Sample records for sub-aponeurotic fluid collections

  1. Fluid viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm. (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Lin, Chungwei; Harvey, Benedict; Fiore, Alyssa G; Ardon, Florencia; Wu, Mingming; Suarez, Susan S


    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm in dynamic clusters, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. Sperm oriented in the same direction within each cluster, and cluster size and cell-cell alignment strength increased with viscoelasticity of the fluid. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian (nonelastic) fluids of low and high viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction was facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. In humans, as well as cattle, sperm are naturally deposited at the entrance to the cervix and must swim through viscoelastic cervical mucus and other mucoid secretions to reach the site of fertilization. Collective swimming induced by elasticity may thus facilitate sperm migration and contribute to successful fertilization. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, and this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function.

  2. Extraperitoneal Fluid Collection due to Chronic Pancreatitis

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    Takeo Yasuda


    Full Text Available A 39-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the investigation of abdominal fluid collection. He was pointed out to have alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Laboratory data showed inflammation and slightly elevated serum direct bilirubin and amylase. An abdominal computed tomography demonstrated huge fluid collection, multiple pancreatic pseudocysts and pancreatic calcification. The fluid showed a high level of amylase at 4,490 IU/l. Under the diagnosis of pancreatic ascites, endoscopic pancreatic stent insertion was attempted but was unsuccessful, so surgical treatment (Frey procedure and cystojejunostomy was performed. During the operation, a huge amount of fluid containing bile acid (amylase at 1,474 IU/l and bilirubin at 13.5 mg/dl was found to exist in the extraperitoneal space (over the peritoneum, but no ascites was found. His postoperative course was uneventful and he shows no recurrence of the fluid. Pancreatic ascites is thought to result from the disruption of the main pancreatic duct, the rupture of a pancreatic pseudocyst, or possibly leakage from an unknown site. In our extremely rare case, the pancreatic pseudocyst penetrated into the hepatoduodenal ligament with communication to the common bile duct, and the fluid flowed into the round ligament of the liver and next into the extraperitoneal space.

  3. Endosonography guided management of pancreatic fluid collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Andreas S; Menachery, John; Tang, Shou-Jiang


    and regulatory approval of improved and novel endoscopic devices specifically designed for transmural drainage of fluid and necrotic debris (access and patency devices), the authors predict continuing evolution in the management of PFCs. We believe that EUS will become an indispensable part of procedures used...... complications of pancreatitis can include acute peri-pancreatic fluid collection, acute necrotic collection, pseudocyst formation, and walled-off necrosis. Interventional endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been increasing utilized in managing these local complications. After performing a PubMed search, the authors...... manually applied pre-defined inclusion criteria or a filter to identify publications relevant to EUS and pancreatic collections (PFCs). The authors then reviewed the utility, efficacy, and risks associated with using therapeutic EUS and involved EUS devices in treating PFCs. Due to the development...

  4. Collective fluid mechanics of honeybee nest ventilation (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey; Wood, Robert J.; Peters, Jacob


    Honeybees thermoregulate their brood in the warm summer months by collectively fanning their wings and creating air flow through the nest. During nest ventilation workers flap their wings in close proximity in which wings continuously operate in unsteady oncoming flows (i.e. the wake of neighboring worker bees) and near the ground. The fluid mechanics of this collective aerodynamic phenomena are unstudied and may play an important role in the physiology of colony life. We have performed field and laboratory observations of the nest ventilation wing kinematics and air flow generated by individuals and groups of honeybee workers. Inspired from these field observations we describe here a robotic model system to study collective flapping wing aerodynamics. We microfabricate arrays of 1.4 cm long flapping wings and observe the air flow generated by arrays of two or more fanning robotic wings. We vary phase, frequency, and separation distance among wings and find that net output flow is enhanced when wings operate at the appropriate phase-distance relationship to catch shed vortices from neighboring wings. These results suggest that by varying position within the fanning array honeybee workers may benefit from collective aerodynamic interactions during nest ventilation.

  5. Collection of apoplastic fluids from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Svend Roesen; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Halkier, Barbara Ann


    The leaf apoplast comprises the extracellular continuum outside cell membranes. A broad range of processes take place in the apoplast, including intercellular signaling, metabolite transport, and plant-microbe interactions. To study these processes, it is essential to analyze the metabolite conte...... in apoplastic fluids. Due to the fragile nature of leaf tissues, it is a challenge to obtain apoplastic fluids from leaves. Here, methods to collect apoplastic washing fluid and guttation fluid from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves are described....

  6. Endoscopic Management of Pancreatic Fluid Collections in Children. (United States)

    Nabi, Zaheer; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Reddy, D Nageshwar


    The incidence of acute pancreatitis in children has increased over the last few decades. The development of pancreatic fluid collection is not uncommon after severe acute pancreatitis, although its natural course in children and adolescents is poorly understood. Asymptomatic fluid collections can be safely observed without any intervention. However, the presence of clinically significant symptoms warrants the drainage of these fluid collections. Endoscopic management of pancreatic fluid collection is safe and effective in adults. The use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided procedure has improved the efficacy and safety of drainage of pancreatic fluid collections, which have not been well studied in pediatric populations, barring a scant volume of small case series. Excellent results of EUS-guided drainage in adult patients also need to be verified in children and adolescents. Endoprostheses used to drain pancreatic fluid collections include plastic and metal stents. Metal stents have wider lumens and become clogged less often than plastic stents. Fully covered metal stents specifically designed for pancreatic fluid collection are available, and initial studies have shown encouraging results in adult patients. The future of endoscopic management of pancreatic fluid collection in children appears promising. Prospective studies with larger sample sizes are required to establish their definitive role in the pediatric age group.

  7. Fluid collections in and around the pancreas in acute pancreatitis. (United States)

    Brun, Alexander; Agarwal, Nanakram; Pitchumoni, C S


    The advent of computed tomographic scan with its wide use in the evaluation of acute pancreatitis has opened up a new topic in pancreatology i.e. fluid collections. Fluid collections in and around the pancreas occur often in acute pancreatitis and were defined by the Atlanta Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis in 1992. Two decades since the Atlanta Conference additional experience has brought to light the inadequacy and poor understanding of the terms used by different specialists involved in the care of patients with acute pancreatitis when interpreting imaging modalities and the need for a uniformly used classification system. The deficiencies of the Atlanta definitions and advances in medicine have led to a proposed revision of the Atlanta classification promulgated by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. The newly used terms "acute peripancreatic fluid collections," "pancreatic pseudocyst," "postnecrotic pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections," and "walled-off pancreatic necrosis" are to be clearly understood in the interpretation of imaging studies. The current treatment methods for fluid collections are diverse and depend on accurate interpretations of radiologic tests. Management options include conservative treatment, percutaneous catheter drainage, open and laparoscopic surgery, and endoscopic drainage. The choice of treatment depends on a correct diagnosis of the type of fluid collection. In this study we have attempted to clarify the management and clinical features of different types of fluid collections as they have been initially defined under the 1992 Atlanta Classification and revised by the Working Group's proposed categorization.

  8. Repeatability of oral fluid collection methods for THC measurement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, S. Smink, B.E. Legrand, S.-A. Mathijssen, M.P.M. Verstraete, A.G. & Brookhuis, K.A.


    The study objective was to determine the influence of sample collection for two different collection methods on THC concentrations and to compare THC concentrations collected by both methods. A total of 136 pairs of oral fluid samples from subjects who had recently smoked Cannabis were obtained by

  9. Repeatability of oral fluid collection methods for THC measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Smink, Beitske E.; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Mathijssen, Rene P. M.; Verstraete, Alain G.; Brookhuis, Karel A.


    Study objectives: To determine the influence of sample collection for two different collection methods on THC concentrations and to compare THC concentrations collected by both methods. Methods: A total of 136 pairs of oral fluid samples from subjects who had recently smoked Cannabis were obtained

  10. Een zuigeling met een zwelling op het hoofd : de sub-aponeurotische vochtcollectie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, Marcel J H; van Dam, Stijntje W; Hoving, Eelco W; Brouwer, Oebele F


    A sub-aponeurotic fluid collection (an extracranial fluid accumulation between the galea aponeurotica and the periostium of the scalp) of 2 week duration was observed in a 2.5-month-old male infant. In contrast to a subgaleal bleeding, which occurs on the first day after birth and is of a

  11. Collection of wound fluids from horses using microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Bundgaard, Louise; Jacobsen, Stine

    Aim: To develop a microdialysis method for collection of fluid from horse wounds. Background: Collection of sample material for wound healing research in experimental animals is commonly obtained through biopsies. Though, biopsy collection is an invasive procedure and consequently triggers...... an inflammatory response. Therefore, wounds should only be biopsied once to display the undisturbed, natural healing process. This necessitates the creation of a wound for every required collection time-point. To limit the number of wounds created on each experimental animal, a new method that allows repeated...... collection from wounds was sought. Methods: Microdialysis is a minimally invasive method for sampling of compounds from the extracellular fluid, where a small probe is inserted into the target tissue and flux of solutes into the probe occurs by simple diffusion. The recovered dialysate reflects changes...

  12. Encysted Fluid Collections after Catheter Removal for Peritonitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Peritonitis is a frequent complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). This case series describes episodes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) related fungal or Pseudomonas peritonitis that were complicated by the formation of encysted intra abdominal fluid collections despite prompt catheter ...

  13. Identification of proteins in fluid collected from nerve regeneration chambers

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    Ye Yilin


    Full Text Available We examined whether there are novel neurotrophic factors (NTFs in nerve regeneration conditioned fluid (NRCF. Nerve regeneration chamber models were established in the sciatic nerves of 25 New Zealand rabbits, and NRCF was extracted from the chambers l week postoperatively. Proteins in NRCF were separated by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, and Western blot and ELISA were used to identify the proteins. A novel NTF was identified in a protein fraction corresponding to 220 kDa.

  14. Shape matters: Near-field fluid mechanics dominate the collective motions of ellipsoidal squirmers. (United States)

    Kyoya, K; Matsunaga, D; Imai, Y; Omori, T; Ishikawa, T


    Microswimmers show a variety of collective motions. Despite extensive study, questions remain regarding the role of near-field fluid mechanics in collective motion. In this paper, we describe precisely the Stokes flow around hydrodynamically interacting ellipsoidal squirmers in a monolayer suspension. The results showed that various collective motions, such as ordering, aggregation, and whirls, are dominated by the swimming mode and the aspect ratio. The collective motions are mainly induced by near-field fluid mechanics, despite Stokes flow propagation over a long range. These results emphasize the importance of particle shape in collective motion.

  15. Fluid collections and juxta-articular cystic lesions of the shoulder: spectrum of MRI findings

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    Mellado, J.M.; Salvado, E.; Camins, A.; Ramos, A.; Sauri, A. [Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Hospital Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain); Merino, X. [Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Hospital Vall' Ebron, Barcelona (Spain); Calmet, J. [Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Joan XXIII, Carrer Doctor Mallafre Guasch, Tarragona (Spain)


    The MR imaging features of fluid collections and juxta-articular cystic lesions of the shoulder are discussed, with special focus on those related to subacromial impingement and rotator cuff tears. Other more unusual fluid collections and cystic lesions are described, including rice-bodies bursitis, idiopathic synovial osteochondromatosis, dialysis-related amyloid arthropathy, hemophilic arthropathy, infectious conditions, non-infectious inflammatory arthritis, and paralabral cysts. (orig.)

  16. The outcome of the seminal fluid parameters collected via coitus interruptus versus masturbation. (United States)

    Bahyah, M Kamarul; Murad, Z Ahmad; Ghazali, I; Roszaman, R; Noraziana, A W; Mokhtar, A; Omar, M H


    A one year study was carried out to determine the outcome of the seminal fluid parameters collected via masturbation and coitus interruptus in 151 patients who were undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and patients who came for seminal analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of volume, concentration, progressive motility and normal morphology from specimens collected via coitus interruptus compared to specimens collected via masturbation. Pregnancy outcomes were also comparable.

  17. Coagulation factors and fibrinolytic proteins in menstrual fluid collected from normal and menorrhagic women. (United States)

    Rees, M C; Cederholm-Williams, S A; Turnbull, A C


    Menstrual fluid was collected in vaginal cups inserted for 2 h during the first 2 days of menstruation and selected coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins were measured. All the samples showed a virtual absence of thrombin generating activity and exhaustion of fibrinolytic proteins. In 14 women in whom menstrual fluid was collected on both days, no significant difference in the levels of any factor was found apart from alpha-2-macroglobulin which were lower on day 1 than on day 2. Except for plasminogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin concentrations on day 1, no correlation was found between any of the factors on either day and menstrual blood loss (range 15-666 ml).

  18. Arachnoid Membrane Suturing for Prevention of Subdural Fluid Collection in Extracranial-intracranial Bypass Surgery. (United States)

    Kim, Gun Woo; Joo, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Sun; Moon, Hyung Sik; Jang, Jae Won; Seo, Bo Ra; Lee, Jung Kil; Kim, Jae Hyoo; Kim, Soo Han


    Water-tight closure of the dura in extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass is impossible because the superficial temporal artery (STA) must run through the dural defect. Consequently, subdural hygroma and subcutaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection frequently occur postoperatively. To reduce these complications, we prospectively performed suturing of the arachnoid membrane after STA-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) and evaluated the clinical usefulness. Between Mar. 2005 and Oct. 2010, extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass (EIAB) with/without encephalo-myo-synangiosis was performed in 88 cases (male : female = 53 : 35). As a control group, 51 patients (57 sides) underwent conventional bypass surgery without closure of the arachnoid membrane. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan was performed twice in three days and seven days later, respectively, for evaluation of the presence of subdural fluid collection and other mass lesions. The surgical result was excellent, with no newly developing ischemic event until recent follow-up. The additional time needed for arachnoid suture was five to ten minutes, when three to eight sutures were required. Post-operative subdural fluid collection was not seen on follow-up computed tomography scans in all patients. Arachnoid suturing is simple, safe, and effective for prevention of subdural fluid collection in EC-IC bypass surgery, especially the vulnerable ischemic hemisphere.

  19. Outcome of tube thoracostomy in paediatric non-traumatic pleural fluid collections

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    Eyo E Ekpe


    Full Text Available Objective: Management of pleural fluid collection not due to trauma increases workload of the paediatric thoracic surgeons, while delay or inappropriate treatment worsens the prognosis of the disease. This study aimed at assessing the outcome of therapeutic tube thoracostomy in non-traumatic paediatric pleural fluid collections and identifying factors responsible for treatment failure with tube thoracostomy. Design: Prospective analysis of socio-demographic characteristics, clinical features, clinical diagnosis, radiological diagnosis, and bacteriological diagnosis including bacteria cultured with sensitivity pattern, also treatment offered including tube thoracostomy with duration of tube thoracostomy and length of hospitalisation, indication for additional surgical procedure with type, and outcome of treatment of 30 paediatric patients with non-traumatic pleural fluid collection. Results: Thirty paediatric patients with various causes of non-traumatic pleural fluid collection in 34 pleural spaces were analysed. Their ages ranged between six months and 16 years (mean = 6.5 years and M:F ratio of 2:1. Pleural effusion and empyema thoracis accounted for 46% and 40% with staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pneumoniae cultured in 10% each and a high negative culture rate of 46%, which was higher with age. The parents of 40% of the patients belonged to social class 3. Success rate of tube thoracostomy was 86% in unilateral cases, 50% in bilateral cases and 81% in all cases. Alternative treatment with thoracotomy and decortications gave a success rate of 100%. Conclusion: Thoracotomy with decortication is superior to tube thoracostomy in paediatric non-traumatic pleural fluid collection and should be chosen as the primary treatment option when there is bilateral disease, chronicity, loculated effusion, thickened pleural membranes or trapped lung.

  20. Transabdominal collection of amniotic fluid "sludge" and identification of Candida albicans intra-amniotic infection. (United States)

    Kusanovic, Juan P; Romero, Roberto; Martinovic, Carolina; Silva, Karla; Erez, Offer; Maymon, Eli; Díaz, Francisco; Ferrer, Fernando; Valdés, Rafael; Córdova, Víctor; Vargas, Paula; Nilo, María Elena; Le Cerf, Patricio


    A G3P2 patient who conceived while using an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) presented at 20 weeks of gestation with mild irregular uterine contractions and vaginal bleeding. Sonographic examination at admission showed the presence of dense amniotic fluid "sludge" and a long sonographic uterine cervix (42 mm). To assess the microbiologic significance of amniotic fluid "sludge", we performed a transabdominal amniocentesis. The procedure was performed under real-time ultrasound, and fluid resembling pus at gross examination was noted. Rapid amniotic fluid analysis showed the presence of a high white blood cell count and structures resembling hyphae. Amniotic fluid cultures were positive for Candida albicans. Treatment was begun with broad-spectrum antibiotics, including Fluconazole, upon the visualization of pus in the "sludge" material because of the presence of hyphae in the Gram stain. Despite treatment, the patient went into spontaneous preterm labor and delivered five days after admission. Placental examination revealed acute fungal histologic chorioamnionitis and funisitis. This represents the first report of transabdominal collection and analysis of amniotic fluid "sludge" and the microbiologic detection of Candida albicans in this material. This report provides evidence that transabdominal retrieval of "sludge" is possible and may be of significant value for patient management and selection of antimicrobial agents.

  1. Collective dynamics in noble-gas and other very simple classical fluids

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    Full Text Available Rare gases and their liquids are the simplest systems to study for accurate investigations of the collective dynamics of fluid matter. Much work has been done using different spectroscopic techniques, molecular-dynamics simulations, and theoretical developments, in order to gain insight into the microscopic processes involved, in particular, in the propagation of acoustic excitations in gases and liquids. Here we briefly review the interpretation schemes currently applied to the characterization of such excitations, and recall a few results obtained from the analysis of rare-gas fluids and other very simple systems.

  2. Non-hydrodynamic transverse collective excitations in hard-sphere fluids (United States)

    Bryk, Taras; Huerta, Adrian; Hordiichuk, V.; Trokhymchuk, A. D.


    Collective excitations in hard-sphere fluids were studied in a wide range of wave numbers and packing fractions η by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We report the observation of non-hydrodynamic transverse excitations for packing fractions η ≥ 0.395 in the shape of transverse current spectral functions. Dispersion of longitudinal excitations in the whole range of packing fractions shows a negative deviation from the linear hydrodynamic law with increasing wave numbers even for dense hard-sphere fluids where the transverse excitations were observed. These results do not support a recent proposal within the "Frenkel line" approach that the positive sound dispersion in liquids is defined by transverse excitations. We report calculations of the cutoff "Frenkel frequencies" for transverse excitations in hard-sphere fluids and discuss their consistency with the estimated dispersions of shear waves.

  3. Use of routinely collected amniotic fluid for whole-genome expression analysis of polygenic disorders. (United States)

    Nagy, Gyula Richárd; Gyõrffy, Balázs; Galamb, Orsolya; Molnár, Béla; Nagy, Bálint; Papp, Zoltán


    Neural tube defects related to polygenic disorders are the second most common birth defects in the world, but no molecular biologic tests are available to analyze the genes involved in the pathomechanism of these disorders. We explored the use of routinely collected amniotic fluid to characterize the differential gene expression profiles of polygenic disorders. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze amniotic fluid samples obtained from pregnant women carrying fetuses with neural tube defects diagnosed during ultrasound examination. The control samples were obtained from pregnant women who underwent routine genetic amniocentesis because of advanced maternal age (>35 years). We also investigated specific folate-related genes because maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation has been found to have a protective effect with respect to neural tube defects. Fetal mRNA from amniocytes was successfully isolated, amplified, labeled, and hybridized to whole-genome transcript arrays. We detected differential gene expression profiles between cases and controls. Highlighted genes such as SLA, LST1, and BENE might be important in the development of neural tube defects. None of the specific folate-related genes were in the top 100 associated transcripts. This pilot study demonstrated that a routinely collected amount of amniotic fluid (as small as 6 mL) can provide sufficient RNA to successfully hybridize to expression arrays. Analysis of the differences in fetal gene expressions might help us decipher the complex genetic background of polygenic disorders.

  4. Sterile subperiosteal fluid collections accompanying orbital wall infarction in sickle-cell disease. (United States)

    Huckfeldt, Rachel M; Shah, Ankoor S


    Infarction of the orbital wall is an uncommon manifestation of sickle cell disease (SCD) that may mimic an infectious process. We report a patient with two separate orbital infarctions with different presenting symptoms involving different bones. Radiologic-guided sampling of a periosteal fluid collection in the first episode showed likely sterile inflammatory exudates. This case highlights the range of findings in orbital wall infarction in SCD as well as helpful clinical and imaging entities that may differentiate infarction from infection, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate management. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Retropharyngeal cerebrospinal fluid collection as a cause of postoperative dysphagia after anterior cervical discectomy. (United States)

    Spennato, Pietro; Rapanà, Armando; Sannino, Ettore; Iaccarino, Corrado; Tedeschi, Enrico; Massarelli, Ilario; Bellotti, Alfredo; Schönauer, Massimo


    Transient dysphagia after anterior cervical discectomy is not uncommon. It is usually related to esophageal edema secondary to retraction, mechanical adhesions of the esophagus to the anterior spine, and stretch injuries to nerves involved in the swallowing mechanism. Structurally induced dysphagia, secondary to laceration of the neck viscera or to the presence of retropharyngeal masses, is by far less frequent, and it does not usually improve over time. The authors present the case of a 36-year-old woman who complained of severe dysphagia both for solids and liquids after C4 through C5 anterior discectomy and fusion, complicated by a millimetric dural tear of the anterior thecal sac. Postoperative neuroimaging revealed retropharyngeal fluid collection, extending in front of the vertebral bodies of C3, C4, and C5, exerting a mass effect on the posterior wall of the pharynx. Taking into account both the MRI aspect of the collection and the dramatic improvement of symptoms after lumbar punctures, we conducted a diagnosis of CSF collection in continuity with the subarachnoid space. The dysphagia and the CSF collection resolved with conservative therapy (bed rest and 3 lumbar punctures). To the best of our knowledge, such a complication has never been described before in the literature. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with postoperative dysphagia lasting more than 48 hours.

  6. The collective influence of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with physiological fluid shear stress on osteoblasts. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yuan, Jiafeng; Wang, Qianwen; Sun, Lijie; Sha, Yunying; Li, Yanxiang; Wang, Lizhong; Wang, Zhonghua; Ma, Yonggang; Cao, Hui


    1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1, 25 (OH)2 D3) and mechanical stimuli in physiological environment contributes greatly to osteoporosis pathogenesis. Wide investigations have been conducted on how 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and mechanical stimuli separately impact osteoblasts. This study reports the collective influences of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and flow shear stress (FSS) on biological functions of osteoblasts. 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 were prepared in various kinds of concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 nmmol/L), while physiological fluid shear stress (12 dynes/cm2) was produced by using a parallel-plate fluid flow system. 1, 25 (OH)2 D3 affects the responses of ROBs to FSS, including the inhibition of NO release and cell proliferation as well as the promotion of PGE2 release and cell differentiation. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which 1, 25(OH)2 D3 influences osteoblasts' responses to FSS, thus most probably providing guidance for the selection of 1, 25(OH)2 D3 concentration and mechanical loading in order to produce functional bone tissues in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points (United States)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)


    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  8. Simulation of Fluid Flow and Collection Efficiency for an SEA Multi-element Probe (United States)

    Rigby, David L.; Struk, Peter M.; Bidwell, Colin


    Numerical simulations of fluid flow and collection efficiency for a Science Engineering Associates (SEA) multi-element probe are presented. Simulation of the flow field was produced using the Glenn-HT Navier-Stokes solver. Three-dimensional unsteady results were produced and then time averaged for the heat transfer and collection efficiency results. Three grid densities were investigated to enable an assessment of grid dependence. Simulations were completed for free stream velocities ranging from 85-135 meters per second, and free stream total pressure of 44.8 and 93.1 kilopascals (6.5 and 13.5 pounds per square inch absolute). In addition, the effect of angle of attack and yaw were investigated by including 5 degree deviations from straight for one of the flow conditions. All but one of the cases simulated a probe in isolation (i.e. in a very large domain without any support strut). One case is included which represents a probe mounted on a support strut within a finite sized wind tunnel. Collection efficiencies were generated, using the LEWICE3D code, for four spherical particle sizes, 100, 50, 20, and 5 micron in diameter. It was observed that a reduction in velocity of about 20% occurred, for all cases, as the flow entered the shroud of the probe. The reduction in velocity within the shroud is not indicative of any error in the probe measurement accuracy. Heat transfer results are presented which agree quite well with a correlation for the circular cross section heated elements. Collection efficiency results indicate a reduction in collection efficiency as particle size is reduced. The reduction with particle size is expected, however, the results tended to be lower than the previous results generated for isolated two-dimensional elements. The deviation from the two-dimensional results is more pronounced for the smaller particles and is likely due to the reduced flow within the protective shroud. As particle size increases differences between the two

  9. Development and field application of a 6-bottle serial gas-tight fluid sampler for collecting seafloor cold seep and hydrothermal vent fluids with autonomous operation capability (United States)

    Wu, S.; Ding, K.; Yang, C.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.; Tan, C.; Schaen, A. T.; Luhmann, A. J.


    A 6-bottle serial gas-tight sampler (so-called "six-shooter") was developed for application with deep-sea vent fluids. The new device is composed of a custom-made 6-channel valve manifold and six sampling bottles which are circularly distributed around the valve manifold. Each valve channel consists of a high-pressure titanium cartridge valve and a motor-driven actuator. A sampling snorkel is connected to the inlet of the manifold that delivers the incoming fluid to different bottles. Each sampling bottle has a 160 ml-volume chamber and an accumulator chamber inside where compressed nitrogen is used to maintain the sample at near in-situ pressure. An electronics chamber that is located at the center of the sampler is used to carry out all sampling operations, autonomously, if desired. The sampler is of a compact circular configuration with a diameter of 26 cm and a length of 54 cm. During the SVC cruise AT 26-12, the sampler was deployed by DSV2 Alvin at a cold seep site MC036 with a depth of 1090 m in the Gulf of Mexico. The sampler collected fluid samples automatically following the tidal cycle to monitor the potential impact of the tide cycle on the fluid chemistry of cold seep in a period of two day. During the cruise AT 26-17, the sampler was used with newly upgraded DSV2 Alvin three times at the hydrothermal vent sites along Axial Seamount and Main Endeavor Field on Juan de Fuca Ridge. During a 4-day deployment at Anemone diffuse site (Axial Caldera), the sampler was set to work in an autonomous mode to collect fluid samples according to the preset interval. During other dives, the sampler was manually controlled via ICL (Inductively Coupled Link) communication through the hull. Gas-tight fluid samples were collected from different hydrothermal vents with temperatures between 267 ℃ and 335 ℃ at the depth up to 2200 m. The field results indicate unique advantages of the design. It can be deployed in extended time period with remote operation or working

  10. Subcutaneous fluid collection: An imaging marker for treatment response of infectious thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis

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    Kakigi, Takahide, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Sakai, Osamu, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, FGH Building, 3rd Floor, 820 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Iwamoto, Yoshitaka, E-mail: [Department of General Internal Medicine, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, 2 Otowachoinji-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8062 (Japan); Kubo, Soichi, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, 2 Otowachoinji-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8062 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akira, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)


    Highlights: • No imaging marker for treatment response of spondylodiscitis (SD) has been proposed. • Volume changes of subcutaneous fluid collection (SFC) had significant correlation with changes of C-reactive protein (CRP). • SFC can be used as an imaging marker for treatment response of SD on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate prevalence of subcutaneous fluid collection (SFC) in infectious thoracolumbar spondylodiscitis (SD) compared with control patients and to investigate correlation between volume changes of SFC and treatment response of SD. Materials and methods: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board. From April 2011 to March 2012, 49 patients (24 SD and 25 non-SD patients) were enrolled. Prevalence of SFC was evaluated respectively for SD and non-SD patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the sagittal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging or fat-saturated T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and compared. In SD patients with SFC, correlation was investigated between SFC volume on the 1st MRI and initial clinical status. The same analysis was conducted also for SFC volume changes from the 1st to 2nd or last MRI. Results: SFC was found in 20 patients with SD (83.3%) and 3 non-SD patients (12%) with significant difference (p < .001). In 20 SD patients with SFC, 17 patients had follow-up MRI. For the 1st MRI, no significant correlation was found between volume of SFC and initial status of patients, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), white blood cell (WBC), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). However, significant positive correlations were found between changes of C-reactive protein (CRP) and SFC volume from the 1st to 2nd as well as from the 1st to the last MRI (each p < .05). Conclusion: SD patients had significantly higher prevalence of SFC than non-SD patients. Volume changes of SFC had significant correlation with changes of CRP, which can be used as an imaging

  11. Papanicolaou tests and molecular analyses using new fluid-based specimen collection technology in 3000 Japanese women. (United States)

    Masumoto, N; Fujii, T; Ishikawa, M; Mukai, M; Saito, M; Iwata, T; Fukuchi, T; Kubushiro, K; Tsukazaki, K; Nozawa, S


    A fluid-based Papanicolaou test has been established to improve sample collection and preparation. This study was the first large-scale investigation in Japan to examine the feasibility of using fluid-based Papanicolaou specimens to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) using Hybrid Capture II and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Three thousand patients who visited Keio University Hospital between October 2000 and February 2001 were enrolled in the study. The results of the fluid-based Papanicolaou tests corresponded well with those of conventional Papanicolaou smears (96.8% concordance). The sensitivities of cervical neoplasia detection using the fluid-based Papanicolaou test (73.9%) and Hybrid Capture II (76.3%, P=0.55) were not significantly different. Among the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and squamous cell carcinoma specimens, HPV 16 and HPV 52 were predominantly detected using the PCR method. Although some DNA samples extracted from the fluid-based specimens were degradaded, PCR and direct sequencing could be performed without difficulty even after 1 year of specimen storage. We conclude that fluid-based Papanicolaou specimens can be applied to investigate HPV infection.

  12. Fluid flow due to collective non-reciprocal motion of symmetrically-beating artificial cilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaderi, S. N.; den Toonder, J.M.J.; Onck, P. R.

    Using a magneto-mechanical solid-fluid numerical model for permanently magnetic artificial cilia, we show that the metachronal motion of symmetrically beating cilia establishes a net pressure gradient in the direction of the metachronal wave, which creates a unidirectional flow. The flow generated

  13. Comparison of autoanalyzer and back titration for measurement of bicarbonate concentration in endoscopically collected pancreatic fluid. (United States)

    Xiao, Zuoliang; Lopez, Rocio; Parsi, Mansour A; Dodig, Milan; Stevens, Tyler


    In secretin-stimulated pancreatic function testing, the standard technique for bicarbonate measurement is back titration (BT). Chemistry autoanalyzers (AAs) automate bicarbonate measurement and are universally available; however, this method has not been validated in pancreatic fluid. The aims of the study were (1) to compare the AA and BT for measurement of bicarbonate in pancreatic fluid and (2) to determine the effects of variable conditions on bicarbonate concentration. Pancreatic fluid samples were analyzed for bicarbonate concentration using both BT and AA. Additional experiments were conducted to determine the effect of different sample conditions. The results obtained by BT and AA were highly concordant (Lin concordance coefficient, 0.96). An AA cutpoint of 84 mM optimized sensitivity (91.1%) and specificity (94.1%) compared with the BT reference standard. Blood contamination spuriously increased the bicarbonate, an effect that was eliminated by centrifugation. The bicarbonate levels were not significantly affected by delayed analysis, storage condition, nitrogen gas treatment, or the addition of mineral oil or protease inhibitors. The bicarbonate concentrations obtained by AA are highly concordant with those obtained by BT. Secretin pancreatic function testing fluid analysis may now be performed in any hospital.

  14. The role of collecting bladder wash fluid before biopsy procedure to help the cytological diagnosis of residual tumor (United States)

    Kiliçarslan, Aydan; Süngü, Nuran; Balci, Serdar; Canda, Erdem; Altinova, Serkan; Güler, Gülnur


    Background: Urinary cytology has low sensitivity and specificity in urinary neoplasm. Aim: We planned to assess whether the examination of bladder washing before biopsy (WBB) plays a role in better cytologic diagnosis of bladder wash fluid collected after biopsy procedure (WAB) in papillary urothelial neoplasms. Materials and Methods: We included 36 patients with papillary lesion of bladder. Prior to the biopsy, the bladder is washed and fluid is collected for cytology; later transurethral resection (TUR) is performed, then bladders are washed again and the fluid is separately collected for cytology. Both fluids were centrifuged and stained with May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG). First the WAB slides were evaluated and diagnosed. After evaluation of the WBB slides, the WAB slides were rediagnosed. Presence of cellularity, papillary structure, fusiform cells, background bleeding, and cytolysis in WBB and WAB were evaluated separately. Results: We determined that 31 WBB samples were hypercellular, and 12 of them remained as hypercellular in WAB. Papillary structures were observed in 20 WBB samples; and in one WAB cytology. In 29 cases where no fusiform cells are identified in WBB, 22 showed fusiform cells in WAB. Cytolysis in WABs was noted in 15 cases whose WBBs did not show cytolysis. The decrease in cellularity, papillary structure (P < 0.001, both), cytolysis (P = 0.008), and fusiform cells (P < 0.001) were statistically significant. After seeing the WBB slides, we reevaluated the WAB slides. Out of the eight out of 36 (22.2%) samples diagnosed with degeneration previously, five (62.5%) samples were rediagnosed as benign, two (25%) as cytologic atypia which favor reactive, and one (12.5%) as malignant. Conclusion: Due to the better quality, initial evaluation of WBB may help more effective diagnoses of WAB slides. PMID:26229243

  15. Identification of Pancreas-Specific Proteins in Endoscopic (ePFT) Collected Pancreatic Fluid with Mass Spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) (United States)

    Paulo, Joao A.; Lee, Linda S.; Wu, Bechien; Repas, Kathryn; Mortele, Koenraad J.; Banks, Peter A.; Steen, Hanno; Conwell, Darwin L.


    Objectives We aim to establish the endoscopic pancreatic function test (ePFT) as a method that can safely obtain pancreatic fluid for mass spectrometry analysis from patients during upper endoscopy and to reproducibly identify pancreas-specific proteins. Methods We performed SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis (GeLC-MS/MS) on ePFT-collected pancreatic fluid from three individuals, without evidence of chronic pancreatitis, who were undergoing an upper endoscopy for dyspepsia and chronic abdominal pain. Results Pancreatic fluid was safely collected from all subjects. SDS-PAGE analysis of ePFT-collected pancreatic fluid revealed no significant variation (F-statistic 1.33; p-value 0.29) in protein concentration during the 1 hour collection period and a visually reproducible protein banding pattern among the three subjects. GeLC-MS/MS analysis of ePFT-collected fluid identified pancreas-specific proteins previously described from ERCP and surgical collection methods. Gene ontology further revealed that the majority of the proteins identified have molecular function of proteases. Conclusions The ePFT is capable of collecting large amounts of pancreatic fluid for proteomic analysis enabling the identification of pancreas-specific proteins. This endoscopic collection method coupled with GeLC-MS/MS is a powerful technique, which can be used in future investigations to elucidate pathways involved in the development and progression of pancreatic disease. PMID:20182389

  16. Concentration of aluminium in breast cyst fluids collected from women affected by gross cystic breast disease. (United States)

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Tonti, Gaetana A; Darbre, Philippa D


    Gross cystic breast disease (GCBD) is the most common benign breast disorder, but the molecular basis of cyst formation remains to be identified. If the use of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts is involved in the etiology of gross breast cyst formation, it might be expected that aluminium would be at elevated levels in human breast cyst fluid (BCF). Aluminium was measured by ICP-MS in 48 samples of BCF, 30 samples of human blood serum and 45 samples of human breast milk at different stages of lactation (colostrum, intermediate, mature). The median level of aluminium in apocrine type I BCF (n = 27, 150 microg l(-1)) was significantly higher than in transudative type II BCF (n = 21, 32 microg l(-1); P breast milk, with no difference between colostrum, intermediate and mature milk. Levels of aluminium were significantly higher in both types of BCF than in human serum (P breast milk, aluminium levels were only significantly higher in apocrine type I BCF (P breast cysts, then it might become possible to prevent this common breast disorder. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Diagnosis of mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis by detection of leishmania antibodies and leishmania DNA in oral fluid samples collected using an Oracol device. (United States)

    Galaï, Yousr; Chabchoub, Najla; Ben-Abid, Meriem; Ben-Abda, Imène; Ben-Alaya-Bouafif, Nissaf; Amri, Fethi; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aïda


    Current methods for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) require invasive sampling procedures such as visceral aspiration and/or blood drawing. The use of diagnostic tests using oral fluid, which is easier to collect, would be more simple and practical for VL diagnosis, especially under field conditions. Oral fluids from 37 VL patients and 40 healthy controls were collected using Oracol devices. Blood samples and oral fluid specimens from both groups were analyzed by recombinant protein K39 (rK39) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative real-time PCR. Detection of antibodies in the oral fluid had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 97.5%. Antibody levels measured in serum and oral fluid showed a significant positive correlation (ρ = 0.655 and P = 0.01). Detection of Leishmania DNA in oral fluid had a sensitivity of 94.6% and a specificity of 90%. The median parasite load estimated in blood was 133 parasites/ml (interquartile range [IR], 10 to 1,048), whereas that in oral fluid specimens was 3 parasites/ml (IR, 0.41 to 92). However, there was no significant linear relationship between parasite loads assessed in the two biological samples (ρ = 0.31 and P = 0.06). VL diagnosis based on specific antibody detection and Leishmania DNA identification using oral fluid samples was equivalent in accuracy to that using blood and therefore is promising for clinical use.

  18. The presence of vaginal Lactobacillus species does not contribute to a measureable difference in amniotic fluid lactate levels collected from the vaginal tract of laboring women. (United States)

    Hall, Beverley; Wong, Diana; Healy, Clare; Tracy, Mark B; Tracy, Sally K; Rawlinson, William D


    Amniotic fluid lactate research is based on the hypothesis that a relationship exists between fatigued uterine muscles and raised concentrations of the metabolite lactate, which is excreted into the amniotic fluid during labor. To assess potentially confounding effects of lactate-producing organisms on amniotic fluid lactate measurements, we aimed to determine if the presence of vaginal Lactobacillus species was associated with elevated levels of amniotic fluid lactate, measured from the vaginal tract of women in labor. Results from this study contribute to a large prospective longitudinal study of amniotic fluid lactate at a teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Amniotic fluid lactate measurement was assessed at the time of routine vaginal examination, after membranes had ruptured, using a hand-held lactate meter StatStripXPress (Nova Biomedical). Vaginal swab samples were collected at the time of the first amniotic fluid lactate measurement and stored for later detection and quantification of Lactobacillus species using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Swab sample and amniotic fluid lactate results were paired and analyzed. The PCR assay detected Lactobacillus species in 48 of 388 (12%) vaginal swab specimens (8% positive, 4% low positive) collected from women in labor after membranes had ruptured. There was no significant difference in median and mean (respectively) amniotic fluid lactate levels with (8.35 mmol/L; 8.95 mmol/L) or without (8.5 mmol/L; 9.08 mmol/L) Lactobacillus species detected. There was no association between the presence or level of vaginal Lactobacillus species and the measurement of amniotic fluid lactate collected from the vaginal tract of women during labor. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Liquid-Based Medium Used to Prepare Cytological Breast Nipple Fluid Improves the Quality of Cellular Samples Automatic Collection (United States)

    Zonta, Marco Antonio; Velame, Fernanda; Gema, Samara; Filassi, Jose Roberto; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar


    Background Breast cancer is the second cause of death in women worldwide. The spontaneous breast nipple discharge may contain cells that can be analyzed for malignancy. Halo® Mamo Cyto Test (HMCT) was recently developed as an automated system indicated to aspirate cells from the breast ducts. The objective of this study was to standardize the methodology of sampling and sample preparation of nipple discharge obtained by the automated method Halo breast test and perform cytological evaluation in samples preserved in liquid medium (SurePath™). Methods We analyzed 564 nipple fluid samples, from women between 20 and 85 years old, without history of breast disease and neoplasia, no pregnancy, and without gynecologic medical history, collected by HMCT method and preserved in two different vials with solutions for transport. Results From 306 nipple fluid samples from method 1, 199 (65%) were classified as unsatisfactory (class 0), 104 (34%) samples were classified as benign findings (class II), and three (1%) were classified as undetermined to neoplastic cells (class III). From 258 samples analyzed in method 2, 127 (49%) were classified as class 0, 124 (48%) were classified as class II, and seven (2%) were classified as class III. Conclusion Our study suggests an improvement in the quality and quantity of cellular samples when the association of the two methodologies is performed, Halo breast test and the method in liquid medium. PMID:29147397

  20. Identification of pancreas-specific proteins in endoscopically (endoscopic pancreatic function test) collected pancreatic fluid with liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Paulo, Joao A; Lee, Linda S; Wu, Bechien; Repas, Kathryn; Mortele, Koenraad J; Banks, Peter A; Steen, Hanno; Conwell, Darwin L


    We aimed to establish the endoscopic pancreatic function test (ePFT) as a method that can safely obtain pancreatic fluid for mass spectrometric analysis from patients during upper endoscopy and to reproducibly identify pancreas-specific proteins. We performed a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis (in-gel tryptic digestion followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry [GeLC-MS/MS]) on ePFT-collected pancreatic fluid from 3 individuals, without evidence of chronic pancreatitis, who were undergoing an upper endoscopy for dyspepsia and chronic abdominal pain. Pancreatic fluid was safely collected from all subjects. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of ePFT-collected pancreatic fluid revealed no significant variation (F statistic, 1.33, P = 0.29) in protein concentration during the 1-hour collection period and a visually reproducible protein banding pattern among the 3 subjects. The GeLC-MS/MS analysis of ePFT-collected fluid identified pancreas-specific proteins previously described from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and surgical collection methods. Gene ontology further revealed that most of the proteins identified have a molecular function of proteases. The ePFT is capable of collecting large amounts of pancreatic fluid for proteomic analysis enabling the identification of pancreas-specific proteins. This endoscopic collection method coupled with GeLC-MS/MS is a powerful technique, which can be used in future investigations to elucidate pathways involved in the development and progression of pancreatic disease.

