determinations of a time-averaged target compound mass flux and water flux. The sampler is typically installed in a monitoring well where it intercepts the groundwater flow and captures the compounds of interest. The sampler consists of permeable cartridges which are each packed with a specific sorbent matrix. The sorbent matrix of the water flux cartridge is impregnated with known amounts of water soluble resident tracers. These tracers are leached from the matrix at rates proportional to the groundwater flux. The measurements of the contaminants and the remaining resident tracer are used to determine groundwater and target compound fluxes. Exposure times range from 1 week to 6 months, depending on the expected concentration and groundwater flow velocity. The iFLUX sampler technology has been validated and tested at several field projects. Currently, 4 cartridges are tested and available: 1 waterflux cartridge to

  4. Net sea–air CO2 flux uncertainties in the Bay of Biscay based on the choice of wind speed products and gas transfer parameterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Otero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of sea–air CO2 fluxes is largely dependent on wind speed through the gas transfer velocity parameterization. In this paper, we quantify uncertainties in the estimation of the CO2 uptake in the Bay of Biscay resulting from the use of different sources of wind speed such as three different global reanalysis meteorological models (NCEP/NCAR 1, NCEP/DOE 2 and ERA-Interim, one high-resolution regional forecast model (HIRLAM-AEMet, winds derived under the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP project, and QuikSCAT winds in combination with some of the most widely used gas transfer velocity parameterizations. Results show that net CO2 flux estimations during an entire seasonal cycle (September 2002–September 2003 may vary by a factor of ~ 3 depending on the selected wind speed product and the gas exchange parameterization, with the highest impact due to the last one. The comparison of satellite- and model-derived winds with observations at buoys advises against the systematic overestimation of NCEP-2 and the underestimation of NCEP-1. In the coastal region, the presence of land and the time resolution are the main constraints of QuikSCAT, which turns CCMP and ERA-Interim in the preferred options.

  5. Characteristics of Air-Sea Fluxes Based on In Situ Observations from a Platform in the Bohai Gulf during Early Mid-August 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingui Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An eddy covariance system and other atmospheric and oceanic parameters were measured simultaneously from a fixed Platform-A in the Bohai Gulf during early mid-August 2011. One of the main goals of the comprehensive observation was to reveal the basic meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Bohai Gulf. The results indicated that the diurnal characteristic curve for the air temperature (AT was steeply unimodal, while the curve of the SST was a bimodal valley type and mainly influenced by tides with its valley value corresponding to the high water level during the observation period. Southeasterly winds dominated and the wind speed was generally lower than 8 m/s, and the atmospheric stability over the Bohai Gulf was generally unstable. The wave strength levels were generally below level 3, with a greater number of swell waves than wind waves. The latter were usually associated with more momentum transport, a larger difference between AT and SST, and less heat transport. During the observational period, the mean momentum, sensible, and latent heat turbulent fluxes were 0.21, 21.6, and 27.8 W/m2, respectively. The ratio of the mean latent and sensible turbulent fluxes was about 1.3 and much lower than that in the South China Sea during the summer.

  6. Evaluating Energy Flux in Vibrofluidized Granular Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows require sustained input of energy for fluidization. A level of fluidization depends on the amount of heat flux provided to the flow. In general, the dissipation of the grains upon interaction balances the heat inputs and the resultant flow patterns can be described using hydrodynamic models. However, with the increase in packing fraction, the heat fluxes prediction of the cell increases. Here, a comparison is made for the proposed theoretical models against the MD simulations data. It is observed that the variation of packing fraction in the granular cell influences the heat flux at the base. For the elastic grain-base interaction, the predictions vary appreciably compared to MD simulations, suggesting the need to accurately model the velocity distribution of grains for averaging.

  7. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used...... for hydrological and meteorological applications. We adapted methods of gap filling for NEE (net ecosystem exchange of carbon) to energy fluxes and applied them to data sets available from the EUROFLUX and AmeriFlux eddy covariance databases. The average data coverage for the sites selected was 69% and 75......% for latent heat (lambdaE) and sensible heat (H). The methods were based on mean diurnal variations (half-hourly binned means of fluxes based on previous and subsequent days, MDV) and look-up tables for fluxes during assorted meteorological conditions (LookUp), and the impact of different gap filling methods...

  8. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    GHG emissions from subtropical wetlands while demonstrating the differences in these fluxes based on the surrounding ecosystem.

  9. Assessment of Spatial Representativeness of Eddy Covariance Flux Data from Flux Tower to Regional Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining flux tower measurements with remote sensing or land surface models is generally regarded as an efficient method to scale up flux data from site to region. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of the vegetated land surface, the changing flux source areas and the mismatching between ground source areas and remote sensing grids, direct use of in-situ flux measurements can lead to major scaling bias if their spatial representativeness is unknown. Here, we calculate and assess the spatial representativeness of 15 flux sites across northern China in two aspects: first, examine how well a tower represents fluxes from the specific targeted vegetation type, which is called vegetation-type level; and, second, examine how representative is the flux tower footprint of the broader landscape or regional extents, which is called spatial-scale level. We select fraction of target vegetation type (FTVT and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI as key indicators to calculate the spatial representativeness of 15 EC sites. Then, these sites were ranked into four grades based on FTVT or cluster analysis from high to low in order: (1 homogeneous; (2 representative; (3 acceptable; and (4 disturbed measurements. The results indicate that: (1 Footprint climatology for each site was mainly distributed in an irregular shape, had similar spatial pattern as spatial distribution of prevailing wind direction; (2 At vegetation-type level, the number of homogeneous, representative, acceptable and disturbed measurements is 8, 4, 1 and 2, respectively. The average FTVT was 0.83, grass and crop sites had greater representativeness than forest sites; (3 At spatial-scale level, flux sites with zonal vegetation had greater representativeness than non-zonal vegetation sites, and the scales were further divided into three sub-scales: (a in flux site scale, the average of absolute NDVI bias was 4.34%, the number of the above four grades is 9, 4, 1 and 1, respectively

  10. Flux of Millimetric Space Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, R. M.; Goldstein, S. J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    In 21.4 hr of zenith radar observations on 4 days at 8510 MHz, we found 831 particles with altitudes between 177 and 1662 km. From the duration of the echoes and the angular size (0.030 deg) of the antenna beam 157 particles were identified as passing through the side lobes and not through the main beam. Our analysis is based on the 674 particles that did not broaden the beam. On the assumptions that these particles went through the main beam, their radar cross sections vary between 0.02 and 260 sq mm , and their radial velocities vary between +/- 700 m/s. If they are conducting spheres, their diameters lie between 2 and 18 mm. If not, they must be larger. The flux of these particles, that is the number per sq km day, was determined in 100 km intervals. The maximum flux, 3.3 particles per sq km day, occurs at 950 km altitude. The small and large particles are not well mixed. The largest particles occur beyond 1000 km and middle-sized particles are missing below 300 km. If the earth's atmosphere caused the smallest particles to lose energy from initial orbits identical to those of the large particles, the orbits would have lower eccentricity at low altitudes. We find a larger eccentricity for the inner particles, and conclude that two or more populations are present.

  11. DWSB in heterotic flux compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Johannes; Marchesano, Fernando; Martucci, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We address the construction of non-supersymmetric vacua in heterotic compactifications with intrinsic torsion and background fluxes. In particular, we implement the approach of domain-wall supersymmetry breaking (DWSB) previously developed in the context of type II flux compactifications. This approach is based on considering backgrounds where probe NS5-branes wrapping internal three-cycles and showing up as four-dimensional domain-walls do not develop a BPS bound, while all the other BPS bounds characterizing the N=1 supersymmetric compactifications are preserved at tree-level. Via a scalar potential analysis we provide the conditions for these backgrounds to solve the ten-dimensional equations of motion including order \\alpha' corrections. We also consider backgrounds where some of the NS5-domain-walls develop a BPS bound, show their relation to no-scale SUSY-breaking vacua and construct explicit examples via elliptic fibrations. Finally, we consider backgrounds with a non-trivial gaugino condensate and dis...

  12. The Topology of Canonical Flux Tubes in Flared Jet Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lavine, Eric Sander; You, Setthivoine

    2017-01-01

    Magnetized plasma jets are generally modeled as magnetic flux tubes filled with flowing plasma governed by magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We outline here a more fundamental approach based on flux tubes of canonical vorticity, where canonical vorticity is defined as the circulation of the species canonical momentum. This approach extends the concept of magnetic flux tube evolution to include the effects of finite particle momentum and enables visualization of the topology of plasma jets in regime...

  13. Reactor flux calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuillier, D. [Commissariat à l' Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-02-15

    The status of the prediction of reactor anti-neutrino spectra is presented. The most accurate method is still the conversion of total β spectra of fissionning isotopes as measured at research reactors. Recent re-evaluations of the conversion process led to an increased predicted flux by few percent and were at the origin of the so-called reactor anomaly. The up to date predictions are presented with their main sources of error. Perspectives are given on the complementary ab-initio predictions and upcoming experimental cross-checks of the predicted spectrum shape.

  14. Robust Non-Linear Direct Torque and Flux Control of Adjustable Speed Sensorless PMSM Drive Based on SVM Using a PI Predictive Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Naceri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new sensorless direct torque control method for voltage inverter – fed PMSM. The control methodis used a modified Direct Torque Control scheme with constant inverter switching frequency using Space Vector Modulation(DTC-SVM. The variation of stator and rotor resistance due to changes in temperature or frequency deteriorates theperformance of DTC-SVM controller by introducing errors in the estimated flux linkage and the electromagnetic torque.As a result, this approach will not be suitable for high power drives such as those used in tractions, as they require goodtorque control performance at considerably lower frequency. A novel stator resistance estimator is proposed. The estimationmethod is implemented using the Extended Kalman Filter. Finally extensive simulation results are presented to validate theproposed technique. The system is tested at different speeds and a very satisfactory performance has been achieved.

  15. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Effect of magnetic relaxation on flux jump in high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.-F.; He, T.-H.

    2010-10-01

    The effect of magnetic relaxation on flux jump is studied in high temperature superconducting slab. The magnetothermal diffusion equations based on the Kim model are presented in this paper to estimate the effect of magnetic relaxation on flux jump inside the slab in the flux dynamics process. Numerical results obtained show that the flux-jump phenomenon could be suppressed by the magnetic relaxation and the dependence of the number of flux jumps on the relaxation time are obvious.

  16. Derivative processes for modelling metabolic fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žurauskienė, Justina; Kirk, Paul; Thorne, Thomas; Pinney, John; Stumpf, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: One of the challenging questions in modelling biological systems is to characterize the functional forms of the processes that control and orchestrate molecular and cellular phenotypes. Recently proposed methods for the analysis of metabolic pathways, for example, dynamic flux estimation, can only provide estimates of the underlying fluxes at discrete time points but fail to capture the complete temporal behaviour. To describe the dynamic variation of the fluxes, we additionally require the assumption of specific functional forms that can capture the temporal behaviour. However, it also remains unclear how to address the noise which might be present in experimentally measured metabolite concentrations. Results: Here we propose a novel approach to modelling metabolic fluxes: derivative processes that are based on multiple-output Gaussian processes (MGPs), which are a flexible non-parametric Bayesian modelling technique. The main advantages that follow from MGPs approach include the natural non-parametric representation of the fluxes and ability to impute the missing data in between the measurements. Our derivative process approach allows us to model changes in metabolite derivative concentrations and to characterize the temporal behaviour of metabolic fluxes from time course data. Because the derivative of a Gaussian process is itself a Gaussian process, we can readily link metabolite concentrations to metabolic fluxes and vice versa. Here we discuss how this can be implemented in an MGP framework and illustrate its application to simple models, including nitrogen metabolism in Escherichia coli. Availability and implementation: R code is available from the authors upon request. Contact: j.norkunaite@imperial.ac.uk; m.stumpf@imperial.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24578401

  17. Predicting flux decline of reverse osmosis membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, J.C.; Hanemaayer, J.H.; Smolders, C.A.; Kostense, A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model predicting flux decline of reverse osmosis membranes due to colloidal fouling has been verified. This mathema- tical model is based on the theory of cake or gel filtration and the Modified Fouling Index (MFI). Research was conducted using artificial colloidal solutions and a

  18. T2K neutrino flux prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Abgrall, N.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Albert, J. B.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Bentham, S. W.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bertram, I.; Beznosko, D.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Boyd, S.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Brook-Roberge, D. G.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M.-G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Curioni, A.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dobson, J.; Duboyski, T.; Dufour, F.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Dziomba, M.; Emery, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Esposito, L. S.; Finch, A. J.; Frank, E.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Galymov, V.; Gaudin, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Golan, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Guzowski, P.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Hyndman, A.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Ives, S. J.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Joo, K. K.; Jover-Manas, G. V.; Jung, C. K.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khanam, F.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, S. B.; Kirby, B.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Kogan, G.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koseki, K.; Koshio, Y.; Kowalik, K.; Kreslo, I.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kumaratunga, S.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Laihem, K.; Laing, A.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lee, K. P.; Licciardi, C.; Lim, I. T.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, G. D.; Ludovici, L.; Macaire, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marchionni, A.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Maruyama, T.; Marzec, J.; Masliah, P.; Mathie, E. L.; Matsumura, C.; Matsuoka, K.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; McLachlan, T.; Messina, M.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Monfregola, L.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nagasaki, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakai, T.; Nakajima, K.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Naples, D.; Nicholls, T. C.; Nielsen, C.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Obayashi, Y.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Otani, M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Pac, M. Y.; Palladino, V.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Retiere, F.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Scully, D. I.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Shibata, M.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Szeglowski, T.; Szeptycka, M.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, M. M.; Taylor, I. J.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueno, K.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wang, J.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wikström, G.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Zalewska, A.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment studies neutrino oscillations using an off-axis muon neutrino beam with a peak energy of about 0.6 GeV that originates at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex accelerator facility. Interactions of the neutrinos are observed at near detectors placed at 280 m from the production target and at the far detector—Super-Kamiokande—located 295 km away. The flux prediction is an essential part of the successful prediction of neutrino interaction rates at the T2K detectors and is an important input to T2K neutrino oscillation and cross section measurements. A FLUKA and GEANT3-based simulation models the physical processes involved in the neutrino production, from the interaction of primary beam protons in the T2K target, to the decay of hadrons and muons that produce neutrinos. The simulation uses proton beam monitor measurements as inputs. The modeling of hadronic interactions is reweighted using thin target hadron production data, including recent charged pion and kaon measurements from the NA61/SHINE experiment. For the first T2K analyses the uncertainties on the flux prediction are evaluated to be below 15% near the flux peak. The uncertainty on the ratio of the flux predictions at the far and near detectors is less than 2% near the flux peak.

  19. Internal analysis of a transverse flux sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyant, J.-Yves; Yonnet, J.-Paul; Jay, Guillaume; Foucher, Christian

    2005-04-01

    Rotary variable differential transformer (RVDT) sensors are used for industrial applications and are appreciated for their frictionless operation, reliability, linearity and sensitivity. The sensor shown here derives from a classic RVDT and is based on a differential rotating transformer. The functioning principle is explained and experimental measurements are shown. The originality of the studied sensor lies in the transverse flux design which gives a linearity error less than 0.1% of the stroke. However, this transverse flux circulation has uncommon features for an electrotechnical system due to flux paths which are not enclosed in radial planes. Finite element and experimental analysis are used for the magnetic study. This study aims to enhance sensor performances and manufacturing easiness.

  20. Heat-Flux Gage thermophosphor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, K.W.

    1991-08-01

    This document describes the installation, hardware requirements, and application of the Heat-Flux Gage (Version 1.0) software package developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Applied Technology Division. The developed software is a single component of a thermographic phosphor-based temperature and heat-flux measurement system. The heat-flux transducer was developed by EG G Energy Measurements Systems and consists of a 1- by 1-in. polymethylpentene sheet coated on the front and back with a repeating thermographic phosphor pattern. The phosphor chosen for this application is gadolinium oxysulphide doped with terbium. This compound has a sensitive temperature response from 10 to 65.6{degree}C (50--150{degree}F) for the 415- and 490-nm spectral emission lines. 3 refs., 17 figs.

  1. Regulation of Na+ fluxes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans eMaathuis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available When exposed to salt, every plant takes up Na+ from the environment. Once in the symplast, Na+ is distributed within cells and between different tissues and organs. There it can help to lower the cellular water potential but also exert potentially toxic effects. Control of Na+ fluxes is therefore crucial and indeed, research shows that the divergence between salt tolerant and salt sensitive plants is not due to a variation in transporter types but rather originates in the control of uptake and internal Na+ fluxes. A number of regulatory mechanisms has been identified based on signalling of Ca2+, cyclic nucleotides, reactive oxygen species, hormones, or on transcriptional and post translational changes of gene and protein expression. This review will give an overview of intra- and intercellular movement of Na+ in plants and will summarise our current ideas of how these fluxes are controlled and regulated in the early stages of salt stress.

  2. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  3. Inverse modeling of the terrestrial carbon flux in China with flux covariance among inverted regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Jiang, F.; Chen, J. M.; Ju, W.; Wang, H.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative understanding of the role of ocean and terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, their response and feedback to climate change is required for the future projection of the global climate. China has the largest amount of anthropogenic CO2 emission, diverse terrestrial ecosystems and an unprecedented rate of urbanization. Thus information on spatial and temporal distributions of the terrestrial carbon flux in China is of great importance in understanding the global carbon cycle. We developed a nested inversion with focus in China. Based on Transcom 22 regions for the globe, we divide China and its neighboring countries into 17 regions, making 39 regions in total for the globe. A Bayesian synthesis inversion is made to estimate the terrestrial carbon flux based on GlobalView CO2 data. In the inversion, GEOS-Chem is used as the transport model to develop the transport matrix. A terrestrial ecosystem model named BEPS is used to produce the prior surface flux to constrain the inversion. However, the sparseness of available observation stations in Asia poses a challenge to the inversion for the 17 small regions. To obtain additional constraint on the inversion, a prior flux covariance matrix is constructed using the BEPS model through analyzing the correlation in the net carbon flux among regions under variable climate conditions. The use of the covariance among different regions in the inversion effectively extends the information content of CO2 observations to more regions. The carbon flux over the 39 land and ocean regions are inverted for the period from 2004 to 2009. In order to investigate the impact of introducing the covariance matrix with non-zero off-diagonal values to the inversion, the inverted terrestrial carbon flux over China is evaluated against ChinaFlux eddy-covariance observations after applying an upscaling methodology.

  4. "Active Flux" DTFC-SVM Sensorless Control of IPMSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldea, Ion; Codruta Paicu, Mihaela; Gheorghe-Daniel, Andreescu,

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an implementation of a motionsensorless control system in wide speed range based on "active flux" observer, and direct torque and flux control with space vector modulation (DTFC-SVM) for the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), without signal injection...... is obtained, because the active flux position is identical with the rotor position. Extensive experimental results are presented to verify the principles and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sensorless control system. With the active flux observer, the IPMSM drive system operates from very low....... The concept of "active flux" (or "torque producing flux") turns all the rotor salient-pole ac machines into fully nonsalient-pole ones. A new function for Lq inductance depending on torque is introduced to model the magnetic saturation. Notable simplification in the rotor position and speed estimation...

