Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Tayyebi, Fereshte; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Sharafi, Elham; Kordi, Ramin
There is increasing evidence in support of multidisciplinary approaches for management of chronic neck pain. Although presence of different team members is one of the strengths of these approaches, it can limit the access to these treatments. The main objective of this study is designing and investigating the efficacy of a concise rehabilitation program. Thirty-nine patients with sub-acute and chronic non-specific neck pain underwent an 8-week rehabilitation program. Baseline and 8 weeks' follow-up data regarding neck pain (visual analog scale, neck disability index and quality of life) were compared using paired T test. After eight weeks of study, pain and disability significantly decreased: -3.8 of 10 (95% CI: -4.6 to -3.0) (p-value < 0.001) for pain and -18.4 of 100 (95% CI: -23.7 to -13.2) (p-value < 0.001) for disability. Also, all SF-36 domain scales improved significantly. By using this concise rehabilitation approach, pain, disability, and quality of life improved significantly in patients with sub-acute and chronic non-specific neck pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pool, J.J.M.; Hiralal, S.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; van der Veer, K.; Vlaeyen, J.W.S.; Bouter, L.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.
The purpose of this study was to qualitatively evaluate patients understanding and interpretation of the wording used in test items of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK). The TSK was developed to measure fear of movement in patients suffering from low back pain. The TSK is being increasingly
... Conditions Living Well with Rheumatic Disease Neck Pain Neck Pain Fast Facts Whiplash from motor vehicle accidents is ... more frequently in women than men. What causes neck pain? Most episodes of neck pain are caused by ...
van Assen Luite
Full Text Available Abstract Background Manual Therapy applied to patients with non specific neck pain has been investigated several times. In the Netherlands, manual therapy as applied according to the Utrecht School of Manual Therapy (MTU has not been the subject of a randomized controlled trial. MTU differs in diagnoses and treatment from other forms of manual therapy. Methods/Design This is a single blind randomized controlled trial in patients with sub-acute and chronic non specific neck pain. Patients with neck complaints existing for two weeks (minimum till one year (maximum will participate in the trial. 180 participants will be recruited in thirteen primary health care centres in the Netherlands. The experimental group will be treated with MTU during a six week period. The control group will be treated with physical therapy (standard care, mainly active exercise therapy, also for a period of six weeks. Primary outcomes are Global Perceived Effect (GPE and functional status (Neck Disability Index (NDI-DV. Secondary outcomes are neck pain (Numeric Rating Scale (NRS, Eurocol, costs and quality of life (SF36. Discussion This paper presents details on the rationale of MTU, design, methods and operational aspects of the trial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00713843
... arms or hands or if you have shooting pain into your shoulder or down your arm. Symptoms Signs and symptoms ... org/search/Pages/results.aspx?k=Chronic neck pain. Accessed June 11, 2015. Isaac Z. Evaluation of the patient with neck pain and cervical ...
... triggers muscle strains. Even minor things, such as reading in bed or gritting your teeth, can strain ... determine the cause of your pain. Other tests Electromyography (EMG). If your doctor suspects your neck pain ...
The effectiveness and cost-evaluation of manual therapy and physical therapy in patients with sub-acute and chronic non specific neck pain. Rationale and design of a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT).
Groeneweg, R.; Kropman, H.; Leopold, H.; Assen, L. van; Mulder, J.; Tulder, M.W. van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.
BACKGROUND: Manual Therapy applied to patients with non specific neck pain has been investigated several times. In the Netherlands, manual therapy as applied according to the Utrecht School of Manual Therapy (MTU) has not been the subject of a randomized controlled trial. MTU differs in diagnoses
Bhagawati, Dimpu; Gwilym, Stephen
Non-specific neck pain has a postural or mechanical basis, and affects about two-thirds of people at some stage, especially in middle age. Acute neck pain resolves within days or weeks, but becomes chronic in about 10% of people.Whiplash injuries follow sudden acceleration-deceleration of the neck, such as in road traffic or sporting accidents. Up to 40% of people continue to report symptoms 15 years after the accident.
Fejer, R; Hartvigsen, J; Kyvik, K O
OBJECTIVES: To determine the heritability of neck pain in a large population-based study of twins. METHODS: Data on lifetime prevalence of neck pain from a population-based cross-sectional survey of Danish twins were used. To assess twin similarity, the probandwise concordance rates, zygosity......-specific odds ratios and tetrachoric correlations were calculated and compared for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Using biometric modelling (structural equation modelling), the genetic and environmental contributions of the liability to neck pain were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 33,794 twins (response rate...... 73%) answered the questions regarding neck pain. Probandwise concordance rates, zygosity-specific odds ratios and tetrachoric correlations showed a significant genetic effect on neck pain. An overall additive genetic component of 44% was found. The genetic effect decreased with age, accounting...
Neck pain is one of the very common complaints across the globe. Common neck pain occurs due to problems in the neck muscles, ligaments and discs due to faulty neck postures and daily neck misadventures accounting for more than 80% of neck pains around the globe. Conventional treatment methods which include drugs, physiotherapy, exercises & operative care have their own limitations and are not entirely effective. Alternative therapeutic approach could complement or supplement the existing tre...
Mesfin, Addisu; Park, Moon-Soo; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Song, Kwang Sup; Kim, Han Jo; Riew, K. Daniel
Study Design?Retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data. Objective?To compare preoperative and postoperative neck pain following laminoplasty using the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Methods?Seventy-two patients undergoing laminoplasty from 2006 to 2009 at a single institution were identified. Thirty-four patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up who completed preoperative, 6-week, and 1-year postoperative NDI questionnaires were enrolled. Demographic data and surgical data includi...
Rasmussen-Barr, E; Nilsson-Wikmar, L; Arvidsson, I
The present aim was to compare the effects of stabilizing training with those of manual treatment in patients with sub-acute or chronic low-back pain (LBP). Forty-seven patients were randomized to a stabilizing training group (ST group) or a manual treatment group (MT group). The patients underwent a 6-week treatment programme on a weekly basis. Pain, health and functional disability level at the start of treatment, after treatment, and at 3- and 12-month follow-ups were assessed. In the ST group all assessed variables improved significantly (Plong term. After the treatment period there was a significant difference between the groups in assessed function (Pfunctional disability levels. In the long term, significantly more (Pterm differences between the groups in the accessed outcome measures. In the long term, however, stabilizing training seemed to be more effective than manual treatment in terms of improvement of individuals and the reduced need for recurrent treatment periods.
Svendsen, Jacob H.; Svarrer, Heine; Laessoe, Uffe; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Madeleine, Pascal
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate how sub-acute low-back pain (LBP) patients differed with respect to control in movements and muscle activation during standardized tasks representing daily living activities, and explore relationships between cognition and measured motor performance.
E. A. Chechet; G. R. Tabeeva
The paper reviews the literature related to the investigations of neck pain (cervicalgia) in patients with headache (cephalalgia). Neck pain is second to lower back pain as a reason for considerable socioeconomic damage to society. The prevalence of cervicalgia in the population ranges from 5.9 to 38%; the annual incidence is 10.4–21.3%; 14.2 to 71% of people report to have neck pain at some time in their lifetime. Neck pain is concurrent with cephalalgia in 70% of cases. In patients with cer...
Kroeling, Peter; Gross, Anita; Graham, Nadine; Burnie, Stephen J; Szeto, Grace; Goldsmith, Charles H; Haines, Ted; Forget, Mario
Neck pain is common, disabling and costly. The effectiveness of electrotherapy as a physiotherapeutic option remains unclear. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005 and previously updated in 2009. This systematic review assessed the short, intermediate and long-term effects of electrotherapy on pain, function, disability, patient satisfaction, global perceived effect, and quality of life in adults with neck pain with and without radiculopathy or cervicogenic headache. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, MANTIS, CINAHL, and ICL, without language restrictions, from their beginning to August 2012; handsearched relevant conference proceedings; and consulted content experts. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in any language, investigating the effects of electrotherapy used primarily as unimodal treatment for neck pain. Quasi-RCTs and controlled clinical trials were excluded. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We were unable to statistically pool any of the results, but we assessed the quality of the evidence using an adapted GRADE approach. Twenty small trials (1239 people with neck pain) containing 38 comparisons were included. Analysis was limited by trials of varied quality, heterogeneous treatment subtypes and conflicting results. The main findings for reduction of neck pain by treatment with electrotherapeutic modalities were as follows.Very low quality evidence determined that pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) and repetitive magnetic stimulation (rMS) were more effective than placebo, while transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) showed inconsistent results.Very low quality evidence determined that PEMF, rMS and TENS were more effective than placebo.Low quality evidence (1 trial, 52 participants) determined that permanent magnets (necklace) were no more effective than placebo (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.27, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.82, random-effects model
Ing, Jakun W
Pain is a significant morbidity resulting from head and neck cancer. Pain may also be the result of the treatments directed against head and neck cancer. An experienced practitioner may manage this pain by understanding the multifactorial mechanisms of pain and the various pharmacotherapies available. Pain should be managed with multiple medications in a multimodal approach, and nonpharmacologic therapies should be considered as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin
Neck pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice. In most cases, it is unassociated with a serious problem and ends with complete recovery. Nonspecific (mechanical, axial) pain is most common; posttraumatic pain associated with whiplash injury is less frequently encountered; compression (radicular and myelopathic) syndromes are much less frequent. Analysis of complaints and medical histories and neuroorthopedic and neurological examin...
Zaid Makzal; Alison Evans; Kavitha Masilamani
Repeat CT of the neck and MRI revealed significant thickening of the retropharyngeal soft tissue with collection in keeping with a retropharyngeal abscess causing significant narrowing of the pharynx...
George, Steven Z.; Zeppieri, Giorgio; Cere, Anthony L.; Cere, Melissa R.; Borut, Michael S.; Hodges, Michael J.; Reed, Dalton M.; Valencia, Carolina; Robinson, Michael E.
Psychological factors consistent with fear-avoidance models are associated with the development of chronic low back pain (LBP). As a result, graded activity (GA) and graded exposure (GX) have been suggested as behavioral treatment options. This clinical trial compared the effectiveness of treatment based classification (TBC) physical therapy alone, to TBC augmented with GA or GX for patients with acute and sub-acute LBP. Our primary hypothesis was that GX would be most effective for those with elevated pain-related fear. In total, 108 patients enrolled in this clinical trial and were randomly assigned to receive TBC, GA, or GX. Outcomes were assessed by a blinded evaluator at 4-weeks and by mail at 6-months. The primary outcomes for this trial were disability and pain intensity, and secondary outcomes were fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, and physical impairment. There were no differences in 4-week and 6-month outcomes for reduction of disability, pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, and physical impairment. GX and TBC were associated with larger reductions in fear-avoidance beliefs at 6-months only. Six month reduction in disability was associated with reduction in pain intensity, while 6-month reduction in pain intensity was associated with reductions in fear-avoidance beliefs and pain catastrophizing. This trial suggests that supplementing TBC with GA or GX was not effective for improving important outcomes related to the development of chronic LBP. PMID:18786762
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000802.htm Neck pain or spasms - self care To use the sharing ... strengthening exercises and how to do them. Preventing Neck Pain If you work at a computer or a ...
de las Peñas, César Fernández; Cleland, Joshua; Huijbregts, Peter
The first of its kind, Neck and Arm Pain Syndromes is a comprehensive evidence- and clinical-based book, covering research-based diagnosis, prognosis and management of neuromusculoskeletal pathologies and dysfunctions of the upper quadrant, including joint, muscle, myofascial and neural tissue ap...
Jellema, Petra; van der Windt, Daniëlle A. W. M.; van der Horst, Henriëtte E.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Stalman, Wim A. B.; Bouter, Lex M.
To compare the effects of a minimal intervention strategy aimed at assessment and modification of psychosocial prognostic factors and usual care for treatment of (sub)acute low back pain in general practice. Cluster randomised clinical trial. 60 general practitioners in 41 general practices. 314
A. S. Zenkevich
Full Text Available Neck pain and migraine are common diseases. Neck pain seldom occurs in a patient with migraine. However, the relationship between migraine and neck pain has been inadequately investigated.Objective: to analyze neck pain in patients with migraine to determine possible comorbidity mechanisms of these diseases.Patients and methods. The investigation enrolled 63 patients with chronic migraine (CM and 40 with episodic migraine (EM diagnosed in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (ICHD-3. Winking reflex (WR and nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR were examined to evaluate the function of antinociceptive systems.Results. In the patients with CM, neck pain was more common than in those with EM (53.03% versus 14.02%; and panful tenderness, sensitivity, and tension of neck muscles were more marked. There was also a significant reduction in WR and NFR thresholds. Neck pain was noted to be an integral component of the pathogenesis of CM in a large number of patients with this condition. The authors proposed several pathophysiological mechanisms of a relationship between migraine and neck pain. Neck muscles and craniovertebral junction areas serve as a source for the arrival of nociceptive pain pulses in the central nervous system (peripheral sensitization, promoting pain chronization. Muscle dysfunction in this area may be, in turn, a reflection of central sensitization and impaired descending pain control.
Neck pain is very common. In the United States, between 30% and 50% of people suffer from an aching neck each year. Although neck pain can be caused by injury, most of this pain results from more gradual stresses, such as particular sitting, standing, or work postures, lifting patterns, or sleeping positions. Typical neck pain can also cause headaches, pain between your shoulders, or a feeling of knots in your neck and upper back muscles. Although manual therapy, sometimes called "manipulation," is a common treatment for many types of spine pain, some people are uncomfortable having their necks manipulated. Recently, though, researchers have tested the benefits of a thrust manipulation of the upper back to treat neck pain. A study published in the September 2011 issue of JOSPT provides new insight and an evidence-based summary of the benefits of manipulating the upper back to ease and eliminate neck pain.
Minns, Tania; Raj, Ray; Clark, Kate
A 21-year-old man presented to the emergency department with pain and swelling to the right side of his neck and chest wall with associated shortness of breath. Two days earlier, while playing football, he had been involved in a minor collision with another player where he was struck on the right side of his head, but had managed to continue playing. On examination, the patient had extensive cervical surgical emphysema. There were no further positive findings on respiratory and general examin...
Stewart, Alison M; Polak, Emily; Young, Richard; Schultz, Izabela Z
Little is known about the formation of expectations of return to work (RTW) from the perspective of injured workers with back injuries. This modified grounded theory study uses a biopsychosocial approach that considers the workers' complex social circumstances, to unpack the multidimensional construct of expectations of RTW from the injured worker's perspective. Initial semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 individuals with sub-acute back pain, who were off work between 3 and 6 months. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 7 participants for the purposes of member checking. The interview data was coded, compared and analyzed over the course of data collection, until saturation was reached. Data analysis revealed that expectations of return-to-work are constructed based on perceived uncertainty which subsumes five inter-related categories (1) perceived lack of control over the return-to-work process, (2) perceived lack of recognition by others of the impact of the injury, (3) perceived inability to perform the pre-injury job, (4) fear of re-injury, and (5) perceived need for workplace accommodations. Expectations, once formed, were influenced by the worker's experience of coping with perceived uncertainty. Perceived uncertainty plays a key role in injured workers' formation of expectations of return-to-work. Implications are discussed regarding how this perceived uncertainty plays a role in the development of (re)injury prevention and rehabilitation programs. The importance of further research on perceived uncertainty is presented, along with potential future research considerations.
Herbert Rob D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Manipulation is a common treatment for non-specific neck pain. Neck manipulation, unlike gentler forms of manual therapy such as mobilisation, is associated with a small risk of serious neurovascular injury and can result in stroke or death. It is thought however, that neck manipulation provides better results than mobilisation where clinically indicated. There is long standing and vigorous debate both within and between the professions that use neck manipulation as well as the wider scientific community as to whether neck manipulation potentially does more harm than good. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether neck manipulation provides more rapid resolution of an episode of neck pain than mobilisation. Methods/Design 182 participants with acute and sub-acute neck pain will be recruited from physiotherapy, chiropractic and osteopathy practices in Sydney, Australia. Participants will be randomly allocated to treatment with either manipulation or mobilisation. Randomisation will occur after the treating practitioner decides that manipulation is an appropriate treatment for the individual participant. Both groups will receive at least 4 treatments over 2 weeks. The primary outcome is number of days taken to recover from the episode of neck pain. Cox regression will be used to compare survival curves for time to recovery for the manipulation and mobilisation treatment groups. Discussion This paper presents the rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of neck manipulation and neck mobilisation for acute and subacute neck pain.
C.J. Vos (Kees)
textabstractWe performed a prospective cohort study with one-year follow-up of patients with acute neck pain in general practice. Patients above 18 years of age consulting their GP for non-specific acute neck pain lasting no longer than six weeks were invited to participate. Self-administered
Measuring Psychosocial Variables in Patients With (Sub) Acute Low Back Pain Complaints, at Risk for Chronicity A Validation Study of the Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire-Dutch Language Version
Heneweer, Hans; van Woudenberg, Nienke J.; van Genderen, Frank; Vanhees, Luc; Wittink, Harriet
Study Design. A validation study of the Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire Dutch Language Version (ALBPSQ-DLV). Objective. To determine internal consistency, construct and convergent validity of the ALBPSQ-DLV in a population of patients with (sub) acute low back pain (LBP) referred to
Minns, Tania; Raj, Ray; Clark, Kate
A 21-year-old man presented to the emergency department with pain and swelling to the right side of his neck and chest wall with associated shortness of breath. Two days earlier, while playing football, he had been involved in a minor collision with another player where he was struck on the right side of his head, but had managed to continue playing. On examination, the patient had extensive cervical surgical emphysema. There were no further positive findings on respiratory and general examination. A chest x-ray demonstrated no rib or clavicular fractures and no pneumothorax. Therefore, a CT was undertaken to ascertain the cause of the surgical emphysema. This demonstrated a pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium and extradural air in the spinal column in addition to the subcutaneous air. The CT identified no bony trauma and no other injuries. The symptoms resolved spontaneously and follow-up radiography, 9 days later, showed no residual air. PMID:22675022
Uthaikhup, Sureeporn; Prasert, Romchat; Paungmali, Aatit; Boontha, Kritsana
Background Age-related changes occur in both the peripheral and central nervous system, yet little is known about the influence of chronic pain on pain sensitivity in older persons. The aim of this study was to investigate pain sensitivity in elders with chronic neck pain compared to healthy elders. Methods Thirty elderly women with chronic neck pain and 30 controls were recruited. Measures of pain sensitivity included pressure pain thresholds, heat/cold pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses. The pain measures were assessed over the cervical spine and at a remote site, the tibialis anterior muscle. Results Elders with chronic neck pain had lower pressure pain threshold over the articular pillar of C5-C6 and decreased cold pain thresholds over the cervical spine and tibialis anterior muscle when compared with controls (p pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses (p > 0.05). Conclusion The presence of pain hypersensitivity in elderly women with chronic neck pain appears to be dependent on types of painful stimuli. This may reflect changes in the peripheral and central nervous system with age. PMID:26039149
Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan
Pain and disability are interrelated, but the relationship between pain and disability is not straightforward. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between neck pain (NP) intensity, NP duration, and disability based on the population-based 'Funen Neck and Chest Pain......' study. Pain intensity was measured using 11-box numerical rating scales, pain duration was measured using the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire, and disability was measured by the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale. Spearman rank correlation coefficients and logistic regression analyses were...... used to measure correlations and strength of associations between pain intensity, pain duration, and disability given domain specific characteristics (socioeconomic, health and physical, comorbidity, and variables related to consequences of NP). Neck pain was very common, but mainly mild and did...
Groeneweg, Ruud; Haanstra, Tsjitske; Bolman, Catherine A W; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Tulder, Maurits W; Ostelo, Raymond W J G
Identification of psychosocial variables may influence treatment outcome. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine whether psychosocial variables, in addition to clinical variables (pain, functioning, general health, previous neck pain, comorbidity), are predictive factors for treatment outcome (i.e. global perceived effect, functioning and pain) in patients with sub-acute and chronic non-specific neck pain undergoing physical therapy or manual therapy. Psychosocial factors included treatment outcome expectancy and treatment credibility, health locus of control, and fear avoidance beliefs. This study reports a secondary analysis of a primary care-based pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Potential predictors were measured at baseline and outcomes, in 181 patients, at 7 weeks and 26 weeks. Hierarchical logistic regression models showed that treatment outcome expectancy predicted outcome success, in addition to clinical and demographic variables. Expectancy explained additional variance, ranging from 6% (pain) to 17% (functioning) at 7 weeks, and 8% (pain) to 16% (functioning) at 26 weeks. Locus of control and fear avoidance beliefs did not add significantly to predicting outcome. Based on the results of this study we conclude that outcome expectancy, in patients with non-specific sub-acute and chronic neck pain, has additional predictive value for treatment success above and beyond clinical and demographic variables. Psychological processes, health perceptions and how these factors relate to clinical variables may be important for treatment decision making regarding therapeutic options for individual patients. Copyright © 2016 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Claes, Frank; Berger, Jan; Stassijns, Gaëtane
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of upper-body-quadrant pain among ultrasonographers and to evaluate the association between individual ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, and occurrence of neck pain. A hundred and ten (N = 110) Belgian and Dutch male and female hospital ultrasonographers were consecutively enrolled in the study. Data on work-related ergonomic and musculoskeletal disorders were collected with an electronic inquiry, including questions regarding ergonomics (position of the screen, high-low table, and ergonomic chair), symptoms (neck pain, upper-limb pain), and work-related factors (consecutive working hours a day, average working hours a week). Subjects with the screen on their left had significantly more neck pain (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, p = .0286). Depending on the workspace, high-low tables increased the chance of developing neck pain (OR = 12.9, p = .0246). A screen at eye level caused less neck pain (OR = .22, p = .0610). Employees with a fixed working space were less susceptible to arm pain (OR = 0.13, p = .0058). The prevalence of arm pain was significantly higher for the vascular department compared to radiology, urology, and gynecology departments (OR = 9.2, p = .0278). Regarding prevention of upper-limb pain in ultrasonograph, more attention should be paid to the work environment and more specialty to the ultrasound workstation layout. Primary ergonomic prevention could provide a painless work situation for the ultrasonographer. Further research on the ergonomic conditions of ultrasonography is necessary to develop ergonomic solutions in the work environment that will help to alleviate neck and arm pain. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Gross, Anita; Miller, Jordan; D'Sylva, Jonathan; Burnie, Stephen J.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Graham, Nadine; Haines, Ted; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.
Background Manipulation and mobilisation are often used, either alone or combined with other treatment approaches, to treat neck pain. Objectives To assess if manipulation or mobilisation improves pain, function/disability, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and global perceived effect in adults
Dekker, Bart; Zonnenberg, Christian B L; Zuidema, Wietse P
A 45-year-old motorcyclist was hit by a car and presented to the emergency department with minor neck pain and radiating pain into both arms. Routine radiography did not show any pathology. Additional CT and MRI images revealed an anterolisthesis of Cvii-Thi with a bilateral facet dislocation and myelum compression.
Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm
Experimental studies have suggested biological factors as a possible explanation for gender disparities in perception of pain. Recently, heritability of liability to neck pain (NP) has been found to be statistically significantly larger in women compared to men. However, no studies have been...
Boudreau, L A; Pinto, A
To discuss acute lymphangitis as a potentially serious infection that can mimic mechanical musculoskeletal pain. A 27-year-old male plant worker had right-sided neck pain. Numerous lesions on the patient's scalp were observed, but were not considered to be related to the chief complaint. Conservative therapy was initiated to address what was thought to be mechanical neck pain. Shortly after the initial visit, it became evident that the source of the neck pain was infection because lymphangitis developed. Antibiotic therapy was initiated and complete resolution of the complaint occurred within 1 week. Primary contact practitioners should consider all aspects of the patient history and physical findings when formulating a diagnosis. This is especially important in the case of patients presenting with lymphangitis because mismanagement could have serious consequences. The importance of a good patient history and team approach to care is demonstrated by this case.
Anstey, Ricci; Kongsted, Alice; Kamper, Steven
Study Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study with cross sectional and longitudinal analyses. Background The clinical importance of a history of whiplash associated disorder (WAD) in people with neck pain remains uncertain. Objective To compare people with WAD to people with non......-specific neck pain, in terms of their baseline characteristics, and pain and disability outcomes over 1 year. Methods Consecutive patients with neck pain presenting to a secondary care spine centre answered a comprehensive self-report questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Patients were classified...... into either WAD or non-specific neck pain groups. We compared the outcomes of baseline characteristics of the 2 groups, as well as pain intensity and activity limitation at 6 and 12-month follow-up. Results 2578 participants were included in the study. Of these 488 (19%) were classified as having WAD...
E. A. Chechet
Full Text Available Neck pain (cervicalgia occupies one of the leading places among the reasons for outpatient visits, 75% of people have experienced neck pain at least once in their lives. In most cases, neck pain regresses; however, it recurs in almost one half of patients. The paper gives data on the risk factors, mechanisms, course, and prognosis of cervicalgia. It discusses the issues of differential diagnosis, examination, and approaches to treating this condition in these patients. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are most effective in treating patients with acute cervicalgia. Therapeutic exercises and manual therapy are indicated in patients with chronic cervicalgia. There is evidence on the efficacy and safety of meloxicam for the management of acute and chronic cervicalgia.
Lindstrøm, Rene; Schomacher, Jochen; Farina, Dario; Rechter, Lotte; Falla, Deborah
This study investigates the relationship between neck muscle coactivation, neck strength and perceived pain and disability in women with neck pain. Surface electromyography (EMG) was acquired from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and splenius capitis (SC) muscles of 13 women with chronic neck pain and 10 controls as they performed 1) maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion, 2) ramped contractions from 0% to 50% MVC in flexion and extension and 3) circular contractions in the horizontal plane at 15N and 30N force. Higher values of EMG amplitude were observed for the SC (antagonist) during ramped neck flexion and for the SCM during ramped extension in the patient group (Pdisability (R² 0.53, Pdisability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van den Oord, Marieke H. A. H.; de Loose, Veerle; Meeuwsen, Ted; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Our aim is to estimate the self-reported one-year prevalence of neck pain in military helicopter pilots and to compare work-related, individual, and health-related factors in the pilots with (neck pain group) and without (reference group) regular or continuous neck pain. A questionnaire was
van den Oord, M.H.A.H.
Military pilots and rear aircrew members are occupations with several occupational exposures that might cause neck pain. In addition to the negative impact of neck pain on health, safety is one of the main concerns for the military aviation, because neck pain may interfere with flying performance.
Jamal, Alisha N; Feldman, Brian M; Pullenayegum, Eleanor
Chronic neck pain is a common problem with a profound effect on quality of life. Identifying evidence-based management strategies is fundamental in improving patient outcomes. This study is a reanalysis of the data from Helewa, et al to further characterize the effects of postural exercises and neck support pillows on neck pain. A full factorial model was used. All interactions were analyzed adjusting for the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) at baseline. Postural exercises significantly decreased NPQ scores at ≥ 3 weeks, and the use of a neck support pillow significantly decreased NPQ scores at ≥ 12 weeks. These interventions could be beneficial in reducing neck pain symptoms.
Oliveira, Ana Carolina; Silva, Anabela G
The main aims of this study were to compare the neck flexor and extensor endurance and forward head posture between adolescents with and without neck pain. The secondary aims were to explore potential associations between muscles endurance, head posture and neck pain characteristics and to assess intra-rater reliability of the measurements used. Adolescents with neck pain (n = 35) and age-matched asymptomatic adolescents (n = 35) had their forward head posture, neck flexor endurance and neck extensor endurance measured using clinical tests. Intra-rater reliability was also assessed. Forward head posture and neck flexor and extensor endurance tests showed moderate to almost perfect intra-rater reliability (ICC between 0.58 and 0.88). Adolescents with neck pain showed significantly less forward head posture (neck pain = 46.62 ± 4.92; asymptomatic = 44.18°± 3.64°, p > 0.05) and less neck flexor (neck pain = 24.50 ± 23.03s; asymptomatic = 35.89 ± 21.53s, p > 0.05) and extensor endurance (neck pain = 12.6.64 ± 77.94s; asymptomatic = 168.66 ± 74.77s, p > 0.05) than asymptomatic adolescents. Results suggest that changes in posture and neck muscle endurance are a feature of adolescents with neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Richter, Hans O
A time honored dictum states that the eyes "lead the body", i.e., that the body typically adjusts its position to compensate for an impoverished retinal image (e.g., as due to optical blur, and/or inappropriately sized visual target). But only moderate or low level of evidence exists in support of this view. Inconclusive evidence does not, however, equal negative evidence. The accommodation/vergence system does exhibit signs of overload in contemporary working life, including eye discomfort, transient myopia, altered pattern of eye-lens oscillations, and associated phoria. Accommodation/vergence overload, caused by non-ergonomic near work, may also emerge as quickly as within one regular workday. Long-term musculoskeletal consequences of high accommodation/vergence demands have nevertheless not yet been studied in any detail. A research agenda which aims to provide multi-scientific evidence for eye-neck/shoulder interactions with public health implications and which also, in addition, study the eye-neck/shoulder mechanisms and elucidates the operating characteristics, should consequently be highly warranted. This new knowledge would be useful for physiotherapists, ergonomists and opticians, who in their profession treat patients experiencing vision- and musculoskeletal disorders. If both visual and the musculoskeletal aspects are given full and equal weight in the design and evaluation of work places, it is predicted to lead to an improved quality of life for the individual worker, and an enhanced productivity for the employer.
Simões, João; Romão, José; Cunha, Anita; Paiva, Sofia; Miguéis, António
The acute tendinitis of the longus colli muscle is an unusual diagnosis in the cases of acute dysphagia with cervical pain. Is a self-limiting condition caused by abnormal calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the prevertebral space and can cause pharyngeal swelling with impaired swallow. It is absolutely critical to make the differential diagnosis with deep cervical infections in order to avoid invasive treatments.
Hood, Wendy; Hood, Martin
This article is a narrative analysis of literature relating to ocular-motor imbalance and the potential postural consequences. It aims to highlight the importance of sensory integration between the visual and vestibular systems and proprioception. The consequences of extra-ocular muscle imbalance are discussed in terms of the disruption to this sensory integration. The symptoms that this may give rise to include spinal pain, postural instability and potential increased risk of falls. This pap...
Damasceno, Gerson Moreira; Ferreira, Arthur Sá; Nogueira, Leandro Alberto Calazans; Reis, Felipe José Jandre; Andrade, Igor Caio Santana; Meziat-Filho, Ney
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between text neck and neck pain in young adults. Observational cross-sectional study with 150 18-21-year-old young adults from a public high school in the state of Rio de Janeiro was performed. In the self-report questionnaire, the participants answered questions on sociodemographic factors, anthropometric factors, time spent texting or playing on a mobile phone, visual impairments, and concern with the body posture. The neck posture was assessed by participants' self-perception and physiotherapists' judgment during a mobile phone texting message task. The Young Spine Questionnaire was used to evaluate the neck pain. Four multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to investigate the association between neck posture during mobile phone texting and neck pain, considering potential confounding factors. There is no association between neck posture, assessed by self-perception, and neck pain (OR = 1.66, p = 0.29), nor between neck posture, assessed by physiotherapists' judgment, and neck pain (OR = 1.23, p = 0.61). There was also no association between neck posture, assessed by self-perception, and frequency of neck pain (OR = 2.19, p = 0.09), nor between neck posture, assessed by physiotherapists' judgment, and frequency of neck pain (OR = 1.17, p = 0.68). This study did not show an association between text neck and neck pain in 18-21-year-old young adults. The findings challenge the belief that neck posture during mobile phone texting is associated to the growing prevalence of neck pain.
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the association between neck pain and psychological stress in nurses. Material and Methods: Nurses from the Avon Orthopaedic Centre completed 2 questionnaires: the Short Form-36 (SF-36 and 1 exploring neck pain and associated psychological stress. Results: Thirty four nurses entered the study (68% response. Twelve (35.3% had current neck pain, 13 (38.2% reported neck pain within the past year and 9 (26.5% had no neck pain. Subjects with current neck pain had significantly lower mental health (47.1 vs. 70.4; p = 0.002, physical health (60.8 vs. 76.8; p = 0.010 and overall SF-36 scores (56.8 vs. 74.9; p = 0.003. Five (41.7% subjects with current neck pain and 5 (38.5% subjects with neck pain in the previous year attributed it to psychological stress. Conclusions: Over 1/3 of nurses have symptomatic neck pain and significantly lower mental and physical health scores. Managing psychological stress may reduce neck pain, leading to improved quality of life for nurses, financial benefits for the NHS, and improved patient care.