  1. Hormone-dependent bacterial growth, persistence and biofilm formation--a pilot study investigating human follicular fluid collected during IVF cycles.

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    Elise S Pelzer

    Full Text Available Human follicular fluid, considered sterile, is aspirated as part of an in vitro fertilization (IVF cycle. However, it is easily contaminated by the trans-vaginal collection route and little information exists in its potential to support the growth of microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to determine whether human follicular fluid can support bacterial growth over time, whether the steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone (present at high levels within follicular fluid contribute to the in vitro growth of bacterial species, and whether species isolated from follicular fluid form biofilms. We found that bacteria in follicular fluid could persist for at least 28 weeks in vitro and that the steroid hormones stimulated the growth of some bacterial species, specifically Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp. Streptococcus spp. and E. coli. Several species, Lactobacillus spp., Propionibacterium spp., and Streptococcus spp., formed biofilms when incubated in native follicular fluids in vitro (18/24, 75%. We conclude that bacteria aspirated along with follicular fluid during IVF cycles demonstrate a persistent pattern of growth. This discovery is important since it can offer a new avenue for investigation in infertile couples.

  2. Chromosome abnormalities diagnosed in utero: a Japanese study of 28 983 amniotic fluid specimens collected before 22 weeks gestations. (United States)

    Nishiyama, Miyuki; Yan, Jim; Yotsumoto, Junko; Sawai, Hideaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Sago, Haruhiko


    To investigate the frequency and type of abnormal karyotype in Japan by amniocentesis before 22 weeks of gestation. We performed a retrospective analysis of 28 983 amniotic fluid specimens in a local population collected before 22 weeks gestations for fetal karyotyping. The incidence of abnormal karyotype was 6.0%. The main indication was advanced maternal age (AMA) of 35 years and older, which represented over half of the clinical indications. Abnormal karyotype was most frequently reported among the referrals for abnormal ultrasound findings (21.8%), followed by positive maternal serum screen results (5.3%). Three-fourths of abnormal karyotype was either autosomal aneuploidy (64.0%) or sex chromosome aneuploidy (11.6%). Abnormal karyotype was detected in 2.8% of pregnant women referred for AMA. Clinically significant abnormal karyotype increased with advancing maternal age. The frequency and type of abnormal karyotype detected by amniocentesis for various indications were determined. Amniocentesis was mainly performed among the referrals for AMA, which is a characteristic distribution of indications of Japan.

  3. Added value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of pancreatic fluid collection infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borens, Bruno [Polyclinique Santa Maria, Nice (France); Arvanitakis, Marianna; Eisendrath, Pierre; Toussaint, Emmanuel; Deviere, Jacques [Erasme Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Brussels (Belgium); Absil, Julie; Matos, Celso; Bali, Maria Antonietta [Erasme Hospital, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); El Bouchaibi, Said [Epicura, Ath (Belgium)


    To investigate the added value of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of infection in pancreatic fluid collections (PFC). Forty-patients with PFC requiring endoscopic-transmural drainage underwent conventional-MR and DW-MR imaging (b = 1000 s/mm{sup 2}) before endoscopy. MR images were divided into two sets (set1, conventional-MR; set2, conventional-MR, DW-MR and ADC maps) and randomized. Two independent readers performed qualitative and quantitative (apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC) image analysis. Bacteriological analysis of PFC content was the gold standard. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV) and accuracy were calculated for the two sets for both readers. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were drawn to assess quantitative DW-MR imaging diagnostic performance. For both readers, sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV and accuracy for infected PFCs were higher for set2 (P >.05). ADC were lower in infected versus non-infected PFCs (P ≤.031). Minimum ADC cut-off: 1,090 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for reader 1 and 1,012 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s for reader 2 (sensitivity and specificity 67 % and 96 % for both readers). Qualitative information provided by DW-MR may help to assess PFCs infection. Infected PFCs show significantly lower ADCs compared to non-infected ones. (orig.)

  4. A novel lumen-apposing metal stent for endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Daisy; Will, Uwe; Sanchez-Yague, Andres; Brenke, Dirk; Hampe, Jochen; Wollny, Helge; López-Jamar, Jose Miguel Esteban; Jechart, Gertrud; Vilmann, Peter; Gornals, Joan B; Ullrich, Sebastian; Fähndrich, Martin; de Tejada, Alberto Herreros; Junquera, Félix; Gonzalez-Huix, Ferran; Siersema, Peter D; Vleggaar, FP

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: A novel large-diameter, lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent with bilateral flanges was recently developed for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transmural drainage of symptomatic pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the

  5. Detection Times of Diazepam, Clonazepam, and Alprazolam in Oral Fluid Collected From Patients Admitted to Detoxification, After High and Repeated Drug Intake. (United States)

    Nordal, Kristin; Øiestad, Elisabeth L; Enger, Asle; Christophersen, Asbjorg S; Vindenes, Vigdis


    Clonazepam, diazepam, and alprazolam are benzodiazepines with sedative, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic effects, but their prevalence in drug abuse and drug overdoses has long been recognized. When detection times for psychoactive drugs in oral fluid are reported, they are most often based on therapeutic doses administered in clinical studies. Repeated ingestions of high doses, as seen after drug abuse, are however likely to cause positive samples for extended time periods. Findings of drugs of abuse in oral fluid collected from imprisoned persons might lead to negative sanctions, and the knowledge of detection times of these drugs is thus important to ensure correct interpretation. The aim of this study was to investigate the time window of detection for diazepam, clonazepam, and alprazolam in oral fluid from drug addicts admitted to detoxification. Twenty-five patients with a history of heavy drug abuse admitted to a detoxification ward were included. Oral fluid was collected daily in the morning and the evening and urine samples every morning for 10 days, using the Intercept device. Whole blood samples were collected if the patient accepted. The cutoff levels in oral fluid were 1.3 ng/mL for diazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam, and 7-aminoclonazepam and 1 ng/mL for clonazepam and alprazolam. In urine, the cutoff levels for quantifications were 30 ng/mL for alprazolam, alpha-OH-alprazolam, and 7-aminoclonazepam, 135 ng/mL for N-desmethyldizepam, and 150 ng/mL for 3-OH-diazepam and for all the compounds, the cutoff for the screening analyses were 200 ng/mL. The maximum detection times for diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam in oral fluid were 7 and 9 days, respectively. For clonazepam and 7-aminoclonazepam, the maximum detection times in oral fluid were 5 and 6 days, respectively. The maximum detection time for alprazolam in oral fluid was 2.5 days. New ingestions were not suspected in any of the cases, because the corresponding concentrations in urine were decreasing

  6. Fluoroscopy-assisted vs fluoroless endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural drainage of pancreatic fluid collections: A comparative study. (United States)

    Consiglieri, Claudia F; Gornals, Joan B; Busquets, Juli; Peláez, Nuria; Secanella, Lluis; De-La-Hera, Meritxell; Sanzol, Resurrección; Fabregat, Joan; Castellote, José


    The need for fluoroscopy guidance in patients undergoing endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural drainage (EUS-TMD) of peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare general outcomes of EUS-TMD of PFCs under fluoroscopy (F) vs fluoroless (FL). This is a comparative study with a retrospective analysis of a prospective and consecutive inclusion database at a tertiary centre, from 2009 to 2015. All patients were symptomatic pseudocyst (PSC) and walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WON). Two groups were assigned depending on availability of fluoroscopy. The groups were heterogeneous in terms of their demographic characteristics, PFCs and procedure. The main outcome measures included technical and clinical success, incidences, adverse events (AEs), and follow-up. Fifty EUS-TMD of PFCs from 86 EUS-guided drainages were included during the study period. Group F included 26 procedures, PSC 69.2%, WON 30.8%, metal stents 61.5% (46.1% lumen-apposing stent) and plastic stents 38.5%. Group FL included 24 procedures, PSC 37.5%, WON 62.5%, and metal stents 95.8% (lumen-apposing stents). Technical success was 100% in both groups, and clinical success was similar (F 88.5%, FL 87.5%). Technical incidences and intra-procedure AEs were only described in group F (7.6% and 11.5%, respectively) and none in group FL. Procedure time was less in group FL (8min, p=0.0341). Fluoroless in the EUS-TMD of PFCs does not involve more technical incidences or intra-procedure AEs. Technical and clinical success was similar in the two groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Liver fluid collection in neonates and its association with the use of a specific umbilical vein catheter: Report of five cases. (United States)

    Mahajan, Vikas; Rahman, Asad; Tarawneh, Amjad; Sant'anna, Guilherme Mendes


    In newborns, the presence of liver fluid collection is a rare event. The reported cases are isolated or described over long periods. Within four months, five neonates were diagnosed with liver fluid collection from safety occurrence reports. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data were extracted from medical records. The definite diagnosis was made by ultrasound. Four of the patients were preterm, male and had very low birth weights. The osmolality of the infused solution was within the acceptable range. Investigations revealed that the use of a new brand of umbilical vein catheter introduced in the neonatal intensive care unit, one month before the first case, was associated with this cluster. Low positioning of the umbilical vein catheter tip appeared to be a second contributory factor. Neonatal practitioners may benefit from the present report when facing the occurrence of similar lesions.

  8. In vivo collection of follicular fluid and granulosa cells from individual follicles of different diameters in cattle by an adapted ovum pick-up system


    Arashiro, Eduardo KN; Palhao, Miller P; Wohlres-Viana,Sabine; Siqueira, Luiz GB; Camargo, Luiz SA; Henry, Marc; Viana, Joao HM


    Background Most studies on granulosa cell (GC) function in cattle have been performed using GC and follicular fluid (FF) samples collected from slaughterhouse ovaries. Using this approach, the follicular developmental stage and functional status are unknown and indirectly inferred, limiting data interpretation. Ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration has previously been used to recover GC or FF samples, but this was mostly carried out in large follicles or pools of small follicles, without reco...

  9. Oral Fluid with Three Modes of Collection and Plasma Methamphetamine and Amphetamine Enantiomer Concentrations After Controlled Intranasal l-Methamphetamine Administration


    Newmeyer, Matthew N.; Concheiro, Marta; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ronald; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.


    Methamphetamine is included in drug testing programs due to its high abuse potential. d-Methamphetamine is a scheduled potent central nervous system stimulant, while l-methamphetamine is the unscheduled active ingredient in the over-the-counter nasal decongestant Vicks® VapoInhaler™. No data are available in oral fluid (OF) and few in plasma after controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration. We quantified methamphetamine and amphetamine enantiomers in OF collected with two different devices a...

  10. A Direct-Push Sample-Freezing Drive Shoe for Collecting Sediment Cores with Intact Pore Fluid, Microbial, and Sediment Distributions (United States)

    Bekins, B. A.; Trost, J.; Christy, T. M.; Mason, B.


    Abiotic and biological reactions in shallow groundwater and bottom sediments are central to understanding groundwater contaminant attenuation and biogeochemical cycles. The laminar flow regime in unconsolidated surficial aquifers creates narrow reaction zones. Studying these reaction zones requires fine-scale sampling of water together with adjacent sediment in a manner that preserves in situ redox conditions. Collecting representative samples of these narrow zones with traditional subsurface sampling equipment is challenging. For example, use of a basket type core catcher for saturated, non-cohesive sediments results in loss of fluid and sediments during retrieval. A sample-freezing drive shoe designed for a wire line piston core sampler allowed collection of cores with intact sediment, microbial, and pore fluid distributions and has been the basis for studies documenting centimeter-scale variations in aquifer microbial populations (Murphy and Herkelrath, 1996). However, this freezing drive shoe design is not compatible with modern-day direct push sampling rigs. A re-designed sample-freezing drive shoe compatible with a direct-push dual-tube coring system was developed and field-tested. The freezing drive shoe retained sediment and fluid distributions in saturated sediment core samples by freezing a 10 centimeter plug below the core sample with liquid CO­2. Core samples collected across the smear zone at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, were successfully extracted without loss of fluid or sediment. Multiple core sections from different depths in the aquifer were retrieved from a single hole. This new design makes a highly effective sampling technology available on modern-day direct push sampling equipment to inform myriad questions about subsurface biogeochemistry processes. The re-design of the freezing drive shoe was supported by the USGS Innovation Center for Earth Sciences. References: Murphy, Fred, and W. N. Herkelrath. "A sample

  11. Non-invasively collected amniotic fluid as a source of possible biomarkers for premature rupture of membranes investigated by proteomic approach. (United States)

    Consonni, Sara; Mainini, Veronica; Pizzardi, Agnese; Gianazza, Erica; Chinello, Clizia; Locatelli, Anna; Magni, Fulvio


    Preterm delivery is one of the main causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality and it accounts for 75 % of perinatal mortality and more than half of the long-term morbidity. We applied a proteomic approach based on mass spectrometry (MS) for biomarkers discovery of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) by investigating amniotic fluid (AF) invasively and non-invasively collected. Amniotic fluid was obtained from vagina of women with pPROM (group 1), PROM at term (group 2) and by genetic amniocentesis (group 3). Pre-fractionated AF proteome was analyzed through matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. The characterization of proteins/peptides of interest was obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem MS. Three peptides overexpressed in pPROM and able to discriminate the groups 1 and 2 were detected. One peptide was identified as the fragment Gly452LAVPDGPLGLPPKPro466 of the protein KIAA1522, expressed by fetal brain and liver. This peptide was overexpressed in a patient of the group 3, completely asymptomatic at the time of the amniocentesis, who later developed pPROM. Amniotic fluid invasively and non-invasively collected can be analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS to obtain proteomic profiles. Proteomic analysis identified a peptide with promising diagnostic capability for pPROM.

  12. Extensive characterization of human tear fluid collected using different techniques unravels the presence of novel lipid amphiphiles1[S (United States)

    Lam, Sin Man; Tong, Louis; Duan, Xinrui; Petznick, Andrea; Wenk, Markus R.; Shui, Guanghou


    The tear film covers the anterior eye and the precise balance of its various constituting components is critical for maintaining ocular health. The composition of the tear film amphiphilic lipid sublayer, in particular, has largely remained a matter of contention due to the limiting concentrations of these lipid amphiphiles in tears that render their detection and accurate quantitation tedious. Using systematic and sensitive lipidomic approaches, we validated different tear collection techniques and report the most comprehensive human tear lipidome to date; comprising more than 600 lipid species from 17 major lipid classes. Our study confers novel insights to the compositional details of the existent tear film model, in particular the disputable amphiphilic lipid sublayer constituents, by demonstrating the presence of cholesteryl sulfate, O-acyl-ω-hydroxyfatty acids, and various sphingolipids and phospholipids in tears. The discovery and quantitation of the relative abundance of various tear lipid amphiphiles reported herein are expected to have a profound impact on the current understanding of the existent human tear film model. PMID:24287120

  13. Validation of a method for the determination of AMG 579 in cerebrospinal fluid with a focus on sample collection procedures for clinical trials. (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah F; Kerr, Savannah J; Rose, Mark J; James, Christopher A


    Analysis of pharmaceutical compounds in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may present challenges due to the combination of the low protein content in this matrix and relatively low drug concentrations, often corresponding to free drug concentrations in plasma, typically found in CSF. A 30% loss of AMG 579 was observed during preparation of quality control samples and further investigation determined that this loss was likely due to binding to collection tubes. This observation also highlighted the possibility of additional losses of AMG 579 that could occur during collection of clinical samples, such as binding to catheters used in the collection of CSF. Loss of AMG 579 in QC samples was reduced from 30% to 5% when the volume of CSF stored in 1.5 mL vials was increased from 0.06 mL to 1 mL. Modest but unavoidable losses of about 20% of AMG 579 were also found following perfusion through both silicone and polypropylene (Pharmed(®) BPT) collection catheters. Silicone tubing was used for CSF collection based on clinical site preference. An LC-MS/MS method was validated to quantify AMG 579 in human CSF to support clinical testing. The original range of the assay was 1-1000 ng/mL but the LLOQ was subsequently lowered to 0.1 ng/mL to better meet project requirements. Interday bias (% RE) and precision (% CV) were -4.2% and 12.3% at the LLOQ, and less than ± 0.9% and 8.3% for higher concentrations, respectively. The compound was stable in human CSF for at least 5h at room temperature, 55 days at -70 °C (-60 to -80 °C range), and through three freeze-thaw cycles. Careful selection of assay conditions and materials minimized losses of the compound during sample collection and storage. While these losses could not be entirely eliminated, practical sample collection and storage conditions were established to allow for analysis of AMG 579 in human clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of particle-wall interaction boundary conditions in the prediction of cyclone collection efficiency in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valverde Ramirez, M.; Coury, J.R.; Goncalves, J.A.S., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica


    In recent years, many computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have appeared attempting to predict cyclone pressure drop and collection efficiency. While these studies have been able to predict pressure drop well, they have been only moderately successful in predicting collection efficiency. Part of the reason for this failure has been attributed to the relatively simple wall boundary conditions implemented in the commercially available CFD software, which are not capable of accurately describing the complex particle-wall interaction present in a cyclone. According, researches have proposed a number of different boundary conditions in order to improve the model performance. This work implemented the critical velocity boundary condition through a user defined function (UDF) in the Fluent software and compared its predictions both with experimental data and with the predictions obtained when using Fluent's built-in boundary conditions. Experimental data was obtained from eight laboratory scale cyclones with varying geometric ratios. The CFD simulations were made using the software Fluent 6.3.26. (author)

  15. In vivo collection of follicular fluid and granulosa cells from individual follicles of different diameters in cattle by an adapted ovum pick-up system (United States)


    Background Most studies on granulosa cell (GC) function in cattle have been performed using GC and follicular fluid (FF) samples collected from slaughterhouse ovaries. Using this approach, the follicular developmental stage and functional status are unknown and indirectly inferred, limiting data interpretation. Ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration has previously been used to recover GC or FF samples, but this was mostly carried out in large follicles or pools of small follicles, without recording the efficiency of recovery. The present study was aimed at adapting and evaluating an ovum pick-up (OPU) system for the in vivo recovery of FF and GC from individual follicles of different diameters. Methods In the first trial, the losses of fluid inside the tubing system were calculated using a conventional or an adapted-OPU system. Blood plasma volumes equivalent to the amount of FF in follicles of different diameters were aspirated using a conventional OPU Teflon circuit. The OPU system was then adapted by connecting 0.25 mL straws to the circuit. A second trial evaluated the efficiency of FF recovery in vivo. Follicles ranging from 4.0 to 16.8 mm in diameter were aspirated individually using the conventional or adapted-OPU systems. A third trial assessed the in vivo recovery of GC and the subsequent amount of RNA obtained from the follicles of different diameters from Holstein and Gir cattle. Results In Trial I, the plasma recovery efficiency was similar (P > 0.05) for the volumes expected for 12 and 10 mm follicles, but decreased (P  0.05) by follicle size, but differed according to breed (615,054+/−58,122 vs 458,095+/−36,407 for Holstein and Gir, respectively; P < 0.05). Conclusions The adapted-OPU system can be successfully used for the in vivo collection of FF and GC from follicles of different diameters. This will enable further endocrine, cellular, and gene expression analyses. PMID:23915143

  16. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collection (United States)

    ... mL (or greater than two thirds of blood sugar level) CSF cell count : 0 to 5 white blood cells (all mononuclear), and no red blood ... glucose may be due to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), bacterial or ... CELLS IN CSF Increased white blood cells in the CSF may be a ...

  17. EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections using a novel lumen-apposing metal stent on an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system : a large retrospective study (with video)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinninella, Emanuele; Kunda, Rastislav; Dollhopf, Markus; Sanchez-Yague, Andres; Will, Uwe; Tarantino, Ilaria; Gornals Soler, Joan; Ullrich, Sebastian; Meining, Alexander; Esteban, Josè Miguel; Enz, Thomas; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Vleggaar, FP; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent incorporated in an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system for EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) recently has become available. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and clinical effectiveness of

  18. Oral fluid with three modes of collection and plasma methamphetamine and amphetamine enantiomer concentrations after controlled intranasal l-methamphetamine administration. (United States)

    Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; da Costa, Jose Luiz; Flegel, Ronald; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A


    Methamphetamine is included in drug testing programmes due to its high abuse potential. d-Methamphetamine is a scheduled potent central nervous system stimulant, while l-methamphetamine is the unscheduled active ingredient in the over-the-counter nasal decongestant Vicks® VapoInhaler™. No data are available in oral fluid (OF) and few in plasma after controlled Vicks® VapoInhaler™ administration. We quantified methamphetamine and amphetamine enantiomers in OF collected with two different devices and plasma via a fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Additionally, OF were analyzed with an on-site screening device. Sixteen participants received 7 Vicks® VapoInhaler™ doses according to manufacturer's recommendations. Specimens were collected before and up to 32 h after the first dose. No d-methamphetamine or d-amphetamine was detected in any sample. All participants had measurable OF l-methamphetamine with median maximum concentrations 14.8 and 16.1 μg/L in Quantisal™ and Oral-Eze® devices, respectively, after a median of 5 doses. One participant had measurable OF l-amphetamine with maximum concentrations 3.7 and 5.5 μg/L after 6 doses with the Quantisal™ and Oral-Eze® devices, respectively. There were no positive DrugTest® 5000 results. In the cutoff range 20-50 μg/L methamphetamine with amphetamine ≥limit of detection, 3.1-10.1% of specimens were positive; first positive results were observed after 1-4 doses. Two participants had detectable plasma l-methamphetamine, with maximum observed concentrations 6.3 and 10.0 μg/L after 2 and 5 doses, respectively. Positive OF and plasma methamphetamine results are possible after Vicks® VapoInhaler™ administration. Chiral confirmatory analyses are necessary to rule out VapoInhaler™ intake. Implementing a selective d-methamphetamine screening assay can help eliminate false-positive OF results. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in

  19. Amniotic fluid (United States)

    ... or movements Too much amniotic fluid is called polyhydramnios . This condition can occur with multiple pregnancies (twins ... development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Burton GJ, Sibley CP, Jauniaux ...

  20. Assessment of the N-PCR assay in diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis: detection of M. tuberculosis in pleural fluid and sputum collected in tandem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameet Kumar


    Full Text Available The nonspecific clinical presentation and paucibacillary nature of tuberculous pleuritis remains a challenge for diagnosis. Diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion depends on the demonstration of the presence of tubercle bacilli in the sputum, pleural fluid, or pleural biopsy specimen, or demonstration of granuloma in pleura by histological examination. We examined the clinical utility of the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis using the in house N-PCR assay, AFB smear microscopy and culture. Besides pleural fluid the inclusion of sputum in the efficacy of diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis was scrutinized.Pleural fluid and sputum samples of 58 tuberculous and 42 non-tuberculous pleural effusion patients were processed for AFB smear microscopy, culture and the N-PCR assay. Mycobacteria were detected exclusively in tuberculous pleural effusion samples. None of the non-tuberculous pleural effusion samples were positive for mycobacteria. Comparative analysis showed that the N-PCR assay had the highest sensitivity. Inclusion of sputum along with pleural fluid increased N-PCR sensitivity from 51.7 to 70.6% (p<0.0001.This improved sensitivity was reflected in AFB smear microscopy and isolation by culture. The sensitivity enhanced on inclusion of sputum from 3.4 (p = 0.50 to 10.3% (p = 0.038 for AFB smear microscopy and for isolation of mycobacteria from 10.3(p = 0.03 to 22.4% (p = 0.0005. Thirteen isolates were obtained from 58 pleural tuberculosis patients. Eleven mycobacterial isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis and two as M. fortuitum and M. chelonae. Complete concordance was seen between the biochemical identification of isolates and the N-PCR identification of mycobacterial species prior to isolation.To the best of our knowledge this is the first PCR based report on utility of sputum for diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis. The present study demonstrates that a combination of pleural fluid with sputum sample and N-PCR improved the diagnosis

  1. Percutaneous drainage of fluid collections in the bladder flap of febrile post-cesarean-section patients. A report of seven cases. (United States)

    Acholonu, F; Minkoff, H; Delke, I


    Post-cesarean-section infections are a common cause of fevers on obstetric wards. Patients whose fevers are refractory to antibiotics often have pelvic collections. The contents of these collections and course of patients with collections have not been reported on before in detail. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques has led to the frequent use of percutaneous drainage in the management of abdominal collections. We used percutaneous drainage of collections in febrile post-cesarean-section patients. Hematomas were the most common collections associated with post-cesarean-section infection, and percutaneous drainage was a useful technique for obtaining material for culture and for distinguishing hematomas from abscesses. Most patients defervesced shortly after percutaneous drainage.

  2. Fluid Mechanics. (United States)

    Drazin, Philip


    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  3. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius


    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  4. An integrated multi-study analysis of intra-subject variability in cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β concentrations collected by lumbar puncture and indwelling lumbar catheter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucey, Brendan P; Gonzales, Celedon; Das, Ujjwas


    unknown what effect differences in CSF collection methodology have on Aβ variability. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of different collection methodologies on the stability of CSF Aβ concentrations over time. METHODS: Grouped analysis of CSF Aβ levels from multiple industry and academic...... by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Data from all sponsors was converted to percent of the mean for Aβ40 and Aβ42 for comparison. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess for factors affecting the linear rise of Aβ concentrations over time. RESULTS: Analysis of studies collecting CSF...... analysis of variance found that only time and draw frequency were significantly associated with the slope of linear rise in Aβ40 and Aβ42 concentrations during the first 6 hours of collection. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, we recommend minimizing the frequency of CSF draws in studies measuring Aβ...

  5. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  6. EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections using a novel lumen-apposing metal stent on an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system: a large retrospective study (with video). (United States)

    Rinninella, Emanuele; Kunda, Rastislav; Dollhopf, Markus; Sanchez-Yague, Andres; Will, Uwe; Tarantino, Ilaria; Gornals Soler, Joan; Ullrich, Sebastian; Meining, Alexander; Esteban, Josè Miguel; Enz, Thomas; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Vleggaar, Frank; Attili, Fabia; Larghi, Alberto


    A lumen-apposing, self-expanding metal stent incorporated in an electrocautery-enhanced delivery system for EUS-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) recently has become available. The aim of this study was to analyze the safety and clinical effectiveness of this newly developed device in this clinical setting. This was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients with PFCs who underwent EUS-guided drainage using the study device in 13 European centers. Ninety-three patients with PFCs (80% with complex collections) underwent drainage using the study device. Penetration of the PFC was accomplished directly with the study device in 74.2% of patients, and successful stent placement was accomplished in all but 1 patient, mostly without fluoroscopic assistance. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) was carried out in 31 of 52 cases (59.6%) of walled-off necrosis and in 2 of 4 cases (50%) of acute peripancreatic fluid collection. Complete resolution of the PFC was obtained in 86 cases (92.5%), with no recurrence during follow-up. Treatment failure occurred in 6 patients because of persistent infection requiring surgery (n = 3), perforation and massive bleeding caused by the nasocystic drainage catheter (NCDC) (n = 2), and the need for a larger opening to extract large necrotic tissue pieces (n = 1). Major adverse events occurred in 5 patients (perforation and massive bleeding caused by the NCDC in 2 patients, 1 pneumoperitoneum and 1 stent dislodgement during DEN, and 1 postdrainage infection) and were mostly not related to the drainage procedure. EUS-guided drainage with the electrocautery-enhanced delivery system is a safe, easy to perform, and a highly effective minimally invasive treatment modality for PFCs. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko


    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  8. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S


    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  9. Case Report: Acute obstructive hydrocephalus associated with infratentorial extra-axial fluid collection following foramen magnum decompression and durotomy for Chiari malformation type I [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Munakomi


    Full Text Available Acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to infratentorial extra-axial fluid collection (EAFC is an extremely rare complication of foramen magnum decompression (FMD and durotomy for Chiari malformation type I. Presence of infratentorial  EAFC invariably causes obstruction at the level of the fourth ventricle or aqueduct of Silvius, thereby indicating its definitive role in hydrocephalus. Pathogenesis of EAFC is said to be a local arachnoid tear as a result of durotomy, as this complication is not described in FMD without durotomy. Controversy exists in management. Usually EAFC is said to resolve with conservative management; so hydrocephalus doesn’t require treatment. However, in this case EAFC was progressive and ventriculo-peritoneal shunting (VPS was needed for managing progressive and symptomatic hydrocephalus.

  10. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid...

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid collection in dogs: modification of previous technique / Colheita de líquido cefalorraquidiano em cães: modificação de técnica prévia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áureo Evangelista Santana


    Full Text Available Unlike the already described techniques, which are based on imaginary lines among extremities or bone projections, this research describes a collection technique modification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in dogs, in the atlantooccipital space. The palpation of bone structures in this joint, plus the supported directioning of the needle, does make the collection easy, even by professionals which have no experience in this kind of procedure. The applied technique enabled the collection of adequate volumes of limpid and colorless CSF of 50 healthy dogs in the first attempt of collection. There was no contamination with blood during the procedure, what made possible the correct interpretation of laboratory parameters usually examined in CSF samples.Diferentemente das demais técnicas já descritas, que se baseiam em linhas imaginárias entre extremidades ou protuberâncias ósseas, o presente trabalho descreve uma modificação de técnica de colheita de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR em cães, no espaço atlanto-occipital. A palpação das estruturas ósseas nessa articulação, juntamente com o direcionamento apoiado da agulha, facilita muito essa colheita, até mesmo para profissionais que não possuem experiência nesse tipo de procedimento. A técnica utilizada neste experimento possibilitou a obtenção de volumes adequados de amostras de LCR límpidas e incolores dos 50 cães sadios utilizados na primeira tentativa de colheita. Não houve contaminação com sangue durante o procedimento, o que possibilitou a interpretação adequada de parâmetros laboratoriais analisados rotineiramente em amostras de LCR.

  12. Quantum field theory of fluids. (United States)

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave


    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields.

  13. Coleta e preservação do líquido pleural e biópsia pleural Collection and preservation of the pleural fluid and pleural biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Antonangelo


    Full Text Available As amostras de líquido pleural obtidas por toracocentese para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos devem obedecer a uma rotina de coleta e preservação para a realização de uma análise laboratorial adequada. Igualmente, fragmentos de biópsia de pleura obtidos para o diagnóstico diferencial dos exsudatos devem ser coletados de forma sistemática com o objetivo de otimizar o diagnóstico e facilitar a instituição da terapêutica adequada.The samples of pleural fluid obtained by thoracentesis for the diagnosis of transudates and exudates shall follow a routine of collection and preservation for an appropriate laboratorial analysis. Equally, fragments of pleura biopsy obtained for the differential diagnosis of the exudates should be collected in a systematic way in order to optimize the diagnosis and facilitate the institution of appropriate therapeutics actions.

  14. Fluid Shifts (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide


    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  15. Fluid Fascinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Zwart, Valerie; Haveman, Martha J.

    De Art & Science show “Fluid Fascinations��? omvat een presentatie over de wetenschappelijke context, inclusief een live experiment (ontworpen samen met kunstenaar/designer Wout Zweers); en, gemengde media en olieverfschilderijen, en digitale fotowerken van kunstenares Valerie Zwart. De show is

  16. Fluid Mechanics (United States)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim


    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  17. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  18. Comparison of hot Soxhlet and accelerated solvent extractions with microwave and supercritical fluid extractions for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated derivatives strongly adsorbed on soot collected inside a diesel particulate filter. (United States)

    Oukebdane, K; Portet-Koltalo, F; Machour, N; Dionnet, F; Desbène, P L


    Several methods of extraction were optimized to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their nitrated derivatives and heavy n-alkanes from a highly adsorptive particulate matter resulting from the combustion of diesel fuel in a diesel engine. This particular carbonaceous particulate matter, collected at high temperatures in cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF), which are optimized for removing diesel particles from diesel engine exhaust emissions, appeared extremely refractory to extractions using the classical extracting conditions for these pollutants. In particular, the method of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is described in detail here. Optimization was performed through experimental design to understand the impact of each factor studied and the factors' possible interactions on the recovery yields. The conventional extraction technique, i.e., Soxhlet extraction, was also carried out, but the lack of quantitative extractions led us to use a more effective approach: hot Soxhlet. It appeared that the extraction of the heaviest PAHs and nitroPAHs by either the optimized ASE or hot Soxhlet processes was far from complete. To enhance recovery yields, we tested original solvent mixtures of aromatic and heteroaromatic solvents. Thereafter, these two extraction techniques were compared to microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). In every case, the only solvent mixture that permitted quantitative extraction of the heaviest PAHs from the diesel soot was composed of pyridine and diethylamine, which has a strong electron-donor character. Conversely, the extraction of the nitrated PAHs was significantly improved by the use of an electron-acceptor solvent or by introducing a small amount of acetic acid into the pyridine. It was demonstrated that, for many desirable features, no single extraction technique stound out as the best: ASE, MAE or SFE could all challenge hot Soxhlet for favourable extractions


    KAUST Repository



    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  20. Multiple vertebral fluid-fluid levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladt, O.; Demaerel, P.; Catry, F.; Breuseghem, I. Van [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ballaux, F. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Samson, I. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leuven (Belgium)


    We present a case of multiple vertebral metastases, with multiple fluid-fluid levels, from a moderately to poorly differentiated carcinoma of unknown origin. We suggest that fluid-fluid levels in multiple vertebral lesions are highly suggestive of bone metastases. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol detection using DrugWipe5S(®) screening and oral fluid quantification after Quantisal™ collection for roadside drug detection via a controlled study with chronic cannabis users. (United States)

    Wille, Sarah M R; Di Fazio, Vincent; Toennes, Stefan W; van Wel, Janelle H P; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Samyn, Nele


    Oral fluid (OF) is potentially useful to detect driving under the influence of drugs because of its ease of sampling. While cannabis is the most prevalent drug in Europe, sensitivity issues for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) screening and problems during OF collection are observed. The ability of a recently improved OF screening device - the DrugWipe5S(®) , to detect recent THC use in chronic cannabis smokers, was studied. Ten subjects participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. The subjects smoked two subsequent doses of THC; 300 µg/kg and 150 µg/kg with a pause of 75 min using a Volcano vapourizer. DrugWipe5S(®) screening and OF collection using the Quantisal™ device were performed at baseline, 5 min after each administration and 80 min after the last inhalation. Blood samples were drawn simultaneously. The screening devices (n = 80) were evaluated visually after 8 min, while the corresponding OF and serum samples were analyzed respectively with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Neat OF THC concentrations ranged from 12 361 ng/g 5 min after smoking down to 34 ng/g 80 min later. Under placebo conditions, a median THC concentration of 8 ng/g OF (0-746 ng/g) and < 1 ng/ mL serum (0-7.8 ng/mL) was observed. The DrugWipe5S(®) was positive just after smoking (90%); however, sensitivity rapidly decreased within 1.5 h (50%). Sensitivity of DrugWipe5S(®) should be improved. As chronic cannabis users have high residual THC concentrations in their serum and OF, confirmation cut-offs should be set according to the aim of detecting recent drug use or establishing zero tolerance. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.


    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  3. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.


    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  4. Automatic fluid dispenser (United States)

    Sakellaris, P. C. (Inventor)


    Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time after which an automatic control causes the fluid to drain from the individual dispensing units. Fluid deprivation continues until the beginning of a new cycle when the fluid is once again automatically made available at the individual dispensing units.

  5. Measurement of interleukins in vitreous infusion fluid. (United States)

    Kase, Satoru; Yokoi, Masahiko; Ishida, Susumu; Kase, Manabu


    Measurements of interleukin (IL)-6 and -10 concentrations in the vitreous can be used to differentiate intraocular lymphoma (IOL) from uveitis. This is the first study reporting the IL-6 and -10 concentrations in the undiluted vitreous fluid and vitreous infusion fluid, which were simultaneously examined in the patients. A total of 2 females presented with intraocular inflammation, and underwent pars plana vitrectomy. Undiluted anterior vitreous and vitreous infusion fluid were collected simultaneously. IL concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems. Vitreous infusion fluid of 20 ml was eventually collected following completion of core vitrectomy in the two patients. IL-6 concentrations of the first patient were 513 and 106 pg/ml in the undiluted vitreous and the infusion fluid, respectively, while those of the second patient were 263 and 29 pg/ml. By contrast, IL-10 was under the detectable levels in all the fluids. The IL-10/-6 ratio was vitreous fluid. The two patients were eventually diagnosed with uveitis. Measurements of IL concentrations in the vitreous infusion fluid provided significant evidence on the differential diagnosis between IOL and uveitis, when considering how vitreous infusion fluid was diluted. The present study highlighted a novel application of cytokine analyses using the vitreous infusion fluid, which may contribute to the development of future translational researches on uveitis/IOL patients.

  6. Synovial fluid analysis (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  7. Fundamental trends in fluid-structure interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni P


    The interaction of a fluid with a solid body is a widespread phenomenon in nature, occurring at different scales and different applied disciplines. Interestingly enough, even though the mathematical theory of the motion of bodies in a liquid is one of the oldest and most classical problems in fluid mechanics, mathematicians have, only very recently, become interested in a systematic study of the basic problems related to fluid-structure interaction, from both analytical and numerical viewpoints. ""Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction"" is a unique collection of important papers wr

  8. Fluid mechanics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Spurk, Joseph H


    his collection of over 200 detailed worked exercises adds to and complements the textbook Fluid Mechanics by the same author, and illustrates the teaching material through examples. In the exercises the fundamental concepts of Fluid Mechanics are applied to obtaining the solution of diverse concrete problems, and in doing this the student's skill in the mathematical modeling of practical problems is developed. In addition, 30 challenging questions without detailed solutions have been included, and while lecturers will find these questions suitable for examinations and tests, the student himself can use them to check his understanding of the subject.

  9. A placebo-controlled study to assess Standardized Field Sobriety Tests performance during alcohol and cannabis intoxication in heavy cannabis users and accuracy of point of collection testing devices for detecting THC in oral fluid. (United States)

    Bosker, W M; Theunissen, E L; Conen, S; Kuypers, K P C; Jeffery, W K; Walls, H C; Kauert, G F; Toennes, S W; Moeller, M R; Ramaekers, J G


    Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST) and oral fluid devices are used to screen for driving impairment and roadside drug detection, respectively. SFST have been validated for alcohol, but their sensitivity to impairment induced by other drugs is relatively unknown. The sensitivity and specificity for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) of most oral fluid devices have been low. This study assessed the effects of smoking cannabis with and without alcohol on SFST performance. Presence of THC in oral fluid was examined with two devices (Dräger Drug Test® 5000 and Securetec Drugwipe® 5). Twenty heavy cannabis users (15 males and 5 females; mean age, 24.3 years) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessing percentage of impaired individuals on the SFST and the sensitivity of two oral fluid devices. Participants received alcohol doses or alcohol placebo in combination with 400 μg/kg body weight THC. We aimed to reach peak blood alcohol concentration values of 0.5 and 0.7 mg/mL. Cannabis was significantly related to performance on the one-leg stand (p = 0.037). Alcohol in combination with cannabis was significantly related to impairment on horizontal gaze nystagmus (p = 0.029). The Dräger Drug Test® 5000 demonstrated a high sensitivity for THC, whereas the sensitivity of the Securetec Drugwipe® 5 was low. SFST were mildly sensitive to impairment from cannabis in heavy users. Lack of sensitivity might be attributed to tolerance and time of testing. SFST were sensitive to both doses of alcohol. The Dräger Drug Test® 5000 appears to be a promising tool for detecting THC in oral fluid as far as correct THC detection is concerned.

  10. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest. (United States)

    Brenner, Howard


    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  11. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi


    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid...... be chosen. The fabrication of a prototype flow meter and experimental verification of the analytical data were reported. The fabricated prototype is able to measure the velocity of the water in an open channel....... and with measuring its travel time between two different positions, its velocity could be calculated. Given the velocity of the auxiliary fluid, the velocity of the main fluid could be calculated. Using this technique, it is possible to measure the velocity of any kind of fluids, if an appropriate auxiliary fluid...

  12. Postoperative fluid management


    Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Dinc, Tolga; Sozen, Isa; Bostanoglu, Akin; Cete, Mukerrem; Coskun, Faruk


    Postoperative care units are run by an anesthesiologist or a surgeon, or a team formed of both. Management of postoperative fluid therapy should be done considering both patients’ status and intraoperative events. Types of the fluids, amount of the fluid given and timing of the administration are the main topics that determine the fluid management strategy. The main goal of fluid resuscitation is to provide adequate tissue perfusion without harming the patient. The endothelial glycocalyx dysf...

  13. Drug testing in oral fluid. (United States)

    Drummer, Olaf H


    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing

  14. Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Analysis for Regulatory Parameters - A Progress Report (United States)

    This presentation is a progress report on the analysis of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for regulatory compounds outlined in the various US EPA methodologies. Fracturing fluids vary significantly in consistency and viscosity prior to fracturing. Due to the nature of the fluids the analytical challenges will have to be addressed. This presentation also outlines the sampling issues associated with the collection of dissolved gas samples.

  15. Co-composting of Non-aqueous Drilling Fluid Contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    should adopt compost technology with organic manure such as poultry and plant ... Sources and collection of Samples: The drill cutting samples were collected in sterile clean ..... associated with non – aqueous fluids: technical background.

  16. Amniotic fluid embolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla


    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse...