  5. A Novel Flux Linkage Indirect Measurement for Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Yue

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a indirect detection system of flux linkage characteristic of switched reluctance motor based on dsPACE, fixed rotor position by mechanical indexing for Static flux linkage detection, the phase windings is excited by the step voltage signal, the voltage and phase current are collected real -time, and calculate flux linkage. The advantages of the method is that the parameters are optimized by ControlDesk, the flux linkage detection model is built by Simulink, no writing program, simple, easy implementation. An 1.5kw three-phase 12/8 SRM experimental prototype was constructed, the detection results of the Static flux linkage and dynamic flux linkage verified its validity and feasibility.

  6. Fluxes of Ultrafine Particles Over and In a Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, S. C.; Hornsby, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Given the importance of forests to land surface cover and particle removal (due to the very high deposition velocities and well-developed turbulence) there is a specific need to understand removal to, and in, forests. Fluxes of size-resolved and total particle number fluxes over (at 46 m) and in (at 7 m) a deciduous forest over a 14 month period are presented based on data from two Gill 3-D WindMaster Pro sonic anemometers, an Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter (UCPC) operated at 10 Hz and a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) operated at 1 Hz. Size-resolved particle profiles during the same period are measured using a separate FMPS scanning at three measurement heights across the canopy (top, middle and bottom). Three methods are being applied to derive the total number and size-resolved fluxes from the UCPC and FMPS respectively; eddy covariance, inertial dissipation and the co-spectral approach. The results are integrated with fluxes of sensible heat, momentum and carbon dioxide derived using a Licor LI-7200. Results for the total number flux concentrations and the size-resolved concentrations derived using the three different approaches applied to the above canopy sampling level show a high degree of accord, but that the eddy-covariance fluxes are generally of smaller magnitude than those derived using the spectral methods. In keeping with prior research our results show a considerable number of fluxes are characterized by upward fluxes. Further our results show distinctly different flux diurnal profiles for the nucleation versus Aitken mode particles indicating some differential control on fluxes of particles of different sizes (including a role for aerosol dynamics). This presentation will provide details regarding the experimental approach, flux and gradient estimation methodologies, diagnose the size dependence of the fluxes, and compare and contrast the canopy and ground partitioning of the particle fluxes during leaf-on and leaf-off periods.

  7. Partitioning evapotranspiration fluxes using atmometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsag, Matej; Fischer, Milan; Trnka, Miroslav; Kucera, Jiri; Zalud, Zdenek

    2013-04-01

    This effort is aimed to derive a simple tool for separating soil evaporation and transpiration from evapotranspiration, measured by Bowen ration energy balance method (BREB) in short rotation coppice (SRC). The main idea is to utilize daily data of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) measured above bare soil (spring 2010 - first year following harvest), reference evapotranspiration (ETo) measured by atmometer ETgage and precipitation data, in order to create an algorithm for estimation evaporation from bare soil. This approach is based on the following assumption: evaporation of wetted bare soil same as the ETo from atmometer is assumed to be identical in days with rain. In first and further days with no rain (and e.g. high evaporative demand) the easily evaporable soil water depletes and ETa so as crop coefficient of bare soil (Kcb) decreases in a way similar to decreasing power function. The algorithm represents a parameterized function of daily cumulated ETo (ETc) measured by atmometer in days elapsed from last rain event (Kcb = a*ETc^b). After each rain event the accumulation of ETo starts again till next rain event (e. g. only days with no rain are cumulated). The function provides decreasing Kcb for each day without rain. The bare soil evaporation can be estimated when the atmometer-recorded value is multiplied by Kcb for particular day without rain. In days with rain Kcb is assumed to be back at 1. This method was successfully tested for estimating evaporation from bare soil under closed canopy of poplar-based SRC. When subtracting the estimated soil evaporation from total ETa flux, measured above the canopy using BREB method, it is possible to obtain transpiration flux of the canopy. There is also possibility to test this approach on the contrary - subtracting transpiration derived from sap-flow measurement from total ETa flux is possible to get soil evaporation as well. Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of project Inter

  8. Optimal fluxes and Reynolds stresses

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    It is remarked that fluxes in conservation laws, such as the Reynolds stresses in the momentum equation of turbulent shear flows, or the spectral energy flux in isotropic turbulence, are only defined up to an arbitrary solenoidal field. While this is not usually significant for long-time averages, it becomes important when fluxes are modelled locally in large-eddy simulations, or in the analysis of intermittency and cascades. As an example, a numerical procedure is introduced to compute fluxes in scalar conservation equations in such a way that their total integrated magnitude is minimised. The result is an irrotational vector field that derives from a potential, thus minimising sterile flux `circuits'. The algorithm is generalised to tensor fluxes and applied to the transfer of momentum in a turbulent channel. The resulting instantaneous Reynolds stresses are compared with their traditional expressions, and found to be substantially different.

  9. Graphene thermal flux transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafranjuk, S E

    2016-11-24

    Insufficient flexibility of existing approaches to controlling the thermal transport in atomic monolayers limits their capability for use in many applications. Here, we examine the means of electrode doping to control the thermal flux Q due to phonons propagating along the atomic monolayer. We found that the frequency of the electron-restricted phonon scattering strongly depends on the concentration nC. of the electric charge carriers, established by the electric potentials applied to local gates. As a result of the electrode doping, nC is increased, causing a sharp rise in both the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient, while the thermal conductivity tumbles. Therefore, the effect of the thermal transistor improves the figure of merit of nanoelectronic circuits.

  10. Weak point disorder in strongly fluctuating flux-line liquids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider the effect of weak uncorrelated quenched disorder (point defects) on a strongly fluctuating flux-line liquid. We use a hydrodynamic model which is based on mapping the flux-line system onto a quantum liquid of relativistic charged bosons in 2 + 1 dimensions [P Benetatos and M C Marchetti, Phys. Rev. B64 ...

  11. Luminous flux and colour maintenance investigation of integrated LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This article will present an investigation of the luminous flux and colour maintenance of white LED based retrofit lamps. The study includes 23 different types of integrated LED lamps, covering 18 directional and 5 non-directional. Luminous flux and colour data for operation up to 20000 h has been...

  12. Determination of the Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes from Atmospheric Neutrino Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, M.; Rojo, J.

    2006-01-01

    The precise knowledge of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes is a key ingredient in the interpretation of the results from any atmospheric neutrino experiment. In the standard atmospheric neutrino data analysis, these fluxes are theoretical inputs obtained from sophisticated numerical calculations based

  13. Dependence of Core and Extended Flux on Core Dominance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Based on two extragalactic radio source samples, the core dominance parameter is calculated, and the correlations between the core/extended flux density and core dominance parameter are investigated. When the core dominance parameter is lower than unity, it is linearly correlated with the core flux ...

  14. Dependence of Core and Extended Flux on Core Dominance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on two extragalactic radio source samples, the core dominance parameter is calculated, and the correlations between the core/extended flux density and core dominance parameter are investi- gated. When the core dominance parameter is lower than unity, it is linearly correlated with the core flux density, ...

  15. Heat flux anomalies in Antarctica revealed from satellite magnetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Cathrine Fox; Purucker, Michael E.; Olsen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    The geothermal heat flux is an important factor in the dynamics of ice sheets; it affects the occurrence of subglacial lakes, the onset of ice streams, and mass losses from the ice sheet base. Because direct heat flux measurements in ice-covered regions are difficult to obtain, we developed a met...

  16. Neutron fluxes in test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youinou, Gilles Jean-Michel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Communicate the fact that high-power water-cooled test reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) or the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) cannot provide fast flux levels as high as sodium-cooled fast test reactors. The memo first presents some basics physics considerations about neutron fluxes in test reactors and then uses ATR, HFIR and JHR as an illustration of the performance of modern high-power water-cooled test reactors.

  17. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  18. Methane flux from wetlands areas

    OpenAIRE

    BAKER-BLOCKER, ANITA; DONAHUE, THOMAS M.; MANCY, KHALIL H.

    2011-01-01

    Ebullient gases from Michigan wetlands have been collected and analyzed to deduce in situ methane fluxes. Methane flux has been found to be a function of mean air temperature. This relationship has been utilized to extrapolate observed methane fluxes to estimates of fluxes from the Pripet marshes, Sudd, Everglades, and Ugandan swamps. These four wetlands together provide a yearly source of 6.8 × 1013 g of methane to the atmosphere.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1977.tb00731.x

  19. FluxPro: Real time monitoring and simulation system for eddy covariance flux measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Seo, H.; Mano, M.; Ono, K.; Miyata, A.; Yokozawa, M.

    2010-12-01

    To cope with unusual weather changes on crop cultivation in a field level, prompt and precise monitoring of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration, and those fast and reliable forecasting are indispensable. So we have developed FluxPro which is simultaneous operating system of the monitoring and the forecasting. The monitoring subsystem provides vapor and CO2 fluxes with uncertainty to understand the live condition of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration by open-path eddy covariance flux measurement (EC) system and self-developed EC tolerance analysis scheme. The forecasting subsystem serves the predicted fluxes with anomaly based on model parameter assimilation to estimate the hourly or daily water consumption and carbon assimilation during a week by multi-simulation package consisting of various models from simple to complicate. FluxPro is helpful not only to detect a critical condition of growing crop in terms of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration but also to decide time and amount of launching control for keeping those optimization condition when an unusual weather event is arisen. In our presentation, we will demonstrate the FluxPro operated at tangerine orchard in Jeju, Korea.

  20. Volatile organic compounds sources and sinks in a wheat canopy. Analysis based on combined eddy-covariance fluxes, in-canopy profiles and chamber measurements with a PTR-TOF-Qi-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Benjamin; Gonzaga, Lais; Buysse, Pauline; Ciuraru, Raluca; Lafouge, Florence; Decuq, Céline; Zurfluh, Olivier; Fortineau, Alain; Fanucci, Olivier; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Zannoni, Nora; Truong, Francois; Boissard, Christophe; Gros, Valérie

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are essential drivers of atmospheric chemistry. Many VOCs are emitted from and deposited to ecosystems. While forests and grasslands have already been substantially studied, exchanges of VOCs with crops are less known, although these ecosystems represent more than 50% of the surface in France. In this study, we analyze sources and sinks of VOCs in a wheat field (at the ICOS FR-GRI site near Paris) at anthesis based on measurements of fluxes, concentration profiles and branch chambers. The VOCs were measured using a PTR-TOF-Qi-MS (where Qi stands for Quad Ion guide). Air was successively sampled through lines located at different heights within and above the canopy, of which one was used for Eddy Covariance and located near a sonic anemometer. Additional measurements included the standard ICOS meteorological data as well as leaf area index profiles and photosynthesis curves at several heights in the canopy. We report fluxes and profiles for more than 500 VOCs. The deposition velocities of depositing compounds are compared to the maximum exchange velocity and the ozone deposition velocity. The sources and sinks location and magnitude are evaluated by inverse Lagrangian modelling assuming no reaction and simple reaction schemes in the canopy. The sources and sinks of VOC in the canopy are interpreted in terms crop phenology and the potential for reaction with ozone and NOx is evaluated. This study takes place in the ADEME CORTEA COV3ER French project (http://www6.inra.fr/cov3er).

  1. Coupling simultaneous dissolved nitrate measurements with quantum cascade laser based nitrous oxide flux and isotopocule analysis to investigate the biogeochemical processes occurring in a denitrifying bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.; Maxwell, B.; Deshmukh, P.; Chen, H.

    2016-12-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors are used to treat nitrogen enriched water from agricultural operations. These systems may also be an important source of nitrous oxide emissions, a potent greenhouse gas. Bioreactors also provide researchers with an opportunity to investigate the biogeochemical processes occurring in soils under controlled conditions. A pilot-scale bioreactor with woodchip media was injected with KNO3 at a constant flow rate through the system. The water-filled-pore-space (WFPS) was varied in separate experiments to create differing aerobic conditions. A quantum cascade laser spectroscopy system was used to determine the flux and isotopic signature of N2O emissions from woodchip bioreactor media over time. Simultaneous nitrate concentration measurements were made using an optical method at multiple points in the bioreactor. Isotopic site-preference (SP) characterization of N2O emissions was used to estimate production sources from soil nitrification and denitrification. A dynamic gas sampling method was used to measure N2O mixing ratios, which required ambient air to equalize chamber atmospheric pressure during sampling. Precise instrument calibration using gas samples of known isotopic abundances, provided by the Swiss Federal Labs (EMPA), together with a Keeling plot method to account for variations in isotopocule composition in ambient air, produced reliable SP estimates. Initial experiments during 100% WFPS show that SP and δ15Nbulk values were varied from -6‰ to 3‰ and -23‰ to -12‰, respectively. The trend of these values indicated that the N2O source was slightly changed from partial nitrification to denitrification during the measuring period of time. The peak rate of nitrous oxide production occurred 7 hours after peak nitrate removal. These results and others to be presented show the utility of coupling real-time dissolved and gas phase measurements for studying nitrogen cycling in soils.

  2. Squeezing Flux Out of Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Merging transcriptomics or metabolomics data remains insufficient for metabolic flux estimation. Ramirez et al. integrate a genome-scale metabolic model with extracellular flux data to predict and validate metabolic differences between white and brown adipose tissue. This method allows both metab...

  3. Principal Metabolic Flux Mode Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Sahely; Blomberg, Peter; Castillo, Sandra; Rousu, Juho; Wren, Jonathan

    2018-02-06

    In the analysis of metabolism, two distinct and complementary approaches are frequently used: Principal component analysis (PCA) and stoichiometric flux analysis. PCA is able to capture the main modes of variability in a set of experiments and does not make many prior assumptions about the data, but does not inherently take into account the flux mode structure of metabolism. Stoichiometric flux analysis methods, such as Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and Elementary Mode Analysis, on the other hand, are able to capture the metabolic flux modes, however, they are primarily designed for the analysis of single samples at a time, and not best suited for exploratory analysis on a large sets of samples. We propose a new methodology for the analysis of metabolism, called Principal Metabolic Flux Mode Analysis (PMFA), which marries the PCA and stoichiometric flux analysis approaches in an elegant regularized optimization framework. In short, the method incorporates a variance maximization objective form PCA coupled with a stoichiometric regularizer, which penalizes projections that are far from any flux modes of the network. For interpretability, we also introduce a sparse variant of PMFA that favours flux modes that contain a small number of reactions. Our experiments demonstrate the versatility and capabilities of our methodology. The proposed method can be applied to genome-scale metabolic network in efficient way as PMFA does not enumerate elementary modes. In addition, the method is more robust on out-of-steady steady-state experimental data than competing flux mode analysis approaches. Matlab software for PMFA and SPMFA and data set used for experiments are available in https://github.com/aalto-ics-kepaco/PMFA. sahely@iitpkd.ac.in, juho.rousu@aalto.fi, Peter.Blomberg@vtt.fi, Sandra.Castillo@vtt.fi. Detailed results are in Supplementary files. Supplementary data are available at https://github.com/aalto-ics-kepaco/PMFA/blob/master/Results.zip.

  4. Estimating daytime ecosystem respiration from eddy-flux data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Herbst, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    To understand what governs the patterns of net ecosystem exchange of CO2, an understanding of factors influencing the component fluxes, ecosystem respiration and gross primary production is needed. In the present paper, we introduce an alternative method for estimating daytime ecosystem respiration...... based on whole ecosystem fluxes from a linear regression of photosynthetic photon flux density data vs. daytime net ecosystem exchange data at forest ecosystem level. This method is based on the principles of the Kok-method applied at leaf level for estimating daytime respiration. We demonstrate...... the method with field data and provide a discussion of the limitations of the method....

  5. On the relation between the Langmuir and thermodynamic flux equations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Erp, Titus S; Trinh, Thuat; Kjelstrup, Signe; Glavatskiy, Kirill S

    2014-01-01

    .... Langmuir kinetics is based on systems of non- interacting particles that can transfer from the gas phase to the adsorbed phase with a transition flux that depends both on the gas pressure and surface coverage...

  6. Human footprints on greenhouse gas fluxes in cryogenic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, D. V.; Goryachkin, S. V.; Zamolodchikov, D. G.; Dolgikh, A. V.; Zazovskaya, E. P.; Shishkov, V. A.; Kraev, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    Various human footprints on the flux of biogenic greenhouse gases from permafrost-affected soils in Arctic and boreal domains in Russia are considered. Tendencies of significant growth or suppression of soil CO2 fluxes change across types of human impact. Overall, the human impacts increase the mean value and variance of local soil CO2 flux. Human footprint on methane exchange between soil and atmosphere is mediated by drainage. However, all the types of human impact suppress the sources and increase sinks of methane to the land ecosystems. N2O flux grew under the considered types of human impact. Based on the results, we suggest that human footprint on soil greenhouse gases fluxes is comparable to the effect of climate change at an annual to decadal timescales.

  7. High flux expansion divertor studies in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Bell, R E; Gates, D A; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Maqueda, R; Menard, J E; Mueller, D; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L

    2009-06-29

    Projections for high-performance H-mode scenarios in spherical torus (ST)-based devices assume low electron collisionality for increased efficiency of the neutral beam current drive. At lower collisionality (lower density), the mitigation techniques based on induced divertor volumetric power and momentum losses may not be capable of reducing heat and material erosion to acceptable levels in a compact ST divertor. Divertor geometry can also be used to reduce high peak heat and particle fluxes by flaring a scrape-off layer (SOL) flux tube at the divertor plate, and by optimizing the angle at which the flux tube intersects the divertor plate, or reduce heat flow to the divertor by increasing the length of the flux tube. The recently proposed advanced divertor concepts [1, 2] take advantage of these geometry effects. In a high triangularity ST plasma configuration, the magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point (SP) is inherently high, leading to a reduction of heat and particle fluxes and a facilitated access to the outer SP detachment, as has been demonstrated recently in NSTX [3]. The natural synergy of the highly-shaped high-performance ST plasmas with beneficial divertor properties motivated a further systematic study of the high flux expansion divertor. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a mid-sized device with the aspect ratio A = 1.3-1.5 [4]. In NSTX, the graphite tile divertor has an open horizontal plate geometry. The divertor magnetic configuration geometry was systematically changed in an experiment by either (1) changing the distance between the lower divertor X-point and the divertor plate (X-point height h{sub X}), or by (2) keeping the X-point height constant and increasing the outer SP radius. An initial analysis of the former experiment is presented below. Since in the divertor the poloidal field B{sub {theta}} strength is proportional to h{sub X}, the X-point height variation changed the divertor plasma wetted area due to

  8. Tobacco transformants with strongly decreased expression of pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate expression in the base of their young growing leaves contain much higher levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate but no major changes in fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T H; Stitt, M

    2001-11-01

    The role of pyrophosphate:fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) in developing leaves was studied using wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and transformants with decreased expression of PFP. (i) The leaf base, which is the youngest and most actively growing area of the leaf, had 2.5-fold higher PFP activity than the leaf tip. T3 transformants, with a 56-95% decrease in PFP activity in the leaf base and an 87-97% decrease in PFP activity in the leaf tip, were obtained by selfing and re-selfing individuals from two independent transformant lines. (ii) Other enzyme activities also showed a gradient from the leaf base to the leaf tip. There was a decrease in PFK and an increase in fructose-6-phosphate,2-kinase and plastidic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, whereas cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity was constant. None of these gradients was altered in the transformants. (iii) Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru2,6bisP) levels were similar at the base and tip of wild-type leaves in the dark. Illumination lead to a decrease in Fru2,6bisP at the leaf tip and an increase in Fru2,6bisP at the leaf base. Compared to wild-type plants, transformants with decreased expression of PFP had up to 2-fold higher Fru2,6bisP at the leaf tip in the dark, similar levels at the leaf tip in the light, 15-fold higher levels at the leaf base in the dark, and up to 4-fold higher levels at the leaf base in the light. (iv) To investigate metabolic fluxes, leaf discs were supplied with 14CO2 in the light or [14C]glucose in the light or the dark. Discs from the leaf tip had higher rates of photosynthesis than discs from the leaf base, whereas the rate of glucose uptake and metabolism was similar in both tissues. Significantly less label was incorporated into neutral sugars, and more into anionic compounds, cell wall and protein, and amino acids in discs from the leaf base. Metabolism of 14CO2 and [14C]glucose in transformants with low PFP was similar to that in wild-type plants

  9. Application of remote sensing-based two-source energy balance model for mapping field surface fluxes with composite and component surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operational application of a remote sensing-based two source energy balance model (TSEB) to estimate evaportranspiration (ET) and the components evaporation (E), transpiration (T) at a range of space and time scales is very useful for managing water resources in arid and semiarid watersheds. The TSE...