Meisingset, Ingebrigt; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Woodhouse, Astrid; Vasseljen, Ottar
Neck pain is associated with several alterations in neck motion and motor control, but most of the findings are based on cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between changes in neck motion and motor control, and changes in neck pain and disability in physiotherapy patients during a course of treatment. Prospective cohort study. Subjects with non-specific neck pain (n = 71) participated in this study. Neck flexibility, joint position error (JPE), head steadiness, trajectory movement control and postural sway were recorded before commencement of physiotherapy (baseline), at 2 weeks, and at 2 months. Numerical Rating Scale and Neck Disability Index were used to measure neck pain and disability at the day of testing. To analyze within subjects effects in neck motion and motor control, neck pain, and disability over time we used fixed effects linear regression analysis. Changes in neck motion and motor control occurred primarily within 2 weeks. Reduction in neck pain was associated with increased cervical range of motion in flexion-/extension and increased postural sway when standing with eyes open. Decreased neck disability was associated with some variables for neck flexibility and trajectory movement control. Cervical range of motion in flexion-/extension was the only variable associated with changes in both neck pain and neck disability. This study shows that few of the variables for neck motion and motor control were associated with changes neck pain and disability over a course of 2 months with physiotherapy treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Adsuar, Jose C; Parraca, Jose; Gusi, Narcis
To reanalyse a web-based intervention for physically untrained office workers with sub-acute non-specific low back pain in low back pain-related exercise behaviour terms. Reanalysis of a randomized controlled trial. Occupational Preventive Medicine of University. Participants were randomized to an intervention group (proposed intervention plus standard care) or a control group (usual care only). The intervention exercise and education materials were developed as an online resource, and included video demonstrations recorded in a laboratory. Resources were loaded onto a dedicated section of the University Preventive Medicine Service website. All sessions included stretching, and exercises to improve postural stability (abdominal, lumbar, hip and thigh muscles) strength, flexibility and mobility. Outcome measures were self-reported health status (visual analogue scale (VAS) of the Euroquol-5D questionnaire); functional health status (Oswestry disability questionnaire); and the stage of change questionnaire. At nine months, outcomes in the intervention group were analysed and compared with baseline and outcomes in controls. In the intervention group, significant positive effects were observed at nine-month follow up for stage of change in the behavioural domain as related with low back pain for all phases except for the contemplation phase. The positive change in the stage of change questionnaire correlated with the improvement observed in Oswestry (r = .388) and VAS (r = -.612). The reanalysis of the trial suggests that exercise behaviour related to low back pain improve after the intervention period. This improvement correlates with changes in clinical low back pain-related outcomes.
van Randeraad-van der Zee, Carlijn H; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Swinkels, Raymond A H M; Pool, Jan J M; Batterham, Roy W; Osborne, Richard H; de Vet, Henrica C W
To empirically define the concept of burden of neck pain. The lack of a clear understanding of this construct from the perspective of persons with neck pain and care providers hampers adequate measurement of this burden. An additional aim was to compare the conceptual model obtained with the frequently used Neck Disability Index (NDI). Concept mapping, combining qualitative (nominal group technique and group consensus) and quantitative research methods (cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling), was applied to groups of persons with neck pain (n = 3) and professionals treating persons with neck pain (n = 2). Group members generated statements, which were organized into concept maps. Group members achieved consensus about the number and description of domains and the researchers then generated an overall mind map covering the full breadth of the burden of neck pain. Concept mapping revealed 12 domains of burden of neck pain: impaired mobility neck, neck pain, fatigue/concentration, physical complaints, psychological aspects/consequences, activities of daily living, social participation, financial consequences, difficult to treat/difficult to diagnose, difference of opinion with care providers, incomprehension by social environment, and how person with neck pain deal with complaints. All ten items of the NDI could be linked to the mind map, but the NDI measures only part of the burden of neck pain. This study revealed the relevant domains for the burden of neck pain from the viewpoints of persons with neck pain and their care providers. These results can guide the identification of existing measurements instruments for each domain or the development of new ones to measure the burden of neck pain.
Jørgensen, Marie B.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Holtermann, Andreas
to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p pain at only neck or only low back did not increase the risk. Impaired postural balance, measured as CEA (p pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain....... Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p low back pain compared...... cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. ISRCTN96241850....
Introduction: Chronic pain in rheumatology often has a psychic impact, which may aggravate the daily life of patients. Chronic neck pain, as an example, is a frequent reason for consultation. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with neck pain, and identify risk factors ...
Ariens, G.A.M.; Bongers, P M; Douwes, M.; Miedema, M.C.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Wal, G. van der; Bouter, L M; van Mechelen, W.
OBJECTIVE—To study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting. METHODS—A prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured exposure data (video recordings) of neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting posture. Neck pain was assessed by a questionnaire. Adjustments were made for various physical factors that were related o...
Vincent, Karl; Maigne, Jean-Yves; Fischhoff, Cyril; Lanlo, Olivier; Dagenais, Simon
To evaluate the effectiveness of manual therapies in the treatment of nonspecific neck pain. Medline and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials of manual therapy or mobilization, used alone or with exercises to treat pain and functional impairment related to nonspecific neck pain. Cochrane Back Review Group criteria were used to assess the quality of the trials and the level of evidence (unclear, limited, moderate, or high) for short-, medium-, and long-term effects. Of 27 identified trials, 18 were of high quality. In acute neck pain, effective treatments were thoracic manipulation combined with electrothermal therapy in the short term and cervical manipulation in the long term. In chronic neck pain and neck pain of variable duration, both pain and function improved consistently at all follow-up time points. None of the manual therapies used alone or in combination was superior over the others. In the long term, exercises alone or combined with manual therapies were superior over manual therapies used alone. Manual therapies contribute usefully to the management of nonspecific neck pain. The level of evidence is moderate for short-term effects of upper thoracic manipulation in acute neck pain, limited for long-term effects of neck manipulation, and limited for all techniques and follow-up durations in chronic neck pain. Copyright © 2012 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Horn, Agnes Irna; Fontes, Sissy Veloso; de Carvalho, Sebastião Marcos Ribeiro; Silvado, Rubens Augusto Brazil; Barbosa, Pedro Marco Karan; Durigan, Alcides; Atallah, Alvaro Nagib; Fukujima, Marcia Maiumi; do Prado, Gilmar Fernandes
Painful shoulder is considered the most common complication of hemiplegic/parethic (H/P) stroke patients. It is a negative factor for neuromotor recovery. To study the effects of kinesiotherapy treatment on shoulder pain prevention, and as a secondary endpoints, to analyze muscle strength of H/P shoulder looking at basic functional active mobility. Twenty one inpatients (12 men, 9 women) aged 26 to 87 years, with post-stroke H/P were submitted to thirty minutes daily program kinesiotherapy, started at 48 hours post-stroke up to their hospital discharge. Patients were evaluated pre and post treatment according to the presence or absence of shoulder pain, movements and shoulder strength, and for presence or absence of basic functional movements. No patient complaining of shoulder pain at the hospital discharge (p<0.001). The muscle strength improved signifcantly for elevation, protusion, abduction and flexion of the shoulder (p<0.001). There was improvement also for functional mobility on moving from dorsal to lateral recumb, from lateral recumb to a seated position and in keeping the seated position (p<0.001). Kinesiotherapy in acute phase of stroke prevented shoulder pain.
Harvie, Daniel S; Edmond-Hank, Grace; Smith, Ashley D
Tactile acuity deficits have been demonstrated in a range of persistent pain conditions and may reflect underlying cortical re-organisation. This study aimed to determine whether tactile acuity is impaired in people with chronic neck pain relative to controls, and whether deficits relate to pain location, duration and intensity. In this cross-sectional study, 20 people with chronic neck pain (5 idiopathic neck pain; 15 whiplash-associated disorder) and 20 pain-free controls underwent two-point discrimination (TPD) testing at the neck, back and arm, and point-to-point (PTP) and graphesthesia tests of tactile acuity at the neck and arm. Linear mixed effects models demonstrated a significant group*body region interaction for TPD, Graphesthesia and PTP tests (Ps < 0.001), with post hoc tests showing impaired TPD in people with neck pain relative to controls at the neck, low back, and arm (P ≤ 0.001). Graphesthesia and PTP was also impaired at the neck (P < 0.001) but not the arm (P ≥ 0.48). TPD correlated with intensity and duration of pain (Pearson's r = 0.48, P < 0.05; Pearson's r = 0.77, P < 0.01). There was no sig difference between the two neck pain groups for any tactile acuity measure (TPD: P = 0.054; Graphesthesia; P = 0.67; Point to Point: P = 0.77), however, low power limited confidence in this comparison. People with chronic neck pain demonstrated tactile acuity deficits in painful and non-painful regions when measured using the TPD test, with the magnitude of deficits appearing greatest at the neck. The study also revealed a positive relationship between TPD and pain intensity/duration, further supporting the main study finding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Steinmetz, Anke; Claus, Andrew; Hodges, Paul W; Jull, Gwendolen A
Neck pain is associated with changes in neuromuscular control of cervical muscles. Violin and viola playing requires good function of the flexor muscles to stabilize the instrument. This study investigated the flexor muscle behaviour in violin/viola players with and without neck pain using the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT). In total, 12 violin/viola players with neck pain, 21 violin/viola players without neck pain in the preceding 12 weeks and 21 pain-free non-musicians were included. Activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) was measured with surface electromyography (EMG) during the CCFT. Violin/viola players with neck pain displayed greater normalised SCM EMG amplitudes during CCFT than the pain-free musicians and non-musicians (P < 0.05). Playing-related neck pain in violinists/violists is associated with altered behaviour of the superficial neck flexor muscles consistent with neck pain, despite the specific use of the deep and superficial neck flexors during violin playing.
Brage, K; Ris Hansen, Inge; Falla, D
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of training and pain education vs pain education alone, on neck pain, neck muscle activity and postural sway in patients with chronic neck pain. METHODS: Twenty women with chronic neck pain were randomized to receive pain education and specific training (neck-shoulder...... exercises, balance and aerobic training) (INV), or pain education alone (CTRL). Effect on neck pain, function and Global Perceived Effect (GPE) were measured. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from neck flexor and extensor muscles during performance of the Cranio-Cervical Flexion Test (CCFT......) and three postural control tests (two-legged: eyes open and closed, one-legged: eyes open). Sway parameters were calculated. RESULTS: Fifteen participants (CTRL: eight; INV: seven) completed the study. Per protocol analyses showed a larger pain reduction (p = 0.002) for the INV group with tendencies...
Olufunke Patience Iroko
Full Text Available AIM: University students seem to be a high risk group for neck pain which often leads to diminished concentration and academic performance among them. This study examined the occurrence and characteristics of neck pain in undergraduate students from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. METHOD: One thousand and sixty nine (512 male and 557 female undergraduate students with the mean age of 23.49 ± 2.54 years responded in this cross-sectional survey. An adapted questionnaire that sought information on demographics, occurrence, characteristics and the consequence of neck pain on activities of daily living served as the survey instrument. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence and current frequency of neck pain among the respondents was 34.9% and 9.8% respectively. Female students had a higher preponderance of lifetime neck pain prevalence than their male counterparts (52.8 vs. 47.2%. There was higher frequency of neck pain after admission into the university than before (68.6 vs. 28.7%. Neck pain increased according to level of study and commoner among clinical students. 20% of the respondents reported chronic neck pain and was commoner in males than females (13% vs. 7% females. Seats without back supports used during lectures (48.0%, long reading hours (31.4%, poor self perpetuating posture (16.6%, and types of pillow used when sleeping (14.2% were the most implicated predisposing factors to neck pain. Reading (49.7% and concentration on school work (27.9% were the most limited activities of daily living. CONCLUSION: Neck pain is common among Nigerian university undergraduate students and affects females than males. The prevalence increased with higher level of study and commoner among clinical students. Neck pain mostly affects reading and concentration on school work among university undergraduate students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 167-174
Ariens, G.A.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Douwes, M.; Miedema, M.C.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; van der Wal, G.; Bouter, L.M.; van Mechelen, W.
Objective: To study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured
Ariëns, G A; Bongers, P M; Douwes, M; Miedema, M C; Hoogendoorn, W E; van der Wal, G; Bouter, L M; van Mechelen, W
OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether pressure pain hyperalgesia is a feature of professional pianists suffering from neck pain as their main playing-related musculoskeletal disorder. Methods Twenty-three active expert pianists, 6 males and 17 females (age: 36 ± 12 years with insidious neck pain and 23 pianists, 9 males and 14 females (age: 38 ± 10 years without neck pain the previous year were recruited. A numerical pain rate scale, Neck Disability Index, hand size and pressure pain thresholds (PPT were assessed bilaterally over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, deltoid muscle, the second metacarpal and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. Results The results showed that PPT levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscles (P 0.10, in pianists with neck pain as compared to healthy pianists. Pianists with neck pain had a smaller (P Conclusions Our findings revealed pressure pain hypersensitivity over distant non-symptomatic distant points but not over the symptomatic areas in pianists suffering from neck pain. In addition, pianists with neck pain also had smaller hand size than those without neck pain. Future studies are needed to further determine the relevance of these findings in the clinical course of neck pain as playing-related musculoskeletal disorder in professional pianists.
Buchakjian, Marisa R; Davis, Andrew B; Sciegienka, Sebastian J; Pagedar, Nitin A; Sperry, Steven M
To evaluate perioperative pain in patients undergoing major head and neck cancer surgery and identify associations between preoperative and postoperative pain characteristics. Patients undergoing head and neck surgery with regional/free tissue transfer were enrolled. Preoperative pain and validated screens for symptoms (neuropathic pain, anxiety, depression, fibromyalgia) were assessed. Postoperatively, patients completed a pain diary for 4 weeks. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. Seventy-eight percent had pain prior to surgery, and for 38%, the pain had neuropathic characteristics. Thirteen patients (48%) completed at least 2 weeks of the postoperative pain diary. Patients with moderate/severe preoperative pain report significantly greater pain scores postoperatively, though daily pain decreased at a similar linear rate for all patients. Patients with more severe preoperative pain consumed greater amounts of opioids postoperatively, and this correlated with daily postoperative pain scores. Patients who screened positive for neuropathic pain also reported worse postoperative pain. Longitudinal perioperative pain assessment in head and neck patients undergoing surgery suggests that patients with worse preoperative pain continue to endorse worse pain postoperatively and require more narcotics. Patients with preoperative neuropathic pain also report poor pain control postoperatively, suggesting an opportunity to identify these patients and intervene with empiric neuropathic pain treatment.
Full Text Available Neck pain related with disorders of the brain and neck vascular structures is not rare but importance was attached to a condition that is often overlooked. Tension as a sudden onset, radiating to the nape, the neck pain becomes unbearable and within seconds the raging 51-year-old female patient with aneurysm at the distal end of basilar artery was found. Case, the only sign of neck pain with unruptured basilar artery aneurysm is presented in terms of raising awareness on the subject.
Hoving, J.L.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Deville, W.L.J.M.; van der Windt, D.A.W.M.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.
Prognostic studies on neck pain are scarce and are typically restricted to short-term follow-up only. In this prospective cohort study, indicators of short- and long-term outcomes of neck pain were identified that can easily be measured in general practice. Patients between 18 and 70 years of age,
Ariëns, Geertje A.; van Mechelen, Willem; Bongers, Paulien M.; Bouter, Lex M.; van der Wal, Gerrit
BACKGROUND: Neck pain, which is assumed to be a multifactorial disease, is a major problem in modern society. METHODS: To identify the most important psychosocial risk factors for neck pain, a systematic review of the literature was carried out. The methodological quality of all studies in the
Valenza, Marie Carmen; Valenza, Gerad; González-Jiménez, Emilio; De-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César
This study aimed to determine differences in sleep quality between patients with mechanical neck pain, patients with whiplash (WAD) pain, and healthy controls and to determine the relationship between the intensity of ongoing pain, disability, and sleep quality. Nineteen patients with mechanical neck pain (4 men, 15 women; age, 40 ± 16 yrs), 22 with WAD (4 men, 18 women; age, 38 ± 15 yrs), and 18 comparable controls (4 men, 14 women; age, 41 ± 13 yrs) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep quality. A numerical pain rate scale (0-10) and the Neck Disability Index (0-50) were collected for assessing neck pain and disability. Significant differences in sleep quality (P sleep latency (P = 0.005), sleep efficiency (P = 0.002), sleep disturbances (P sleeping medication (P Sleep Quality Index score (P sleep duration (P = 0.096) were found; patients with mechanical neck pain and WAD pain exhibited higher scores in all components compared with healthy controls. Seventeen (77%) patients with WAD and 13 (68%) with mechanical neck pain reported poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, >8). Significant positive correlations between mean intensity of ongoing pain with sleep quality (r(s) = 0.693; P sleep duration (r(s) = 0.433; P = 0.044); sleep efficiency (r(s) = 0.644; P = 0.001) and total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score (r(s) = 0.643; P = 0.001) were found in patients with WAD pain; the higher the intensity of ongoing pain, the worse the sleep quality. Sleep disturbances are a common finding in individuals with neck pain and are associated with the intensity of ongoing pain in WAD. It seems essential to address the ongoing cycle of pain and sleep disturbances as an integral part of the treatment of patients with neck pain.
Jorritsma, Wim; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Knol-de Vries, Grietje; Reneman, Michiel F.
To investigate the validity of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale Dutch Language Version (NPAD-DLV) and the Neck Disability Index (NDI)-DLV. NPAD-DLV, NDI-DLV, Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36)-DLV, visual analog scale (VAS)(pain) and VAS(disability) were administered to 112 patients with
Kimura, Atsushi; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Hirokazu; Endo, Teruaki; Takeshita, Katsushi
Retrospective analysis of prospective data OBJECTIVE.: The aim of this study was to reveal baseline predictors of persistent post-laminoplasty neck pain. Axial neck pain is one of the most common complications after cervical laminoplasty; however, baseline predictors of persistent post-laminoplasty neck pain are unclear. We analyzed data from 156 patients who completed a 2-year follow-up after double-door laminoplasty for degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). Patients rated the average intensity of axial neck pain in the last month using an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) preoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up. The dependent variable was the presence of moderate-to-severe neck pain (NRS ≥4) at the 2-year follow-up. The independent variables included patient characteristics, baseline radiological parameters, surgical variables, baseline axial neck pain intensity, and baseline functions, which were measured by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and the Short Form-36 survey (SF-36). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of moderate-to-severe neck pain after laminoplasty. At the 2-year follow-up, 51 patients (32%) had moderate-to-severe neck pain, and 106 patients (68%) had no or mild pain. Univariate analysis revealed that the ratio of cervical anterolisthesis, ratio of current smoking, baseline neck pain intensity, and baseline SF-36 mental component summary (MCS) differed significantly between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent predictors of moderate-to-severe neck pain at the 2-year follow-up include the presence of anterolisthesis, current smoking, moderate-to-severe baseline neck pain, and lower SF-36 MCS. The presence of anterolisthesis and moderate-to-severe baseline neck pain were also associated with significantly poorer physical function after surgery. The presence of anterolisthesis was associated not only with the highest odds ratio of persistent
Christensen, S W; Hirata, R P; Graven-Nielsen, T
Neck pain is a large clinical problem where reorganized trunk and axioscapular muscle activities have been hypothesised contributing to pain persistence and pain hypersensitivity. This study investigated the effects of bilateral experimental neck pain on trunk and axioscapular muscle function and pain sensitivity. In 25 healthy volunteers, bilateral experimental neck pain was induced in the splenius capitis muscles by hypertonic saline injections. Isotonic saline was used as control. In sitting, subjects performed slow, fast and slow-resisted unilateral arm movements before, during and after injections. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from eight shoulder and trunk muscles bilaterally. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed bilaterally at the neck, head and arm. Data were normalized to the before-measures. Compared with control and post measurements, experimental neck pain caused (1) decreased EMG activity of the ipsilateral upper trapezius muscles during all but slow-resisted down movements (p < 0.001), and (2) increased EMG activity in the ipsilateral erector spinae muscle during slow and fast movements (p < 0.02), and in the contralateral erector spinae muscle during all but fast up and slow-resisted down movements (p < 0.007). The PPTs in the painful condition increased at the head and arm compared with post measurements and the control condition (p < 0.001). In the post-pain condition, the neck PPT was decreased compared with the control condition (p < 0.001). Acute bilateral neck pain reorganized axioscapular and trunk muscle activity together with local hyperalgesia and widespread hypoalgesia indicating that acute neck pain immediately affects trunk and axioscapular function which may affect both assessment and treatment. Bilateral clinical neck pain alters axioscapular muscle coordination but only effects of unilateral experimental neck pain has been investigated. Bilateral experimental neck pain causes task-dependent reorganized
Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether pressure pain hyperalgesia is a feature of professional pianists suffering from neck pain as their main playing-related musculoskeletal disorder. Methods Twenty-three active expert pianists, 6 males and 17 females (age: 36 ± 12 years) with insidious neck pain and 23 pianists, 9 males and 14 females (age: 38 ± 10 years) without neck pain the previous year were recruited. A numerical pain rate scale, Neck Disability Index, hand size and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed bilaterally over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, deltoid muscle, the second metacarpal and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. Results The results showed that PPT levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscles (P 0.10), in pianists with neck pain as compared to healthy pianists. Pianists with neck pain had a smaller (P < 0.05) hand size (mean: 181.8 ± 11.8) as compared to pianists without neck pain (mean: 188. 6 ± 13.1). PPT over the tibialis anterior muscles was negatively correlated with the intensity of neck pain. Conclusions Our findings revealed pressure pain hypersensitivity over distant non-symptomatic distant points but not over the symptomatic areas in pianists suffering from neck pain. In addition, pianists with neck pain also had smaller hand size than those without neck pain. Future studies are needed to further determine the relevance of these findings in the clinical course of neck pain as playing-related musculoskeletal disorder in professional pianists. PMID:22111912
Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline
Chronic neck pain is one of the most usual neuromusculoskeletal pain conditions which can lead patients to chronic disability. Similarly to other pain conditions, the changed psychological status of these patients is believed to be associated with their pain condition and disability. However, the association between the psychological status of patients with idiopathic neck pain and their pain intensity and disability is minimally explored. This study was aimed at investigating the association between psychological states (anxiety, depression, kinesiophobia, catastrophizing) of patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain and self-reported pain and disability. Forty five patients with idiopathic chronic neck pain (more than 6 months, at least once a week) participated. Their psychological states were assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, Pain Catastrophizing scale and Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Self-reported disability was recorded with the Neck Disability Index. Pain intensity was recorded by using a visual analog scale. Neck pain intensity was significantly correlated with anxiety (p< 0.05). Disability was significantly correlated with anxiety, depression and catastrophizing (p< 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that pain-induced disability can be significantly predicted by anxiety and catastrophizing (p< 0.05). It can be concluded that anxiety, depression and catastrophizing of patients with chronic neck pain is associated with their self-reported disability, whereas anxiety is also associated with their pain intensity. Anxiety and catastrophizing may be important predicting markers of patients' self-reported disability.
Guerrero, Marlon A.; Lindsay, Sheila; Suh, Insoo; Vriens, Menno R.; Khanafshar, Elham; Shen, Wen T.; Gosnell, Jessica; Kebebew, Electron; Duh, Quan-Yang; Clark, Orlo H.
Background: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) commonly presents with lymph node (LN) metastases, and has a worse prognosis than papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Tumor size and LN involvement have been shown to affect stage of disease; however, to our knowledge, ours is the first study that attempts to correlate anterior neck pain on presentation with the extent of disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with MTC who underwent an operation from February 1998 through December 2008. We compared the symptom of anterior neck pain with the pathologic extent of disease. Our control group comprised patients who underwent an operation for PTC. Analysis was performed using the Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of the 109 patients with MTC, 50 (46%) met our inclusion criteria. Of the 50 patients with MTC, 11 presented with neck pain, compared to 3 of the 50 patients with PTC (p = 0.041). Of those 11 patients, 9 (82%) had LN involvement on final pathology, as compared with 14 (36%) of the 39 without neck pain (p = 0.014). Of patients with neck pain, 18% were diagnosed at stage I to II and 82% at stage III to IV, compared to 64% at stage I to II and 36% at stage III to IV (p = 0.014). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that more patients with MTC present with anterior neck pain than do patients with PTC and that patients with MTC and neck pain have an increased risk of LN metastases. The results of this study suggest that MTC patients, who present with concomitant neck pain, should undergo a total thyroidectomy, prophylactic bilateral central neck dissection, and ipsilateral lateral neck dissection. PMID:21509150
Bragatto, M M; Bevilaqua-Grossi, D; Regalo, S C H; Sousa, J D; Chaves, T C
Neck pain is the most common musculoskeletal complaint among computer office workers. There are several reports about the coexistence of neck pain and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, there are no studies investigating this association in the context of work involving computers. The purpose of this study was to verify the association between TMD and neck pain in computer office workers. Fifty-two female computer workers who were divided into two groups: (i) those with self-reported chronic neck pain and disability (WNP) (n = 26) and (ii) those without self-reported neck pain (WONP) (n = 26), and a control group (CG) consisting of 26 women who did not work with computers participated in this study. Clinical assessments were performed to establish a diagnosis of TMD, and craniocervical mechanical pain was assessed using manual palpation and pressure pain threshold (PPT). The results of this study showed that the WNP group had a higher percentage of participants with TMD than the WONP group (42·30% vs. 23·07%, χ(2) = 5·70, P = 0·02). PPTs in all cervical sites were significantly lower in the groups WNP and WONP compared to the CG. Regression analysis revealed TMD, neck pain and work-related factors to be good predictors of disability (R(2) = 0·93, P < 0·001). These results highlighted the importance of considering the work conditions of patients with TMD, as neck disability in computer workers is explained by the association among neck pain, TMD and unfavourable workplace conditions. Consequently, this study attempted to emphasise the importance of considering work activity for minimising neck pain-related disability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Park, Kyue-nam; Kwon, Oh-yun; Ha, Sung-min; Kim, Su-jung; Choi, Hyun-jung; Weon, Jong-hyuck
Neck pain is common in violin students during a musical performance. The purpose of this study was to compare electromyographic (EMG) activity in superficial neck muscles with neck motion when playing the violin as well as neck range of motion (ROM) at rest, between violin students with and without neck pain. Nine violin students with neck pain and nine age- and gender-matched subjects without neck pain were recruited. Muscle activity of the bilateral upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and superficial cervical extensor muscles was measured using surface EMG. Kinematic data on neck motion while playing and active neck ROM were also measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Independent t-tests were used to compare EMG activity with kinematic data between groups. These analyses revealed that while playing, both the angle of left lateral bending and leftward rotation of the cervical spine were significantly greater in the neck pain group than among those without neck pain. Similarly, EMG activity of the left upper trapezius, both cervical extensors, and both sternocleidomastoid muscles were significantly greater in the neck pain group. The active ROM of left axial rotation was significantly lower in the neck pain group. These results suggest that an asymmetric playing posture and the associated increased muscle activity as well as decreased neck axial rotation may contribute to neck pain in violin students.
Gross, Anita R; Kaplan, Faith; Huang, Stacey
To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain.......To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain....
Lyle, N.J., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Rutherford, E.E.; Batty, V.B. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)
Deep neck infection has a high morbidity and mortality and the extent of infection is often difficult to estimate clinically. The complex anatomy and the communication between neck spaces means that infection can spread along fascial planes leading to life-threatening complications such as airway compromise, vascular erosion/thrombosis, neural dysfunction, and ultimately descending necrotizing mediastinitis. Imaging has an important role to play in identifying the extent of infection and the presence of complications.
Demirbüken, İlkşan; Özgül, Bahar; Kuru Çolak, Tuğba; Aydoğdu, Onur; Sarı, Zübeyir; Yurdalan, Saadet Ufuk
Little research is available concerning physical activity and its determinants in people with chronic neck pain. To explore the relation between kinesiophobia and physical activity and gender effect on these relations in people with chronic neck pain. Ninety-nine subjects (34 men and 65 women) with chronic neck pain were participated in the study. Pain intensity was assessed with Visual Analog Scale and kinesiophobia degree was determined by using Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. Level of physical activity was assessed with short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. There was no statistically correlation between neck pain intensity and kinesiophobia degree (p= 0.246, r= 0.123) and physical activity level (p= 0.432, r= -0.083). It was also found that kinesiophobia degree was not correlated to physical activity level (p= 0.148, r= -0.153). There was a negative correlation between kinesiophobia degree and physical activity level only for women, not for men (p= 0.011, r= -0.318). Our results showed that although people with chronic neck pain reported higher pain intensity and fear of movement, pain intensity and kinesiophobia degree did not associate to their physical activity levels. It can be speculated that high kinesiophobia degrees cause low physical activity levels for women, but not for men.
Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Ferguson, Brad; Murphy, Bernadette
The cervical flexion relaxation ratio is lower in neck pain patients compared to healthy controls. Fatigue modulates the onset and offset angles of the silent period in both the lumbar and cervical spine in healthy individuals; however, this response has not been studied with neck pain patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if cervical extensor fatigue would alter the parameters of the cervical flexion relaxation more in a neck pain group than a healthy control group. Thirteen healthy and twelve neck pain patients participated. Cervical extensor activity was examined bilaterally and kinematics of the neck and head were collected. An isometric, repetitive neck extension task at 70% of maximum elicited fatigue. Participants performed 3 trials of maximal cervical flexion both pre and post fatigue. The healthy controls and neck pain groups fatigued after 56 (41) and 39 (31) repetitions, respectively. There was a significant interaction effect for the flexion relaxation ratio between the control and neck pain groups from pre to post fatigue trials (F1,96=22.67, P=0.0001), but not for onset and offset angles (F1, 96=0.017, P=0.897), although the onset and offset angles did decrease significantly for both groups following fatigue (F1,96=9.26, P=0.002). Individuals with mild to moderate neck pain have significant differences in their neuromuscular control relative to controls, experienced myoelectric fatigue with fewer repetitions in a shorter time, had a lower cervical flexion relaxation ratio at baseline and had an inability to decrease this ratio further in response to fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jorritsma, W; Knol-de Vries, Grietje; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Reneman, M.F
The first aim of this study was to translate the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD) from English into Dutch producing the NPAD-Dutch Language Version (DLV). The second aim was to analyze test-retest reliability and agreement of the NPAD-DLV and the Neck Disability Index (NDI)-DLV. The NPAD was
Falla, Deborah; Gizzi, Leonardo; Parsa, Hesam; Dieterich, Angela; Petzke, Frank
Study Design Controlled laboratory study, case-control design. Objective To evaluate spine kinematics and gait characteristics in people with nonspecific chronic neck pain. Background People with chronic neck pain present with a number of sensorimotor and biomechanical alterations, yet little is known about the influence of neck pain on gait and motions of the spine during gait. Methods People with chronic nonspecific neck pain and age- and sex-matched asymptomatic controls walked on a treadmill at 3 different speeds (self-selected, 3 km/h, and 5 km/h), either with their head in a neutral position or rotated 30°. Tridimensional motion capture was employed to quantify body kinematics. Neck and trunk rotations were derived from the difference between the transverse plane component of the head and thorax and thorax and pelvis angles to provide an indication of neck and trunk rotation during gait. Results Overall, the patient group showed shorter stride length compared to the control group (Pneck pain showed smaller trunk rotations (Pneck pain walk with reduced trunk rotation, especially when challenged by walking with their head positioned in rotation. Reduced rotation of the trunk during gait may have long-term consequences on spinal health. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(4):268-277. Epub 3 Feb 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.6768.
Sá, Sofia; Silva, Anabela G
Impaired proprioception, increased pain sensitivity, higher levels of anxiety and catastrophizing are present in adults with chronic idiopathic neck pain. Despite the high prevalence of neck pain, studies in adolescents are scarce. The main aim was to compare pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and joint repositioning error (JRE) between adolescents with chronic idiopathic neck pain and adolescents without neck pain. Secondary aims were to compare these groups for catastrophizing and anxiety and to investigate the association between PPTs, JRE and psychosocial variables and pain characteristics. 80 adolescents (40 with and 40 without chronic neck pain) were assessed for: neck repositioning error, neck, upper trapezius and tibialis anterior PPTs, anxiety and catastrophizing. Neck pain was characterized in terms of intensity, frequency, duration and associated disability. MANCOVA was used for between group comparisons and Pearson and Spearman coefficients for correlational analysis. Adolescents with neck pain showed higher levels of catastrophizing (p < 0.001) and anxiety (trait: p < 0.001; state: p = 0.028), lower PPTs (p < 0.001) and higher JRE (p < 0.001) than asymptomatic controls. Pain intensity, frequency and duration were moderately correlated with anxiety, and disability was moderately correlated with anxiety (r between 0.43 and 0.50, p < 0.05) and catastrophizing (r = 0.40, p < 0.05). This study suggests that functional changes and maladaptive cognitive processes are present in adolescents with neck pain aged 16-18 years old. These findings need to be replicated in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Study protocol of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary intervention in the evolution of non-specific sub-acute low back pain in the working population: cluster randomised trial
de Kort Nelleke
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP, with high incidence and prevalence rate, is one of the most common reasons to consult the health system and is responsible for a significant amount of sick leave, leading to high health and social costs. The objective of the study is to assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of a multidisciplinary biopsychosocial educational group intervention (MBEGI of non-specific sub-acute LBP in comparison with the usual care in the working population recruited in primary healthcare centres. Methods/design The study design is a cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of a MBEGI in comparison with the usual care of non-specific sub-acute LBP. Measures on effectiveness and costs of both interventions will be obtained from a cluster randomised controlled clinical trial carried out in 38 Catalan primary health care centres, enrolling 932 patients between 18 and 65 years old with a diagnosis of non-specific sub-acute LBP. Effectiveness measures are: pharmaceutical treatments, work sick leave (% and duration in days, Roland Morris disability, McGill pain intensity, Fear Avoidance Beliefs (FAB and Golberg Questionnaires. Utility measures will be calculated from the SF-12. The analysis will be performed from a social perspective. The temporal horizon is at 3 months (change to chronic LBP and 12 months (evaluate the outcomes at long term. Assessment of outcomes will be blinded and will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion We hope to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of MBEGI, see an improvement in the patients' quality of life, achieve a reduction in the duration of episodes and the chronicity of non-specific low back pain, and be able to report a decrease in the social costs. If the intervention is cost-effectiveness and cost-utility, it could be applied to Primary Health Care Centres. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN58719694
Constand, Marissa K; MacDermid, Joy C.