  17. Electric fluid pump (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun


    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  18. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin


    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  19. Avaliação da sensibilidade dolorosa e fatores envolvidos na qualidade da amostra citológica do fluxo papilar: resultados preliminares da utilização de sistema automatizado de coleta Assessment of pain sensitivity and factors involved in the quality of the sample fluid cytologic papillary: preliminary results from the use of automated collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Filassi


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a sensibilidade dolorosa e os fatores envolvidos na produção de fluido papilar adequado para análise de citologia oncótica, por meio de sistema automatizado de coleta. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas 50 mulheres assintomáticas, sem antecedente pessoal ou familiar de câncer de mama, fora do ciclo gravídico-puerperal para coleta de fluido papilar por meio de sistema automatizado. Foram registradas e relacionadas com a produção de fluido papilar a idade da paciente, tabagismo, antecedente de cirurgia mamária, paridade, amamentação, estado menopausal e idade da menarca. Todo o material coletado foi fixado em meio apropriado, e encaminhado separadamente para análise de citologia oncótica. A sensibilidade dolorosa do procedimento de coleta foi avaliada por meio da Escala Category-Ratio Scale (CR10 de Borg. RESULTADOS: a idade variou de 22 a 59 anos, média de 41,6±8,6 anos. Das 50 pacientes, 20 (40% não apresentaram fluido papilar adequado para análise em nenhuma das mamas. Naquelas pacientes que se obteve fluido papilar adequado para análise de citologia oncótica, a paridade esteve inversamente relacionada com a capacidade de obter amostra celular adequada, nível de significância estatística (p=0,035, OR=0,0032 (IC 95%=0,0001-0,1388. Em relação à sensibilidade dolorosa, o exame foi bem tolerado. CONCLUSÕES: o método automatizado de coleta de fluido papilar para análise de citologia oncótica foi bem tolerado pelas mulheres tendo produzido material analisável em 60% dos casos, esteve inversamente relacionado com a paridade.PURPOSE: to evaluate painful sensitivity and factors involved in producing papillary fluid suitable for cytological analysis by means of automated collection. METHODS: we selected 50 asymptomatic women without a personal or family history of breast cancer, outside the pregnancy and childbirth cycle in order to collect papillary fluid by the automated system. We recorded and related to the

  20. 76 FR 51970 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground... (United States)


    ..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g... sources of drinking water (USDWs) from contamination by injected fluids. Injected fluids include trillions of gallons of various types of fluids each year such as hazardous waste, oil field brines or produced...

  1. Amniotic fluid water dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beall, M. H.; van den Wijngaard, J. P. H. M.; van Gemert, M. J. C.; Ross, M. G.


    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and

  2. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we derive equations for variation of pressure in a static fluid or in one that is moving as a rigid body. Also, we show that surfaces of constant pressure and constant density should coincide. Various types of instabilities related to submerged bodies and multi layerd fluids are briefly discussed. Pressure in Fluids.

  3. Fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger (United States)

    Clark, W. E.


    Heat transfer and pressure drop test results for a fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger, fabricated and tested to demonstrate one method of transferring heat between structures in space, had a total contact area of 0.18 sq m. It utilized contact surfaces which were flexible and conformed to the mating contact surfaces upon pressurization of the fluid circulating within the heat exchanger. During proof-of-concept performance tests, the heat exchanger was operated in a typical earth environment. It demonstrated a contact conductance of 3.8 kW/sq m C at contact pressures in the 15 to 70 kPa range.

  4. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J


    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  5. Spinning fluids reactor (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert


    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  6. Engineering fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi


    This book is intended to serve as a unique and comprehensive textbook for scientists and engineers as well as advanced students in thermo-fluid courses. It provides an intensive monograph essential for understanding dynamics of ideal fluid, Newtonian fluid, non-Newtonian fluid and magnetic fluid. These distinct, yet intertwined subjects are addressed in an integrated manner. It starts with coherent treatment of fundamental continuum mechanics, with an emphasis on the intrinsic angular momentum, by which the concepts of ferrohydrodynamics are progressively built up, and serve as a foundation for later development. Flows of ideal and Newtonian fluids are followed by a detailed presentation of basic continuum equations for applications of fluid engineering, which cover the design and operations of various turbomachines, heat exchangers and flow elements. The study of the deformation and flow of matter, namely rheology, is discussed primarily with regard to the stresses generated during the flow of complex materi...

  7. A molecular dynamics study of non-Newtonian flows of simple fluids in confined and unconfined geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, Remco


    Various fluid flow phenomena originate in the dynamics of the atoms that constitute the fluid. Studying fluids as a collection of atoms is key to a better understanding of, for example, non-Newtonian fluid flow behavior. Molecular dynamics (MD) is a very suitable tool for the study of fluids on the

  8. Antifungal response of or-al-associated candidal reference strains (American Type Culture Collection by supercritical fluid extract of nutmeg seeds for geriatric denture wearers: An in vitro screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Iyer


    Conclusion: This paper described the in vitro antibacterial activity, and phytochemical analysis of SFE extract of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans evaluated against C. albicans (American Type Culture Collection 10231 through agar well diffusion method. SFE of nutmeg seeds can be used as an adjunct to conventional therapy for oral candidiasis.

  9. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. (United States)

    Samaranayake, Lakshman


    The use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for various human ailments is gaining popularity as it offers distinct advantages over serum. These include the non-invasive nature of saliva collection compared with phlebotomy, simplicity of collection even for individuals with a modest training and the cost-effective applicability for screening large populations. Whole saliva is most frequently used for diagnosis of systemic diseases since it is readily collected and contains serum constituents while gland-specific saliva is useful for investigating pathology of major salivary glands. Broadly, saliva analysis is currently used for the diagnosis of infectious and malignant diseases, hereditary disorders, autoimmune diseases, and endocrine disorders, as well as for the assessment of therapeutic drug levels, particularly in monitoring drug abuse. This review addresses the current status of salivary diagnostics and their future potential.

  10. Metalworking and machining fluids (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark


    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  11. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism (United States)

    Anisimov, Mikhail A.; Duška, Michal; Caupin, Frédéric; Amrhein, Lauren E.; Rosenbaum, Amanda; Sadus, Richard J.


    Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  12. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W


    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  13. Sphere based fluid systems (United States)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)


    Systems are described for using multiple closely-packed spheres. In one system for passing fluid, a multiplicity of spheres lie within a container, with all of the spheres having the same outside diameter and with the spheres being closely nested in one another to create multiple interstitial passages of a known size and configuration and smooth walls. The container has an inlet and outlet for passing fluid through the interstitial passages formed between the nested spheres. The small interstitial passages can be used to filter out material, especially biological material such as cells in a fluid, where the cells can be easily destroyed if passed across sharp edges. The outer surface of the spheres can contain a material that absorbs a constitutent in the flowing fluid, such as a particular contamination gas, or can contain a catalyst to chemically react the fluid passing therethrough, the use of multiple small spheres assuring a large area of contact of these surfaces of the spheres with the fluid. In a system for storing and releasing a fluid such as hydrogen as a fuel, the spheres can include a hollow shell containing the fluid to be stored, and located within a compressable container that can be compressed to break the shells and release the stored fluid.

  14. Methamphetamine disposition in oral fluid, plasma, and urine. (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Cone, Edward J


    This review of the disposition of methamphetamine in oral fluid, plasma, and urine is based on a comprehensive controlled dosing study involving five healthy, drug-free research volunteers who resided on a closed clinical ward for 12 weeks. Subjects were administered four low (10 mg) and high (20 mg) daily oral doses of methamphetamine in two separate sessions. Near-simultaneous collections of oral fluid and plasma were performed on the first day of each low- and high-dose session. Thereafter, oral fluid was provided on each day of dosing by different oral fluid collection methods. All urine specimens were collected on an ad libitum basis throughout the study. Specimens were analyzed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry for methamphetamine and the metabolite, amphetamine, with a limit of quantification of 2.5 ng/mL for each analyte. Methamphetamine and metabolite concentrations in oral fluid appeared to follow a similar time course in oral fluid as in plasma and were dose-proportional, but oral fluid concentrations exceeded plasma concentrations. Urine drug concentrations were substantially higher than those in oral fluid. Some drug accumulation was noted with daily dosing, but generally did not markedly influence detection times or detection rates of oral fluid tests. Detection times and detection rates for oral fluid and urine were determined at cessation of 4 days of dosing. Generally, detection times and rates for urine were longer than those observed for oral fluid at conventional cutoff concentrations. When contemplating selection of oral fluid as a test matrix, the advantages of oral fluid collection should be weighed against its shorter time of detection compared to that of urine.

  15. Collection Development. (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002


    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  16. Space Station fluid management logistics (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.


    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  17. Effects of fluid composition on mist composition. (United States)

    White, Eugene M; Lucke, William E


    In a reported study, mists of selected synthetic metalworking fluids were generated in laboratory experiments by two processes, nebulization (atomization) and air sparging (bubbling). Short-chain fatty acid species were determined by in situ trimethylsilyl derivatization. Comparison of relative amounts of the short-chain acids collected from mists generated by nebulization with those generated by sparging showed that the sparged mists had significantly higher amounts of neodecanoic, nonanoic, and dodecanedioic acids. Comparison of the amounts of acids collected by the resin cartridges to amounts found on the filters showed that significant losses of octanoic and isononanoic acids occurred over 8 hours of collection and that only dodecanedioic acid was not lost from the filter over a 22-hour sampling period. In another reported metalworking mist study, contaminants of metalworking fluids, e.g., tramp oils, were shown in laboratory experiments to increase the misting potential of water-based metalworking fluids. Significantly, tramp oil contamination caused less misting in synthetic fluids than soluble and semi-synthetic fluids.

  18. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Bhattacharya

    engineers to efficiently simulate turbulent flows, was in fact first devised by Joseph Smagorinsky, a researcher in atmo- spheric science. ... Over the last few decades, mainly due to the rapid improvement in computational efficiency, cameras, optics and instrumentation, both ... towards design of fluid power systems. Asim and ...

  19. Dynamics of Complex Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.


    This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in modelling the behaviour of complex fluid–fluid interfaces with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We will limit ourselves to frameworks employing the Gibbs dividing surface model, and start with a general discussion of the surface excess

  20. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluid Statics and Archimedes. Jaywant H Arakeri C Dharuman. General Article Volume 11 Issue 10 October 2006 pp 28- ... Keywords. Fluid statics; buoyancy; stratification; instability. Author Affiliations. Jaywant H Arakeri1 C Dharuman1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 ...

  1. Peritoneal fluid culture (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  2. Fluid loading responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Bart


    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the peri-operative phase are dependent on physicians and nurses for their fluid intake. Volume status optimization is required to maximize oxygen delivery to vital organs. Unnecessary fluid administration can, however, lead to general and pulmonary

  3. Technological aspects of de-icing fluids purification and reclaiming process in the airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. П. Шутько


    Full Text Available Presented are the results of de-icing fluids use in Ukraine airports. Model of purification and utilization system also block-module unit for collection and reclaiming of de-icing fluids are developed

  4. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Elisabeth A; Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H


    INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP) of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with IIH. METHODS: We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referr...

  5. Micelles of pulmonary surfactant in human amniotic fluid at term


    Nishijima, Koji; SHUKUNAMI, Ken-ichi; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; ORISAKA, Makoto; Miura, Junichiro; KOTSUJI, Fumikazu


    Studies using in vitro analysis have shown that the interaction between pulmonary surfactant and vemix caseosa could explain the appearance of amniotic fluid turbidity. That phenomenon is interpreted based on the "roll-up" hypothesis. We tested the roll-up hypothesis by examining the presence of micelles of pulmonary surfactant in human amniotic fluid at term. Amniotic fluid samples were collected from each of six healthy pregnant women at term and at 16 wk of gestation. These samples were st...

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  7. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Liu


    Full Text Available Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern.

  8. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors (United States)

    Liu, Shiqiang; Zhu, Rong


    Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern. PMID:28216569


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah


    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  10. Microorganisms within Human Follicular Fluid: Effects on IVF (United States)

    Pelzer, Elise S.; Allan, John A.; Waterhouse, Mary A.; Ross, Tara; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Knox, Christine L.


    Our previous study reported microorganisms in human follicular fluid. The objective of this study was to test human follicular fluid for the presence of microorganisms and to correlate these findings with the in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. In this study, 263 paired follicular fluids and vaginal swabs were collected from women undergoing IVF cycles, with various causes for infertility, and were cultured to detect microorganisms. The cause of infertility and the IVF outcomes for each woman were correlated with the microorganisms detected within follicular fluid collected at the time of trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval. Microorganisms isolated from follicular fluids were classified as: (1) ‘colonizers’ if microorganisms were detected within the follicular fluid, but not within the vaginal swab (at the time of oocyte retrieval); or (2) ‘contaminants’ if microorganisms detected in the vagina at the time of oocyte retrieval were also detected within the follicular fluid. The presence of Lactobacillus spp. in ovarian follicular fluids was associated with embryo maturation and transfer. This study revealed microorganisms in follicular fluid itself and that the presence of particular microorganisms has an adverse affect on IVF outcomes as seen by an overall decrease in embryo transfer rates and pregnancy rates in both fertile and infertile women, and live birth rates in women with idiopathic infertility. Follicular fluid microorganisms are a potential cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes in IVF in both infertile women and in fertile women with infertile male partners. PMID:23554970

  11. Microorganisms within human follicular fluid: effects on IVF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S Pelzer

    Full Text Available Our previous study reported microorganisms in human follicular fluid. The objective of this study was to test human follicular fluid for the presence of microorganisms and to correlate these findings with the in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes. In this study, 263 paired follicular fluids and vaginal swabs were collected from women undergoing IVF cycles, with various causes for infertility, and were cultured to detect microorganisms. The cause of infertility and the IVF outcomes for each woman were correlated with the microorganisms detected within follicular fluid collected at the time of trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval. Microorganisms isolated from follicular fluids were classified as: (1 'colonizers' if microorganisms were detected within the follicular fluid, but not within the vaginal swab (at the time of oocyte retrieval; or (2 'contaminants' if microorganisms detected in the vagina at the time of oocyte retrieval were also detected within the follicular fluid. The presence of Lactobacillus spp. in ovarian follicular fluids was associated with embryo maturation and transfer. This study revealed microorganisms in follicular fluid itself and that the presence of particular microorganisms has an adverse affect on IVF outcomes as seen by an overall decrease in embryo transfer rates and pregnancy rates in both fertile and infertile women, and live birth rates in women with idiopathic infertility. Follicular fluid microorganisms are a potential cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes in IVF in both infertile women and in fertile women with infertile male partners.

  12. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Anisimov


    Full Text Available Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  13. Poiseuille flow to measure the viscosity of particle model fluids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, J.A.; Lowe, C.P.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Iedema, P.D.


    The most important property of a fluid is its viscosity, it determines the flow properties. If one simulates a fluid using a particle model, calculating the viscosity accurately is difficult because it is a collective property. In this article we describe a new method that has a better signal to

  14. Microbial life in ridge flank crustal fluids. (United States)

    Huber, Julie A; Johnson, H Paul; Butterfield, David A; Baross, John A


    To determine the microbial community diversity within old oceanic crust, a novel sampling strategy was used to collect crustal fluids at Baby Bare Seamount, a 3.5 Ma old outcrop located in the north-east Pacific Ocean on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Stainless steel probes were driven directly into the igneous ocean crust to obtain samples of ridge flank crustal fluids. Genetic signatures and enrichment cultures of microorganisms demonstrate that these crustal fluids host a microbial community composed of species indigenous to the subseafloor, including anaerobic thermophiles, and species from other deep-sea habitats, such as seawater and sediments. Evidence using molecular techniques indicates the presence of a relatively small but active microbial population, dominated by bacteria. The microbial community diversity found in the crustal fluids may indicate habitat variability in old oceanic crust, with inputs of nutrients from seawater, sediment pore-water fluids and possibly hydrothermal sources. This report further supports the presence of an indigenous microbial community in ridge flank crustal fluids and advances our understanding of the potential physiological and phylogenetic diversity of this community.

  15. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.


    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...... into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets...... for therapeutic intervention. Here we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated interstitial fluids, based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies of breast cancer. Data from the study of interstitial fluids recovered from several other types of cancer are also discussed...

  16. Amniotic Fluid Embolism (United States)

    ... type, as well as a complete blood count (CBC) Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) to evaluate your heart's ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  17. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis (United States)

    ... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... Peritoneal fluid glucose, amylase, tumor markers, bilirubin, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) Microscopic examination – may be performed if infection ...

  18. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test (United States)

    ... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... set of tests (cell count, protein, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) level, and appearance of the fluid) to ...

  19. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis (United States)

    ... Get Tested? To help diagnose the cause of peritonitis, an inflammation of the membrane lining the abdomen, ... fever and your healthcare practitioner suspects you have peritonitis or ascites Sample Required? A peritoneal fluid sample ...

  20. Extended Detection of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine in Oral Fluid. (United States)

    Andås, Hilde T; Enger, Asle; Øiestad, Åse Marit L; Vindenes, Vigdis; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Huestis, Marilyn A; Øiestad, Elisabeth L


    Amphetamine and methamphetamine are popular drugs of abuse worldwide and are important components of drug monitoring programs. Windows of detection for amphetamine and methamphetamine in oral fluid after high doses have not been investigated. Repeated high-dose ingestions are likely to cause positive samples for extended periods. Common routes of administration of amphetamine/methamphetamine in Norway are oral intake or injection. The aim of this study was to investigate windows of detection for amphetamine and methamphetamine in oral fluid from drug addicts under sustained abstinence during detoxification. Twenty-five patients admitted to a closed detoxification unit were included in this study. Oral fluid samples were collected daily in the morning and evening, and urine every morning for 10 days. A blood sample was drawn during the first 5 days after admission if the patient consented. Oral fluid results were compared with urine results to determine whether a new ingestion occurred. Oral fluid was collected with the Intercept oral fluid collection device. In-house cutoff concentrations for amphetamine and methamphetamine were 6.8 and 7.5 mcg/L, respectively, in oral fluid, and 135 and 149 mcg/L, respectively, in urine. Amphetamines were detected in 11 oral fluid, 5 urine, and 2 blood specimens from 25 patients. Patients self-reported amphetamines intake of up to 0.5-2 g daily. Windows of detection for amphetamine and methamphetamine in oral fluid were up to 8 days, longer than in urine at the applied cutoff values. These data confirm that oral fluid is a viable alternative to urine for monitoring amphetamine abuse, and that these substances might be detected in oral fluid for at least 1 week after ingestion of high doses. Such long detection times were, as far as we are aware, never reported previously for oral fluid amphetamines.

  1. Fluid inclusion geobarometry from ejected Mt. Somma-Vesuvius nodules. (United States)

    Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Roedder, E.; Cortini, M.


    The results of a microthermometric study of fluid inclusions from seven cumulate and three 'skarn' nodules collected from the pyroclastics of three non-Plinian eruptive episodes are presented. -J.A.Z.

  2. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob


    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  3. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis]. (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente


    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil


    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Magnetic particle translation as a surrogate measure for synovial fluid mechanics. (United States)

    Shah, Yash Y; Maldonado-Camargo, Lorena; Patel, Neal S; Biedrzycki, Adam H; Yarmola, Elena G; Dobson, Jon; Rinaldi, Carlos; Allen, Kyle D


    The mechanics of synovial fluid vary with disease progression, but are difficult to quantify quickly in a clinical setting due to small sample volumes. In this study, a novel technique to measure synovial fluid mechanics using magnetic nanoparticles is introduced. Briefly, microspheres embedded with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, termed magnetic particles, are distributed through a 100μL synovial fluid sample. Then, a permanent magnet inside a protective sheath is inserted into the synovial fluid sample. Magnetic particles translate toward the permanent magnet and the percentage of magnetic particles collected by the magnet in a given time can be related to synovial fluid viscosity. To validate this relationship, magnetic particle translation was demonstrated in three phases. First, magnetic particle translation was assessed in glycerol solutions with known viscosities, demonstrating that as fluid viscosity increased, magnetic particle translation decreased. Next, the relationship between magnetic particle translation and synovial fluid viscosity was assessed using bovine synovial fluid that was progressively degenerated via ultrasonication. Here, particle collection in a given amount of time increased as fluid degenerated, demonstrating that the relationship between particle collection and fluid mechanics holds in non-Newtonian synovial fluid. Finally, magnetic particle translation was used to assess differences between healthy and OA affected joints in equine synovial fluid. Here, particle collection in a given time was higher in OA joints relative to healthy horses (pfluid mechanics in limited volumes of synovial fluid sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Harvey, Benedict B.; Fiore, Alyssa G.; Ardon, Florencia; Suarez, Susan S.; Wu, Mingming

    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm, with sperm orienting in the same direction within each cluster, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. A long-chain polyacrylamide solution was used as a model viscoelastic fluid such that its rheology can be fine-tuned to mimic that of bovine cervical mucus. In viscoelastic fluid, sperm formed dynamic clusters, and the cluster size increased with elasticity of the polyacrylamide solution. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian fluids of similar viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction is facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function. We will discuss what the orientation fluctuation within a cluster reveals about the interaction strength. Supported by NIH Grant 1R01HD070038.

  7. 100 volumes of notes on numerical fluid mechanics 40 years of numerical fluid mechanics and aerodynamics in retrospect

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich; Fujii, Kozo


    Contains 37 invited contributions, collected to celebrate one hundred volumes of the "NNFM Series". This work offers overviews in five parts of the developments in numerical fluid mechanics and related fields.

  8. statistical fluid theory for associating fluids containing alternating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Statistical associating fluid theory of homonuclear dimerized chain fluids and homonuclear monomer-dimer mixture chain fluids are extended to fluids containing al- ternating heteronuclear chain molecules separately. The proposed models account for the appropriate site-site correlation functions at contact.

  9. Optimizing intraoperative fluid therapy. (United States)

    Stephens, Robert; Mythen, Monty


    Correcting the fluid status of the surgical patient is an integral part of good anaesthetic practice. There have been few areas in anaesthesia and perioperative medicine as controversial as fluid resuscitation. Uncertainties still exist as to what the best solution to give is, whether it be a colloid or a crystalloid, and how and when to give it. As well as increasing awareness of the different properties of various colloids, there has been interest in the nature of the carrier solutions, essentially a choice between saline or Ringer's lactate (compound sodium lactate or Hartmann's solution). In this article we review recent studies involving crystalloids, the 'new colloids', and on the amount and timing of fluid therapy. Saline based fluids (including most colloids) are associated with a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, and a hypocoagulable state, although these may not necessarily harm the patient. Saline may have deleterious effects on renal function. Colloids in solutions similar to Ringer's lactate ('balanced solutions') may avoid these effects although few are currently available. Several studies that have used fluids (along with other therapies) to improve organ perfusion around the time of surgery have been associated with a better outcome. Compared with Ringer's lactate, saline, and saline-based colloids are associated with a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, and a hypocoagulable state although they may not be associated with adverse patient outcomes. Increasing awareness of the 'Stewart hypothesis' has led to new ways of managing hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. The 'crystalloid-colloid debate' continues, and has led to an awareness that these different fluids, along with their carrier solutions are drugs with different effects. Several studies, in which patients have received more fluid in the protocol group, have found better clinical outcomes in the 'optimized' patients.

  10. Intravenous Fluid Generation System (United States)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John


    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  11. Determination of reservoir fluid and reservoir fluid behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Mihočová


    Full Text Available The report gives the comprehensive information about reservoir fluids. The five reservoir fluids (black oils, volatile oils,retrograde gas – condensates, wet gases and dry gases are defined because production of each fluid requires different engineeringtechniques. The fluid type must be determined very early in the life of a reservoir (often before sampling or initial production becausefluid type is the critical factor in many of the decisions that must be made about producing the fluid form the reservoir.

  12. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)


    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  13. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild


    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  14. Collective Enumeration (United States)

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint


    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  15. Data collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, J.; Epping, Elisabeth; Federkeil, G.; Jongbloed, Benjamin W.A.; Kaiser, Franciscus; Tijssen, R.; van Vught, F.A.; Ziegele, F.


    This chapter describes the data collection instruments used in the development of U-Multirank. The first section is an overview of existing databases – mainly on bibliometrics and patents. The second describes the questionnaires and survey tools used for collecting data from the institutions – at

  16. Boiler using combustible fluid (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.


    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  17. Fluid Mechanics: The Pamphlet (United States)

    Variano, Evan


    One impediment to student learning in introductory fluid mechanics courses is that the fundamental laws of physics can become lost in the ``noise'' of dozens of semi-empirical equations describing special cases. This can be exacerbated by trends in textbooks and other teaching media. This talk will explore a minimalist approach, whereby the entire content of introductory fluids is distilled to a single 1-page pamphlet, designed to emphasize the governing equations and their near-universal applicability. We are particularly interested in hearing feedback from the audience on ways to further distill the content while keeping it accessible and useful. To further emphasize the difference between the fundamental laws and the many specific cases, we have begun assembling a complementary resource: a field guide to fluid phenomena, which mixes the approach of Van Dyke's book with a standard field guide. This is designed to emphasize that there is a ``zoology'' of fluid phenomena, to which the same small set of fundamental laws has been applied repeatedly. These materials may be useful in helping AP Physics teachers cover fluid mechanics, which is an under-utilized opportunity to introduce young scientists to our field of study.

  18. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  19. Light-controlled flows in active fluids (United States)

    Dervaux, Julien; Capellazzi Resta, Marina; Brunet, Philippe


    Many photosynthetic microorganisms are able to detect light and move towards optimal intensities. This ability, known as phototaxis, plays a major role in ecology by affecting natural phytoplankton mass transfers, and has important applications in bioreactor and artificial micro-swimmers technologies. Here we show that this property can be exploited to generate macroscopic fluid flows using a localized light source directed towards shallow suspensions of phototactic microorganisms. Within the intensity range of positive phototaxis, algae accumulate beneath the excitation light, where collective effects lead to the emergence of radially symmetric convective flows. These flows can thus be used as hydrodynamic tweezers to manipulate small floating objects. At high cell density and layer depth, we uncover a new kind of instability, wherein the viscous torque exerted by self-generated fluid flows on the swimmers induces the formation of travelling waves. A model coupling fluid flow, cell concentration and orientation finely reproduces the experimental data.

  20. Intravenous fluid prescription practices among pediatric residents in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwon M. Lee


    Full Text Available Purpose: Recent studies have established the association between hypotonic fluids administration and hospital-acquired hyponatremia in children, and have contended that hypotonic fluids be removed from routine practice. To assess current intravenous fluid prescription practices among Korean pediatric residents and to call for updated clinical-practice education Methods: A survey-based analysis was carried out. Pediatric residents at six university hospitals in Korea completed a survey consisting of four questions. Each question supposed a unique scenario in which the respondents were to prescribe either a hypotonic or an isotonic fluid for the patient. Results: Ninety-one responses were collected and analyzed. In three of the four scenarios, a significant majority prescribed the hypotonic fluids (98.9%, 85.7%, and 69.2%, respectively. Notably, 69.2% of the respondents selected the hypotonic fluids for postoperative management. Almost all (96.7% selected the isotonic fluids for hydration therapy. Conclusion: In the given scenarios, the majority of Korean pediatric residents would prescribe a hypotonic fluid, except for initial hydration. The current state of pediatric fluid management, notably, heightens the risk of hospital-acquired hyponatremia. Updated clinical practice education on intravenous fluid prescription, therefore, is urgently required.

  1. Culture collections. (United States)

    Smith, David


    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Universal fluid droplet ejector (United States)

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.


    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  3. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0


    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Magoules, Frederic


    Exploring new variations of classical methods as well as recent approaches appearing in the field, Computational Fluid Dynamics demonstrates the extensive use of numerical techniques and mathematical models in fluid mechanics. It presents various numerical methods, including finite volume, finite difference, finite element, spectral, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), mixed-element-volume, and free surface flow.Taking a unified point of view, the book first introduces the basis of finite volume, weighted residual, and spectral approaches. The contributors present the SPH method, a novel ap

  5. tube thoracostomy [n the management of pleural fluid collections.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    following trauma where urgent attention is required. In our environment. these situations are fairly common and given the treatment options available. tube thoracostomy is the commonest mode of treatment. lts purpose is to drain the pleural space of air. blood. fluid or pus and to re-establish negative intrapleural pressure“.

  6. Tube thoracostomy in the management of pleural fluid collections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients and Methods: A 5-year review of case records of patients who underwent tube thoracostomy at NAUTH Nnewi between January 1999 and December 2003. Demographic data, clinical features, duration of drainage, complications and outcomes were analyzed. Results: A total of 65 cases were studied, male: female ...

  7. A primer on quantum fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Barenghi, Carlo


    The aim of this primer is to cover the essential theoretical information, quickly and concisely, in order to enable senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students to tackle projects in topical research areas of quantum fluids, for example, solitons, vortices and collective modes. The selection of the material, both regarding the content and level of presentation, draws on the authors analysis of the success of relevant research projects with newcomers to the field, as well as of the students feedback from many taught and self-study courses on the subject matter. Starting with a brief historical overview, this text covers particle statistics, weakly interacting condensates and their dynamics and finally superfluid helium and quantum turbulence. At the end of each chapter (apart from the first) there will be some exercises. Detailed solutions can be made available to instructors upon request to the authors. .

  8. Cryogenic fluid management experiment (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.


    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  9. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.


    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  10. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics. (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho


    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  11. Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.


    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility is a reusable test bed which is designed to be carried within the Shuttle cargo bay to investigate the systems and technologies associated with the efficient management of cryogens in space. Cryogenic fluid management consists of the systems and technologies for: (1) liquid storage and supply, including capillary acquisition/expulsion systems which provide single-phase liquid to the user system, (2) both passive and active thermal control systems, and (3) fluid transfer/resupply systems, including transfer lines and receiver tanks. The facility contains a storage and supply tank, a transfer line and a receiver tank, configured to provide low-g verification of fluid and thermal models of cryogenic storage and transfer processes. The facility will provide design data and criteria for future subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer system applications, such as Space Station life support, attitude control, power and fuel depot supply, resupply tankers, external tank (ET) propellant scavenging, and ground-based and space-based orbit transfer vehicles (OTV).

  12. Synovial fluid analysis. (United States)

    Pascual, Eliseo; Jovaní, Vega


    Synovial fluid (SF) accumulates in the joint cavity in different conditions; this review outlines the data from those analyses that help in their differential and definitive diagnosis. The gross appearance of the fluid can provide a quick bedside orientation with regard to the amount of inflammation present in the joint: totally transparent SF originates in non-inflammatory conditions--of which osteoarthritis is the most common--and the amount of turbidity grossly relates to the amount of inflammation. Most turbid to purulent fluids usually come from infected joints, but exceptions are not uncommon. The white cell count offers quantitative information, but the boundaries between non-inflammatory and inflammatory SF and between this and septic fluid are very hazy and figures have to be interpreted in the clinical setting. Detection and identification of monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals allow a precise diagnosis of gout and CPPD crystal-related arthropathy. Only one in five CPPD crystals have sufficient birefringence for easy detection and they are easily missed if searched for only using a polarised microscope. Instructions for beginners are given. Proper microbiological studies of the SF is the key to the diagnosis of infectious conditions.

  13. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the role of symmetries for charged perfect fluids by assuming that spacetime admits a conformal Killing vector. The existence of a conformal symmetry places restrictions on the model. It is possible to find a general relationship for the Lie derivative of the electromagnetic field along the integral curves ...

  14. in ovarian fluid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 28, 2011 ... programs of kutum within 8 h at temperatures ranging from 4 to 12°C. Key words: Rutilus frisii kutum, egg storage, temperature, ovarian fluid. INTRODUCTION. Although cryopreservation methods which are especially desirable for gene banking, might eventually be effective for restocking programs because ...

  15. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.


    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of

  16. Crystalloid fluid therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddy, Sumeet; Weinberg, Laurence; Young, Paul


    ..., 8 AD). Our desire to find solutions that rejuvenate and resuscitate is captured in the story of Medea revitalizing Jason's elderly father by filling his veins with a specially prepared elixir. Although no such elixir exists, intravenous fluids are an integral component of the multimodal resuscitation strategy used in medicine. Intrave...

  17. Collective behavior. (United States)

    Goldstone, Robert L; Gureckis, Todd M


    The resurgence of interest in collective behavior is in large part due to tools recently made available for conducting laboratory experiments on groups, statistical methods for analyzing large data sets reflecting social interactions, the rapid growth of a diverse variety of online self-organized collectives, and computational modeling methods for understanding both universal and scenario-specific social patterns. We consider case studies of collective behavior along four attributes: the primary motivation of individuals within the group, kinds of interactions among individuals, typical dynamics that result from these interactions, and characteristic outcomes at the group level. With this framework, we compare the collective patterns of noninteracting decision makers, bee swarms, groups forming paths in physical and abstract spaces, sports teams, cooperation and competition for resource usage, and the spread and extension of innovations in an online community. Some critical issues surrounding collective behavior are then reviewed, including the questions of "Does group behavior always reduce to individual behavior?"Is 'group cognition' possible?" and "What is the value of formal modeling for understanding group behavior?" Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard Jensen, J.


    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating uni-directional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analyzed numerically mode of vibration seems to be most effective for high mean fluid speed, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with the same fluid speed but with smaller magnitude of pipe vibrations. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analyzed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement with theoretical predictions. (au) 16 refs.

  19. Locals Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hastings-King


    Full Text Available A locals collection is a set of parameters that are used to delimit data-mining operations. This piece uses a collection of locals from around Essex Massachusetts to shape and delimit an interrogation of post-reality in contemporary America. It explores the notion of crisis, the possibility of a crisis of empire that may or may not emerge in a media-space that does not allow crisis of empire to be mentioned and relations this maybe-crisis to the various levels of economic dysfunction that have become evident since late 2008. But mostly this piece explores ways in which particular stories about particular people do and do not link/link to these larger-scale narratives. This is the first of a potential series of locals collections that will mine the American post-real.

  20. Collective Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    Collective Security: National Egotism (Abstract) In Danish pre-World War I defence debate the notion of collective security is missing. During the early years of the 19th century, the political work is influenced by a pervasive feeling of rising tension and danger on the continent of Europe......, but while creation of defensive alliances appears unrealistic, new defence laws appearing 1909 show strong resolve to defend Denmark’s status as a neutral power. The Great War proves that these laws provided an adequate tool to be wielded by the politicians actually in office during that conflict. Following...... World War I it is not surprising that a salient feature of the defence debate is aversion against armed conflict. The Wilsonian agenda of a new system of collective security featuring prominently in the peace talks as well as in European debate generally does indeed have ramifications in Danish...

  1. Biochemical Analysis of Synovial Fluid, Cerebrospinal Fluid and Vitreous Humor at Early Postmortem Intervals in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doha Yahia


    Full Text Available Biochemical analysis of body fluids after death is a helpful tool in veterinary forensic medicine. Synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and vitreous humor are easily accessible and well preserved from contamination. Five donkeys (Equus africanus asinus aged 1 - 2 years old were subjected to the study. Samples (Synovial fluid, CSF and vitreous humor were collected before death (antimortem and then at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours postmortem. Samples were analyzed for glucose, chloride, sodium, magnesium, potassium, enzymes and total protein. Synovial fluid analysis showed that glucose concentration started to decrease at 6 hours postmortem, while magnesium level increased with time. Other parameters were more stable. CSF analysis showed several changes related to time after death as the decrease in glucose and sodium levels, and the increased levels of potassium, magnesium, calcium and total protein. Vitreous analysis revealed a reduction in glucose level and increased potassium and magnesium concentrations. The present study concluded that biochemical analysis of synovial fluid, vitreous humor and CSF can help in determination of time since death in donkeys. This study recommend using CSF for determination of early post-mortem intervals.

  2. Collective intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, L.C.

    In this paper the notion of collective intention in teams of agents involved in cooperative problem solving (CPS) in multiagent systems (MAS) is investigated. Starting from individual intentions, goals, and beliefs defining agents' local asocial motivational and informational attitudes, we arrive at

  3. Prostaglandins in menstrual fluid in menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea. (United States)

    Rees, M C; Anderson, A B; Demers, L M; Turnbull, A C


    Menstrual fluid was collected in vaginal cups inserted for 2 h during the first 2 days of menstruation and menstrual serum concentrations of prostaglandins PGF2 alpha and PGE2 were measured by radioimmunoassay. In 16 women from whom menstrual fluid was collected on both days, PGF2 alpha and PGE2 concentrations were significantly higher on day 1 than on day 2. The highest concentrations of PGF2 alpha and PGE2 were found in dysmenorrhoeic women on day 1. In non-dysmenorrhoeic women, the amount of PGF2 alpha and PGE2 collected in 2 h correlated directly with total menstrual blood loss. There was no statistically significant difference in the amount of prostaglandins collected in 2 h in pain-free menorrhagic women and dysmenorrhoeic women with normal loss. There was also no significant 9-ketoreductase or 9-hydroxydehydrogenase activity present in menstrual fluid which could suggest PGE2 to PGF2 alpha interconversion.

  4. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.


    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  5. Fluid circulating pump operated by same incident solar energy which heats energy collection fluid (United States)

    Collins, E. R.


    The application of using a spacecraft solar powered pump terrestrially to reduce or eliminate the need for fossil fuel generated electricity for domestic solar hot water systems was investigated. A breadboard prototype model was constructed utilizing bimetals to convert thermal energy into mechanical motion by means of a toggle operated shutter mechanism. Although it did not meet expected thermal efficiency, the prototype model was sufficient to demonstrate the mechanical concept.

  6. Production of MHD fluid (United States)

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel


    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about to

  7. Electrorheologic fluids; Fluidos electroreologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon G, Leonardo; Lopez G, Francisco; Montoya T, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manero B, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM.(Mexico)


    The present article has as an objective to offer a review of the research work made in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the study of the electrorheologic fluids whose flow properties can abruptly change in the presence of an electric field when this is induced by a direct current. The electrorheologic fluids have their main application in the manufacture of self-controlling damping systems. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene por objetivo ofrecer una resena de los trabajos de investigacion realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre el estudio de los fluidos electroreologicos cuyas propiedades de flujo pueden cambiar abruptamente en presencia de un campo electrico cuando este es inducido por una corriente directa. Los fluidos electroreologicos tienen su principal aplicacion en la fabricacion de sistemas de amortiguamiento autocontrolables.

  8. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ván, Péter


    Single component Galilean-relativistic (nonrelativistic) fluids are treated independently of reference frames. The basic fields are given, their balances, thermodynamic relations and the entropy production is calculated. The usual relative basic fields, the mass, momentum and energy densities, the diffusion current density, the pressure tensor and the heat flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third order mass-momentum-energy density tensor according to a velocity field. The transformation rules of the basic fields are derived and prove that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic background theory, that is the Gibbs relation, extensivity condition and the entropy production is absolute, that is independent of the reference frame and also of the fluid velocity. --- Az egykomponensu Galilei-relativisztikus (azaz nemrelativisztikus) disszipativ folyadekokat vonatkoztatasi rendszertol fuggetlenul targyaljuk. Megadjuk az alapmennyisegeket, ezek merlegeit, a termodinamikai osszefuggeseket es kiszamoljuk az ...

  9. Metallization of fluid hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellis, W.J.; Louis, A.A.; Ashcroft, N.W.


    The electrical activity of liquid hydrogen has been measured at the high dynamic pressures, and temperatures that can be achieved with a reverberating shock wave. The resulting data are most naturally interpreted in terms of a continuous transition from a semiconducting to a metallic, largely diatomic fluid, the latter at 140 CPa, (ninefold compression) and 3000 K. While the fluid at these conditions resembles common liquid metals by the scale of its resistivity of 500 micro-ohm-cm, it differs by retaining a strong pairing character, and the precise mechanism by which a metallic state might be attained is still a matter of debate. Some evident possibilities include (i) physics of a largely one-body character, such as a band-overlap transition, (ii) physics of a strong-coupling or many-body character,such as a Mott-Hubbard transition, and (iii) process in which structural changes are paramount.

  10. Flows of Reactive Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger


    The modeling of reactive flows has progressed mainly with advances in aerospace, which gave birth to a new science called aerothermochemistry, as well as through developments in chemical and process engineering. The methods employed, the phenomena investigated, and the aims of modeling differ for each field; however, in all cases, the results obtained have considerably enriched the working knowledge of reactive flows. This work examines basic concepts and methods necessary to study reactive flows and transfer phenomena in areas such as fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and chemistry. Specific topics covered include: * Equations of state * Transfer phenomena and chemical kinetics * Balance equations of reactive flows * Dimensionless numbers and similarity * Chemical reactors * Coupled phenomena * Turbulent flow concepts * Boundary layers and fluid layers * Reactive and nonreactive waves * Interface phenomena * Multiphase flow concepts The book presents tools of interest to graduate students, researchers in math...

  11. Fluid dynamics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel


    This book is dedicated to readers who want to learn fluid dynamics from the beginning. It assumes a basic level of mathematics knowledge that would correspond to that of most second-year undergraduate physics students and examines fluid dynamics from a physicist’s perspective. As such, the examples used primarily come from our environment on Earth and, where possible, from astrophysics. The text is arranged in a progressive and educational format, aimed at leading readers from the simplest basics to more complex matters like turbulence and magnetohydrodynamics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help readers to test their understanding of the subject (solutions are provided at the end of the book), and a special chapter is devoted to introducing selected aspects of mathematics that beginners may not be familiar with, so as to make the book self-contained.

  12. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E


    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  13. The mixing of fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottino, J.M.