  10. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  11. Specification of ROP flux shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Gray, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    The CANDU 9 480/SEU core uses 0.9% SEU (Slightly Enriched Uranium) fuel. The use f SEU fuel enables the reactor to increase the radial power form factor from 0.865, which is typical in current natural uranium CANDU reactors, to 0.97 in the nominal CANDU 9 480/SEU core. The difference is a 12% increase in reactor power. An additional 5% increase can be achieved due to a reduced refuelling ripple. The channel power limits were also increased by 3% for a total reactor power increase of 20%. This report describes the calculation of neutron flux distributions in the CANDU 9 480/SEU core under conditions specified by the C and I engineers. The RFSP code was used to calculate of neutron flux shapes for ROP analysis. Detailed flux values at numerous potential detector sites were calculated for each flux shape. (author). 6 tabs., 70 figs., 4 refs.

  12. Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, E R; Lee, L C

    1990-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference on the Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes was held at the Hamilton Princess Hotel, Hamilton, Bermuda on March 27–31, 1989. Topics discussed ranged from solar flux ropes, such as photospheric flux tubes, coronal loops and prominences, to flux ropes in the solar wind, in planetary ionospheres, at the Earth's magnetopause, in the geomagnetic tail and deep in the Earth's magnetosphere. Papers presented at that conference form the nucleus of this book, but the book is more than just a proceedings of the conference. We have solicited articles from all interested in this topic. Thus, there is some material in the book not discussed at the conference. Even in the case of papers presented at the conference, there is generally a much more detailed and rigorous presentation than was possible in the time allowed by the oral and poster presentations.

  13. P fluxes and exotic branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Davide M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Riccioni, Fabio [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Risoli, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-12-21

    We consider the N=1 superpotential generated in type-II orientifold models by non-geometric fluxes. In particular, we focus on the family of P fluxes, that are related by T-duality transformations to the S-dual of the Q flux. We determine the general rule that transforms a given flux in this family under a single T-duality transformation. This rule allows to derive a complete expression for the superpotential for both the IIA and the IIB theory for the particular case of a T{sup 6}/[ℤ{sub 2}×ℤ{sub 2}] orientifold. We then consider how these fluxes modify the generalised Bianchi identities. In particular, we derive a fully consistent set of quadratic constraints coming from the NS-NS Bianchi identities. On the other hand, the P flux Bianchi identities induce tadpoles, and we determine a set of exotic branes that can be consistently included in order to cancel them. This is achieved by determining a universal transformation rule under T-duality satisfied by all the branes in string theory.

  14. Flux tubes at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari,Via G. Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cuteri, Francesca; Papa, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria & INFN-Cosenza,Ponte Bucci, cubo 31C, I-87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2016-06-07

    The chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair, with its peculiar tube-like shape, can be nicely described, at zero temperature, within the dual superconductor scenario for the QCD confining vacuum. In this work we investigate, by lattice Monte Carlo simulations of the SU(3) pure gauge theory, the fate of chromoelectric flux tubes across the deconfinement transition. We find that, if the distance between the static sources is kept fixed at about 0.76 fm ≃1.6/√σ and the temperature is increased towards and above the deconfinement temperature T{sub c}, the amplitude of the field inside the flux tube gets smaller, while the shape of the flux tube does not vary appreciably across deconfinement. This scenario with flux-tube “evaporation” above T{sub c} has no correspondence in ordinary (type-II) superconductivity, where instead the transition to the phase with normal conductivity is characterized by a divergent fattening of flux tubes as the transition temperature is approached from below. We present also some evidence about the existence of flux-tube structures in the magnetic sector of the theory in the deconfined phase.

  15. Flow instabilities of magnetic flux tubes. IV. Flux storage in the solar overshoot region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işık, E.; Holzwarth, V.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Flow-induced instabilities of magnetic flux tubes are relevant to the storage of magnetic flux in the interiors of stars with outer convection zones. The stability of magnetic fields in stellar interiors is of importance to the generation and transport of solar and stellar magnetic fields. Aims: We consider the effects of material flows on the dynamics of toroidal magnetic flux tubes located close to the base of the solar convection zone, initially within the overshoot region. The problem is to find the physical conditions in which magnetic flux can be stored for periods comparable to the dynamo amplification time, which is of the order of a few years. Methods: We carry out nonlinear numerical simulations to investigate the stability and dynamics of thin flux tubes subject to perpendicular and longitudinal flows. We compare the simulations with the results of simplified analytical approximations. Results: The longitudinal flow instability induced by the aerodynamic drag force is nonlinear in the sense that the growth rate depends on the perturbation amplitude. This result is consistent with the predictions of linear theory. Numerical simulations without friction show that nonlinear Parker instability can be triggered below the linear threshold of the field strength, when the difference in superadiabaticity along the tube is sufficiently large. A localised downflow acting on a toroidal tube in the overshoot region leads to instability depending on the parameters describing the flow, as well as the magnetic field strength. We determined ranges of the flow parameters for which a linearly Parker-stable magnetic flux tube is stored in the middle of the overshoot region for a period comparable to the dynamo amplification time. Conclusions: The longitudinal flow instability driven by frictional interaction of a flux tube with its surroundings is relevant to determining the storage time of magnetic flux in the solar overshoot region. The residence time for

  16. Gauge fluxes in F-theory compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ling

    2016-07-13

    In this thesis, we study the geometry and physics of gauge fluxes in F-theory compactifications to four dimensions. Motivated by the phenomenological requirement of chiral matter in realistic model building scenarios, we develop methods for a systematic analysis of primary vertical G{sub 4}-fluxes on torus-fibred Calabi-Yau fourfolds. In particular, we extend the well-known description of fluxes on elliptic fibrations with sections to the more general set-up of genus-one fibrations with multi-sections. The latter are known to give rise to discrete abelian symmetries in F-theory. We test our proposal for constructing fluxes in such geometries on an explicit model with SU(5) x Z{sub 2} symmetry, which is connected to an ordinary elliptic fibration with SU(5) x U(1) symmetry by a conifold transition. With our methods we systematically verify anomaly cancellation and tadpole matching in both models. Along the way, we find a novel way of understanding anomaly cancellation in 4D F-theory in purely geometric terms. This observation is further strengthened by a similar analysis of an SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1){sup 2} model. The obvious connection of this particular model with the Standard Model is then investigated in a more phenomenologically motivated survey. There, we will first provide possible matchings of the geometric spectrum with the Standard Model states, which highlights the role of the additional U(1) factor as a selection rule. In a second step, we then utilise our novel methods on flux computations to set up a search algorithm for semi-realistic chiral spectra in our Standard- Model-like fibrations over specific base manifolds B. As a demonstration, we scan over three choices P{sup 3}, Bl{sub 1}P{sup 3} and Bl{sub 2}P{sup 3} for the base. As a result we find a consistent flux that gives the chiral Standard Model spectrum with a vector-like triplet exotic, which may be lifted by a Higgs mechanism.

  17. Regional Scaling of Airborne Eddy Covariance Flux Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, T.; Serafimovich, A.; Metzger, S.; Kohnert, K.; Hartmann, J.

    2014-12-01

    The earth's surface is tightly coupled to the global climate system by the vertical exchange of energy and matter. Thus, to better understand and potentially predict changes to our climate system, it is critical to quantify the surface-atmosphere exchange of heat, water vapor, and greenhouse gases on climate-relevant spatial and temporal scales. Currently, most flux observations consist of ground-based, continuous but local measurements. These provide a good basis for temporal integration, but may not be representative of the larger regional context. This is particularly true for the Arctic, where site selection is additionally bound by logistical constraints, among others. Airborne measurements can overcome this limitation by covering distances of hundreds of kilometers over time periods of a few hours. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) campaigns are designed to quantitatively and spatially explicitly address this issue: The research aircraft POLAR 5 is used to acquire thousands of kilometers of eddy-covariance flux data. During the AIRMETH-2012 and AIRMETH-2013 campaigns we measured the turbulent exchange of energy, methane, and (in 2013) carbon dioxide over the North Slope of Alaska, USA, and the Mackenzie Delta, Canada. Here, we present the potential of environmental response functions (ERFs) for quantitatively linking flux observations to meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. We use wavelet transforms of the original high-frequency data to improve spatial discretization of the flux observations. This also enables the quantification of continuous and biophysically relevant land cover properties in the flux footprint of each observation. A machine learning technique is then employed to extract and quantify the functional relationships between flux observations and the meteorological and biophysical drivers. The resulting ERFs are used to extrapolate fluxes over spatio-temporally explicit grids of the study area. The

  18. Anthropogenic methane ebullition and continuous flux measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshboul, Zeyad

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: Methane, Wastewater, Effluent, Anaerobic treatment. Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have shown to emit significant amount of methane during treatment processes. While most of studies cover only in-plant diffusive methane flux, magnitude and sources of methane ebullition have not well assessed. Moreover, the reported results of methane emissions from WWTPs are based on low spatial and temporal resolution. Using a continuous measurement approach of methane flux rate for effluent system and secondary clarifier treatment process at one WWTP in Southwest Germany, our results show that high percentage of methane is emitted by ebullition during the anaerobic treatment (clarification pond) with high spatial and temporal variability. Our measurements revealed that no ebullition is occur at the effluent system. The observed high contribution of methane ebullition to the total in-plant methane emission, emphasizes the need for considering in-plant methane emission by ebullition as well as the spatial and temporal variability of these emissions.

  19. High flux diffractometers on reactor neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewat, Alan W.

    2006-11-01

    Continuous neutron sources such as reactors can deliver a very high time-averaged flux to the sample using a relatively wide band of wavelengths, while still retaining good resolution. For example, the D20 diffractometer at ILL Grenoble, the world's highest flux neutron powder machine, can collect complete patterns at 100 ms intervals, and this has been important for the real time study of explosive SHS reactions. New very large 2D detectors, such as those recently installed on D2B and D19 at ILL, are up to an order of magnitude larger than previous designs, and will provide unmatched speed of data collection from very small samples, opening up new scientific perspectives for powder and single crystal diffraction. We will discuss future reactor based diffractometers designed for rapid data collection from small samples in special environments.

  20. What the flux? Deriving empirical estimates of riverine Mo fluxes over Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniello, S. J.; Ostrander, C. M.; Johnson, A.; Planavsky, N.; Anbar, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a key micronutrient in the marine nitrogen cycle and thus plays an important role in regulating global marine primary productivity and biogeochemistry. At present, Mo is the most abundant transition metal in seawater, despite being one of the least abundant transition metals in crustal rocks. This counterintuitive behavior is the result of the high solubility and mobile nature of the molybdate anion under oxidizing conditions. However, previous studies have pointed out that the oxidative weathering flux of Mo to the ocean was likely much lower under Archean conditions, and that when coupled with reduced solubility of Mo in anoxic seawater, portions of the ocean may have been Mo starved. With few exceptions, riverine fluxes of elements have been only poorly constrained over geologic time. In the absence of strong empirical constraints, fluxes are either imagined to have been similar to today, or radically different, depending primarily on the chemistry of the element and model implored by the authors. Based on large variations of Mo concentrations in shales, several authors have invoked models where riverine Mo fluxes vary in response to atmospheric O2 availability but it has been difficult to provide independent constraints to support or refute these models. Here we demonstrate a novel approach for constraining riverine Mo fluxes from the Archean to present by independently estimating the seawater Mo inventory from Mo/TOC ratios and the Mo residence time from Mo isotope ratios. At steady state, the riverine flux is then the ratio of these parameters. Surprisingly, despite strong secular evolution of seawater Mo concentrations and residence time, this approach suggests the overall rate of Mo supply to the ocean was probably relatively constant within one order of magnitude over most of Earth history. This result provides new insights into both the processes controlling Mo availability to the oceans and, more broadly, the controls on oxidative

  1. An analytical model of non-photorespiratory CO₂release in the light and dark in leaves of C₃species based on stoichiometric flux balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; Adams, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Leaf respiration continues in the light but at a reduced rate. This inhibition is highly variable, and the mechanisms are poorly known, partly due to the lack of a formal model that can generate testable hypotheses. We derived an analytical model for non-photorespiratory CO₂ release by solving steady-state supply/demand equations for ATP, NADH and NADPH, coupled to a widely used photosynthesis model. We used this model to evaluate causes for suppression of respiration by light. The model agrees with many observations, including highly variable suppression at saturating light, greater suppression in mature leaves, reduced assimilatory quotient (ratio of net CO₂ and O₂ exchange) concurrent with nitrate reduction and a Kok effect (discrete change in quantum yield at low light). The model predicts engagement of non-phosphorylating pathways at moderate to high light, or concurrent with processes that yield ATP and NADH, such as fatty acid or terpenoid synthesis. Suppression of respiration is governed largely by photosynthetic adenylate balance, although photorespiratory NADH may contribute at sub-saturating light. Key questions include the precise diel variation of anabolism and the ATP : 2e⁻ ratio for photophosphorylation. Our model can focus experimental research and is a step towards a fully process-based model of CO₂ exchange. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. C-13 Tracer experiments and metabolite balancing for metabolic flux analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Karsten; Marx, A.; de Graaf, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional metabolic flux analysis uses the information gained from determination of measurable fluxes and a steady-state assumption for intracellular metabolites to calculate the metabolic fluxes in a given metabolic network. The determination of intracellular fluxes depends heavily on the cor......Conventional metabolic flux analysis uses the information gained from determination of measurable fluxes and a steady-state assumption for intracellular metabolites to calculate the metabolic fluxes in a given metabolic network. The determination of intracellular fluxes depends heavily...... through the pentose phosphate pathway. Hence, wrong assumptions on the presence or activity of transhydrogenation reactions will result in wrong estimations of the intracellular flux distribution. Using C-13 tracer experiments and NMR analysis, flux analysis can be performed on the basis of only well...... are two different approaches to the determination of intracellular fluxes, both methods can be used to verify each other or to discuss the origin and significance of deviations in the results. Flux analysis based entirely on metabolite balancing and flux analysis, including labeling information, have been...

  3. Influence of heavy ion flux on single event effect testing in memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Liu, Jie; Sun, Youmei; Hou, Mingdong; Xi, Kai; Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Bin; Ye, Bing

    2017-09-01

    The natural space presents a particle flux variable environment and choosing a suitable flux value for ground-based single event experiments is an unresolved problem so far. In this work, various types of memory devices have been tested over the ion flux range from 10 to 105 ions/(cm2·s) using different ions covering LET from 10.1 to 99.8 MeV·cm2/mg. It was found that for most devices the error rates of single event upsets are affected by the applied flux value. And the effect involving flux becomes prominent as it is increased above 103 ions/(cm2·s). Different devices behave differently as the flux is increased and the flux effect depends strongly on the LET of the impinging ions. The results concluded in this experiment are discussed in detail and recommendations for choosing appropriate experimental flux are given.

  4. Interpretation of scrape-off layer profile evolution and first-wall ion flux statistics on JET using a stochastic framework based on fillamentary motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkden, N. R.; Wynn, A.; Militello, F.; Lipschultz, B.; Matthews, G.; Guillemaut, C.; Harrison, J.; Moulton, D.; Contributors, JET

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the use of a novel modelling technique based around intermittent transport due to filament motion, to interpret experimental profile and fluctuation data in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of JET during the onset and evolution of a density profile shoulder. A baseline case is established, prior to shoulder formation, and the stochastic model is shown to be capable of simultaneously matching the time averaged profile measurement as well as the PDF shape and autocorrelation function from the ion-saturation current time series at the outer wall. Aspects of the stochastic model are then varied with the aim of producing a profile shoulder with statistical measurements consistent with experiment. This is achieved through a strong localised reduction in the density sink acting on the filaments within the model. The required reduction of the density sink occurs over a highly localised region with the timescale of the density sink increased by a factor of 25. This alone is found to be insufficient to model the expansion and flattening of the shoulder region as the density increases, which requires additional changes within the stochastic model. An example is found which includes both a reduction in the density sink and filament acceleration and provides a consistent match to the experimental data as the shoulder expands, though the uniqueness of this solution can not be guaranteed. Within the context of the stochastic model, this implies that the localised reduction in the density sink can trigger shoulder formation, but additional physics is required to explain the subsequent evolution of the profile.

  5. Fluctuation theorems for continuously monitored quantum fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Michele; Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter

    2010-10-01

    It is shown that quantum fluctuation theorems remain unaffected if measurements of any kind and number of observables are performed during the action of a force protocol. That is, although the backward and forward probabilities entering the fluctuation theorems are both altered by these measurements, their ratio remains unchanged. This observation allows us to describe the measurement of fluxes through interfaces and, in this way, to bridge the gap between the current theory, based on only two measurements performed at the beginning and end of the protocol, and experiments that are based on continuous monitoring.

  6. Two fluxes multistage induction coilgun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherman, L.; Pearsica, M.; Circiu, I.; Rotaru, C.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a brand new induction electromagnetic launcher, which uses two magnetic fluxes in order to accelerate a projectile. One magnetic flux induce a current in the armature and the second magnetic flux is creating a radial magnetic field. This aproach offer multiple advantages over single flux designs. First we are able to control the induced current in armature because we use the coil just to induce current inside the ring with a great efficiency. Second advantage is the angle of 900 between magnetic field density B and the ring. We used the induction to avoid contact between armature and accelerator. In order to create the magnetic field radial we used four coils perpendicular on armature. This approach alove us to control the phase difference between induced current in armature and current in magnetic field coils for a maximum force. The phase difference is obtained by changing the frequency of magnetic field coils power source. We used simulation software to analyze, and simulate a multistage induction coilgun design with two fluxes. The simulation results demonstrated the theoretical results.