Background Reaching overhead and reading are tasks that many individuals encounter daily. The level of difficulty of these tasks increases if an individual has neck pain. This study determined the neck movement patterns during these two tasks by comparing neck flexion of individuals with and without neck pain. Methods This case control study used the portable video technology, Dartfish ProSuite 5.5 Video Software, to analyse neck flexion movement patterns. Healthy individuals and individuals ...
LAM, D.K.; SCHMIDT, B.L.
Contrary to a clinical aphorism that early head and neck cancer is painless, we show that patients who develop head and neck cancer experience significant pain at the time of initial diagnosis. We compared orofacial pain sensitivity in groups of patients with normal oral mucosa, oral precancer and newly diagnosed oral cancer. The UCSF Oral Cancer Pain Questionnaire was administered to these patients at their initial visit, before being prescribed analgesics for pain and before any treatment. In contrast to those with biopsy-proven normal oral mucosa and oral precancer, only oral cancer patients reported significant levels of spontaneous pain and functional restriction from pain. Moreover, oral cancer patients experienced significantly higher function-related, rather than spontaneous pain qualities. These findings suggest an important predictor for the transition from oral precancer to cancer may be the onset of orofacial pain that is exacerbated during function. Screening patients who have new-onset orofacial pain may lead to a diagnosis of early, resectable head and neck cancer and may improve quality of life and survival for head and neck cancer patients. PMID:21388740
Myburgh, Corrie; Roessler, Kirsten K; Larsen, Anders H
ABSTRACT: Chronic pain and psychosocial distress are generally thought to be associated in chronic musculoskeletal disorders such as non-specific neck pain. However, it is unclear whether a raised level of anxiety is necessarily a feature of longstanding, intense pain amongst patient and general...... population sub-groups. In a cohort of 70 self-selected female, non-specific neck pain sufferers, we observed relatively high levels of self-reported pain of 4.46 (measured on the 11 point numerical pain rating scale (NRS-101)) and a longstanding duration of symptoms (156 days/year). However, the mean anxiety...... scores observed (5.49), fell well below the clinically relevant threshold of 21 required by the Beck Anxiety Inventory. The cohort was stratified to further distinguish individuals with higher pain intensity (NRS>6) and longer symptom duration (>90 days). Although a highly statistically significant...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain and the relationship with possible changes in sensory systems and posture. The neck pain group was composed of women, aged between 20 and 50years, complaining of neck pain for more than three months; the control group was composed of women without complaints of neck pain. For the characterization of the groups, we used anamnesis, neck disability index and Visual Analogue Scale. Postural balance was assessed on force platform. Postural balance with manipulation of the sensory systems was measured by Foam Laser Dynamic Posturography, exposing the individual to six sensory organization tests. Posture was assessed by the Postural Assessment Software. The normality of the variables were verified using Shapiro-Wilk test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test for comparison between groups, with a significance level of5%. Groups were homogeneous in demographic variables. We observed higher amplitude and displacement velocity of the center of pressure in the neck pain group, showing greater postural balance. There were significant diferences incraniovertebral angle, showing forward head posture in symptomatic women. In dynamics posturography, we observed a difference between the groups: the score obtainedin the six sensory conditions showed that neck pain group presented greater balance impairment. Neck pain and forward head posture have a deleterious effect on postural control in symptomatic women, both in the static posture and dynamic posture.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The minimal detectable change (MDC and the minimal clinically important changes (MCIC have been explored for nonspecific low back pain patients and are similar across different cultural settings. No data on MDC and MCIC for pain severity are available for neck pain patients. The objectives of this study were to estimate MDC and MCIC for pain severity in subacute and chronic neck pain (NP patients, to assess if MDC and MCIC values are influenced by baseline values and to explore if they are different in the subset of patients reporting referred pain, and in subacute versus chronic patients. Methods Subacute and chronic patients treated in routine clinical practice of the Spanish National Health Service for neck pain, with or without pain referred to the arm, and a pain severity ≥ 3 points on a pain intensity number rating scale (PI-NRS, were included in this study. Patients' own "global perceived effect" over a 3 month period was used as the external criterion. The minimal detectable change (MDC was estimated by means of the standard error of measurement in patients who self-assess as unchanged. MCIC were estimated by the mean value of change score in patients who self-assess as improved (mean change score, MCS, and by the optimal cutoff point in receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC. The effect on MDC and MCIC of initial scores, duration of pain, and existence of referred pain were assessed. Results 658 patients were included, 487 of them with referred pain. MDC was 4.0 PI-NRS points for neck pain in the entire sample, 4.2 for neck pain in patients who also had referred pain, and 6.2 for referred pain. MCS was 4.1 and ROC was 1.5 for referred and for neck pain, both in the entire sample and in patients who also complained of referred pain. ROC was lower (0.5 PI-NRS points for subacute than for chronic patients (1.5 points. MCS was higher for patients with more intense baseline pain, ranging from 2.4 to 4.9 PI
Rittig-Rasmussen, B; Kasch, H; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A; Svensson, P; Jensen, T S
Corticomotor excitability has been shown to correlate with motor learning and functional recovery. The aim of the present study was to monitor changes in excitability of the corticomotor pathways induced by neck training and to compare the effects in patients with neck or knee pain and pain-free participants. Corticomotor excitability was assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography at baseline, after 30 min and 1 h, and at a 1-week follow-up visit. The primary outcome measures were changes in amplitudes and latencies of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) at 1-week follow-up. MEP responses induced by neck training yielded significantly different outcomes in the three groups. In the group with neck pain and training, MEP amplitudes were significantly reduced between baseline and 30 min (p ≤ 0.05), but with no significant difference between baseline, 1 h (p = 0.178) and 1 week (p = 0.067). In the group with knee pain and training, MEP amplitudes significantly increased between baseline and 30 min (p ≤ 0.01) and 1 h (p pain-free group, there were no changes over time. Neck training reduced neuroplastic responsiveness of corticomotor pathways in neck pain patients in contrast to knee pain patients and pain-free participants. Increased attention to adaptive and maladaptive neuroplastic responses induced by training may prove valuable in the process of optimizing clinical outcomes. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Globally, adolescent neck pain has not been identified as a widespread problem. The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain is rising among adolescents, possibly as a result of repetitive movements and static postures associated with increased use of computers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and ...
Billeci, Domenico; Coluzzi, Flaminia
The role of opioids in the management of chronic neck pain is still poorly investigated. No data are available on tapentadol extended release (ER). In this article, we present 54 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic neck pain treated with tapentadol ER. Patients received tapentadol ER 100 mg/day; dosage was then adjusted according to clinical needs. The following parameters were recorded: pain; Douleur Neuropathique 4 score; Neck Disability Index score; range of motion; pain-associated sleep interference; quality of life (Short Form  Health Survey); Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC); Clinician GIC; opioid-related adverse effects; and need for other analgesics. A total of 44 of 54 patients completed the 12-week observation. Tapentadol ER daily doses increased from 100 mg/day to a mean (standard deviation) dosage of 204.5 (102.8) mg/day at the final evaluation. Mean pain intensity at movement significantly decreased from baseline (8.1 [1.1]) to all time points (PTapentadol improved Neck Disability Index scores from 55.6 (18.6) at baseline to 19.7 (20.9) at the final evaluation (PTapentadol significantly improved neck range of motion in all three planes of motion, particularly in lateral flexion. Quality of life significantly improved in all Short Form (36) Health Survey subscales (PTapentadol was well tolerated: no patients discontinued due to side effects. The use of other analgesics was reduced during the observed period. Our results suggest that tapentadol ER, started at 100 mg/day, is effective and well tolerated in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic neck pain, including opioid-naïve subjects. Patients can expect a decrease in pain, an improvement in neck function, and a decrease in neuropathic symptoms.
Full Text Available Domenico Billeci,1 Flaminia Coluzzi2 1Division of Neurosurgery, Ca’Foncello Hospital, University of Padova, Treviso, 2Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Unit of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine, and Pain Therapy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy Background: The role of opioids in the management of chronic neck pain is still poorly investigated. No data are available on tapentadol extended release (ER. In this article, we present 54 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic neck pain treated with tapentadol ER. Patients and methods: Patients received tapentadol ER 100 mg/day; dosage was then adjusted according to clinical needs. The following parameters were recorded: pain; Douleur Neuropathique 4 score; Neck Disability Index score; range of motion; pain-associated sleep interference; quality of life (Short Form  Health Survey; Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC; Clinician GIC; opioid-related adverse effects; and need for other analgesics. Results: A total of 44 of 54 patients completed the 12-week observation. Tapentadol ER daily doses increased from 100 mg/day to a mean (standard deviation dosage of 204.5 (102.8 mg/day at the final evaluation. Mean pain intensity at movement significantly decreased from baseline (8.1 [1.1] to all time points (P<0.01. At baseline, 70% of patients presented a positive neuropathic component. This percentage dropped to 23% after 12 weeks. Tapentadol improved Neck Disability Index scores from 55.6 (18.6 at baseline to 19.7 (20.9 at the final evaluation (P<0.01. Tapentadol significantly improved neck range of motion in all three planes of motion, particularly in lateral flexion. Quality of life significantly improved in all Short Form (36 Health Survey subscales (P<0.01 and in both physical and mental status (P<0.01. Based on PGIC results, approximately 90% of patients rated their overall condition as much/very much
Ayhan, Hatice; Tastan, Sevinc; Iyigün, Emine; Oztürk, Erkan; Yildiz, Ramazan; Görgülü, Semih
Although there are a limited number of studies showing effects of neck stretching exercises following a thyroidectomy in reducing neck discomfort symptoms, no study has specifically dealt with and examined the effect of neck stretching exercises on neck pain and disability. To analyze the effect of neck stretching exercises, following a total thyroidectomy, on reducing neck pain and disability. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. The participants were randomly assigned either to the stretching exercise group (n = 40) or to the control group (n = 40). The stretching exercise group learned the neck stretching exercises immediately after total thyroidectomy. The effects of the stretching exercises on the participants' neck pain and disability, neck sensitivity, pain with neck movements as well as on wound healing, were evaluated at the end of the first week and at 1 month following surgery. When comparing neck pain and disability scale (NPDS) scores, neck sensitivity and pain with neck movement before thyroidectomy, after 1 week and after 1-month time-points, it was found that patients experienced significantly less pain and disability in the stretching exercise group than the control group (p neck sensitivity scores (median [IR] = 0 [.75] vs. 2.00 [4.0]) and pain levels with neck movements (median [IR] = 0 [2.0] vs. 3.5 [5.75]) of the stretching exercise group were significantly lower than those of the control group. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the scores at the 1-month evaluation (p > .05). Neck stretching exercises done immediately after a total thyroidectomy reduce short-term neck pain and disability symptoms. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Billeci, Domenico; Coluzzi, Flaminia
Background The role of opioids in the management of chronic neck pain is still poorly investigated. No data are available on tapentadol extended release (ER). In this article, we present 54 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic neck pain treated with tapentadol ER. Patients and methods Patients received tapentadol ER 100 mg/day; dosage was then adjusted according to clinical needs. The following parameters were recorded: pain; Douleur Neuropathique 4 score; Neck Disability Index score; range of motion; pain-associated sleep interference; quality of life (Short Form  Health Survey); Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC); Clinician GIC; opioid-related adverse effects; and need for other analgesics. Results A total of 44 of 54 patients completed the 12-week observation. Tapentadol ER daily doses increased from 100 mg/day to a mean (standard deviation) dosage of 204.5 (102.8) mg/day at the final evaluation. Mean pain intensity at movement significantly decreased from baseline (8.1 [1.1]) to all time points (PNeck Disability Index scores from 55.6 (18.6) at baseline to 19.7 (20.9) at the final evaluation (Pneck range of motion in all three planes of motion, particularly in lateral flexion. Quality of life significantly improved in all Short Form (36) Health Survey subscales (Pneck pain, including opioid-naïve subjects. Patients can expect a decrease in pain, an improvement in neck function, and a decrease in neuropathic symptoms. PMID:28280384
Cohen, Steven P; Hooten, W Michael
Neck pain imposes a considerable personal and socioeconomic burden-it is one of the top five chronic pain conditions in terms of prevalence and years lost to disability-yet it receives a fraction of the research funding given to low back pain. Although most acute episodes resolve spontaneously, more than a third of affected people still have low grade symptoms or recurrences more than one year later, with genetics and psychosocial factors being risk factors for persistence. Nearly half of people with chronic neck pain have mixed neuropathic-nociceptive symptoms or predominantly neuropathic symptoms. Few clinical trials are dedicated solely to neck pain. Muscle relaxants and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are effective for acute neck pain, and clinical practice is mostly guided by the results of studies performed for other chronic pain conditions. Among complementary and alternative treatments, the strongest evidence is for exercise, with weaker evidence supporting massage, acupuncture, yoga, and spinal manipulation in different contexts. For cervical radiculopathy and facet arthropathy, weak evidence supports epidural steroid injections and radiofrequency denervation, respectively. Surgery is more effective than conservative treatment in the short term but not in the long term for most of these patients, and clinical observation is a reasonable strategy before surgery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Mostamand, J; Lotfi, H; Safi, N
Dentistry is one of the professions that requires a high degree of concentration during the treatment of patients. There are many predisposing factors, affecting dentists when working on the patient's teeth, including neck flexion, arm abduction and inflexible postural positions, which may put them at the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders related to the neck. Although dentists with long records of service show different levels of pain and discomfort in their necks, there is no evidence regarding whether younger dentists report neck pain before the onset of an abnormal condition in this region, including forward head posture (FHP). Discovering any alteration in the head posture of dentists might confirm one of the reasons for neck pain in this population. Forty one dentists with no neck pain and forty controls having jobs other than dentistry who had no risk factors related to head posture voluntarily participated in the present study. A standard method was used to measure the cervical curve in these two groups. There was no significant difference between the mean values of cervical curve in dentists and the control group (p > 0.05). There was also no significant difference between cervical curve values in dentists working for either 5-8 years or 8-12 years (p > 0.05). The only significant difference was observed in mean cervical curve values of men and women in the dentist group (p dentist group compared to controls might be due to absence of pain sensation in the dentists in the current study. In other words, this group might have not yet experienced sufficient change in head posture to experience significant pain in their neck region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Jinmo; Lee, Byoungkwon; Kim, Changbeom
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to conduct cervical stability training and upper thoracic manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain and then investigate the changes of cervical proprioception and pain. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 30 workers with mechanical neck pain, who were randomly divided into an upper thoracic manipulation group and a cervical stability training group. Upper thoracic manipulation after cervical stability training was conducted for the upper thorac...
Efficacy of movement control exercises versus general exercises on recurrent sub-acute nonspecific low back pain in a sub-group of patients with movement control dysfunction. protocol of a randomized controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Practice guidelines recommend various types of exercise for chronic back pain but there have been few head-to-head comparisons of these interventions. General exercise seems to be an effective option for management of chronic low back pain (LBP but very little is known about the management of a sub-acute LBP within sub-groups. Recent research has developed clinical tests to identify a subgroup of patients with chronic non-specific LBP who have movement control dysfunction (MD. Method/Design We are conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT to compare the effects of general exercise and specific movement control exercise (SMCE on disability and function in patients with MD within recurrent sub-acute LBP. The main outcome measure is the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Discussion European clinical guideline for management of chronic LBP recommends that more research is required to develop tools to improve the classification and identification of specific clinical sub-groups of chronic LBP patients. Good quality RCTs are then needed to determine the effectiveness of specific interventions aimed at these specific target groups. This RCT aims to test the hypothesis whether patients within a sub-group of MD benefit more through a specific individually tailored movement control exercise program than through general exercises.
Oh, Ji Youn; Lim, Jin Hun; Kim, Yong Seok; Kwon, Young Eun; Yu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jun Hak
Differential diagnosis of posterior neck pain is very challenging based on symptoms and physical examination only. Retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis is a rare and frequently misdiagnosed entity in various causes of neck pain. It results from calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the longus colli muscle which is characterized by severe neck pain, painful restriction of neck movement, dysphagia, and odynophagia. We herein report a case of a patient with acute retropharyngeal calcific tendinitis, who complained of posterior neck pain, initially diagnosed and treated as a myofascial neck pain syndrome.
Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Rippy; Yoon, Duck Mi; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Kim, Kiwook; Kim, Shin Hyung
Abstract Pain catastrophizing is becoming increasingly recognized as a clinically important psychological factor in chronic musculoskeletal pain. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we have identified factors associated with an increased risk for pain catastrophizing in chronic neck pain (CNP) patients. We obtained data from our medical database on 331 patients who were treated for neck pain as their chief complaint at our clinic. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was used to define a high pain catastrophizing state (PCS score ≥21) in this study. Patient demographics, pain-related factors, and psychological factors were evaluated with logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors of high pain catastrophizing among patients with CNP. A total of 256 patients with CNP satisfied the study inclusion criteria and were included in the analyses. The median PCS score was 16 (range, 0–45), and 86 of 256 patients (33.5%) reported a PCS score ≥21. In multivariate analysis, high pain intensity, clinical insomnia, and a high level of depression/anxiety were strongly associated with high pain catastrophizing in patients with CNP. Depression was the strongest predictor of high pain catastrophizing, with an odds ratio of 7.35 (95% confidence interval 2.23–24.22). High pain catastrophizing was not significantly related to age, gender, comorbidities, or neck pain-related physical symptoms. In conclusion, poor psychological states should be addressed as an important part of pain management in CNP patients who are susceptible to high pain catastrophizing. PMID:27631217
Full Text Available Abstract Chronic neck pain is widely prevalent and a common source of disability in the working-age population. Etiology of chronic neck pain includes neck sprain, mechanical or muscular neck pain, myofascial pain syndrome, postural neck pain as well as pain due to degenerative changes. We report the case of a 42 year old secretary, complaining about a longer history of neck pain and limited movement of the cervical spine. Surprisingly, the adequate radiologic examination revealed a bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament complex. Her symptoms remained intractable from conservative treatment consisting of anti-inflammatory medication as well as physical therapy. Hence the patient was admitted to surgical resection of the ossified stylohyoid ligament complex. Afterwards she was free of any complaints and went back to work. Therefore, ossification of the stylohyoid ligament complex causing severe neck pain and movement disorder should be regarded as a rare differential diagnosis of occupational related neck pain.
Paksaichol, Arpalak; Lawsirirat, Chaipat; Janwantanakul, Prawit
The etiology of nonspecific neck pain is widely accepted to be multifactorial. Each risk factor has not only direct effects on neck pain but may also exert effects indirectly through other risk factors. This study aimed to test this hypothesized model in office workers. A one-year prospective cohort study of 559 healthy office workers was conducted. At baseline, a self-administered questionnaire and standardized physical examination were employed to gather biopsychosocial data. Follow-up data were collected every month for the incidence of neck pain. A regression model was built to analyze factors predicting the onset of neck pain. Path analysis was performed to examine direct and indirect associations between identified risk factors and neck pain. The onset of neck pain was predicted by female gender, having a history of neck pain, monitor position not being level with the eyes, and frequently perceived muscular tension, of which perceived muscular tension was the strongest effector on the onset of neck pain. Gender, history of neck pain, and monitor height had indirect effects on neck pain that were mediated through perceived muscular tension. History of neck pain was the most influential effector on perceived muscular tension. The results of this study support the hypothesis that each risk factors may contribute to the development of neck pain both directly and indirectly. The combination of risk factors necessary to cause neck pain is likely occupation specific. Perceived muscular tension is hypothesized to be an early sign of musculoskeletal symptoms.
Uluğ, Naime; Yakut, Yavuz; Alemdaroğlu, İpek; Yılmaz, Öznur
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare patients with low back and neck pain with respect to kinesiophobia, pain, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Three-hundred patients with low back (mean age 43.2±11 years) and 300 with neck pain (mean age 42.8±10.2 years) were included in this study. Pain severity was evaluated by using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, which includes a Visual Analogue Scale, quality of life by the Nottingham Health Profile, and kinesiophobia by the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. [Results] Pain severity was similar in both groups, with a Visual Analogue Scale score of 6.7±2 in the low back pain and 6.8±2 in the neck pain group. Nottingham Health Profile pain [z=-4.132] and physical activity scores [z=-5.640] in the low back pain group were significantly higher. Kinesiophobia was also more severe in the low back pain group, with a mean 42.05±5.91 versus 39.7±6.0 Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia score [z=-4.732]. [Conclusion] Patients with low back pain developed more severe kinesiophobia, regardless of the pain severity, and had greater pain perception and lower physical activity levels. Kinesiophobia adversely affects the quality of life and requires effective management of low back pain.
Hartvigsen, Jan; Frederiksen, Henrik; Christensen, Kaare
Neck pain (NP) and back pain (BP) are common complaints in seniors yet specific information on these complaints is lacking in the scientific literature. We present cross-sectional interview data from the 2003 data collection within the population based Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins dealing with the 1-month prevalence of NP and BP and the intensity of possible pain. Further, we present the 1-year prevalence of NP and BP, duration of pain, influence of NP and BP on daily activities a...
Cost-effectiveness of an intensive group training protocol compared to physiotherapy guideline care for sub-acute and chronic low back pain: design of a randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation. [ISRCTN45641649].
van der Roer, Nicole; van Tulder, Maurits W; Barendse, Johanna M; van Mechelen, Willem; Franken, Willemien K; Ooms, Arjan C; de Vet, Henrica C W
Low back pain is a common disorder in western industrialised countries and the type of treatments for low back pain vary considerably. In a randomised controlled trial the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of an intensive group training protocol versus physiotherapy guideline care for sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients is evaluated. Patients with back pain for longer than 6 weeks who are referred to physiotherapy care by their general practitioner or medical specialist are included in the study. The intensive group training protocol combines exercise therapy with principles of behavioural therapy ("graded activity") and back school. This training protocol is compared to physiotherapy care according to the recently published Low Back Pain Guidelines of the Royal Dutch College for Physiotherapy. Primary outcome measures are general improvement, pain intensity, functional status, work absenteeism and quality of life. The direct and indirect costs will be assessed using cost diaries. Patients will complete questionnaires at baseline and 6, 13, 26 and 52 weeks after randomisation. No trials are yet available that have evaluated the effect of an intensive group training protocol including behavioural principles and back school in a primary physiotherapy care setting and no data on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility are available.
Cost-effectiveness of an intensive group training protocol compared to physiotherapy guideline care for sub-acute and chronic low back pain: design of a randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation. [ISRCTN45641649
Franken Willemien K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain is a common disorder in western industrialised countries and the type of treatments for low back pain vary considerably. Methods In a randomised controlled trial the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of an intensive group training protocol versus physiotherapy guideline care for sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients is evaluated. Patients with back pain for longer than 6 weeks who are referred to physiotherapy care by their general practitioner or medical specialist are included in the study. The intensive group training protocol combines exercise therapy with principles of behavioural therapy ("graded activity" and back school. This training protocol is compared to physiotherapy care according to the recently published Low Back Pain Guidelines of the Royal Dutch College for Physiotherapy. Primary outcome measures are general improvement, pain intensity, functional status, work absenteeism and quality of life. The direct and indirect costs will be assessed using cost diaries. Patients will complete questionnaires at baseline and 6, 13, 26 and 52 weeks after randomisation. Discussion No trials are yet available that have evaluated the effect of an intensive group training protocol including behavioural principles and back school in a primary physiotherapy care setting and no data on cost-effectiveness and cost-utility are available.
Nederhand, Marcus Johannes; Hermens, Hermanus J.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Turk, Dennis C.
Studies using surface electromyography have demonstrated a reorganization of muscle activation patterns of the neck and shoulder muscles in patients with posttraumatic neck pain disability. The neurophysiologically oriented "pain adaptation" model explains this reorganization as a useful adaptation
... Minute Massages per Week Offer Relief for Chronic Neck Pain Share: © Bob Stockfield Courtesy: National Center for Complementary ... fewer or shorter sessions for people with chronic neck pain, suggesting that several hour-long massages per week ...
Asha, Stephen Edward; Kerr, Andrew; Jones, Keryn; McAlpine, Ann
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of intra-muscular benztropine on pain and range of motion in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute, non-traumatic neck pain (wry neck). In this two-centre randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group superiority trial, participants were allocated to receive 2 mg intramuscular benztropine or normal saline. Participants were aged 16-65 years, no history of neck disorders and no use of medication that cause dystonia. Randomisation was computer generated, with allocation concealment by opaque sequentially numbered sealed envelopes. Pain scores and neck range of motion were measured immediately before drug administration, and 30 min after. Pain scores, range of motion and adverse effects were compared between the groups. No funding was received. The trial was registered. Thirty participants were enrolled, 15 randomised to placebo and 15 to benztropine. Pain scores at 30 min were lower in those allocated to benztropine, but the difference was neither statistically nor clinically significant (0.6 points, 95% CI -0.8 to 1.8, p=0.40). The range of motion of the cervical spine was greater in those receiving benztropine, but the differences were very small and not statistically significant. Adverse events were more common in those receiving benztropine. Benztropine was ineffective for reducing pain or improving range of motion of the cervical spine in patients suffering from acute, non-traumatic neck pain, but frequently caused anticholinergic side effects. However, as the CI for the primary outcome included the minimum difference considered clinically significant, an important effect of benztropine cannot be ruled out. ANZCTR#12612000354886. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Andersen, Christoffer Højnicke
Introduction Neck and shoulder pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots and a growing aero-medical concern. Unfortunately, previous intervention studies have been unsuccessful in relieving such pain within this occupational group. The aim of this study was to investigate if an exercise......” and 10 to “pain at worst”). Compliance was evaluated by training diary as mean training sessions completed per week, and by questionnaire on a six-step scale, 1) regular, 2-3 times a week, 2) less regular, 1-2 times a week, 3) irregular, but > 4 times a month, 4) very irregular, 2-3 times a month, 5...... intervention could reduce the high prevalence of neck pain among fighter pilots. Methods F-16 pilots were randomized in a controlled intervention trial, to either an exercise-training-group (ET, n=27) or reference-group (REF, n=28). ET underwent 24 weeks of strength, endurance, and coordination training, 3...
Nagai, Takashi; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Clark, Nicholas C; Smalley, Brian W; Wirt, Michael D; Lephart, Scott M
Neck pain (NP) is common among military helicopter pilots. Older age and more flight-hours have been associated with pilots with a history of NP. However, modifiable neuromuscular and musculoskeletal characteristics such as neck proprioception, strength, flexibility, and posture have rarely been investigated in military helicopter pilots with a history of NP. The purpose of the study was to compare demographics, flight characteristics, physical fitness information, neck proprioception, strength, flexibility, and posture between helicopter pilots with and without a history of NP. A total of 27 Army helicopter pilots with NP in the past 12 mo (pain group) were matched based on age with pilots without a history of NP (nonpain group). All pilots had flown at least 100 h in the past 12 mo and were cleared for flight and physical training. All pilots completed a battery of laboratory testing: neck proprioception, neck and scapular muscular strength, neck active range-of-motion (ROM), forward head and shoulder posture, and pectoralis minor length. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon tests were used to compare differences between groups. The pain group had significantly less cervical extension (63.7 +/- 8.5 degrees) and rotation ROM (R rotation: 67.7 +/- 8.8 degrees; L rotation: 67.4 +/- 9.0 degrees) when compared to the nonpain group (extension: 68.3 +/- 7.4 degrees; R rotation: 73.4 +/- 7.4 degrees; L rotation: 72.9 +/- 6.8 degrees). No significant differences were found for other variables. The results demonstrate less neck active ROM in pilots with a history of NP. Operating a helicopter with limited neck ROM or NP may negatively impact flight safety and force readiness. Continued research is warranted.
Wilson, Caroline A; Sommerfield, David; Drake-Brockman, Thomas F E; von Bieberstein, Lita; Ramgolam, Anoop; von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta S
It is well established that children experience significant pain for a considerable period following adenotonsillectomy. Less is known, however, about pain following other common head and neck operations. The aim of this study was to describe the severity and duration of postoperative pain experienced by children undergoing elective head and neck procedures (primary outcomes). Behavioral disturbance, nausea and vomiting, parental satisfaction, and medical reattendance rates were also measured (secondary outcomes). Parents of children (0-18 years) undergoing common head and neck operations were invited to participate. Pain scores on the day of surgery and each day post discharge were collected via multiple telephone interviews. Data collected included pain levels, analgesia prescribed and given, behavioral disturbance rates, and nausea and vomiting scores. Follow-up was continued until pain resolved. Two hundred and fifty-one patients were analyzed (50 adenoidectomy, 51 adenotonsillectomy, 19 myringoplasty, 52 myringotomy, 43 strabismus, and 36 tongue tie divisions). On the day of surgery myringoplasty, strabismus surgery, and adenotonsillectomy patients on average had moderate pain, whereas adenoidectomy, tongue tie, and myringotomy patients had mild pain. Adenotonsillectomy patients continued to have moderate pain for several days with pain lasting on average 9 days. From day 1 postoperatively mild pain was experienced in the other surgical groups with the average duration of pain varying from 1 to 3 days depending on the surgery performed. Frequency of behavioral issues closely followed pain scores for each group. Analgesic prescribing and regimes at home varied widely, both within and between the different surgical groups. Rates of nausea and vomiting following discharge were low in all groups. The overall unplanned medical reattendance rate was 16%. Adenotonsillectomy patients represent the biggest challenge in postoperative pain management of the head and neck
Full Text Available Background. Neck pain (NP is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI, and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P>0.05. One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P>0.05. The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS.
Fener, Dilay Kesgin; Bartels, Else Marie; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring
Scope: Chronic neck pain (CNP) is a disabling condition where the cause is often unknown, making treatment difficult. Muscle involvement is suspected in most cases, and assessment of muscle condition and changes following treatment may be possible with multi-frequency bioimpedance (mfBIA). Our aim...... involvement in chronic neck pain patients. AtlasBalans treatment did not show any clear indication as being an efficient form of treatment to relieve muscle tension in CNP patients....... was to test mfBIA as an assessment method of possible involvement of the neck, back and other related muscles in two CNP patients, prior to and following physiotherapy treatment with AtlasBalans. Methods: mfBIA measurements were carried out pre-treatment on m. sternocleidomastoideus, m. trapezius, upper back...
de Loose, Veerle; van den Oord, Marieke; Burnotte, Frédéric; van Tiggelen, Damien; Stevens, Veerle; Cagnie, Barbara; Witvrouw, Erik; Danneels, Lieven
INTRODUCTION: Neck pain is a common problem in F-16 pilots. A cross-sectional survey was used to determine the self-reported 1-yr prevalence of neck pain and to compare individual, work-related, and flight-related characteristics in F-16 pilots with and without neck pain. METHOD: There were 90 male
The aim of this thesis is to determine which work related physical and psychosocial risk factors exist which cause neck pain and absenteeism because of neck pain. There is some evidence for a positive relationship between he duration of sedentary posture at work and neck pain, and between twisting
Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM, conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173 were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal, and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9° (95% CI; 12.2–15.6 for the WAD group, 17.9° (95% CI; 16.1–19.6 for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9° (95% CI; 23.7–28.1 for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a
Ruhe, Alexander; Fejer, René; Walker, Bruce
Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients with non-specific neck pain. While a linear relationship between pain intensity and postural sway has been described in low back pain patients, no such investigation has been conducted in adults with non-specific neck pain....
van den Oord, Marieke H. A. H.; de Loose, Veerle; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Introduction: Neck pain in military helicopter pilots and rear aircrew is an occupational health problem that may interfere with flying performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in the physical abilities of the cervical spines of helicopter pilots and rear
Lange, Britt; Toft, Palle; Myburgh, Corrie
: To explore in Danish F-16 pilots: (1) the effect on neck and shoulder pain of a 24-week training intervention including targeted training of the deep neck muscles; (2) selected clinical signs and symptoms at baseline; (3) the prevalence and intensity of neck and shoulder pain.......: To explore in Danish F-16 pilots: (1) the effect on neck and shoulder pain of a 24-week training intervention including targeted training of the deep neck muscles; (2) selected clinical signs and symptoms at baseline; (3) the prevalence and intensity of neck and shoulder pain....