    What do the eruption of Krakatau, the manufacture of puff pastry and the brightness of stars have in common Each involves some aspect of mixing. Mixing also plays a critical role in modern technology. Chemical engineers rely on mixing to ensure that substances react properly, to produce polymer blends that exhibit unique properties and to disperse drag-reducing agents in pipelines. Yet in spite of its of its ubiquity in nature and industry, mixing is only imperfectly under-stood. Indeed, investigators cannot even settle on a common terminology: mixing is often referred to as stirring by oceanographers and geophysicists, as blending by polymer engineers and as agitation by process engineers. Regardless of what the process is called, there is little doubt that it is exceedingly complex and is found in a great variety of systems. In constructing a theory of fluid mixing, for example, one has to take into account fluids that can be miscible or partially miscible and reactive or inert, and flows that are slow and orderly or very fast and turbulent. It is therefore not surprising that no single theory can explain all aspect of mixing in fluids and that straightforward computations usually fail to capture all the important details. Still, both physical experiments and computer simulations can provide insight into the mixing process. Over the past several years the authors and his colleague have taken both approaches in an effort to increase understanding of various aspect of the process-particularly of mixing involving slow flows and viscous fluids such as oils.

  14. Fluid Genetic Algorithm (FGA)


    Jafari-Marandi, Ruholla; Smith, Brian K.


    Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been one of the most popular methods for many challenging optimization problems when exact approaches are too computationally expensive. A review of the literature shows extensive research attempting to adapt and develop the standard GA. Nevertheless, the essence of GA which consists of concepts such as chromosomes, individuals, crossover, mutation, and others rarely has been the focus of recent researchers. In this paper method, Fluid Genetic Algorithm (FGA), some ...

  15. Corrosion in supercritical fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propp, W.A.; Carleson, T.E.; Wai, Chen M.; Taylor, P.R.; Daehling, K.W.; Huang, Shaoping; Abdel-Latif, M.


    Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 0.00517 to 0.010 M for the aqueous fluids. The materials studied were Types 304 and 316 (UNS S30400 and S31600) stainless steel, iron, and AISI-SAE 1080 (UNS G10800) carbon steel. The thermodynamic modeling consisted of development of a personal computer-based program for generating Pourbaix diagrams at supercritical conditions in aqueous systems. As part of the model, a general method for extrapolating entropies and related thermodynamic properties from ambient to SCF conditions was developed. The experimental work was used as a tool to evaluate the predictions of the model for these systems. The model predicted a general loss of passivation in iron-based alloys at SCF conditions that was consistent with experimentally measured corrosion rates and open circuit potentials. For carbon-dioxide-based SCFs, measured corrosion rates were low, indicating that carbon steel would be suitable for use with unmodified carbon dioxide, while Type 304 stainless steel would be suitable for use with water or methanol as modifiers.

  16. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner


    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  17. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph


    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  18. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.


    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  19. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph


    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  20. Astrophysical fluid dynamics (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.


    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  1. Microfluidics with fluid walls. (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R


    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  2. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beall, M. H.; van den Wijngaard, J. P. H. M.; van Gemert, M. J. C.; Ross, M. G.


    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and

  3. Modelling of magnetic fluid support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashtovoi, V.G. E-mail:; Bossis, G.; Kabachnikov, D.N.; Krakov, M.S.; Volkova, O


    One kind of elastic magnetic fluid support representing the magnetic fluid drop with permanent magnet inside is investigated experimentally and numerically. The dependencies between the magneto static force in support and the geometrical parameters and properties of the magnet and the magnetic fluid are established.

  4. Numerical Methods in Fluid Dynamics. (United States)

    treatment of time-dependent three-dimensional flows; Un example de modele mathematique complexe en mecanique des fluides ....des equations de Navier-Stokes des fluides visqueux incompressibles; Numerical solution of steady state Navier-Stokes equations; Numerical solution of...dynamics; Application of finite elements methods in fluid dynamics; Computational methods for inviscid transonic flows with inbedded shock waves; Numerical

  5. Intraoperative fluid therapy in neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: fluid responsiveness, fluid therapy, intraoperative, neonates. Introduction. Fluid therapy should ensure ... therapy, replacement for blood loss and for insensible and sensible water loss due to surgery and ..... of Paediatric Anaesthetists (APA) and the French-language. Society of Paediatric Anaesthesiologists ...

  6. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard


    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating unidirectional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness...... of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analysed numerically and by the use of a perturbation method (multiple scales). Exciting the pipe in the fundamental mode of vibration seems to be most effective for transferring energy from the shaker to the fluid......, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with pipe vibrations of smaller amplitude. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analysed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement...

  7. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.


    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  8. Vasopressin content in the cerebrospinal fluid and fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles in rats after the afferent vagus nerve fibres stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlowska-Majdak, M.; Traczyk, W.Z. [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland). Katedra Fizjologii


    Experiments were carried out on male rats in urethane anaesthesia. Cerebroventricular system was perfused with McIlwain-Rodniht`s solution from lateral ventricles to cerebellomedullary cistern. Both vagus nerves were cut and the central ends of the nerves were electrically stimulated during the collection of the third 30-min portion of perfusing fluid. Vasopressin (AVP) was determined by radioimmunoassay in samples of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (the first portion) and in five successive samples of the perfusing fluid. AVP concentration in the CSF was several times greater than in the fluid perfusing cerebral ventricles. Alternate electrical stimulation of both vagus nerves did not change considerably the release of AVP into the fluid perfusing the cerebral ventricles in rat, although a certain upward tendency could be observed. It seems that only AVP raised in circulating blood and not in CSF, after vagus nerves stimulation may act on the central nervous structures. (author). 37 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  9. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications


    Lu, Yi; Liu,Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C.; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C.; Wong, Pak Kin


    AC electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in non-traditional healthcare settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics based dia...

  10. Structural Transition in Supercritical Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov


    Full Text Available The extension of the saturation curve ( on the PT diagram in the supercritical region for a number of monocomponent supercritical fluids by peak values for different thermophysical properties, such as heat capacities and and compressibility has been studied. These peaks signal about some sort of fluid structural transition in the supercritical region. Different methods give similar but progressively diverging curves st( for this transition. The zone of temperatures and pressures near these curves can be named as the zone of the fluid structural transition. The outstanding properties of supercritical fluids in this zone help to understand the physical sense of the fluid structural transition.

  11. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B., E-mail: [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco 2, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, 01156-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Holender, L., E-mail: [Grupo de Física Teórica e Matemática Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Cx. Postal 23851, BR 465 Km 7, 23890-000 Seropédica, RJ (Brazil); Santos, M.A., E-mail: [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Avenida Fernando Ferarri S/N, Goiabeiras, 29060-900 Vitória, ES (Brazil); Vancea, I.V., E-mail: [Grupo de Física Teórica e Matemática Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Cx. Postal 23851, BR 465 Km 7, 23890-000 Seropédica, RJ (Brazil)


    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy–momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  12. Undulatory swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiaoning


    The effects of fluid elasticity on the swimming behavior of the nematode \\emph{Caenorhabditis elegans} are experimentally investigated by tracking the nematode's motion and measuring the corresponding velocity fields. We find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion. Compared to Newtonian solutions, fluid elasticity leads to 35% slower propulsion speed. Furthermore, self-propulsion decreases as elastic stresses grow in magnitude in the fluid. This decrease in self-propulsion in viscoelastic fluids is related to the stretching of flexible molecules near hyperbolic points in the flow.

  13. Perirenal fluid in renal parenchymal medical disease ('floating kidney'): Clinical significance and sonographic grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Maurice C.; Medawar, Walid A.; Hawary, Mahmoud M.; Khoury, Nabil J.; Ammouri, Nabil F.; Shabb, Nina S


    AIM: To study the clinical significance and radiologic features of perirenal fluid in patients with renal parenchymal disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the previous 5 years, nine patients were found to have perirenal fluid on sonography associated with renal parenchymal medical disease. The clinical, radiological, histopathological and laboratory data were analysed. RESULTS: The perirenal fluid is a spontaneous subcapsular transudate in patients suffering from a nephropathy with a sodium retention state, with or without renal failure. Three sonographic patterns of perirenal fluid were observed: grade 1 is a thin layer of perirenal fluid; grade 2 is a moderate amount of perirenal fluid collection with indentations of the renal parenchyma and strands in the fluid, grade 3 is a large fluid collection surrounding the kidney. CONCLUSION: The perirenal fluid represents a sign of sodium retention state and oedema in patients with intrinsic renal parenchymal medical disease which may be caused by several nephropathies. Haddad, M.C. et al. (2001)

  14. Micelles of pulmonary surfactant in human amniotic fluid at term. (United States)

    Nishijima, Koji; Shukunami, Ken-Ichi; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Orisaka, Makoto; Miura, Jun'Ichiro; Kotsuji, Fumikazu


    Studies using in vitro analysis have shown that the interaction between pulmonary surfactant and vernix caseosa could explain the appearance of amniotic fluid turbidity. That phenomenon is interpreted based on the "roll-up" hypothesis. We tested the roll-up hypothesis by examining the presence of micelles of pulmonary surfactant in human amniotic fluid at term. Amniotic fluid samples were collected from each of six healthy pregnant women at term and at 16 wk of gestation. These samples were stained negatively and analyzed using an electron microscope. Ultrastructures present in amniotic fluid were compared with the structure of micelles derived from suspended surfactant TA isolated from bovine lung. Surfactant TA formed spheroidal and rod-shaped micelles 10-70 nm in diameter above the critical micelle concentration. Identical micelle particles were described in human amniotic fluid at term. In addition, surfactant protein B was identified in the micelle fraction of amniotic fluid. However, no micelles were found in human amniotic fluid taken at 16 wk of gestation. Our results support the view that pulmonary surfactant could induce the detachment of vernix caseosa and increase the turbidity of the amniotic fluid.

  15. The Origin of Subretinal Fluid in Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy. (United States)

    Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Taskapan, Cagtay


    A surgical approach for the drainage of fluid leaking over the pit in optic disc pit maculopathy is described, and a theory of the origin of fluid is discussed. In two cases, complete fluid-air exchange was performed. The air infusion pressure was decreased to 5 mm Hg, and the collected fluid was drained by raising the infusion pressure to 25 mm Hg. The fluid inside the back-flush needle was routed via a microcentrifuge tube. Biochemical analyses of the fluids were conducted in order to find their origin. Results of the first and second case were comparable to normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels (chloride: 125 mmol/L, 122 mmol/L; sodium: 146 mmol/L, 147 mmol/L; potassium: 2.8 mmol/L, 3.0 mmol/L; protein: 29 mg/dL, 18.4 mg/ dL; and glucose: 60 mg/dL, 57 mg/dL, respectively). These findings suggest that the origin of subretinal fluid found in the submacular space in optic disc pit maculopathy is CSF. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Collective drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Grossa


    Full Text Available This paper is referred to the experiences run at Iuav in the framework of the EU-FSE founded Courses of Collaborative Composition. In these courses we built up some work/game thought as meaning of a distance collaborative game. Rally around these games, we delivered specific knowledge and portions of technical knowledge referred to the issue of formal structure, shape grammar, and codify of “behaviours role” for a networked distance collaboration. The subject of this didactic experience is the composition and of a collective figurative opera (an image processed by the whole group of students. The themes of the image have been different in each Course: a figurative opera, a facade of an urban street or a small square. The students shared a repertory of figures coming from the break down of paintings or pictures of palaces and used the repertory as a source in order to compose the final collective opera. On the other side we worked on the shape grammar roles, experimented tools and protocols of communication, analysed the best practice in this field and defined evaluation systems.

  17. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow (United States)

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory


    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  18. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Michael W.; Kaduchak, Gregory


    Disclosed herein is a acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow that includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  19. Essential Computational Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zikanov, Oleg


    This book serves as a complete and self-contained introduction to the principles of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. It is deliberately short (at approximately 300 pages) and can be used as a text for the first part of the course of applied CFD followed by a software tutorial. The main objectives of this non-traditional format are: 1) To introduce and explain, using simple examples where possible, the principles and methods of CFD analysis and to demystify the `black box’ of a CFD software tool, and 2) To provide a basic understanding of how CFD problems are set and

  20. An emulsion wash fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Yu.G.; Kasyanenko, N.I.; Nedoseko, L.V.; Yablonovskaya, K.M.


    The advantage of making a wash fluid at drill wells far from the clay works from concentrates of pastes delivered there is demonstrated. A formula is cited for the EP-1 emulsion paste, developed in the Dnepropetrovsk section of the Institute of Mineral Resources (IMR), along with its production technology. The low clay emulsion wash liquid, EPZh-1, obtained directly from the drill well from the EP-1 paste, after adding one of the polymers of the acrylic series (hydrolized polyacrylamide, hypan, K-4 and so on) to it is a volume of 1 to 2 percent of the total mass is suitable for use in different geological conditions. Based on the results of broad testing in the geological organizations of the Sevukreologiya and Yuzhukrgeologiya PO, it is established that the EPZh-1 wash fluid promotes an increase in the speed of well passage on the average by 13.7 percent and an increase in the technical drilling speed of 17.3 percent and a reduction in downtime due to the absence of the clearing agent by 53 percent and due to complications by 50 percent. More than 100,000 meters of wells have been drilled using EPZh-1 and a savings of 1.37 rubles per meter drilled has been achieved.

  1. Solitary waves in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Grimshaw, RHJ


    After the initial observation by John Scott Russell of a solitary wave in a canal, his insightful laboratory experiments and the subsequent theoretical work of Boussinesq, Rayleigh and Korteweg and de Vries, interest in solitary waves in fluids lapsed until the mid 1960's with the seminal paper of Zabusky and Kruskal describing the discovery of the soliton. This was followed by the rapid development of the theory of solitons and integrable systems. At the same time came the realization that solitary waves occur naturally in many physical systems, and play a fundamental role in many circumstances. The aim of this text is to describe the role that soliton theory plays in fluids in several contexts. After an historical introduction, the book is divided five chapters covering the basic theory of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the subsequent application to free-surface solitary waves in water to internal solitary waves in the coastal ocean and the atmospheric boundary layer, solitary waves in rotating flows, ...

  2. Collective Success or Collective Failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum

    In this article, I make a contribution to the literature on how industrial clusters in developing countries respond to corporate responsibility demands from international buyers in Europe and North America. I outline an analytical framework that integrates insights from the global value chain......, industrial cluster, and corporate social responsibility literatures with the aim of explaining why collective cluster action through industry associations and/or public private partnerships succeed or fail in facilitating cluster-wide compliance with CSR standards. I then use this framework to analyze a case...

  3. Oral bacterial DNA findings in pericardial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Mari Louhelainen


    Full Text Available Background: We recently reported that large amounts of oral bacterial DNA can be found in thrombus aspirates of myocardial infarction patients. Some case reports describe bacterial findings in pericardial fluid, mostly done with conventional culturing and a few with PCR; in purulent pericarditis, nevertheless, bacterial PCR has not been used as a diagnostic method before. Objective: To find out whether bacterial DNA can be measured in the pericardial fluid and if it correlates with pathologic–anatomic findings linked to cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Twenty-two pericardial aspirates were collected aseptically prior to forensic autopsy at Tampere University Hospital during 2009–2010. Of the autopsies, 10 (45.5% were free of coronary artery disease (CAD, 7 (31.8% had mild and 5 (22.7% had severe CAD. Bacterial DNA amounts were determined using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers and probes for all bacterial strains associated with endodontic disease (Streptococcus mitis group, Streptococcus anginosus group, Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus epidermidis, Prevotella intermedia, Parvimonas micra and periodontal disease (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatus, and Dialister pneumosintes. Results: Of 22 cases, 14 (63.6% were positive for endodontic and 8 (36.4% for periodontal-disease-associated bacteria. Only one case was positive for bacterial culturing. There was a statistically significant association between the relative amount of bacterial DNA in the pericardial fluid and the severity of CAD (p=0.035. Conclusions: Oral bacterial DNA was detectable in pericardial fluid and an association between the severity of CAD and the total amount of bacterial DNA in pericardial fluid was found, suggesting that this kind of measurement might be useful for clinical purposes.

  4. Fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis (United States)

    Aggarwal, Aakash; Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh


    Acute pancreatitis remains a clinical challenge, despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of its complex pathophysiological changes. Early fluid therapy is the cornerstone of treatment and is universally recommended; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding the type, rate, amount and end points of fluid replacement. Further confusion is added with the newer studies reporting better results with controlled fluid therapy. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of fluid depletion in acute pancreatitis, as well as the rationale for fluid replacement, the type, optimal amount, rate of infusion and monitoring of such patients. The basic goal of fluid epletion should be to prevent or minimize the systemic response to inflammatory markers. For this review, various studies and reviews were critically evaluated, along with authors’ recommendations, for predicted severe or severe pancreatitis based on the available evidence. PMID:25561779

  5. [Fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis]. (United States)

    de-Madaria, Enrique


    Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with an increased need for fluids due to fluid sequestration and, in the most severe cases, with decreased peripheral vascular tone. For several decades, clinical practice guidelines have recommended aggressive fluid therapy to improve the prognosis of AP. This recommendation is based on theoretical models, animal studies, and retrospective studies in humans. Recent studies suggest that aggressive fluid administration in all patients with AP could have a neutral or harmful effect. Fluid therapy based on Ringer's lactate could improve the course of the disease, although further studies are needed to confirm this possibility. Most patients with AP do not require invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy administration. Moreover, the ability of these parameters to improve prognosis has not been demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  6. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing. (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H


    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  7. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus


    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  8. Fluid inclusions in stony meteorites (United States)

    Warner, J. L.; Ashwal, L. D.; Bergman, S. C.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Henry, D. J.; Lee-Berman, R.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H. E.


    The fluid inclusions presently described for five stony meteorites brings to seven the number of such meteorites confirmed. Homogenization temperatures are reproducible in each inclusion, and range from 25 C to over 225 C, with some vapor plus liquid inclusions remaining at 225 C, the highest temperature in these microthermometric experiments. Upon cooling, the fluid in some inclusions appears to freeze, as indicated by deformation and immobilization of the vapor bubble at low temperatures. Melting temperatures are by contrast difficult to observe and are not reproducible. Microthermometric data for the fluid in diogenite ALPHA 77256 and inclusions in four chondrites suggest that the fluid is aqueous, with a high solute content.

  9. The fluid dynamics of climate

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Elisa; Fraedrich, Klaus


    This volume provides an overview of the fluid aspects of the climate system, focusing on basic aspects as well as recent research developments. It will bring together contributions from diverse fields of the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences. The volume will be useful to doctorate students, postdocs and researchers working on different aspects of atmospheric, oceanic and environmental fluid dynamics. It will also be of interest to researchers interested in quantitatively understanding how fluid dynamics can be applied to the climate system, and to climate scientists willing to gain a deeper insight into the fluid mechanics underlying climate processes.

  10. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server


    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  11. Inflationary universe in fluid description

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu


    We investigate a fluid description of inflationary cosmology. It is shown that the three observables of the inflationary universe: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be compatible with the Planck analysis. In addition, we reconstruct the equation of state (EoS) for a fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations consistent with the Planck results. We explicitly demonstrate that the universe can gracefully exit from inflation in the reconstructed fluid models. Furthermore, we explore the singular inflation for a fluid model.


    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.


    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  13. Fluid Genetic Algorithm (FGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruholla Jafari-Marandi


    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm (GA has been one of the most popular methods for many challenging optimization problems when exact approaches are too computationally expensive. A review of the literature shows extensive research attempting to adapt and develop the standard GA. Nevertheless, the essence of GA which consists of concepts such as chromosomes, individuals, crossover, mutation, and others rarely has been the focus of recent researchers. In this paper method, Fluid Genetic Algorithm (FGA, some of these concepts are changed, removed, and furthermore, new concepts are introduced. The performance of GA and FGA are compared through seven benchmark functions. FGA not only shows a better success rate and better convergence control, but it can be applied to a wider range of problems including multi-objective and multi-level problems. Also, the application of FGA for a real engineering problem, Quadric Assignment Problem (AQP, is shown and experienced.

  14. Magnetoviscous model fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, M; Hess, S


    We review, apply and compare diverse approaches to the theoretical understanding of the dynamical and rheological behaviour of ferrofluids and magnetorheological (MR) fluids subject to external magnetic and flow fields. Simple models are introduced which are directly solvable by nonequilibrium Brownian or molecular dynamics computer simulation. In particular, the numerical results for ferrofluids quantify the domain of validity of uniaxial alignment of magnetic moments (in and) out of equilibrium. A Fokker-Planck equation for the dynamics of the magnetic moments - corresponding to the Brownian dynamics approach - and its implications are analysed under this approximation. The basic approach considers the effect of external fields on the dynamics of ellipsoid shaped permanent ferromagnetic domains (aggregates), whose size should depend on the strength of flow and magnetic field, the magnetic interaction parameter and concentration (or packing fraction). Results from analytic calculations and from simulation ar...

  15. Fluid Mechanics of Taste (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David


    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  16. Respiratory fluid mechanics. (United States)

    Grotberg, James B


    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  17. Meso-scale turbulence in living fluids. (United States)

    Wensink, Henricus H; Dunkel, Jörn; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond E; Löwen, Hartmut; Yeomans, Julia M


    Turbulence is ubiquitous, from oceanic currents to small-scale biological and quantum systems. Self-sustained turbulent motion in microbial suspensions presents an intriguing example of collective dynamical behavior among the simplest forms of life and is important for fluid mixing and molecular transport on the microscale. The mathematical characterization of turbulence phenomena in active nonequilibrium fluids proves even more difficult than for conventional liquids or gases. It is not known which features of turbulent phases in living matter are universal or system-specific or which generalizations of the Navier-Stokes equations are able to describe them adequately. Here, we combine experiments, particle simulations, and continuum theory to identify the statistical properties of self-sustained meso-scale turbulence in active systems. To study how dimensionality and boundary conditions affect collective bacterial dynamics, we measured energy spectra and structure functions in dense Bacillus subtilis suspensions in quasi-2D and 3D geometries. Our experimental results for the bacterial flow statistics agree well with predictions from a minimal model for self-propelled rods, suggesting that at high concentrations the collective motion of the bacteria is dominated by short-range interactions. To provide a basis for future theoretical studies, we propose a minimal continuum model for incompressible bacterial flow. A detailed numerical analysis of the 2D case shows that this theory can reproduce many of the experimentally observed features of self-sustained active turbulence.

  18. Penetration of ceftibuten into middle ear fluid.


    Lin, C; Kumari, P; Perrotta, R J; Reidenberg, B E


    The penetration of ceftibuten, an extended-spectrum oral cephalosporin, into middle ear fluid (MEF) was evaluated in pediatric patients during a course of daily oral doses of 9 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days. Plasma and MEF collected at 2, 4, 6, or 12 h after at least 3 days of dosing were analyzed for ceftibuten by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method, and the data were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Plasma and MEF had almost identical maximum concentrations (Cmax) o...

  19. Synchronous droplets as a test bed for pulsatory active fluids (United States)

    Katsikis, Georgios; Prakash, Manu


    Collective behavior in many-body systems has been studied extensively focusing on a wide range of interacting entities including: flocking animals, sedimenting particles and microfluidic droplets among others. Here, we propose an experimental platform to explore an oscillatory active fluid with synchronous ferrofluid droplets immersed in an immiscible carrier fluid in a Hele-Shaw configuration. The droplets are organized and actuated on a 2-D uniform grid through application of a precessive magnetic field. The state of our system is dependent on three parameters: the grid occupancy with fluid droplets, the grid geometry and the magnetic field. We study the long range orientational order of our system over a range of those parameters by tracking the motion of the droplets and analyzing the PIV data of the carrier fluid flow. Numerical simulations are juxtaposed with experimental data for prediction of the system's behavior.

  20. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne


    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine

  1. Fluid Inclusions in Carbonaceous Chondrites (United States)

    Saylor, J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Le L.; Schwandt, C.


    Fluid inclusions are present in carbonaceous chondrites. Of the chondrites studied (CI1, CM1 and 2, CV3) fluid inclusions were found only in CM2s and CI1s, and by extrapolation are most likely to be found there in the future. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Materials processing using supercritical fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Aleksandar M.


    Full Text Available One of the most interesting areas of supercritical fluids applications is the processing of novel materials. These new materials are designed to meet specific requirements and to make possible new applications in Pharmaceuticals design, heterogeneous catalysis, micro- and nano-particles with unique structures, special insulating materials, super capacitors and other special technical materials. Two distinct possibilities to apply supercritical fluids in processing of materials: synthesis of materials in supercritical fluid environment and/or further processing of already obtained materials with the help of supercritical fluids. By adjusting synthesis parameters the properties of supercritical fluids can be significantly altered which further results in the materials with different structures. Unique materials can be also obtained by conducting synthesis in quite specific environments like reversed micelles. This paper is mainly devoted to processing of previously synthesized materials which are further processed using supercritical fluids. Several new methods have been developed to produce micro- and nano-particles with the use of supercritical fluids. The following methods: rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS supercritical anti-solvent (SAS, materials synthesis under supercritical conditions and encapsulation and coating using supercritical fluids were recently developed.

  3. Fluid simulation for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Bridson, Robert


    Animating fluids like water, smoke, and fire using physics-based simulation is increasingly important in visual effects, in particular in movies, like The Day After Tomorrow, and in computer games. This book provides a practical introduction to fluid simulation for graphics. The focus is on animating fully three-dimensional incompressible flow, from understanding the math and the algorithms to the actual implementation.

  4. Introduction to mathematical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Richard E


    An introduction to the behavior of liquids and gases, this volume provides excellent coverage of kinematics, momentum principle, Newtonian fluid, rotating fluids, compressibility, and more. It is geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics and general science, and it requires a background in calculus and vector analysis. 1971 edition.

  5. Applied Fluid Mechanics. Lecture Notes. (United States)

    Gregg, Newton D.

    This set of lecture notes is used as a supplemental text for the teaching of fluid dynamics, as one component of a thermodynamics course for engineering technologists. The major text for the course covered basic fluids concepts such as pressure, mass flow, and specific weight. The objective of this document was to present additional fluids…

  6. Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B.M.


    {sup 4}He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk {sup 4}He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 {+-} 1.3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} at 21 C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) to 3.0 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (150 C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of {sup 4}He{sub water} for matrix porosity ({approx}3%) and tortuosity ({approx}6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) and 1 x 10{sup -7} (120 C), effectively isolating pore fluid {sup 4}He from the {sup 4}He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 {+-} 0.4% (SD, n=4) and mudstones 3.1 {+-} 0.8% (SD, n=4).

  7. Saliva: a fluid of study for OMICS. (United States)

    Cuevas-Córdoba, Betzaida; Santiago-García, Juan


    Saliva is a fluid that can be collected easily and noninvasively. Its functions in the oral cavity are well known. Advances in molecular biology and technology, as well as research conducted by the various disciplines of omics (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and metagenomics) have contributed to the identification and characterization of salivary components, including DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and microorganisms. These biomolecules enter the saliva through extracellular and intracellular routes, providing information from several organs and systems and raising the possibility of their use as disease biomarkers. In recent years, these factors have expanded the potential use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for oral and systemic diseases. This review integrates information regarding salivary biomolecules studied through omics and explores their utility as biomarkers for the diagnosis of several infectious and noninfectious diseases, and the opportunity they represent for the development of point of care devices for clinical application. We also discuss the advantages, disadvantages, and challenges to be overcome in order to establish saliva as a useful fluid for the accurate diagnosis and monitoring of a wide range of diseases.

  8. Effective perfect fluids in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Bellazzini, Brando, E-mail:, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)


    We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.

  9. Tumbling sandpiles in a fluid (United States)

    Radjai, Farhang; Topin, Vincent; Perales, Frédéric; Monerie, Yann


    By means of contact dynamics simulations interfaced with computational fluid dynamics, we analyze the effect of a suspending fluid on the dynamics of collapse and spread of a granular column. We find that the runout distance increases as a power law with the aspect ratio of the column and, for a given aspect ratio, it may be the same in the grain-inertial and fluid-inertial regimes but with considerably longer duration in the latter case. We show that, in both viscous and fluid-inertial regimes, this behavior results from compensation between two effects of the fluid: 1) reduction of the kinetic energy during collapse and 2) enhancement of the flow by lubrication during spread.

  10. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling (United States)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman


    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  11. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  12. [Preanalytical guidelines for clinical proteomics investigation of biological fluids]. (United States)

    Lehmann, S; Roche, S; Allory, Y; Barthelaix, A; Beaudeux, J-L; Berger, F; Betsou, F; Borg, J; Dupuy, A; Garin, J; Quillard, M; Lizard, G; Peoc'h, K; Riviere, M; Ducoroy, P


    Research of new diagnosis or prognosis biomarkers is a major challenge for the management of patients with complex pathologies like cancer. Clinical proteomics is one of the recent approaches to identify these biomarkers in biological fluids. Over the last five years, many problems related to the variability and the quality control of these analyses have been observed. This was notably related to the different preanalytical status of each sample. A strong need for standardization of the critical preanalytical phases (collection, transport, processing, storage...) has been therefore recognized. With this goal in mind, working groups of the "Institut national du cancer" (INCa) and the "Société française de biologie clinique" (SFBC) proposed here preanalytical proteomics guidelines for the most common biological fluids: plasma, serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. To goal is to provide the basis for the harmonization of the procedures in clinical laboratories and biobanks to allow an optimal use of biological collections.

  13. Critical fluid light scattering (United States)

    Gammon, Robert W.


    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  14. Computational fluid dynamic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.


    The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.

  15. Fluid flow monitoring device (United States)

    McKay, Mark D.; Sweeney, Chad E.; Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel


    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  16. Tantalum solubility in simulant lung fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cintia; Leite, Carlos V.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail:; Dalia, Kely C.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coelho, Maysa [Instituto Militar de Engenharia IME, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Medeiros, Geiza; Santos, Maristela; Cunha, Kenya Dias da [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    The aim of this study is to determine the solubility rate of tantalum contained in pyrochlore, columbite-tantalite and columbite in simulant lung fluid. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its recommendation for limiting intakes of radionuclide by workers has consistently recognized that the biological behavior of any specific material after incorporation can significantly diverge from model prevision. Model parameters should be adjusted to adapt the model for each specific substance material in order to estimate the dose due to this element intake. The most recent ICRP respiratory tract dosimetry model gives information about the specific material, as data like particle size, aerosols solubility and the material chemical compounds are important parameters in the dose coefficients calculation. This paper studies the solubility in Simulant Lung Fluid (SLF) of Ta present in mineral dust particles. For this study 3 minerals were selected: pyrochlore, columbite-tantalite and columbite. Tantalum dissolution in vitro samples were obtained using the Gamble solution as a simulated solution for body fluids and PIXE (Particle Induced X rays Emissions) technique was used to characterize them. In order to characterize the worker exposure to Ta bearing particles a Brazilian niobium mine was selected. The mineral dust particles were collected using a six-stage cascade impactor and the elemental mass concentrations and the MMAD (Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter) were determined. The results show that the workers are exposed to Ta bearing particles in the respirable fraction of aerosols (< 2.5 {mu}m) during the mineral processing to obtain Fe-Nb alloy. The solubility in Simulant Lung Fluid (SLF) of Ta present in mineral dust particles depend on the mineral characteristics. The solubility half-time varies between 34 to 62 hours depending on the associated mineral. (author)

  17. Synoviocyte cultures from synovial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Punzi


    Full Text Available The study of the pathogenetic mechanisms of rheumatic diseases is in general carried out through “in vitro” systems based on cellular cultures models. The difficulties to achieve fresh human tissue prompted us to develop a simpler method to obtain fibroblast-like synovial cells from synovial fluid (SF. Methods: SF was collected from the knees of 5 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 4 with osteoarthritis (OA and 5 with psoriatic arthritis (PsA. The pellet obtained after centrifugation was resuspended in DMEM/HamF12 containing 10% fetal calf serum, 1% peni-streptomicin, 4ng/ml of fibroblast grow factor and incubated at 37°C in T25 culture flasks. Synoviocytes were also obtained from fresh synovial membranes (SM by explants technique. Both types of cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry and their inflammatory response to synthetic monosodium urate crystals was studied through the measurement of nitric oxide (NO. Results: Adherent synoviocytes were obtained from the culture of 2/5 SF from RA, 4/4 SF from OA and 5/5 SF from PsA. Synoviocytes isolated from both SF and SM expressed surface antigens CD90, CD55, and the intracellular prolyl- 4-hydroxylase. Morphologically, the cells showed the typical spindle-shape fibroblast-like appearance. NO levels induced by UMS crystals in SF synoviocytes were similar to those obtained in SM synoviocytes. Conclusion: Adherent cells obtained from SF showed the phenotype and the reactivity of tissue synoviocytes. Due to the easy accessibility of SF, this method may represents an useful alternative when synovial tissues is not promptly available.

  18. [Synoviocyte cultures from synovial fluid]. (United States)

    Scanu, A; Oliviero, F; Braghetto, L; Ramonda, R; Luisetto, R; Calabrese, F; Pozzuoli, A; Punzi, L


    The study of the pathogenetic mechanisms of rheumatic diseases is in general carried out through "in vitro" systems based on cellular cultures models. The difficulties to achieve fresh human tissue prompted us to develop a simpler method to obtain fibroblast-like synovial cells from synovial fluid (SF). SF was collected from the knees of 5 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 4 with osteoarthritis (OA) and 5 with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The pellet obtained after centrifugation was resuspended in DMEM/HamF12 containing 10% foetal calf serum, 1% peni-streptomycin, 4 ng/ml of fibroblast grow factor and incubated at 37 degrees C in T25 culture flasks. Synoviocytes were also obtained from fresh synovial membranes (SM) by explants technique. Both types of cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry and their inflammatory response to synthetic monosodium urate crystals was studied through the measurement of nitric oxide (NO). Adherent synoviocytes were obtained from the culture of 2/5 SF from RA, 4/4 SF from OA and 5/5 SF from PsA. Synoviocytes isolated from both SF and SM expressed surface antigens CD90, CD55, and the intracellular prolyl-4-hydroxylase. Morphologically, the cells showed the typical spindle-shape fibroblast-like appearance. NO levels induced by UMS crystals in SF synoviocytes were similar to those obtained in SM synoviocytes. Adherent cells obtained from SF showed the phenotype and the reactivity of tissue synoviocytes. Due to the easy accessibility of SF, this method may represents an useful alternative when synovial tissues is not promptly available.

  19. Mouse embryos cultured in amniotic fluid | Oettle | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One thousand mouse embryos were collected over a period of 6 weeks·and randomly assigned to either amniotic fluid aspirated during routine amniocentesis from normal 16 weeks pregnant patients or Earle's medium. The embryos were cultured for 72 hours at 37°C in 5% carbon dioxide in air. Osmolarity, pH, partial ...

  20. Saliva: A fluid in search of a diagnostic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu


    Full Text Available Since saliva has been studied for more than 50 years and is relatively easy to collect, it is reasonable to ask why saliva is not in wider use as a diagnostic fluid. Here we discuss the criteria for diagnostic tests for diseases, barriers to use saliva for diagnostic testing, and the possibility of overcoming barriers to acceptance of saliva for diagnosis.

  1. Saliva: A fluid in search of a diagnostic use


    Jia Liu


    Since saliva has been studied for more than 50 years and is relatively easy to collect, it is reasonable to ask why saliva is not in wider use as a diagnostic fluid. Here we discuss the criteria for diagnostic tests for diseases, barriers to use saliva for diagnostic testing, and the possibility of overcoming barriers to acceptance of saliva for diagnosis.

  2. Investigating the recording and accuracy of fluid balance monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The accurate assessment of fluid balance data collected during physical assessment as well as during monitoring and record- keeping forms an essential part of the baseline patient information that guides medical and nursing interventions aimed at achieving physiological stability in patients. An informal audit ...

  3. Noncommutative geometry and fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Praloy; Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India)


    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy, thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in the charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the study of kinematics and dynamics of NC fluid. In the second part we construct an extension of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing about anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the model. We also derive a NC extended Friedmann equation. (orig.)

  4. Hydrodynamic instabilities in miscible fluids (United States)

    Truzzolillo, Domenico; Cipelletti, Luca


    Hydrodynamic instabilities in miscible fluids are ubiquitous, from natural phenomena up to geological scales, to industrial and technological applications, where they represent the only way to control and promote mixing at low Reynolds numbers, well below the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. As for immiscible fluids, the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities in miscible fluids is directly related to the physics of their interfaces. The focus of this review is therefore on the general mechanisms driving the growth of disturbances at the boundary between miscible fluids, under a variety of forcing conditions. In the absence of a regularizing mechanism, these disturbances would grow indefinitely. For immiscible fluids, interfacial tension provides such a regularizing mechanism, because of the energy cost associated to the creation of new interface by a growing disturbance. For miscible fluids, however, the very existence of interfacial stresses that mimic an effective surface tension is debated. Other mechanisms, however, may also be relevant, such as viscous dissipation. We shall review the stabilizing mechanisms that control the most common hydrodynamic instabilities, highlighting those cases for which the lack of an effective interfacial tension poses deep conceptual problems in the mathematical formulation of a linear stability analysis. Finally, we provide a short overview on the ongoing research on the effective, out of equilibrium interfacial tension between miscible fluids.

  5. Fluid Dynamics with Cryogenic Fluid Transfer in Space Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During chilldown of cryogenic fluid tanks and lines, the interface between the liquid and vapor rapidly changes. Understanding these rapid changes is key...

  6. Crevicular Fluid Biomarkers and Periodontal Disease Progression (United States)

    Oh, Min; Braun, Thomas M.; Ramseier, Christoph A.; Sugai, Jim V.; Giannobile, William V.


    Aim Assess the ability of a panel of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers as predictors of periodontal disease progression (PDP). Materials and Methods 100 individuals participated in a 12-month longitudinal investigation and categorized into 4 groups according to their periodontal status. GCF, clinical parameters, and saliva were collected bi-monthly. Sub-gingival plaque and serum were collected bi-annually. For 6 months, no periodontal treatment was provided. At 6-months, patients received periodontal therapy and continued participation from 6-12 months. GCF samples were analyzed by ELISA for MMP-8, MMP-9, OPG, CRP and IL-1β. Differences in median levels of GCF biomarkers were compared between stable and progressing participants using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (p=0.05). Clustering algorithm was used to evaluate the ability of oral biomarkers to classify patients as either stable or progressing. Results Eighty-three individuals completed the 6-month monitoring phase. With the exception of GCF C-reactive protein, all biomarkers were significantly higher in the PDP group compared to stable patients. Clustering analysis showed highest sensitivity levels when biofilm pathogens and GCF biomarkers were combined with clinical measures, 74% (95% CI = 61,86). Conclusions Signature of GCF fluid-derived biomarkers combined with pathogens and clinical measures provides a sensitive measure for discrimination of PDP ( NCT00277745). PMID:24303954

  7. Determining the Correlation Between Three and Seven Day Records of Fluids Consumption to Determine an Appropriate Method for Estimating the Amount and Type of Fluids Intake in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Different methods are used for adequate fluid intake assessment, while there is no standard method for adequate fluid intake assessment. Objectives The current pilot study aimed to evaluate the amount, type and frequency of fluids consumption to determine the correlation between three- and seven-day records. Methods This pilot cross-sectional study was done on 30 adult subjects in Ahvaz, Iran during year 2014. Demographic data were collected via a questionnaire and fluids consumption was assessed with a seven days records questionnaire. For data analyses the SPSS 16 software was used. Results Results of this cross-sectional study showed that the average total daily fluids consumption was 1.6 liter. Total fluids consumption for each subject on average in three and seven days was 4.5 and 11 liter, respectively. Water was the major fluid, which the participants consumed and tea was the second item. Total amount and frequency of fluids intake were not significantly different between three and seven-day records (P = 0.287, (P = 0.546. Conclusions This study showed that there was no significant difference between the record of seven and three days of fluids consumption in the participants and it is suggested that three-day records is useful in order to determine fluids intake.

  8. Sphingosine-1-phosphate in the lymphatic fluid determined by novel methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Nagahashi


    Conclusions: In agreement with the previous theory, our results confirm “S1P gradient” among blood, lymphatic fluid and peripheral lymphatic tissues. Convenient methods for collection and measurement of sphingolipids in lymphatic fluid are expected to provide new insights on functions of sphingolipids.

  9. Boundary effect in electrorheological fluids. (United States)

    Gong, X L; Yang, F; Xuan, S H; Zong, L H; Zhu, W; Jiang, W Q


    The effect of the boundary friction coefficient on the rheological properties of the electrorheological (ER) fluids in quasistatic and dynamic states is investigated by computer simulation. The relation between the shear stress and the boundary friction coefficient in quasistatic and dynamic states is discussed qualitatively and quantitatively, and the trend matches the previously reported experimental results well. The flow curves of ER fluids, under different friction coefficients, are calculated, and it is found that the friction coefficient affects the flow curves. In two dimensions, the transitions in structure corresponding to the shear stress variations are presented to understand the mechanism of ER fluids.

  10. Finite element computational fluid mechanics (United States)

    Baker, A. J.


    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  11. Message Passing in computational fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Argentini, G


    In this paper we present the concept of MPF, Message Passing Fluid, an abstract fluid where the molecules move by mean of the informations that they exchange each other, on the basis of rules and methods of a generalized Cellular Automaton. The model is intended for a simulation by mean of message passing libraries on the field of parallel computing, which seems to offer a natural environment for this subject. The first results show that by mean of simple mathematical models it's possible to obtain realistic simulations of fluid motion, in the case of a general geometry too.

  12. Molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Lloyd L


    Molecular Thermodynamics of Nonideal Fluids serves as an introductory presentation for engineers to the concepts and principles behind and the advances in molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids. The book covers related topics such as the laws of thermodynamics; entropy; its ensembles; the different properties of the ideal gas; and the structure of liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as integral equation theories; theories for polar fluids; solution thermodynamics; and molecular dynamics. The text is recommended for engineers who would like to be familiarized with the concept

  13. Basic developments in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Maurice


    Basic Developments in Fluid Dynamics, Volume 2 focuses on the developments, approaches, methodologies, reactions, and processes involved in fluid dynamics, including sea motion, wave interactions, and motion of spheres in a viscous fluid.The selection first offers information on inviscid cavity and wake flows and weak-interaction theory of ocean waves. Discussions focus on steady and unsteady cavity flows, radiation balance, theory of weak interactions in random fields, interactions between gravity waves and the atmosphere, and interactions within the ocean. The text then examines low Reynolds

  14. Fluid intelligence: A brief history. (United States)

    Kent, Phillip


    The concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence was introduced to the psychological community approximately 75 years ago by Raymond B. Cattell, and it continues to be an area of active research and controversy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the origin of the concept, early efforts to define intelligence and uses of intelligence tests to address pressing social issues, and the ongoing controversies associated with fluid intelligence and the structure of intelligence. The putative neuropsychological underpinnings and neurological substrates of fluid intelligence are discussed.