  7. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D A; Menard, J E; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Boedo, J A; Bush, C E; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D

    2008-08-04

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly-shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6 MW m{sup -2} to 0.5-2 MW m{sup -2} in small-ELM 0.8-1.0 MA, 4-6 MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  8. Reconnecting flux-rope dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Andrew W; Barenghi, Carlo F; Shukurov, Anvar; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2009-11-01

    We develop a model of the fluctuation dynamo in which the magnetic field is confined to thin flux ropes advected by a multiscale model of turbulence. Magnetic dissipation occurs only via reconnection of the flux ropes. This model can be viewed as an implementation of the asymptotic limit R_{m}-->infinity for a continuous magnetic field, where magnetic dissipation is strongly localized to small regions of strong-field gradients. We investigate the kinetic-energy release into heat mediated by the dynamo action, both in our model and by solving the induction equation with the same flow. We find that a flux-rope dynamo is an order of magnitude more efficient at converting mechanical energy into heat. The probability density of the magnetic energy release in reconnections has a power-law form with the slope -3 , consistent with the solar corona heating by nanoflares.

  9. Stochastic flux freezing and magnetic dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyink, Gregory L

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic flux conservation in turbulent plasmas at high magnetic Reynolds numbers is argued neither to hold in the conventional sense nor to be entirely broken, but instead to be valid in a statistical sense associated to the "spontaneous stochasticity" of Lagrangian particle trajectories. The latter phenomenon is due to the explosive separation of particles undergoing turbulent Richardson diffusion, which leads to a breakdown of Laplacian determinism for classical dynamics. Empirical evidence is presented for spontaneous stochasticity, including numerical results. A Lagrangian path-integral approach is then exploited to establish stochastic flux freezing for resistive hydromagnetic equations and to argue, based on the properties of Richardson diffusion, that flux conservation must remain stochastic at infinite magnetic Reynolds number. An important application of these results is the kinematic, fluctuation dynamo in nonhelical, incompressible turbulence at magnetic Prandtl number (Pr(m)) equal to unity. Numerical results on the Lagrangian dynamo mechanisms by a stochastic particle method demonstrate a strong similarity between the Pr(m)=1 and 0 dynamos. Stochasticity of field-line motion is an essential ingredient of both. Finally, some consequences for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, dynamo, and reconnection are briefly considered. © 2011 American Physical Society

  10. Respiratory carbon fluxes in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherkez, Guillaume; Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Mahé, Aline; Hodges, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Leaf respiration is a major metabolic process that drives energy production and growth. Earlier works in this field were focused on the measurement of respiration rates in relation to carbohydrate content, photosynthesis, enzymatic activities or nitrogen content. Recently, several studies have shed light on the mechanisms describing the regulation of respiration in the light and in the dark and on associated metabolic flux patterns. This review will highlight advances made into characterizing respiratory fluxes and provide a discussion of metabolic respiration dynamics in relation to important biological functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heat flux solarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartarelli, A.; Vera, S.; Cyrulies, E. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Univ. Nac. de Gral. Sarmiento (IDH, UNGS), Los Polvorines (Argentina); Echarri, R. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Univ. Nac. de Gral. Sarmiento (IDH, UNGS), Los Polvorines (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Samson, I. [INTEC (Instituto Tecnologico Santo Domingo), Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)

    2010-12-15

    The solarimeter presented in this work is easy to assemble. It is calibrated and its performance is validated by means of Hottel's method. Finally, the curves obtained with this solarimeter are compared to the ones obtained with a commercial solarimeter. This device is based on the evaluation of the heat flow in a metal rod. In consequence, measurements are not affected by ambient temperature variations. On the other hand, there is a linear relationship between the temperatures measured at the rod ends and the incident radiation, as can be concluded both from the theory of its operation and the calibration lines obtained. The results obtained from the global irradiance measurements in the area of Los Polvorines (Buenos Aires Province), together with a preliminary evaluation of the solarimeter's response time, are presented in this work. (author)

  12. 13C based proteinogenic amino acid (PAA and metabolic flux ratio analysis of Lactococcus lactis reveals changes in pentose phosphate (PP pathway in response to agitation and temperature related stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalrul Azlan Azizan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 is an important starter culture for dairy fermentation. During industrial fermentations, L. lactis is constantly exposed to stresses that affect the growth and performance of the bacterium. Although the response of L. lactis to several stresses has been described, the adaptation mechanisms at the level of in vivo fluxes have seldom been described. To gain insights into cellular metabolism, 13C metabolic flux analysis and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS were used to measure the flux ratios of active pathways in the central metabolism of L. lactis when subjected to three conditions varying in temperature (30°C, 37°C and agitation (with and without agitation at 150 rpm. Collectively, the concentrations of proteinogenic amino acids (PAAs and free fatty acids (FAAs were compared, and Pearson correlation analysis (r was calculated to measure the pairwise relationship between PAAs. Branched chain and aromatic amino acids, threonine, serine, lysine and histidine were correlated strongly, suggesting changes in flux regulation in glycolysis, the pentose phosphate (PP pathway, malic enzyme and anaplerotic reaction catalysed by pyruvate carboxylase (pycA. Flux ratio analysis revealed that glucose was mainly converted by glycolysis, highlighting the stability of L. lactis’ central carbon metabolism despite different conditions. Higher flux ratios through oxaloacetate (OAA from pyruvate (PYR reaction in all conditions suggested the activation of pyruvate carboxylate (pycA in L. lactis, in response to acid stress during exponential phase. Subsequently, more significant flux ratio differences were seen through the oxidative and non-oxidative pentose phosphate (PP pathways, malic enzyme, and serine and C1 metabolism, suggesting NADPH requirements in response to environmental stimuli. These reactions could play an important role in optimization strategies for metabolic engineering in L. lactis. Overall

  13. Assessing glycolytic flux alterations resulting from genetic perturbations in E. coli using a biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehning, Christina Eva; Siedler, Solvej; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim

    2017-01-01

    We describe the development of an optimized glycolytic flux biosensor and its application in detecting altered flux in a production strain and in a mutant library. The glycolytic flux biosensor is based on the Cra-regulated ppsA promoter of E. coli controlling fluorescent protein synthesis. We...... validated the glycolytic flux dependency of the biosensor in a range of different carbon sources in six different E. coli strains and during mevalonate production. Furthermore, we studied the flux-altering effects of genome-wide single gene knock-outs in E. coli in a multiplex FlowSeq experiment. From...

  14. Evershed Flows along Penumbral Flux Tubes in Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. H.

    2006-12-01

    Theoretical models of the Evershed flow in a sunspot based on the thin flux tube approximation are compared. The super-Alfvénic, ``sea-serpent'' flow configurations found by Schlichenmaier (2002, 2003) are shown to be gravitationally unstable. If indeed super-Alfvénic flow speeds can be achieved along penumbral flux tubes, any undulations that occur will form preferentially in a horizontal plane and hence will not explain the observed Evershed downflows or outward-moving penumbral grains. On the other hand, sub-Alfvénic, arched flow configurations, such as the siphon-flow models of Montesinos and Thomas (1997), are gravitationally stable. The outer part of a siphon-flow flux tube is submerged, in opposition to its magnetic buoyancy, by downward magnetic flux pumping in the granular convective layer outside the sunspot.

  15. Modeling and prototyping of a flux concentrator for positron capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.; Gai, W.; Wang, H.; Wong, T.; High Energy Physics; IIT

    2008-10-01

    An adiabatic matching device (AMD) generates a tapered high-strength magnetic field to capture positrons emitted from a positron target to a downstream accelerating structure. The AMD is a key component of a positron source and represents a technical challenge. The International Linear Collider collaboration is proposing to employ a pulsed, normal-conducting, flux-concentrator to generate a 5 Tesla initial magnetic field. The flux-concentrator structure itself and the interactions between the flux-concentrator and the external power supply circuits give rise to a nontrivial system. In this paper, we present a recently developed equivalent circuit model for a flux concentrator, along with the characteristics of a prototype fabricated for validating the model. Using the model, we can obtain the transient response of the pulsed magnetic field and the field profile. Calculations based on the model and the results of measurements made on the prototype are in good agreement.

  16. Modeling of Drift Effects on Solar Tower Concentrated Flux Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis O. Lara-Cerecedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel modeling tool for calculation of central receiver concentrated flux distributions is presented, which takes into account drift effects. This tool is based on a drift model that includes different geometrical error sources in a rigorous manner and on a simple analytic approximation for the individual flux distribution of a heliostat. The model is applied to a group of heliostats of a real field to obtain the resulting flux distribution and its variation along the day. The distributions differ strongly from those obtained assuming the ideal case without drift or a case with a Gaussian tracking error function. The time evolution of peak flux is also calculated to demonstrate the capabilities of the model. The evolution of this parameter also shows strong differences in comparison to the case without drift.

  17. Flux decline in ultrafiltration processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.B.; Smolders, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    When a membrane filtration process such as ultrafiltration is used a flux- and yield-decline can be observed. The causes are i) concentration polarization (i.e. accumulation of retained solutes, reversibly and immediately occurring) and ii) fouling phenomena such as adsorption, pore-blocking and

  18. Black branes in flux compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torroba, Gonzalo; Wang, Huajia

    2013-10-01

    We construct charged black branes in type IIA flux compactifications that are dual to (2 + 1)-dimensional field theories at finite density. The internal space is a general Calabi-Yau manifold with fluxes, with internal dimensions much smaller than the AdS radius. Gauge fields descend from the 3-form RR potential evaluated on harmonic forms of the Calabi-Yau, and Kaluza-Klein modes decouple. Black branes are described by a four-dimensional effective field theory that includes only a few light fields and is valid over a parametrically large range of scales. This effective theory determines the low energy dynamics, stability and thermodynamic properties. Tools from flux compactifications are also used to construct holographic CFTs with no relevant scalar operators, that can lead to symmetric phases of condensed matter systems stable to very low temperatures. The general formalism is illustrated with simple examples such as toroidal compactifications and manifolds with a single size modulus. We initiate the classification of holographic phases of matter described by flux compactifications, which include generalized Reissner-Nordstrom branes, nonsupersymmetric AdS2×R2 and hyperscaling violating solutions.

  19. Simple models with ALICE fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Striet, J

    2000-01-01

    We introduce two simple models which feature an Alice electrodynamics phase. In a well defined sense the Alice flux solutions we obtain in these models obey first order equations similar to those of the Nielsen-Olesen fluxtube in the abelian higgs model in the Bogomol'nyi limit. Some numerical solutions are presented as well.

  20. Global Intercomparison of 12 Land Surface Heat Flux Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, C.; Prigent, C.; Mueller, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.; McCabe, M. F.; Wood, E. F.; Rossow, W. B.; Balsamo, G.; Betts, A. K.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    A global intercomparison of 12 monthly mean land surface heat flux products for the period 1993-1995 is presented. The intercomparison includes some of the first emerging global satellite-based products (developed at Paris Observatory, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, University of California Berkeley, University of Maryland, and Princeton University) and examples of fluxes produced by reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA, NCEP-DOE) and off-line land surface models (GSWP-2, GLDAS CLM/ Mosaic/Noah). An intercomparison of the global latent heat flux (Q(sub le)) annual means shows a spread of approx 20 W/sq m (all-product global average of approx 45 W/sq m). A similar spread is observed for the sensible (Q(sub h)) and net radiative (R(sub n)) fluxes. In general, the products correlate well with each other, helped by the large seasonal variability and common forcing data for some of the products. Expected spatial distributions related to the major climatic regimes and geographical features are reproduced by all products. Nevertheless, large Q(sub le)and Q(sub h) absolute differences are also observed. The fluxes were spatially averaged for 10 vegetation classes. The larger Q(sub le) differences were observed for the rain forest but, when normalized by mean fluxes, the differences were comparable to other classes. In general, the correlations between Q(sub le) and R(sub n) were higher for the satellite-based products compared with the reanalyses and off-line models. The fluxes were also averaged for 10 selected basins. The seasonality was generally well captured by all products, but large differences in the flux partitioning were observed for some products and basins.

  1. Primary Metabolic Pathways and Metabolic Flux Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    his chapter introduces the metabolic flux analysis (MFA) or stoichiometry-based MFA, and describes the quantitative basis for MFA. It discusses the catabolic pathways in which free energy is produced to drive the cell-building anabolic pathways. An overview of these primary pathways provides...... to be examined in the following are: glycolysis, primarily by the EMP pathway, but other glycolytic pathways is also mentioned; fermentative pathways in which the redox generated in the glycolytic reactions are consumed; reactions in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which produce biomass precursors and redox...

  2. Aspects of six-dimensional flux compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierigl, Markus

    2017-08-15

    In this thesis we investigate various aspects of flux compactifications in six-dimensional quantum field theories. After introducing the internal geometries, i.e. the two-dimensional torus T{sup 2} and one of its orbifolds T{sup 2}/Z{sub 2}, we classify possible gauge backgrounds including continuous and discrete Wilson lines with emphasis on a non-vanishing flux density. An operator analogy with the quantum harmonic oscillator allows for an explicit derivation of the mode functions of charged fields and demonstrates the advantage of our interpretation of discrete Wilson lines in terms of localized fractional gauge fluxes. We then derive a globally supersymmetric action which captures the D-term supersymmetry breaking induced by the internal magnetic field and reproduces the Landau level mass spectrum of the charged four-dimensional degrees of freedom. In this context we show that, even though supersymmetry is broken at the compactification scale, the inclusion of the whole tower of charged states leads to vanishing quantum corrections for the Wilson line effective potential on T{sup 2}. This result is supported by a symmetry breaking argument in which the Wilson line appears as a Goldstone boson. After that, we additionally include gravitational effects within a supergravity effective action of the lightest modes in four dimensions. The dynamics of the moduli fields arising after compactification can be encoded in the setup of N=1 supergravity augmented with anomaly cancellation by the Green-Schwarz mechanism. This leads to a non-trivial transformation behavior for two axion fields under gauge variations in the low-energy effective action. As an application, we discuss an SO(10) x U(1) grand unified theory which uses the multiplicity of fermionic zero modes in the flux background to induce the number of matter generations. Finally, we investigate a novel mechanism for generating de Sitter vacua in N=1 supergravity based on a flux-induced positive definite D

  3. The effect of Arctic sea-ice extent on the absorbed (net solar flux at the surface, based on ISCCP-D2 cloud data for 1983–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matsoukas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the effect of the Arctic sea ice on the absorbed (net solar flux using a radiative transfer model. Ice and cloud input data to the model come from satellite observations, processed by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP and span the period July 1983–June 2007. The sea-ice effect on the solar radiation fluctuates seasonally with the solar flux and decreases interannually in synchronisation with the decreasing sea-ice extent. A disappearance of the Arctic ice cap during the sunlit period of the year would radically reduce the local albedo and cause an annually averaged 19.7 W m−2 increase in absorbed solar flux at the Arctic Ocean surface, or equivalently an annually averaged 0.55 W m−2 increase on the planetary scale. In the clear-sky scenario these numbers increase to 34.9 and 0.97 W m−2, respectively. A meltdown only in September, with all other months unaffected, increases the Arctic annually averaged solar absorption by 0.32 W m−2. We examined the net solar flux trends for the Arctic Ocean and found that the areas absorbing the solar flux more rapidly are the North Chukchi and Kara Seas, Baffin and Hudson Bays, and Davis Strait. The sensitivity of the Arctic absorbed solar flux on sea-ice extent and cloud amount was assessed. Although sea ice and cloud affect jointly the solar flux, we found little evidence of strong non-linearities.

  4. High Upward Fluxes of Formic Acid from a Boreal Forest Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Lopez-Hilifiker, Felipe D.; Taipale, Ditte; Millet, Dylan B.; D'Ambro, Emma L.; Rantala, Pekka; Mammarella, Ivan; Zhou, Putian; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Lee, Ben H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Eddy covariance fluxes of formic acid, HCOOH, were measured over a boreal forest canopy in spring/summer 2014. The HCOOH fluxes were bidirectional but mostly upward during daytime, in contrast to studies elsewhere that reported mostly downward fluxes. Downward flux episodes were explained well by modeled dry deposition rates. The sum of net observed flux and modeled dry deposition yields an upward gross flux of HCOOH, which could not be quantitatively explained by literature estimates of direct vegetative soil emissions nor by efficient chemical production from other volatile organic compounds, suggesting missing or greatly underestimated HCOOH sources in the boreal ecosystem. We implemented a vegetative HCOOH source into the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to match our derived gross flux and evaluated the updated model against airborne and spaceborne observations. Model biases in the boundary layer were substantially reduced based on this revised treatment, but biases in the free troposphere remain unexplained.

  5. PFA toolbox: a MATLAB tool for Metabolic Flux Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Yeimy; Bosque, Gabriel; Vehí, Josep; Picó, Jesús; Llaneras, Francisco

    2016-07-11

    Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA) is a methodology that has been successfully applied to estimate metabolic fluxes in living cells. However, traditional frameworks based on this approach have some limitations, particularly when measurements are scarce and imprecise. This is very common in industrial environments. The PFA Toolbox can be used to face those scenarios. Here we present the PFA (Possibilistic Flux Analysis) Toolbox for MATLAB, which simplifies the use of Interval and Possibilistic Metabolic Flux Analysis. The main features of the PFA Toolbox are the following: (a) It provides reliable MFA estimations in scenarios where only a few fluxes can be measured or those available are imprecise. (b) It provides tools to easily plot the results as interval estimates or flux distributions. (c) It is composed of simple functions that MATLAB users can apply in flexible ways. (d) It includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI), which provides a visual representation of the measurements and their uncertainty. (e) It can use stoichiometric models in COBRA format. In addition, the PFA Toolbox includes a User's Guide with a thorough description of its functions and several examples. The PFA Toolbox for MATLAB is a freely available Toolbox that is able to perform Interval and Possibilistic MFA estimations.

  6. Experimental determination of group flux control coefficients in metabolic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, T.W.; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Stephanopoulos, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-04-20

    Grouping of reactions around key metabolite branch points can facilitate the study of metabolic control of complex metabolic networks. This top-down Metabolic Control Analysis is exemplified through the introduction of group control coefficients whose magnitudes provide a measure of the relative impact of each reaction group on the overall network flux, as well as on the overall network stability, following enzymatic amplification. In this article, the authors demonstrate the application of previously developed theory to the determination of group flux control coefficients. Experimental data for the changes in metabolic fluxes obtained in response to the introduction of six different environmental perturbations are used to determine the group flux control coefficients for three reaction groups formed around the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate branch point. The consistency of the obtained group flux control coefficient estimates is systematically analyzed to ensure that all necessary conditions are satisfied. The magnitudes of the determined control coefficients suggest that the control of lysine production flux in Corynebacterium glutamicum cells at a growth base state resides within the lysine biosynthetic pathway that begins with the PEP/PYR carboxylation anaplorotic pathway.