Lauche, Romy; Stumpe, Christoph; Fehr, Johannes; Cramer, Holger; Cheng, Ying Wu; Wayne, Peter M; Rampp, Thomas; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav
This study aimed to test the efficacy of Tai Chi for treating chronic neck pain. Subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of group Tai Chi or conventional neck exercises with weekly sessions of 75 to 90 minutes, or a wait-list control. The primary outcome measure was pain intensity (visual analogue scale). Secondary outcomes included pain on movement, functional disability, quality of life, well-being and perceived stress, postural and interoceptive awareness, satisfaction, and safety. Altogether, 114 participants were included (91 women, 49.4 ± 11.7 years of age). After 12 weeks Tai Chi participants reported significantly less pain compared with the wait list group (average difference in mm on the visual analogue scale: -10.5; 95% confidence interval, -20.3 to -.9; P = .033). Group differences were also found for pain on movement, functional disability, and quality of life compared with the wait list group. No differences were found for Tai Chi compared with neck exercises. Patients' satisfaction with both exercise interventions was high, and only minor side effects were observed. Tai Chi was more effective than no treatment in improving pain in subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain. Because Tai Chi is probably as effective as neck exercises it may be considered a suitable alternative to conventional exercises for those with a preference toward Tai Chi. This article presents results of a randomized controlled trial comparing Tai Chi, conventional neck exercises, and no treatment for chronic nonspecific neck pain. Results indicate that Tai Chi exercises and conventional neck exercises are equally effective in improving pain and quality of life therefore representing beneficial interventions for neck pain. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Muñoz-Muñoz, Sonsoles; Muñoz-García, María T; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César
The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of active myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in a greater number of muscles than previous studies and the relation between the presence of MTrPs, the intensity of pain, disability, and sleep quality in mechanical neck pain. Fifteen patients with mechanical neck pain (80% women) and 12 comparable controls participated. Myofascial trigger points were bilaterally explored in the upper trapezius, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis, sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae, and scalene muscles in a blinded design. Myofascial trigger points were considered active if the subject recognized the elicited referred pain as a familiar symptom. Myofascial trigger points were considered latent if the elicited referred pain was not recognized as a symptom. Pain was collected with a numerical pain rate scale (0-10); disability was assessed with Neck Disability Index; and sleep quality, with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Patients exhibited a greater disability and worse sleep quality than controls (P active MTrPs (mean, 2 ± 2) and similar number (P = .505) of latent MTrPs (1.6 ± 1.4) than controls (latent MTrPs, 1.3 ± 1.4). No significant association between the number of latent or active MTrPs and pain, disability, or sleep quality was found. The referred pain elicited by active MTrPs in the neck and shoulder muscles contributed to symptoms in mechanical neck pain. Patients exhibited higher disability and worse sleep quality than controls. Sleep quality was associated with pain intensity and disability. No association between active MTrPs and the intensity of pain, disability, or sleep quality was found. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Langevin, Pierre; Peloso, Paul Michael J; Lowcock, Janet; Nolan, May; Weber, Jeff; Gross, Anita; Roberts, John; Goldsmith, Charles H; Graham, Nadine; Burnie, Stephen J; Haines, Ted
Neck disorders are common, disabling and costly. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) intramuscular injections are often used with the intention of treating neck pain. To systematically evaluate the literature on the treatment effectiveness of BoNT for neck pain, disability, global perceived effect and quality of life in adults with neck pain with or without associated cervicogenic headache, but excluding cervical radiculopathy and whiplash associated disorder. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, AMED, Index to Chiropractic Literature, CINAHL, LILACS, and EMBASE from their origin to 20 September 2010. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials in which BoNT injections were used to treat subacute or chronic neck pain. A minimum of two review authors independently selected articles, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias, using the Cochrane Back Review Group criteria. In the absence of clinical heterogeneity, we calculated standardized mean differences (SMD) and relative risks, and performed meta-analyses using a random-effects model. The quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations were assigned an overall grade for each outcome. We included nine trials (503 participants). Only BoNT type A (BoNT-A) was used in these studies.High quality evidence suggests there was little or no difference in pain between BoNT-A and saline injections at four weeks (five trials; 252 participants; SMD pooled -0.07 (95% confidence intervals (CI) -0.36 to 0.21)) and six months for chronic neck pain. Very low quality evidence indicated little or no difference in pain between BoNT-A combined with physiotherapeutic exercise and analgesics and saline injection with physiotherapeutic exercise and analgesics for patients with chronic neck pain at four weeks (two trials; 95 participants; SMD pooled 0.09 (95% CI -0.55 to 0.73)) and six months (one trial; 24 participants; SMD -0.56 (95% CI -1.39 to 0.27)). Very low quality evidence from one trial (32 participants) showed little
Walton, David M; Kwok, Timothy S H; Mehta, Swati
OBJECTIVE: To determine pressure pain detection threshold (PPDT) related phenotypes of individuals with mechanical neck pain that may be identifiable in clinical practice. METHODS: This report describes a secondary analysis of 5 independent, international mechanical neck pain databases of PPDT...... below the mean. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that there are a large proportion of people with neck pain that present with signs indicating dysfunction beyond the local tissues. Ongoing exploration of these presentations may lead to more informed management and improved outcomes....
Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Simons, David; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Pareja, Juan
Neck and head pain syndromes are common problems seen in clinical practice. Pain features of commonly designated idiopathic neck pain and some primary headaches (ie, tension-type headache or migraine) fit the descriptions of referred pain originating in muscle trigger points (TrPs). This article discusses the scientific evidence supporting the role of muscle TrPs in chronic musculo-skeletal disorders of the neck and head. The relevance of referred pain elicited by muscle TrPs in patients with neck pain has been investigated in few studies. Some authors found that both muscle TrPs in neck-shoulder muscles and cervical joint dysfunctions contribute at the same time to neck pain perception. Furthermore, it seems that referred pain originated in muscle TrPs could also contribute to neck symptoms perceived by subjects after a rear-end crash. In addition, several recent studies reported that both TTH and migraine are associated with referred pain from TrPs in the suboccipital, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, temporalis, or superior oblique muscles. Referred pain elicited by active TrPs mimics the pain areas observed during head pain attacks in these primary headaches. Based on available data, it seems that the pain profile of neck and head syndromes may be provoked referred pain from TrPs in the posterior cervical, head, and shoulder muscles. Additional studies are needed to delineate more information on the relation between muscle TrPs and musculoskeletal pain syndromes of the head and neck.
Reneman, M F; Roelofs, M; Schiphorst Preuper, H R
To analyze test-retest reliability and agreement, and to explore the safety of neck functional capacity evaluation (Neck-FCE) tests in patients with chronic multifactorial neck pain. Test-retest; 2 FCE sessions were held with a 2-week interval. University-based outpatient rehabilitation center. Individuals (N=18; 14 women) with a mean age of 34 years. Not applicable. The Neck-FCE protocol consists of 6 tests: lifting waist to overhead (kg), 2-handed carrying (kg), overhead working (s), bending and overhead reaching (s), and repetitive side reaching (left and right) (s). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and limits of agreement (LoA) were calculated. ICC point estimates between .75 and .90 were considered as good, and >.90 were considered as excellent reliability. ICC point estimates ranged between .39 and .96. Ratios of the LoA ranged between 32.0% and 56.5%. Mean ± SD numeric rating scale pain scores in the neck and shoulder 24 hours after the test were 6.7±2.6 and 6.3±3.0, respectively. Based on ICC point estimates and 95% confidence intervals, 3 tests had excellent reliability and 3 had poor reliability. LoA were substantial in all 6 tests. Safety was confirmed. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arslan, Müzeyyen; Gökgöz, Nurcan; Dane, Şenol
Wet cupping therapy (WCT) is a traditional complementary method recommended to decrease the symptoms of a lot of diseases and used in the treatment of pain syndromes. In this pilot study, the possible effects of wet cupping therapy on nonspecific neck and upper shoulder pain were investigated. Sixty one eligible volunteer participants with nonspecific neck and upper shoulder pain for at least 3 months were allocated. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was used to assess pain scores. Pain scores were recorded before and after wet cupping therapy. The mean scores of neck pain in study group were 7.02 (SD = 1.8) before and 3.70 (SD = 2.2) after cupping therapy. The decrease of pain scores between pre- and post-test was statistically significant (p < 0.05). It can be stated that WCT has potential therapeutic effect in nonspecific neck and upper shoulder pain. Future full-scale randomized controlled trials will be needed to provide firm evidence of the effectiveness of this intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fishbain, David A.; Cutler, R. B.; Cole, Brandly; Lewis, J.; Smets, E.; Rosomoff, H. L.; Rosomoff, R. Steele
The objectives of this study were the following: to determine if fatigue is present in chronic low back pain (LBP) and chronic neck pain patients to a greater extent than in controls (nonpatients); to determine which variables are associated with the presence of fatigue; and to determine which of
Jorritsma, Wim; de Vries, Grietje E; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Reneman, Michiel F
To investigate the validity of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale Dutch Language Version (NPAD-DLV) and the Neck Disability Index (NDI)-DLV. NPAD-DLV, NDI-DLV, Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36)-DLV, visual analog scale (VAS)(pain) and VAS(disability) were administered to 112 patients with non-specific chronic neck pain in an outpatient tertiary rehabilitation setting. Twenty seven hypotheses were formulated regarding validity. NPAD-DLV and NDI-DLV were evaluated for content validity (normal distribution total scores, missing items, floor and ceiling effects), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and Spearman Item-total correlations), construct validity (Pearson correlations with SF-36 domains, VAS(pain) and VAS(disability) and Pearson correlation between total scores of NPAD-DLV and NDI-DLV). NPAD-DLV and NDI-DLV scores were distributed normally. Missing items were negligible. Floor and ceiling effects were absent in NPAD-DLV and in NDI-DLV two items had floor effects and one item had a ceiling effect. Cronbach's alpha of NPAD-DLV was 0.93 and of NDI-DLV 0.83. Item-total correlations ranged for NPAD-DLV from 0.45 to 0.73 and for NDI-DLV from 0.40 to 0.64. The correlation between, respectively, NPAD-DLV and NDI-DLV and: SF-36 domains ranged from -0.36 to -0.70 and from -0.34 to -0.63; VAS(pain) was 0.54 and 0.43; VAS(disability) was 0.57 and 0.52. The correlation between the total scores of NPAD-DLV and NDI-DLV was 0.77. Twenty six hypotheses were not rejected and one hypothesis was rejected. The NPAD-DLV and NDI-DLV are valid measures of self-reported neck-pain related disability.
Larsen Anders H
Full Text Available Abstract Chronic pain and psychosocial distress are generally thought to be associated in chronic musculoskeletal disorders such as non-specific neck pain. However, it is unclear whether a raised level of anxiety is necessarily a feature of longstanding, intense pain amongst patient and general population sub-groups. In a cohort of 70 self-selected female, non-specific neck pain sufferers, we observed relatively high levels of self-reported pain of 4.46 (measured on the 11 point numerical pain rating scale (NRS-101 and a longstanding duration of symptoms (156 days/year. However, the mean anxiety scores observed (5.49, fell well below the clinically relevant threshold of 21 required by the Beck Anxiety Inventory. The cohort was stratified to further distinguish individuals with higher pain intensity (NRS>6 and longer symptom duration (>90 days. Although a highly statistically significant difference (p = 0.000 was subsequently observed with respect to pain intensity, in the resulting sub-groups, none such a difference was noted with respect to anxiety levels. Our results indicate that chronic, intense pain and anxiety do not always appear to be related. Explanations for these findings may include that anxiety is not triggered in socially functional individuals, that individual coping strategies have come into play or in some instances that a psychological disorder like alexithymia could be a confounder. More studies are needed to clarify the specific role of anxiety in chronic non-specific musculoskeletal pain before general evidence-driven clinical extrapolations can be made.
Gerster, Mette; Grimstrup, S; Lassen, C F
BACKGROUND: Computer use may have an adverse effect on musculoskeletal outcomes. This study assessed the risk of neck and shoulder pain associated with objectively recorded professional computer use. METHODS: A computer programme was used to collect data on mouse and keyboard usage and weekly...... not influence reports of acute or prolonged pain. A few psychosocial factors predicted the risk of prolonged pain. CONCLUSIONS: Most computer workers have no or minor neck and shoulder pain, few experience prolonged pain, and even fewer, chronic neck and shoulder pain. Moreover, there seems...... followed by three consecutive weeks with a high pain score); and (3) chronic pain (reported pain or discomfort lasting more than 30 days and "quite a lot of trouble" during the past 12 months). RESULTS: Risk for acute neck pain and shoulder pain increased linearly by 4% and 10%, respectively, for each...
Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p < 0.01). However, the risk of failure in unilateral stance was statistically elevated in cleaners with concurrent neck/low back pain compared to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p < 0.01), whereas pain at only neck or only low back did not increase the risk. Impaired postural balance, measured as CEA (p < 0.01), rambling (p < 0.05) and trembling (p < 0.05) was observed among cleaners with neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850 PMID:21806796
Jørgensen, Marie B; Skotte, Jørgen H; Holtermann, Andreas; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Petersen, Nicolas C; Søgaard, Karen
Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85) and without (N = 109) neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling) and fast (trembling) component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA) was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. More cleaners with neck pain (81%) failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61%) (p < 0.01). However, the risk of failure in unilateral stance was statistically elevated in cleaners with concurrent neck/low back pain compared to cleaners without neck/low back pain (p < 0.01), whereas pain at only neck or only low back did not increase the risk. Impaired postural balance, measured as CEA (p < 0.01), rambling (p < 0.05) and trembling (p < 0.05) was observed among cleaners with neck pain in comparison with cleaners without neck pain in the Romberg position with eyes closed, but not with eyes open. Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. ISRCTN96241850.
Background Reaching overhead and reading are tasks that many individuals encounter daily. The level of difficulty of these tasks increases if an individual has neck pain. This study determined the neck movement patterns during these two tasks by comparing neck flexion of individuals with and without neck pain. Methods This case control study used the portable video technology, Dartfish ProSuite 5.5 Video Software, to analyse neck flexion movement patterns. Healthy individuals and individuals with neck pain were videotaped while they completed two tasks: reaching overhead from a standing position and reading from a sitting position. A single position of interest was selected for analysis from both tasks. The degree of neck flexion presented by the participant in this position at the beginning and end of the task was recorded. The angle change between these two time points was calculated for each participant. Differences between groups were determined by comparing the average flexion angle changes in groups by t-tests. Results The average angle change experienced by controls and neck pain participants during the overhead reaching tasks were very similar and a significant difference was not observed. The average angle changes experienced by the two groups during the reading task were more variable, but not significantly different. A t-test comparing average neck flexion angle change during dominant arm elevation for controls (m = −5.28˚, sd = 31.14) and neck pain participants (m = 5.07˚, sd = 32.41) revealed a mean between group difference of −10.34˚ (t17 = −0.688, p = 0.5003). The average neck flexion angle change during long neck flexion was not statistically different between controls (m = 10.08˚, sd = 18.89) and neck pain participants (m = 4˚, sd = 18.18); although the mean between group difference was 6.08˚ (t17 = 0.6856, p = 0.5022). Conclusions Task performance is highly variable between individuals
Constand, Marissa K; MacDermid, Joy C
Reaching overhead and reading are tasks that many individuals encounter daily. The level of difficulty of these tasks increases if an individual has neck pain. This study determined the neck movement patterns during these two tasks by comparing neck flexion of individuals with and without neck pain. This case control study used the portable video technology, Dartfish ProSuite 5.5 Video Software, to analyse neck flexion movement patterns. Healthy individuals and individuals with neck pain were videotaped while they completed two tasks: reaching overhead from a standing position and reading from a sitting position. A single position of interest was selected for analysis from both tasks. The degree of neck flexion presented by the participant in this position at the beginning and end of the task was recorded. The angle change between these two time points was calculated for each participant. Differences between groups were determined by comparing the average flexion angle changes in groups by t-tests. The average angle change experienced by controls and neck pain participants during the overhead reaching tasks were very similar and a significant difference was not observed. The average angle changes experienced by the two groups during the reading task were more variable, but not significantly different. A t-test comparing average neck flexion angle change during dominant arm elevation for controls (m = -5.28˚, sd = 31.14) and neck pain participants (m = 5.07˚, sd = 32.41) revealed a mean between group difference of -10.34˚ (t17 = -0.688, p = 0.5003). The average neck flexion angle change during long neck flexion was not statistically different between controls (m = 10.08˚, sd = 18.89) and neck pain participants (m = 4˚, sd = 18.18); although the mean between group difference was 6.08˚ (t17 = 0.6856, p = 0.5022). Task performance is highly variable between individuals making it difficult to assess the impact of
Lehtola, Vesa; Luomajoki, Hannu; Leinonen, Ville; Gibbons, Sean; Airaksinen, Olavi
Clinical guidelines recommend research on sub-groups of patients with low back pain (LBP) but, to date, only few studies have been published. One sub-group of LBP is movement control impairment (MCI) and clinical tests to identify this sub-group have been developed. Also, exercises appear to be beneficial for the management of chronic LBP (CLBP), but very little is known about the management of sub-acute LBP. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to compare the effects of general exercise versus specific movement control exercise (SMCE) on disability and function in patients with MCI within the recurrent sub-acute LBP group. Participants having a MCI attended five treatment sessions of either specific or general exercises. In both groups a short application of manual therapy was applied. The primary outcome was disability, assessed by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). The measurements were taken at baseline, immediately after the three months intervention and at twelve-month follow-up. Seventy patients met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for the trial. Measurements of 61 patients (SMCE n = 30 and general exercise n = 31) were completed at twelve months. (Drop-out rate 12.9 %). Patients in both groups reported significantly less disability (RMDQ) at twelve months follow-up. However, the mean change on the RMDQ between baseline and the twelve-month measurement showed statistically significantly superior improvement for the SMCE group -1.9 points (-3.9 to -0.5) 95 % (CI). The result did not reach the clinically significant three point difference. There was no statistical difference between the groups measured with Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). For subjects with non-specific recurrent sub-acute LBP and MCI an intervention consisting of SMCE and manual therapy combined may be superior to general exercise combined with manual therapy. The study protocol registration number is ISRCTN48684087 . It was registered
Andersen, Christoffer H; Andersen, Lars Louis; Pedersen, Mogens T
Specific strength training is shown relieves neck pain in office workers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of specific strength training in women with severe neck pain and to analyze the dose-response relationship between training adherence and pain reduction. 118...... untrained women with severe neck pain (>30 mm VAS pain) were included from a larger study, in which the subjects were randomized to 20-weeks specific strength training for the neck/shoulders or to a control group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the training group experienced greater pain relief than...
Tunwattanapong, Punjama; Kongkasuwan, Ratcharin; Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai
To determine the effectiveness of neck and shoulder stretching exercises for relief neck pain among office workers. Randomized controlled trial. An outpatient setting. A total of 96 subjects with moderate-to-severe neck pain (visual analogue score ⩾5/10) for ⩾3 months. All participants received an informative brochure indicating the proper position and ergonomics to be applied during daily work. The treatment group received the additional instruction to perform neck and around shoulder stretching exercises two times/day, five days/week during four weeks. Pain, neck functions, and quality of life were evaluated at baseline and week 4 using pain visual analogue scale, Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire, and Short Form-36, respectively. Both groups had comparable baseline data. All outcomes were improved significantly from baseline. When compared between groups, the magnitude of improvement was significantly greater in the treatment group than in the control group (-1.4; 95% CI: -2.2, -0.7 for visual analogue scale; -4.8; 95% CI: -9.3, -0.4 for Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire; and 14.0; 95% CI: 7.1, 20.9 for physical dimension of the Short Form-36). Compared with the patients who performed exercises <3 times/week, those who exercised ⩾3 times/week yielded significantly greater improvement in neck function and physical dimension of quality of life scores (p = 0.005 and p = 0.018, respectively). A regular stretching exercise program performed for four weeks can decrease neck and shoulder pain and improve neck function and quality of life for office workers who have chronic moderate-to-severe neck or shoulder pain. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Kapreli, Eleni; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Oldham, Jacqueline
Chronic neck pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal pain conditions experienced by many people during their lives. Although patients with neck pain are managed predominantly as musculoskeletal patients, there are indications that they also have poor pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to examine whether patients with chronic neck pain have spirometric abnormalities and whether neck pain problems and psychological states are associated with these abnormalities. Forty-five participants with chronic neck pain and 45 well-matched healthy controls were recruited. Spirometry was used to assess participants' pulmonary function. Neck muscle strength, endurance of deep neck flexors, cervical range of motion, forward head posture, psychological states, disability, and pain intensity were also evaluated. The results showed that patients with chronic neck pain yielded significantly reduced vital capacity, FVC, expiratory reserve volume, and maximum voluntary ventilation (P .05). Strength of neck muscles, pain intensity, and kinesiophobia were found to be significantly correlated (r > 0.3, P < .05) with respiratory function. Patients with chronic neck pain do not have optimal pulmonary function. Cervical spine muscle dysfunction in parallel with pain intensity and kinesiophobia are factors that are associated mainly with this respiratory dysfunction.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-specific low back pain is a common cause for consultation with the general practitioner, generating increased health and social costs. This study will analyse the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary intervention to reduce disability, severity of pain, anxiety and depression, to improve quality of life and to reduce the incidence of chronic low back pain in the working population with non-specific low back pain, compared to usual clinical care. Methods/Design A Cluster randomised clinical trial will be conducted in 38 Primary Health Care Centres located in Barcelona, Spain and its surrounding areas. The centres are randomly allocated to the multidisciplinary intervention or to usual clinical care. Patients between 18 and 65 years old (n = 932; 466 per arm and with a diagnostic of a non-specific sub-acute low back pain are included. Patients in the intervention group are receiving the recommendations of clinical practice guidelines, in addition to a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary intervention consisting of group educational sessions lasting a total of 10 hours. The main outcome is change in the score in the Roland Morris disability questionnaire at three months after onset of pain. Other outcomes are severity of pain, quality of life, duration of current non-specific low back pain episode, work sick leave and duration, Fear Avoidance Beliefs and Goldberg Questionnaires. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. Analysis will be by intention to treat. The intervention effect will be assessed through the standard error of measurement and the effect-size. Responsiveness of each scale will be evaluated by standardised response mean and receiver-operating characteristic method. Recovery according to the patient will be used as an external criterion. A multilevel regression will be performed on repeated measures. The time until the current episode of low back pain takes to subside will be analysed by Cox
Andersen, Lars L; Hansen, Klaus; Mortensen, Ole S
Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults...... with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain....
Ahmed, Julian; Blakeley, Chris; Sakar, Ramy; Aktar, Khalida; Hashemi, Kambiz
Subarachnoid haemorrhage can be a massively debilitating condition with long‐term repercussions. The “classic” presentation of sudden‐onset severe headache normally raises suspicions. However, if the presentation is atypical, the diagnosis may be missed. We report on a 52‐year‐old man who presented with a 1‐day history of progressively worsening right‐sided neck pain spreading to the chest with associated symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. After initial stabilisation, the patient's Glasgow Co...
Jørgensen, René; Ris, Inge; Juhl, Carsten
BACKGROUND: Responsiveness of a clinical test is highly relevant in order to evaluate the effect of a given intervention. However, the responsiveness of clinical tests for people with neck pain has not been adequately evaluated. The objective of the present study was to examine the responsiveness...... of four clinical tests which are low cost and easy to perform in a clinical setting, including the craniocervical flexion test, cervical active range of movement, test for the cervical extensors and pressure pain threshold testing. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected...... in a previously published randomised controlled trial. Participants were randomized to either physical training, exercises and pain education combined or pain education only. Participants were tested on the clinical tests at baseline and at 4-month follow-up. An anchor-based approach using Receiver Operator...
Saavedra-Hernández, Manuel; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida M; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Cleland, Joshua A; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel
The influence of physical and psychosocial variables on self-rated disability in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain has not been fully determined. This study examined the relationship of pain, physical impairment, and pain-related fear to disability in individuals with chronic mechanical neck pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Ninety-seven (n = 97) subjects (28 men, 69 women; mean age, 39.3 yrs) with chronic mechanical neck pain were prospectively recruited. Demographic information, duration of pain symptoms, pain intensity, pain-related fear, and cervical range of motion were collected on all subjects. Self-reported disability was measured with the Neck Disability Index. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to determine the association among the variables and to determine the proportions of explained variance in disability. Significant positive correlations existed between disability and previous history of neck pain (r = 0.45; P pain intensity (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), and disability and kinesiophobia (r = 0.23, P = 0.02). In addition, a significant negative correlation existed between disability and cervical extension range of motion (r = -0.18, P = 0.04). Stepwise regression analyses revealed that previous neck pain episodes, intensity of neck pain, kinesiophobia, and cervical extension range of motion were significant predictors of disability (r = 0.400; r adjusted = 0.372; F = 14.64; P neck pain, pain intensity, pain-related fear, and cervical extension range of motion explained 37.2% of the variability of self-report disability. Future longitudinal studies will help to determine the clinical implications of these findings.
Michael D Freeman
Full Text Available The authors undertook a case-control study of chronic neck pain and whiplash injuries in nine states in the United States to determine whether whiplash injuries contributed significantly to the population of individuals with chronic neck and other spine pain.
Yang, Jinmo; Lee, Byoungkwon; Kim, Changbeom
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to conduct cervical stability training and upper thoracic manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain and then investigate the changes of cervical proprioception and pain. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 30 workers with mechanical neck pain, who were randomly divided into an upper thoracic manipulation group and a cervical stability training group. Upper thoracic manipulation after cervical stability training was conducted for the upper thoracic manipulation group, and only stability training was conducted for the cervical stability training group. The intervention period was six weeks, and consisted of three sessions a week, each of which lasted for 30 minutes. For proprioception measurement, an electro-goniometer was used to measure reposition sense before and after the intervention. The visual analogue scale was used to assess pain. [Results] After the intervention, the error angle was significantly smaller in flexion and right left side-bending, and pain was significantly reduced in the upper thoracic manipulation group. According to the post intervention comparison of the two groups, there were significant differences in the proprioception and pain values. [Conclusion] Conducting both cervical stability training and upper thoracic manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain was more helpful for the improvement of proprioception and pain than cervical stability training alone.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the literature there are discussions on the choice of outcome and the need for more longitudinal studies of musculoskeletal disorders. The general aim of this longitudinal study was to analyze musculoskeletal neck pain, in a group of young adults. Specific aims were to determine whether psychosocial factors, computer use, high work/study demands, and lifestyle are long-term or short-term factors for musculoskeletal neck pain, and whether these factors are important for developing or ongoing musculoskeletal neck pain. Methods Three regression models were used to analyze the different outcomes. Pain at present was analyzed with a marginal logistic model, for number of years with pain a Poisson regression model was used and for developing and ongoing pain a logistic model was used. Presented results are odds ratios and proportion ratios (logistic models and rate ratios (Poisson model. The material consisted of web-based questionnaires answered by 1204 Swedish university students from a prospective cohort recruited in 2002. Results Perceived stress was a risk factor for pain at present (PR = 1.6, for developing pain (PR = 1.7 and for number of years with pain (RR = 1.3. High work/study demands was associated with pain at present (PR = 1.6; and with number of years with pain when the demands negatively affect home life (RR = 1.3. Computer use pattern (number of times/week with a computer session ≥ 4 h, without break was a risk factor for developing pain (PR = 1.7, but also associated with pain at present (PR = 1.4 and number of years with pain (RR = 1.2. Among life style factors smoking (PR = 1.8 was found to be associated to pain at present. The difference between men and women in prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was confirmed in this study. It was smallest for the outcome ongoing pain (PR = 1.4 compared to pain at present (PR = 2.4 and developing pain (PR = 2.5. Conclusion By using different regression models different
Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi
Conclusion: Our study highlighted the high burden of chronic pain after therapy for major head and neck tumors. We identified demographic and clinical factors that are associated with the presence of chronic pain. Further studies are required to better understand the risk factors to implement strategies to prevent, alleviate, and treat chronic pain associated with major head and neck tumor therapies.
Full Text Available Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS refers to pain attributed to muscle and its surrounding fascia, which is associated with ′′myofascial trigger points′′ (MTrPs. MTrPs in the trapezius has been proposed as the main cause of temporal and cervicogenic headache and neck pain. Literature shows that the prevalence of various musculoskeletal disorders (MSD among physiotherapists is high. Yoga has traditionally been used to treat MSDs in various populations. But there is scarcity of literature which explains the effects of yoga on reducing MPS of the neck in terms of various physical parameters and subjective responses. Therefore, a pilot study was done among eight physiotherapists with minimum six months of experience. A structured yoga protocol was designed and implemented for five days in a week for four weeks. The outcome variables were Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hands (DASH score, Neck Disability Index (NDI, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT for Trigger Points, Cervical Range of Motion (CROM - active & passive, grip and pinch strengths. The variables were compared before and after the intervention. Finally, the result revealed that all the variables (DASH: P<0.00, NDI: P<0.00, VAS: P<0.00, PPT: Left: P<0.00, PPT: Right: P<0.00, Grip strength: left: P<0.00, Grip strength: right: P<0.01, Key pinch: left: P<0.01, Key pinch: right: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: left: P<0.01, Palmar pinch: right: P<0.00, Tip pinch: left: P<0.01, Tip pinch: Right: P<0.01 improved significantly after intervention.
Full Text Available Introduction Factors such as prolonged sitting at work or improper posture of head during work may have a great role in neck pain occurrence among office employees, particularly among those who work with computers. Although some studies claim a significant difference in head posture between patients and pain-free participants, in literature the forward head posture (FHP has not always been associated with neck pain. Since head, cervical and thoracic postures and their relation with neck pain has not been studied in Iranian office employees, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between some work-related and individual factors, such as poor posture, with neck pain in the office employees. Material and methods It was a cross-sectional correlation study carried out to explore the relationship between neck pain and sagittal postures of cervical and thoracic spine among office employees in forward looking position and also in a working position. Forty-six subjects without neck pain and 55 with neck pain were examined using a photographic method. Thoracic and cervical postures were measured using the high thoracic (HT and craniovertebral (CV angles, respectively. Results High thoracic and CV angles were positively correlated with the presence of neck pain only in working position (p 0.05. Conclusions Our findings have revealed that office employees had a defective posture while working and that the improper posture was more severe in the office employees who suffered from the neck pain.