  15. Advances in Environmental Fluid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailovic, Dragutin T


    Environmental fluid mechanics (EFM) is the scientific study of transport, dispersion and transformation processes in natural fluid flows on our planet Earth, from the microscale to the planetary scale. This book brings together scientists and engineers working in research institutions, universities and academia, who engage in the study of theoretical, modeling, measuring and software aspects in environmental fluid mechanics. It provides a forum for the participants, and exchanges new ideas and expertise through the presentations of up-to-date and recent overall achievements in this field.

  16. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database (United States)

    Patel, Kishan


    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  17. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael


    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  18. An overview of the statistical properties of two-dimensional turbulence in fluids with particles, conducting fluids, fluids with polymer additives, binary-fluid mixtures, and superfluids (United States)

    Pandit, Rahul; Banerjee, Debarghya; Bhatnagar, Akshay; Brachet, Marc; Gupta, Anupam; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pal, Nairita; Perlekar, Prasad; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Shukla, Vishwanath; Vincenzi, Dario


    We present an overview of the statistical properties of turbulence in two-dimensional (2D) fluids. After a brief recapitulation of well-known results for statistically homogeneous and isotropic 2D fluid turbulence, we give an overview of recent progress in this field for such 2D turbulence in conducting fluids, fluids with polymer additives, binary-fluid mixtures, and superfluids; we also discuss the statistical properties of particles advected by 2D turbulent fluids.

  19. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid distribution of ibuprofen after intravenous administration in children. (United States)

    Kokki, Hannu; Kumpulainen, Elina; Lehtonen, Marko; Laisalmi, Merja; Heikkinen, Marja; Savolainen, Jouko; Rautio, Jarkko


    Ibuprofen is the most commonly used nonsteroidal, antipyretic, antiinflammatory analgesic in children. Nonsteroidal, antipyretic, antiinflammatory analgesics act in both the peripheral tissues and the central nervous system. The central nervous system penetration of ibuprofen has been described in adults but not in children. Our goals were to investigate the cerebrospinal fluid penetration of ibuprofen in children and evaluate the analgesic plasma concentration of ibuprofen after inguinal surgery in children. A total 36 healthy children (25 boys) aged 3 months to 12 years received a single intravenous injection of ibuprofen (10 mg/kg). A paired cerebrospinal fluid and blood sample was obtained 10 minutes to 8 hours after the injection. In children having inguinal surgery, a second blood sample was obtained at the time that the child first had wound pain. The ibuprofen level was determined in all cerebrospinal fluid and plasma samples. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations ranged between 15 and 541 microg/L, and the highest concentrations were measured 30 to 38 minutes after dosing. In all cerebrospinal fluid samples collected after 30 minutes, ibuprofen concentration exceeded that of unbound plasma. The plasma analgesic concentrations after inguinal surgery ranged between 10 and 25 mg/L. Ibuprofen penetrates the cerebrospinal fluid readily, with peak concentrations attained 30 to 40 minutes after intravenous injection of a 10 mg/kg dose. The plasma analgesic concentration after inguinal surgery with spinal anesthesia is 10 to 25 mg/L.

  1. Serum and peritoneal fluid antiendometrial antibodies in assisted reproduction. (United States)

    Randall, Gary W; Bush, Stephen; Gantt, Pickens A


    To study the impact of surgically verified endometriosis and serum and peritoneal fluid antiendometrial antibodies (AEA) on pregnancy outcomes in gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients using assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Surgical evaluation of endometriosis and collection of serum and peritoneal fluid was performed at the time of laparoscopy. For patients who did not undergo laparoscopy, only serum samples were obtained. Sera and peritoneal fluid were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for AEA. There was no correlation between surgically verified endometriosis, serum or peritoneal fluid AEA and clinical pregnancy in patients undergoing ART. There was no significant difference in surgically verified endometriosis in patients who delivered and those who miscarried (p < 0.0594), whereas serum (p < 0.0223) and peritoneal fluid (p < 0.0032) AEA showed differences. In the total group of 352 ART patients, positive serum AEA was statistically significant in those who miscarried vs. those who delivered (p < 0.0000). Endometriosis does not significantly impair the pregnancy potential of ART patients, but it may be associated with miscarriage. The presence of serum and peritoneal fluid AEA correlate better with miscarriage than surgically verified endometriosis.

  2. Osteoarthritis screening using Raman spectroscopy of dried human synovial fluid drops (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Raaii, Farhang; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.


    We describe the use of Raman spectroscopy to investigate synovial fluid drops deposited onto fused silica microscope slides. This spectral information can be used to identify chemical changes in synovial fluid associated with osteoarthritis (OA) damage to knee joints. The chemical composition of synovial fluid is predominately proteins (enzymes, cytokines, or collagen fragments), glycosaminoglycans, and a mixture of minor components such as inorganic phosphate crystals. During osteoarthritis, the chemical, viscoelastic and biological properties of synovial fluid are altered. A pilot study was conducted to determine if Raman spectra of synovial fluid correlated with radiological scoring of knee joint damage. After informed consent, synovial fluid was drawn and x-rays were collected from the knee joints of 40 patients. Raman spectra and microscope images were obtained from the dried synovial fluid drops using a Raman microprobe and indicate a coarse separation of synovial fluid components. Individual protein signatures could not be identified; Raman spectra were useful as a general marker of overall protein content and secondary structure. Band intensity ratios used to describe protein and glycosaminoglycan structure were used in synovial fluid spectra. Band intensity ratios of Raman spectra indicate that there is less ordered protein secondary structure in synovial fluid from the damage group. Combination of drop deposition with Raman spectroscopy is a powerful approach to examining synovial fluid for the purposes of assessing osteoarthritis damage.

  3. Fluid Mechanics Can Be Fun. (United States)

    Blanks, Robert F.


    A humanistic approach to teaching fluid mechanics is described which minimizes lecturing, increases professor-student interaction, uses group and individual problem solving sessions, and allows for student response. (BB)

  4. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek


    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  5. Improved perfluoroalkyl ether fluid development (United States)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Paciorek, Kazimiera J. L.; Nakahara, James H.; Smythe, Mark E.; Kratzer, Reinhold H.


    The feasibility of transforming a commercial linear perfluoroalkylether fluid into a material stable in the presence of metals and metal alloys in oxidizing atmospheres at 300 C without the loss of the desirable viscosity temperature characteristics was determined. The approach consisted of thermal oxidative treatment in the presence of catalyst to remove weak links, followed by transformation of the created functional groups into phospha-s-triazine linkages. It is found that the experimental material obtained in 66 percent yield from the commercial fluid exhibits, over an 8 hr period at 300 C in the presence of Ti(4Al, 4Mn) alloy, thermal oxidative stability better by a factor of 2.6 x 1000 based on volatiles evolved than the commercial product. The viscosity and molecular weight of the developed fluid are unchanged and are essentially identical with the commercial material. No metal corrosion occurs with the experimental fluid at 300 C.

  6. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics (United States)

    ... this page: // Heart failure - fluids and diuretics To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is ...

  7. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.


    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  8. Vitamin Fortification of Fluid Milk. (United States)

    Yeh, Eileen B; Barbano, David M; Drake, MaryAnne


    Vitamin concentrates with vitamins A and D are used for fortification of fluid milk. Although many of the degradation components of vitamins A and D have an important role in flavor/fragrance applications, they may also be source(s) of off-flavor(s) in vitamin fortified milk due to their heat, oxygen, and the light sensitivity. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how vitamin concentrates can impact flavor and flavor stability of fluid milk. Currently, little research on vitamin degradation products can be found with respect to flavor contributions. In this review, the history, regulations, processing, and storage stability of vitamins in fluid milk are addressed along with some hypotheses for the role of vitamin A and D fortification on flavor and stability of fluid milk. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of cryogenic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Leachman, Jacob; Lemmon, Eric; Penoncello, Steven


    This update to a classic reference text provides practising engineers and scientists with accurate thermophysical property data for cryogenic fluids. The equations for fifteen important cryogenic fluids are presented in a basic format, accompanied by pressure-enthalpy and temperature-entropy charts and tables of thermodynamic properties. It begins with a chapter introducing the thermodynamic relations and functional forms for equations of state, and goes on to describe the requirements for thermodynamic property formulations, needed for the complete definition of the thermodynamic properties of a fluid. The core of the book comprises extensive data tables and charts for the most commonly-encountered cryogenic fluids. This new edition sees significant updates to the data presented for air, argon, carbon monoxide, deuterium, ethane, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen and xenon. The book supports and complements NIST’s REFPROP - an interactive database and tool for the calculation of thermodynamic propertie...

  10. Spherically symmetric perfect fluid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj-Boutros, J.


    Many exact solutions for the spherically symmetric perfect fluid distribution of matter with shear, acceleration, and expansion are obtained. One of them is expressed in terms of Painleve's third transcendent.

  11. Detection of occult hepatitis B in serum and oral fluid samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyra Machado Portilho

    Full Text Available In occult hepatitis B infection (OBI, hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA can be detected in serum samples; however, oral fluid collection for detection of HBV DNA has not yet been explored, despite the availability of collection devices. Serum and oral fluid samples from 45 hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc-positive patients were collected for the amplification of the HBV polymerase gene. HBV DNA was detected in five serum and four oral fluid samples (the detection limit for oral fluid was 1.656 log IU/mL in paired serum. In conclusion, simple methodologies of sample collection and in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR allowed detection of HBV DNA, and these could be used to improve the diagnosis of OBI, especially in locations with limited resources.

  12. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid in sports medicine: potential and limitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nunes, Lázaro Alessandro Soares; Macedo, Denise Vaz de


    ... mostly a less invasive method in comparison with venous blood collection. The saliva is a hypotonic fluid in relation to plasma, containing compounds produced in the salivary glands (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and α-amylase...

  13. Minocycline effects on the cerebrospinal fluid proteome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, M.P.; Rosenling, T.; Attali, A.; Meesters, R.J.; Stingl, C.; Dekker, L.J.; Aken, H. van; Suidgeest, E.; Hintzen, R.Q.; Tuinstra, T.; Gool, A.J. van; Luider, T.M.; Bischoff, R.


    To identify response biomarkers for pharmaceutical treatment of multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and treated symptomatic animals with minocycline. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected 14 days after EAE induction at the peak of

  14. Minocycline Effects on the Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteome of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, Marcel P.; Rosenling, Therese; Attali, Amos; Meesters, Roland J. W.; Stingl, Christoph; Dekker, Lennard J.; van Aken, Hans; Suidgeest, Ernst; Hintzen, Rogier Q.; Tuinstra, Tinka; van Gool, Alain; Luider, Theo M.; Bischoff, Rainer


    To identify response biomarkers for pharmaceutical treatment of multiple sclerosis, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rats and treated symptomatic animals with minocycline. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected 14 days after EAE induction at the peak of

  15. Surgical Robotics Under Fluid Power


    Berg, Devin


    Existing robotic surgical platforms face limitations which include the balance between the scale of the robot and its capability. These limitations can be overcome by taking advantage of fluid power as an enabling technology with its inherent power density and controllability. The adaptation of fluid power for this purpose involves many challenges such as miniaturization of the necessary components and identifying the unique requirements of the surgical field. These challenges were explored t...

  16. Hamiltonian analysis of interacting fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Mitra, Arpan Krishna [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India); Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata (India)


    Ideal fluid dynamics is studied as a relativistic field theory with particular stress on its hamiltonian structure. The Schwinger condition, whose integrated version yields the stress tensor conservation, is explicitly verified both in equal-time and light-cone coordinate systems. We also consider the hamiltonian formulation of fluids interacting with an external gauge field. The complementary roles of the canonical (Noether) stress tensor and the symmetric one obtained by metric variation are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid (United States)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan


    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  18. Intravenous fluid use in athletes. (United States)

    Givan, Gordon V; Diehl, Jason J


    Time allowing, euhydration can be achieved in the vast majority of individuals by drinking and eating normal beverages and meals. Important to the competitive athlete is prevention and treatment of dehydration and exercise-associated muscle cramps, as they are linked to a decline in athletic performance. Intravenous (IV) prehydration and rehydration has been proposed as an ergogenic aid to achieve euhydration more effectively and efficiently. PubMed database was searched in November 2011 for all English-language articles related to IV utilization in sport using the keywords intravenous, fluid requirements, rehydration, hydration, athlete, sport, exercise, volume expansion, and performance. Limited evidence exists for prehydration with IV fluids. Although anecdotal evidence does exist, at this time there are no high-level studies confirming that IV prehydration prevents dehydration or the onset of exercise-associated muscle cramps. Currently, there are no published studies describing IV fluid use during the course of an event, at intermission, or after the event as an ergogenic aid. The use of IV fluid may be beneficial for a subset of fluid-sensitive athletes; this should be reserved for high-level athletes with strong histories of symptoms in well-monitored settings. Volume expanders may also be beneficial for some athletes. IV fluids and plasma binders are not allowed in World Anti-Doping Agency-governed competitions. Routine IV therapy cannot be recommended as best practice for the majority of athletes.

  19. Fluid intake behavior in athletes during typical training bouts. (United States)

    Buoite Stella, Alex; Francescato, Maria P; Sims, Stacy T; Morrison, Shawnda A


    Hydration habits during training may differ depending on sports mode and individual characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess fluid intake behavior in a wide sample of Italian athletes during their regular training. Data on hydration habits during training were collected from a random sample of competitive athletes. Hydration strategies and personal characteristics were queried via questionnaire, including athletes' quantity and type of fluid ingested during a typical training bout, sport characteristics (e.g. mode and training duration), and whether their coach encouraged them to drink during trainings. Three hundred and fifty-two competitive athletes participated to the study; two hundred eighty-nine athletes correctly completed all survey items (age: 8-63 years, median: 21±13 years). Athletes were involved in international (3.1%), national (34.1%) and regional (44.9%) competitions. Median fluid intakes during training were 0.25 L/h; 150 athletes reported fluid intake below the median, whilst 23 athletes (6.5% of total sample) reported fluid intake at or above currently published exercise hydration guidelines (NATA and ACSM). Binary logistic regression indicated that the number of pauses to drink (B=0.771, P=0.000), duration of a typical training bout (B=-2.237, P=0.000), and a coach's encouragement to drink (B=0.601, P=0.030) were each associated with fluid consumption above or below the median value. Athletes across all disciplines reported drinking less fluid during training than currently espoused in hydration guidelines. A coach's encouragement to drink, the number of pauses during training, and bout duration each influence total fluid volume consumed, regardless of competition level, sex or the age of an athlete.

  20. Fluid resuscitation for critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-hu ZHOU


    Full Text Available Fluid overload is frequently found in patients with intravenous fluid resuscitation, and recent studies showed the potential risks of fluid overload for organ failure and mortality. To avoid volume overload and its associated complications, strategies to identify fluid responsiveness are necessary. Apart from the amount of fluid utilized for resuscitation, the type of fluid used also impacts patient outcome. In recent years, there has also been an increasing focus on comparing various resuscitation fluids with respect to both benefits and risks. In this article, through analyzing the impact of fluid overload on patient outcome, we describe the differences in static and dynamic estimates of fluid responsiveness, and review the current literature regarding choice of intravenous fluids for resuscitation in critically ill patients to help clinicians to make appropriative decision on intravenous fluids prescription and to optimize patient outcome. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.02.04

  1. Evaluation of cellular and biochemical parameters of blood and peritoneal fluid following enterectomy in the goat. (United States)

    Nazifi; Dehghani; Barzegar


    To evaluate the effects of enterectomy on cellular and biochemical parameters of blood and peritoneal fluid, an experiment was conducted using 10 Iranian crossbred male goats. Ten milliliter of blood and 1-1.5ml of peritoneal fluid were sampled from all animals prior to operation for the estimation of control values. Enterectomy was performed under local anesthesia. Blood and peritoneal fluid samples were collected at 24, 48, 72 and 96h after enterectomy. The results revealed that after enterectomy, the number of WBCs, neutrophils, monocytes and band neutrophils in the blood significantly increased (penterectomy can have profound effects on blood and peritoneal fluid parameters.

  2. Shocks, singularities and oscillations in nonlinear optics and fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Santo, Daniele; Lannes, David


    The book collects the most relevant results from the INdAM Workshop "Shocks, Singularities and Oscillations in Nonlinear Optics and Fluid Mechanics" held in Rome, September 14-18, 2015. The contributions discuss recent major advances in the study of nonlinear hyperbolic systems, addressing general theoretical issues such as symmetrizability, singularities, low regularity or dispersive perturbations. It also investigates several physical phenomena where such systems are relevant, such as nonlinear optics, shock theory (stability, relaxation) and fluid mechanics (boundary layers, water waves, Euler equations, geophysical flows, etc.). It is a valuable resource for researchers in these fields. .

  3. Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants in Gamble’s Fluid: Is the Fluid Toxic? Can It Be Made Safer by Inclusion of Solid Nanocrystalline Metal Oxides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Karote


    Full Text Available The reactions of chemical warfare agent simulants, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES and di-i-propyl fluoro phosphate (DFP, in fluids have been investigated. Data analyses confirm the major degradation pathway to be hydrolysis of 2-CEES to 2-hydroxyethyl ethyl sulfide, along with minor self-condensation products. Among the three fluids examined, 2-CEES degradation was the fastest in Gamble’s fluid during a 96 h period. Upon addition of Exceptional Hazard Attenuation Materials (EHAMs to 2-CEES containing Gamble’s fluid, degradation was generally improved during the first 24 h period. The 96 h outcome was similar for fluid samples with or without EHAM 2 and EHAM 4. EHAM 1-added fluid contained only one degradation product, 2-nitroethyl ethyl sulfide. DFP degradation was the slowest in Gamble’s fluid, but was enhanced by the addition of EHAMs. FTIR and solid state 31P NMR confirm the destructive adsorption of 2-CEES and DFP by the EHAMs. The results collectively demonstrate that 2-CEES and DFP decompose to various extents in Gamble’s fluid over a 96 h period but the fluid still contains a considerable amount of intact simulant. EHAM 1 appears to be promising for 2-CEES and DFP mitigation while EHAM 2 and EHAM 4 work well for early on concentration reduction of 2-CEES and DFP.

  4. Dynamics of particle clusters at fluid/fluid interfaces (United States)

    Madhavan, Srinath; Minev, Peter; Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy


    This talk is oriented toward research that describes the hydrodynamics of dense (relative to the lower fluid in a gravitational field) rigid particles at fluid-fluid interfaces through Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Understanding the factors that control the formation and stability of the complex rag layer (typically encountered during oil-water separation) is a motivation for the current study. The fundamental aspects of the problem at hand bear a connection with the formation of tight clusters of floating particles. Strong capillary forces are thought to promote this behavior. One of the challenges toward realizing the same in a numerical simulation is the implementation of a physically realistic boundary condition for the three phase moving contact line (MCL). To this end, we implement the recently proposed continuum form of the Generalized Navier Boundary Condition (Gerbeau and Lelievre, 2009) in a levelset and fictitious-domain based finite-element scheme and demonstrate its usefulness and accuracy through case studies.

  5. Fluid Mechanics An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Durst, Franz


    Advancements of fluid flow measuring techniques and of computational methods have led to new ways to treat laminar and turbulent flows. These methods are extensively used these days in research and engineering practise. This also requires new ways to teach the subject to students at higher educational institutions in an introductory manner. The book provides the knowledge to students in engineering and natural science needed to enter fluid mechanics applications in various fields. Analytical treatments are provided, based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Introductions are also given into numerical and experimental methods applied to flows. The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is a sound introduction into all aspects of fluid mechanics covering all relevant subfields.

  6. 7 CFR 2902.41 - Metalworking fluids. (United States)


    ... operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking fluids for which... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metalworking fluids. 2902.41 Section 2902.41... Items § 2902.41 Metalworking fluids. (a) Definition. (1) Fluids that are designed to provide cooling...

  7. Fluid therapy in the emergency unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solutions, e.g. 0.2% saline. How much fluid? When shock is diagnosed fluid resuscitation should commence with a rapid (over 5 - 10 min) bolus infusion of 20 ml/kg isotonic crystalloid,. e.g. Ringer's lactate. During the period of rapid bolus fluid therapy check for signs of fluid overload (laboured respiration, chest crackles,.

  8. Arithmetic and algebraic problem solving and resource allocation: the distinct impact of fluid and numerical intelligence. (United States)

    Dix, Annika; van der Meer, Elke


    This study investigates cognitive resource allocation dependent on fluid and numerical intelligence in arithmetic/algebraic tasks varying in difficulty. Sixty-six 11th grade students participated in a mathematical verification paradigm, while pupil dilation as a measure of resource allocation was collected. Students with high fluid intelligence solved the tasks faster and more accurately than those with average fluid intelligence, as did students with high compared to average numerical intelligence. However, fluid intelligence sped up response times only in students with average but not high numerical intelligence. Further, high fluid but not numerical intelligence led to greater task-related pupil dilation. We assume that fluid intelligence serves as a domain-general resource that helps to tackle problems for which domain-specific knowledge (numerical intelligence) is missing. The allocation of this resource can be measured by pupil dilation. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Microbiology of Water and Fluids for Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Nystrand


    Full Text Available In hemodialysis, huge amounts of water are used for diluting the concentrates to produce dialysis fluid. The water is pro-duced on site by reverse osmosis units. The chemical and microbiological quality of the water is essential for dialysis patients. Reverse osmosis units produce water of acceptable chemical quality that can be kept throughout the water system. The microbiological water quality, on the other hand, does not depend on the reverse osmosis unit but on the maintenance of the whole water system. All over the world, dialysis units take water samples and send them to laborato-ries for cultivation and endotoxin tests. Depending on the method of microbiological analysis, the water may be judged to be very good even if in reality it is much worse and outside of standard recommendations. When standardizing the meth-ods with adequate cultivation of water samples, the accuracy of the tests will be better, and as a result, dialysis units can use their resources for keeping the water systems in good shape, i.e. disinfect preventively and frequently and use less effort in collecting samples. This will benefit patients, who will receive a high-quality dialysis fluid, thus eliminating the effects of microbiological impacts such as increased levels of inflammation markers (e.g. C-reactive protein. In the situation of performing hemodiafiltration by producing the substitution fluid “on-line”, it is even more important to have a sensitive method of microbiological verification to follow-up the hygienic quality. [J Chin Med Assoc 2008;71(5:223–229


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett


    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  11. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.


    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  12. Fluid science laboratory for Columbus, executive summary (United States)

    Defilippi, V.


    The role of the fluid science laboratory (FSL) on Columbus; FSL scientific objectives; and Columbus resources and interfaces to FSL are summarized. The FSL concept comprises a fully contained fluid facility, a partially contained fluid facility, a containerless fluid facility, and a convection controlled fluid facility; two double racks; non dedicated containers for fluids, and conditioning loops; fully automated working; diagnostic techniques; and possibilities to intervene when changing fluids, diagnostics, stimuli, or geometric environmental conditions. A power conditioning subsystem is necessary. A man tended free flyer option is also feasible.

  13. Polyalkylene glycols, base fluids for special lubricants and hydraulic fluids; Polyalkylenglykole, Basisoele fuer Spezialschmierstoffe und Hydraulikfluessigkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellmann, K. [Clariant GmbH (Germany)


    For many years polyalkylene glycols have been used as base fluids for special lubricants. In this matter they compete with polyol esters and polyalphaolefines. Synthesis of polyalkylen glycols is founded upon the anionic polymerisation of ethyleneoxid, propyleneoxid and if necessary of other oxigen-containing monomeres. The flexibility of this synthesis is the reason that polyalkylene glycole is a collective term, including a broad group of base fluids with partly extreme different properties. Typical for polyalkylene glycols is a high viscosity-index, watersolubility and adsorbing power for water, low friction numbers, but also the incompatibility with current mineral-oil-soluble additive systems. Because of this quality profile there has been developped specific niche-applications in the lubricant-area for polyalkylene glycols in the last 30 years, where each of the specific benefits has been used. Among them are watercontaining HFC hydraulicfluids, refrigerator oils, and oils for ethylene-compressors. HFC fluids are formulated with high-viscous, water-soluble polyalkylene glycols. For refrigerator oils in motor-car conditioning the R 134A compatibility of water-insoluble polyalkylene glycols is essential. For the use in ethylene-compressors the crucial point is the insolubility of polyalkylene glycol in ethylene. (orig.)

  14. Retroclival collections associated with abusive head trauma in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvera, V.M.; Danehy, Amy R.; Carducci, Chiara; Grant, P.E.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Newton, Alice W. [Harvard Medical School, Child Protection Program, Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Stamoulis, Catherine [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurology, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Wilson, Celeste R. [Harvard Medical School, Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Medicine, Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)


    Retroclival collections are rare lesions reported almost exclusively in children and strongly associated with trauma. We examine the incidence and imaging characteristics of retroclival collections in young children with abusive head trauma. We conducted a database search to identify children with abusive head trauma ≤3 years of age with brain imaging performed between 2007 and 2013. Clinical data and brain images of 65 children were analyzed. Retroclival collections were identified in 21 of 65 (32%) children. Ten (48%) were subdural, 3 (14%) epidural, 2 (10%) both, and 6 (28%) indeterminate. Only 8 of 21 retroclival collections were identifiable on CT and most were low or intermediate in attenuation. Eighteen of 21 retroclival collections were identifiable on MRI: 3 followed cerebral spinal fluid in signal intensity and 15 were bloody/proteinaceous. Additionally, 2 retroclival collections demonstrated a fluid-fluid level and 2 enhanced in the 5 children who received contrast material. Sagittal T1-weighted images, sagittal fluid-sensitive sequences, and axial FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) images showed the retroclival collections best. Retroclival collections were significantly correlated with supratentorial and posterior fossa subdural hematomas and were not statistically correlated with skull fracture or parenchymal brain injury. Retroclival collections, previously considered rare lesions strongly associated with accidental injury, were commonly identified in this cohort of children with abusive head trauma, suggesting that retroclival collections are an important component of the imaging spectrum in abusive head trauma. Retroclival collections were better demonstrated on MRI than CT, were commonly identified in conjunction with intracranial subdural hematomas, and were not significantly correlated with the severity of brain injury or with skull fractures. (orig.)

  15. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications. (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C; Sin, Mandy L Y; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin


    Alternating current (AC) electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration, and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in nontraditional health care settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics-based diagnostic systems. In this review, AC electrokinetic phenomena in conductive physiological fluids are described followed by a review of the basic microfluidic operations and the recent biomedical applications of AC electrokinetics. The future prospects of AC electrokinetics for clinical diagnostics are presented. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  16. Determining fluid and gas flow distribution within separation apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remizov, N.A.


    This study considered fluid and gas flow distribution in existing industrial separator units. The author found that overall hydraulic resistance was not identical in these units, resulting from variables in the gas-fluid mixtures' movement between the distribution points and the separator units. Separator loads were found to be imbalanced due to the imperfect design of these units. Load equalization could be obtained by way of achieving simultaneous pulsation suppression in distribution lines. Pulsation suppression itself is achieved through the use of a separation phase in collection pipelines followed by individual flow separation. Gas and fluid are thus introduced into the distribution pipeline and separator separately. Separator design dimensions and parameters are given along with suggestions for their application. Long-term industrial experience with flow separators has shown that these units not only require minimal operating expenditure, but also are highly reliable and effective.

  17. Hypotonic versus isotonic maintenance fluids in critically ill children: a multicenter prospective randomized study. (United States)

    Rey, Corsino; Los-Arcos, Marta; Hernández, Arturo; Sánchez, Amelia; Díaz, Juan-José; López-Herce, Jesús


    Study the influence of hypotonic (HT) and isotonic (IT) maintenance fluids in the incidence of dysnatraemias in critically ill children. Prospective, randomized study conducted in three paediatric intensive care units (PICU). One hundred and twenty-five children requiring maintenance fluid therapy were included: 62 received HT fluids (50-70 mmol/L tonicity) and 63 IT fluids (156 mmol/L tonicity). Age, weight, cause of admission, sodium and fluid intake, and diuresis were collected. Blood electrolytes were measured on admission, 12 and 24 h later. Blood sodium levels at 12 h were 133.7±2.7 mmol/L in HT group vs. 136.8±3.5 mmol/L in IT group (p=0.001). Adjusted for age, weight and sodium level at PICU admission, the blood sodium values of patients receiving HT fluids decrease by 3.22 mmol/L (CI: 4.29/2.15)(p=0.000). Adjusted for age, weight and hyponatraemia incidence at admission, patients receiving HT fluids increased the risk of hyponatraemia by 5.8-fold (CI: 2.4-14.0) during the study period (p=0.000). Hypotonic maintenance fluids increase the incidence of hyponatraemia because they decrease blood sodium levels in normonatraemic patients. IT maintenance fluids do not increase the incidence of dysnatraemias and should be considered as the standard maintenance fluids. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  18. Fluid Therapy: Options and Rational Selection. (United States)

    Byers, Christopher G


    Administration of appropriate types and volumes of parenteral fluids is of paramount importance when treating sick and debilitated patients, especially those fighting critical illness. Fluid selection and accurate calculations must be performed logically and accurately to maximize positive outcomes. Knowledge of fluid types, as well as the complex relationship of the body's fluid compartments, helps clinicians develop rational fluid therapy plans for their patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human neuroglobin protein in cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whalen Gail


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroglobin is a hexacoordinated member of the globin family of proteins. It is predominantly localized to various brain regions and retina where it may play a role in protection against ischemia and nitric oxide-induced neural injury. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 12 chronic regional or systemic pain and 5 control subjects. Proteins were precipitated by addition of 50% 0.2 N acetic acid, 50% ethanol, 0.02% sodium bisulfite. The pellet was extensively digested with trypsin. Peptides were separated by capillary liquid chromatography using a gradient from 95% water to 95% acetonitrile in 0.2% formic acid, and eluted through a nanoelectrospray ionization interface into a quadrapole – time-of-flight dual mass spectrometer (QToF2, Waters, Milford, MA. Peptides were sequenced (PepSeq, MassLynx v3.5 and proteins identified using MASCOT ®. Results Six different neuroglobin peptides were identified in various combinations in 3 of 9 female pain subjects, but none in male pain, or female or male control subjects. Conclusion This is the first description of neuroglobin in cerebrospinal fluid. The mechanism(s leading to its release in chronic pain states remain to be defined.

  20. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W


    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  1. Fluid replacement in burned patients. (United States)

    Bortolani, A; Governa, M; Barisoni, D


    Burn injury involves a large amount of water, electrolytes and proteins loss trough the burn wound. For this reason, to avoid shock, a wide infusion of fluid is necessary in the first hours after trauma. Many reanimation formulas were proposed in the past years, with different composition: saline, colloids, plasma. The authors have studied 40 burned patients admitted in Verona Burn Center within 4 hours after burn, with burns over 30% of the body surface area. Twenty of them were treated with Baxter reanimation formula (ringer lactated saline, RLS) while the others with Monafo hypertonic lactated saline (HLS), modified by Milan Burn Center. The two randomized groups were assessed and compared. In RLS group total fluid volume infused was higher while sodium requirements was lower than in HLS patients, with statistically significative difference (p electrolytes balance with lower fluid load, reducing tissue oedema and complication rate. Mortality rate was higher in HLS, may be for an higher Roy index in this group.

  2. Rotational superradiance in fluid laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke


    Rotational superradiance has been predicted theoretically decades ago, and is the chief responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behaviour of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. By confining the superradiant modes near the rotating cylinder, an instability sets in. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and hence offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.

  3. Early Management and Fluid Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Yorgancı


    Full Text Available Initial management of severely burned patient is similar with a trauma victim. Determination of airway patency, evaluation of respiration and circulation, early recognition of concomitant trauma has vital importance in burn patients. In the early phase, mortality mainly depends on missed or un-treated severe injuries or pathologies, but not burn injury itself.In patients that have TBSA greater than 15 %, fluid resuscitation should be started. In the first 24 hours, crystalloid solutions should be preferred. .Several formulas can guide fluid resuscitation; however the amount of fluid that is given to the patient should be individualized according to the patient’s need. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 7-10

  4. Fluid fragmentation from hospital toilets

    CERN Document Server

    Traverso, G; Lu, C -C; Maa, R; Langer, R; Bourouiba, L


    Hospital-acquired infections represent significant health and financial burdens to society. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a particularly challenging bacteria with the potential to cause severe diarrhea and death. One mode of transmission for C. difficile, as well as other pathogens, which has received little attention is the potential air contamination by pathogen-bearing droplets emanating from toilets. In the fluid dynamics video submitted to the APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion 2013, we present flow visualizations via high-speed recordings showing the capture of the product of the fluid fragmentation generated by hospital toilet high-pressure flushes. Important quantities of both large and small droplets are observed. We illustrate how high-pressure flushes and cleaning products currently used in hospital toilets result in aggravating, rather than alleviating, the suspension and recirculation of tenacious airborne pathogen-bearing droplets.

  5. IV fluids. Where are we currently with fluid administration in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this ubiquitous endothelial layer probably holds the key to the distribution of fluid amongst the body compartments. It is well documented that there is a loss of integrity with regard to the glycocalyx in the clinical scenario physicians' recognise as the “leaky capillary”. The glycocalyx is susceptible to damage by many of the ...

  6. Editorial Special Issue on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research in bio-fluid mechanics has tremendous growth recently, partly to address important questions in biological systems, like clogging of arteries, and partly to see if we can develop new engineering systems mimicking natural ones. The recent editorial by Prof. N. Viswanadham "Why Sadhana?" (Vol. 39, June 2014, p.

  7. Current Knowledge on Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid (United States)

    Lee, Dayong; Huestis, Marilyn A.


    Oral fluid (OF) is a new biological matrix for clinical and forensic drug testing, offering non-invasive and directly observable sample collection reducing adulteration potential, ease of multiple sample collections, lower biohazard risk during collection, recent exposure identification, and stronger correlation with blood than urine concentrations. Because cannabinoids are usually the most prevalent analytes in illicit drug testing, application of OF drug testing requires sufficient scientific data to support sensitive and specific OF cannabinoid detection. This review presents current knowledge on OF cannabinoids, evaluating pharmacokinetic properties, detection windows, and correlation with other biological matrices and impairment from field applications and controlled drug administration studies. In addition, on-site screening technologies, confirmatory analytical methods, drug stability, and effects of sample collection procedure, adulterants, and passive environmental exposure are reviewed. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol OF concentrations could be > 1000 μg/L shortly after smoking, whereas minor cannabinoids are detected at 10-fold and metabolites at 1000-fold lower concentrations. OF research over the past decade demonstrated that appropriate interpretation of test results requires a comprehensive understanding of distinct elimination profiles and detection windows for different cannabinoids, which are influenced by administration route, dose, and drug use history. Thus, each drug testing program should establish cutoff criteria, collection/analysis procedures, and storage conditions tailored to its purposes. Building a scientific basis for OF testing is on-going, with continuing OF cannabinoids research on passive environmental exposure, drug use history, donor physiological conditions, and oral cavity metabolism needed to better understand mechanisms of cannabinoid OF disposition and expand OF drug testing applicability. PMID:23983217

  8. Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brieger, Emmet F. (HC 67 Box 58, Nogal, NM 88341)


    A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.

  9. Fluid systems for RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ullaland, O


    The optical properties of the radiator media are of prime importance in Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The main requirements for the radiator fluid are a stable refractive index and a photon absorption as low as possible. We will in this note cover some of the cleaning procedures which are required together with distillation and similar separation procedures. Thin film membranes have been introduced during the last decade. They have proven particularly interesting in separating air from some Cherenkov fluids. We will also discuss the use of molecular sieves.

  10. Estimation of cerebrospinal fluid protein (United States)

    Pennock, C. A.; Passant, L. P.; Bolton, F. G.


    Three turbidometric methods and one method using ultraviolet spectrophotometry for estimating total cerebrospinal fluid protein have been examined. The necessity for preliminary dialysis renders the ultraviolet method unsuitable for routine use. The turbidometric method of Meulemans (1960) using a sulphosalicylic acid-sodium sulphate precipitating fluid is better than a method using sulphosalicylic acid alone which is affected by the albumin-globulin ratio, and has a greater sensitivity and better reproducibility than a method using trichloracetic acid as a precipitant. Turbidity may be measured with a spectrophotometer or an MRC grey wedge photometer with human or bovine albumin as a standard. This method deserves wider acceptance. PMID:5697354

  11. Structured fluids polymers, colloids, surfactants

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Thomas A


    Over the last thirty years, the study of liquids containing polymers, surfactants, or colloidal particles has developed from a loose assembly of facts into a coherent discipline with substantial predictive power. These liquids expand our conception of what condensed matter can do. Such structured-fluid phenomena dominate the physical environment within living cells. This book teaches how to think of these fluids from a unified point of view showing the far-reaching effects ofthermal fluctuations in producing forces and motions. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the book seeks the simplest expl

  12. Sideload vanes for fluid pump (United States)

    Erler, Scott R. (Inventor); Dills, Michael H. (Inventor); Rodriguez, Jose L. (Inventor); Tepool, John Eric (Inventor)


    A fluid pump assembly includes a rotatable component that can be rotated about an axis and a static vane assembly located adjacent to the rotatable component. The static vane assembly includes a circumferential surface axially spaced from the rotatable component, and one or more vanes extending from the circumferential surface toward the rotatable component. The one or more vanes are configured to produce a radial load on the rotatable component when the rotatable component is rotating about the axis and a fluid is present between the static vane assembly and the rotatable component.

  13. Statistical mechanics and the physics of fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mario

    This volume collects the lecture notes of a course on statistical mechanics, held at Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa for third-to-fifth year students in physics and chemistry. Three main themes are covered in the book. The first part gives a compact presentation of the foundations of statistical mechanics and their connections with thermodynamics. Applications to ideal gases of material particles and of excitation quanta are followed by a brief introduction to a real classical gas and to a weakly coupled classical plasma, and by a broad overview on the three states of matter.The second part is devoted to fluctuations around equilibrium and their correlations. Coverage of liquid structure and critical phenomena is followed by a discussion of irreversible processes as exemplified by diffusive motions and by the dynamics of density and heat fluctuations. Finally, the third part is an introduction to some advanced themes: supercooling and the glassy state, non-Newtonian fluids including polymers and liquid cryst...

  14. Fluid and electrolyte balance during 24-hour fluid and/or energy restriction. (United States)

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M


    Weight categorized athletes use a variety of techniques to induce rapid weight loss (RWL) in the days leading up to weigh in. This study examined the fluid and electrolyte balance responses to 24-hr fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER) and fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) compared with a control trial (C), which are commonly used techniques to induce RWL in weight category sports. Twelve subjects (six male, six female) received adequate energy and water (C) intake, adequate energy and restricted water (~10% of C; FR) intake, restricted energy (~25% of C) and adequate water (ER) intake or restricted energy (~25% of C) and restricted (~10% of C) water intake (F+ER) in a randomized counterbalanced order. Subjects visited the laboratory at 0 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr for blood and urine sample collection. Total body mass loss was 0.33% (C), 1.88% (FR), 1.97% (ER), and 2.44% (F+ER). Plasma volume was reduced at 24 hr during FR, ER, and F+ER, while serum osmolality was increased at 24 hr for FR and F+ER and was greater at 24 hr for FR compared with all other trials. Negative balances of sodium, potassium, and chloride developed during ER and F+ER but not during C and FR. These results demonstrate that 24 hr fluid and/ or energy restriction significantly reduces body mass and plasma volume, but has a disparate effect on serum osmolality, resulting in hypertonic hypohydration during FR and isotonic hypohydration during ER. These findings might be explained by the difference in electrolyte balance between the trials.

  15. Evaluating Oral Fluid as a Screening Tool for Lead Poisoning. (United States)

    Gardner, Sher Lynn; Geller, Robert J; Hannigan, Robyn; Sun, Yu; Mangla, Anil


    Screening for lead poisoning is necessary in young children, but obtaining the needed blood sample is unpleasant and sometimes very difficult. Use of an alternative screening method that is less unpleasant and less difficult would likely help to increase the percent of children receiving screening. To evaluate the correlation of oral fluid and blood lead in a clinical setting, and to ascertain the acceptability and feasibility of obtaining oral fluid from a young child in the clinical setting. Oral fluid samples were collected from a convenience sample of 431 children aged 6 months to 5 years already due to receive a blood lead test in a primary care clinic. Blood lead results obtained at the same time were available for 407 children. The results of the two tests were compared with the blood lead test considered to be the "gold standard". Data analysis used Pearson correlations, scatter plots, linear regression, ANOVA and Bland-Altman analysis. 431 patients had oral fluid samples available for analysis, and 407 patients had blood samples available. Patients who had both blood concentrations lead values less than the value recommended for further intervention occurred in 176; no patients had elevated blood lead values with below-intervention oral fluid values. The negative predictive value of an oral fluid lead below the screening cutoff value was 100%. The use of oral fluid to screen for elevated body burdens of lead instead of the usual blood lead sample is feasible with a negative predictive value of 100%, while eliminating the need for blood for lead screening in more than half of these children. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  16. Habits of fluid and electrolytes intake in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzija Pašalić


    Full Text Available Introduction: Dehydration develops when the body fluid losses exceed fluid intake. It may occur during exercise, heat stress, restricted fluid intake, or any combination of these. Marginal dehydration (loss of > 2% body weight can compromise aerobic exercise performance, particularly in hot weather conditions, and may disturb fluid and electrolyte balance. The aim of the study was to determine the quantity, type and dynamic of fluid intake during athletic performance in endurance sports (football and basketball in two age categories: juniors (under the age of 18 and seniors (over the age of 18.Methods: Research included 100 athletes playing in Premier League in Bosnia-Herzegovina. We formed groups by sport type (football and basketball and age (<18 and ≥18 years. Questionnaire with questions about the fluid intake habits was used for data collection.    Results: There were 53 football players and 47 basketball players. All the participants were male. Average age of the participants was 19.3 ± 4.58. Habit of weighing before and after training was present in less than 44% of players among all the groups. Seniors were more frequently measuring their weight compared to junior players (p=0.01. Basketball players and players younger than 18 years were most frequently taking more than 2L of water per day. Most of the players, regardless of sport type or age group were not taking at least ½ L of isotonic fluid before the training. Signs of dehydration were more frequently observed in players under 18 years old, with most frequent sign being dry throat and sudden fatigue.Conclusion: Water and electrolytes intake before, during and after training of the athletes were inadequate regardless of type of sports and the age of athletes.