  7. Distributed Sensible Heat Flux Measurements for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwald, H.; Brauchli, T.; Lehning, M.; Higgins, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The sensible heat flux component of the surface energy balance is typically computed using eddy covariance or two point profile measurements while alternative approaches such as the flux variance method based on convective scaling has been much less explored and applied. Flux variance (FV) certainly has a few limitations and constraints but may be an interesting and competitive method in low-cost and power limited wireless sensor networks (WSN) with the advantage of providing spatio-temporal sensible heat flux over the domain of the network. In a first step, parameters such as sampling frequency, sensor response time, and averaging interval are investigated. Then we explore the applicability and the potential of the FV method for use in WSN in a field experiment. Low-cost sensor systems are tested and compared against reference instruments (3D sonic anemometers) to evaluate the performance and limitations of the sensors as well as the method with respect to the standard calculations. Comparison experiments were carried out at several sites to gauge the flux measurements over different surface types (gravel, grass, water) from the low-cost systems. This study should also serve as an example of spatially distributed sensible heat flux measurements.

  8. Flavour mixings in flux compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-01-15

    A multiplicity of quark-lepton families can naturally arise as zero-modes in flux compactifications. The flavour structure of quark and lepton mass matrices is then determined by the wave function profiles of the zero-modes. We consider a supersymmetric SO(10) x U(1) model in six dimensions compactified on the orbifold T{sup 2}=Z{sub 2} with Abelian magnetic flux. A bulk 16-plet charged under the U(1) provides the quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10-plets yield two Higgs doublets. Bulk anomaly cancellation requires the presence of additional 16- and 10-plets. The corresponding zero-modes form vectorlike split multiplets that are needed to obtain a successful flavour phenomenology. We analyze the pattern of flavour mixings for the two heaviest families of the Standard Model and discuss possible generalizations to three and more generations.

  9. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  10. Effect of amino acid supplementation on titer and glycosylation distribution in hybridoma cell cultures-Systems biology-based interpretation using genome-scale metabolic flux balance model and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimonn, Thomas M; Park, Seo-Young; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Brorson, Kurt A; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2016-09-01

    Genome-scale flux balance analysis (FBA) is a powerful systems biology tool to characterize intracellular reaction fluxes during cell cultures. FBA estimates intracellular reaction rates by optimizing an objective function, subject to the constraints of a metabolic model and media uptake/excretion rates. A dynamic extension to FBA, dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA), can calculate intracellular reaction fluxes as they change during cell cultures. In a previous study by Read et al. (2013), a series of informed amino acid supplementation experiments were performed on twelve parallel murine hybridoma cell cultures, and this data was leveraged for further analysis (Read et al., Biotechnol Prog. 2013;29:745-753). In order to understand the effects of media changes on the model murine hybridoma cell line, a systems biology approach is applied in the current study. Dynamic flux balance analysis was performed using a genome-scale mouse metabolic model, and multivariate data analysis was used for interpretation. The calculated reaction fluxes were examined using partial least squares and partial least squares discriminant analysis. The results indicate media supplementation increases product yield because it raises nutrient levels extending the growth phase, and the increased cell density allows for greater culture performance. At the same time, the directed supplementation does not change the overall metabolism of the cells. This supports the conclusion that product quality, as measured by glycoform assays, remains unchanged because the metabolism remains in a similar state. Additionally, the DFBA shows that metabolic state varies more at the beginning of the culture but less by the middle of the growth phase, possibly due to stress on the cells during inoculation. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1163-1173, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  11. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) Arctic Campaign (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafimovich, A.; Metzger, S.; Hartmann, J.; Kohnert, K.; Sachs, T.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most pressing questions with regard to climate feedback processes in a warming Arctic is the regional-scale methane release from Arctic permafrost areas. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) campaign is designed to quantitatively and spatially explicitly address this question. Ground-based eddy covariance (EC) measurements provide continuous in-situ observations of the surface-atmosphere exchange of methane. However, these observations are rare in the Arctic permafrost zone and site selection is bound by logistical constraints among others. Consequently, these observations cover only small areas that are not necessarily representative of the region of interest. Airborne measurements can overcome this limitation by covering distances of hundreds of kilometers over time periods of a few hours. Here, we present the potential of environmental response functions (ERFs) for quantitatively linking methane flux observations in the atmospheric surface layer to meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. For this purpose thousands of kilometers of AIRMETH data across the Alaskan North Slope are utilized, with the aim to extrapolate the airborne EC methane flux observations to the entire North Slope. The data were collected aboard the research aircraft POLAR 5, using its turbulence nose boom and fast response methane and meteorological sensors. After thorough data pre-processing, Reynolds averaging is used to derive spatially integrated fluxes. To increase spatial resolution and to derive ERFs, we then use wavelet transforms of the original high-frequency data. This enables much improved spatial discretization of the flux observations, and the quantification of continuous and biophysically relevant land cover properties in the flux footprint of each observation. A machine learning technique is then employed to extract and quantify the functional relationships between the methane flux observations and the meteorological and

  12. Sediment flux and the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvitski, James P M; Kettner, Albert

    2011-03-13

    Data and computer simulations are reviewed to help better define the timing and magnitude of human influence on sediment flux--the Anthropocene epoch. Impacts on the Earth surface processes are not spatially or temporally homogeneous. Human influences on this sediment flux have a secondary effect on floodplain and delta-plain functions and sediment dispersal into the coastal ocean. Human impact on sediment production began 3000 years ago but accelerated more widely 1000 years ago. By the sixteenth century, societies were already engineering their environment. Early twentieth century mechanization has led to global signals of increased sediment flux in most large rivers. By the 1950s, this sediment disturbance signal reversed for many rivers owing to the proliferation of dams, and sediment load reduction below pristine conditions is the dominant signal today. A delta subsidence signal began in the 1930s and is now a dominant signal in terms of sea level for many coastal environments, overwhelming even the global warming imprint on sea level. Humans have engineered how most water and sediment are discharged into the coastal ocean. Hyperpycnal flow events have become more common for some rivers, and less common for other rivers. Bottom trawling is now widespread, suggesting that even continental shelves have received a significant but as yet quantified Anthropocene impact. The Anthropocene attains the level of a geological climate event, such as that seen in the transition between the Pleistocene and the Holocene.

  13. Determination of Energy Fluxes Over Agricultural Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Argete

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available An energy budget was conducted over two kinds if surfaces: grass and corn canopy. The net radiative flux and the soil heat flux were directly measured while the latent and sensible heat flux were calculated from the vertical profiles if wet and dry-bulb temperature and wind speed. The crop storage flux was also estimated. Using the gradient or aerodynamic equations, the calculated fluxes when compared to the measured fluxes in the context of an energy budget gave an SEE = 63 Wm-2 over grass and SEE = 81 Wm-2 over corn canopy. The calculated fluxes compared reasonably well with those obtained using the Penman equations.For an energy budget research with limited instrumentation, the aerodynamic method performed satisfactorily in estimating the daytime fluxes, when atmospheric conditions are fully convective, but failed when conditions were stably stratified as during nighttime.

  14. Coherence properties in superconducting flux qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilla, Samuele

    2015-02-16

    The research work discussed in this thesis deals with the study of superconducting Josephson qubits. Superconducting qubits are solid-state artificial atoms which are based on lithographically defined Josephson tunnel junctions properties. When sufficiently cooled, these superconducting devices exhibit quantized states of charge, flux or junction phase depending on their design parameters. This allows to observe coherent evolutions of their states. The results presented can be divided into two parts. In a first part we investigate operations of superconducting qubits based on the quantum coherence in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID). We explain experimental data which has been observed in a SQUID subjected to fast, large-amplitude modifications of its effective potential shape. The motivations for this work come from the fact that in the past few years there have been attempts to interpret the supposed quantum behavior of physical systems, such as Josephson devices, within a classical framework. Moreover, we analyze the possibility of generating GHZ states, namely maximally entangled states, in a quantum system made out of three Josephson qubits. In particular, we investigate the possible limitations of the GHZ state generation due to coupling to bosonic baths. In the second part of the thesis we address a particular cause of decoherence of flux qubits which has been disregarded until now: thermal gradients, which can arise due to accidental non equilibrium quasiparticle distributions. The reason for these detrimental effects is that heat currents flowing through Josephson tunnel junctions in response to a temperature gradient are periodic functions of the phase difference between the electrodes. The phase dependence of the heat current comes from Andreev reflection, namely an interplay between the quasiparticles which carry heat and the superconducting condensate which is sensitive to the superconducting phase difference. Generally speaking

  15. Measurements and Phenomenological Modeling of Magnetic FluxBuildup in Spheromak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Talamas, C A; Hooper, E B; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Moller, J M

    2007-12-14

    Internal magnetic field measurements and high-speed imaging at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are used to study spheromak formation and field buildup. The measurements are analyzed in the context of a phenomenological model of magnetic helicity based on the topological constraint of minimum helicity in the open flux before reconnecting and linking closed flux. Two stages are analyzed: (1) the initial spheromak formation, i. e. when all flux surfaces are initially open and reconnect to form open and closed flux surfaces, and (2) the stepwise increase of closed flux when operating the gun on a new mode that can apply a train of high-current pulses to the plasma. In the first stage, large kinks in the open flux surfaces are observed in the high-speed images taken shortly after plasma breakdown, and coincide with large magnetic asymmetries recorded in a fixed insertable magnetic probe that spans the flux conserver radius. Closed flux (in the toroidal average sense) appears shortly after this. This stage is also investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In the second stage, a time lag in response between open and closed flux surfaces after each current pulse is interpreted as the time for the open flux to build helicity, before transferring it through reconnection to the closed flux. Large asymmetries are seen during these events, which then relax to a slowly decaying spheromak before the next pulse.

  16. Force sensor using changes in magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Herman L. (Inventor); Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A force sensor includes a magnetostrictive material and a magnetic field generator positioned in proximity thereto. A magnetic field is induced in and surrounding the magnetostrictive material such that lines of magnetic flux pass through the magnetostrictive material. A sensor positioned in the vicinity of the magnetostrictive material measures changes in one of flux angle and flux density when the magnetostrictive material experiences an applied force that is aligned with the lines of magnetic flux.

  17. Observational biases in flux magnification measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, H.

    2016-02-01

    Flux magnification is an interesting complement to shear-based lensing measurements, especially at high redshift where sources are harder to resolve. One measures either changes in the source density (magnification bias) or in the shape of the flux distribution (e.g. magnitude shift). The interpretation of these measurements relies on theoretical estimates of how the observables change under magnification. Here, we present simulations to create multiband photometric mock catalogues of Lyman-break galaxies in a CFHTLenS (Canada France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey)-like survey that include several observational effects that can change these relations, making simple theoretical estimates unusable. In particular, we show how the magnification bias can be affected by photometric noise, colour selection, and dust extinction. We find that a simple measurement of the slope of the number-counts is not sufficient for the precise interpretation of virtually all observations of magnification bias. We also explore how sensitive the shift in the mean magnitude of a source sample in different photometric bands is to magnification including the same observational effects. Again we find significant deviations from simple analytical estimates. We also discover a wavelength-dependence of the magnitude-shift effect when applied to a colour-selected noisy source sample. Such an effect can mimic the reddening by dust in the lens. It has to be disentangled from the dust extinction before the magnitude shift/colour-excess can be used to measure the distribution of either dark matter or extragalactic dust. Using simulations like the ones presented here these observational effects can be studied and eventually removed from observations making precise measurements of flux magnification possible.

  18. Flux Cancelation: The Key to Solar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse; Moore, Ronald; Chakrapani, Prithi; Innes, Davina; Schmit, Don; Tiwari, Sanjiv

    2017-01-01

    Solar coronal jets are magnetically channeled eruptions that occur in all types of solar environments (e.g. active regions, quiet-Sun regions and coronal holes). Recent studies show that coronal jets are driven by the eruption of small-scare filaments (minifilaments). Once the eruption is underway magnetic reconnection evidently makes the jet spire and the bright emission in the jet base. However, the triggering mechanism of these eruptions and the formation mechanism of the pre-jet minifilaments are still open questions. In this talk, mainly using SDOAIA and SDOHIM data, first I will address the question: what triggers the jet-driving minifilament eruptions in different solar environments (coronal holes, quiet regions, active regions)? Then I will talk about the magnetic field evolution that produces the pre-jet minifilaments. By examining pre-jet evolutionary changes in line-of-sight HMI magnetograms while examining concurrent EUV images of coronal and transition-region emission, we find clear evidence that flux cancelation is the main process that builds pre-jet minifilaments, and is also the main process that triggers the eruptions. I will also present results from our ongoing work indicating that jet-driving minifilament eruptions are analogous to larger-scare filament eruptions that make flares and CMEs. We find that persistent flux cancellation at the neutral line of large-scale filaments often triggers their eruptions. From our observations we infer that flux cancelation is the fundamental process from the buildup and triggering of solar eruptions of all sizes.

  19. Calibration of soil heat flux sensors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van W.K.P.; Bastings, H.M.H.; Moors, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    Soil heat flux is difficult to measure accurately and soil heat flux plates are difficult to calibrate. In this research the reference heat flux was calculated from the temperature gradient and independent thermal conductivity measurements. Reference conductivities, as measured by the non-steady

  20. Surface fluxes over natural landscapes using scintillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijninger, W.M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the demand for reliable area-averaged fluxes associated with natural landscapes this thesis investigates a relative new measurement technique known as the scintillation method. For homogeneous areas the surface fluxes can be derived with reasonable accuracy. However, fluxes

  1. Metabolic Flux Analysis of Mammalian Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis has become a standard tool for analyzing metabolism and optimizing bioprocesses. Metabolic flux analysis makes use of a metabolic reaction network in combination with extra-cellular measurements and mass balancing to calculate flux distributions in metabolism. It is a useful

  2. Apparatus for measuring a flux of neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, James L.

    1977-01-01

    A flux of neutrons is measured by disposing a detector in the flux and applying electronic correlation techniques to discriminate between the electrical signals generated by the neutron detector and the unwanted interfering electrical signals generated by the incidence of a neutron flux upon the cables connecting the detector to the electronic measuring equipment at a remote location.

  3. Seasonality of Overstory and Understory Fluxes in a Semi-Arid Oak Savanna: What can be Learned from Comparing Measured and Modeled Fluxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz-Yaseef, N.; Sonnentag, O.; Kobayashi, H.; Chen, J. M.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Ma, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Semi-arid climates experience large seasonal and inter-annual variability in radiation and precipitation, creating natural conditions adequate to study how year-to-year changes affect atmosphere-biosphere fluxes. Especially, savanna ecosystems, that combine tree and below-canopy components, create a unique environment in which phenology dramatically changes between seasons. We used a 10-year flux database in order to define seasonal and interannual variability of climatic inputs and fluxes, and evaluate model capability to reproduce observed variability. This is based on the perception that model capability to construct the deviation, and not the average, is important in order to correctly predict ecosystem sensitivity to climate change. Our research site is a low density and low LAI (0.8) semi-arid savanna, located at Tonzi Ranch, Northern California. In this system, trees are active during the warm season (Mar - Oct), and grasses are active during the wet season (Dec - May). Measurements of carbon and water fluxes above and below the tree canopy using eddy covariance and supplementary measurements have been made since 2001. Fluxes were simulated using bio-meteorological process-oriented ecosystem models: BEPS and 3D-CAONAK. Models were partly capable of reproducing fluxes on daily scales (R2=0.66). We then compared model outputs for different ecosystem components and seasons, and found distinct seasons with high correlations while other seasons were purely represented. Comparison was much higher for ET than for GPP. The understory was better simulated than the overstory. CANOAK overestimated spring understory fluxes, probably due to the capability to directly calculated 3D radiative transfer. BEPS underestimated spring understory fluxes, following the pre-description of grass die-off. Both models underestimated peak spring overstory fluxes. During winter tree dormant, modeled fluxes were null, but occasional high fluxes of both ET and GPP were measured following

  4. Geometrical correction factors for heat flux meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Papell, S. S.

    1974-01-01

    General formulas are derived for determining gage averaging errors of strip-type heat flux meters used in the measurement of one-dimensional heat flux distributions. The local averaging error e(x) is defined as the difference between the measured value of the heat flux and the local value which occurs at the center of the gage. In terms of e(x), a correction procedure is presented which allows a better estimate for the true value of the local heat flux. For many practical problems, it is possible to use relatively large gages to obtain acceptable heat flux measurements.

  5. Generalized non-supersymmetric flux vacua

    CERN Document Server

    Lüst, Dieter; Martucci, Luca; Tsimpis, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a novel strategy to construct 4D N=0 stable flux vacua of type II string theory, based on the existence of BPS bounds for probe D-branes in some of these backgrounds. In particular, we consider compactifications where D-branes filling the 4D space-time obey the same BPS bound as they would in an N=1 compactification, while other D-branes, like those appearing as domain walls from the 4D perspective, can no longer be BPS. We construct a subfamily of such backgrounds giving rise to 4D N=0 Minkowski no-scale vacua, generalizing the well-known case of type IIB on a warped Calabi-Yau. We provide several explicit examples of these constructions, and compute quantities of phenomenological interest like flux-induced soft terms on D-branes. Our results have a natural, simple description in the language of Generalized Complex Geometry, and in particular in terms of D-brane generalized calibrations. Finally, we extend the integrability theorems for 10D supersymmetric type II backgrounds to the N=0 case and us...

  6. Pool size measurements facilitate the determination of fluxes at branching points in nonstationary metabolic flux analysis: The case of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHeise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pool size measurements are important for the estimation of absolute intracellular fluxes in particular scenarios based on data from heavy carbon isotope experiments. Recently, steady-state fluxes estimates were obtained for central carbon metabolism in an intact illuminated rosette of Arabidopsis thaliana grown photoautotrophically (Szecowka et al., 2013; Heise et al., 2014. Fluxes were estimated therein by integrating mass-spectrometric data of the dynamics of the unlabeled metabolic fraction, data on metabolic pool sizes, partitioning of metabolic pools between cellular compartments and estimates of photosynthetically inactive pools, with a simplified model of plant central carbon metabolism. However, the fluxes were determined by treating the pool sizes as fixed parameters. Here we investigated whether and, if so, to what extent the treatment of pool sizes as parameters to be optimized in three scenarios may affect the flux estimates. The results are discussed in terms of benchmark values for canonical pathways and reactions, including starch and sucrose synthesis as well as the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and oxygenation reactions. In addition, we discuss pathways emerging from a divergent branch point for which pool sizes are required for flux estimation, irrespective of the computational approach used for the simulation of the observable labelling pattern. Therefore, our findings indicate the necessity for development of techniques for accurate pool size measurements to improve the quality of flux estimates from nonstationary flux estimates in intact plant cells in the absence of alternative flux measurements.

  7. Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes

    OpenAIRE

    I. P. Pakhotin; A. Y. Drozdov; Yuri Shprits; R. J. Boynton; D. A. Subbotin; M. A. Balikhin

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system ...