Karlsson, L; Gerdle, B; Ghafouri, B; Bäckryd, E; Olausson, P; Ghafouri, N; Larsson, B
In peripheral tissue, several substances influence pain and pain modulation. Exercise has been found to decrease pain and improve function for chronic pain conditions, but how and why exercise produces beneficial effects remains unclear. This study investigates whether aspects of pain and concentrations of substances with algesic, analgesic and metabolic functions differ between women with chronic neck shoulder pain (CNSP) and healthy women (CON) and whether changes are found after an exercise intervention for CNSP. Forty-one women with CNSP and 24 CON subjects were included. The participants attended two microdialysis sessions with 4-6 months between the experiments. During this period, the CNSP subjects underwent an exercise intervention. Expression levels of substance P, beta-endorphin, cortisol, glutamate, lactate and pyruvate as well as pain intensity and pressure pain thresholds were analysed. At baseline, higher concentrations of glutamate and beta-endorphin and lower concentrations of cortisol in CNSP than CON were found. After exercise, decreased levels of substance P and possibly of glutamate, increased levels of beta-endorphin and cortisol as well as decreased pain intensity and increased pain pressure thresholds were found for CNSP. The findings at baseline indicated algesic and analgesic alterations in the painful trapezius muscles. The findings for CNSP after the exercise intervention, with changes in peripheral substances and decreased pain intensity and sensitivity, could reflect a long-term physiological effect of the exercise. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Tsang, Sharon M H; Szeto, Grace P Y; Lee, Raymond Y W
Previous study has found that people with chronic neck pain moved with a consistently compromised acceleration/deceleration at their cervical and thoracic spines. This study examined the strength of the association between the electromyographic activities and the acceleration/deceleration of the cervical and thoracic spine, and its correlation with the functional disabilities in individuals with neck pain. Time history of the cervical and thoracic acceleration/deceleration and EMG activity was acquired in thirty-four subjects with chronic neck pain and thirty-four age- and gender-matched asymptomatic subjects during active neck movements. The strength of the association between the electromyographic activity of spinal muscles and the cervical and thoracic acceleration/deceleration was determined using cross-correlation method. Relationship between the strength of this association and the severity of the functional disabilities in neck pain group was examined using correlation analysis. The strength of the association between cervical and thoracic acceleration/deceleration and electromyographic activities was significantly lower in neck pain group. Significant negative correlations were found between the functional disability level and the strength of this defined association in the symptomatic group. The compromised capability of the spinal muscles to produce acceleration/deceleration in the neck pain group may imply an impaired electromechanical coupling of these spinal muscles when performing neck movements. Significant negative correlation of the degree of functional disabilities suggests that the present approach can be used as an objective and specific evaluation of the dynamic performance of the spinal muscles and its relationship with the functional disabilities in neck pain subjects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
van den Oord, Marieke H. A. H.; Steinman, Yuval; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
The main purpose of this study was to improve the helmet fit of military helicopter aircrew members and evaluate its effect on the experienced helmet stability (helmet gliding), neck load, neck pain, hot spots (pressure points), irritation/distraction, and overall helmet comfort during night
Flodin, U; Rolander, B; Löfgren, H; Krapi, B; Nyqvist, F; Wåhlin, C
No previous research has been performed into neck pain among forklift operators. This is a common complaint among these workers, who number around 150,000 in Sweden and six million in Europe. The aim of the study was to examine long-term exposure to unnatural neck positions among forklift operators as a risk factor for neck pain. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of all eligible employees at a high-level warehouse. Forklift operators and office workers answered an 18-page questionnaire comprising questions about joint pain, work tasks, work postures and year of start for all items. By using person years in the exposed and less-exposed groups before start of neck pain we were able to calculate Incident Rate ratios for various exposures. Forty nine percent of the forklift operators reported having experienced neck pain compared to 30 % of office workers. Being a forklift operator was associated with an increased risk of neck pain (OR = 5.1, 95% CI 1.4-18.2). Holding the head in an unnatural position resulted in significantly increased risks for neck pain, irrespective of type of position. The risks for neck pain remained after taking other ergonomic exposures and psychosocial aspects into consideration. This is the first published study showing that forklift operators have an increased risk of neck pain. The results are therefore of significance for improving work schedules, the adjustment of work tasks for these workers and the design of the vehicles.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is related to impaired postural balance among patients and is highly prevalent among workers with high postural demands, for example, cleaners. We therefore hypothesised, that cleaners with neck pain suffer from postural dysfunction. This cross-sectional study tested if cleaners with neck pain have an impaired postural balance compared with cleaners without neck pain. Methods Postural balance of 194 cleaners with (n = 85 and without (N = 109 neck pain was studied using three different tests. Success or failure to maintain the standing position for 30 s in unilateral stance was recorded. Participants were asked to stand on a force platform for 30 s in the Romberg position with eyes open and closed. The centre of pressure of the sway was calculated, and separated into a slow (rambling and fast (trembling component. Subsequently, the 95% confidence ellipse area (CEA was calculated. Furthermore a perturbation test was performed. Results More cleaners with neck pain (81% failed the unilateral stance compared with cleaners without neck pain (61% (p Conclusions Postural balance is impaired among cleaners with neck pain and the current study suggests a particular role of the slow component of postural sway. Furthermore, the unilateral stance test is a simple test to illustrate functional impairment among cleaners with concurrent neck and low back pain. Trial registration ISRCTN96241850
Jørgensen, René; Ris Hansen, Inge; Falla, Deborah
-retest reliability in people with and without chronic neck pain. Moreover, construct and between-group discriminative validity of the tests were examined. METHODS: Twenty-one participants with chronic neck pain and 21 asymptomatic participants were included. Intra- and inter-reliability were evaluated for the Cranio......-Cervical Flexion Test (CCFT), Range of Movement (ROM), Joint Position Error (JPE), Gaze Stability (GS), Smooth Pursuit Neck Torsion Test (SPNTT), and neuromuscular control of the Deep Cervical Extensors (DCE). Test-retest reliability was assessed for Postural Control (SWAY) and Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) over...... neck pain....
Antúnez Sánchez, Leonardo Gregorio; de la Casa Almeida, María; Rebollo Roldán, Jesús; Ramírez Manzano, Antonio; Martín Valero, Rocío; Suárez Serrano, Carmen
To compare the efficacy in reducing neck pain and disability in an individualised physiotherapy treatment with group treatment in acute and subacute mechanical neck pain. Randomised clinical trial. Health Area of University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Seville, Spain. A total of 90 patients diagnosed with mechanical neck pain of up to one month onset, distributed randomly into two groups: (i)individualised treatment; (ii)group treatment. The treatment consisted of 15 sessions of about 60minutes for both groups. Individual treatment consisted of 15minutes of infrared heat therapy, 17minutes of massage, and analytical passive stretching of the trapezius muscles and angle of the scapula. The group treatment consisted of a program of active mobilisation, isometric contractions, self-stretching, and postural recommendations. Pain was measured at the beginning and end of treatment pain using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and an algometer applied on the trapezius muscles and angle of the scapula, and neck disability using the Neck Disability Index. Both treatments were statistically significant (P<.001) in improving all variables. Statistically significant differences (P<.001) were found for all of them in favour of individualised treatment compared to group treatment. Patients with acute or subacute mechanical neck pain experienced an improvement in pain and neck disability after receiving either of the physiotherapy treatments used in our study, with the individual treatment being more effective than collective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Uthaikhup, Sureeporn; Pensri, Chalomjai; Kawsoiy, Kanokon
Thickness of the lower trapezius muscle in patients with neck pain has not been established. We examined the thickness of the lower trapezius muscle in patients with and without unilateral neck pain. Twenty women with unilateral (right) neck pain and 20 matched controls participated in the study. Thickness of the lower trapezius muscles was measured bilaterally at rest (0 ° and 120 ° of shoulder abduction) and during contraction (120 ° of shoulder abduction) using ultrasound imaging. The neck pain group had smaller thickness of the lower trapezius muscle on the painful side compared with controls both at rest and during contraction (P 0.05). Patients with neck pain had smaller thickness of the lower trapezius muscle on the painful side compared with healthy controls. Muscle Nerve 54: 439-443, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ris Hansen, Inge; Barbero, Marco; Falla, Deborah
factors and/or decreased function of the involved body parts. Purpose: To study the relation between pain extent with 1) quality of life, 2) kinesiophobia, depression, 3) cervical muscle function and mobility and additionally the relation of pain extent with the origin of pain being traumatic or non...... of Kinesiophobia (TSK), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-ll), Neck Disability Index (NDI) and clinical tests: Craniocervical Flexion Test (CCFT), Cervical Extension Test (CE), and Cervical Range of Motion (CROM). Results: Significant positive correlations were observed between pain extent and NDI (r = 0.33; p... to the origin being traumatic or non-traumatic. Conclusion: Pain extent extracted from pain drawings are moderately correlated with patient-reported neck function, and weakly correlated with depression, kinesiophobia and cervical clinical tests. In clinical decision-making, pain extent may indicate reduced neck...
Häggman-Henrikson, B; Lampa, E; Marklund, S; Wänman, A
The relationship between whiplash trauma and chronic orofacial pain is unclear, especially with regard to the time elapsed from trauma to development of orofacial pain. The aim was to analyze prevalence of jaw pain and disability, as well as the relationship between pain and disability in the jaw and neck regions in the early nonchronic stage after whiplash trauma. In this case-control study, 70 individuals (40 women, 30 men, mean age 35.5 y) who visited an emergency department with neck pain following a car accident were examined within 3 wk of trauma (group 1) and compared with 70 individuals (42 women, 28 men, mean age 33.8 y), who declined to attend a clinical examination but agreed to fill in questionnaires (group 2). The 2 case groups were compared with a matched control group of 70 individuals (42 women, 28 men, mean age 37.6 y) without a history of neck trauma. All participants completed questionnaires regarding jaw pain and dysfunction, rating pain intensity in jaw and neck regions on the Numerical Rating Scale, the Neck Disability Index, and Jaw Disability Checklist. Compared with controls, individuals with a recent whiplash trauma reported more jaw pain and dysfunction. Furthermore, there was a moderate positive correlation between jaw and neck pain ratings for group 1 (r = 0.61, P neck pain and disability compared with controls. Taken together, the results show that individuals with a recent whiplash trauma report more jaw pain and disability compared with controls without a history of neck trauma. Furthermore, the correlation between jaw and neck pain intensity implies that intensity of neck pain in the acute stage after whiplash trauma might be a possible risk factor also for development of chronic orofacial pain. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.
Plastaras, Christopher; Schran, Seth; Kim, Natasha; Darr, Deborah; Chen, Mary Susan
Neck pain is an extremely common symptom with many possible etiologies. A substantial number of patients are turning to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Low-quality evidence supports the beneficial effects of CAM. Feldenkrais, massage therapy, and spinal manipulation are discussed in detail. Complications are generally benign and self-limited, although occasional catastrophic consequences have been documented. Despite the favorable opinion many rheumatologists have of some CAM therapy, many patients are not disclosing CAM use to their medical providers. By expressing interest, asking questions, and taking a shared-decision-making approach, providers can encourage disclosure and provide valuable input.
Full Text Available A 58-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with complaints of severe neck pain. He admitted to drug use but denied using intravenous (IV drugs. On exam, he had a fever of 100.7 F, positive Kernig’s sign, and normal neurologic exam. The patient was suspected to have bacterial meningitis and was started on IV antibiotics. The next day the patient developed decreased hand grip. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine the next day showed a soft-tissue mass impinging on the spinal canal. The patient was subsequently taken to the operating room where the epidural abscess was drained.
Maiers, Michele; Hartvigsen, Jan; Shulz, Craig
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are common conditions in old age, leading to impaired functional ability and decreased independence. Manual and exercise therapies are common and effective therapies for the general LBP and NP populations. However, these treatments have not been...... adequately researched in older LBP and NP sufferers.The primary aim of these studies is to assess the relative clinical effectiveness of 1) manual treatment plus home exercise, 2) supervised rehabilitative exercise plus home exercise, and 3) home exercise alone, in terms of patient-rated pain, for senior LBP...
Jørgensen, René; Ris, Inge; Juhl, Carsten
in a previously published randomised controlled trial. Participants were randomized to either physical training, exercises and pain education combined or pain education only. Participants were tested on the clinical tests at baseline and at 4-month follow-up. An anchor-based approach using Receiver Operator...... Characteristics (ROC) curves was used to evaluate responsiveness of the clinical tests. The Neck Disability Index was used to discriminate between those who had improved and those who were unchanged at the 4-month follow-up. Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID), together with sensitivity, specificity......-six participants didn't complete all of the clinical tests, leaving a total of 138 to be included for analyses. Area Under Curve (AUC) ranged from 0.50-0.62 for the clinical tests, and were all below an acceptable level. MCID was generally large, and the corresponding sensitivity and specificity was low...
Moon, Bong Ju; Choi, Kyong Ho; Yun, Chul; Ha, Yoon
There is a high prevalence of neck pain in air force pilots; however, the causes are not clear and are considered work-related. Kyphotic changes in the cervical spine have been known to cause neck pain. In this study, we investigated the association between neck pain and cervical kyphosis in air force pilots. This is a cross-sectional study of 63 Republic of South Korea Air Force pilots. We examined the C2-7 absolute rotation angle (ARA) using the posterior tangent method and other radiologic parameters on whole spine lateral radiographs. We divided the participants into a neck pain group (N = 32) and no neck pain group (N = 31), and subsequently analyzed the difference in radiographic parameters and clinical data between the two groups. There were no significant differences found in age, body mass index, total flight time, or aerobic or anaerobic exercise between the neck pain and control groups. The fighter pilots had higher 1-yr prevalence of neck pain than nonfighter pilots (84.4% vs. 15.6%). The lower C2-7 ARA (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.846, 0.979) and fighter type aircrafts (OR = 3.93, 95% CI 1.104, 13.989) were associated with neck pain. Fighter pilots experienced neck pain more frequently than the nonfighter pilots. Those fighter pilots suffering from neck pain were shown to have more kyphotic changes in the cervical spine than control pilots through evaluation of whole spine lateral radiographs using the posterior tangent method. These key findings suggest that the forces involved in flying a fighter type aircraft may affect cervical alignment and neck pain.
Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Langhorst, Jost; Michalsen, Andreas; Dobos, Gustav J
This analysis aimed to determine reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the pain on movement (POM) questionnaire, an instrument developed to determine pain intensity induced by head movement. Data from nine randomized controlled trials for the treatment of chronic nonspecific neck pain were reanalyzed to determine reliability and validity of the POM questionnaire. POM was assessed as ratings of pain intensity induced by head movement in six different directions. The instrument's structure was assessed using a factor analysis. Reliability (internal consistency) was determined using Cronbach's alpha, and validity (convergent validity) was determined by correlating the POM with pain at rest on a visual analog scale (VAS), the neck disability index (NDI), quality of life (short-form 36 health survey questionnaire [SF-36]) and range of motion. Responsiveness was indicated by sensitivity to changes over time in a subsample of 49 patients. Overall, 482 patients (mean age 50.3 ± 12.4 years, 72.3% female) were included in the analysis, and 458 of them provided complete data set for the POM. Average POM was 43.9 ± 20.8 mm on the VAS. The POM showed very good reliability as indicated by high internal consistency and moderate validity as indicated by significant correlations with the pain at rest, the NDI, and the SF-36. No correlations were found for POM with range of motion. The POM further proved to be responsive as it was sensitive to changes over time, and those changes were correlated to changes in pain intensity and NDI. The POM seems to be a reliable and valid instrument to assess POM in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Background. Rugby is a highly demanding sport that carries a high risk of injury, specifically to the neck region. Repetitive loading of the neck during the scrum or tackle phase may increase neck symptoms and pain. Objectives. The objective of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to determine the prevalence of ...
Massel, Dustin H; Mayo, Benjamin C; Bohl, Daniel D; Narain, Ankur S; Hijji, Fady Y; Fineberg, Steven J; Louie, Philip K; Basques, Bryce A; Long, William W; Modi, Krishna D; Singh, Kern
A retrospective analysis. The aim of this study was to quantify improvements in Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) neck and arm pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Short Form-12 (SF-12) Mental (MCS) and Physical (PCS) Composite scores following an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). ACDF is evaluated with patient-reported outcomes. However, the extent to which these outcomes improve following ACDF remains poorly defined. A surgical registry of patients who underwent primary, one- or two-level ACDF during 2013 to 2015 was reviewed. Comparisons of VAS neck and arm, NDI, and SF-12 MCS and PCS scores were performed using paired t tests from preoperative to each postoperative time point. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to estimate the reduction in neck and arm pain over the first postoperative year. Subgroup analyses were performed for patients with predominant neck (pNP) or arm (pAP) pain, as well as for one- versus two-level ACDF. Eighty-nine patients were identified. VAS neck and arm, NDI, and SF-12 PCS improved from preoperative scores at all postoperative time points (P neck and a 3.1-point (54.0%) reduction in arm pain (P neck and arm pain over the first 6 months and 12 weeks postoperatively, respectively (P neck pain and 55.1% reduction in arm pain over the first postoperative year (P neck and arm, respectively (P neck and arm pain following ACDF regardless of presenting symptom. In addition, patients undergoing one-level ACDF report greater reductions in neck and arm pain than patients undergoing two-level fusion. 4.
Kim, Jin Young; Kwag, Kwang Il
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical effects of deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles exercise on pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and neck and shoulder postures in patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight patients with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned into either the general strengthening exercise (GSE) group or the DCF activation group as control and experimental groups, respectively. All exercises were performed three times per week over 4 weeks. NDI and numeric rating scale (NRS) score for pain were determined and radiological assessment of neck-shoulder postures (head tilt angle [HTA], neck flexion angle [NFA], and forward shoulder angle [FSA]) was performed before (baseline), 4 weeks after, and 8 weeks after exercise in order to directly compare the exercise effects between the groups. [Results] In the DCF group, the NDI, NRS score, and neck-shoulder postures (analyzed by uisng HTA, NFA, and FSA) were significantly improved. [Conclusion] DCF activation exercise was effective to alleviate pain, recover functions, and correct forward head posture in the patients with neck pain. Hence, it might be recommended in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic neck pain.
Walton, David M; Carroll, Linda J; Kasch, Helge
Given the challenges of chronic musculoskeletal pain and disability, establishing a clear prognosis in the acute stage has become increasingly recognized as a valuable approach to mitigate chronic problems. Neck pain represents a condition that is common, potentially disabling, and has a high rate...... of transition to chronic or persistent problems. As a field of research, prognosis in neck pain has stimulated several empirical primary research papers, and a number of systematic reviews. As part of the International Consensus on Neck (ICON) project, we sought to establish the general state of knowledge...... currency of the SR, risk of bias assessment of the SRs using AMSTAR scoring and consistency of findings across SRs, determined the level of confidence in the risk profile of 133 different variables. The results provide high confidence that baseline neck pain intensity and baseline disability have a strong...
Dimitriadis, Zacharias; Strimpakos, Nikolaos; Kapreli, Eleni; Oldham, Jacqueline
Objectives: Examination of visual analog scale’s [VAS] validity for assessing psychological states in patients with chronic neck pain.Methods: Forty-five patients with chronic neck pain completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Anxiety, depression, kinesiophobia, and catastrophizing were additionally assessed by using a VAS for each.Results: Only the anxiety VAS could correlate high enough with its corresponding questio...
Smits-Engelsman Bouwien CM; Staal J Bart; Heuvel Sylvia; de Koning Chantal HP; Hendriks Erik JM
Abstract Background Neck pain is a significant health problem in modern society. There is evidence to suggest that neck muscle strength is reduced in patients with neck pain. This article provides a critical analysis of the research literature on the clinimetric properties of tests to measure neck muscle strength or endurance in patients with non-specific neck pain, which can be used in daily practice. Methods A computerised literature search was performed in the Medline, CINAHL and Embase da...
Driessen, Maurice T; Lin, Chung-Wei C.; van Tulder, Maurits W
PURPOSE: Various conservative interventions have been used for the treatment of non-specific neck pain. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of conservative treatments for non-specific neck pain. METHODS: Clinical and economic electronic databases, reference
Cerezo-Téllez, Ester; Torres-Lacomba, María; Fuentes-Gallardo, Isabel; Perez-Muñoz, Milagros; Mayoral-Del-Moral, Orlando; Lluch-Girbés, Enrique; Prieto-Valiente, Luis; Falla, Deborah
Chronic neck pain attributed to a myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by the presence of muscle contractures referred to as myofascial trigger points. In this randomized, parallel-group, blinded, controlled clinical trial, we examined the effectiveness of deep dry needling (DDN) of myofascial trigger points in people with chronic nonspecific neck pain. The study was conducted at a public Primary Health Care Centre in Madrid, Spain, from January 2010 to December 2014. A total of 130 participants with nonspecific neck pain presenting with active myofascial trigger points in their cervical muscles were included. These participants were randomly allocated to receive: DDN plus stretching (n = 65) or stretching only (control group [n = 65]). Four sessions of treatment were applied over 2 weeks with a 6-month follow-up after treatment. Pain intensity, mechanical hyperalgesia, neck active range of motion, neck muscle strength, and perceived neck disability were measured at baseline, after 2 sessions of intervention, after the intervention period, and 15, 30, 90, and 180 days after the intervention. Significant and clinically relevant differences were found in favour of dry needling in all the outcomes (all P stretching is more effective than passive stretching alone in people with nonspecific neck pain. The results support the use of DDN in the management of myofascial pain syndrome in people with chronic nonspecific neck pain.
Sitthipornvorakul, E.; Janwantanakul, P.; Purepong, N.; Pensri, P.; Beek, A.J. van der
The effect of physical activity on neck and low back pain is still controversial. No systematic review has been conducted on the association between daily physical activity and neck and low back pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and the
Dijkstra, P. U.; van Wilgen, P. C.; Buijs, R. P.; Brendeke, W.; de Goede, C. J.; Kerst, A.; Koolstra, M.; Marinus, J.; Schoppink, E. M.; Stuiver, M. M.; van de Velde, C. F.; Roodenburg, J. L.
It is the purpose of this study to determine the incidence of shoulder pain and restricted range of motion of the shoulder after neck dissection, and to identify risk factors for the development of shoulder pain and restricted range of motion. Clinical patients who underwent a neck dissection
Neck pain (NP) is a common health problem which exerts significant stress on physical functioning, work, productivity and health costs. However, there is a dearth of published studies on community prevalence of neck pain in rural communities in Nigeria. This study aimed at finding out the prevalence of NP among people ...
Maiers, Michele; Bronfort, Gert; Evans, Roni
Neck pain, common among the elderly population, has considerable implications on health and quality of life. Evidence supports the use of spinal manipulative therapy and exercise to treat neck pain; however, no studies to date have evaluated the effectiveness of these therapies specifically...
Nolet, Paul S; Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, John David
The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to investigate the association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders and troublesome neck pain.......The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to investigate the association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders and troublesome neck pain....
Borghouts, J.A.J.; Koes, B.W.; Vondeling, H.; Bouter, L.M.
The prevalence of neck pain in the general population ranges from 10 to 15%. The complaints can result in substantial medical consumption, absenteeism from work and disability. In this study we investigated the costs of neck pain in the Netherlands in 1996 to assess the financial burden to society.
Lange, Britt; Torp-Svendsen, J; Toft, Palle
Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased.......Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased....
Koning, C.H. de; Heuvel, SP van den; Staal, J.B.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Hendriks, E.J.M.
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is a significant health problem in modern society. There is evidence to suggest that neck muscle strength is reduced in patients with neck pain. This article provides a critical analysis of the research literature on the clinimetric properties of tests to measure neck muscle
Brockhusen, Simon Sidenius; Bussières, André; French, Simon David
Background: Non-specific neck pain represents a quarter of all chiropractic patient visits in Denmark. Evidence informed practice can help ensure providers use best available treatment, speed up patient recovery rate and reduce healthcare utilization. It is generally believed that Danish...... chiropractors treat according to best practice, but we do not know if this is true for management of neck-pain. The objective of this study was to investigate how Danish chiropractors treat patients with acute and chronic non-specific neck pain and determine if management is compliant with recent Canadian...... and chronic non-specific neck pain cases; and 3) provide demographic data. Treatment modalities ranked as "used often" were considered in further analysis and compared to the Canadian Guideline recommendations for neck pain. Chi-squared test was used to investigate differences between treatment and guideline...
Andersen, Christoffer H; Andersen, Lars L; Zebis, Mette K
PURPOSE: Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Treatment has varied from passive rest to active treatments and active treatments have often been divided into either training of the painful area or the surrounding musculature...... while minimizing direct training of the upper trapezius-is effective in reducing pain in adults with chronic non-specific pain in the neck/shoulder region. METHODS: 47 office workers with chronic non-specific pain in the neck/shoulder region were randomized to 10 weeks 3 × 20 min SFT with training...... supervision or to a control group. At baseline and at follow-up the participants were tested for maximum isometric shoulder strength by a blinded tester. Further, once a week participants reported pain intensity of the neck/shoulder during the previous week. RESULTS: In intention-to-treat analysis neck...
Stenneberg, Martijn S; Rood, Michiel; de Bie, Rob; Schmitt, Maarten A; Cattrysse, Erik; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G
OBJECTIVES: To quantify differences in active cervical range of motion (aCROM) between patients with neck pain and those without neck pain, in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) and nontraumatic neck pain, and in patients with acute complaints versus those with chronic complaints.
Howell, Emily R.
Background: The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Cervical Ranges of Motion (CROM) are measurement tools that are used for neck pain patients. Objective: To review the literature to determine how the NDI is associated with neck pain and CROM outcomes. Methods: Computer based searches of 5 databases were performed and supplemented by internet and hand searching of article references and “related citations.” Results: The search yielded 23 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and these were summarized into four categories: NDI, NDI and other questionnaires, whiplash and NDI and cervical range of motion and NDI. The NDI was shown to be a well validated and reliable self-reported questionnaire, especially when compared to other questionnaires, in both neck pain and whiplash (WAD) patients. There are very few studies that discuss the NDI and cervical range of motion. Conclusion: This review outlines the strength of the NDI as a self-reported neck disability questionnaire, but also demonstrates a need for further research to explore the association between the NDI, neck pain and cervical ranges of motion. PMID:21886283
Treleaven, Julia; Chen, Xiaoqi; Sarig Bahat, Hilla
Cervical kinematics have functional relevance and are important for assessment and management in patients with neck disorders. A better understanding of factors that might influence cervical kinematics is required. The aim of this study was to determine any relationships between altered kinematics to the symptoms and signs of sensorimotor impairments, neck pain and disability and fear of neck motion in people with neck pain. Kinematics were measured in 39 subjects with chronic neck pain using a customized virtual reality system. Range of cervical motion, mean and peak velocity, time to peak velocity percentage, number of velocity peaks and accuracy were derived. Correlations between these measures to self-reported (neck pain intensity, disability, fear of motion, dizziness, visual disturbances) and sensorimotor measures and regression analyses were conducted. Range and velocity of motion of cervical rotation appeared to be most related to visual disturbances and pain or dynamic balance. Nevertheless these relationships only explained about 30% of the variance of each measure. Signs and symptoms of sensorimotor dysfunction should be considered and monitored in the management of altered cervical rotation kinematics in patients with chronic neck disorders. Future research should consider the effects of addressing these factors on neck kinematics and vice versa to aid functional recovery in those with neck pain. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Telci, Emine Aslan; Karaduman, Ayse; Yakut, Yavuz; Aras, Bahar; Simsek, Ibrahim E; Yagli, Naciye
The cultural adaptation of Neck Disability Index (NDI), the validity and reliability of Turkish version. The aim of this study was to conduct a study concerning the cultural adaptation of NDI and investigate the validity and reliability of its Turkish version in patients with neck pain. The NDI is a reliable evaluation instrument for disability but there is no published Turkish version. Eighty-eight patients with neck pain for at least 3 months were included in the study. NDI, The Neck Pain and Disability Scale, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were completed by all subjects. Test-retest reliability was determined by using intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson correlation analysis. For the determination of concurrent validity, the relation between NDI and VAS was examined by Pearson correlation analysis and for the determination of construct validity, the relation between NDI and Neck Pain and Disability Scale was investigated. Intraclass correlation coefficient score for test-retest reliability was 0.979 (95% confidence interval = 0.968-0.986). For concurrent validity, the relation between NDI and VAS was investigated, the r value for test and retest was 0.508 and 0.620, respectively (P validity, the relation between NDI and the Turkish version of Neck Pain and Disability Scale was investigated, the r value for test and retest was 0.659 (P validated in this study is an easy to understand, reliable, and valid instrument for the measurement of the limitation of activities of daily living and pain caused by neck disorders in the Turkish-speaking population.
Hurwitz, Eric L; Goldstein, Michael S; Morgenstern, Hal; Chiang, Lu-May
The purpose of this study is to estimate the associations of psychosocial factors with pain and disability outcomes among neck-pain patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of chiropractic treatments. Neck-pain patients were randomized to one of 8 modes of chiropractic treatment. Health status and psychosocial variables were measured at baseline. Changes in neck pain severity and disability from baseline to 6 months were the primary outcome variables. Multivariable regression models were used to estimate effects of psychosocial variables adjusted for potential confounders. Of 960 eligible patients, 336 were enrolled and 80% were followed up through 6 months. Coping strategies involving self-assurance resulted in better disability outcomes, whereas getting angry or frustrated resulted in worse pain and disability outcomes. Participants with high levels of social support from individuals were more likely to experience clinically meaningful reductions in pain and disability. No consistent relations of internal health locus of control, and physical and psychological job demands with improvements in pain and disability were detected. We found some evidence that certain coping strategies and types of social support are associated with pain and disability outcomes in this population of largely subacute and chronic neck-pain patients.
Ailliet, L; Rubinstein, S M; Knol, D; van Tulder, M W; de Vet, H C W
To determine if psychosocial factors are associated with outcome in patients with neck pain or low back pain. In a prospective, multi-center chiropractic practice-based cohort study in Belgium and The Netherlands, 917 patients, of which 326 with neck pain and 591 with low back pain, completed self-administered questionnaires at baseline, following the second visit, and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Psychosocial factors assessed at baseline were: distress, depression, anxiety and somatization via the Four Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire, patient's beliefs regarding the effect of physical activity and work on their complaint via the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and social support via the Feij social support scale. Primary outcome measures were perceived recovery, pain intensity, and functional status which was measured with the Neck Disability Index and Oswestry Disability Index. A univariable regression analysis to estimate the relation between each psychological variable and outcome was followed by a multivariable multilevel regression analysis. There were no differences in baseline patient characteristics between the patient population from Belgium and the Netherlands. Somatization scores are consistently associated with perceived recovery, functional status and pain for both neck pain and low-back pain. Depression was associated with poorer functioning in patients with LBP. There was a small association between fear and function and pain for patients with neck pain or low-back pain. Somatization was the only variable consistently found to be associated with diminished perceived recovery, higher degree of neck or low back disability, and increased neck or low back pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brandt, Mikkel; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.
the previous three months on a scale of 0–10 and palpable tenderness of the upper trapezius muscle on a scale of “no tenderness,” “some tenderness,” or “severe tenderness.” Odds ratios for tenderness as a function of neck/shoulder pain intensity were determined using cumulative logistic regression controlled......Background. Neck/shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder among adults.The pain is often assumed to be related to muscular tenderness rather than serious chronic disease. Aim. To determine the association between neck/shoulder pain intensity and trapezius muscle tenderness in office...... interval 1.70 to 2.04). Conclusion. In office workers, a strong association between perceived neck/shoulder pain intensity and trapeziusmuscle tenderness exists.The present study provides reference values of pain intensity among office workers with no, some, and severe tenderness of the trapezius muscle....
Ris Hansen, Inge; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Boyle, Eleanor
Background and aims Patients with chronic neck pain can present with disability, low quality of life, psychological factors and clinical symptoms. It is unclear whether patients with a traumatic onset differ from those with a non-traumatic onset, by having more complex and severe symptoms....... The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation of chronic neck pain patients with and without traumatic onset by examining cervical mobility, sensorimotor function, cervical muscle performance and pressure pain threshold in addition to the following self-reported characteristics......: quality of life, neck pain and function, kinesiophobia, depression, and pain bothersomeness. Methods This cross-sectional study included 200 participants with chronic neck pain: 120 with traumatic onset and 80 with non-traumatic onset. Participants were recruited from physiotherapy clinics in primary...
Scheuer, Raphael; Friedrich, Martin
Evaluation of reliability of isometric strength measurements in the neck and trunk region and comparison of these measurements between patients with chronic neck pain and pain-free subjects. Nonrandomized controlled trial. Institutional practice. Patients with neck pain (n=53) and pain-free persons (n=42) (mean age ± SD, 49.7±10.74 vs 48.7±12.02; women, 73% vs 71%). Strength of flexion, extension, and lateral flexion in the neck and trunk were measured. Each participant underwent 2 measurement passes on each of 2 examination days; 3 were performed by the same investigator, 1 by a second. Intrarater (short-term and long-term) and interrater reliability, differences in strength between both groups of probands. Reliability in both groups ranged from substantial to almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient: patients, .76-.89; control group, .80-.88). The patients' strength in the neck and trunk was significantly below that of the control group (P<.002). Isometric strength measurement is a reliable and feasible way to estimate the possible benefit of specific strengthening programs. Patients with chronic neck pain showed strength deficits in all measured regions. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guzy, Gra?yna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard
This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for suppor...
Nejati, Parisa; Lotfian, Sara; Moezy, Azar; Nejati, Mina
Factors such as prolonged sitting at work or improper posture of head during work may have a great role in neck pain occurrence among office employees, particularly among those who work with computers. Although some studies claim a significant difference in head posture between patients and pain-free participants, in literature the forward head posture (FHP) has not always been associated with neck pain. Since head, cervical and thoracic postures and their relation with neck pain has not been studied in Iranian office employees, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between some work-related and individual factors, such as poor posture, with neck pain in the office employees. It was a cross-sectional correlation study carried out to explore the relationship between neck pain and sagittal postures of cervical and thoracic spine among office employees in forward looking position and also in a working position. Forty-six subjects without neck pain and 55 with neck pain were examined using a photographic method. Thoracic and cervical postures were measured using the high thoracic (HT) and craniovertebral (CV) angles, respectively. High thoracic and CV angles were positively correlated with the presence of neck pain only in working position (p position, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (p > 0.05). Our findings have revealed that office employees had a defective posture while working and that the improper posture was more severe in the office employees who suffered from the neck pain. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Andersen, Christoffer H; Andersen, Lars Louis; Gram, Bibi
BACKGROUND: Specific strength training can reduce neck and shoulder pain in office workers, but the optimal combination of exercise frequency and duration remains unknown. This study investigates how one weekly hour of strength training for the neck and shoulder muscles is most effectively...... distributed. METHODS: A total of 447 office workers with and without neck and/or shoulder pain were randomly allocated at the cluster-level to one of four groups; 1×60 (1WS), 3×20 (3WS) or 9×7 (9WS) min a week of supervised high-intensity strength training for 20 weeks, or to a reference group without...... training (REF). Primary outcome was self-reported neck and shoulder pain (scale 0-9) and secondary outcome work disability (Disability in Arms, Shoulders and Hands (DASH)). RESULTS: The intention-to-treat analysis showed reduced neck and right shoulder pain in the training groups after 20 weeks compared...
The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) that was developed in 1990 is a 17 item scale originally developed to measure the fear of movement related to chronic lower back pain. To review the literature regarding TSK and neck pain, perceived disability and range of motion of the cervical spine. Medline, MANTIS, Index to Chiropractic Literature and CINAHL were searched. A total of 16 related articles were found and divided into four categories: TSK and Neck Pain; TSK, Neck Pain and Disability; TSK, Neck Pain, Disability and Strength; and TSK, Neck Pain and Surface Electromyography. The fear avoidance model can be applied to neck pain sufferers and there is value from a psychometric perspective in using the TSK to assess kinesiophobia. Future research should investigate if, and to what extent, other measureable factors commonly associated with neck pain, such as decreased range of motion, correlate with kinesiophobia.