  17. Oral rehydration therapy for preoperative fluid and electrolyte management. (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hideki; Sasaki, Toshio; Fujita, Hisae


    Preoperative fluid and electrolyte management is usually performed by intravenous therapy. We investigated the safety and effectiveness of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for preoperative fluid and electrolyte management of surgical patients. The study consisted of two studies, designed as a prospective observational study. In a pilot study, 20 surgical patients consumed 1000 mL of an oral rehydration solution (ORS) until 2 h before induction of general anesthesia. Parameters such as serum electrolyte concentrations, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) as an index of renal blood flow, volume of esophageal-pharyngeal fluid and gastric fluid (EPGF), and patient satisfaction with ORT were assessed. In a follow-up study to assess the safety of ORT, 1078 surgical patients, who consumed ORS until 2 h before induction of general anesthesia, were assessed. In the pilot study, water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate were effectively and safely supplied by ORT. The FENa value was increased at 2 h following ORT. The volume of EPGF collected following the induction of anesthesia was 5.3±5.6 mL. In the follow-up study, a small amount of vomiting occurred in one patient, and no aspiration occurred in the patients. These results suggest that ORT is a safe and effective therapy for the preoperative fluid and electrolyte management of selected surgical patients.

  18. Fluid intake of adults in four Chinese cities. (United States)

    Ma, Guansheng; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Zuo, Jiaolei; Zhang, Wanfang; Zou, Shurong; Li, Xiaohui; Lu, Lixin; Pan, Hui; Hu, Xiaoqi


    To investigate the fluid intake and knowledge on water and health in Chinese adults, and to provide a scientific basis for the development of adequate water intake values for people in China. A total of 1,483 adults aged 18-60 years were selected from four provincial capital cities using a multiple-stage random sampling method. The information on the amounts and types of daily fluid intake was collected using a 24-h fluid intake record for 7 consecutive days. Trained interviewers used a questionnaire to assess knowledge on water. The median of daily total fluid intake was 1,488 mL, with a wide range from 86 mL to 7,036 mL. Significant differences were found for fluid intake among the four cities. The medians of daily intakes of plain water, tea, and beverages were 786 mL, 109 mL, and 186 mL, respectively. Approximately 32% of the subjects drank less water than the amount recommended by the Chinese Nutrition Society (1,200 mL/day) and 71.6% of participants lacked knowledge of these recommendations. Moreover, 48.3% of them drank water only when they felt thirsty. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  19. Assessment of the use of oral fluid as a matrix for drug monitoring in patients undergoing treatment for opioid addiction. (United States)

    Kunkel, Frank; Fey, Elizabeth; Borg, Damon; Stripp, Richard; Getto, Christine


    Drug testing is an important clinical tool that is available to physicians who are assessing the effectiveness of drug treatment as well as patient compliance to the administered program. While urine has traditionally been the matrix of choice for drug monitoring, oral fluid, a filtrate of the blood, has shown great promise as an alternative matrix for such applications. Oral fluid collection can be accomplished without the need for highly trained medical staff through the use of a simple, noninvasive oral fluid collection device, which obtains an adequate sample in only a few minutes. There has been a significant amount of research performed on the use of oral fluid for forensic toxicology application; however, more studies assessing the use of oral fluid drug testing are required to validate its ability to achieve clinical drug monitoring goals. Testing for various drugs in oral fluid may yield a different result when compared to the same drugs in urine, requiring an assessment of the utility of oral fluid for such practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the application of oral fluid drug testing in patients undergoing buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence. A retrospective analysis of drug testing results obtained from 6,928 patients (4,560 unobserved urine collections and 2,368 observed oral fluid collections) monitored for heroin metabolite, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, and oxymorphone was completed. Results of this statistical exercise indicated that patients undergoing observed oral fluid collection tested positive more frequently than those unobserved urine collections for several illicit drugs and prescription medications targeted. Oral fluid was shown to detect illicit drug use as well as noncompliance in this patient population under the studied conditions more often than the urine specimens.

  20. Enteral fluid therapy in large animals. (United States)

    Rainger, J E; Dart, A J


    Enteral fluids administered alone, or in conjunction with intravenous fluids, are reported to be useful for the treatment of dehydration and electrolyte loss associated with diarrhoea in a number of species, following exercise in horses and for feed impaction of the large intestine of horses. Enteral fluids are suitable for treatment of mild to moderately dehydrated patients with some intact intestinal epithelium and motile small intestine. In patients that will drink voluntarily or tolerate nasal intubation the use of enteral fluids may avoid the complications associated with intravenous fluid administration. However the labour costs associated with repeated nasal intubation in intensively managed patients requiring large volumes of fluids may make the use of enteral fluids less economical than intravenous fluid administration. Enteral fluid use alone is contraindicated in patients that are severely dehydrated and/or in hypovolaemic shock, however, if used in conjunction with intravenous fluids, the effects of villous atrophy and malnutrition may be ameliorated and the duration of hospitalisation shortened. There is a variety of commercially available enteral fluids available to veterinary practitioners. While the key components of these fluids are sodium, chloride and carbohydrates, the amounts of ions and other ingredients such as potassium, alkalising agents, amino acids and shortchain fatty acids may vary. The species of the animal, the underlying condition, and the constituents of the fluid, should influence the choice of an enteral fluid.

  1. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 1. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming - Lift-based Propulsion. Jaywant H Arakeri. General Article Volume 14 Issue 1 January 2009 pp 32-46. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Founder of Modern Fluid Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 12. Founder of Modern Fluid Mechanics. Jaywant H Arakeri. Article-in-a-Box Volume 5 Issue 12 December 2000 pp 2-3. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  3. Somatomedin activity in synovial fluid. (United States)

    Coates, C L; Burwell, R G; Buttery, P J; Walker, G; Woodward, P M


    Abnormalities of synovial fluid, as a lubricant and nutrient, may have relevance to the causation of certain articular diseases. The somatomedin activity in normal synovial fluid obtained from the knee joint of the ox has been studied and compared with the activity in serum from the same animal. The porcine costal cartilage bioassay of Van den Brande and Du Caju (1974) has been used with the isotopes 35S-sulphate and 3H-thymidine. The mean potency ratio of ox synovial fluid in terms of ox serum for 35S-sulphate incorporation was 0-28 (range 0-19-0-47) and for 3H-thymidine incorporation 0-35 (range 0-21-0-63). A significant correlation was found between the somatomedin activity (as measured by 35S-sulphate incorporation) and the total protein and albumin concentrations in the ox synovial fluids and the ox sera, but there was no significant relationship between the somatomedin potency ratios and the globulin concentrations. The possible relevance of these findings to injury and disease in synovial joint is discussed. PMID:843111

  4. Rip Cosmology via Inhomogeneous Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Timoshkin


    Full Text Available The conditions for the appearance of the Little Rip, Pseudo Rip and Quasi Rip universes in the terms of the parameters in the equation of state of some dark fluid are investigated. Several examples of the Rip cosmologies are investigated.

  5. Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (United States)

    McWilliams, James C.


    Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations. Covers the essential GFD required for atmospheric science and oceanography courses Mathematically rigorous, concise coverage of basic theory and applications to both oceans and atmospheres Author is a world expert; this book is based on the course he has taught for many years Exercises are included, with solutions available to instructors from

  6. Contextual Analysis of Fluid Intelligence (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.


    The nature of fluid intelligence was investigated by identifying variables that were, and were not, significantly related to this construct. Relevant information was obtained from three sources: re-analyses of data from previous studies, a study in which 791 adults performed storage-plus-processing working memory tasks, and a study in which 236…

  7. Inertia, Electromagnetism and Fluid Dynamics (United States)

    Martins, Alexandre A.; Pinheiro, Mario J.


    It is shown that the vector potential created by a charged particle in motion acts as an ideal space flow that surrounds the particle. The interaction between the particle and the entrained space flow gives rise to the observed properties of inertia and the relativistic increase of mass. Parallels are made between the inertia property of matter, electromagnetism and the hydrodynamic drag in potential flow. Accordingly, in this framework the non resistance of a particle in uniform motion through an ideal fluid (Paradox of Dirichlet) corresponds to Newton's first law. The law of inertia suggests that the physical vacuum can be modeled as an ideal fluid. It is shown that the force exerted on a particle by an ideal fluid produces two effects: i) resistance to acceleration and, ii) an increase of mass with velocity which is due to the fluid dragged by the particle, where the bare mass of the particle at rest changes when in motion ("dressed" particle). From this theoretical ground, the inertia property of matter appears in a new light representing a promising avenue to create new propulsion concepts.

  8. Protein profiling of cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja H


    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) perfuses the brain and spinal cord. CSF contains proteins and peptides important for brain physiology and potentially also relevant for brain pathology. Hence, CSF is the perfect source to search for new biomarkers to improve diagnosis of neurological diseases as well...

  9. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos


    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  10. Intraoperative Fluids and Fluid Management for Ambulatory Dental Sedation and General Anesthesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saraghi, Mana


    .... The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of body-water distribution and fluid dynamics at the vascular endothelium, evaluation of fluid status, calculation of fluid requirements...

  11. Study on Fluid-Rock Interaction and Reuse of Flowback Fluid for Gel Fracturing in Desert Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianbo Liang


    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing requires a large volume of fresh water, which is difficult and expensive to obtain in the desert area such as Tarim Basin. Currently, flowback fluid is typically transported to the sewage treatment plant and then discharged after reaching environmental requirements; however, this is not only costly, but also a waste of water resource. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the potential interactions between fracturing fluid and reservoir rock, and then find solutions to reuse the flowback water for subsequent fracturing. In this study, once flowback fluid was directly collected from the field, its chemical compositions were analyzed; then, filtering, decoloring, and chelating methods were chosen to effectively remove or shield the unfavorable reintroduced components. Moreover, pH value was further tuned during different stages of the recycling process to ensure good gelation and cross-linking properties of guar. Cross-linked guar synthesized with the flowback fluid was evaluated in the lab through shear resistance tests and coreflood tests under the reservoir conditions; results indicated the recycled gel behaved similarly as the original gel, or even better. From this work, a cheap and effective treatment process was proposed to reuse the flowback fluid in the desert area.

  12. Collecting Artists' Books. (United States)

    Dalberto, Janet


    Discussion of increase in library collections of artists' books (artwork conceived in book form and designed entirely by artists) highlights reasons to collect artists' books, major collections, establishing a collection, housing and preservation, organization, outreach, and networking. Collection policy and procedures of Virginia Commonwealth…

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Equivalent-Fluid Models for Melamine Foam (United States)

    Allen, Albert R.; Schiller, Noah H.


    Melamine foam is a soft porous material commonly used in noise control applications. Many models exist to represent porous materials at various levels of fidelity. This work focuses on rigid frame equivalent fluid models, which represent the foam as a fluid with a complex speed of sound and density. There are several empirical models available to determine these frequency dependent parameters based on an estimate of the material flow resistivity. Alternatively, these properties can be experimentally educed using an impedance tube setup. Since vibroacoustic models are generally sensitive to these properties, this paper assesses the accuracy of several empirical models relative to impedance tube measurements collected with melamine foam samples. Diffuse field sound absorption measurements collected using large test articles in a laboratory are also compared with absorption predictions determined using model-based and measured foam properties. Melamine foam slabs of various thicknesses are considered.

  14. Comparison of Active Drug Concentrations in the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid and Interstitial Fluid of Calves Injected with Enrofloxacin, Florfenicol, Ceftiofur, or Tulathromycin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M Foster

    Full Text Available Bacterial pneumonia is the most common reason for parenteral antimicrobial administration to beef cattle in the United States. Yet there is little information describing the antimicrobial concentrations at the site of action. The objective of this study was to compare the active drug concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and interstitial fluid of four antimicrobials commonly used in cattle. After injection, plasma, interstitial fluid, and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentrations and protein binding were measured to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of each drug. A cross-over design with six calves per drug was used. Following sample collection and drug analysis, pharmacokinetic calculations were performed. For enrofloxacin and metabolite ciprofloxacin, the interstitial fluid concentration was 52% and 78% of the plasma concentration, while pulmonary fluid concentrations was 24% and 40% of the plasma concentration, respectively. The pulmonary concentrations (enrofloxacin + ciprofloxacin combined exceeded the MIC90 of 0.06 μg/mL at 48 hours after administration. For florfenicol, the interstitial fluid concentration was almost 98% of the plasma concentration, and the pulmonary concentrations were over 200% of the plasma concentrations, exceeding the breakpoint (≤ 2 μg/mL, and the MIC90 for Mannheimia haemolytica (1.0 μg/mL for the duration of the study. For ceftiofur, penetration to the interstitial fluid was only 5% of the plasma concentration. Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentration represented 40% of the plasma concentration. Airway concentrations exceeded the MIC breakpoint for susceptible respiratory pathogens (≤ 2 μg/mL for a short time at 48 hours after administration. The plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of tulathromcyin were lower than the concentrations in pulmonary fluid throughout the study. The bronchial concentrations were higher than the plasma or interstitial concentrations

  15. Instrumentation, measurements, and experiments in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, E


    NEED AND OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Some Fluid Mechanics MeasurementsMeasurement SystemsSome of the Important Quantities Associated with FluidFlow MeasurementsFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICSProperties of FluidsThermodynamic PropertiesSurface TensionAnalysis of Fluid FlowBasic and Subsidiary Laws for Continuous MediaKinematics of Fluid FlowStreamlinesPotential FlowViscous FlowsGas DynamicsWIND TUNNELSLow-Speed Wind TunnelsPower Losses in a Wind TunnelHigh-Speed Wind TunnelsHypersonic TunnelsInstrume

  16. Properties and applications of magnetorheological fluids (United States)

    Huang, J.; Fu, L. J.; Wang, G. C.


    The Magnetic, yield and rheological properties of the Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are discussed. Based on the microstructure of a magnetic chain a theoretical model was developed to analyze the effect of the applied magnetic field on the yield stress of the MR fluids. A bingham model was used to describe the rheological characteristics of the MR fluids subject to an applied magnetic field. The results show that the MR fluid exhibits super paramagnetic behavior. The yield stress increases as the applied magnetic field increases. The MR fluids can be used in clutch, valve, and damper devices because the yield stress of these fluids can be continuously adjusted by the applied magnetic field.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics. [numerical methods and algorithm development (United States)


    This collection of papers was presented at the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Conference held at Ames Research Center in California on March 12 through 14, 1991. It is an overview of CFD activities at NASA Lewis Research Center. The main thrust of computational work at Lewis is aimed at propulsion systems. Specific issues related to propulsion CFD and associated modeling will also be presented. Examples of results obtained with the most recent algorithm development will also be presented.

  18. Characterisation of lubricin in synovial fluid from horses with osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Svala, E; Jin, C; Rüetschi, U; Ekman, S; Lindahl, A; Karlsson, N G; Skiöldebrand, E


    The glycoprotein lubricin contributes to the boundary lubrication of the articular cartilage surface. The early events of osteoarthritis involve the superficial layer where lubricin is synthesised. To characterise the glycosylation profile of lubricin in synovial fluid from horses with osteoarthritis and study secretion and degradation of lubricin in an in vitro inflammation cartilage model. In vitro study. Synovial fluid samples collected from horses with joints with normal articular cartilage and structural osteoarthritic lesions; with and without osteochondral fragments, were analysed for the lubricin glycosylation profiles. Articular cartilage explants were stimulated with or without interleukin-1β for 25 days. Media samples collected at 3-day intervals were analysed by quantitative proteomics, western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. O-glycosylation profiles in synovial fluid revealed both Core 1 and 2 O-glycans, with Core 1 O-glycans predominating. Synovial fluid from normal joints (49.5 ± 1.9%) contained significantly lower amounts of monosialylated Core 1 O-glycans compared with joints with osteoarthritis (53.8 ± 7.8%, P = 0.03) or joints with osteochondral fragments (57.3 ± 8.8%, P = 0.001). Additionally, synovial fluid from normal joints (26.7 ± 6.7%) showed higher amounts of disialylated Core 1 O-glycan than from joints with osteochondral fragments (21.2 ± 4.9%, P = 0.03). A C-terminal proteolytic cleavage site in lubricin was found in synovial fluid from normal and osteochondral fragment joints and in media from interleukin-1β stimulated and unstimulated articular cartilage explants. This is the first demonstration of a change in the glycosylation profile of lubricin in synovial fluid from diseased equine joints compared with that from normal joints. We demonstrate an identical proteolytic cleavage site of lubricin both in vitro and in vivo. The reduced sialation of lubricin in synovial fluid from diseased joints may affect the

  19. Fluid flow and permeabilities in basement fault zones (United States)

    Hollinsworth, Allan; Koehn, Daniel


    Fault zones are important sites for crustal fluid flow, specifically where they cross-cut low permeability host rocks such as granites and gneisses. Fluids migrating through fault zones can cause rheology changes, mineral precipitation and pore space closure, and may alter the physical and chemical properties of the host rock and deformation products. It is therefore essential to consider the evolution of permeability in fault zones at a range of pressure-temperature conditions to understand fluid migration throughout a fault's history, and how fluid-rock interaction modifies permeability and rheological characteristics. Field localities in the Rwenzori Mountains, western Uganda and the Outer Hebrides, north-west Scotland, have been selected for field work and sample collection. Here Archaean-age TTG gneisses have been faulted within the upper 15km of the crust and have experienced fluid ingress. The Rwenzori Mountains are an anomalously uplifted horst-block located in a transfer zone in the western rift of the East African Rift System. The north-western ridge is characterised by a tectonically simple western flank, where the partially mineralised Bwamba Fault has detached from the Congo craton. Mineralisation is associated with hydrothermal fluids heated by a thermal body beneath the Semliki rift, and has resulted in substantial iron oxide precipitation within porous cataclasites. Non-mineralised faults further north contain foliated gouges and show evidence of leaking fluids. These faults serve as an analogue for faults associated with the Lake Albert oil and gas prospects. The Outer Hebrides Fault Zone (OHFZ) was largely active during the Caledonian Orogeny (ca. 430-400 Ma) at a deeper crustal level than the Ugandan rift faults. Initial dry conditions were followed by fluid ingress during deformation that controlled its rheological behaviour. The transition also altered the existing permeability. The OHFZ is a natural laboratory in which to study brittle fault

  20. Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows (United States)

    McCready, M. J.; Chang, H.-C.; Leighton, D. T.


    This report outlines the major results of the grant "Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows." These include: 1) the demonstration that atomization in liquid/liquid shear flow is driven by a viscous shear instability that triggers the formation of a long thin sheet; 2) discovery of a new mode of interfacial instability for oscillatory two-layer systems whereby a mode that originates within the less viscous liquid phase causes interfacial deformation as the oscillation proceeds; 3) the demonstration that rivulet formation from gravity front occurs because the local front shape specified by gravity and surface tension changes from a nose to a wedge geometry, thus triggering a large increase in viscous resistance; and 4) extension of the studies on nonlinear wave evolution on falling films and in stratified flow, particularly the evolution towards large-amplitude solitary waves that tend to generate drops.

  1. Correlation of Hepatitis C Antibody Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva of Hepatitis C Seropositive Hemodialysis Patients


    Gökhan Açıkgöz; Murat İnanç Cengiz; İlker Keskiner; Şereften Açıkgöz; Murat Can; Aydan Açıkgöz


    Search for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in body fluids other than blood is important when assessing possible nonparenteral routes of viral transmission. However, the role of oral fluids in HCV transmission remains controversial. Our aim was to compare the prevalence of HCV antibody (HCV Ab) levels in saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of HCV seropositive hemodialysis patients. Serum, saliva and GCF samples were collected from thirty-nine patients. Samples were analyzed for HCV Ab using th...

  2. Darunavir, Ritonavir, and Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in the Cervicovaginal Fluid and Blood Plasma of HIV-Infected Women▿


    Patterson, Kristine; Jennings, Steven; Falcon, Ron; Mrus, Joseph; Kashuba, Angela


    We report darunavir, ritonavir, and etravirine pharmacokinetics in cervicovaginal fluid and blood plasma for women from the Gender, Race and Clinical Experience (GRACE) study. Eight women received darunavir-ritonavir (600/100 mg) twice daily (b.i.d.); two also received etravirine (200 mg) b.i.d. Week 4 paired blood plasma and cervicovaginal fluid samples were collected over 12 h. Darunavir and etravirine cervicovaginal fluid exposures were higher than blood plasma exposures; ritonavir cervico...

  3. Clinical Assessment of Fluid Balance is Incomplete for Colorectal Surgical Patients. (United States)

    Tolstrup, J; Brandstrup, B


    Fluid balance for the surgical patient has been proven very important for the postoperative outcome and development of complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time in modern times, the accordance between nurse-based fluid charting (cumulated fluid balance) and body weight change for general surgical patients. This was a descriptive study with prospectively collected data from two clinical randomized multicenter trials. A total of 113 patients from American Society of Anesthesiology group I-III undergoing elective colorectal surgery were included. Cumulated fluid balance and body weight change were charted preoperatively and daily at the same time during a postoperative period of 6 days. Differences were calculated by subtracting cumulated fluid balance from body weight change (1 g = 1 mL), and agreement was assessed by making Bland-Altman plots as well as Pearson correlations. From day 1 to 4, the mean difference between cumulated fluid balance and body weight change was below 0.4 kg/L. On day 5 and 6, the discrepancies increased with mean differences of, respectively, 1.2 kg/L (p fluid balance and body weight change for colorectal surgical patients is relatively good for the first four postoperative days, however, with large uncertainty, whereas on the fifth and sixth postoperative day, the discrepancy is statistically and clinically significant. The fluid chart cannot stand alone in interpretation of the patient's fluid balance; body weight and clinical judgment is indispensable. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2014.

  4. Relation between urinary hydration biomarkers and total fluid intake in healthy adults (United States)

    Perrier, E; Rondeau, P; Poupin, M; Le Bellego, L; Armstrong, L E; Lang, F; Stookey, J; Tack, I; Vergne, S; Klein, A


    Background/objectives: In sedentary adults, hydration is mostly influenced by total fluid intake and not by sweat losses; moreover, low daily fluid intake is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to model the relation between total fluid intake and urinary hydration biomarkers. Subjects/methods: During 4 consecutive weekdays, 82 adults (age, 31.6±4.3 years; body mass index, 23.2±2.7 kg/m2; 52% female) recorded food and fluid consumed, collected one first morning urine (FMU) void and three 24-h (24hU) samples. The strength of linear association between urinary hydration biomarkers and fluid intake volume was evaluated using simple linear regression and Pearson's correlation. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modeled the association between fluid intake and 24hU hydration biomarkers. Results: Strong associations (|r|⩾0.6; P50% of the variance in fluid intake volume (r2=0.59 and 0.52, respectively); however the error in both models was high and the limits of agreement very large. Conclusions: Hydration biomarkers in 24hU are strongly correlated with daily total fluid intake volume in sedentary adults in free-living conditions; however, the margin of error in the present models limits the applicability of estimating fluid intake from urinary biomarkers. PMID:23695204

  5. Mantle wedge infiltrated with saline fluids from dehydration and decarbonation of subducting slab. (United States)

    Kawamoto, Tatsuhiko; Yoshikawa, Masako; Kumagai, Yoshitaka; Mirabueno, Ma Hannah T; Okuno, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Tetsuo


    Slab-derived fluids play an important role in heat and material transfer in subduction zones. Dehydration and decarbonation reactions of minerals in the subducting slab have been investigated using phase equilibria and modeling of fluid flow. Nevertheless, direct observations of the fluid chemistry and pressure-temperature conditions of fluids are few. This report describes CO2-bearing saline fluid inclusions in spinel-harzburgite xenoliths collected from the 1991 Pinatubo pumice deposits. The fluid inclusions are filled with saline solutions with 5.1 ± 1.0% (wt) NaCl-equivalent magnesite crystals, CO2-bearing vapor bubbles, and a talc and/or chrysotile layer on the walls. The xenoliths contain tremolite amphibole, which is stable in temperatures lower than 830 °C at the uppermost mantle. The Pinatubo volcano is located at the volcanic front of the Luzon arc associated with subduction of warm oceanic plate. The present observation suggests hydration of forearc mantle and the uppermost mantle by slab-derived CO2-bearing saline fluids. Dehydration and decarbonation take place, and seawater-like saline fluids migrate from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge. The presence of saline fluids is important because they can dissolve more metals than pure H2O and affect the chemical evolution of the mantle wedge.

  6. Metabolic profiling of body fluids and multivariate data analysis. (United States)

    Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Jäger, Christian; Galozzi, Sara; Barkovits, Katalin; Marcus, Katrin; Mollenhauer, Brit; Hiller, Karsten


    Metabolome analyses of body fluids are challenging due pre-analytical variations, such as pre-processing delay and temperature, and constant dynamical changes of biochemical processes within the samples. Therefore, proper sample handling starting from the time of collection up to the analysis is crucial to obtain high quality samples and reproducible results. A metabolomics analysis is divided into 4 main steps: 1) Sample collection, 2) Metabolite extraction, 3) Data acquisition and 4) Data analysis. Here, we describe a protocol for gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolic analysis for biological matrices, especially body fluids. This protocol can be applied on blood serum/plasma, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of humans and other vertebrates. It covers sample collection, sample pre-processing, metabolite extraction, GC-MS measurement and guidelines for the subsequent data analysis. Advantages of this protocol include: •Robust and reproducible metabolomics results, taking into account pre-analytical variations that may occur during the sampling process•Small sample volume required•Rapid and cost-effective processing of biological samples•Logistic regression based determination of biomarker signatures for in-depth data analysis.

  7. Visualization and microrheology of complex fluid/fluid interfaces (United States)

    Choi, Siyoung Q.; Zasadzinski, Joseph; Squires, Todd


    We describe a novel microrheological technique to measure the rheological properties of fluid/fluid interfaces, which can dramatically affect the flow properties and dynamics of multiphase materials (emulsions, foams, cells and organs). Such measurements can be particularly challenging, as one needs to measure the influence of molecularly thin, two-dimensional layers but be insensitive to the three-dimensional bulk fluids on either side. However, dimensionality helps here: interfacial forces on a probe are exerted along a contact perimeter, whereas the bulk forces are exerted on the contact area. Smaller probes thus increase the perimeter/area ratio, and therefore the relative sensitivity to interfacial viscoelasticity. We fabricate micron-scale ferromagnetic amphiphilic disks (with versatile surface chemistry), place them on the interface, use external electromagnets to exert a known torque (stress), and measure the resulting rotational displacement (strain). In addition to its sensitivity, our technique can measure frequency dependent linear/nonlinear viscoelastic properties and yield stresses. Simultaneous visualization of the interface by fluorescence microscopy allows us to correlate local dynamics withe measured rheology. We validate our technique and highlight its capabilities with measurements on a variety of systems, including two-dimensional colloidal monolayers, fatty acid and phospholipid monolayers.

  8. Leaf Collection Posting Log (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains leaf collection dates for area and subarea where leaf collection service is provided by Montgomery County Department of Transportation. Update...

  9. Lipidomics by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Laboureur


    Full Text Available This review enlightens the role of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC in the field of lipid analysis. SFC has been popular in the late 1980s and 1990s before almost disappearing due to the commercial success of liquid chromatography (LC. It is only 20 years later that a regain of interest appeared when new commercial instruments were introduced. As SFC is fully compatible with the injection of extracts in pure organic solvent, this technique is perfectly suitable for lipid analysis and can be coupled with either highly universal (UV or evaporative light scattering or highly specific (mass spectrometry detection methods. A short history of the use of supercritical fluids as mobile phase for the separation oflipids will be introduced first. Then, the advantages and drawbacks of SFC are discussed for each class of lipids (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, prenols, polyketides defined by the LIPID MAPS consortium.

  10. Advanced working fluids: Thermodynamic properties (United States)

    Lee, Lloyd L.; Gering, Kevin L.


    Electrolytes are used as working fluids in gas fired heat pump chiller engine cycles. To find out which molecular parameters of the electrolytes impact on cycle performance, a molecular theory is developed for calculating solution properties, enthalpies, vapor-liquid equilibria, and engine cycle performance. Aqueous and ammoniac single and mixed salt solutions in single and multisolvent systems are investigated. An accurate correlation is developed to evaluate properties for concentrated electrolyte solutions. Sensitivity analysis is used to determine the impact of molecular parameters on the thermodynamic properties and cycle performance. The preferred electrolytes are of 1-1 valence type, small ion size, high molecular weight, and in strongly colligative cosolvent. The operating windows are determined for a number of absorption fluids of industrial importance.

  11. Cosmological perturbations for imperfect fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    Interacting fluids, endowed with bulk viscous stresses, are discussed in a unified perspective with the aim of generalizing the treatment of cosmological perturbation theory to the case where both fluctuating decay rates and fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficients are simultaneously present in the relativistic plasma. A gauge-invariant treatment of the qualitatively new phenomena arising in this context is provided. In a complementary approach, faithful gauge-fixed descriptions of the gravitational and hydrodynamical fluctuations are developed and exploited. To deepen the interplay between bulk viscous stresses and fluctuating decay rates, illustrative examples are proposed and discussed both analytically and numerically. Particular attention is paid to the coupled evolution of curvature and entropy fluctuations when, in the relativistic plasma, at least one of the interacting fluids possesses a fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficient. It is argued that this class of models may be usefully employed as an effec...

  12. Lipidomics by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (United States)

    Laboureur, Laurent; Ollero, Mario; Touboul, David


    This review enlightens the role of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the field of lipid analysis. SFC has been popular in the late 1980s and 1990s before almost disappearing due to the commercial success of liquid chromatography (LC). It is only 20 years later that a regain of interest appeared when new commercial instruments were introduced. As SFC is fully compatible with the injection of extracts in pure organic solvent, this technique is perfectly suitable for lipid analysis and can be coupled with either highly universal (UV or evaporative light scattering) or highly specific (mass spectrometry) detection methods. A short history of the use of supercritical fluids as mobile phase for the separation oflipids will be introduced first. Then, the advantages and drawbacks of SFC are discussed for each class of lipids (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, prenols, polyketides) defined by the LIPID MAPS consortium. PMID:26090714

  13. Validation of computational fluid dynamics (United States)

    Sacher, P. W.; Bradley, R. G., Jr.; Schmidt, W.


    The Fluid Dynamics Panel AGARD Symposium entitled Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics is reviewed and evaluated. The purpose of the Symposium was to assess the state of the art of Validation of Computer Codes and to ensure that the mathematical and numerical schemes employed in the codes correctly model the critical physics of the flow field under consideration. The evaluator addresses each of the papers presented separately and makes general comments on the seven major topic sessions. In addition, a Poster Session is reviewed in detail. It is evident that the new possibilities of CFD provide efficient tools for Analysis and Design in the Aeronautical Industry, but it is also evident that in spite of the existence of a number of excellent experimental databases, there is still a need for efforts in validating the computer programs both by experiment as well as by numerical exercises.

  14. Gel Evolution in Oil Based Drilling Fluids


    Sandvold, Ida


    Drilling fluids make up an essential part of the drilling operation. Successful drilling operations rely on adequate drilling fluid quality. With the development of new drilling techniques such as long deviated sections and drilling in ultra-deep waters, the standard of required performance of the drilling fluids continue to increase. Narrow pressure margins and low tolerance for barite sag requires accurate prediction of the gel evolution in drilling fluids. Increased knowledge of how dri...

  15. Fluid dynamics theoretical and computational approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Warsi, ZUA


    Important Nomenclature Kinematics of Fluid Motion Introduction to Continuum Motion Fluid Particles Inertial Coordinate Frames Motion of a Continuum The Time Derivatives Velocity and Acceleration Steady and Nonsteady Flow Trajectories of Fluid Particles and Streamlines Material Volume and Surface Relation between Elemental Volumes Kinematic Formulas of Euler and Reynolds Control Volume and Surface Kinematics of Deformation Kinematics of Vorticity and Circulation References Problems The Conservation Laws and the Kinetics of Flow Fluid Density and the Conservation of Mass Prin

  16. Elastic support of magnetic fluids bearing (United States)

    Wang, Zhuang; Hu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolei


    In this paper, a kind of gas support generated by the magnetic fluids seal is investigated numerically and experimentally. Theoretical analysis and experimental tests both indicate that the load carrying capacity of the bearing is mainly determined by the sealing capacity of the magnetic fluids. The experiments also reveal that the load capacity may change with the volumes of magnetic fluids and the air sealed by magnetic fluids.

  17. Fluid Annotations in a Open World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zellweger, Polle Trescott; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Jehøj, Henning


    Fluid Documents use animated typographical changes to provide a novel and appealing user experience for hypertext browsing and for viewing document annotations in context. This paper describes an effort to broaden the utility of Fluid Documents by using the open hypermedia Arakne Environment to l...... to layer fluid annotations and links on top of abitrary HTML pages on the World Wide Web. Changes to both Fluid Documents and Arakne are required....

  18. Body fluids and salt metabolism - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettinelli Alberto


    Full Text Available Abstract There is a high frequency of diarrhea and vomiting in childhood. As a consequence the focus of the present review is to recognize the different body fluid compartments, to clinically assess the degree of dehydration, to know how the equilibrium between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid is maintained, to calculate the effective blood osmolality and discuss both parenteral fluid maintenance and replacement.

  19. Scaffolding for solving problem in static fluid: A case study (United States)

    Koes-H, Supriyono; Muhardjito, Wijaya, Charisma P.


    Problem solving is one of the basic abilities that should be developed from learning physics. However, students still face difficulties in the process of non-routine problem-solving. Efforts are necessary to be taken in order to identify such difficulties and the solutions to solve them. An effort in the form of a diagnosis of students' performance in problem solving can be taken to identify their difficulties, and various instructional scaffolding supports can be utilized to eliminate the difficulties. This case study aimed to describe the students' difficulties in solving static fluid problems and the effort to overcome such difficulties through different scaffolding supports. The research subjects consisted of four 10-grade students of (Public Senior High School) SMAN 4 Malang selected by purposive sampling technique. The data of students' difficulties were collected via think-aloud protocol implemented on students' performance in solving non-routine static fluid problems. Subsequently, combined scaffolding supports were given to the students based on their particular difficulties. The research findings pointed out that there were several conceptual difficulties discovered from the students when solving static fluid problems, i.e. the use of buoyancy force formula, determination of all forces acting on a plane in a fluid, the resultant force on a plane in a fluid, and determination of a plane depth in a fluid. An effort that can be taken to overcome such conceptual difficulties is providing a combination of some appropriate scaffolding supports, namely question prompts with specific domains, simulation, and parallel modeling. The combination can solve students' lack of knowledge and improve their conceptual understanding, as well as help them to find solutions by linking the problems with their prior knowledge. According to the findings, teachers are suggested to diagnose the students' difficulties so that they can provide an appropriate combination of

  20. Electrokinetic micro-fluid mixer (United States)

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.


    A method and apparatus for efficiently and rapidly mixing liquids in a system operating in the creeping flow regime such as would be encountered in capillary-based systems. By applying an electric field to each liquid, the present invention is capable of mixing together fluid streams in capillary-based systems, where mechanical or turbulent stirring cannot be used, to produce a homogeneous liquid.

  1. Spray formation with complex fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustig, S; Rosen, M, E-mail: [Grupo de Medios Porosos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, LIA (Laboratoire International Associe).Argentina (Argentina)


    Droplet formation through Faraday excitation has been tested in the low driving frequency limit. Kerosene was used to model liquid fuel with the addition of PIB in different proportions. All fluids were characterized in detail. The mechanisms of ejection were investigated to identify the relative influence of viscosity and surface tension. It was also possible to characterize the type of instability leading to the emission drop process.

  2. Fluid management in space construction (United States)

    Snyder, Howard


    The low-g fluids management group with the Center for Space Construction is engaged in active research on the following topics: gauging; venting; controlling contamination; sloshing; transfer; acquisition; and two-phase flow. Our basic understanding of each of these topics at present is inadequate to design space structures optimally. A brief report is presented on each topic showing the present status, recent accomplishings by our group and our plans for future research. Reports are presented in graphic and outline form.

  3. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. (United States)

    Malamud, Daniel


    Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. In this article the author critically reviews the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring, and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid


    Malamud, Daniel; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R.


    Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Here, we critically review the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed.

  5. Brake Fluid Compatibility with Hardware (United States)


    Fluid, DOT III, DOT V, MIL-PRF-46176, deposition 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...UNCLASSIFIED ix ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS DC Direct Current, amps DOT Department of Transportation ECU Electronic Control Unit EOT End of test...triggers the Electronic Control Unit ( ECU ) to turn on the pump motors to raise the system pressure again. It is the cycling of the dump and pump that

  6. Fluid Resuscitation in Trauma Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Acikalin


    Full Text Available Traumatic shock may be defined as a syndrome that begun the insufficient sytemic perfusion causes the tissue hypoxia and vital organ dysfunction. The most important point is to achieve the efficient volume. In this review we tried to discuss the recommended blood and blood products, syntethic blood, isotonic and hypertonic cristalloids and their structures, tenancy areas, advantages and dysadvantages and fluid resuscitation intended to coagulopathy in trauma cases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(2.000: 89-106

  7. Fluid Retention and Utility of Practical Hydration Markers to Detect Three Levels of Recovery Fluid Intake in Male Runners. (United States)

    Wilcoxson, Mary Caitlin Stevenson; Johnson, Samantha Louise; Pribyslavska, Veronika; Green, James Mathew; O'Neal, Eric Kyle


    Runners are unlikely to consume fluid during training bouts increasing the importance of recovery rehydration efforts. This study assessed urine specific gravity (USG) responses following runs in the heat with different recovery fluid intake volumes. Thirteen male runners completed 3 evening running sessions resulting in approximately 2,200 ± 300 ml of sweat loss (3.1 ± 0.4% body mass) followed by a standardized dinner and breakfast. Beverage fluid intake (pre/postbreakfast) equaled 1,565/2,093 ml (low; L), 2,065/2,593 ml (moderate; M) and 2,565/3,356 mL (high; H). Voids were collected in separate containers. Increased urine output resulted in no differences (p > .05) in absolute mean fluid retention for waking or first postbreakfast voids. Night void averages excluding the first void postrun (1.025 ± 0.008; 1.013 ± 0.008; 1.006 ± 0.003), first morning (1.024 ± 0.004; 1.015 ± 0.005; 1.014 ± 0.005), and postbreakfast (1.022 ± 0.007; 1.014 ± 0.007; 1.008 ± 0.003) USG were higher (p < .05) for L versus M and H respectively and more clearly differentiated fluid intake volume between L and M than color or thirst sensation. Waking (r = -0.66) and postbreakfast (r = -0.71) USG were both significantly correlated (p < .001) with fluid replacement percentage, but not absolute fluid retention. Fluid intake M was reported as most similar to normal consumption (5.6 ± 1.0 on 0-10 scale) after breakfast and equaled 122 ± 16% of sweat losses. Retention data suggests consumption above this level is not warranted or actually practiced by most runners drinking ad libitum, but that periodic prerun USG assessment may be useful for coaches to detect runners that habitually consume low levels of fluids between training bouts in warm seasons.

  8. Coleção líquida adjacente ao ligamento falciforme em pacientes no pós-operatório imediato de transplante de fígado: achado ultra sonográfico normal ou anormal? Estudo prospectivo Fluid collection around the falciform ligament in the immediate postoperative period of liver transplantation: an unusual ultrasonographic finding or a normal occurrence? A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Martins Machado


    Full Text Available Os transplantes de fígado estão sendo cada vez mais realizados, havendo necessidade, cada vez maior, de uma avaliação acurada das possíveis complicações. A ultra-sonografia é entendida, nesse contexto, como o método de escolha para a avaliação inicial das complicações envolvendo o transplante. Os autores relatam, neste estudo, o achado de coleção líquida adjacente ao ligamento falciforme, no pós-operatório imediato de pacientes transplantados de fígado e que não apresentavam nenhum sinal de complicação infecciosa intra-abdominal. Foi demonstrada a presença de coleção líquida em torno do ligamento falciforme em 33 (94,3% de 35 pacientes avaliados. Dessa forma, os autores sugerem que este achado pode corresponder a aspecto normal encontrado no pós-operatório imediato de transplante de fígado.Liver transplantations are increasingly being performed, thus requiring accurate evaluation of related complications. Ultrasonography is the first screening technique for the detection of complications of liver transplantation. The authors report the finding of fluid collection around the falciform ligament in the immediate postoperative period of liver transplantation in patients with no signs of intraabdominal sepsis. This finding was observed in 33 (94.3% of the 35 patients evaluated. The authors consider this finding to be a normal occurrence in the immediate postoperative period of liver transplantation.