  8. Flux limiters and Eddington factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomraning, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper a closure scheme for the first two angular moments of the time-dependent equation of transfer is presented, either via an Eddington factor which leads to a telegrapher's description, or via a Fick's law which leads to a diffusion description. Points discussed include boundary conditions (both an extension of the classic Marshak-Milne condition and those arising from a boundary layer analysis), the flux limiting feature of the diffusion approximation, and the reduction of the theory to asymptotic diffusion theory in the steady state limit.

  9. Ozone Flux Measurement and Modelling on Leaf/Shoot and Canopy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    2011-02-01

    calculated by SVAT models often based on the energy balance of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system and on the big-leaf concept. This latter assumes the canopy as equivalent to a single leaf having a leaf area equal to the total area of all the plant’s leaves and lying at a certain height above the ground. The complexity of SVAT models ranges from one-dimensional to three-dimensional models. The most used are one-dimensional models in single-layer, dual-source or multi-layer version. The main uncertainties in flux modelling are currently associated to the estimation of the non-stomatal flux component and to the up-scaling process from leaf to canopy and stand level. For the latter a separate representation of sunlit and shaded leaves is recommended.

  10. Ozone Flux Measurement and Modelling on Leaf/Shoot and Canopy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Grünhage

    calculated by SVAT models often based on the energy balance of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system and on the big-leaf concept. This latter assumes the canopy as equivalent to a single leaf having a leaf area equal to the total area of all the plant’s leaves and lying at a certain height above the ground. The complexity of SVAT models ranges from one-dimensional to three-dimensional models. The most used are one-dimensional models in single-layer, dual-source or multi-layer version. The main uncertainties in flux modelling are currently associated to the estimation of the non-stomatal flux component and to the up-scaling process from leaf to canopy and stand level. For the latter a separate representation of sunlit and shaded leaves is recommended.

  11. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Heldens, Wieke; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Albitar, Ahmad; Gabey, Andrew; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-04-01

    While Earth Observation (EO) has made significant advances in the study of urban areas, there are several unanswered science and policy questions to which it could contribute. To this aim the recently launched Horizon 2020 project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of EO to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component in the urban energy budget. The anthropogenic heat flux is the heat flux resulting from vehicular emissions, space heating and cooling of buildings, industrial processing and the metabolic heat release by people. Optical, thermal and SAR data from existing satellite sensors are used to improve the accuracy of the radiation balance spatial distribution calculation, using also in-situ reflectance measurements of urban materials are for calibration. EO-based methods are developed for estimating turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes, as well as urban heat storage flux and anthropogenic heat flux spatial patterns at city scale and local scale by employing an energy budget closure approach. Independent methods and models are engaged to evaluate the derived products and statistical analyses provide uncertainty measures as well. Ultimate goal of the URBANFLUXES is to develop a highly automated method for estimating urban energy budget components to use with Copernicus Sentinel data, enabling its integration into applications and operational services. Thus, URBANFLUXES prepares the ground for further innovative exploitation of European space data in scientific activities (i.e. Earth system modelling and climate change studies in cities) and future and emerging applications (i.e. sustainable urban planning) by exploiting the improved data quality, coverage and revisit times of the Copernicus data. The URBANFLUXES products will therefore have the potential to support both sustainable planning strategies to improve the quality of life in cities, as well as Earth system models to

  12. POES MEPED differential flux retrievals and electron channel contamination correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, E. D.; Randall, C. E.; Green, J. C.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Rodger, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    A correction method to remove proton contamination from the electron channels of the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites Medium Energy Proton/Electron Detector (MEPED) is described. Proton contamination estimates are based on measurements in five of the MEPED proton spectral channels. A constrained inversion of the MEPED proton channel response function matrix is used to calculate proton differential flux spectra. In this inversion, the proton energy distribution is described by a weighted combination of exponential, power law, and Maxwellian distributions. Proton contamination in the MEPED electron spectral channels is derived by applying the electron channel proton sensitivities to the proton fluxes from the best fit proton spectra. Once the electron channel measurements are corrected for proton contamination, an inversion of the electron channel response function matrix is used to calculate electron differential flux spectra. A side benefit of the method is that it yields an estimate for the integrated electron flux in the energy range from 300 keV to 2.5 MeV with a center energy at ~800 keV. The final product is a differential spectrum of electron flux covering the energy range from about 10 keV to 2.5 MeV that is devoid of proton contamination except during large solar proton events. Comparisons of corrected MEPED differential fluxes to the Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions Instrument for Detecting Particles show that MEPED fluxes are greater than what is expected from altitude-induced particle population changes; this is attributed at least partially to measurement differences in pitch angle range.

  13. The potential and flux landscape theory of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Li; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2012-08-14

    We established the potential and flux landscape theory for evolution. We found explicitly the conventional Wright's gradient adaptive landscape based on the mean fitness is inadequate to describe the general evolutionary dynamics. We show the intrinsic potential as being Lyapunov function(monotonically decreasing in time) does exist and can define the adaptive landscape for general evolution dynamics for studying global stability. The driving force determining the dynamics can be decomposed into gradient of potential landscape and curl probability flux. Non-zero flux causes detailed balance breaking and measures how far the evolution from equilibrium state. The gradient of intrinsic potential and curl flux are perpendicular to each other in zero fluctuation limit resembling electric and magnetic forces on electrons. We quantified intrinsic energy, entropy and free energy of evolution and constructed non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The intrinsic non-equilibrium free energy is a Lyapunov function. Both intrinsic potential and free energy can be used to quantify the global stability and robustness of evolution. We investigated an example of three allele evolutionary dynamics with frequency dependent selection (detailed balance broken). We uncovered the underlying single, triple, and limit cycle attractor landscapes. We found quantitative criterions for stability through landscape topography. We also quantified evolution pathways and found paths do not follow potential gradient and are irreversible due to non-zero flux. We generalized the original Fisher's fundamental theorem to the general (i.e., frequency dependent selection) regime of evolution by linking the adaptive rate with not only genetic variance related to the potential but also the flux. We show there is an optimum potential where curl flux resulting from biotic interactions of individuals within a species or between species can sustain an endless evolution even if the physical environment is unchanged. We

  14. Triode for magnetic flux quanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Colauto, Fabiano; Benseman, Timothy; Rosenmann, Daniel; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    We designed a magnetic vortex triode using an array of closely spaced soft magnetic Py strips on top of a Nb superconducting film. The strips act similar to the grid electrode in an electronic triode, where the electron flow is regulated by the grid potential. In our case, we tune the vortex motion by the magnetic charge potential of the strip edges, using a small magnetic field rotating in the film plane. The magnetic charges emerging at the stripe edges and proportional to the magnetization component perpendicular to the edge direction, form linear potential barriers or valleys for vortex motion in the superconducting layer. We directly imaged the normal flux penetration into the Py/Nb films and observed retarded or accelerated entry of the normal vortices depending on the in-plane magnetization direction in the stripes. The observed flux behavior is explained by interactions between magnetically charged lines and magnetic monopoles of vortices similar to those between electrically charged strings and point charges. We discuss the possibility of using our design for manipulation of individual vortices in high-speed, low-power superconducting electronic circuits. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, and Office of BES (contract DE-AC02-06CH11357). F. Colauto thanks the Sao Paulo Research Foundation FAPESP (Grant No. 2015/06.085-3).

  15. Relationships Among Canopy Scale Energy Fluxes and Isoprene Flux Using Eddy Covariance Measurements Over Multiple Growing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, S. N.; Lamb, B. K.; Westberg, H.

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene is one of the most abundant biogenic trace gases in the troposphere. Biogenic trace gases affect tropospheric chemistry by forming gaseous and particulate secondary products in conjunction with anthropogenic emissions that contribute to the degradation of air quality. Our understanding of the impact isoprene has on tropospheric photochemistry is hampered by our limited knowledge of the biosphere-atmosphere exchange process, and thus the inability to accurately quantify the biogenic emission inventory. Isoprene emissions are regulated by many environmental variables; the most important variables are known to be temperature and light. The research summarized here seeks to improve our understanding of biogenic emissions from forest ecosystems as a basis for advancing our ability to describe the role of biogenics in regional and global atmospheric chemical cycles. Biogenic emission models, such as BEIS (Biogenic Emission Inventory System) rely on above canopy environmental parameters and below canopy scaling factors to estimate canopy scale biogenic hydrocarbon fluxes. This type of model can predict biogenic emissions well, however, the required input is extensive, and for regional applications, it can be cumbersome. Based on the assumption that isoprene emission rates are enzymatic (a function of temperature, light, and historical temperature), we propose that sensible heat flux can be a surrogate for above canopy temperature and light when estimating isoprene fluxes at the canopy scale. In addition, sensible heat flux may be a better indicator of the canopy interaction with incoming energy, as opposed to scaling above canopy parameters. Thus, the use of surface energy fluxes such as sensible heat flux is an attempt to combine the biological (enzymatic) and meteorological processes that affect the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of isoprene. Since surface energy budgets are an integral part of mesoscale meteorological models, this could potentially be a useful

  16. Investigation into the flux distribution of central carbon metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Chuanyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central carbon metabolism is the main source of energy required by organisms and it provides precursors for other in vivo metabolic processes. The flux flowing through the pathways involved in central carbon metabolism characterizes its biological function and genetic readout between species or environments. In recent years, using a 13C tracer technique, researchers have measured the flux of central carbon metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum under a variety of nutritional and environmental changes or genetic modifications. However, there is no integrated and comparative analysis of these measured flux values. In this study, the flux values of central carbon metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum that were obtained in other recent studies were consolidated. A preliminary examination of the distribution characteristics of flux values in each metabolic pathway was conducted and the regression relationship between different fluxes was investigated. The principal components of the flux vector were further extracted and aggregated based on the components, and the general features of flux distribution of central carbon metabolism as well as the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the flux distribution were determined. This study provides a foundation for further investigation into the flux distribution and regulation characteristics of central carbon metabolism.

  17. Monitoring Akkuyu Nuclear Reactor Using Antineutrino Flux Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, Sertac; Adiguzel, Aytul; Ozcan, V. Erkcan; Unel, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    We present a simulation-based study for monitoring Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant's activity using antineutrino flux originating from the reactor core. A water Cherenkov detector has been designed and optimization studies have been performed using Geant4 simulation toolkit. A first study for the design of a monitoring detector facility for Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant is discussed in this paper.

  18. Horizontal muon flux measured with the LVD detector at LNGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbini, Marco, E-mail: garbini@bo.infn.it [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' Roma and INFN Bologna (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    We report the measure of underground horizontal (cos({theta})<0.3) muon flux with the Large Volume Detector (LVD) at the I.N.F.N. Gran Sasso National Laboratory. The analysis is based on the whole muon data collected by LVD since start of data taking in 1992.

  19. Carbon flux bias estimation employing Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter (MLEF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zupanski, Dusanka; Denning, A. Scott; Uliasz, Marek; Zupanski, Milija; Schuh, Andrew E.; Rayner, Peter J.; Peters, Wouter; Corbin, Katherine D.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the capability of an ensemble based data assimilation approach, referred to as Maximum Likelihood Ensemble Filter (MLEF), to estimate biases in the CO2 photosynthesis and respiration fluxes. We employ an off-line Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM), which is driven by the carbon

  20. A sea spray aerosol flux parameterization encapsulating wave state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ovadnevaite, J.; Manders, A.; De Leeuw, G.; Ceburnis, D.; Monahan, C.; Partanen, A.I.; Korhonen, H.; O'Dowd, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    A new sea spray source function (SSSF), termed Oceanflux Sea Spray Aerosol or OSSA, was derived based on in-situ sea spray aerosol measurements along with meteorological/physical parameters. Submicron sea spray aerosol fluxes derived from particle number concentration measurements at the Mace Head

  1. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere]|[Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1997-03-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author) 197 refs.

  2. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J.

    1995-10-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. A microscale turbine driven by diffusive mass flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingcheng; Liu, Rui; Ripoll, Marisol; Chen, Ke

    2015-10-07

    An external diffusive mass flux is shown to be able to generate a mechanical torque on a microscale object based on anisotropic diffusiophoresis. In light of this finding, we propose a theoretical prototype micro-turbine driven purely by diffusive mass flux, which is in strong contrast to conventional turbines driven by convective mass flows. The rotational velocity of the proposed turbine is determined by the external concentration gradient, the geometry and the diffusiophoretic properties of the turbine. This scenario is validated by performing computer simulations. Our finding thus provides a new type of chemo-mechanical response which could be used to exploit existing chemical energies at small scales.

  4. A novel flux observer in sensorless PMSM drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Zhen, Zhilong

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates problems associated with direct torque control (DTC) of PMSM, such as the stator resistance variations, the integration drift and the integration saturation in order to reduce the system ripples. The standard particle filter (PF) algorithm was introduced to DTC system of PMSM. The motor terminal voltages and stator currents are the system input and output variables. and the two stator fluxes are used as system state variables. Then the flux can be estimated according to PF algorithm when the voltages and stator currents have been measured. The method was implemented in Simulink. The simulation results indicate that the system based on PF observer has good performance.

  5. Observational & modeling analysis of surface heat and moisture fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An observational and modeling study was conducted to help assess how well current GCMs are predicting surface fluxes under the highly variable cloudiness and flow conditions characteristic of the real atmosphere. The observational data base for the study was obtained from a network of surface flux stations operated during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The study included examination of a surface-driven secondary circulation in the boundary layer resulting from a persistent cross-site gradient in soil moisture, to demonstrate the sensitivity of boundary layer dynamics to heterogeneous surface fluxes, The performance of a biosphere model in reproducing the measured surface fluxes was evaluated with and without the use of satellite retrieval of three key canopy variables with RMS uncertainties commensurate with those of the measurements themselves. Four sensible heat flux closure schemes currently being used in GCMs were then evaluated against the FIFE observations. Results indicate that the methods by which closure models are calibrated lead to exceedingly large errors when the schemes are applied to variable boundary layer conditions. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  6. The Importance of Non-Linearity on Turbulent Fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2007-01-01

    Two new non-linear models for the turbulent heat fluxes are derived and developed from the transport equation of the scalar passive flux. These models are called as non-linear eddy diffusivity and non-linear scalar flux. The structure of these models is compared with the exact solution which...... is derived from the Cayley-Hamilton theorem and contains a three term-basis plus a non-linear term due to scalar fluxes. In order to study the performance of the model itself, all other turbulent quantities are taken from a DNS channel flow data-base and thus the error source has been minimized. The results...... are compared with the DNS channel flow and good agreement is achieved. It has been shown that the non-linearity parts of the models are important to capture the true path of the streamwise scalar fluxes. It has also been shown that one of model constant should have negative sign rather than positive, which had...

  7. Dimensional analysis of membrane distillation flux through fibrous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauter, Meagan

    We developed a dimensional-analysis-based empirical modeling method for membrane distillation (MD) flux that is adaptable for novel membrane structures. The method makes fewer simplifying assumptions about membrane pore geometry than existing theoretical (i.e. mechanistic) models, and allows selection of simple, easily-measureable membrane characteristics as structural parameters. Furthermore, the model does not require estimation of membrane surface temperatures; it accounts for convective heat transfer to the membrane surface without iterative fitting of mass and heat transfer equations. The Buckingham-Pi dimensional analysis method is tested for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) using non-woven/fibrous structures as the model membrane material. Twelve easily-measured variables to describe DCMD operating conditions, fluid properties, membrane structures, and flux were identified and combined into eight dimensionless parameters. These parameters were regressed using experimentally-collected data for multiple electrospun membrane types and DCMD system conditions, achieving R2 values >95%. We found that vapor flux through isotropic fibrous membranes can be estimated using only membrane thickness, solid fraction, and fiber diameter as structural parameters. Buckingham-Pi model DCMD flux predictions compare favorably with previously-developed empirical and theoretical models, and suggest this simple yet theoretically-grounded empirical modeling method can be used practically for predicting MD vapor flux from membrane structural parameters.

  8. How the Saturnian Magnetosphere Conserves Magnetic Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. L.; Wei, H.; Russell, C. T.; Arridge, C. S.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetospheric dynamics at Saturn are driven by the centrifugal force of near co-rotating water group ions released at a rate of hundreds of kilograms per second by Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plasma is accelerated up to co-rotation speed by the magnetospheric magnetic field coupled to the Saturnian ionosphere. The plasma is lost ultimately through the process of magnetic reconnection in the tail. Conservation of magnetic flux requires that plasma-depleted, "empty" flux tubes return magnetic flux to the inner magnetosphere. After completion of the initial inrush of the reconnected and largely emptied flux tubes inward of the reconnection point, the flux tubes face the outflowing plasma and must move inward against the flow. Observations of such flux tubes have been identified in the eight years of Cassini magnetometer data. The occurrence of these tubes is observed at all local times indicating slow inward transport of the tubes relative to the co-rotation speed. Depleted flux tubes observed in the equatorial region appear as an enhancement in the magnitude of the magnetic field, whereas the same flux tubes observed at higher latitudes appear as decreased field strength. The difference in appearance of the low latitude and the high latitude tubes is due to the plasma environment just outside the tube. Warm low-density plasma fills the inside of the flux tube at all latitudes. This flux tube thus will expand in the less dense regions away from the magnetic equator and will be observed as a decrease in the magnitude of the magnetic field from the background. These flux tubes near the equator, where the plasma density outside of the flux tube is much greater, will be observed as an enhancement in the magnitude of the magnetic field. Cassini magnetometer and CAPS data are examined to understand the properties of these flux tubes and their radial and latitudinal evolution throughout the Saturnian magnetospheric environment.

  9. Analysis of the low-altitude proton flux asymmetry: methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Kruglanski, M

    1999-01-01

    Existing East-West asymmetry models of the trapped proton fluxes at low altitudes depend on the local magnetic dip angle and a density scale height derived from atmospheric models. We propose an alternative approach which maps the directional flux over a drift shell (B sub m , L) in terms of the local pitch and azimuthal angles alpha and beta, where beta is defined in the local mirror plane as the angle between the proton arrival direction and the surface normal to the drift shell. This approach has the advantage that it only depends on drift shell parameters and does not involve an atmosphere model. A semi-empirical model based on the new methodology is able to reproduce the angular distribution of a set of SAMPEX/PET proton flux measurements. Guidelines are proposed for spacecraft missions and data analysis procedures that are intended to be used for the building of new trapped radiation environment models.