Background: The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) that was developed in 1990 is a 17 item scale originally developed to measure the fear of movement related to chronic lower back pain. Objective: To review the literature regarding TSK and neck pain, perceived disability and range of motion of the cervical spine. Methods: Medline, MANTIS, Index to Chiropractic Literature and CINAHL were searched. Results: A total of 16 related articles were found and divided into four categories: TSK and Neck Pain; TSK, Neck Pain and Disability; TSK, Neck Pain, Disability and Strength; and TSK, Neck Pain and Surface Electromyography. Conclusion: The fear avoidance model can be applied to neck pain sufferers and there is value from a psychometric perspective in using the TSK to assess kinesiophobia. Future research should investigate if, and to what extent, other measureable factors commonly associated with neck pain, such as decreased range of motion, correlate with kinesiophobia. PMID:21886284
Sadeghian, Farideh; Raei, Mehdi; Amiri, Mohammad
Neck and shoulder pains are the prevalent complaints among computer office workers. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of somatization tendency, expectation of pain, mental health and beliefs about causation of pain with persistence of neck/shoulder pains among computer office workers. This research is a kind of prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. It has done among all eligible computer office workers of Shahroud universities (n = 182) in 2008-2009 and 1-year later. Data were collected using the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data through SPSS (P somatization tendency P = 0.01, (OR = 6.5, 95% CI: 1.6-27.4). Pain expectation and somatization tendency recognized as associated risk factors of persistent neck/shoulder pain among computer operators. This confirmed some other similar studies on work-related musculoskeletal disorders in Europe countries in recent years.
Shaheen, Afaf Ahmed Mohamed; Omar, Mohammed Taher Ahmed; Vernon, Howard
Translation and psychometric testing. To adapt the neck disability index (NDI) cross-culturally to Arabic language and to investigate the reliability and validity of the Arabic version of NDI in an Arabic-speaking sample with neck pain. Although largely used, no previous reports exist on the translation process or the testing of the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the NDI. Cross-cultural adaptation of an outcome questionnaire. The English version of the NDI was translated into Arabic (NDI-Ar) and back-translated according to established guidelines. Sixty-five patients with neck pain completed the NDI -Ar twice during a 1-week period, to assess its test-retest reliability. Further psychometric testing was done by assessing internal consistency, construct validity (factor structure), and responsiveness. The internal consistency value (Cronbach α) for the NDI-Ar was 0.89. The test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) was excellent at 0.96 (95% confidence interval from 0.93 to 0.97). There was a significant correlation (r = 0.92, P Arabic version of the NDI has a 2-factor 10-item structure and is a reliable, valid, and responsive tool that can be used to assess neck pain in Arabic-speaking patients with neck pain. Therefore, it can be recommended for clinical and research purposes.
Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M
Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders
Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Lupsakko, Taina; Kautiainen, Hannu; Vanhala, Mauno
The presence of neck-shoulder pain as a predictor of depression is not widely studied. To analyse the association of neck-shoulder pain at baseline with depressive symptomatology after a 7-year follow-up. A total of 604 subjects who had not had depressive symptomatology at baseline participated in 7-year follow-up survey. The number of subjects with depressive symptomatology (Beck Depression Score10) after 7-year follow-up were measured in three groups - subjects without neck-shoulder pain, with infrequent neck-shoulder pain and with daily neck-shoulder pain at baseline. A total of 77 (13%) participants had developed depressive symptomatology by the follow-up. Prevalence of depressive symptomatology in follow-up in subjects without neck-shoulder pain, with infrequent neck-shoulder pain and with daily neck-shoulder pain at baseline pain was 9.5%, 11.2% and 28.4%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis odds for having depressive symptomatology in daily neck-shoulder pain subjects was almost three fold higher (OR, 2.64, 95% CI, 1.27-5.48) compared to those without neck-shoulder pain. Frequent neck-shoulder pain is a preceding symptom for the depressive symptomatology in adults.
Ghada Mohamed Koura
Full Text Available Background: Mechanical neck pain is the most common type of neck pain and commonly to accompany with radiculopathy. Patients of neck pain exhibit greater activation of accessory muscles, (sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and upper trapezius muscles and may also show changed patterns of motor control of other postural muscles as pelvic muscles for reducing activation of painful muscles of neck. Aim of the study: To determine if there is an association between gluteus maximus inhibition and overactivity of upper fibres of trapezius in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: Forty female patients participated in this study diagnosed as chronic mechanical neck pain with radiculopathy. Amplitude and onset of muscle activation were assessed by using the surface electromyography (EMG during prone hip extension test. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that there is no correlation between the amplitude of EMG activity of right and left gluteus maximus and the amplitude of EMG activity of right and left upper trapezius (P<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the overactivity of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain with radiculopathy is not related to the inhibition of the gluteus maximus muscle during prone hip extension test.
Full Text Available This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS, Neck Disability Index (NDI, and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain.
Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard
This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain.
Carreon, Leah Y.; Anderson, Paul A.; McDonough, Christine M.; Djurasovic, Mladen; Glassman, Steven D.
Study Design Cross-sectional cohort Objective This study aims to provide an algorithm estimate SF-6D utilities using data from the NDI, neck pain and arm pain scores. Summary of Background Data Although cost-utility analysis is increasingly used to provide information about the relative value of alternative interventions, health state values or utilities are rarely available from clinical trial data. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and numeric rating scales for neck and arm pain, are widely used disease-specific measures of symptoms, function and disability in patients with cervical degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide an algorithm to allow estimation of SF-6D utilities using data from the NDI, and numeric rating scales for neck and arm pain. Methods SF-36, NDI, neck and arm pain rating scale scores were prospectively collected pre-operatively, at 12 and 24 months post-operatively in 2080 patients undergoing cervical fusion for degenerative disorders. SF-6D utilities were computed and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated for paired observations from multiple time points between NDI, neck and arm pain scores and SF-6D utility scores. SF-6D scores were estimated from the NDI, neck and arm pain scores using a linear regression model. Using a separate, independent dataset of 396 patients in which and NDI scores were available SF-6D was estimated for each subject and compared to their actual SF-6D. Results The mean age for those in the development sample, was 50.4 ± 11.0 years and 33% were male. In the validation sample the mean age was 53.1 ± 9.9 years and 35% were male. Correlations between the SF-6D and the NDI, neck and arm pain scores were statistically significant (p<0.0001) with correlation coefficients of 0.82, 0.62, and 0.50 respectively. The regression equation using NDI alone to predict SF-6D had an R2 of 0.66 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.056. In the validation analysis, there was no statistically
Juul, Tina; Søgaard, Karen; Davis, Aileen M.
Objective:To assess reliability, construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability for Neck OutcOme Score (NOOS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Short Form–36 (SF-36) in neck pain patients. Study Design and Setting: Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach alpha. Test...... correlating subscale scores from NOOS and SF-36 and NDI items. Results: At baseline, 196 neck pain patients were included. Cronbach α was adequate for most NOOS subscales, NDI, and SF-36 with few exceptions. Good to excellent reliability was found for NOOS subscales (ICC 0.88–0.95), for NDI, and for SF-36...... with few exceptions. For NOOS, minimal detectable changes varied between 1.1 and 1.9, and construct validity was supported. SRMs were higher for NOOS subscales (0.19–0.42), compared to SF-36 and NDI. MID values varied between 15.0 and 24.1 for NOOS subscales. Conclusions: In conclusion, the NOOS...
Smedley, J; Inskip, H; Trevelyan, F; Buckle, P; Cooper, C; Coggon, D
To assess the incidence and risk factors for neck and shoulder pain in nurses. A longitudinal study of neck and shoulder pain was carried out in female nurses at two hospitals in England. Personal and occupational risk factors were assessed at baseline. The self reported incidence of symptoms in the neck and shoulder region was ascertained at three-monthly intervals over two years. A Cox regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident neck/shoulder pain during follow up in nurses who had been pain free for at least one month at baseline. The baseline response rate was 56%. Of 903 women who were pain free at baseline, 587 (65%) completed at least one follow up while still in the same job. During an average of 13 months, 34% of these (202 women) reported at least one episode of neck/shoulder pain. The strongest predictor of pain in the neck/shoulder was previous history of the symptom (HRs up to 3.3). For physical exposures at work, the highest risks (HRs up to 1.7) were associated with specific patient handling tasks that involved reaching, pushing, and pulling. Nurses who reported low mood or stress at baseline were more likely to develop neck/shoulder pain later (HR 1.5). Workplace psychosocial factors (including job demands, satisfaction, and control) were not associated with incident neck/shoulder symptoms. Neck/shoulder pain is common among hospital nurses, and patient handling tasks that involve reaching and pulling are the most important target for risk reduction strategies.
Laurén, H; Luoto, S; Alaranta, H; Taimela, S; Hurri, H; Heliövaara, M
A sample of 486 Helsinki City Council workers, 35 to 54 years of age, was examined twice at a 1-year interval. To investigate the speed of repetitive arm motion for its ability to predict neck pain. Psychomotor factors have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of spinal disorders. It was hypothesized that motor skills, as reflected by arm motion speed, could provide protection against neck pain. Both the baseline and follow-up examinations consisted of a questionnaire on the history of neck pain and of a number of tests, including arm motion speed and static and dynamic strength of the upper extremities. Of the 124 men and women who reported not having had neck pain during the 1 year before the baseline examination, 23 (19%) reported neck pain on reexamination. The incidence of neck pain was significantly higher both in the least and most rapid quintiles of arm motion speed than in the medium quintiles. This association was not confounded by age, sex, smoking, physical activity at work or at leisure, psychological distress score, or strength measures of the upper extremities, although these factors were significant covariates of the arm motion speed at baseline. When adjusted for these factors, the odds ratios of neck pain in the most and least rapid quintiles of arm motion speed were 8.68 (95% confidence interval 1.85-40.75) and 9.57 (95% confidence interval 2.21-41.52) respectively, compared with the medium quintiles. These results suggest that people with either very slow or very rapid arm motion speed may have an increased risk of neck pain. The etiology of neck pain is probably different on these two occasions.
Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Andersen, Christoffer H; Sundstrup, Emil
Purpose To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. Methods Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units...... in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131) were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77) performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54) received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups...... to 20). The time-wise change in pain showed three phases; a rapid decrease in the training group compared with the control group during the initial 7 weeks, a slower decrease in pain during the following weeks (week 8–15), and a plateau during the last weeks (week 16–20). Adherence to training followed...
Ginsburg Glen M
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic neck pain after whiplash is notoriously refractory to conservative treatment, and positive radiological findings to explain the symptoms are scarce. The apparent disproportionality between subjective complaints and objective findings is significant for the planning of treatment, impairment ratings, and judicial questions on causation. However, failure to identify a symptom's focal origin with routine imaging studies does not invalidate the symptom per se. It is therefore of a general interest both to develop effective therapeutic strategies in chronic whiplash, and to establish techniques for objectively evaluation of treatment outcomes. Methods Twelve patients with chronic neck pain after whiplash underwent pre- and postoperative computerized 3D gait analysis. Results Significant improvement was found in all gait parameters, cervical range-of-motion, and self reported pain (VAS. Conclusion Chronic neck pain is associated with abnormal cervical spine motion and gait patterns. 3D gait analysis is a useful instrument to assess the outcome of treatment for neck pain.
Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah
The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barré-Liéou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Andersen, Kenneth Jay
and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand....../wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49-0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present...
The effect of changing movement and posture using motion-sensor biofeedback, versus guidelines-based care, on the clinical outcomes of people with sub-acute or chronic low back pain-a multicentre, cluster-randomised, placebo-controlled, pilot trial
Kent, Peter; Laird, Robert; Haines, Terry
BACKGROUND: The aims of this pilot trial were to (i) test the hypothesis that modifying patterns of painful lumbo-pelvic movement using motion-sensor biofeedback in people with low back pain would lead to reduced pain and activity limitation compared with guidelines-based care, and (ii) facilitate...... sample size calculations for a fully powered trial. METHODS: A multicentre (8 clinics), cluster-randomised, placebo-controlled pilot trial compared two groups of patients seeking medical or physiotherapy primary care for sub-acute and chronic back pain. It was powered for longitudinal analysis......-sensors without biofeedback) plus guidelines-based medical or physiotherapy care. Primary outcomes were self-reported pain intensity (VAS) and activity limitation (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS)), all on 0-100 scales. Both groups received 6-8 treatment...
Plastaras, Christopher T; Schran, Seth; Kim, Natasha; Sorosky, Susan; Darr, Deborah; Chen, Mary Susan; Lansky, Rebecca
Of the multitude of treatment options for the management of neck pain, no obvious single treatment modality has been shown to be most efficacious. As such, the clinician should consider alternative treatment modalities if a modality is engaging, available, financially feasible, potentially efficacious, and is low risk for the patient. As evidence-based medicine for neck pain develops, the clinician is faced with the challenge of which treatments to encourage patients to pursue. Treatment modalities explored in this article, including chiropractic, acupuncture, TENS, massage, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais, represent reasonable complementary and alternative medicine methods for patients with neck pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jakobsen, Emma Lise Thorlund; Biering, Karin; Kærgaard, Anette
-shoulder pain at baseline and neck-shoulder pain at follow-up (OR 8.2;95% CI 3.5 to 19.2). Associations between neck-shoulder disorders and pain at baseline and limited physical functioning at follow-up had ORs of 5.0 (95% CI 1.5 to 16.1) and 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.6), respectively. In women still working in 2008...... to examine associations between neck-shoulder pain and disorders at baseline and neck-shoulder pain and physical functioning at follow-up. RESULTS: We found an association between neck-shoulder disorders at baseline and neck-shoulder pain at follow-up (OR 5.9;95% CI 1.9 to 17.7), and between neck...... examination at baseline in 243 female sewing machine operators and by questionnaire 14 years later. During follow-up, information on comorbidity and job exposures was obtained from registers and by linking register-based D-ISCO 88 codes with a job exposure matrix. Logistic regression analyses were performed...
Arun V. Subbarayalu, PhD
Full Text Available Objectives: Information Technology (IT professionals working with computers gradually develop forward head posture and, as a result, these professionals are susceptible to several neck disorders. This study intended to reveal the relationships between pain intensity, disability, head posture and deep cervical flexor (DCF muscle performance in patients with postural neck pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 IT professionals who were diagnosed with postural neck pain. The participants were recruited with a random sampling approach. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ, the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI, and the Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback Unit were used to measure neck pain intensity, neck disability, head posture, and DCF muscle performance, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significantly strong positive relationship between the VAS and the NPQ (rÂ =Â 0.734. The cranio-vertebral (CV angle was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the VAS (rÂ =Â â0.536 and a weak negative correlation with the NPQ (rÂ =Â â0.389. Conclusion: This study concluded that a smaller CV angle corresponded to greater neck pain intensity and disability. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between CV angle and DCF muscle performance, indicating that head posture re-education through postural correction exercises would not completely correct the motor control deficits in DCF muscles. In addition, a suitable exercise regimen that exclusively targets the deep cervical flexor muscle to improve its endurance is warranted. Keywords: Craniovertebral angle, Disability deep cervical flexors muscle performance, Head posture, Postural neck pain
Armstrong, Kelly; Gokal, Raman; Chevalier, Antoine; Todorsky, William; Lim, Mike
Although acupuncture and microcurrent are widely used for chronic pain, there remains considerable controversy as to their therapeutic value for neck pain. We aimed to determine the effect size of microcurrent applied to lower back acupuncture points to assess the impact on the neck pain. This was a cohort analysis of treatment outcomes pre- and postmicrocurrent stimulation, involving 34 patients with a history of nonspecific chronic neck pain. Consenting patients were enrolled from a group of therapists attending educational seminars and were asked to report pain levels pre-post and 48 hours after a single MPS application. Direct current microcurrent point stimulation (MPS) applied to standardized lower back acupuncture protocol points was used. Evaluations entailed a baseline visual analog scale (VAS) pain scale assessment, using a VAS, which was repeated twice after therapy, once immediately postelectrotherapy and again after a 48-h follow-up period. All 34 patients received a single MPS session. Results were analyzed using paired t tests. Results and Outcomes: Pain intensity showed an initial statistically significant reduction of 68% [3.9050 points; 95% CI (2.9480, 3.9050); p = 0.0001], in mean neck pain levels after standard protocol treatment, when compared to initial pain levels. There was a further statistically significant reduction of 35% in mean neck pain levels at 48 h when compared to pain levels immediately after standard protocol treatment [0.5588 points; 95% CI (0.2001, 0.9176); p = 0.03], for a total average pain relief of 80%. The positive results in this study could have applications for those patients impacted by chronic neck pain.
Andersen, Lars L; Hansen, Klaus; Mortensen, Ole S; Zebis, Mette K
Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years) with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%). In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%). In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. ISRCTN60264809.
Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years) with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. Results In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%). In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%). In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. Conclusions A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. Trial Registration ISRCTN60264809 PMID:21777478
Mortensen Ole S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. Results In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%. In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%. In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. Conclusions A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. Trial Registration ISRCTN60264809
Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Bostyn, Emma; Delemarre, Jolien; Lemahieu, Trees; Cagnie, Barbara
It is proposed that altered scapular muscle function can contribute to abnormal loading of the cervical spine. However, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of the scapular muscles. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature regarding the differences or similarities in scapular muscle activity, measured by electromyography ( = EMG), between patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain compared to pain-free controls. Case-control (neck pain/healthy) studies investigating scapular muscle EMG activity (amplitude, timing and fatigue parameters) were searched in Pubmed and Web of Science. 25 articles were included in the systematic review. During rest and activities below shoulder height, no clear differences in mean Upper Trapezius ( = UT) EMG activity exist between patients with idiopathic neck pain and a healthy control group. During overhead activities, no conclusion for scapular EMG amplitude can be drawn as a large variation of results were reported. Adaptation strategies during overhead tasks are not the same between studies. Only one study investigated timing of the scapular muscles and found a delayed onset and shorter duration of the SA during elevation in patients with idiopathic neck pain. For scapular muscle fatigue, no definite conclusions can be made as a wide variation and conflicting results are reported. Further high quality EMG research on scapular muscles (broader than the UT) is necessary to understand/draw conclusions on how scapular muscles react in the presence of idiopathic neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lisiński, Przemysław; Wielogórka, Ewa
The aim of our study was to define the most common reasons for chronic neck pain and to state a connection between correction of posture by McKenzie and the character of pain. We investigated 30 people with chronic neck pain. They were patients of Out-Patients Unit of Rehabilitation. The average age was 43 +/- 6. Our group consisted of 21 women and 9 men. We used McKenzie protocol as a basis on the beginning and the end of treatment. The most important reason of neck pain in this study was frequent flexion of the neck and long-lasting flexion position. Pain often was activated by flexion and rotation of the neck. Above 70% of our patients stated that a character of pain changed towards better profile. Method of McKenzie is looked a quite successful in a correction of a posture of the body itself. Probably this method is capable to resolve a large portion of neck-pain problems. It should be used more frequently in clinical practice.
Park, C; Choi, J B; Lee, Y-S; Chang, H-S; Shin, C S; Kim, S; Han, D W
Posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy is common because full neck extension is required during the procedure. We evaluated the effect of intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on postoperative neck pain in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy under general anaesthesia. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups; 50 patients received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied to the trapezius muscle and 50 patients acted as controls. Postoperative posterior neck pain and anterior wound pain were evaluated using an 11-point numerical rating scale at 30 min, 6 h, 24 h and 48 h following surgery. The numerical rating scale for posterior neck pain was significantly lower in the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation group compared with the control group at all time points (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the numerical rating scale for anterior wound pain at any time point. No adverse effects related to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation were observed. We conclude that intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied to the trapezius muscle reduced posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Yong Hong Cheng
Full Text Available Objective. To systematically evaluate the evidence of whether massage therapy (MT is effective for neck pain. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs were identified through searches of 5 English and Chinese databases (to December 2012. The search terms included neck pain, neck disorders, cervical vertebrae, massage, manual therapy, Tuina, and random. In addition, we performed hand searches at the library of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Two reviewers independently abstracted data and assessed the methodological quality of RCTs by PEDro scale. And the meta-analyses of improvements on pain and neck-related function were conducted. Results. Fifteen RCTs met inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed that MT experienced better immediate effects on pain relief compared with inactive therapies (n=153; standardised mean difference (SMD, 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.09 to 2.50; P=0.03 and traditional Chinese medicine (n=125; SMD, 0.73; 95% CI 0.13 to 1.33; P=0.02. There was no valid evidence of MT on improving dysfunction. With regard to follow-up effects, there was not enough evidence of MT for neck pain. Conclusions. This systematic review found moderate evidence of MT on improving pain in patients with neck pain compared with inactive therapies and limited evidence compared with traditional Chinese medicine. There were no valid lines of evidence of MT on improving dysfunction. High quality RCTs are urgently needed to confirm these results and continue to compare MT with other active therapies for neck pain.
Andersen, Lars L; Kjaer, Michael; Søgaard, Karen
for the affected muscle, general fitness training performed as leg bicycling with relaxed shoulders, or a reference intervention without physical activity. The main outcome measure was an acute and prolonged change in intensity of neck muscle pain (100-mm visual analog scale [VAS]). RESULTS: A decrease of 35 mm......OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of neck muscle pain has steadily increased and especially pain from the descending part of the trapezius muscle has been associated with monotonous work tasks such as computer work. Physical exercise is generally recommended as treatment, but it is unclear which type...... of training is most effective. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of specific strength training of the painful muscle versus general fitness training without direct involvement of the painful muscle (leg bicycling) on work-related neck muscle pain. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled...
Lee, Ji-Hye; Park, Youn-Kwan; Kim, Joo-Han
Neck pain (NP) is a common musculoskeletal disorder, but little is known about the associated risk factors. We compared anatomic differences in the neck and trunk area of young adult patients with chronic NP and control subjects without NP to identify risk factors and predictors. This is an age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched retrospective case-control study of a consecutive sample. Patients with axial NP for longer than 6 months (23 males and 25 females) and pain-free volunteers (23 males and 25 females) were included. Outcome measures were linear and angular dimensions of the cervicothoracic junction. Midsagittal magnetic resonance imaging scans of the cervicothoracic spine were obtained. Four linear and four angular parameters were identified and measured. These parameters included depth of the T1-manubrium arch (T1AD), depth of the thoracic cage (TXD), tangential height of T1 (T1H1), relative height of T1 (T1H2), T1 slope (T1S), thoracic inlet inclination (TiI), T1-manubrium arch inclination (T1AI), and the angular difference between TiI and T1AI (TiI-T1AI). The measurements were taken by two neurosurgeons. Depth of the T1-manubrium arch and TiI were identified as predictors for NP in the binary logistic regression analysis. Each millimeter increase in T1AD lessened the probability of NP with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.823 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.701-0.966) in females and 0.809 (95% CI, 0.681-0.959) in males. Each degree increase in TiI was associated with the probability of NP with an adjusted OR of 1.247 (95% CI, 1.060-1.466) in males. Measurement of cervicothoracic junctional structures is a reliable and feasible method of estimating potential predictor of chronic NP in young adults. Forward inclination of the thoracic inlet in males and a shallow thoracic cage in females were identified as important predictors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wagner, Scott C; Formby, Peter M; Kang, Daniel G; Van Blarcum, Gregory S; Cody, John P; Tracey, Robert W; Lehman, Ronald A
There is very little literature examining optimal radiographic parameters for placement of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA), nor is there substantial evidence evaluating the relationship between persistent postoperative neck pain and radiographic outcomes. We set out to perform a single-center evaluation of the radiographic outcomes, including associated complications, of CDA. This is a retrospective review. Two hundred eighty-five consecutive patients undergoing CDA were included in the review. The outcome measures were radiological parameters (preoperative facet arthrosis, disc height, CDA placement in sagittal and coronal planes, heterotopic ossification [HO] formation, etc.) and patient outcomes (persistent pain, recurrent pain, new-onset pain, etc.). We performed a retrospective review of all patients from a single military tertiary medical center from August 2008 to August 2012 undergoing CDA. Preoperative, immediate postoperative, and final follow-up films were evaluated. The clinical outcomes and complications associated with the procedure were also examined. The average radiographic follow-up was 13.5 months and the rate of persistent axial neck pain was 17.2%. For patients with persistent neck pain, the rate of HO formation per level studied was 22.6%, whereas the rate was significantly lower for patients without neck pain (11.7%, p=.03). There was no significant association between the severity of HO and the presence of neck pain. Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of cervicalgia, compared to those without cervicalgia, were significantly more likely to experience continued neck pain postoperatively (28.6% vs. 13.1%, p=.01). There were no differences in preoperative facet arthrosis, pre- or postoperative disc height, segmental range of motion, or placement of the device relative to the posterior edge of the vertebral body.However, patients with implants more centered between the uncovertebral joints were more likely to experience posterior neck pain
Sherman, Karen J.; Cook, Andrea J.; Wellman, Robert D.; Hawkes, Rene J.; Kahn, Janet R.; Deyo, Richard A.; Cherkin, Daniel C.
PURPOSE This trial was designed to evaluate the optimal dose of massage for individuals with chronic neck pain. METHODS We recruited 228 individuals with chronic nonspecific neck pain from an integrated health care system and the general population, and randomized them to 5 groups receiving various doses of massage (a 4-week course consisting of 30-minute visits 2 or 3 times weekly or 60-minute visits 1, 2, or 3 times weekly) or to a single control group (a 4-week period on a wait list). We assessed neck-related dysfunction with the Neck Disability Index (range, 0–50 points) and pain intensity with a numerical rating scale (range, 0–10 points) at baseline and 5 weeks. We used log-linear regression to assess the likelihood of clinically meaningful improvement in neck-related dysfunction (≥5 points on Neck Disability Index) or pain intensity (≥30% improvement) by treatment group. RESULTS After adjustment for baseline age, outcome measures, and imbalanced covariates, 30-minute treatments were not significantly better than the wait list control condition in terms of achieving a clinically meaningful improvement in neck dysfunction or pain, regardless of the frequency of treatments. In contrast, 60-minute treatments 2 and 3 times weekly significantly increased the likelihood of such improvement compared with the control condition in terms of both neck dysfunction (relative risk = 3.41 and 4.98, P = .04 and .005, respectively) and pain intensity (relative risk = 2.30 and 2.73; P = .007 and .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS After 4 weeks of treatment, we found multiple 60-minute massages per week more effective than fewer or shorter sessions for individuals with chronic neck pain. Clinicians recommending massage and researchers studying this therapy should ensure that patients receive a likely effective dose of treatment. PMID:24615306
Andersen, Lars L; Kjaer, Michael; Andersen, Christoffer H
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Muscle-specific strength training has previously been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation of chronic neck muscle pain in women. The aim of this study was to determine the level of activation of the neck and shoulder muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) duri...
Andersen, L.L.; Kjaer, M.; Andersen, C.H.
Background and Purpose. Muscle-specific strength training has previously been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation of chronic neck muscle pain in women. The aim of this stud), was to determine the level of activation of the neck and shoulder muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) (lu...
Hamberg-van Reenen, H.H.; Ariens, G.A.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Twisk, J.W.; van Mechelen, W.; Bongers, P.M.
Aims: To investigate the longitudinal relation between physical capacity (isokinetic lifting strength, static endurance of the back, neck, and shoulder muscles, and mobility of the spine) and low back, neck, and shoulder pain. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 1789 Dutch workers
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of Carthami-Flos Pharmacopuncture on posterior neck pain of menopausal women. Methods: We treated 20 female patients with neck pain patient(45-60 yr into two groups and treated Group A with Carthami-Flos Pharmacopuncture and common acupuncture and Group B with common acupuncture. The efficacy of treatment was measured by VAS, NDI and MENQOL scores of before and after 30 days to start treatment. Results: Both group A and B represented effective improvement in VAS and NDI of neck pain and MENQOL scores. And group A was more effective than B group statistically. Conclusions: It was suggested that Carthami-Flos Pharmacopuncture treatment might have effect on posterior neck pain treatment of menopausal women.
Yang, Haiou; Hitchcock, Edward; Haldeman, Scott; Swanson, Naomi; Lu, Ming-Lun; Choi, BongKyoo; Nakata, Akinori; Baker, Dean
Background Neck pain is a prevalent musculoskeletal condition among workers in the United States. This study explores a set of workplace psychosocial and organization-related factors for neck pain. Methods Data used for this study comes from the 2010 National Health interview Survey which provides a representative sample of the US population. To account for the complex sampling design, the Taylor linearized variance estimation method was used. Logistic regression models were constructed to measure the associations. Results This study demonstrated significant associations between neck pain and a set of workplace risk factors including work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity, non-standard work arrangements, multiple jobs and long work hours. Conclusion Workers with neck pain may benefit from intervention programs that address issues related to these workplace risk factors. Future studies exploring both psychosocial risk factors and physical risk factors with a longitudinal design will be important. PMID:27184340
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Riebling Nørnberg, Bo
Care Medicine, Odense University Hospital, Denmark 3Royal Danish Air Force, Tactical Air Command, Denmark (TACDEN) Introduction: Flight-related neck pain is common among helicopter pilots and crew (1). The aim of this study was to quantify the physical workload on neck/shoulder muscles during flight...... of targeted strength, endurance, and coordination exercise on neck and shoulder pain among fighter pilots. A randomized-controlled trial. Clin J Pain 2013; 29:50-9 3. G. Sjøgaard and B. R. Jensen. Low-Level Static Exertions, The Occupational ergonomics handbook, edited by Waldemar Krawowski and William S......Exercise for the treatment of neck pain among military helicopter pilots and crew members Murray M, 1, Lange B, 1,2, Nørnberg R. B, 3, Søgaard K, 1, Sjøgaard G, 1 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark 2Department of Anesthesia and Intensive...
Full Text Available Background: Mechanical neck pain commonly arises insidiously and is generally multifactorial in origin. Regardless of the primary source of pain, the prognosis for individual experiencing chronic neck pain is poor. Exercise interventions are important for effective management of patients with neck pain.the objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of cervical endurance training programme with cervical isometric exercise in alleviating symptoms of mechanical neck pain. Methods: 40 subjects were assessed and identified with Mechanical Neck Pain and recruited for the study and were randomly divided into two groups. In one group endurance training for cervical muscles and in another group resisted isometric had been given for 3 weeks. The post treatment scores regarding endurance, pain intensity, disability, Range of motion and muscle power were compared with the pre treatment scores. Results: Paired‘t’ test was done to compare the pretreatment scores with the post treatment scores .Unpaired ‘t’ test was done to compare the post treatment scores of both the groups. The pain intensity, disability were found to be significantly decreased in experimental group than the control group (p<0.001. While the endurance was found to be significantly increased in experimental group than the control group (p < 0.001. The muscle power was found to be slightly increased in the control group than the experimental group .The post treatment cervical range of motion does not have significant difference in between the groups (Flexion- p=0.35 and Extension-p=0.40. Conclusion: This study showed that the progressive endurance exercise is beneficial in alleviating mechanical neck pain and should be incorporated along with the conventional physiotherapy treatment for mechanical neck pain.
Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Clausen, Brian; Ris Hansen, Inge
To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls.......To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls....
Short-term changes in neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion after the application of trigger point dry needling in patients with acute mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.
Mejuto-Vázquez, María J; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Truyols-Domínguez, Sebastián; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César
Randomized clinical trial. To determine the effects of trigger point dry needling (TrPDN) on neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion in patients with acute mechanical neck pain and active trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. TrPDN seems to be effective for decreasing pain in individuals with upper-quadrant pain syndromes. Potential effects of TrPDN for decreasing pain and sensitization in individuals with acute mechanical neck pain are needed. Methods Seventeen patients (53% female) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a single session of TrPDN or no intervention (waiting list). Pressure pain thresholds over the C5-6 zygapophyseal joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle; neck pain intensity; and cervical spine range-of-motion data were collected at baseline (pretreatment) and 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the patient. Mixed-model analyses of variance were used to examine the effects of treatment on each outcome variable. Patients treated with 1 session of TrPDN experienced greater decreases in neck pain, greater increases in pressure pain threshold, and higher increases in cervical range of motion than those who did not receive an intervention at both 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention (Pneck pain intensity and widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and also increase active cervical range of motion, in patients with acute mechanical neck pain. Changes in pain, pressure pain threshold, and cervical range of motion surpassed their respective minimal detectable change values, supporting clinically relevant treatment effects. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b-.