  9. Fluid pumping using magnetic cilia (United States)

    Hanasoge, Srinivas; Ballard, Matt; Alexeev, Alexander; Hesketh, Peter; Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Team


    Using experiments and computer simulations, we examine fluid pumping by artificial magnetic cilia fabricated using surface micromachining techniques. An asymmetry in forward and recovery strokes of the elastic cilia causes the net pumping in a creeping flow regime. We show this asymmetry in the ciliary strokes is due to the change in magnetization of the elastic cilia combined with viscous force due to the fluid. Specifically, the time scale for forward stroke is mostly governed by the magnetic forces, whereas the time scale for the recovery stroke is determined by the elastic and viscous forces. These different time scales result in different cilia deformation during forward and backward strokes which in turn lead to the asymmetry in the ciliary motion. To disclose the physics of magnetic cilia pumping we use a hybrid lattice Boltzmann and lattice spring method. We validate our model by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data. The results of our study will be useful to design microfluidic systems for fluid mixing and particle manipulation including different biological particles. USDA and NSF.

  10. Consistency argued students of fluid (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma


    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  11. Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics (United States)

    Samelson, Roger M.

    The fluid kaleidoscope of the Earth's ocean and atmosphere churns and sparkles with jets, gyres, eddies, waves, streams, and cyclones. These vast circulations, essential elements of the physical environment that support human life, are given a special character by the Earth's rotation and by their confinement to a shallow surficial layer, thin relative to the solid Earth in roughly the same proportion as an apple skin is to an apple. Geophysical fluid dynamics exploits this special character to develop a unified theoretical approach to the physics of the ocean and atmosphere.With Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Rick Salmon has added an insightful and provocative volume to the handful of authoritative texts currently available on the subject. The book is intended for first-year graduate students, but advanced students and researchers also will find it useful. It is divided into seven chapters, the first four of these adapted from course lectures. The book is well written and presents a fresh and stimulating perspective that complements existing texts. It would serve equally well either as the main text for a core graduate curriculum or as a supplementary resource for students and teachers seeking new approaches to both classical and contemporary problems. A lively set of footnotes contains many references to very recent work. The printing is attractive, the binding is of high quality, and typographical errors are few.

  12. Cosmological perturbations for imperfect fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Centro ' Enrico Fermi' , Compendio del Viminale, Via Panisperna 89/A, 00184 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)


    Interacting fluids, endowed with bulk viscous stresses, are discussed in a unified perspective with the aim of generalizing the treatment of cosmological perturbation theory to the case where both fluctuating decay rates and fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficients are simultaneously present in the relativistic plasma. A gauge-invariant treatment of the qualitatively new phenomena arising in this context is provided. In a complementary approach, faithful gauge-fixed descriptions of the gravitational and hydrodynamical fluctuations are developed and exploited. To deepen the interplay between bulk viscous stresses and fluctuating decay rates, illustrative examples are proposed and discussed both analytically and numerically. Particular attention is paid to the coupled evolution of curvature and entropy fluctuations when, in the relativistic plasma, at least one of the interacting fluids possesses a fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficient. It is argued that this class of models may be usefully employed as an effective description of the decay of the inflaton as well as of other phenomena involving imperfect relativistic fluids.

  13. Type II collagen C2C epitope in human synovial fluid and serum after knee injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumahashi, N; Swärd, P; Larsson, S


    ). Serum was collected from 71 of the knee injured patients. Synovial fluid from 8 knee-healthy subjects was used as reference. C2C was quantified by immunoassay and structural injury was determined from magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the injured knee acquired 1-38 days after injury (n = 98......). Additional joint injury biomarker results were from earlier investigations of the same samples. RESULTS: Synovial fluid C2C concentrations were higher in injured knees than in knees of reference subjects from 1 day up to 7 years after injury. C2C concentrations in synovial fluid and serum were correlated (r......PURPOSE: Investigate in a cross-sectional study time-dependent changes of synovial fluid type II collagen epitope C2C concentrations after knee injury and correlate to other joint injury biomarkers. METHODS: Synovial fluid samples were aspirated between 0 days and 7 years after injury (n = 235...

  14. Transport and fluctuations in granular fluids from Boltzmann equation to hydrodynamics, diffusion and motor effects

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, Andrea


    This brief offers a concise presentation of granular fluids from the  point of view of non-equilibrium statistical physics. The emphasis is on fluctuations, which can be large in granular fluids due to the small system size (the number of grains is many orders of magnitude smaller than in molecular fluids). Firstly, readers will be introduced to the most intriguing experiments on fluidized granular fluids. Then granular fluid theory, which goes through increasing levels of coarse-graining and emerging collective phenomena, is described. Problems and questions are initially posed at the level of kinetic theory, which describes particle densities in full or reduced phase-space. Some answers become clear through hydrodynamics, which describes the evolution of slowly evolving fields. Granular fluctuating hydrodynamics, which builds a bridge to the most recent results in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, is also introduced. Further and more interesting answers come when the dynamics of a massive intruder are...

  15. Method of drilling with magnetorheological fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitha, P.L.J.


    A method of drilling a bore hole into a stratum, wherein via the drill hole drilling fluid is introduced and fed to the drill head. In order to avoid dilution or leak-off of the drilling fluid the same is in accordance with the invention a magnetorheological drilling fluid, and when an undesirable

  16. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages. (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E


    The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences.

  17. Markov-modulated and feedback fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.


    In the last twenty years the field of Markov-modulated fluid queues has received considerable attention. In these models a fluid reservoir receives and/or releases fluid at rates which depend on the actual state of a background Markov chain. In the first chapter of this thesis we give a short

  18. Fluid therapy in the emergency unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    require immediate vascular access and intravenous fluid administration. Choosing the correct fluid and administering effective and safe amounts of fluid for resuscitation are important determinants of morbidity and mortality outcomes. The American College of Critical Care. Medicine (ACCM) Clinical Practice. Parameters for ...

  19. Fluid flow meter using thermal tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, Arno Willem Frederik; Blokland, Huibert; Velthuis, Johannes Fransiscus Maria; Lötters, Joost Conrad


    Fluid flows through a conduit. To measure flow speed the fluid is heated at a heating location in the conduit with a time-dependent heating strength. A speed of sound in fluid flowing in the conduit is measured at a plurality of sensing locations downstream from said heating location. The flow speed

  20. Fluid flow meter using thermal tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, Arno Willem Frederik; Blokland, Huibert; Velthuis, Johannes Fransiscus Maria; Lötters, Joost Conrad


    Fluid flows through a conduit. To measure flow speed the fluid is heated at a heating location in the conduit with a time-dependent heating strength. A speed of sound in fluid flowing in the conduit is measured at a plurality of sensing locations downstream from said heating location. The flow speed

  1. Fluid Mud in Energetic Systems: FLUMES II (United States)


    FINAL REPORT Fluid Mud in Energetic Systems: FLUMES II Gail C. Kineke Dept of...the dynamics of fluid mud and its role in the transport and deposition of sediment in coastal environments. In particular, we sought greater...understanding of the processes that influence the formation and maintenance of fluid mud in energetic environments. OBJECTIVES The research is a process

  2. Fluid management in acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Prowle, John; Joannidis, Michael


    of fluid and brought attention to the delicate balance between benefits and harms of different aspects of fluid management in critically ill patients, in particular those with AKI. This narrative review addresses various aspects of fluid management in AKI outlining physiological aspects, the effects...

  3. Charcot-Leyden crystals in pleural fluids. (United States)

    Naylor, B; Novak, P M


    Charcot-Leyden crystals have rarely been reported in serous fluids. We present eight examples of Charcot-Leyden crystals, all found in eosinophilic pleural effusions. The crystals were found in toluidine blue-stained wet films of pleural fluid after either the fluid or the wet film had stood for at least 24 hours at 4 C.

  4. Fluid Power/Basic Hydraulics. Instructor's Guide. (United States)

    Stanbery, Richard

    This guide is designed to assist industrial vocational instructors in teaching a course on fluid power and basic hydraulics. Covered in the unit on the basics of fluid power and hydraulics are the following topics: the fundamentals of fluid power and hydraulics, basic hydraulic circuits, and servicing a hydraulic jack. The second unit, consisting…

  5. Thanatochemistry: Study of synovial fluid potassium | Tumram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to test previously developed regression formulae for estimating death interval based on synovial fluid potassium and to assess its reliability in estimating death interval. Synovial fluid potassium was measured on a sample of 308 individuals. Death interval was regressed on synovial fluid ...

  6. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D


    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  7. Selected topics of fluid mechanics (United States)

    Kindsvater, Carl E.


    The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are specific expressions of the principles of motion which are ascribed to Isaac Newton. Thus, the equations which form the framework of applied fluid mechanics or hydraulics are, in addition to the equation of continuity, the Newtonian equations of energy and momentum. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Physical concepts are emphasized, and mathematical procedures are the simplest consistent with the specific requirements of the derivations. In lieu of numerical examples, analogies, and alternative procedures, this treatment stresses a brief methodical exposition of the essential principles. An important objective of this report is to prepare the user to read the literature of the science. Thus, it begins With a basic vocabulary of technical symbols, terms, and concepts. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the language of modern fluid mechanics as it pertains to hydraulic engineering. The basic differential and integral equations of simple fluid motion are derived, and these equations are, in turn, used to describe the essential characteristics of hydrostatics and piezometry. The one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion are defined and are used to derive the general discharge equation. The flow net is described as a means of demonstrating significant characteristics of two-dimensional irrotational flow patterns. A typical flow net is examined in detail. The influence of fluid viscosity is described as an obstacle to the derivation of general, integral equations of motion. It is observed that the part played by viscosity is one which is usually dependent on experimental evaluation. It follows that the dimensionless ratios known as

  8. Evaluating the Level of Pollutants from Spent Drilling Fluids in an Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental pollution hazards due to the use of drilling fluids in the oil and gas sector were studied. Grab samples of spent drilling fluids (SDF), water and soil were collected from 7 locations in the oil field when the depth of the well was 3,658m, before the 3,962m pay zone. Samples were analyzed to determine the ...

  9. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Thomas M. [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Erlach, Celeste [ElectraTherm Inc., Reno, NV (United States)


    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  10. Salt and fluid restriction is effective in patients with chronic heart failure. (United States)

    Philipson, Henriette; Ekman, Inger; Forslund, Heléne B; Swedberg, Karl; Schaufelberger, Maria


    European and American guidelines have recommended salt and fluid restriction for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) despite scarce scientific evidence. Therefore, we investigated the effects of salt and fluid restriction in patients with CHF. Ninety-seven stable patients in NYHA class II-IV, on optimal medication, with previous signs of fluid retention, treated with either >40 mg (NYHA III-IV) or >80 mg (NYHA II-IV) of furosemide daily were randomized to either individualized salt and fluid restriction or information given by the nurse-led heart failure clinics, e.g. be aware not to drink too much and use salt with caution, and followed for 12 weeks. Fluid was restricted to 1.5 L and salt to 5 g daily, and individualized dietary advice and support was given. The 24 h dietary recall procedure, urine collection on three consecutive days, and para-aminobenzoic acid 80 mg t.i.d. was used to assess adherence to diet and completeness of urine collection. The primary endpoint was a composite variable consisting of NYHA class, hospitalization, weight, peripheral oedema, quality of life (QoL), thirst, and diuretics. Results After 12 weeks, significantly more patients in the intervention than in the control group improved on the composite endpoint (51% vs. 16%; P fluid restriction can improve signs and symptoms of CHF with no negative effects on thirst, appetite, or QoL in patients with moderate to severe CHF and previous signs of fluid retention.

  11. Fluid balance of cyclists during a 387-km race. (United States)

    Black, Katherine Elizabeth; Skidmore, Paula; Brown, Rachel Claire


    Current hydration guidelines are designed to address the fine balance between minimising dehydration while reducing the risk of hyponatremia. During prolonged cycling events small discrepancies between drinking behaviour and fluid requirements may be detrimental to health and performance. The present study aimed to investigate the hydration practices of competitors in a 387 km cycle race in order to evaluate the effect on fluid balance and monitor the prevalence of dysnatremia. Eighteen participants provided blood and urine samples pre- and post-race to measure sodium and fluid balance. Sweat samples were collected via patches for analysis of sodium concentration. Body weight was measured at the start and end of the race. On average participants consumed 0.58 L h(-1) of fluid. Upon completion of the race 7 of the 18 (39%) cyclists had blood sodium concentrations of 135 mmol L(-1) or lower with one cyclist recording a value of 132 mmol L(-1). Only two cyclists appeared to be moderately dehydrated. A post-race questionnaire indicated cyclists were most concerned with preventing dehydration. It appears that cyclists taking part in prolonged endurance events are at more risk of hyponatremia than dehydration and do not readily change their drinking behaviour to match their sweat losses.

  12. Unsteady bio-fluid dynamics in flying and swimming (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Li, Gen


    Flying and swimming in nature present sophisticated and exciting ventures in biomimetics, which seeks sustainable solutions and solves practical problems by emulating nature's time-tested patterns, functions, and strategies. Bio-fluids in insect and bird flight, as well as in fish swimming are highly dynamic and unsteady; however, they have been studied mostly with a focus on the phenomena associated with a body or wings moving in a steady flow. Characterized by unsteady wing flapping and body undulation, fluid-structure interactions, flexible wings and bodies, turbulent environments, and complex maneuver, bio-fluid dynamics normally have challenges associated with low Reynolds number regime and high unsteadiness in modeling and analysis of flow physics. In this article, we review and highlight recent advances in unsteady bio-fluid dynamics in terms of leading-edge vortices, passive mechanisms in flexible wings and hinges, flapping flight in unsteady environments, and micro-structured aerodynamics in flapping flight, as well as undulatory swimming, flapping-fin hydrodynamics, body-fin interaction, C-start and maneuvering, swimming in turbulence, collective swimming, and micro-structured hydrodynamics in swimming. We further give a perspective outlook on future challenges and tasks of several key issues of the field.

  13. PCR diagnosis of PRRS virus in oral fluids from weaned Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, P. R.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Pedersen, K. S.

    Introduction Oral fluid testing has been suggested as an alternative diagnostic approach for surveillance of pathogens in swine herds3. In Denmark oral fluid has been used for detection of PCV22 and swine veterinarians are eager to use it for diagnosis of other pathogens. The aim of the present...... herds. Oral fluid was collected by providing 1 cotton rope in each selected pen for 30 minutes. Blood samples from 5 systematic randomly selected pigs in each pen were taken and the separated serum was pooled penwise. Different purification methods were tested in order to decrease the content of PCR...

  14. Cross-linked Polyelectrolyte and Its Function in Adsorption of Fluid and Excess Nitrogen Waste Products: an Experimental Study on Dialysate Effluent Fluid. (United States)

    Tayebi Khosroshahi, Hamid; Abedi, Behzad; Daneshvar, Sabalan; Alizadeh, Effat; Khalilzadeh, Mohammadreza; Abedi, Yaghoub


    One of the most important issues in patients with chronic kidney disease is fluid retention and volume overload accompanied by retention of nitrogenous waste products and some electrolytes. Bowel fluid contains high levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and electrolytes, which make it a potential candidate for intestinal excretion of nitrogen wastes and electrolytes. Cross-linked polyelectrolyte (CLP) is a polymer that, given orally, absorbs excess fluid, electrolyte, and nitrogenous waste products. In an experimental study on 30 hemodialysis patients, the effect of CLP on adsorption of fluid, urea, creatinine, uric acid, sodium, and potassium were evaluated. For this purpose, 500 mL of effluent fluid of each patient were collected at the 1st hour of dialysis. The concentrations of the abovementioned products were measured by standard methods. Then the dialysate effluent samples were treated with 6 g of CLP and incubated for 4 hours at 37°C. Up to 80% of effluent fluid water was adsorbed by CLP. There were significant reductions in urea, creatinine, uric acid, and sodium levels in the remaining effluent fluid (P substitute for conventional dialysis methods, especially hemodialysis.

  15. Flutter Instability of a Fluid-Conveying Fluid-Immersed Pipe Affixed to a Rigid Body (United States)


    304–307. Bourri eres, F.-J., 1939. Sur en phenomene d’oscillation auto entrenue en mecanique des fluides reels. Publications Scientifiques et...Flutter instability of a fluid -conveying fluid -immersed pipe affixed to a rigid body Aren Helluma, Ranjan Mukherjee a,, Andrew J. Hull b a...Article history: Received 28 June 2010 Accepted 11 March 2011 Available online 6 April 2011 Keywords: Fluid -conveying pipe Fluid -immersed pipe External

  16. Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions (United States)

    Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.


    Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

  17. Phosphoproteome Discovery in Human Biological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giorgianni


    Full Text Available Phosphorylation plays a critical role in regulating protein function and thus influences a vast spectrum of cellular processes. With the advent of modern bioanalytical technologies, examination of protein phosphorylation on a global scale has become one of the major research areas. Phosphoproteins are found in biological fluids and interrogation of the phosphoproteome in biological fluids presents an exciting opportunity for discoveries that hold great potential for novel mechanistic insights into protein function in health and disease, and for translation to improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the clinical setting. This review focuses on phosphoproteome discovery in selected human biological fluids: serum/plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Bioanalytical workflows pertinent to phosphoproteomics of biological fluids are discussed with emphasis on mass spectrometry-based approaches, and summaries of studies on phosphoproteome discovery in major fluids are presented.

  18. Yttrium and rare earth elements in fluids from various deep-sea hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douville, E. [Univ. Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France). Dept. de Chimie]|[IFREMER Centre de Brest, Plouzane (France); Appriou, P. [Univ. Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France); Bienvenu, P. [CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France). Lab. d`Analyses Radiochimiques et Chimiques; Charlou, J.L.; Donval, J.P.; Fouquet, Y. [IFREMER Centre de Brest, Plouzane (France); Gamo, Toshitaka [Univ. of Tokyo, Nakano, Tokyo (Japan). Ocean Research Inst.


    Rare earth element (REE) and yttrium (Y) concentrations were measured in fluids collected from deep-sea hydrothermal systems including the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), i.e., Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike, TAG, and Snakepit; the East Pacific Rise (EPR), i.e., 13{degree}N and 17--19{degree}S; and the Lau (Vai Lili) and Manus (Vienna Woods, PacManus, Desmos) Back-arc Basins (BAB) in the South-West Pacific. In most fluids, Y is trivalent and behaves like Ho. Chondrite normalized Y-REE (Y-REE{sub N}) concentrations of fluids from MAR, EPR, and two BAB sites, i.e., Vai Lili and Vienna Woods, showed common patterns with LREE enrichment and positive Eu anomalies. REE analysis of plagioclase collected at Lucky Strike strengthens the idea that fluid REE contents, are controlled by plagioclase phenocrysts. Other processes, however, such as REE complexation by ligands (Cl{sup {minus}}, F{sup {minus}}, So{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), secondary phase precipitation, and phase separation modify REE distributions in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids. REE speciation calculations suggest that aqueous REE are mainly complexed by Cl{sup {minus}} ions in hot acidic fluids from deep-sea hydrothermal systems. REE concentrations in the fluid phases are, therefore, influenced by temperature, pH, and duration of rock-fluid interaction. Unusual Y-REE{sub N} patterns found in the PacManus fluids are characterized by depleted LREE and a positive Eu anomaly. The Demos fluid sample shows a flat Y-REE{sub N} pattern, which increases regularly from LREE to HREE with no Eu anomaly. These Manus Basin fluids also have an unusual major element chemistry with relatively high Mg, So{sub 4}, H{sub 2}S, and F contents, which may be due to the incorporation of magmatic fluids into heated seawater during hydrothermal circulation. REE distribution in PacManus fluids may stem from a subseafloor barite precipitation and the REE in Demos fluids are likely influenced by the presence of sulfate ions.

  19. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL


    The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.

  20. Detection of 4 benzodiazepines in oral fluid as biomarker for presence in blood. (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Langel, Kaarina; Favretto, Donata; Verstraete, Alain G


    Analysis of samples of oral fluid (mixed saliva) is increasingly being used to detect recent drug use. The aim of this investigation was to assess the suitability of testing oral fluid as a biomarker for the presence of 4 benzodiazepines in blood and its possible application in clinical settings and in research on drug use. Paired samples of oral fluid and blood from 4080 individuals in 4 European countries were collected and analyzed for benzodiazepines using gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopic detection. Concentration data for the 4 most commonly detected benzodiazepines were studied: alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, and nordiazepam. Large variations in oral fluid to blood concentration ratios were observed for the studied benzodiazepines. The interquartile ranges for the oral fluid to blood concentrations ratios corresponded to 88%-197% of the median values. Selecting cutoff concentrations in oral fluid that gave the best accuracy in identifying individuals with benzodiazepine concentrations in blood above chosen thresholds produced accuracies of 74%-85% and the fraction of false negatives was 9%-23%. The concentration of the 4 studied benzodiazepines in oral fluid can neither be used to accurately estimate the concentrations in blood nor to correctly identify patients with blood drug concentrations below or above recommended therapeutic levels. When using analytical methods with limits of quantitation corresponding to concentrations less than 0.5 ng/mL in undiluted oral fluid, it may be used to confirm a recent intake of benzodiazepines. However, it is likely that some false negatives may occur.

  1. Fluid therapy in mature cattle. (United States)

    Roussel, Allen J


    Fluid therapy for mature cattle differs from that for calves because the common conditions that result in dehydration and the metabolic derangements that accompany these conditions are different. The veterinarian needs to know which problem exists, what to administer to correct the problem, in what quantity, by what route, and at what rate. Mature cattle more frequently suffer from alkalosis; therefore, acidifying solutions containing K(+) and Cl(-) in concentrations greater than that of plasma are frequently indicated. The rumen provides a large-capacity reservoir into which oral rehydration solutions may be administered, which can save time and money. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Scattering methods in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sow-Hsin


    Summarising recent research on the physics of complex liquids, this in-depth analysis examines the topic of complex liquids from a modern perspective, addressing experimental, computational and theoretical aspects of the field. Selecting only the most interesting contemporary developments in this rich field of research, the authors present multiple examples including aggregation, gel formation and glass transition, in systems undergoing percolation, at criticality, or in supercooled states. Connecting experiments and simulation with key theoretical principles, and covering numerous systems including micelles, micro-emulsions, biological systems, and cement pastes, this unique text is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers looking to explore and understand the expanding field of complex fluids.

  3. Simulations of Astrophysical fluid instabilities (United States)

    Calder, A. C.; Fryxell, B.; Rosner, R.; Dursi, L. J.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P. M.; Timmes, F. X.; Zingale, M.; MacNeice, P.; Tufo, H. M.


    We present direct numerical simulations of mixing at Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interfaces performed with the FLASH code, developed at the ASCI/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago. We present initial results of single-mode studies in two and three dimensions. Our results indicate that three-dimensional instabilities grow significantly faster than two-dimensional instabilities and that grid resolution can have a significant effect on instability growth rates. We also find that unphysical diffusive mixing occurs at the fluid interface, particularly in poorly resolved simulations. .

  4. Fundamental fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hosking, Roger J


    This book is primarily intended to enable postgraduate research students to enhance their understanding and expertise in Fluid Mechanics and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), subjects no longer treated in isolation. The exercises throughout the book often serve to provide additional and quite significant knowledge or to develop selected mathematical skills, and may also fill in certain details or enhance readers’ understanding of essential concepts. A previous background or some preliminary reading in either of the two core subjects would be advantageous, and prior knowledge of multivariate calculus and differential equations is expected.

  5. Sensors for Fluid Leak Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz


    Full Text Available Fluid leak detection represents a problem that has attracted the interest of researchers, but not exclusively because in industries and services leaks are frequently common. Indeed, in water or gas supplies, chemical or thermal plants, sea-lines or cooling/heating systems leakage rates can cause important economic losses and sometimes, what it is more relevant, environmental pollution with human, animal or plant lives at risk. This last issue has led to increased national and international regulations with different degrees of severity regarding environmental conservation.[...

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Allard, Francis; Awbi, Hazim B.


    Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation Design is a new title in the is a new title in the REHVA guidebook series. The guidebook is written for people who need to use and discuss results based on CFD predictions, and it gives insight into the subject for those who are not used to work with CFD....... The guidebook is also written for people working with CFD which have to be more aware of how this numerical method is applied in the area of ventilation. The guidebook has, for example, chapters that are very important for CFD quality control in general and for the quality control of ventilation related...

  7. Complex fluids modeling and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Saramito, Pierre


    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the modeling of complex fluids, including many common substances, such as toothpaste, hair gel, mayonnaise, liquid foam, cement and blood, which cannot be described by Navier-Stokes equations. It also offers an up-to-date mathematical and numerical analysis of the corresponding equations, as well as several practical numerical algorithms and software solutions for the approximation of the solutions. It discusses industrial (molten plastics, forming process), geophysical (mud flows, volcanic lava, glaciers and snow avalanches), and biological (blood flows, tissues) modeling applications. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics, mechanical engineering and physics.

  8. Molecular Rheology of Complex Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    fluids as a function of molecular chemistry has attracted a long history of collaboration between industry and academia. In industrial polymer processes, there is usually a combination of both shear and extensional flows. In some processing operations such as blow molding and fiber spinning, extensional......–state viscosity between melts and solutions is still an open question. Branched polymer melts have more complex molecular structures. A stress maximum during the start–up of uniaxial extensional flow was reported in 1979 for a low–density polyethylene (LDPE) melt. Subsequently observations of a steady stress...

  9. Towards modern petrological collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriegsman, L.M.


    Petrological collections result from sampling for academic research, for aesthetic or commercial reasons, and to document natural diversity. Selection criteria for reducing and enhancing collections include adequate documentation, potential for future use, information density, time and money

  10. Portable Intravenous Fluid Production Device For Ground Use Project (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.


    Several medical conditions require the administration of intravenous (IV) fluids,but limitations of mass, volume, shelf-life, transportation, and local resources can restrict the availability of these important fluids. Such limitations are expected in long-duration space exploration missions and in remote or austere places on Earth. This design uses regular drinking water that is pumped through two filters to produce, in minutes, sterile, ultrapure water that meets the stringent quality standards of the United States Pharmacopeia for Water for Injection (Total Bacteria, Conductivity, Endo - toxins, Total Organic Carbon). The device weighs 2.2 lb (1 kg) and is 10 in. long, 5 in. wide, and 3 in. high (˜25, 13, and 7.5 cm, respectively) in its storage configuration. This handheld device produces one liter of medical-grade water in 21 minutes. Total production capacity for this innovation is expected to be in the hundreds of liters. The device contains one battery powered electric mini-pump. Alternatively, a manually powered pump can be attached and used. Drinking water enters the device from a source water bag, flows through two filters, and final sterile production water exits into a sealed, medical-grade collection bag. The collection bag contains pre-placed crystalline salts to mix with product water to form isotonic intravenous medical solutions. Alternatively, a hypertonic salt solution can be injected into a filled bag. The filled collection bag is detached from the device and is ready for use or storage. This device currently contains one collection bag, but a manifold of several pre-attached bags or replacement of single collection bags under sterile needle technique is possible for the production of multiple liters. The entire system will be flushed, sealed, and radiation-sterilized. Operation of the device is easy and requires minimal training. Drinking water is placed into the collection bag. Inline stopcock flow valves at the source and collection bags

  11. Collective Intelligence in Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Liegl, Michael; Thomas, Vanessa


    . By examining these dynamics with the concept of social collective intelligence, important opportunities and challenges can be examined. In this chapter we focus on socio-technical aspects of social collective intelligence in crises to discuss positive and negative frictions and avenues for innovation....... Of particular interest are ways of bridging between collective intelligence in crises and official emergency response efforts....

  12. Calibrating collective commitments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R; Marik,; Muller, J; Pechoucek, M


    In this paper we aim to formally model the strongest motivational attitude occurring in teamwork, collective commitment. First, building on our previous work, a logical framework is sketched in which social commitments and collective intentions are formalized. Then, different versions of collective

  13. Fluid inclusions — What can we learn? (United States)

    Crawford, Maria Luisa


    Fluid inclusions have been reported from all types of metamorphic rocks hence a free fluid phase must be present even at deep crustal levels. Mobile and chemically reactive fluids are thus available to transport both heat and matter through crustal rocks. The most important information gained from fluid inclusion studies is a detailed knowledge of the composition of the fluid phase(s) present during metamorphism. Early studies drew attention to the presence of variable and sometimes highly saline aqueous brines in most metamorphic environments as well as CH 4 in low grade rocks and CO 2 at higher grades. Subsequently the role played by brines in expanding the unmixing solvus of the aqueous and carbonic components of common metamorphic fluids to cover a wide P-T range has been emphasized. Metamorphic petrologists have only slowly adapted their thermodynamic models for metamorphic equilibria to these data. More recently, studies have demonstrated that N 2 is a common phase especially in late or lower temperature fluids. Little is known of the role of nitrogen in the solid phases involved in metamorphism. Do the high nitrogen contents observed in some fluids reflect a significant nitrogen component in the minerals in those rocks? Or do processes related to the compositional evolution of the fluid phase act to concentrate nitrogen in later stage fluids?

  14. Elastically cooperative activated barrier hopping theory of relaxation in viscous fluids. I. General formulation and application to hard sphere fluids. (United States)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S


    We generalize the force-level nonlinear Langevin equation theory of single particle hopping to include collective effects associated with long range elastic distortion of the liquid. The activated alpha relaxation event is of a mixed spatial character, involving two distinct, but inter-related, local and collective barriers. There are no divergences at volume fractions below jamming or temperatures above zero Kelvin. The ideas are first developed and implemented analytically and numerically in the context of hard sphere fluids. In an intermediate volume fraction crossover regime, the local cage process is dominant in a manner consistent with an apparent Arrhenius behavior. The super-Arrhenius collective barrier is more strongly dependent on volume fraction, dominates the highly viscous regime, and is well described by a nonsingular law below jamming. The increase of the collective barrier is determined by the amplitude of thermal density fluctuations, dynamic shear modulus or transient localization length, and a growing microscopic jump length. Alpha relaxation time calculations are in good agreement with recent experiments and simulations on dense fluids and suspensions of hard spheres. Comparisons of the theory with elastic models and entropy crisis ideas are explored. The present work provides a foundation for constructing a quasi-universal, fit-parameter-free theory for relaxation in thermal molecular liquids over 14 orders of magnitude in time.

  15. Human papillomavirus in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swan David C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence to suggest that human papillomavirus (HPV can cross the placenta resulting in in-utero transmission. The goal of this study was to determine if HPV can be detected in amniotic fluid from women with intact amniotic membranes. Methods Residual amniotic fluid and cultured cell pellets from amniocentesis performed for prenatal diagnosis were used. PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primers and GP5+/GP6+ primers were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction assay for HPV. Results There were 146 paired samples from 142 women representing 139 singleton pregnancies, 2 twin pregnancies, and 1 triplet pregnancy. The women were 78% Caucasian, 5% African American, 14% Asian, and 2% Hispanic. The average age was 35.2 years with a range of 23–55 years. All samples were β-globin positive. HPV was not detected in any of the paired samples. Conclusion Given the age range, race, and ethnicity of the study population, one would anticipate some evidence of HPV if it could easily cross the placenta, but there was none.

  16. Einstein viscosity with fluid elasticity (United States)

    Einarsson, Jonas; Yang, Mengfei; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.


    We give the first correction to the suspension viscosity due to fluid elasticity for a dilute suspension of spheres in a viscoelastic medium. Our perturbation theory is valid to O (ϕ Wi2) in the particle volume fraction ϕ and the Weissenberg number Wi =γ ˙λ , where γ ˙ is the typical magnitude of the suspension velocity gradient, and λ is the relaxation time of the viscoelastic fluid. For shear flow we find that the suspension shear-thickens due to elastic stretching in strain "hot spots" near the particle, despite the fact that the stress inside the particles decreases relative to the Newtonian case. We thus argue that it is crucial to correctly model the extensional rheology of the suspending medium to predict the shear rheology of the suspension. For uniaxial extensional flow we correct existing results at O (ϕ Wi ) , and find dramatic strain-rate thickening at O (ϕ Wi2) . We validate our theory with fully resolved numerical simulations.

  17. Parallel plasma fluid turbulence calculations (United States)

    Leboeuf, J. N.; Carreras, B. A.; Charlton, L. A.; Drake, J. B.; Lynch, V. E.; Newman, D. E.; Sidikman, K. L.; Spong, D. A.

    The study of plasma turbulence and transport is a complex problem of critical importance for fusion-relevant plasmas. To this day, the fluid treatment of plasma dynamics is the best approach to realistic physics at the high resolution required for certain experimentally relevant calculations. Core and edge turbulence in a magnetic fusion device have been modeled using state-of-the-art, nonlinear, three-dimensional, initial-value fluid and gyrofluid codes. Parallel implementation of these models on diverse platforms--vector parallel (National Energy Research Supercomputer Center's CRAY Y-MP C90), massively parallel (Intel Paragon XP/S 35), and serial parallel (clusters of high-performance workstations using the Parallel Virtual Machine protocol)--offers a variety of paths to high resolution and significant improvements in real-time efficiency, each with its own advantages. The largest and most efficient calculations have been performed at the 200 Mword memory limit on the C90 in dedicated mode, where an overlap of 12 to 13 out of a maximum of 16 processors has been achieved with a gyrofluid model of core fluctuations. The richness of the physics captured by these calculations is commensurate with the increased resolution and efficiency and is limited only by the ingenuity brought to the analysis of the massive amounts of data generated.

  18. Computational methods for fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ferziger, Joel H


    In its 3rd revised and extended edition the book offers an overview of the techniques used to solve problems in fluid mechanics on computers and describes in detail those most often used in practice. Included are advanced methods in computational fluid dynamics, like direct and large-eddy simulation of turbulence, multigrid methods, parallel computing, moving grids, structured, block-structured and unstructured boundary-fitted grids, free surface flows. The 3rd edition contains a new section dealing with grid quality and an extended description of discretization methods. The book shows common roots and basic principles for many different methods. The book also contains a great deal of practical advice for code developers and users, it is designed to be equally useful to beginners and experts. The issues of numerical accuracy, estimation and reduction of numerical errors are dealt with in detail, with many examples. A full-feature user-friendly demo-version of a commercial CFD software has been added, which ca...

  19. Synovial fluid over the centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson


    Full Text Available This review deals with the most meaningful historical topics on the study of synovial fluid, by starting from the Greco- Roman Medicine, up to Paracelsus (1493-1541, who introduced the term “synovia” to name the intra-articular humour. Afterwards, some till now unreported historical sources are recorded, e.g., a short text by the Italian XVIII century physician Giambattista Contoli (“Breve Instruzione sopre il Glutine, ò Colla…, 1699”. Then, in keeping with some recent researches, a brief history of arthrocentesis is outlined, by considering the first procedures, which should have been performed in Mexico, during the precolonial period. Moreover, the first chemical analysis of synovial fluid, as carried out by the French chemist Jean-Louis Margueron (1792, and the first modern study on the synovial membrane by Marie-François-Xavier Bichat (1800 are explained. Finally, some XIX century investigations concerning the synovial pharmacodynamics, in particular an Italian one based on the elimination of certain chemical substances through the synovial membrane, are discussed.

  20. Parametric Modeling for Fluid Systems (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Martinez, Jonathan


    Fluid Systems involves different projects that require parametric modeling, which is a model that maintains consistent relationships between elements as is manipulated. One of these projects is the Neo Liquid Propellant Testbed, which is part of Rocket U. As part of Rocket U (Rocket University), engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida have the opportunity to develop critical flight skills as they design, build and launch high-powered rockets. To build the Neo testbed; hardware from the Space Shuttle Program was repurposed. Modeling for Neo, included: fittings, valves, frames and tubing, between others. These models help in the review process, to make sure regulations are being followed. Another fluid systems project that required modeling is Plant Habitat's TCUI test project. Plant Habitat is a plan to develop a large growth chamber to learn the effects of long-duration microgravity exposure to plants in space. Work for this project included the design and modeling of a duct vent for flow test. Parametric Modeling for these projects was done using Creo Parametric 2.0.

  1. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering


    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  2. Potential applications of human saliva as diagnostic fluid. (United States)

    Castagnola, M; Picciotti, P M; Messana, I; Fanali, C; Fiorita, A; Cabras, T; Calò, L; Pisano, E; Passali, G C; Iavarone, F; Paludetti, G; Scarano, E


    The use of human saliva as a diagnostic and prognostic fluid has until recently been somewhat disregarded. Although sample collection is non-invasive, physiological and genetic variations were largely responsible for its infrequent application in the past. Recently, several proteomic studies contributed to partial elucidation of the salivary proteome (more than 2400 protein components have been characterized), both in terms of composition, contributions to whole saliva and genetic/physiological variability. On this basis, is not too optimistic to believe that in the near future human saliva could become a relevant diagnostic fluid. In this review, the characterization by proteomic approaches of new salivary markers in oncology, head and neck carcinoma (oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and salivary glands), breast and gastric cancers, salivary gland function and disease, Sjögren syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dental and gingival pathology, systemic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, is described.

  3. Fluid-fluid level on MR image: significance in Musculoskeletal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Kyung Won [Seoul Naitonal University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Wook; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul Naitonal University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine


    To evaluate the frequency, number and signal intensity of fluid-fluid levels of musculoskeletal diseases on MR images, and to determine the usefulness of this information for the differentiation of musculoskeletal diseases. MR images revealed fluid-fluid levels in the following diseases : giant cell tumor(6), telangiectatic osteosarcoma(4), aneurysmal bone cyst(3), synovial sarcoma(3), chondroblastoma(2), soft tissue tuberculous abscess(2), hematoma(2), hemangioma (1), neurilemmoma(1), metastasis(1), malignant fibrous histiocytoma(1), bursitis(1), pyogenic abscess(1), and epidermoid inclusion cyst(1). Fourteen benign tumors and ten malignant, three abscesses, and the epidermoid inclusion cyst showed only one fluid-fluid level in a unilocular cyst. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensities of fluid varied, but on T2-weighted images, superior layers were in most cases more hyperintense than inferior layers. Because fluid-fluid layers are a nonspecific finding, it is difficult to specifically diagnose each disease according to the number of fluid-fluid levels or signal intensity of fluid. In spite of the nonspecificity of fluid-fluid levels, they were frequently seen in cases of giant cell tumor, telangiectatic osteosarcoma, aneurysmal bone cycle, and synovial sarcoma. Nontumorous diseases such abscesses and hematomas also demonstrated this finding. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  4. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.


    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 concentration of NaCl up to 6 mol/kgH2O. The EoS allows us to predict equilibrium composition in both liquid and vapor phases, fugacity coefficients of components, and phase densities. Predictions show that inclusion of H2S in CO2 streams may lead to two-phase flow in pipelines. For H2S-CO2 mixtures at a given temperature the bubble and dew pressures decrease with increasing H2S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. Furthermore, the EoS can be incorporated into reservoir simulators so that the dynamic development of mixed fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account of reaction coupling is able

  5. Arachnoid cysts do not contain cerebrospinal fluid: A comparative chemical analysis of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaland Øystein A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arachnoid cyst (AC fluid has not previously been compared with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from the same patient. ACs are commonly referred to as containing "CSF-like fluid". The objective of this study was to characterize AC fluid by clinical chemistry and to compare AC fluid to CSF drawn from the same patient. Such comparative analysis can shed further light on the mechanisms for filling and sustaining of ACs. Methods Cyst fluid from 15 adult patients with unilateral temporal AC (9 female, 6 male, age 22-77y was compared with CSF from the same patients by clinical chemical analysis. Results AC fluid and CSF had the same osmolarity. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium or glucose. We found significant elevated concentration of phosphate in AC fluid (0.39 versus 0.35 mmol/L in CSF; p = 0.02, and significantly reduced concentrations of total protein (0.30 versus 0.41 g/L; p = 0.004, of ferritin (7.8 versus 25.5 ug/L; p = 0.001 and of lactate dehydrogenase (17.9 versus 35.6 U/L; p = 0.002 in AC fluid relative to CSF. Conclusions AC fluid is not identical to CSF. The differential composition of AC fluid relative to CSF supports secretion or active transport as the mechanism underlying cyst filling. Oncotic pressure gradients or slit-valves as mechanisms for generating fluid in temporal ACs are not supported by these results.

  6. Dissolved amino acids in oceanic basaltic basement fluids (United States)

    Lin, Huei-Ting; Amend, Jan P.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Cowen, James P.


    The oceanic basaltic basement contains the largest aquifer on Earth and potentially plays an important role in the global carbon cycle as a net sink for dissolved organic carbon (DOC). However, few details of the organic matter cycling in the subsurface are known because great water depths and thick sediments typically hinder direct access to this environment. In an effort to examine the role of water-rock-microorganism interaction on organic matter cycling in the oceanic basaltic crust, basement fluid samples collected from three borehole observatories installed on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge were analyzed for dissolved amino acids. Our data show that dissolved free amino acids (1-13 nM) and dissolved hydrolyzable amino acids (43-89 nM) are present in the basement. The amino acid concentrations in the ridge-flank basement fluids are at the low end of all submarine hydrothermal fluids reported in the literature and are similar to those in deep seawater. Amino acids in recharging deep seawater, in situ amino acid production, and diffusional input from overlying sediments are potential sources of amino acids in the basement fluids. Thermodynamic modeling shows that amino acid synthesis in the basement can be sustained by energy supplied from inorganic substrates via chemolithotrophic metabolisms. Furthermore, an analysis of amino acid concentrations and compositions in basement fluids support the notion that heterotrophic activity is ongoing. Similarly, the enrichment of acidic amino acids and depletion of hydrophobic ones relative to sedimentary particulate organic matter suggests that surface sorption and desorption also alters amino acids in the basaltic basement. In summary, although the oceanic basement aquifer is a net sink for deep seawater DOC, similar amino acid concentrations in basement aquifer and deep seawater suggest that DOC is preferentially removed in the basement over dissolved amino acids. Our data also suggest that organic carbon

  7. Effects of Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability (United States)

    Sunday, Brittney; Triantafillu, Ursula; Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun


    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are believed to be the source of tumor formation, are exposed to fluid shear stress as a result of blood flow within the blood vessels. It was theorized that CSCs would be less susceptible to cell death than non-CSCs after both types of cell were exposed to a fluid shear stress, and that higher levels of fluid shear stress would result in lower levels of cell viability for both cell types. To test this hypothesis, U87 glioblastoma cells were cultured adherently (containing smaller populations of CSCs) and spherically (containing larger populations of CSCs). They were exposed to fluid shear stress in a simulated blood flow through a 125-micrometer diameter polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing using a syringe pump. After exposure, cell viability data was collected using a BioRad TC20 Automated Cell Counter. Each cell type was tested at three physiological shear stress values: 5, 20, and 60 dynes per centimeter squared. In general, it was found that the CSC-enriched U87 sphere cells had higher cell viability than the CSC-depleted U87 adherent cancer cells. Interestingly, it was also observed that the cell viability was not negatively affected by the higher fluid shear stress values in the tested range. In future follow-up studies, higher shear stresses will be tested. Furthermore, CSCs from different tumor origins (e.g. breast tumor, prostate tumor) will be tested to determine cell-specific shear sensitivity. National Science Foundation Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an REU student.