  10. CrossRef Antiproton Flux, Antiproton-to-Proton Flux Ratio, and Properties of Elementary Particle Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alpat, B; Ambrosi, G; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Aupetit, S; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Başeǧmez-du Pree, S; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bindi, V; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Boschini, M  J; Bourquin, M; Bueno, E  F; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X  D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M  J; Chang, Y  H; Chen, A  I; Chen, G  M; Chen, H  S; Cheng, L; Chou, H  Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C  H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Creus, W; Crispoltoni, M; Cui, Z; Dai, Y  M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M  B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Dong, F; Donnini, F; Duranti, M; D'Urso, D; Egorov, A; Eline, A; Eronen, T; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Formato, V; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R  J; Gargiulo, C; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gómez-Coral, D  M; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guerri, I; Guo, K  H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K  C; He, Z  H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T  H; Huang, H; Huang, Z  C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W  Y; Jinchi, H; Kang, S  C; Kanishev, K; Kim, G  N; Kim, K  S; Kirn, Th; Konak, C; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M  S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H  T; Lee, S  C; Leluc, C; Li, H  S; Li, J  Q; Li, Q; Li, T  X; Li, W; Li, Z  H; Li, Z  Y; Lim, S; Lin, C  H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, Hu; Lu, S  Q; Lu, Y  S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J  Z; Lv, S  S; Majka, R; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D  C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Nelson, T; Ni, J  Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Pauluzzi, M; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Picot-Clemente, N; Pilo, F; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X  M; Qin, X; Qu, Z  Y; Räihä, T; Rancoita, P  G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J  S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Schael, S; Schmidt, S  M; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Seo, E  S; Shan, B  S; Shi, J  Y; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Song, J  W; Sun, W  H; Tacconi, M; Tang, X  W; Tang, Z  C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C  C; Ting, S  M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vázquez Acosta, M; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J  P; Vitale, V; Vitillo, S; Wang, L  Q; Wang, N  H; Wang, Q  L; Wang, X; Wang, X  Q; Wang, Z  X; Wei, C  C; Weng, Z  L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Willenbrock, M; Wu, H; Wu, X; Xia, X; Xiong, R  Q; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Yang, Y; Yi, H; Yu, Y  J; Yu, Z  Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, C; Zhang, J; Zhang, J  H; Zhang, S  D; Zhang, S  W; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z  M; Zhu, Z  Q; Zhuang, H  L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P

    2016-01-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio in primary cosmic rays in the absolute rigidity range from 1 to 450 GV is presented based on 3.49×105 antiproton events and 2.42×109 proton events. The fluxes and flux ratios of charged elementary particles in cosmic rays are also presented. In the absolute rigidity range ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the antiproton p¯, proton p, and positron e+ fluxes are found to have nearly identical rigidity dependence and the electron e− flux exhibits a different rigidity dependence. Below 60 GV, the (p¯/p), (p¯/e+), and (p/e+) flux ratios each reaches a maximum. From ∼60 to ∼500  GV, the (p¯/p), (p¯/e+), and (p/e+) flux ratios show no rigidity dependence. These are new observations of the properties of elementary particles in the cosmos.

  11. The study of the thermal neutron flux in the deep underground laboratory DULB-4900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, V. V.; Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gezhaev, A. M.; Dzhappuev, D. D.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Tekueva, D. A.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the study of thermal neutron flux using monitors based on mixture of ZnS(Ag) and LiF enriched with a lithium-6 isotope at the deep underground laboratory DULB-4900 at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory. An annual modulation of thermal neutron flux in DULB-4900 is observed. Experimental evidences were obtained of correlation between the long-term thermal neutron flux variations and the absolute humidity of the air in laboratory. The amplitude of the modulation exceed 5% of total neutron flux.

  12. An analysis of flux-split algorithms for Euler's equations with real gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, B.; Walters, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of flux-splitting procedures for the solution of Euler's equations with real gas effects is presented. An alternative real-gas flux-splitting is derived which can easily be implemented into existing codes. This approach, which takes the form of an 'equivalent' gamma representation is not an ad hoc model, but is based on theoretical considerations. Details of this method with the Steger-Warming and Van Leer flux vector splittings and the Roe flux-difference splitting are given. Applications of the method to several high Mach number, high temperature flows are presented for one and two space dimensions.

  13. O+ and H+ ion heat fluxes at high altitudes and high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Barghouthi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher order moments, e.g., perpendicular and parallel heat fluxes, are related to non-Maxwellian plasma distributions. Such distributions are common when the plasma environment is not collision dominated. In the polar wind and auroral regions, the ion outflow is collisionless at altitudes above about 1.2 RE geocentric. In these regions wave–particle interaction is the primary acceleration mechanism of outflowing ionospheric origin ions. We present the altitude profiles of actual and "thermalized" heat fluxes for major ion species in the collisionless region by using the Barghouthi model. By comparing the actual and "thermalized" heat fluxes, we can see whether the heat flux corresponds to a small perturbation of an approximately bi-Maxwellian distribution (actual heat flux is small compared to "thermalized" heat flux, or whether it represents a significant deviation (actual heat flux equal or larger than "thermalized" heat flux. The model takes into account ion heating due to wave–particle interactions as well as the effects of gravity, ambipolar electric field, and divergence of geomagnetic field lines. In the discussion of the ion heat fluxes, we find that (1 the role of the ions located in the energetic tail of the ion velocity distribution function is very significant and has to be taken into consideration when modeling the ion heat flux at high altitudes and high latitudes; (2 at times the parallel and perpendicular heat fluxes have different signs at the same altitude. This indicates that the parallel and perpendicular parts of the ion energy are being transported in opposite directions. This behavior is the result of many competing processes; (3 we identify altitude regions where the actual heat flux is small as compared to the "thermalized" heat flux. In such regions we expect transport equation solutions based on perturbations of bi-Maxwellian distributions to be applicable. This is true for large altitude intervals for protons

  14. Plastic scintillator detector for pulsed flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadilin, V. V.; Kaplun, A. A.; Taraskin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A neutron detector, providing charged particle detection capability, has been designed. The main purpose of the detector is to measure pulsed fluxes of both charged particles and neutrons during scientific experiments. The detector consists of commonly used neutron-sensitive ZnS(Ag) / 6LiF scintillator screens wrapping a layer of polystyrene based scintillator (BC-454, EJ-254 or equivalent boron loaded plastic). This type of detector design is able to log a spatial distribution of events and may be scaled to any size. Different variations of the design were considered and modelled in specialized toolkits. The article presents a review of the detector design features as well as simulation results.

  15. Probabilistic Forecasting of the Wave Energy Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Reikard, G.; Bidlot, J.-R.

    2012-01-01

    markets. A methodology for the probabilistic forecasting of the wave energy flux is introduced, based on a log-Normal assumption for the shape of predictive densities. It uses meteorological forecasts (from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts – ECMWF) and local wave measurements......Wave energy will certainly have a significant role to play in the deployment of renewable energy generation capacities. As with wind and solar, probabilistic forecasts of wave power over horizons of a few hours to a few days are required for power system operation as well as trading in electricity......% and 70% in terms of Continuous Rank Probability Score (CRPS), depending upon the test case and the lead time. It is finally shown that the log-Normal assumption can be seen as acceptable, even though it may be refined in the future....

  16. Connecting extracellular metabolomic measurements to intracellular flux states in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrgård Markus J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolomics has emerged as a powerful tool in the quantitative identification of physiological and disease-induced biological states. Extracellular metabolome or metabolic profiling data, in particular, can provide an insightful view of intracellular physiological states in a noninvasive manner. Results We used an updated genome-scale metabolic network model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, iMM904, to investigate how changes in the extracellular metabolome can be used to study systemic changes in intracellular metabolic states. The iMM904 metabolic network was reconstructed based on an existing genome-scale network, iND750, and includes 904 genes and 1,412 reactions. The network model was first validated by comparing 2,888 in silico single-gene deletion strain growth phenotype predictions to published experimental data. Extracellular metabolome data measured in response to environmental and genetic perturbations of ammonium assimilation pathways was then integrated with the iMM904 network in the form of relative overflow secretion constraints and a flux sampling approach was used to characterize candidate flux distributions allowed by these constraints. Predicted intracellular flux changes were consistent with published measurements on intracellular metabolite levels and fluxes. Patterns of predicted intracellular flux changes could also be used to correctly identify the regions of the metabolic network that were perturbed. Conclusion Our results indicate that integrating quantitative extracellular metabolomic profiles in a constraint-based framework enables inferring changes in intracellular metabolic flux states. Similar methods could potentially be applied towards analyzing biofluid metabolome variations related to human physiological and disease states.

  17. Observations and modeling of methane flux in northern wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futakuchi, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yazaki, T.; Hirano, T.; Kominami, Y.; Harazono, Y.; Igarashi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Methane (CH4) budgets in northern wetlands vary greatly with high spatio-temporal heterogeneity. Owing to limited available data, yet, it is difficult to constrain the CH4 emission from northern wetlands. In this context, we continuously measured CH4 fluxes at two northern wetlands. Measured fluxes were used for constraining the new model that empirically partitioned net CH4 fluxes into the processes of production, oxidation, and transport associated with ebullition, diffusion, and plant, based on the optimization technique. This study reveal the important processes related to the seasonal variations in CH4 emission with the continuous observations and inverse model analysis. The measurements have been conducted at a Sphagnum-dominated cool temperate bog (BBY) since April 2015 using the open-path eddy covariance method and a sub-arctic forested bog on permafrost in University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) since May 2016 using three automated chambers by a laser-based gas analyzer (FGGA-24r-EP, Los Gatos Research Inc., USA). In BBY, daily CH4 fluxes ranged from 1.9 nmol m-2 s-1 in early spring to 97.9 nmol m-2 s-1 in mid-summer. Growing-season total CH4 flux was 13 g m-2 yr-1 in 2015. In contrast, CH4 flux at the UAF site was small (0.2 to 1.0 nmol m-2 s-1), and hardly increased since start of the observation. This difference could be caused by the difference in the climate and soil conditions; mean air and soil temperature, and presence of permafrost. For BBY, the seasonal variation of CH4 emission was mostly explained by soil temperature, suggesting that the production was the important controlling process. In mid-summer when soil temperature was high, however, decrease in atmospheric pressure and increase in vegetation greenness stimulated CH4 emission probably through plant-mediated transport and form of bubble, suggesting that the transport processes were important. Based on a preliminary results by the model optimization in BBY site, CH4 fluxes were strongly

  18. Analytical Modeling of a Double-Sided Flux Concentrating E-Core Transverse Flux Machine with Pole Windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hasan, Iftekhar [University of Akron; Husain, Tausif [University of Akron; Sozer, Yilmaz [University of Akron; Husain, Iqbal [North Carolina State University

    2017-08-08

    In this paper, a nonlinear analytical model based on the Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC) method is developed for a double-sided E-Core Transverse Flux Machine (TFM). The proposed TFM has a cylindrical rotor, sandwiched between E-core stators on both sides. Ferrite magnets are used in the rotor with flux concentrating design to attain high airgap flux density, better magnet utilization, and higher torque density. The MEC model was developed using a series-parallel combination of flux tubes to estimate the reluctance network for different parts of the machine including air gaps, permanent magnets, and the stator and rotor ferromagnetic materials, in a two-dimensional (2-D) frame. An iterative Gauss-Siedel method is integrated with the MEC model to capture the effects of magnetic saturation. A single phase, 1 kW, 400 rpm E-Core TFM is analytically modeled and its results for flux linkage, no-load EMF, and generated torque, are verified with Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The analytical model significantly reduces the computation time while estimating results with less than 10 percent error.

  19. Magnetic flux generation and transport in cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işık, E.; Schmitt, D.; Schüssler, M.

    2011-04-01

    Context. The Sun and other cool stars harbouring outer convection zones manifest magnetic activity in their atmospheres. The connection between this activity and the properties of a deep-seated dynamo generating the magnetic flux is not well understood. Aims: By employing physical models, we study the spatial and temporal characteristics of the observable surface field for various stellar parameters. Methods: We combine models for magnetic flux generation, buoyancy instability, and transport, which encompass the entire convection zone. The model components are: (i) a thin-layer αΩ dynamo at the base of the convection zone; (ii) buoyancy instabilities and the rise of flux tubes through the convection zone in 3D, which provides a physically consistent determination of emergence latitudes and tilt angles; and (iii) horizontal flux transport at the surface. Results: For solar-type stars and rotation periods longer than about 10 days, the latitudinal dynamo waves generated by the deep-seated αΩ dynamo are faithfully reflected by the surface distribution of magnetic flux. For rotation periods of the order of two days, however, Coriolis acceleration of rising flux loops leads to surface flux emergence at much higher latitudes than the dynamo waves at the bottom of the convection zone reach. A similar result is found for a K0V star with a rotation period of two days. In the case of a rapidly rotating K1 subgiant, overlapping dynamo waves lead to noisy activity cycles and mixed-polarity fields at high latitudes. Conclusions: The combined model reproduces the basic observed features of the solar cycle. The differences between the latitude distributions of the magnetic field at the bottom of the convection zone and the emerging surface flux grow with increasing rotation rate and convection zone depth, becoming quite substantial for rapidly rotating dwarfs and subgiants. The dynamical evolution of buoyantly rising magnetic flux should be considered as an essential

  20. Chaos in Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, Walter; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.; Vincena, S.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic Flux Ropes Immersed in a uniform magnetoplasma are observed to twist about themselves, writhe about each other and rotate about a central axis. They are kink unstable and smash into one another as they move. Each collision results in magnetic field line generation and the generation of a quasi-seperatrix layer. Three dimensional magnetic field lines are computed by conditionally averaging the data using correlation techniques. When the currents associated with the ropes are large,this is possible for only a number of rotation cycles as the field line motion becomes chaotic. The permutation entropy1 can be calculated from the the time series of the magnetic field data (this is also done with flows) and used to calculate the positions of the data on a Jensen Shannon complexity map2. The power spectra of much of the magnetic and flow data is exponential and Lorentzian structures in the time domain are embedded in them. The location of data on this map indicates if the magnetic fields are stochastic, or fall into regions of minimal or maximal complexity. The complexity is a function of space and time. The complexity map, and analysis will be explained in the course of the talk. Other types of chaotic dynamical models such as the Lorentz or Gissinger process also fall on the map and can give a clue to the nature of the flux rope turbulence. The ropes fall in the region of the C-H plane where chaotic systems lie. 1 C. Bandt, B. Pompe, Phys. Rev. Lett., 88,174102 (2007) 2 O. Russo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 154102 (2007), J. Maggs, G.Morales, “Permutation Entropy analysis of temperature fluctuations from a basic electron heat transport experiment”,submitted PPCF (2013)

  1. Decadal Changes in Surface Radiative Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, M.

    2009-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that radiative fluxes incident at the Earth surface are not stable over time but undergo significant changes on decadal timescales. This is not only found in the thermal spectral range, where an increase in the downwelling flux is expected with the increasing greenhouse effect, but also in the solar range. Observations suggest that surface solar radiation, after decades of decline ("global dimming"), reversed into a "brightening" since the mid-1980s at widespread locations. This presentation gives an update on recent investigations related to the decadal variations in these fluxes, based on both observational and modeling approaches. Updated observational data, archived at the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) at ETH Zurich, suggest a continuation of surface solar brightening beyond the year 2000 at numerous locations, yet less pronounced and coherent than during the 1990s, with more regions with no clear changes or declines. Current global climate models as used in the IPCC-AR4 report typically do not reproduce the observed decadal variations to their full extent. Modeling attempts to improve this situation are under way at ETH, based on a global climate model which includes a sophisticated interactive treatment of aerosol and cloud microphysics (ECHAM5-HAM). Further the impact of the decadal changes in surface radiative forcings on different aspects of the global climate system and climate change is discussed, such as 20th century day- and nighttime warming, evapotranspiration changes and the varying intensity of the hydrological cycle as well as the terrestrial carbon cycle. Selected related references: Wild, M., and Co-authors, 2005: From dimming to brightening: Decadal changes in solar radiation at the Earth's surface. Science, 308, 847-850 Wild, M., 2007: Decadal changes in surface radiative fluxes and their importance in the context of global climate change, in: Climate Variability and Extremes during the Past 100 years, Advances

  2. Estimation of N2O fluxes at the regional scale: data, models, challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leip, A.; Busto, M.; Corazzo, M.; Bergamaschi, P.; Koeble, R.; Dechow, R.; Monni, S.; Vries, de W.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical and process-based models simulating N2O fluxes from agricultural soils have the advantage that they can be applied at the scale at which mitigation measures can be designed and implemented. We compared bottom-up results from studies providing N2O fluxes at a regional/country or continental

  3. Forest floor CO2 flux from two contrasting ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Barton D. Clinton; Verl Emrick

    1995-01-01

    We measured forest floor CO2 flux in two contrasting ecosystems (white pine plantation and northern hardwood ecosystems at low and high elevations, respectively) in May and September 1993 to quantify differences and determine factors regulating CO2 fluxes. An automated, IRGA based, flow through system was used with chambers...

  4. Assessing environmental impacts on stream water quality: the use of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference approaches to deforestation of the Hafren Forest, mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for examining the impacts of disturbance on stream water quality based on paired catchment “controlâ€? and “responseâ€? water quality time series is described in relation to diagrams of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference. The paper describes the equations used and illustrates the patterns expected for idealised flux changes followed by an application to stream water quality data for a spruce forested catchment, the Hore, subjected to clear fell. The water quality determinands examined are sodium, chloride, nitrate, calcium and acid neutralisation capacity. The anticipated effects of felling are shown in relation to reduction in mist capture and nitrate release with felling as well as to the influence of weathering and cation exchange mechanisms, but in a much clearer way than observed previously using other approaches. Keywords: Plynlimon, stream, Hore, acid neutralisation capacity, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sodium, cumulative flux, flux

  5. Atmospheric flux of ammonia from sprinkler application of dairy waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumburg, Brian; Mount, George H.; Yonge, David; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Filipy, Jenny; Bays, Jay; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions are a growing environmental and human health concern in the U.S. This paper describes an experiment to measure NH3 emissions from the sprinkler application of dairy slurry to a grass field. The slurry was from milking cows that are housed in a freestall barn that is scraped daily and the waste is stored in a series of anaerobic lagoons that are emptied annually. Atmospheric measurements of NH3 were made using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and tracer ratio flux experiments were used to determine field fluxes after application. An area source tracer ratio method was used to determine NH3 field fluxes, it involved releasing SF6 as the tracer gas from the upwind edge of the applied slurry and measuring the tracer concentration downwind along with the DOAS NH3 measurements. The flux is calculated from the ratio of the NH3 and SF6 concentrations and the SF6 release rate and taking into account the differences in area and dispersion. An emissions model was also developed for NH3 volatilization after application based upon tracer flux data and modeling of the concentration data. Of the total ammonical nitrogen entering from the sprinkler pump, 18% volatilized before reaching the ground. The initial flux during the tracer experiment was 47μgm-2s-1 and this decreased to 17μgm-2s-1 during the experiment. Ambient measurements showed an exponential decay with time. An empirical exponential equation was fit to the measurement data and it had a mean bias of -0.10ppbv and a normalized mean bias of -0.050%. A theoretical model had a mean bias of -11ppbv and a normalized mean bias of -5.5%. Overall sprinkler waste application emissions for the 175 milking cows was 5900 kg NH3yr-1 or 34 kg NH3cow-1yr-1.