Full Text Available Background: Non-specific neck pain is a common health problem of global concern for office workers. This systematic review ascertained the latest evidence for the effectiveness of therapeutic exercise versus no therapeutic exercise on reducing neck pain and improving quality of life (QoL in office workers with non-specific neck pain.Method: Seven electronic databases using keywords, that is, ‘office workers’, ‘non-specific neck pain’, ‘exercise’ and/or ‘exercise therapy’, ‘QoL’, ‘strengthening’, ‘stretching’, ‘endurance’, ‘physiotherapy’ and/or ‘physical therapy’, were searched from inception until March 2017. Heterogeneous data were reported in narrative format and comparable homogenous data were pooled using Revman.Results: Eight randomised control trials were reviewed and scored on average 6.63/10 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale. Five studies performed strengthening exercise, one study had a strengthening and an endurance exercise group, one study performed stretching exercise and one study had an endurance intervention group and a stretching intervention group. Five and four studies reported significant improvement in neck pain and QoL, respectively, when conducting strengthening exercise. When performing endurance exercises, one and two studies reported significant changes in neck pain and QoL, respectively. The one study incorporating stretching exercise reported significant improvement in neck pain. The meta-analysis revealed that there is a clinically significant difference favouring strengthening exercise over no exercise in pain reduction but not for QoL.Conclusion: There is level II evidence recommending that clinicians include strengthening exercise to improve neck pain and QoL. However, the effect of endurance and stretching exercise needs to be explored further.
John P Haran
Full Text Available Chiari 1 malformations (CIM in children can develop into a debilitating disease, however, they usually present with apparently benign symptoms, such as moderate headache and neck pain. Early identification and treatment of this condition can lead to an overall decrease in morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. We are reporting on a child that initially presented with neck pain and no neurological findings.
Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; van Tulder, M.W.; Anema, J.R.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.
Ergonomic interventions (physical and organisational) are used to prevent or reduce low back pain (LBP) and neck pain among workers. We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions. A total of 10 RCTs met the inclusion criteria.
Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; van Tulder, M.W.; Anema, J.R.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.
Ergonomic interventions (physical and organisational) areused to prevent or reduce low back pain (LBP) and neck pain among workers. We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions. A total of 10 RCTs met the inclusion criteria.
Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; Tulder, M.W. van; Anema, J.R.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der
Ergonomic interventions (physical and organisational) areused to prevent or reduce low back pain (LBP) and neck pain among workers. We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions. A total of 10 RCTs met the inclusion criteria.
Monticone, Marco; Vernon, Howard; Brunati, Roberto; Rocca, Barbara; Ferrante, Simona
To develop and validate NeckPix(©), a multi-image instrument for assessing daily activities in the context of pain-related fear, in order to allow its use in patients with chronic neck pain (NP). The measure was developed by means of item generation followed by reduction/selection. The psychometric testing included exploratory factor analysis; content validity by investigating clarity, specificity, appropriateness for the target population, relevance and completeness; reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest stability (intra-class coefficient correlation, ICC); and construct validity by comparing NeckPix with the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and a Numerical Rating Scale of pain intensity (NRS) (Pearson's correlation). The measure, which includes ten images used to assess everyday activities in the context of pain-related fear, was administered to 118 subjects with chronic non-specific NP, and proved to be acceptable and feasible. Factor analysis revealed a one-factor solution (which explained 71.12 % of variance). The content of the images was considered adequate, appropriate for the target population, comprehensive, and relevant for evaluating activity-related kinesiophobia. The instrument's internal consistency was good (α = 0.954), as was its test-retest stability (ICC 0.979). Construct validity demonstrated a close correlation with the TSK (r = 0.759), and moderate correlations with the PCS (r = 0.583), the NDI (r = 0.520), and a NRS (r = 0.455). NeckPix(©), which was successfully developed following international recommendations, proved to have a good factorial structure and satisfactory psychometric properties. Its use is recommended for research purposes.
Full Text Available We discuss a unique case of a 52-year-old man with no history of intravenous drug use or dental procedures who presented with neck pain, 2 weeks of fevers, chills, night sweats, cough, and dyspnea found to have isolated pulmonic valve (PV endocarditis. The patient did not have an associated murmur, which is commonly seen in right-sided infectious endocarditis. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed a thickened PV leaflet, with subsequent transesophageal echocardiogram showing a PV mass. Speciation of blood cultures revealed Streptococcus oralis. In right-sided infective endocarditis, usually the tricuspid valve is involved; however, in our case the tricuspid valve was free of any mass or vegetation. The patient did meet Duke criteria and was thus started on long-term intravenous antibiotics for infectious endocarditis. The patient's symptoms quickly improved with antibiotics. A careful history and evaluating the patient's risk factors are key in earlier detection of infective endocarditis (IE. Because of early detection and a high index of suspicion, the patient had no further complications and did not require any surgery. In conclusion, clinical suspicion of right-sided IE should be high in patients who present with persistent fevers and pulmonary symptoms in order to reduce the risk of complications, and to improve outcomes.
Kahlaee, Amir Hossein; Ghamkhar, Leila; Arab, Amir Massoud
The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence on respiratory function changes in patients with chronic neck pain. MEDLINE, Elsevier, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, Springer, and Google scholar electronic databases were explored thorough December 2015. English-language studies investigating cervical musculoskeletal and respiratory parameters in patients with chronic neck pain were included. Characteristics of the patients, sampling method and size, musculoskeletal and respiratory parameters studied, and appropriateness of the statistical tests were considered. Studies were rated based on study design and performance. Of the 68 studies reviewed, 9 observational studies met our inclusion criteria. Significant difference in maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures were reported in patients with chronic neck pain compared to asymptomatic subjects. Some of the respiratory volumes were found to be lower in patients with chronic neck pain. Muscle strength and endurance, cervical range of motion, and psychological states were found to be significantly correlated with respiratory parameters. Lower Pco2 in patients and significant relationship between chest expansion and neck pain were also shown. Respiratory retraining was found to be effective in improving some cervical musculoskeletal and respiratory impairment. Functional pulmonary impairments accompany chronic neck pain. Based on the observed association, investigation of the effectiveness of management of CNP on respiratory function is strongly suggested.
Uthaikhup, Sureeporn; Jull, Gwendolen; Sungkarat, Somporn; Treleaven, Julia
Greater disturbances in sensorimotor control have been demonstrated in younger to middle aged groups. However, it is unknown whether or not the impairments documented in these populations can be extrapolated to elders with neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of neck pain on sensorimotor function in elders. Twenty elders with neck pain (12 women and 8 men) and 20 healthy elder controls (14 women and 6 men) aged 65 years and over were recruited from the general community. Tests for sensorimotor function included; cervical joint position sense (JPS); computerised rod-and-frame test (RFT); smooth pursuit neck torsion test (SPNT); standing balance (under conditions of eyes open, eyes closed on firm and soft surfaces in comfortable stance); step test and ten-meter walk test with and without head movement. Elders with neck pain had greater deficits in the majority of sensorimotor function tests after controlling for effects of age and comorbidities. Significant differences were found in the SPNT (pneck pain have greater sensorimotor disturbances than elders without neck pain, supporting a contribution of altered afferent information originating from the cervical spine to such disturbances. The findings may inform falls prevention and management programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Toto, Regina L; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; Manole, Mioara D
Neck pain in the pediatric population has a broad differential diagnosis, ranging from benign to imminently life-threatening causes. Trauma and infection represent the most common etiologies of pediatric neck pain in the pediatric emergency department (PED) setting. Malignancy, though a rare cause of pediatric neck pain, is important to consider in patients with acquired torticollis or focal neurologic signs. We describe the case of a previously healthy 12-year-old female who presented to the PED with neck pain radiating down her upper extremities. The physical examination revealed diminished strength in her upper extremities compared to her lower extremities. Further evaluation revealed lymphadenopathy in the cervical and mediastinal areas and an epidural tumor in the cervical spinal column. The ultimate diagnosis was Hodgkin lymphoma presenting in an unusual manner with cervical spinal cord compression. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Neck pain is a common chief complaint among pediatric patients in the emergency setting. This case of spinal cord compression caused by malignancy illustrates the necessity of detailed spinal imaging in patients with neck pain and "red flag" signs, including but not limited to an abnormal neurologic examination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nederhand, Marc J; Ijzerman, Maarten J; Hermens, Hermie J; Turk, Dennis C; Zilvold, Gerrit
To improve clinical decision making in posttraumatic neck pain by investigating the additional value of fear-avoidance variables in predicting chronic neck pain disability. An inception cohort with baseline assessment 1 week posttrauma and outcome assessment 24 weeks posttrauma. Predictive factors include pain intensity, Neck Disability Index (NDI), catastrophizing, fear of movement (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia [TSK]), and avoidance muscle behavior. Hospital emergency department of a general hospital. A consecutive sample of 90 people reporting of pain in neck or head region after a motor vehicle collision. Eighty-two subjects (91.1%) of the sample provided 24-week follow-up on the outcome. Not applicable. The NDI assessing physical disability of subjects with neck pain. By using a combination of the baseline NDI and TSK, it appears to be possible to predict chronic disability with a probability of 54.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35.2%-72.3%) after entering the NDI (cutoff, 15) as a first test, and with a probability of 83.3% (95% CI, 70.3%-91.3%) after entering the TSK (cutoff, 40) in a second test. A simple rating of baseline neck pain disability within a week of the trauma, separately or in combination with a test for fear of movement, can be used to predict future outcome. Patients showing fear of movement can be offered an intervention that focuses on reduction of this fear.
da Costa, Dayse Regina Alves; de Lima Ferreira, Ana Paula; Pereira, Thaís Alves Barreto; Porporatti, André Luís; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues; Costa, Yuri Martins; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi
The primary aims of this study are to compare neck disability in masticatory myofascial pain subjects versus asymptomatic controls, and to evaluate the correlation between neck disability and muscle pain. Two groups composed this case-control study: a symptomatic group comprised of 27 subjects diagnosed with masticatory myofascial pain, as determined by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD), and a control group comprised of 28 asymptomatic subjects. The collected variables were pain intensity (visual analogue scale), pressure pain threshold of the temporomandibular joint, anterior temporalis, masseter, sternocleidomastoid muscle, upper trapezius and Achilles tendon (digital dynamometer, kgf/cm(2)), and neck disability (Neck Disability Index). Statistical analysis included Student's t-test and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (5% significance level and 95% confidence interval). The symptomatic group showed greater neck disability with a mean (SD) of 11.8 (7), as compared with 2.8 (2.4) for the asymptomatic group (pcervical structures, insofar as subjects with masticatory myofascial pain reported greater neck disability, which, in turn, was correlated with regional muscle sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shahidi, Bahar; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Maluf, Katrina S
The purpose of this investigation was to identify modifiable risk factors for the development of first-onset chronic neck pain among an inception cohort of healthy individuals working in a high-risk occupation. Candidate risk factors identified from previous studies were categorized into psychosocial, physical, and neurophysiological domains, which were assessed concurrently in a baseline evaluation of 171 office workers within the first 3 months of hire. Participants completed monthly online surveys over the subsequent year to identify the presence of chronic interfering neck pain, defined as a Neck Disability Index score ≥5 points for 3 or more months. Data were analyzed using backward logistic regression to identify significant predictors within each domain, which were then entered into a multivariate regression model adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Development of chronic interfering neck pain was predicted by depressed mood (odds ratio [OR] = 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-10.31, P = .03), cervical extensor endurance (OR = .92, 95% CI, .87-.97, P = .001), and diffuse noxious inhibitory control (OR = .90, 95% CI, .83-.98, P = .02) at baseline. These findings provide the first evidence that individuals with preexisting impairments in mood and descending pain modulation may be at greater risk for developing chronic neck pain when exposed to peripheral nociceptive stimuli such as that produced during muscle fatigue. Depressed mood, poor muscle endurance, and impaired endogenous pain inhibition are predisposing factors for the development of new-onset chronic neck pain of nonspecific origin in office workers. These findings may assist with primary prevention by allowing clinicians to screen for individuals at risk of developing chronic neck pain. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Although leisure-time physical activity is important for health, adherence to regular exercise is challenging for many adults. The workplace may provide an optimal setting to reach a large proportion of the adult population needing regular physical exercise. This study evaluates the effect of implementing strength training at the workplace on non-specific neck and shoulder pain among industrial workers. Methods Cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 537 adults from occupations with high prevalence of neck and shoulder pain (industrial production units). Participants were randomized to 20 weeks of high-intensity strength training for the neck and shoulders three times a week (n = 282) or a control group receiving advice to stay physically active (n = 255). The strength training program followed principles of progressive overload and periodization. The primary outcome was changes in self-reported neck and shoulder pain intensity (scale 0-9). Results 85% of the participants followed the strength training program on a weekly basis. In the training group compared with the control group, neck pain intensity decreased significantly (-0.6, 95% CI -1.0 to -0.1) and shoulder pain intensity tended to decrease (-0.2, 95% CI -0.5 to 0.1, P = 0.07). For pain-cases at baseline (pain intensity > = 3) the odds ratio - in the training group compared with the control group - for being a non-case at follow-up (pain intensity < 3) was 2.0 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.2) for the neck and 3.9 (95% CI 1.7 to 9.4) for the shoulders. Conclusion High-intensity strength training relying on principles of progressive overload can be successfully implemented at industrial workplaces, and results in significant reductions of neck and shoulder pain. Trial registration NCT01071980. PMID:21936939
Ehrmann Feldman, Debbie; Shrier, Ian; Rossignol, Michel; Abenhaim, Lucien
A prospective, repeated measures cohort study with high school students was conducted in Montreal, Canada. To determine the incidence of neck and upper limb pain and associated risk factors in a cohort of adolescents. Neck and upper limb pain is frequent in adolescents and may be associated with repetitive motion from certain activities such as playing music, working, and engaging in sports activities. For this study, 502 students in the seventh to ninth grades in three schools were assessed. Data were collected at three times 6 months apart over a 12-month period. Students responded to a questionnaire addressing musculoskeletal health and lifestyle factors and were measured for height and weight. Neck or upper limb pain occurring at least once a week in the preceding 6 months was defined as the outcome. Multivariate methods were used to model the repeated measures dichotomous outcome as a function of engaging in physical activity, working, or playing a musical instrument, adjusted for covariates. The cumulative annual incidence of neck and upper limb pain was 28.4%. The risk factors for neck and upper limb pain were working (adjusted odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-3.32) and lower mental health score (adjusted odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-2). Students involved in childcare were at a higher risk for the development of pain (adjusted odds ratio, 2.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-4.29). Neck and upper limb pain is common in teenagers. Sports involvement and music participation were not risk factors for the development of neck and upper limb pain. However, pain was more likely to develop in adolescents who worked than in students who had a lower mental health score.
Mortensen Ole S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Such musculoskeletal pain - which is often associated with restricted range of motion and loss of muscle strength - is one of the most common conditions treated by physical therapists. The exact mechanism of neck pain is rarely revealed by clinical examination and the treatment has varied from passive rest to active treatments. Active treatments have often been divided into either training of the painful area or the surrounding musculature avoiding direct training of the painful area. Our study investigates the effect of the latter approach. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial of 10 weeks duration is currently being conducted. Employed office workers with severe neck-shoulder pain are randomized to 3 × 20 min shoulder function training with training supervision or to a reference group receiving advice to stay physically active. Shoulder function training primarily focuses on the serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscle with only minimal activation the upper trapezius. An announcement was sent to the administrative section of the university including jobs characterized by intensive computer work. The first 100 positive replies entered the study. Among these inclusion criteria were pain intensity in the neck/shoulder of at least 3 on a 0-9 scale. Exclusion criteria were cardiovascular disease, trauma, hypertension, or serious chronic disease. Before and after the intervention period the participants replied to a questionnaire about musculoskeletal disorders and work disability, and underwent a standardized clinical examination of the neck and shoulder girdle. Further, on a weekly basis the participants log pain intensity of the neck and shoulder during the previous week. The primary outcome measure is pain in the neck and shoulders at week 10 based on the weekly pain registration and results
Bruflat, Angela K.; Balter, Jaclyn E.; McGuire, Denise; Fethke, Nathan B.
Background and Purpose Chronic neck pain is prevalent in the workplace. Research suggests that psychosocial stress may contribute to the development of neck pain by causing excessive or prolonged muscle activity in some individuals. The purpose of this case report is to describe the rationale, development, and implementation of stress management as an adjunct to standard physical therapist management of chronic neck pain in a female office worker who responded to psychosocial stress with elevated muscle activity prior to treatment. Case Description A 44-year-old female office employee with an 8-year history of chronic neck pain participated in this case report. The patient was selected from a group of research participants who demonstrated elevated electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle in response to simulated occupational stressors. The multidisciplinary intervention consisted of 8 physical therapy sessions, supplemented by 8 stress management sessions that included EMG biofeedback and psychotherapy to facilitate muscle relaxation. Outcomes Neck disability decreased by 50%, trait anxiety decreased by 21%, and the duration of trapezius muscle rest in the workplace increased by 56% immediately after the 8-week intervention. These improvements were maintained 6 months after treatment, and the patient reported a complete absence of neck disability at the 2-year follow-up assessment. Discussion A sustained reduction in neck disability was observed for a patient with chronic neck pain after participating in a multidisciplinary intervention that combined physical therapy and stress management approaches to facilitate muscle relaxation in the workplace. Future clinical trials are needed to assess whether stress management is a useful adjunct therapy for patients with chronic neck pain who show elevated muscle activity in response to psychosocial stress. PMID:22700538
Background Although neck pain is common in young adulthood, studies on predictive factors for its onset and persistence are scarce. It is therefore important to identify possible risk factors among young adults so as to prevent the development of neck pain later in life. Methods A prospective study was carried out in healthy undergraduate students. At baseline, a self-administered questionnaire and standardized physical examination were used to collect data on biopsychosocial factors. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 months thereafter, follow-up data were collected on the incidence of neck pain. Those who reported neck pain on ≥ 2 consecutive follow-ups were categorized as having persistent neck pain. Two regression models were built to analyze risk factors for the onset and persistence of neck pain. Results Among the recruited sample of 684 students, 46% reported the onset of neck pain between baseline and 1-year follow-up, of whom 33% reported persistent neck pain. The onset of neck pain was associated with computer screen position not being level with the eyes and mouse position being self-rated as suitable. Factors that predicted persistence of neck pain were position of the keyboard being too high, use of computer for entertainment < 70% of total computer usage time, and students being in the second year of their studies. Conclusion Neck pain is quite common among undergraduate students. This study found very few proposed risk factors that predicted onset and persistence of neck pain. The future health of undergraduate students deserves consideration. However, there is still much uncertainty about factors leading to neck pain and more research is needed on this topic. PMID:21756362
Kabir Isah Mayana
Full Text Available Background: Neck pain has been reported as a prevalent musculoskeletal disorder globally with more than half of the general population being affected once or more within their life span. Methods: A randomized clinical trial research design was used which investigated the immediate effect of cervical manipulation on neck pain and cervical range of motion among patients with chronic mechanical neck pain. 20 male and female participants between the ages of 26 to 60 years with chronic mechanical neck pain attending physiotherapy clinics were recruited. They were randomly assigned into two groups (A and B of 10 patients each. Group A received soft tissue massage, and cervical manipulation and group B served as the control group, and they received only soft tissue massage. There were two outcomes measured; Pain intensity was rated using visual analog scale (VAS before and immediately after the intervention. Pre and Post intervention measurements of cervical spine range of motion using Goniometer were also taken. Results: Findings of the study revealed significant immediate improvement of pain and Cervical Range of Motions (p<0.05 in all dimensions in the experimental group while Pain, flexion and right side Cervical flexion significantly improved in the control group. It was also found out after comparing the outcomes between the two groups that, the experimental group had significantly (p<0.05 better improvement than the control group in post-intervention pain, cervical flexion, cervical extension and cervical (right and left lateral rotations. Conclusion: Cervical manipulation is effective in immediate pain relief and improvement in cervical range of motion in patients with mechanical neck pain
Meisingset, Ingebrigt; Woodhouse, Astrid; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Stavdahl, Øyvind; Lorås, Håvard; Gismervik, Sigmund; Andresen, Hege; Austreim, Kristian; Vasseljen, Ottar
Neck pain is associated with several alterations in neck motion and motor control. Previous studies have investigated single constructs of neck motor control, while few have applied a comprehensive set of tests to investigate cervical motor control. This comparative cross- sectional study aimed to investigate different motor control constructs in neck pain patients and healthy controls. A total of 166 subjects participated in the study, 91 healthy controls (HC) and 75 neck pain patients (NP) with long-lasting moderate to severe neck pain. Neck flexibility, proprioception, head steadiness, trajectory movement control, and postural sway were assessed using a 3D motion tracking system (Liberty). The different constructs of neck motion and motor control were based on tests used in previous studies. Neck flexibility was lower in NP compared to HC, indicated by reduced cervical ROM and conjunct motion. Movement velocity was slower in NP compared to HC. Tests of head steadiness showed a stiffer movement pattern in NP compared to HC, indicated by lower head angular velocity. NP patients departed less from a predictable trajectory movement pattern (figure of eight) compared to healthy controls, but there was no difference for unpredictable movement patterns (the Fly test). No differences were found for postural sway in standing with eyes open and eyes closed. However, NP patients had significantly larger postural sway when standing on a balance pad. Proprioception did not differ between the groups. Largest effect sizes (ES) were found for neck flexibility (ES range: 0.2-0.8) and head steadiness (ES range: 1.3-2.0). Neck flexibility was the only construct that showed a significant association with current neck pain, while peak velocity was the only variable that showed a significant association with kinesiophobia. NP patients showed an overall stiffer and more rigid neck motor control pattern compared to HC, indicated by lower neck flexibility, slower movement velocity
Andersen, Christoffer H; Andersen, Lars L; Mortensen, Ole S
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Such musculoskeletal pain - which is often associated with restricted range of motion and loss of muscle strength - is one of the most common conditions...... treated by physical therapists. The exact mechanism of neck pain is rarely revealed by clinical examination and the treatment has varied from passive rest to active treatments. Active treatments have often been divided into either training of the painful area or the surrounding musculature avoiding direct...... training of the painful area. Our study investigates the effect of the latter approach. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial of 10 weeks duration is currently being conducted. Employed office workers with severe neck-shoulder pain are randomized to 3 × 20 min shoulder function training...
Stanton, Tasha R; Leake, Hayley B; Chalmers, K Jane; Moseley, G Lorimer
Despite common use of proprioceptive retraining interventions in people with chronic, idiopathic neck pain, evidence that proprioceptive dysfunction exists in this population is lacking. Determining whether proprioceptive dysfunction exists in people with chronic neck pain has clear implications for treatment prescription. The aim of this study was to synthesize and critically appraise all evidence evaluating proprioceptive dysfunction in people with chronic, idiopathic neck pain by completing a systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, Allied and Complementary Medicine, EMBASE, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and Cochrane Collaboration databases were searched. All published studies that compared neck proprioception (joint position sense) between a chronic, idiopathic neck pain sample and asymptomatic controls were included. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant population and proprioception data and assessed methodological quality using a modified Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. Thirteen studies were included in the present review. Meta-analysis on 10 studies demonstrated that people with chronic neck pain perform significantly worse on head-to-neutral repositioning tests, with a moderate standardized mean difference of 0.44 (95% confidence interval=0.25, 0.63). Two studies evaluated head repositioning using trunk movement (no active head movement thus hypothesized to remove vestibular input) and showed conflicting results. Three studies evaluated complex or postural repositioning tests; postural repositioning was no different between groups, and complex movement tests were impaired only in participants with chronic neck pain if error was continuously evaluated throughout the movement. A paucity of studies evaluating complex or postural repositioning tests does not permit any solid conclusions about them. People with chronic, idiopathic
McCaskey, Michael A.; Schuster-Amft, Corinna; Wirth, Brigitte; Suica, Zorica; de Bruin, Eling D
Background Proprioceptive training (PrT) is popularly applied as preventive or rehabilitative exercise method in various sports and rehabilitation settings. Its effect on pain and function is only poorly evaluated. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise and analyse the existing data on the effects of PrT on pain alleviation and functional restoration in patients with chronic (≥3 months) neck- or back pain. Methods Relevant electronic databases were searched from their respective i...
Koning, C.H. de; Heuvel, SP van den; Staal, J.B; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M; Heniks, E.J.M
.... This article provides a critical analysis of the research literature on the clinimetric properties of tests to measure neck muscle strength or endurance in patients with non-specific neck pain, which...
Petersen, Shannon Bravo; Cook, Chad; Donaldson, Megan; Hassen, Amy; Ellis, Alyson; Learman, Ken
To compare the effect of manual therapy (MT) and an augmentative exercise programme (AEP) versus MT and general neck range of motion (ROM) on functional outcomes for patients with neck pain. A secondary objective was to examine changes in self-report measures and quantitative sensory testing (QST) following MT and AEP. This was a randomised clinical trial. Seventy-two patients with neck pain were recruited. All patients received a single session of MT. Patients were randomly assigned to MT+AEP or MT+ROM. Clinical self-report outcome measures for disability and pain, and QST measures (pain and vibration thresholds) were collected at baseline, post MT treatment, at ∼48 hours, and at ∼96 hours. Repeated measures ANOVA and MANOVA were used to analyse within and between-group effects for clinical and QST measures. There were no between-group differences for disability, pain and QST measures. There was, however, a significant difference between groups for Global Rating of Change (GRoC) scores (P = 0.037). Patients in both groups showed improvements in pain, disability and trapezius pressure-pain threshold (PPT) (all P < 0.001). Augmentative exercise programme does not significantly improve disability, pain or QST measures in patients with chronic neck pain although it may enhance their GRoC scores. Over a 96-hour period, patients benefitted from MT plus exercise whether the exercise was general or specific.
Saha, Felix J; Schumann, Stefan; Cramer, Holger; Hohmann, Claudia; Choi, Kyung-Eun; Rolke, Roman; Langhorst, Jost; Rampp, Thomas; Dobos, Gustav; Lauche, Romy
Chronic neck pain is a major public health burden with only limited evidence for the effectiveness of complementary therapies. This study aimed to test the efficacy of cupping massage in patients with neck pain. Patients with chronic non-specific neck pain were randomly assigned to cupping massage or a wait list control. The intervention group received 5 cupping massages on a twice-weekly basis while the control patients continued their usual treatments. The primary outcome measure was neck pain intensity (0-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS)) after 3 weeks. Secondary outcomes included pain on movement, functional disability, health-related quality of life, mechanical detection and pain thresholds and adverse events. 50 patients (52.6 ± 10.3 years, 92% female) were randomised to either cupping massage or a wait list (N = 25 each). Patients in the cupping group reported significantly less neck pain post intervention (difference per protocol -14.3 mm, 95% confidence interval (CI) -27.7 to -1.0, p = 0.037; difference intention-to-treat -10.8 mm, 95% CI -21.5 to -0.1, p = 0.047). Significant group differences in favour of the intervention were further found for pain on movement (p = 0.019) and functional disability (p Cupping massage appears to be effective in reducing pain and increasing function and quality of life in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. More rigorous studies are needed to confirm and extend these results. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Ling Jun Kong
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of massage therapy (MT for neck and shoulder pain. Methods. Seven English and Chinese databases were searched until December 2011 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs of MT for neck and shoulder pain. The methodological quality of RCTs was assessed based on PEDro scale. The meta-analyses of MT for neck and shoulder pain were performed. Results. Twelve high-quality studies were included. In immediate effects, the meta-analyses showed significant effects of MT for neck pain (standardised mean difference, SMD, 1.79; 95% confidence intervals, CI, 1.01 to 2.57; P<0.00001 and shoulder pain (SMD, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.55 to 2.45; P=0.002 versus inactive therapies. And MT showed short-term effects for shoulder pain (SMD, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.53 to 2.49; P=0.003. But MT did not show better effects for neck pain (SMD, 0.13; 95% CI, −0.38 to 0.63; P=0.63 or shoulder pain (SMD, 0.88; 95% CI, −0.74 to 2.51; P=0.29 than active therapies. In addition, functional status of the shoulder was not significantly affected by MT. Conclusion. MT may provide immediate effects for neck and shoulder pain. However, MT does not show better effects on pain than other active therapies. No evidence suggests that MT is effective in functional status.
Lövgren, Malin; Gustavsson, Petter; Melin, Bo; Rudman, Ann
Although it is well known that musculoskeletal disorders are common among registered nurses, little longitudinal research has been conducted to examine this problem from nursing education to working life. The aim was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of neck/shoulder and back pain in nursing students in their final semester, and one and two years after graduation. Furthermore, to identify common trajectories of neck/shoulder and back pain, and explore sociodemographic and lifestyle-related factors, contextual factors and health outcome that might be characteristic of individuals in the various trajectories. Longitudinal study following nursing students from their final year of studies, with follow-ups one and two years after graduation. Nursing students who graduated from the 26 universities providing undergraduate nursing education in Sweden 2002 were invited to participate (N=1700). Of those asked, 1153 gave their informed consent. The participants answered postal surveys at yearly intervals. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze prevalence and incidence of pain, and growth mixture modeling was applied to identify different homogeneous clusters of individuals following similar trajectories in pain development across time. The prevalence of neck/shoulder and back pain remained constant over time (around 50% for neck/shoulder pain and just over 40% for back pain). Six different development trajectories for each symptom were found, reflecting patterns of stable pain levels or variation in levels over time: one symptom-free group, two decreasing pain groups, two increasing pain groups, and one chronic pain group. With few exceptions, the same factors (sex, children, chronic disease, working overtime, work absence, sickness presence, physical load, depression, self-rated health, sleep quality and muscular tension) were associated with neck/shoulder and back pain trajectories. Different types of physical load characterized new nurses with neck
Emerich, M; Braeunig, M; Clement, H W; Lüdtke, R; Huber, R
Cupping worldwide has been part of traditional medicine systems and is in the western world used as CAM therapy mainly for treating pain syndromes. The mode of action is up to now unclear. In order to investigate its mechanism we measured in parallel metabolic changes in the tissue under the cupping glass and pressure pain thresholds. In 12 volunteers (6 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic neck pain) a microdialysis system was implanted subcutaneously on both sides (left and right) above the trapezius muscle. After baseline measures cupping was performed at one randomly selected side (left or right), the other side served as control. Every 20 min during baseline measures and for 280 min after cupping, microdialysis probes for detection of lactate, pyruvate, glucose and glycerin were taken. In addition, pain thresholds were measured before and after cupping with algometry. Cupping resulted in a strong increase of lactate (beginning 160 min after cupping until the end of the measurements) and the lactate/pyruvate ratio, indicating an anaerobe metabolism in the surrounding tissue. Baseline pain thresholds were non-significantly lower in neck pain patients compared to healthy controls and slightly increased immediately after cupping (pcupping in healthy subjects and on the foot in neck pain patients). After 280 min no more significant changes of pain thresholds were detected. Cupping induces >280 min lasting anaerobe metabolism in the subcutaneous tissue and increases immediate pressure pain thresholds in some areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Abe, Toshiki; Abe, Eiji; Kikuchi, Kazuma; Noguchi, Hideaki; Konno, Norikazu; Shimada, Yoichi
Calcification of the yellow ligament sometimes compresses the spinal cord and can induce myelopathy. Usually, the calcification does not induce acute neck pain. We report a case of a patient with acute neck pain caused by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in a calcified cervical yellow ligament. A 70-year-old Japanese woman presented with acute neck pain. She had a moderately high fever (37.5 °C), and her neck pain was so severe that she could not move her neck in any direction. Computed tomography showed a high-density area between the C5 and C6 laminae suspicious for calcification of the yellow ligament. Magnetic resonance imaging showed intermediate-signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging and high-signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging surrounding a low-signal region on both T1- and T2-weighted imaging with cord compression. There was a turbid, yellow fluid collection in the yellow ligament at the time of operation. Histologically, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were found in the fluid, and she was diagnosed as having a pseudogout attack of the yellow ligament. Pseudogout attack of the cervical yellow ligament is rare, but this clinical entity should be added to the differential diagnosis of acute neck pain, especially when calcification of the yellow ligament exists.
Full Text Available Background: The abundance of mechanoreceptors in the cervical spine and their central and reflex afferent connections to the vestibular, visual and postural control system suggests that the cervical proprioceptive information provides important somatosensory information influencing postural stability, head orientation and eye movement control. Disturbances to the afferent input from the cervical region is thought to underlie symptoms of dizziness, unsteadiness, visual disturbances and signs of altered postural stability, cervical proprioception and head and eye movement control in people with chronic neck pain. This study aimed to assess and compare cervical joint position sense in subjects with chronic neck pain vs normals. Methods: Total 60 subjects, divided into two groups chronic neck pain group (n=30 (12 males and 18 females with mean age of 40.7 years and control group (n=30 with age and gender matched normal individuals were assessed for baseline data and demographic variables. Head repositioning accuracy test was used to assess cervical joint position sense in degrees. Results: The difference in the head repositioning error values were found to be extremely significant (p<0.0001 for all the neck movements for subjects with chronic neck pain as compared to normals. Conclusion: Cervical joint position sense in subjects with chronic neck pain is found to be altered as compared to age and gender matched normals.
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling
Introduction: Neck pain is frequent among helicopter pilots and crew (1). The aim of this study was to investigate if an exercise intervention could reduce the prevalence of neck-pain among helicopter pilots and crew. Methods: Thirty-one pilots and thirty-eight crew members were randomized...... to an exercise-training-group ETG (n=35) or a reference-group REF (n=34). ETG underwent 20 weeks of strength-endurance and coordination training, targeting deep/superficial neck muscles. REF received no training. Primary outcome: Intensity of neck-pain the previous 3-months (11-point numeric box scale) (2......) and Pressure-Pain-Threshold (PPT) in the trapezius m. and upper neck extensors. Secondary outcome: Maximal-Voluntary-Contraction (MVC) for cervical flexion/extension and shoulder-elevation. Results: Neck-pain for ETG was (mean±SD) 1.9±1.7 at baseline and 1.8±2.1 at follow-up, and correspondingly for REF 2...