  8. Detection and Isolation of Swine Influenza A Virus in Spiked Oral Fluid and Samples from Individually Housed, Experimentally Infected Pigs: Potential Role of Porcine Oral Fluid in Active Influenza A Virus Surveillance in Swine (United States)

    Decorte, Inge; Steensels, Mieke; Lambrecht, Bénédicte


    Background The lack of seasonality of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) in combination with the capacity of swine to harbor a large number of co-circulating IAV lineages, resulting in the risk for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential, stress the importance of swIAV surveillance. To date, active surveillance of swIAV worldwide is barely done because of the short detection period in nasal swab samples. Therefore, more sensitive diagnostic methods to monitor circulating virus strains are requisite. Methods qRT-PCR and virus isolations were performed on oral fluid and nasal swabs collected from individually housed pigs that were infected sequentially with H1N1 and H3N2 swIAV strains. The same methods were also applied to oral fluid samples spiked with H1N1 to study the influence of conservation time and temperature on swIAV infectivity and detectability in porcine oral fluid. Results All swIAV infected animals were found qRT-PCR positive in both nasal swabs and oral fluid. However, swIAV could be detected for a longer period in oral fluid than in nasal swabs. Despite the high detectability of swIAV in oral fluid, virus isolation from oral fluid collected from infected pigs was rare. These results are supported by laboratory studies showing that the PCR detectability of swIAV remains unaltered during a 24 h incubation period in oral fluid, while swIAV infectivity drops dramatically immediately upon contact with oral fluid (3 log titer reduction) and gets lost after 24 h conservation in oral fluid at ambient temperature. Conclusions Our data indicate that porcine oral fluid has the potential to replace nasal swabs for molecular diagnostic purposes. The difficulty to isolate swIAV from oral fluid could pose a drawback for its use in active surveillance programs. PMID:26431039

  9. Quantitative body fluid proteomics in medicine - A focus on minimal invasiveness. (United States)

    Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő; Márkus, Bernadett; Deák, Eszter; Csutak, Adrienne; Tőzsér, József


    Identification of new biomarkers specific for various pathological conditions is an important field in medical sciences. Body fluids have emerging potential in biomarker studies especially those which are continuously available and can be collected by non-invasive means. Changes in the protein composition of body fluids such as tears, saliva, sweat, etc. may provide information on both local and systemic conditions of medical relevance. In this review, our aim is to discuss the quantitative proteomics techniques used in biomarker studies, and to present advances in quantitative body fluid proteomics of non-invasively collectable body fluids with relevance to biomarker identification. The advantages and limitations of the widely used quantitative proteomics techniques are also presented. Based on the reviewed literature, we suggest an ideal pipeline for body fluid analyses aiming at biomarkers discoveries: starting from identification of biomarker candidates by shotgun quantitative proteomics or protein arrays, through verification of potential biomarkers by targeted mass spectrometry, to the antibody-based validation of biomarkers. The importance of body fluids as a rich source of biomarkers is discussed. Quantitative proteomics is a challenging part of proteomics applications. The body fluids collected by non-invasive means have high relevance in medicine; they are good sources for biomarkers used in establishing the diagnosis, follow up of disease progression and predicting high risk groups. The review presents the most widely used quantitative proteomics techniques in body fluid analysis and lists the potential biomarkers identified in tears, saliva, sweat, nasal mucus and urine for local and systemic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral fluid nicotine markers to assess smoking status and recency of use (United States)

    Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Marrone, Gina F.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Singleton, Edward G.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.


    Oral fluid collection is non-invasive and easily observed making it an attractive matrix for objectively determining smoking status. Despite large inter-subject variability, cotinine oral fluid concentrations correlate with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Few studies, however, assessed nicotine markers in oral fluid other than cotinine; other markers might improve smoking status assessment and/or time of last cigarette. Materials and Methods Smoking histories and oral fluid specimens were collected from non-treatment-seeking light (1–10 CPD) and heavy smokers (>10 CPD), and from environmentally exposed and nonexposed nonsmokers who provided written informed consent for this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) and norcotinine oral fluid concentrations were quantified via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Comparison of 1, 3 and 10ng/mL oral fluid LCMSMS cutoffs demonstrated that 10ng/mL cutoffs performed optimally for cotinine, OH-cotinine, nicotine and norcotinine identifying 98, 97, 88 and 15% of self-reported smokers; 1% nonsmokers had >10ng/mL cotinine. No self-reported nonsmoker had >10ng/mL OH-cotinine, nicotine or norcotinine. Norcotinine was only identified in smokers’ oral fluid. Oral fluid nicotine, cotinine and nicotine/cotinine ratios were negatively correlated with time of last smoking (r=−0.53, −0.23, and −0.51; pnicotine, cotinine and nicotine/cotinine ratios may be useful for determining smoking recency in “spot samples” collected during nicotine cessation treatment. PMID:21860341

  11. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve human biological samples, mostly blood and urine, from astronauts collected during flight under ambient conditions,...

  12. Characterization of fluid transport in microscale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.H.


    A new tool for imaging both scalar transport and velocity fields in liquid flows through microscale structures is described. The technique employs an ultraviolet laser pulse to write a pattern into the flow by uncaging a fluorescent dye. This is followed, at selected time delays, by flood illumination with a pulse of visible light which excites the uncaged dye. The resulting fluorescence image collected onto a sensitive CCD camera. The instrument is designed as an oil immersion microscope to minimize the beam steering effects. The caged fluorescent dye is seeded in trace quantities throughout the active fluid, thus images with high contrast and minimal distortion due to any molecular diffusion history can be obtained at any point within the microchannel by selectivity activating the dye in the immediate region of interest. The author reports images of pressure- and electrokinetically-driven steady flow within round cross section capillaries having micron scale inner diameters. The author also demonstrates the ability to recover the velocity profile from a time sequence of these scalar images by direct inversion of the conserved scalar advection-convection equation.

  13. Penetration of ceftibuten into middle ear fluid. (United States)

    Lin, C; Kumari, P; Perrotta, R J; Reidenberg, B E


    The penetration of ceftibuten, an extended-spectrum oral cephalosporin, into middle ear fluid (MEF) was evaluated in pediatric patients during a course of daily oral doses of 9 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days. Plasma and MEF collected at 2, 4, 6, or 12 h after at least 3 days of dosing were analyzed for ceftibuten by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method, and the data were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Plasma and MEF had almost identical maximum concentrations (Cmax) of ceftibuten (14 micrograms/ml). These Cmax values in MEF during acute otitis media were well in excess of the MIC for 90% of the isolates of each of four major pathogens in this disease. The time to Cmax was longer in MEF (4 h) than in plasma (2 h). Excellent penetration (71%) of ceftibuten into MEF was observed on the basis of the area under the curve ratio (MEF/plasma). These data clearly indicate that ceftibuten penetrated well into the MEF to yield clinically effective concentrations.

  14. Fluid-solid modeling of lymphatic valves (United States)

    Caulk, Alexander; Ballard, Matthew; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Dixon, Brandon; Alexeev, Alexander


    The lymphatic system performs important physiological functions such as the return of interstitial fluid to the bloodstream to maintain tissue fluid balance, as well as the transport of immune cells in the body. It utilizes contractile lymphatic vessels, which contain valves that open and close to allow flow in only one direction, to directionally pump lymph against a pressure gradient. We develop a fluid-solid model of geometrically representative lymphatic valves. Our model uses a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann lattice spring method to capture fluid-solid interactions with two-way coupling between a viscous fluid and lymphatic valves in a lymphatic vessel. We use this model to investigate the opening and closing of lymphatic valves, and its effect on lymphatic pumping. This helps to broaden our understanding of the fluid dynamics of the lymphatic system.

  15. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, F. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Eckert, C.A. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)


    The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

  16. New trends in fluid mechanics research. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, F.G. [China Aerospace Corporation, Beijing (China). Science and Technology Council; Li, J.C. (eds.) [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mechanics


    This volume is the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Fluid Mechanics (ICFM-V), the primary forum for the presentation of technological advances and research results in the fields of theoretical, experimental, and computational Fluid Mechanics. Following the previous conferences in Beijing (1987, 1993 and 1998) and Dalian (2004) organized by the Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, the Scientific Committee for ICFM presents ICFM-V to provide a forum for researchers to exchange original ideas and recent advances in Fluid Mechanics and relevant interdisciplinary subjects. Topics include: flow instability and turbulence, aerodynamics and gas dynamics, hydrodynamics, industrial and environmental fluid mechanics, biofluid mechanics, geophysical fluid mechanics, plasma and magneto-hydrodynamics, multiphase flows, non-Newtonian flows and flows in porous media, flow of reacting fluid, microscale flow and others.The CD-ROM includes all papers presented at the conference in PDF format, including those that were not selected for the book. (orig.)

  17. The Relationship Between Social Support and Adherence of Dietary and Fluids Restrictions among Hemodialysis Patients in Iran. (United States)

    Ahrari, Shahnaz; Moshki, Mahdi; Bahrami, Mahnaz


    Patient's noncompliance dietary and fluids intake can lead to a build-up of toxic fluids and metabolic end-products in the blood stream which may result in an increased morbidity and premature death. The aim of the study is investigate relationship between the social support and adherence to dietary and fluid restrictions in hemodialysis patients. In this correlational study upon 237 hemodialysis patients, the data was collected with the dialysis diet and fluids non-adherences hemodialysis questionnaire (DDFQ), and the multidimensional scale of perceived Social Support (MSP). Interdialytic weight gain, predialytic serum potassium levels, and predialytic serum phosphate levels was considered as biochemical indicators of dietary and fluid adherence. Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver.11.5. About 41.1% of patients reported non-adherence to diet and 45.2% of them reported non-adherence to fluid. Frequency of non-adherence to fluid was more common in patients. The highest level of perceived support was the family support 11.19 (1.34). There was a significant relationship between social support and adherence to dietary and fluid restrictions. Noncompliances to dietary and fluid restrictions were related to laboratory results. This way those patients who more supported had more adherences of diet and fluid restrictions and had lower level of phosphorus and potassium in laboratory results. Nurses have the main role to identify different methods providing social support for patients, also to encourage the families to support their hemodialysis patients.

  18. Micro-analysis of plaque fluid from single-site fasted plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, G.L.; Carey, C.M.; Chow, L.C.; Tatevossian, A. (American Dental Association Health Foundation, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))


    Despite the site-specific nature of caries, nearly all data on the concentration of ions relevant to the level of saturation of plaque fluid with respect to calcium phosphate minerals or enamel are from studies that used pooled samples. A procedure is described for the collection and analysis of inorganic ions relevant to these saturation levels in plaque fluid samples collected from a single surface on a single tooth. Various methods for examining data obtained by this procedure are described, and a mathematical procedure employing potential plots is recommended.

  19. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathies, Richard A.; Grover, William H.; Skelley, Alison; Lagally, Eric; Liu, Chung N.


    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  20. Thermodynamics of Angular Propulsion in Fluids (United States)

    Polihronov, Jeliazko G.; Straatman, Anthony G.


    The presented study examines the energetics of confined fluid flow in a rotating reference frame. Parallels are drawn to the corresponding scenario of rectilinear motion, where ejection of fluid results in linear propulsion of the frame. Absorption of flow energy into the frame motion leads to cooling of the ejected fluid. Relevance of the observed energetics to the temperature separation phenomenon in Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes is discussed.

  1. Electrorheological (ER) Fluids: A Research Needs Assessment (United States)


    arising from charges on the particles and modified by the presence and distribution of free ions. Magnetorheological (MR) fluids undergo strong...separate control of cab and trailer motions is probably the way to go. Other automotive uses that may come in the near future include vibration dampers ...this work used very simple fluids offering less than optimum performance, but provided some useful guidelines to damper and clutch design using ER fluids

  2. A Magnetorheological Fluid Damper for Rotor Applications


    Forte, P.; Paternò, M.; Rustighi, E.


    Even though we are still far from industrial applications, in the last decade there has been increasing attention directed toward the employment of electrorheological (ER) and magnetorheological (MR) fluids in active bearings and active squeeze film dampers in rotordynamics. MR fluids react to magnetic fields undergoing reversible changes in their mechanical characteristics, viscosity, and stiffness in particular. In previous literature, some applications of ER fluids in rotor squeeze film da...

  3. Studies of complexity in fluid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Sidney R.


    This is the final report of Grant DE-FG02-92ER25119, ''Studies of Complexity in Fluids'', we have investigated turbulence, flow in granular materials, singularities in evolution of fluid surfaces and selective withdrawal fluid flows. We have studied numerical methods for dealing with complex phenomena, and done simulations on the formation of river networks. We have also studied contact-line deposition that occurs in a drying drop.

  4. Mass spectrometric analysis of gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers can predict periodontal disease progression. (United States)

    Ngo, L H; Darby, I B; Veith, P D; Locke, A G; Reynolds, E C


    Gingival crevicular fluid has been suggested as a possible source of biomarkers for periodontal disease progression. This paper describes a technique for the analysis of gingival crevicular fluid from individual sites using mass spectrometry. It explores the novel use of mass spectrometry to examine the relationship between the relative amounts of proteins and peptides in gingival crevicular fluid and their relationship with clinical indices and periodontal attachment loss in periodontal maintenance patients. The aim of this paper was to assess whether the mass spectrometric analysis of gingival crevicular fluid may allow for the site-specific prediction of periodontal disease progression. Forty-one periodontal maintenance subjects were followed over 12 mo, with clinical measurements taken at baseline and every 3 mo thereafter. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from subjects at each visit and was analysed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Samples were classified based upon pocket depth, modified gingival index (MGI), plaque index and attachment loss, and were analysed within these groups. A genetic algorithm was used to create a model based on pattern analysis to predict sites undergoing attachment loss. Three hundred and eighty-five gingival crevicular fluid samples were analysed. Twenty-five sites under observation in 14 patients exhibited attachment loss of > 2 mm over the 12-mo period. The clinical indices pocket depth, MGI, plaque levels and bleeding on probing served as poor discriminators of gingival crevicular fluid mass spectra. Models generated from the gingival crevicular fluid mass spectra could predict attachment loss at a site with a high specificity (97% recognition capability and 67% cross-validation). Gingival crevicular fluid mass spectra could be used to predict sites with attachment loss. The use of algorithm-generated models based on gingival crevicular fluid mass spectra may

  5. Hole fluids for deep ice core drilling


    Talalay, P.G.; Gundestrup, N.S.


    This paper is based on the data published in research report of P. G. Talalay and N. S. Gundestrup; Hole fluids for deep ice core drilling : A review. Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, 1999,120p. In the practice of deep ice core drilling only three types of bore-hole fluids have been used : 1) petroleum oil products (fuels or solvents) containing densifier, 2) aqueous ethylene glycol or ethanol solutions, 3) n-butyl acetate. The main parameters of drilling fluids are 1) density and fluid top...

  6. Introduction to thermo-fluids systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia McDonald, André


    A fully comprehensive guide to thermal systems design covering fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, heat transfer and thermodynamic power cycles Bridging the gap between the fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics, heat transfer and thermodynamics, and the practical design of thermo-fluids components and systems, this textbook focuses on the design of internal fluid flow systems, coiled heat exchangers and performance analysis of power plant systems. The topics are arranged so that each builds upon the previous chapter to convey to the reader that topics are not stand-alone i

  7. An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt


    CFD is the shortname for Computational Fluid Dynamics and is a numerical method by means of which we can analyze systems containing fluids. For instance systems dealing with heat flow or smoke control systems acting when a fire occur in a building.......CFD is the shortname for Computational Fluid Dynamics and is a numerical method by means of which we can analyze systems containing fluids. For instance systems dealing with heat flow or smoke control systems acting when a fire occur in a building....

  8. Predicting and measuring fluid responsiveness with echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Miller


    Full Text Available Echocardiography is ideally suited to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. It can be used to assess fluid responsiveness by looking at the left ventricle, aortic outflow, inferior vena cava and right ventricle. Static measurements and dynamic variables based on heart–lung interactions all combine to predict and measure fluid responsiveness and assess response to intravenous fluid esuscitation. Thorough knowledge of these variables, the physiology behind them and the pitfalls in their use allows the echocardiographer to confidently assess these patients and in combination with clinical judgement manage them appropriately.

  9. Dynamic analysis of conical shells conveying fluid (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, D.; Ganesan, N.


    A formulation, based on the semi-analytical finite element method, is proposed for elastic conical shells conveying fluids. The structural equations are based on the shell element proposed by Ramasamy and Ganesan [Finite element analysis of fluid-filled isotropic cylindrical shells with constrained viscoelastic damping, Computers & Structures 70 (1998) 363-376] while the fluid model is based on velocity potential formulation used by Jayaraj et al. [A semi-analytical coupled finite element formulation for composite shells conveying fluids, Journal of Sound and Vibration 258(2) (2002) 287-307]. Dynamic pressure acting on the walls is derived from Bernoulli's equation. By imposing the requirement that the normal component of velocity of the solid and fluid are equal leads to fluid-structure coupling. The computer code developed has been validated using results available in the literature for cylindrical shells conveying fluid. The study has been carried out for conical shells of different cone angles and for boundary condition like clamped-clamped, simply supported and clamped free. In general, instability occurs at a critical fluid velocity corresponding to the shell circumferential mode with the lowest natural frequency. Critical fluid velocities are lower than that of equivalent cylindrical shells. This result holds good for all boundary conditions.

  10. Actualistic and Geochemical Modeling of Reservoir Rock, CO2 and Formation Fluid Interaction, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weislogel, Amy [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)


    This report includes description of the Citronelle field study area and the work carried out in the project to characterize the geology and composition of reservoir rock material and to collect an analyze the geochemical composition of produced fluid waters from the Citronelle field. Reservoir rock samples collected from well bore core were made into thin-sections and assessed for textural properties, including pore types and porosity distribution. Compositional framework grain modal data were collected via point-counting, and grain and cement mineralogy was assessed using SEM-EDS. Geochemistry of fluid samples is described and modeled using PHREEQC. Composition of rock and produced fluids were used as inputs for TOUGHREACT reactive transport modeling, which determined the rock-fluid system was in disequilibrium.

  11. A viable dark fluid model (United States)

    Elkhateeb, Esraa


    We consider a cosmological model based on a generalization of the equation of state proposed by Nojiri and Odintsov (2004) and Štefančić (2005, 2006). We argue that this model works as a dark fluid model which can interpolate between dust equation of state and the dark energy equation of state. We show how the asymptotic behavior of the equation of state constrained the parameters of the model. The causality condition for the model is also studied to constrain the parameters and the fixed points are tested to determine different solution classes. Observations of Hubble diagram of SNe Ia supernovae are used to further constrain the model. We present an exact solution of the model and calculate the luminosity distance and the energy density evolution. We also calculate the deceleration parameter to test the state of the universe expansion.

  12. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wesseling, Pieter


    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state-of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and ho...

  13. Modeling of Biological Fluid Systems (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak


    This study presents a detailed methodology for modeling and validating three- dimensional fluid flow in realistic reconstructed vasculature geometry. Optical scanned data from a sectioned stenotic lumen having -65% area constriction within an arterial vessel of 9 mm diameter is processed and converted into a finite-element mesh. Mass and momentum transfer equations within the reconstructed stenotic vessel with a-flow rate of 200 ml/rnin is solved using the Galarkin Finite Element formulation. The calculated velocities at several axial locations along the length of the vessel are compared with the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The computation results are in agreement with the initial steady state PIV measurements. In addition, initial results from pulsatile flow computations at different time points of a pulse cycle will be presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezelj-Ribarić Sonja


    Full Text Available Saliva is a readily available oral fluid with many functions, from digestion, maintenance of oral tissues' integrity, to caries prevention. Changes regarding its secretion may be divided into qualitative and quantitative: both of them are a consequence of certain conditions/diseases (e.g. internal factors or nutrients/drugs ingested (e.g. external factors. During the last 15 years, technological advances gave a significant momentum to utilization of saliva as a diagnostic tool. Analysis of saliva, just like the blood analysis, has two main objectives: to identify the subjects suffering from a certain disorder, and to follow the development and progress of therapy. This paper provides an overview of possibilities for the use of saliva for diagnostic purposes and gives specific examples of some clinical investigations, with the final aim to stimulate the use of this noninvasive means for the health care promotion.

  15. Concerted processes in supercritical fluids (United States)

    Timashev, S. F.; Solov'eva, A. B.; Buslaeva, E. Yu.; Gubin, S. P.


    The possibility of obtaining concerted mechanisms of chemical activation in supercritical fluids (SCFs) with the formation of a multicenter general transition state that includes a group of reagent atoms in which the subsequent breaking of chemical bonds and the formation of new chemical bonds start and proceed simultaneously is discussed. Two processes are considered that can occur only in SCF media: the reduction of anthracene in an isopropyl alcohol SCF and the impregnation of the photochromic compound spiroanthrooxazine (SAO) in a polycarbonate matrix in SC CO2 accompanied by an irreversible conformational rearrangement of the SAO structure. Concepts of the possible dependence of the concerted mechanism of the considered processes on the intertwining or entanglement of electron subsystems in forming multicenter transition states are developed. The decisive role of the electromagnetic component of a physical vacuum in obtaining a high degree of correlation in systems of entangled electrons is discussed.

  16. Fluid Mechanics Optimising Organic Synthesis (United States)

    Leivadarou, Evgenia; Dalziel, Stuart


    The Vortex Fluidic Device (VFD) is a new ``green'' approach in the synthesis of organic chemicals with many industrial applications in biodiesel generation, cosmetics, protein folding and pharmaceutical production. The VFD is a rapidly rotating tube that can operate with a jet feeding drops of liquid reactants to the base of the tube. The aim of this project is to explain the fluid mechanics of the VFD that influence the rate of reactions. The reaction rate is intimately related to the intense shearing that promotes collision between reactant molecules. In the VFD, the highest shears are found at the bottom of the tube in the Rayleigh and the Ekman layer and at the walls in the Stewardson layers. As a step towards optimising the performance of the VFD we present experiments conducted in order to establish the minimum drop volume and maximum rotation rate for maximum axisymmetric spreading without fingering instability. PhD candidate, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.

  17. Fluid mechanics of Windkessel effect. (United States)

    Mei, C C; Zhang, J; Jing, H X


    We describe a mechanistic model of Windkessel phenomenon based on the linear dynamics of fluid-structure interactions. The phenomenon has its origin in an old-fashioned fire-fighting equipment where an air chamber serves to transform the intermittent influx from a pump to a more steady stream out of the hose. A similar mechanism exists in the cardiovascular system where blood injected intermittantly from the heart becomes rather smooth after passing through an elastic aorta. In existing haeodynamics literature, this mechanism is explained on the basis of electric circuit analogy with empirical impedances. We present a mechanistic theory based on the principles of fluid/structure interactions. Using a simple one-dimensional model, wave motion in the elastic aorta is coupled to the viscous flow in the rigid peripheral artery. Explicit formulas are derived that exhibit the role of material properties such as the blood density, viscosity, wall elasticity, and radii and lengths of the vessels. The current two-element model in haemodynamics is shown to be the limit of short aorta and low injection frequency and the impedance coefficients are derived theoretically. Numerical results for different aorta lengths and radii are discussed to demonstrate their effects on the time variations of blood pressure, wall shear stress, and discharge. Graphical Abstract A mechanistic analysis of Windkessel Effect is described which confirms theoretically the well-known feature that intermittent influx becomes continuous outflow. The theory depends only on the density and viscosity of the blood, the elasticity and dimensions of the vessel. Empirical impedence parameters are avoided.

  18. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collections for modern drug discovery. Bakker gave an account of the tantalising possibilities for molecular systematics and other research in the use of herbarium collections, which have opened up for a plethora of additional data to be extracted from dried plant collections. The final talk was Blackmore......The symposium Tropical Plant Collections: Legacies from the past? Essential tools for the future? was held on 19th–21st May 2015 with botanists from eighteen countries. Balslev and Friis introduced the themes and voiced their concern about negligence of tropical plant collections in many European......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...

  19. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collections for modern drug discovery. Bakker gave an account of the tantalising possibilities for molecular systematics and other research in the use of herbarium collections, which have opened up for a plethora of additional data to be extracted from dried plant collections. The final talk was Blackmore...... crisis. Friis gave a broad overview of the history of herbaria and botanical gardens and the changing conceptual frameworks behind their existence. Baldini talked about early Italian botanical collectors and the fate of their collections. Baas accounted for the Golden Age of Dutch botany during pre...... in the USA over the past two hundred years. Sebsebe Demissew taked about the situation in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly problems related to building and maintaining plant collections in new and poor nations. Onana outlined the history of botanical collections in Cameroon, covering a colonial period...

  20. Fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors demonstrated by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, Miyuki; Ehara, Shigeru; Sasaki, Makoto; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Shiraishi, Hideo; Abe, Masataka (Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Fluid-fluid levels in bone tumors have been described in aneurysmal bone cysts and other cystic tumors of bones and soft tissue tumors. We experienced three bone tumors (simple bone cyst, bone metastasis, and osteosarcoma) and three soft tissue tumors (fibrosarcoma, two cases of cavernous hemangioma) that showed fluid-fluid levels on MR, and investigated their cause. Causes included blood in the cystic spaces, hemorrhage in the tumor, the telangiectatic component of the osteosarcoma, and the cavernous component of the hemangioma. No specific diagnosis could be made based on the finding of fluid-fluid levels. We concluded that fluid-fluid levels on MR are rather nonspecific findings in bone and soft tissue tumors and that the diagnosis should be made on the basis of other radiological and clinical findings. (author).

  1. Collecting Taxes Database (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Collecting Taxes Database contains performance and structural indicators about national tax systems. The database contains quantitative revenue performance...

  2. Differentiating benign from malignant bone tumors using fluid-fluid level features on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hong; Cui, Jian Ling; Cui, Sheng Jie; Sun, Ying Cal; Cui, Feng Zhen [Dept. of Radiology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Province Biomechanical Key Laborary of Orthopedics, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)


    To analyze different fluid-fluid level features between benign and malignant bone tumors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was approved by the hospital ethics committee. We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with benign (n = 29) or malignant (n = 18) bone tumors demonstrated by biopsy/surgical resection and who showed the intratumoral fluid-fluid level on pre-surgical MRI. The maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level and the ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane were investigated for use in distinguishing benign from malignant tumors using the Mann-Whitney U-test and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Fluid-fluid level was categorized by quantity (multiple vs. single fluid-fluid level) and by T1-weighted image signal pattern (high/low, low/high, and undifferentiated), and the findings were compared between the benign and malignant groups using the chi2 test. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of bone tumors in the sagittal plane that allowed statistically significant differentiation between benign and malignant bone tumors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.758 (95% confidence interval, 0.616-0.899). A cutoff value of 41.5% (higher value suggests a benign tumor) had sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 83%. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane may be useful to differentiate benign from malignant bone tumors.

  3. IGF-I and NEFA concentrations in fetal fluids of term pregnancy dogs. (United States)

    Meloni, Tea; Comin, Antonella; Rota, Alessandro; Peric, Tanja; Contri, Alberto; Veronesi, Maria Cristina


    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) play an essential role in fetal growth and development. To date, fetal fluids IGF-I and NEFA levels at term canine pregnancy are unknown and could be related to the neonatal development and breed size. For these reasons, the aims of the present study were as follows: (1) to evaluate IGF-I and NEFA concentrations in fetal fluids collected from normally developed and viable newborn puppies born at term of normal pregnancies; (2) to assess possible differences between IGF-I and NEFA levels in amniotic compared with allantoic fluid; (3) to detect possible relationship between breed body size and IGF-I and NEFA amniotic and allantoic concentrations; (4) to evaluate possible differences in IGF-I fetal fluids levels between male and female puppies; and (5) to assess possible correlations between the two hormones in each type of fluid. The study enrolled 25 pure breed bitches submitted to elective Cesarean section at term because of the high risk of dystocia or previous troubles at parturition. At surgery, amniotic and allantoic fluids were collected and assayed for IGF-I and NEFA. IGF-I and NEFA amounts in both amniotic and allantoic fluids of different breed size bitches (small: ≤10 kg; medium: 11-25 kg; large: 26-40 kg) were detected, as well as the effect of gender on IGF-I levels. On a total of 73 amniotic and 76 allantoic samples collected by normal, viable, and mature newborns, the mean IGF-I concentration was significantly higher in amniotic than in allantoic fluid in all three groups, but the amniotic IGF-I levels were significantly lower in small and medium size bitches when compared with large ones. No significant differences were found in allantoic IGF-I concentrations among size groups. A significant effect of the puppy gender on IGF-I content in both fetal fluids was not reported. Regarding NEFA, in all the three groups, the mean NEFA concentration did not significantly differ

  4. A Procedure for Measuring Microplastics using Pressurized Fluid Extraction. (United States)

    Fuller, Stephen; Gautam, Anil


    A method based on pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) was developed for measuring microplastics in environmental samples. This method can address some limitations of the current microplastic methods and provide laboratories with a simple analytical method for quantifying common microplastics in a range of environmental samples. The method was initially developed by recovering 101% to 111% of spiked plastics on glass beads and was then applied to a composted municipal waste sample with spike recoveries ranging from 85% to 94%. The results from municipal waste samples and soil samples collected from an industrial area demonstrated that the method is a promising alternative for determining the concentration and identity of microplastics in environmental samples.

  5. Oral fluid-based biosensors: A novel method for rapid and noninvasive diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Roja Lakshmi


    Full Text Available In the recent times, chair-side/bed-side monitoring tests have gained importance over the routine laboratory tests as they are easier and faster to perform without requiring skilled personnel. Biosensors refer to such type of point-of-care devices that are developed to help in the early diagnosis, periodic monitoring, and treatment of disease. These devices utilize biological reactions for detecting and measuring a particular substance (analyte of interest. Till date, blood has been the gold standard diagnostic fluid for various diseases. However, oral fluids such as saliva and gingival crevicular fluid offer advantages such as noninvasive collection of sample, smaller sample aliquots, easy storage and transportation, repeated sampling for monitoring over time, and greater sensitivity, making them an alternative clinical tool over serum and tissues for many biomedical diagnostic assays. This review highlights the use of oral fluid-based biosensors for diagnosis of caries, periodontitis, oral cancer, and various systemic diseases.

  6. Vorticity and turbulence effects in fluid structure interaction an application to hydraulic structure design

    CERN Document Server

    Brocchini, M


    This book contains a collection of 11 research and review papers devoted to the topic of fluid-structure interaction.The subject matter is divided into chapters covering a wide spectrum of recognized areas of research, such as: wall bounded turbulence; quasi 2-D turbulence; canopy turbulence; large eddy simulation; lake hydrodynamics; hydraulic hysteresis; liquid impacts; flow induced vibrations; sloshing flows; transient pipe flow and air entrainment in dropshaft.The purpose of each chapter is to summarize the main results obtained by the individual research unit through a year-long activity on a specific issue of the above list. The main feature of the book is to bring state of the art research on fluid structure interaction to the attention of the broad international community.This book is primarily aimed at fluid mechanics scientists, but it will also be of value to postgraduate students and practitioners in the field of fluid structure interaction.

  7. A fast numerical method for ideal fluid flow in domains with multiple stirrers (United States)

    Nasser, Mohamed M. S.; Green, Christopher C.


    A collection of arbitrarily-shaped solid objects, each moving at a constant speed, can be used to mix or stir ideal fluid, and can give rise to interesting flow patterns. Assuming these systems of fluid stirrers are two-dimensional, the mathematical problem of resolving the flow field—given a particular distribution of any finite number of stirrers of specified shape and speed—can be formulated as a Riemann–Hilbert (R–H) problem. We show that this R–H problem can be solved numerically using a fast and accurate algorithm for any finite number of stirrers based around a boundary integral equation with the generalized Neumann kernel. Various systems of fluid stirrers are considered, and our numerical scheme is shown to handle highly multiply connected domains (i.e. systems of many fluid stirrers) with minimal computational expense.

  8. Effectiveness of a fluid chart in outpatient management of suspected dengue fever: A pilot study. (United States)

    Nasir, Nazrila Hairin; Mohamad, Mohazmi; Lum, Lucy Chai See; Ng, Chirk Jenn


    Dengue infection is the fastest spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. One of the complications of dengue is dehydration which, if not carefully monitored and treated, may lead to shock, particularly in those with dengue haemorrhagic fever. WHO has recommended oral fluid intake of five glasses or more for adults who are suspected to have dengue fever. However, there have been no published studies looking at self-care intervention measures to improve oral fluid intake among patients suspected of dengue fever. To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of using a fluid chart to improve oral fluid intake in patients with suspected dengue fever in a primary care setting. This feasibility study used a randomized controlled study design. The data was collected over two months at a primary care clinic in a teaching hospital. The inclusion criteria were: age > 12 years, patients who were suspected to have dengue fever based on the assessment by the primary healthcare clinician, fever for > three days, and thrombocytopenia (platelets chart and a cup (200ml). Baseline clinical and laboratory data, 24-hour fluid recall (control group), and fluid chart were collected. The main outcomes were: hospitalization rates, intravenous fluid requirement and total oral fluid intake. Among the 138 participants who were included in the final analysis, there were fewer hospital admissions in the intervention group (n = 7, 10.0%) than the control group (n = 12, 17.6%) (p = 0.192). Similarly, fewer patients (n = 9, 12.9%) in the intervention group required intravenous fluid compared to the control group (n = 15, 22.1%), (p = 0.154). There was an increase in the amount of daily oral fluid intake in the intervention group (about 3,000 ml) compared to the control group (about 2,500 ml, p = 0.521). However, these differences did not reach statistical significance. This is a feasible and acceptable study to perform in a primary care setting. The fluid chart is a simple, inexpensive

  9. Mineralizing conditions and source fluid composition of base metal sulfides in the Lon District, southeastern Iceland (United States)

    Kremer, C. H.; Thomas, D.; García del Real, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Bird, D. K.


    Hydrothermal base metal mineralization is rare in Iceland due to the scarcity of evolved magma bodies that discharge metal-rich aqueous fluids into bedrock. One exception is the Lon District of southeastern Iceland, where explosively emplaced rhyolitic breccias host base metal sulfide minerals. We performed petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses on samples collected in Lon to constrain the conditions of sulfide mineral formation. Based on outcrop and hand sample observations, hot, early-stage hydrothermal fluids precipitated sulfide minerals, quartz, and epidote in rhyolitic breccia and basalt flows. Cooler late-stage fluids precipitated carbonates and quartz in rhyolitic breccia and basalt flows. The order of precipitation of the sulfides was: galena, sphalerite, then chalcopyrite. Homogenization temperatures of liquid-dominated multi-phase fluid inclusions in hydrothermal early-stage quartz coeval with chalcopyrite cluster around 303 °C and 330 °C, indicating precipitation of metallic sulfides in two main hydrothermal fluid pulses early in the period of hydrothermal activity in the Lon District. Freezing point depression analyses of fluid inclusions in quartz show that the sulfide minerals precipitated from a solution that was 4 wt. % NaCl. The 𝛿34S values of sulfides indicate that early-stage hydrothermal sulfur was derived from igneous rocks, either through leaching by non-magmatic hydrothermal fluids or by exsolution of magmatic waters. Early stage epidote 𝛿D values were on average -65.96 per mil, about 14 per mil higher than reported values in epidotes from elsewhere in southeastern Iceland. The 𝛿13C and 𝛿18O values of late-stage carbonates indicate that late stage hydrothermal fluids were meteoric in origin. Collectively, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses suggest that early-stage aqueous fluids derived from a mixture of magmatic waters exsolved from the proximal Geitafell intrusion and meteoric

  10. Metalworking fluids: oil mist and beyond. (United States)

    Gauthier, Stephen L


    This article is based upon my own experiences with metalworking fluids and the adverse health effects and medical conditions associated with exposure to metalworking fluids. I have researched and witnessed the benefits that can be achieved when metalworking fluids are properly maintained and managed. My experiences have provided insight into how a shop operates, including comprehension of the equipment used, processes, mist generating points, engineering controls currently being adopted, and procedures that are used to maintain metalworking fluids. I have been able to share my personal experiences with the country's leading experts in the field of metalworking fluids. I have presented my insights on the topic in Washington, D.C., to the Standard Advisory Committee of OSHA, as well as at many other conferences nationwide. I have provided awareness training for a number of union and nonunion workers. Being a part of developing successful metal removal fluid programs, I realize the importance of transferring and sharing information. Many times an organization is not fully aware of certain conditions and how to combat them. My mission and intent is to properly educate those who are exposed to the harm that metalworking fluids can invoke and to inform those involved of the possible methods of reducing long- and short-term risk. One thing that must be kept in mind is the way we view these fluids. Many shops categorize the fluids as a type of "operating expense" when they should actually be seen as a sort of investment. Just as performing a scheduled maintenance on a machine promises the best possible longevity of that machine, the upkeep of metalworking fluid also provides longer "tool life." Monitoring and maintaining the fluids also provides for more effective and efficient productivity. If we fail to consider that proper management of the fluids can cut cost dramatically, then we will miss out on the financial impact they can have on a company. Try looking at the

  11. Inflation in a viscous fluid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamba, Kazuharu [Fukushima University, Division of Human Support System, Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, Institut de Ciencies de lEspai (IEEC-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Passeig Lluis Companys, Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)


    We explore a fluid description of the inflationary universe. In particular, we investigate a fluid model in which the equation of state (EoS) for a fluid includes bulk viscosity. We find that the three observables of inflationary cosmology, i.e., the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be consistent with the recent Planck results. We also reconstruct the explicit EoS for a fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations compatible with the Planck analysis. In the reconstructed models of a fluid, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations can satisfy the constraints obtained from the Planck satellite. The running of the spectral index can explain the Planck data. In addition, it is demonstrated that in the reconstructed models of a fluid, the graceful exit from inflation can be realized. Moreover, we show that the singular inflation can occur in a fluid model. Furthermore, we show that a fluid description of inflation can be equivalent to the description of inflation in terms of scalar field theories. (orig.)

  12. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.


    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  13. NASA Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory research briefs (United States)

    Davis, Sanford (Editor)


    The Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory research program is presented in a series of research briefs. Nineteen projects covering aeronautical fluid mechanics and related areas are discussed and augmented with the publication and presentation output of the Branch for the period 1990-1993.

  14. Fluid composition analysis device and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates in particular to a device for determining one or more fluid properties of a fluid. The device preferably comprises a flow distributor comprising a cavity, an inlet to the cavity, one or more outlets from the cavity, and one or more flow deflecting elements present in the cav...

  15. Steady laminar flow of fractal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balankin, Alexander S., E-mail: [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Mena, Baltasar [Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Procesos Costeros, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sisal, Yucatán, 97355 (Mexico); Susarrey, Orlando; Samayoa, Didier [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico)


    We study laminar flow of a fractal fluid in a cylindrical tube. A flow of the fractal fluid is mapped into a homogeneous flow in a fractional dimensional space with metric induced by the fractal topology. The equations of motion for an incompressible Stokes flow of the Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. It is found that the radial distribution for the velocity in a steady Poiseuille flow of a fractal fluid is governed by the fractal metric of the flow, whereas the pressure distribution along the flow direction depends on the fractal topology of flow, as well as on the fractal metric. The radial distribution of the fractal fluid velocity in a steady Couette flow between two concentric cylinders is also derived. - Highlights: • Equations of Stokes flow of Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. • Pressure distribution in the Newtonian fractal fluid is derived. • Velocity distribution in Poiseuille flow of fractal fluid is found. • Velocity distribution in a steady Couette flow is established.

  16. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition (United States)

    Kroeger, Erich


    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  17. Fluid Limits of Optimally Controlled Queueing Networks


    Guodong Pang; Day, Martin V.


    We consider a class of queueing processes represented by a Skorokhod problem coupled with a controlled point process. Posing a discounted control problem for such processes, we show that the optimal value functions converge, in the fluid limit, to the value of an analogous deterministic control problem for fluid processes. Peer Reviewed

  18. Fluid Limits of Optimally Controlled Queueing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Pang


    Full Text Available We consider a class of queueing processes represented by a Skorokhod problem coupled with a controlled point process. Posing a discounted control problem for such processes, we show that the optimal value functions converge, in the fluid limit, to the value of an analogous deterministic control problem for fluid processes.

  19. Reagent for treatment of drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryakov, A.S.; Balitskaya, Z.A.; Bereshchaka, I.G.; Khariv, I.Yu.


    The use of arabinogalactan as a reagent for treatment of drilling fluids, useful for drilling footage in wells, improves the quality of the fluids, reduces their cost, allows starch to be replaced, and improves the performance in drilling footage in wells.

  20. Core-shell particles at fluid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchcic, C.


    There is a growing interest in the use of particles as stabilizers for foams and emulsions. Applying hard particles for stabilization of fluid interface is referred to as Pickering stabilization. By using hard particles instead of surfactants and polymers, fluid interfaces can be effectively