  6. Freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mernild

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial inputs of freshwater flux to Sermilik Fjord, SE Greenland, were estimated, indicating ice discharge to be the dominant source of freshwater. A freshwater flux of 40.4 ± 4.9×109 m3 y−1 was found (1999–2008, with an 85% contribution originated from ice discharge (65% alone from Helheim Glacier, 11% from terrestrial surface runoff (from melt water and rain, 3% from precipitation at the fjord surface area, and 1% from subglacial geothermal and frictional melting due to basal ice motion. The results demonstrate the dominance of ice discharge as a primary mechanism for delivering freshwater to Sermilik Fjord. Time series of ice discharge for Helheim Glacier, Midgård Glacier, and Fenris Glacier were calculated from satellite-derived average surface velocity, glacier width, and estimated ice thickness, and fluctuations in terrestrial surface freshwater runoff were simulated based on observed meteorological data. These simulations were compared and bias corrected against independent glacier catchment runoff observations. Modeled runoff to Sermilik Fjord was variable, ranging from 2.9 ± 0.4×109 m3 y−1 in 1999 to 5.9 ± 0.9×109 m3 y−1 in 2005. The sub-catchment runoff of the Helheim Glacier region accounted for 25% of the total runoff to Sermilik Fjord. The runoff distribution from the different sub-catchments suggested a strong influence from the spatial variation in glacier coverage, indicating high runoff volumes, where glacier cover was present at low elevations.

  7. HONO fluxes from soil surfaces: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dianming; Sörgel, Matthias; Tamm, Alexandra; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Cheng, Yafang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) contributes up to 80% of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) radicals and is also linked to health risks through reactions with tobacco smoke forming carcinogens. Field and modeling results suggested a large unknown HONO source in the troposphere during daytime. By measuring near ground HONO mixing ratio, up to 30% of HONO can be released from forest, rural and urban ground as well as snow surfaces. This source has been proposed to heterogeneous reactions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on humic acid surfaces or nitric acid photolysis. Laboratory studies showed that HONO emissions from bulk soil samples can reach 258 ng m-2 s-1 (in term of nitrogen), which corresponding to 1.1 × 1012 molecules cm-2 s-1and ˜ 100 times higher than most of the field studies, as measured by a dynamic chamber system. The potential mechanisms for soil HONO emissions include chemical equilibrium of acid-base reaction and gas-liquid partitioning between soil nitrite and HONO, but the positive correlation of HONO fluxes with pH (largest at neutral and slightly alkaline) points to the dominance of the formation process by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In general soil surface acidity, nitrite concentration and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria mainly regulate the HONO release from soil. A recent study showed that biological soil crusts in drylands can also emit large quantities of HONO and NO, corresponding to ˜20% of global nitrogen oxide emissions from soils under natural vegetation. Due to large concentrations of microorganisms in biological soil crusts, particularly high HONO and NO emissions were measured after wetting events. Considering large areas of arid and arable lands as well as peatlands, up to 70% of global soils are able to emitting HONO. However, the discrepancy between large soil HONO emissions measured in lab and low contributions of HONO flux from ground surfaces in field as well as the role of microorganisms should be further investigated.

  8. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000ÀC showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  9. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Ran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic compounds, can be upward into the air as well as downward to the surface and therefore should be modeled as bi-directional fluxes. Model parameterizations of dry deposition in air quality models have been represented by simple electrical resistance analogs for almost 30 years. Uncertainties in surface flux modeling in global to mesoscale models are being slowly reduced as more field measurements provide constraints on parameterizations. However, at the same time, more chemical species are being added to surface flux models as air quality models are expanded to include more complex chemistry and are being applied to a wider array of environmental issues. Since surface flux measurements of many of these chemicals are still lacking, resistances are usually parameterized using simple scaling by water or lipid solubility and reactivity. Advances in recent years have included bi-directional flux algorithms that require a shift from pre-computation of deposition velocities to fully integrated surface flux calculations within air quality models. Improved modeling of the stomatal component of chemical surface fluxes has resulted from improved evapotranspiration modeling in land surface models and closer integration between meteorology and air quality models. Satellite-derived land use characterization and vegetation products and indices are improving model representation of spatial and temporal variations in surface flux processes. This review describes the current state of chemical dry deposition modeling, recent progress in bi-directional flux modeling, synergistic model development research with field measurements, and coupling with meteorological land surface models.

  10. Application of a Heat Flux Sensor in Wind Power Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Baygildina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and investigates the application of the gradient heat flux sensor (GHFS for measuring the local heat flux in power electronics. Thanks to its thinness, the sensor can be placed between the semiconductor module and the heat sink. The GHFS has high sensitivity and yields direct measurements without an interruption to the normal power device operation, which makes it attractive for power electronics applications. The development of systems for monitoring thermal loading and methods for online detection of degradation and failure of power electronic devices is a topical and crucial task. However, online condition monitoring (CM methods, which include heat flux sensors, have received little research attention so far. In the current research, an insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT module-based test setup with the GHFS implemented on the base plate of one of the IGBTs is introduced. The heat flux experiments and the IGBT power losses obtained by simulations show similar results. The findings give clear evidence that the GHFS can provide an attractive condition monitoring method for the thermal loading of power devices.

  11. SQUIDs De-fluxing Using a Decaying AC Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Semenov, Vasili Kirilovich [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Anderson, Bill [Senior Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Flux trapping is the Achilles’ heel of all superconductor electronics. The most direct way to avoid flux trapping is a prevention of superconductor circuits from exposure to magnetic fields. Unfortunately this is not feasible if the circuits must be exposed to a strong DC magnetic field even for a short period of time. For example, such unavoidable exposures take place in superparamagnetic relaxation measurements (SPMR) and ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging (ULF MRI) using unshielded thin-film SQUID-based gradiometers. Unshielded SQUIDs stop working after being exposed to DC magnetic fields of only a few Gauss in strength. In this paper we present experimental results with de-fluxing of planar thin-film LTS SQUID-based gradiometers using a strong decaying AC magnetic field. We used four commercial G136 gradiometers for SPMR measurements with up to a 10 mT magnetizing field. Strong 12.9 kHz decaying magnetic field pulses reliably return SQUIDs to normal operation 50 ms after zeroing the DC magnetizing field. This new AC de-fluxing method was also successfully tested with seven other different types of LTS SQUID sensors and has been shown to dissipate extremely low energy.

  12. Sensorless Direct Flux Vector Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motors Including Standstill, MTPA and Flux Weakening

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi-Talouki, Arzhang; Pescetto, Paolo; Pellegrino, Gian-Mario Luigi

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a sensorless direct flux vector control scheme for synchronous reluctance motor drives. Torque is controlled at constant switching frequency, via the closed loop regulation of the stator flux linkage vector and of the current component in quadrature with it, using the stator flux oriented reference frame. A hybrid flux and position observer combines back-electromotive force integration with pulsating voltage injection around zero speed. Around zero speed, the position obse...

  13. In situ magnetotail magnetic flux calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shukhtina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore two new modifications of the magnetotail magnetic flux (F calculation algorithm based on the Petrinec and Russell (1996 (PR96 approach of the tail radius determination. Unlike in the PR96 model, the tail radius value is calculated at each time step based on simultaneous magnetotail and solar wind observations. Our former algorithm, described in Shukhtina et al. (2009, required that the "tail approximation" requirement were fulfilled, i.e., it could be applied only tailward x ∼ −15 RE. The new modifications take into account the approximate uniformity of the magnetic field of external sources in the near and middle tail. Tests, based on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD simulations, show that this approach may be applied at smaller distances, up to x ∼ −3 RE. The tests also show that the algorithm fails during long periods of strong positive interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bz. A new empirical formula has also been obtained for the tail radius at the terminator (at x = 0 which improves the calculations.

  14. Theoretical models of flux pinning and flux motion in high-{Tc} superconducting oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, D.O.

    1991-12-31

    Various issues involved in the development of phenomenological models of flux pinning and motion in high-{Tc} oxides are discussed. A simplified model is presented for the critical current density and is used to examine the question of whether flux flow results from an instability due to plasticity of the flux-line array or from pin breaking.

  15. Flux Modulation in the Electrodynamic Loudspeaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Morten; Tinggaard, Carsten; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of flux modulation in the electrodynamic loudspeaker with main focus on the effect on the force factor. A measurement setup to measure the AC flux modulation with static voice coil is explained and the measurements shows good consistency with FEA simulations. Measu...

  16. On flux terms in volume averaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, S.G.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This note examines the modeling of non-convective fluxes (e.g., stress, heat flux and others) as they appear in the general, unclosed form of the volume-averaged equations of multiphase flows. By appealing to the difference between slowly and rapidly varying quantities, it is shown that the natural

  17. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic c...

  18. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C., E-mail: cliu@pppl.gov [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Fox, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  19. Initiation of CMEs by Magnetic Flux Emergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Sun: corona, coronal mass ejections; magnetic fields; magnetohydrodynamics; flux emergence. Abstract. The initiation of solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is studied in the framework of numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The initial CME model includes a magnetic flux rope in spherical, axisymmetric ...

  20. Metamaterial anisotropic flux concentrators and magnetic arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2013-01-01

    A metamaterial magnetic flux concentrator is investigated in detail in combination with a Halbach cylinder of infinite length. A general analytical solution to the field is determined and the magnetic figure of merit is determined for a Halbach cylinder with a flux concentrator. It is shown...

  1. Fast flux module detection using matroid theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Arne C; Bruggeman, Frank J; Olivier, Brett G; Stougie, Leen

    2015-05-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is one of the most often applied methods on genome-scale metabolic networks. Although FBA uniquely determines the optimal yield, the pathway that achieves this is usually not unique. The analysis of the optimal-yield flux space has been an open challenge. Flux variability analysis is only capturing some properties of the flux space, while elementary mode analysis is intractable due to the enormous number of elementary modes. However, it has been found by Kelk et al. (2012) that the space of optimal-yield fluxes decomposes into flux modules. These decompositions allow a much easier but still comprehensive analysis of the optimal-yield flux space. Using the mathematical definition of module introduced by Müller and Bockmayr (2013b), we discovered useful connections to matroid theory, through which efficient algorithms enable us to compute the decomposition into modules in a few seconds for genome-scale networks. Using that every module can be represented by one reaction that represents its function, in this article, we also present a method that uses this decomposition to visualize the interplay of modules. We expect the new method to replace flux variability analysis in the pipelines for metabolic networks.

  2. BVOC ecosystem flux measurements at a high latitude wetland site

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    T. Holst

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present summertime concentrations and fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs measured at a sub-arctic wetland in northern Sweden using a disjunct eddy-covariance (DEC technique based on a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. The vegetation at the site was dominated by Sphagnum, Carex and extit{Eriophorum} spp. The measurements reported here cover a period of 50 days (1 August to 19 September 2006, approximately one half of the growing season at the site, and allowed to investigate the effect of day-to-day variation in weather as well as of vegetation senescence on daily BVOC fluxes, and on their temperature and light responses. The sensitivity drift of the DEC system was assessed by comparing H3O+-ion cluster formed with water molecules (H3O+(H2O at m37 with water vapour concentration measurements made using an adjacent humidity sensor, and the applicability of the DEC method was analysed by a comparison of sensible heat fluxes for high frequency and DEC data obtained from the sonic anemometer. These analyses showed no significant PTR-MS sensor drift over a period of several weeks and only a small flux-loss due to high-frequency spectrum omissions. This loss was within the range expected from other studies and the theoretical considerations.

    Standardised (20 °C and 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR summer isoprene emission rates found in this study of 329 μg C m−2 (ground area h−1 were comparable with findings from more southern boreal forests, and fen-like ecosystems. On a diel scale, measured fluxes indicated a stronger temperature dependence than emissions from temperate or (subtropical ecosystems. For the first time, to our knowledge, we report ecosystem methanol fluxes from a sub-arctic ecosystem. Maximum daytime emission fluxes were around 270 μg m−2 h−1

  3. Heat Flux Distribution of Antarctica Unveiled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Yasmina M.; Catalán, Manuel; Jordan, Tom A.; Golynsky, Alexander; Golynsky, Dmitry; Eagles, Graeme; Vaughan, David G.

    2017-11-01

    Antarctica is the largest reservoir of ice on Earth. Understanding its ice sheet dynamics is crucial to unraveling past global climate change and making robust climatic and sea level predictions. Of the basic parameters that shape and control ice flow, the most poorly known is geothermal heat flux. Direct observations of heat flux are difficult to obtain in Antarctica, and until now continent-wide heat flux maps have only been derived from low-resolution satellite magnetic and seismological data. We present a high-resolution heat flux map and associated uncertainty derived from spectral analysis of the most advanced continental compilation of airborne magnetic data. Small-scale spatial variability and features consistent with known geology are better reproduced than in previous models, between 36% and 50%. Our high-resolution heat flux map and its uncertainty distribution provide an important new boundary condition to be used in studies on future subglacial hydrology, ice sheet dynamics, and sea level change.

  4. The 3He flux gauge in the Sargasso Sea: a determination of physical nutrient fluxes to the euphotic zone at the Bermuda Atlantic time series site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, R. H. R.; Jenkins, W. J.; Doney, S. C.; Lott, D. E., III

    2015-03-01

    We provide a new determination of the annual mean physical supply of nitrate to the euphotic zone in the western subtropical North Atlantic based on a three year time-series of measurements of tritiugenic 3He from 2003 to 2006 in the surface ocean at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. We combine the 3He data with a sophisticated noble gas calibrated air-sea gas exchange model to constrain the 3He flux across the sea-air interface, which must closely balance the upward 3He flux into the euphotic zone. The product of the 3He flux and the observed subsurface nitrate-3He relationship provides an estimate of the minimum rate of new production in the BATS region. We also applied the gas model to an earlier time series of 3He measurements at BATS in order to recalculate new production fluxes for the 1985 to 1988 time period. The observations, despite an almost three-fold difference in the nitrate-3He relationship, yield a roughly consistent estimate of nitrate flux. In particular, the nitrate flux from 2003-2006 is estimated to be 0.65 ± 0.3 mol m-2 y-1, which is ~ 40% smaller than the calculated flux for the period from 1985 to 1988. The difference between the time periods, which is barely significant, may be due to a real difference in new production resulting from changes in subtropical mode water formation. Overall, the nitrate flux is larger than most estimates of export fluxes or net community production fluxes made locally for BATS site, which is likely a reflection of the larger spatial scale covered by the 3He technique and potentially also by decoupling of 3He and nitrate during obduction of water masses from the main thermocline into the upper ocean.

  5. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

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    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  6. High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxbaum, Robert

    2010-06-30

    We made and tested over 250 new alloys for use as lower cost, higher flux hydrogen extraction membrane materials. Most of these were intermetallic, or contained significant intermetallic content, particularly based on B2 alloy compositions with at least one refractory component; B2 intermetallics resemble BCC alloys, in structure, but the atoms have relatively fixed positions, with one atom at the corners of the cube, the other at the centers. The target materals we were looking for would contain little or no expensive elements, no strongly toxic or radioactive elements, would have high flux to hydrogen, while being fabricable, brazable, and relatively immune to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion in operation. The best combination of properties of the membrane materials we developed was, in my opinion, a Pd-coated membrane consisting of V -9 atomic % Pd. This material was relatively cheap, had 5 times the flux of Pd under the same pressure differential, was reasonably easy to fabricate and braze, and not bad in terms of embrittlement. Based on all these factors we project, about 1/3 the cost of Pd, on an area basis for a membrane designed to last 20 years, or 1/15 the cost on a flux basis. Alternatives to this membrane replaced significant fractions of the Pd with Ni and or Co. The cost for these membranes was lower, but so was the flux. We produced successful brazed products from the membrane materials, and made them into flat sheets. We tested, unsuccessfully, several means of fabricating thematerials into tubes, and eventually built a membrane reactor using a new, flat-plate design: a disc and doughnut arrangement, a design that seems well- suited to clean hydrogen production from coal. The membranes and reactor were tested successfully at Western Research. A larger equipment company (Chart Industries) produced similar results using a different flat-plate reactor design. Cost projections of the membrane are shown to be attractive.

  7. Performance comparison between rotor flux-switching and stator flux-switching machines considering local demagnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Peng; Hua, Wei

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the local permanent magnet (PM) demagnetization characteristics of stator-PM flux-switching (SPM-FS) machine and rotor-PM flux-switching (RPM-FS) machine. The partial demagnetization mechanisms of two machines are analyzed based on a simple magnetic circuit method, and verified by finite-element analysis (FEA). In addition, the performance degradation due to demagnetization effect is evaluated, and a comprehensive comparison of a pair of three-phase prototyped machines is conducted, where the two machines have the same stator outer diameter, stack length and rated current density. The predicted results indicate the demagnetization is generated in the corner parts of PMs near to air-gap for SPM-FS machines, and then the torque performances are degraded, while PMs in RPM-FS machine are hardly influenced by demagnetization effect. Hence, the anti-demagnetization capability of the RPM-FS machine is significantly stronger than that of the SPM-FS machine.

  8. Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maogui Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensible heat flux (H plays an important role in characterizations of land surface water and heat balance. There are various types of H measurement methods that depend on observation scale, from local-area-scale eddy covariance (EC to regional-scale large aperture scintillometer (LAS and remote sensing (RS products. However, methods of converting one H scale to another to validate RS products are still open for question. A previous area-to-area regression kriging-based scaling method performed well in converting EC-scale H to LAS-scale H. However, the method does not consider the path-weighting function in the EC- to LAS-scale kriging with the regression residue, which inevitably brought about a bias estimation. In this study, a weighted area-to-area regression kriging (WATA RK model is proposed to convert EC-scale H to LAS-scale H. It involves path-weighting functions of EC and LAS source areas in both regression and area kriging stages. Results show that WATA RK outperforms traditional methods in most cases, improving estimation accuracy. The method is considered to provide an efficient validation of RS H flux products.

  9. Progress in Modeling Global Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes and Transport: Results from Simulations with Diurnal Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collatz, G. James; Kawa, R.

    2007-01-01

    Progress in better determining CO2 sources and sinks will almost certainly rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. Use of advanced data requires improved modeling and analysis capability. Under NASA Carbon Cycle Science support we seek to develop and integrate improved formulations for 1) atmospheric transport, 2) terrestrial uptake and release, 3) biomass and 4) fossil fuel burning, and 5) observational data analysis including inverse calculations. The transport modeling is based on meteorological data assimilation analysis from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office. Use of assimilated met data enables model comparison to CO2 and other observations across a wide range of scales of variability. In this presentation we focus on the short end of the temporal variability spectrum: hourly to synoptic to seasonal. Using CO2 fluxes at varying temporal resolution from the SIB 2 and CASA biosphere models, we examine the model's ability to simulate CO2 variability in comparison to observations at different times, locations, and altitudes. We find that the model can resolve much of the variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The influence of key process representations is inferred. The high degree of fidelity in these simulations leads us to anticipate incorporation of realtime, highly resolved observations into a multiscale carbon cycle analysis system that will begin to bridge the gap between top-down and bottom-up flux estimation, which is a primary focus of NACP.

  10. Energy flux as a tool in locating tsunami secondary sources

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    Zygmunt Kowalik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea levels recorded in the wake of Indian Ocean Tsunami of December 2004 and of the Kuril Island Tsunami of November 2006 show strong tsunami signal enhancement of the late arriving secondary waves. Using these tsunami eventswe demonstrate thatsudden changes caused by higher