Sihawong, Rattaporn; Sitthipornvorakul, Ekalak; Paksaichol, Arpalak; Janwantanakul, Prawit
All occupations expose workers to varied and unique conditions. The nature of work has been recognized as influencing the health of workers. Whether predictors for chronic neck and low back pain would be occupation-specific is unknown. This study aimed to identify predictors for chronic neck and low back pain in a cohort of office workers. A prospective study was carried out among 669 healthy office workers. At baseline, risk factors were assessed using a questionnaire and standardized physical examination. A symptomatic case was defined as an individual who reported pain greater than 30 mm on a 100-mm VAS, and chronic pain was defined as experiencing ongoing neck or low back pain for greater than 3 months over the past 6 months. Two regression models were built to analyze the risk factors for developing chronic neck and low back pain. Of the sample, 17 and 27% of office workers who reported a new onset of neck or low back pain developed chronicity, respectively. Predictors for chronic neck pain were high body mass index, frequent neck extension during the work day, high initial pain intensity, and high psychological job demands. The development of chronic low back pain was associated with history of low back pain and high initial pain intensity. The findings suggest that predictors for chronic musculoskeletal pain in a subpopulation may be a subset of predictors identified in a general population or occupation specific. Successful management to prevent chronic musculoskeletal pain may also need to consider the patient's occupation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although leisure-time physical activity is important for health, adherence to regular exercise is challenging for many adults. The workplace may provide an optimal setting to reach a large proportion of the adult population needing regular physical exercise. This study evaluates the effect of implementing strength training at the workplace on non-specific neck and shoulder pain among industrial workers. Methods Cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 537 adults from occupations with high prevalence of neck and shoulder pain (industrial production units. Participants were randomized to 20 weeks of high-intensity strength training for the neck and shoulders three times a week (n = 282 or a control group receiving advice to stay physically active (n = 255. The strength training program followed principles of progressive overload and periodization. The primary outcome was changes in self-reported neck and shoulder pain intensity (scale 0-9. Results 85% of the participants followed the strength training program on a weekly basis. In the training group compared with the control group, neck pain intensity decreased significantly (-0.6, 95% CI -1.0 to -0.1 and shoulder pain intensity tended to decrease (-0.2, 95% CI -0.5 to 0.1, P = 0.07. For pain-cases at baseline (pain intensity > = 3 the odds ratio - in the training group compared with the control group - for being a non-case at follow-up (pain intensity Conclusion High-intensity strength training relying on principles of progressive overload can be successfully implemented at industrial workplaces, and results in significant reductions of neck and shoulder pain. Trial registration NCT01071980.
Faour, Mhamad; Anderson, Joshua T; Haas, Arnold R; Percy, Rick; Woods, Stephen T; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas U
The use of opioids among patients with workers' compensation claims is associated with tremendous costs, especially for patients who undergo spinal surgery. This study compared return-to-work rates after single-level cervical fusion for degenerative disk disease between patients who received opioids before surgery and patients who underwent fusion with no previous opioid use. All study subjects qualified for workers' compensation benefits for injuries sustained at work between 1993 and 2011. The study population included 281 subjects who underwent single-level cervical fusion for degenerative disk disease with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology code algorithms. The opioid group included 77 subjects who received opioids preoperatively. The control group included 204 subjects who had surgery with no previous opioid use. The primary outcome was meeting return-to-work criteria within 3 years of follow-up after fusion. Secondary outcome measures after surgery, surgical details, and presurgical characteristics for each cohort also were collected. In 36.4% of the opioid group, return-to-work criteria were met compared with 56.4% of the control group. Patients who took opioids were less likely to meet return-to-work criteria compared with the control group (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.76; P=.0028). Return-to-work rates within the first year after fusion were 24.7% for the opioid group and 45.6% for the control group (P=.0014). Patients who used opioids were absent from work for 255 more days compared with the control group (P=.0001). The use of opioids for management of diskogenic neck pain, with the possibility of surgical intervention, is a negative predictor of successful return to work after fusion in a workers' compensation population. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):25-32.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Dijkstra, PU; van Wilgen, PC; Brendeke, W; de Goede, CJT; Kerst, A; Koolstra, M; Marinus, J; Schoppink, EM; Stuiver, MM; van de Velde, CF; Roodenburg, JLN
Background. It is the purpose of this study to determine the incidence of shoulder pain and restricted range of motion of the shoulder after neck dissection, and to identify risk factors for the development of shoulder pain and restricted range of motion. Methods. Clinical patients who underwent a
Smit, M.; Balm, A. J.; Hilgers, F. J.; Tan, I. B.
The role of pain in head and neck cancer is seldom addressed. This retrospective study examined in a group of 190 curatively treated patients to what extent pain complaints should be considered to be the first sign of recurrent disease. The research population exists of 95 patients with a recurrent
Murphy, Bernadette A; Marshall, Paul W; Taylor, Heidi Haavik
Reliability study. To determine the reproducibility of the cervical flexion-relaxation ratio (FRR) measured 4 weeks apart in a group of chronic neck pain patients and healthy control group and to compare the FRR between the 2 groups. The cervical FRR measures the ability of the neck extensor muscles to relax during forward flexion, similar to the lumbar FRR. Its reliability and ability to discriminate neck pain patients from controls has not been investigated. Fourteen participants with chronic neck pain and a control group of 14 individuals with no neck pain were recruited via advertisement and word of mouth. The cervical FRR was determined at baseline and 4 weeks later using standardized electromyographic data collection and analysis procedures. The mean FRR value for the combined left and right side data for the neck pain groups was 1.93 ± 0.8, and 1.73 ± 0.61 at 4-week follow-up. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.83 (95% CI = 0.67-0.92). Three participants in the control group developed neck pain in the 4 weeks and their data were not included in the reliability calculation. For the control group, the combined (left and right side) mean FRR value was 4.09 ± 1.58 at baseline and 4.27 ± 1.71 on retest 4 weeks later. The ICC (intraclass r) was 0.89 (95% confidence interval = 0.76-0.95). The overall ICC for the combined groups was 0.92 (95% confidence interval = 0.86-0.95). An independent 2 group t test revealed a significant difference in the baseline FRR data between the control group and the neck pain group (P flexion-relaxation phenomenon in healthy control subjects and the measurement is highly reproducible when measured 4 weeks apart in both controls and chronic neck pain patients. The FRR in neck pain patients is significantly higher than in control subjects suggesting that this measure may be a useful marker of altered neuromuscular function.
Patrick B. Trotter
Full Text Available Objectives: Pain is a common complication in head and neck cancer. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the evidence from randomised control trials investigating pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods of pain management in head and neck cancer. Material and Methods: Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library databases were searched. Squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck excluding nasopharyngeal and salivary gland cancers were included. The limits were “human” and “randomised clinical trials”. A quality assessment was carried out. Results: 13 studies were included with a total of 644 participants. The primary outcome for most of these papers was pain control post-treatment. Levels of bias varied between the studies. Majority (12 out of the 13 studies reported intervention to be superior to the control or standard therapy in pain management. Only 46% of the studies were carried out on an intention to treat basis. Two studies reported high dropout rates, with one at 66%. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence from randomised clinical trials to suggest an optimal pharmacological intervention for head and neck cancer pain post-treatment. Further high quality randomised clinical trials should be conducted to develop an optimal management strategy for head and neck cancer pain.
Andrade Ortega, Juan Alfonso; Cerón Fernández, Encarnación; García Llorent, Rosario; Ribeiro González, Marisa; Delgado Martínez, Alberto Damián
Although the use of deep heat therapy is widespread, there is scant literature available on its effectiveness in treating back or neck pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of microwave diathermy to treat nonspecific chronic neck pain. The study was designed as a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The patient sample consisted of 149 patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain in a hospital of the Andalusian Public Health Care System, Spain The study outcome measures are as follows: at baseline, pain intensity (using a visual analogue scale), disability (Neck Disability Index), and health-related quality of life (36-item short form health survey [SF-36]); at 3 weeks, baseline measures and patients' perceived overall outcome and satisfaction with the treatment; and at 6 months, 3-week measures, therapeutic co-interventions, and adherence to exercises. Patients were allocated randomly to three groups. The first group received continuous microwave diathermy, the second group was administered pulsed microwaves, and the third group (the control group) received unplugged microwaves. All three groups received the same general treatment: range of motion, isometric exercises, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The three groups had reduced pain and disability, and improvement was seen in some dimensions of the SF-36. However, there were no differences found in any of the parameters measured among the three therapeutic groups. Microwave diathermy does not provide additional benefit to a treatment regimen of chronic neck pain that already involves other treatment approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thoolen, Stijn J J; van den Oord, Marieke H A H
Neck and back pain in fighter pilots remains a serious occupational problem. We hypothesized that recent advances such as the joint helmet mounted cueing system (JHMCS) in modern air combat might contribute to the development of spinal complaints in F-16 pilots. Surveyed were 59 F-16 pilots of the Royal Netherlands Air Force who were compared to 49 F-16 pilots who filled in a similar questionnaire in 2007. The prevalence of neck and back pain, work situations, and capacity of the pilot were analyzed. The self-reported 1-yr prevalence of regular or continuous neck and lower back pain in 2014 were 22% and 31%, respectively, compared to both being 12% in 2007. Age, military flying experience, total number of flying hours, flying hours on the F-16, and total number of hours flown with night vision goggles (NVG) were significantly higher in 2014. In 2014, 95% flew with JHMCS, compared to 0% in 2007. Flying with JHMCS (88%), NVG (88%), type of flight (63%), and sitting posture (50%) were the most reported causes of flight-related neck pain. Sitting posture (89%), duration of flight (56%), and seat (44%) were among the reported causes of back pain. The increasing trend of neck and lower back pain might be caused by multiple changes in both the work situation and capacity of the pilots since 2007. Future innovations will increase the load on the pilot's spine. To successfully address their spinal problems in the future, fighter pilots must be monitored continuously.
An, Yonghui; Li, Jia; Li, Yongqian; Shen, Yong
The purpose of this study was to evaluate characteristics of Modic changes in cervical kyphosis (CK) and their association with axial neck pain. Study participants included 286 asymptomatic or symptomatic patients with CK (mean age = 54.2 ± 12.2 years) who were consecutively enrolled from March 2009 to October 2015. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed at a university outpatient department. CK was classified as global type, reverse sigmoid type, or sigmoid type. There were 138 participants with global type CK, 103 with reverse sigmoid type CK, and 45 with sigmoid type CK. Of the 286 participants, 102 had Modic changes (Modic-1 in 38 segments and Modic-2 in 75 segments). Spinal cord compression grade and disc degeneration occurred more frequently in the group with axial neck pain compared to the group without pain. Angular motion was decreased in those with axial neck pain (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 7.8°±4.6°) compared to those who were asymptomatic (mean ± SD 8.9°±5.1°; Plogistic regression analysis, Modic changes were associated with axial neck pain (odds ratio =5.356; 95% confidence interval =1.314-12.800; Preverse sigmoid type and sigmoid type. Modic changes are associated with axial neck pain in patients with CK.
Siroka, Andrew M.; Shane, Andrea C.; Trafton, Jodie A.; Wagner, Todd H.
Structured Abstract Study design We reviewed existing methods for identifying patients with neck and back pain in administrative data. We compared these methods using data from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Objective To answer the following questions: 1) what diagnosis codes should be used to identify patients with neck and back pain in administrative data; 2) because the majority of complaints are characterized as non-specific or mechanical, what diagnosis codes should be used to identify patients with non-specific or mechanical problems in administrative data; and 3) what procedure and surgical codes should be used to identify patients who have undergone a surgical procedure on the neck or back. Summary of background data Musculoskeletal neck and back pain are pervasive problems, associated with chronic pain, disability, and high rates of healthcare utilization. Administrative data have been widely used in formative research which has largely relied on the original work of Volinn, Cherkin, Deyo and Einstadter and the Back Pain Patient Outcomes Assessment Team first published in 1992. Significant variation in reports of incidence, prevalence, and morbidity associated with these problems may be due to non standard or conflicting methods to define study cohorts. Methods A literature review produced seven methods for identifying neck and back pain in administrative data. These code lists were used to search VA data for patients with back and neck problems, and to further categorize each case by spinal segment involved, as non- specific/mechanical and as surgical or not. Results There is considerable overlap in most algorithms. However, gaps remain. Conclusions Gaps are evident in existing methods and a new framework to identify patients with neck and back pain in administrative data is proposed. PMID:22127268
Beinert, Konstantin; Taube, Wolfgang
The authors' aim was to evaluate the effect of balance training on cervical joint position sense in people with subclinical neck pain. Thirty-four participants were randomly assigned to balance training or to stay active. Sensorimotor function was determined before and after 5 weeks of training by assessing the ability to reproduce the neutral head position and a predefined rotated head position. After balance training, the intervention group showed improved joint repositioning accuracy and decreased pain whereas no effects were observed in the control group. A weak correlation was identified between reduced neck pain intensity and improved joint repositioning. The present data demonstrate that balance training can effectively improve cervical sensorimotor function and decrease neck pain intensity.
Ashina, Sait; Bendtsen, Lars; Lyngberg, Ann C
BACKGROUND: We assessed the prevalence of neck pain in the population in relation to headache. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 797 individuals completed a headache interview and provided self-reported data on neck pain. We identified migraine, TTH or both migraine and TTH (M......+TTH) groups. Pericranial tenderness was recorded in 496 individuals. A total tenderness score (TTS) was calculated as the sum of local scores with a maximum score of 48. RESULTS: The one-year prevalence of neck pain was 68.4% and higher in those with vs. without primary headache (85.7% vs. 56.7%; adjusted...... OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.4, pneck pain (56.7%) was significantly higher in those with M+TTH (89.3%), pure TTH (88.4%) and pure migraine (76.2%) (p
Meyer, Patricia M; Gustowski, Sharon M
Pain is a common occurrence after tooth extraction and is usually localized to the extraction site. However, clinical experience shows that patients may also have pain in the head or neck in the weeks after this procedure. The authors present a case representative of these findings. In the case, cranial and cervical somatic dysfunction in a patient who had undergone tooth extraction was resolved through the use of osteopathic manipulative treatment. This case emphasizes the need to include a dental history when evaluating head and neck pain as part of comprehensive osteopathic medical care. The case can also serve as a foundation for a detailed discussion regarding how to effectively incorporate osteopathic manipulative treatment into primary care practice for patients who present with head or neck pain after tooth extraction.
Wirth, B; Ferreira, T Duarte; Mittelholzer, M; Humphreys, B K; Boutellier, U
Patients with chronic neck pain show also respiratory dysfunctions. To investigate the effects of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) on chronic neck pain. In this pilot study (single-subject design: 3 baseline measurements, 4 measurements during RMET), 15 neck patients (49.3 ± 13.7 years; 13 females) conducted 20 sessions of home-based RMET using a SpiroTiger® (normocapnic hyperpnoea). Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), maximal inspiratory (Pimax) and expiratory (Pemax) pressure were measured before and after RMET. Neck flexor endurance, cervical and thoracic mobility, forward head posture, chest wall expansion and self-assessed neck disability [Neck Disability Index (NDI), Bournemouth questionnaire] were weekly assessed. Repeated measure ANOVA (Bonferroni correction) compared the first and last baseline and the last measurement after RMET. RMET significantly increased MVV (p= 0.025), Pimax (p= 0.001) and Pemax (pneck disability significantly decreased (NDI: p= 0.001; Bournemouth questionnaire: p= 0.002), while neck flexor endurance (pneck pain. The underlying mechanisms, including blood gas analyses, need further investigation in a randomized controlled study.
Van den Oord, Marieke H A H; Steinman, Yuval; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W
The main purpose of this study was to improve the helmet fit of military helicopter aircrew members and evaluate its effect on the experienced helmet stability (helmet gliding), neck load, neck pain, hot spots (pressure points), irritation/distraction, and overall helmet comfort during night flights. A within-subject design was used over a three-month period that consisted of two consecutive interventions of optimising the fit of the aircrew's helmets: 1) a new helmet fit using a renewed protocol and 2) replacement of a thermoplastic inner liner with a viscoelastic foam inner liner. A total of 18 pilots and loadmasters rated the outcome measures using the Visual Analogue Scales immediately after their night flights, for three night flights in total per measurement period. The optimised helmet fit resulted in a significant decrease in the experienced helmet gliding, neck load and pressure points, a decrease trend in the experienced neck pain and irritation/distraction, and a significant increase in the experienced overall helmet comfort during flight. These results demonstrate the importance of achieving an optimised helmet fit for military helicopter aircrew and that an optimised helmet fit might have implications for both health and safety concerns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Peloso, Paul M; Khan, Mahweesh; Gross, Anita R; Carlesso, Lisa; Santaguida, Lina; Lowcock, Janet; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, Dave; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Langevin, Pierre; Shi, Qiyun
Objectives: To conduct an overview (review-of-reviews) on pharmacological interventions for neck pain. Search Strategy: Computerized databases and grey literature were searched from 2006 to 2012. Selection Criteria: Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) in adults with acute to chronic neck pain reporting effects of pharmacological interventions including injections on pain, function/disability, global perceived effect, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Data Collection & Analysis: Two independent authors selected articles, assessed risk of bias and extracted data The GRADE tool was used to evaluate the body of evidence and an external panel provided critical review. Main Results: We found 26 reviews reporting on 47 RCTs. Most pharmacological interventions had low to very low quality methodologic evidence with three exceptions. For chronic neck pain, there was evidence of: a small immediate benefit for eperison hydrochloride (moderate GRADE, 1 trial, 157 participants);no short-term pain relieving benefit for botulinum toxin-A compared to saline (strong GRADE; 5 trial meta-analysis, 258 participants) nor for subacute/chronic whiplash (moderate GRADE; 4 trial meta-analysis, 183 participants) including reduced pain, disability or global perceived effect; andno long-term benefit for medial branch block of facet joints with steroids (moderate GRADE; 1 trial, 120 participants) over placebo to reduce pain or disability; Reviewers' Conclusions: While in general there is a lack of evidence for most pharmacological interventions, current evidence is against botulinum toxin-A for chronic neck pain or subacute/chronic whiplash; against medial branch block with steroids for chronic facet joint pain; but in favour of the muscle relaxant eperison hydrochloride for chronic neck pain. PMID:24155805
Edith Meszaros Crow
Full Text Available Considerable amount of money spent in health care is used for treatments of lifestyle related, chronic health conditions, which come from behaviors that contribute to morbidity and mortality of the population. Back and neck pain are two of the most common musculoskeletal problems in modern society that have significant cost in health care. Yoga, as a branch of complementary alternative medicine, has emerged and is showing to be an effective treatment against nonspecific spinal pain. Recent studies have shown positive outcome of yoga in general on reducing pain and functional disability of the spine. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the existing research within Iyengar yoga method and its effectiveness on relieving back and neck pain (defined as spinal pain. Database research form the following sources (Cochrane library, NCBI PubMed, the Clinical Trial Registry of the Indian Council of Medical Research, Google Scholar, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO demonstrated inclusion and exclusion criteria that selected only Iyengar yoga interventions, which in turn, identified six randomized control trials dedicated to compare the effectiveness of yoga for back and neck pain versus other care. The difference between the groups on the postintervention pain or functional disability intensity assessment was, in all six studies, favoring the yoga group, which projected a decrease in back and neck pain. Overall six studies with 570 patients showed, that Iyengar yoga is an effective means for both back and neck pain in comparison to control groups. This systematic review found strong evidence for short-term effectiveness, but little evidence for long-term effectiveness of yoga for chronic spine pain in the patient-centered outcomes.
Harvie, Daniel S; Hillier, Susan; Madden, Victoria J; Smith, Ross T; Broecker, Markus; Meulders, Ann; Moseley, G Lorimer
Proprioceptive imprecision is believed to contribute to persistent pain. Detecting imprecision in order to study or treat it remains challenging given the limitations of current tests. The aim of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive imprecision could be detected in people with neck pain by testing their ability to identify incongruence between true head motion and a false visual reference using the Proprioception Incongruence Detection (PID) Test. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Twenty-four people with neck pain and 24 matched controls repeatedly rotated to specific markers within a virtual world and indicated if their true head rotation was more or less than the rotation suggested by the visual feedback. Visual feedback was manipulated at 6 corrections, ranging from 60% of true movement to 140% of true movement. A standard repositioning error (RPE) test as undertaken for comparison. Healthy controls were better able to detect incongruence between vision and true head rotation (X̅=75.6%, SD=8.5%) than people with neck pain were (X̅=69.6%, SD=12.7%). The RPE test scores were not different between groups. The PID Test score related to self-reported pain intensity but did not relate to RPE test score. Causality cannot be established from this cross-sectional study, and further work refining the PID Test is needed for it to offer clinical utility. Proprioceptive precision for neck movement appears worse in people with neck pain than in those without neck pain, and the extent of the deficit appears to be related to usual pain severity. The PID Test appears to be a more sensitive test than the RPE test and is likely to be useful for assessment of proprioceptive function in research and clinical settings. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.
Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Howarth, Samuel; Ferguson, Brad; Murphy, Bernadette
Scapular orientation is highly dependent on axioscapular muscle function. This study examined the impact of neck muscle fatigue on scapular and humeral kinematics in participants with and without subclinical neck pain (SCNP) during humeral elevation. Ten SCNP and 10 control participants performed three unconstrained trials of dominant arm humeral elevation in the scapular plane to approximately 120 degrees before and after neck extensor muscle fatigue. Three-dimensional scapular and humeral kinematics were measured during the humeral elevation trials. Humeral elevation plane angle showed a significant interaction between groups (SCNP vs controls) and trial (pre- vs post-fatigue) (p=0.001). Controls began the unconstrained humeral elevation task after fatigue in a more abducted position, (p=0.002). Significant baseline differences in scapular rotation existed between the two groups (Posterior/Anterior tilt, p=0.04; Internal/External Rotation, p=0.001). SCNP contributed to altered scapular kinematics. Neck muscle fatigue influenced humeral kinematics in controls but not the SCNP group; suggesting that altered scapular motor control in the SCNP group resulted in an impaired adaption further to the neck muscle fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
He, Lucy; Ladner, Travis R; Cobb, Mark; Mocco, J
We report a patient with non-dermatomal radiating neck pain without focal neurologic deficit. Traditional workup could not identify an anatomic or biomechanical cause. Imaging showed a deep cervical vessel centered in the region of pain. Angiography later identified an aberrant anastomosis of this vessel with the occipital artery. Subsequent endovascular embolization of this arterial trunk resulted in complete pain relief. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Background There is a high prevalence of mental health problems amongst adolescents. In addition there is a high prevalence of spinal pain in this population. Evidence suggests that these conditions are related. This study sought to extend earlier findings by examining the relationship between mental health problems as measured by the Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) and the experience of back and neck pain in adolescents. Methods One thousand five hundred and eighty participants (mean age 14.1 years) from the Western Australian Pregnancy (Raine) Study provided cross-sectional spinal pain and CBCL data. Results As predicted, there was a high prevalence of back and neck pain in this cohort. On the whole, females reported more mental health difficulties than males. There were strong relationships between the majority of symptom scales of the CBCL and back and neck pain. Scores on the CBCL were associated with higher odds of comorbid back and neck pain. Conclusions These findings strongly support the need to consider both psychological and pain symptoms when providing assessments and treatment for adolescents. Further research is required to inform causal models. PMID:21609488
MacDermid, Joy C; Gross, Anita R; Galea, Victoria; McLaughlin, Laurie M; Parkinson, William L; Woodhouse, Linda J
Neck pain is a common and episodic condition that is treated using a spectrum of interventions known to be moderately effective but is associated with a significant incidence of chronic pain. Recently, there has been increased focus on defining biological aspects of neck pain. Studies have indicated that neurophysiological, biomechanical, and motor control abnormalities are present and may be useful either in prognosis or classification. We review some of these findings in the context of our own work defining biological markers that may form the basis for clinical tests that can be used for prognosis, classification, or outcome evaluation in patients with neck pain. We have identified abnormalities in neurophysiology using quantitative sensory testing (vibration, touch, and current perception) and response to cold provocation that are related to neck disability. We have identified altered muscle biochemistry by measuring circulating muscle proteins in a lumbar surgery model and are now applying those methods to whiplash injury. We have incorporated capnography into treatment to address central physiological changes present in some patients by monitoring and training CO2 levels. We have developed an innovative new test, the Neck Walk Index, that captures abnormal control of head movement during slow gait as a means of differentiating patients with neck pain from either unaffected controls or individuals with other pathologies. We have used time-varying 3-dimensional joint orientation kinematics to assess deficits in motor control during an upper extremity reach task, the results showing that poor coordination and control of the shoulder girdle leads to shoulder guarding and inconsistencies in elbow joint movement. Despite some promising early results, future research is needed to determine how these measures help clinicians to diagnose, evaluate, and forecast future outcome for patients who present with neck pain. Diagnosis, level 5.
Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common problem within our society. Upper trapezius sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae are the most common postural muscles that tends to get shorten leading to restricted neck mobility. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation when compared with static stretching exercises. The aim is to find out the effectiveness of Post isometric relaxation Versus Static stretching in the subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation technique on pain by using Visual analoge scale, range of motion by using Universal Goniometry, and functional disability by using Neck Disability Index in chronic nonspecific neck pain. Methods: A convenient sample of thirty seven subjects was diagnosed with nonspecific neck pain was randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups on the basis of the inclusion criteria. The experimental group (n=15 received three sessions of post isometric relaxation technique for trapezius, sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae and control group (n=15 received the three sessions of static stretching for trapezius, sternocliedomastiod and levator scapulae for four weeks. Results: Non parametric tests demonstrated a statistically significant difference with experimental group showing greater improvement in ROM, VAS, and NDI than the control group and significant difference within the group also. Conclusion: This study concluded and the results reflected that post isometric relaxation technique group had better improvement in reduction of pain, improvement in the range of motion, and increased neck functional activities than the static stretching group.
Deganello, Alberto; Battat, Nir; Muratori, Enrico; Cristofaro, Glauco; Buongiorno, Ana; Mannelli, Giuditta; Picconi, Mario; Giachetti, Rita; Borsotti, Giulia; Gallo, Oreste
The efficacy of conventional physiotherapy and antiinflammatory/analgesic drugs in the management of shoulder pain and functional disability following neck dissection is often disappointing. Acupuncture is a safe and well-tolerated method. We report the results regarding our pilot trial of acupuncture versus conventional care in the management of postoperative shoulder pain and dysfunction after neck dissection. Pilot study. Patients at a tertiary university center with chronic pain or dysfunction attributed to neck dissection were randomly assigned to either weekly acupuncture or usual care (eg., physical therapy, analgesia, and/or antiinflammatory drugs) for 5 consecutive weeks. The Constant-Murley score, a composite measure of pain, function, and activities of daily living, was the primary outcome measure. As secondary end point, The Neck Dissection Impairment Index (NDII) was used to quantify site-specific, self-reported quality of life (QOL). After randomization, 48 patients completed the study (23 and 25 patients on acupuncture and control arms, respectively). Constant-Murley scores improved more in the acupuncture group (gain difference between groups 13.6, P pain and dysfunction related to neck dissection. 2b. Laryngoscope, 126:1790-1795, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Gudavalli, Maruti Ram; Vining, Robert D; Salsbury, Stacie A; Corber, Lance G; Long, Cynthia R; Patwardhan, Avinash G; Goertz, Christine M
Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint responsive to manual therapies. Doctors of chiropractic commonly use manual cervical distraction, a mobilization procedure, to treat neck pain patients. However, it is unknown if clinicians can consistently apply standardized cervical traction forces, a critical step toward identifying an optimal therapeutic dose. To assess clinicians' proficiency in delivering manually applied traction forces within specified ranges to neck pain patients. An observational study nested within a randomized clinical trial. Two research clinicians provided study interventions to 48 participants with neck pain. Clinician proficiency in delivering cervical traction forces within three specified ranges (low force, less than 20 N; medium force, 21-50 N; and high force 51-100 N). Participants were randomly allocated to three force-based treatment groups. Participants received five manual cervical distraction treatments over 2 weeks while lying prone on a treatment table instrumented with force sensors. Two clinicians delivered manual traction forces according to treatment groups. Clinicians treated participants first without real-time visual feedback displaying traction force and then with visual feedback. Peak traction force data were extracted and descriptively analyzed. Clinicians delivered manual cervical distraction treatments within the prescribed traction force ranges 75% of the time without visual feedback and 97% of the time with visual feedback. This study demonstrates that doctors of chiropractic can successfully deliver prescribed traction forces while treating neck pain patients, enabling the capability to conduct force-based dose response clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is a common complaint in patients presenting for chiropractic treatment. The few studies on predictors for improvement in patients while undergoing treatment identify duration of symptoms, neck stiffness and number of previous episodes as the strong predictor variables. The purpose of this study is to continue the research for predictors of a positive outcome in neck pain patients undergoing chiropractic treatment. Methods Acute ( 3 months (n = 255 neck pain patients with no chiropractic or manual therapy in the prior 3 months were included. Patients completed the numerical pain rating scale (NRS and Bournemouth questionnaire (BQ at baseline prior to treatment. At 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after start of treatment the NRS and BQ were completed along with the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC scale. Demographic information was provided by the clinician. Improvement at each of the follow up points was categorized using the PGIC. Multivariate regression analyses were done to determine significant independent predictors of improvement. Results Baseline mean neck pain and total disability scores were significantly (p Conclusions The most consistent predictor of clinically relevant improvement at both 1 and 3 months after the start of chiropractic treatment for both acute and chronic patients is if they report improvement early in the course of treatment. The co-existence of either radiculopathy or dizziness however do not imply poorer prognosis in these patients.
Ernst, Markus J; Crawford, Rebecca J; Schelldorfer, Sarah; Rausch-Osthoff, Anne-Kathrin; Barbero, Marco; Kool, Jan; Bauer, Christoph M
Neck pain is a common problem in the general population with high risk of ongoing complaints or relapses. Range of motion (ROM) assessment is scientifically established in the clinical process of diagnosis, prognosis and outcome evaluation in neck pain. Anatomically, the cervical spine (CS) has been considered in two regions, the upper and lower CS. Disorders like cervicogenic headache have been clinically associated with dysfunctions of the upper CS (UCS), yet ROM tests and measurements are typically conducted on the whole CS. A cross-sectional study assessing 19 subjects with non-specific neck pain was undertaken to examine UCS extension-flexion ROM in relation to self-reported disability and pain (via the Neck Disability Index (NDI)). Two measurement devices (goniometer and electromagnetic tracking) were employed and compared. Correlations between ROM and the NDI were stronger for the UCS compared to the CS, with the strongest correlation between UCS flexion and the NDI-headache (r = -0.62). Correlations between UCS and CS ROM were fair to moderate, with the strongest correlation between UCS flexion and CS extension ROM (r = -0.49). UCS flexion restriction is related to headache frequency and intensity. Consistency and agreement between both measurement systems and for all tests was high. The results demonstrate that separate UCS ROM assessments for extension and flexion are useful in patients with neck pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carstensen, T B W; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Oernboel, E
BACKGROUND: Little is known about gender differences in coping after whiplash, and to date possible interaction of gender and coping on recovery has not been investigated. AIMS: To examine if gender differences in coping are associated with long-lasting neck pain after acute whiplash. METHODS...... they completed the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and after 12months a VAS scale on neck pain intensity. RESULTS: The odds for long-lasting neck pain were more than twice as high for women than for men (OR=2.17 (95% CI: 1.40; 3.37). However, no gender difference in coping and no interaction between gender...... and the five coping subscales on neck pain after 12months were found. 'Distraction' increased the odds for considerable neck pain for both men and women (OR=1.03 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.05), 'reinterpreting' (OR=1.03 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.06), 'catastrophizing' (OR=1.14 (95% CI: 1.10; 1.18), and 'praying and hoping' (OR=1...
Walton, David M; Carroll, Linda J; Kasch, Helge; Sterling, Michele; Verhagen, Arianne P; MacDermid, Joy C; Gross, Anita; Santaguida, P. Lina; Carlesso, Lisa
Given the challenges of chronic musculoskeletal pain and disability, establishing a clear prognosis in the acute stage has become increasingly recognized as a valuable approach to mitigate chronic problems. Neck pain represents a condition that is common, potentially disabling, and has a high rate of transition to chronic or persistent problems. As a field of research, prognosis in neck pain has stimulated several empirical primary research papers, and a number of systematic reviews. As part of the International Consensus on Neck (ICON) project, we sought to establish the general state of knowledge in the area through a structured, systematic review of systematic reviews (overview). An exhaustive search strategy was created and employed to identify the 13 systematic reviews (SRs) that served as the primary data sources for this overview. A decision algorithm for data synthesis, which incorporated currency of the SR, risk of bias assessment of the SRs using AMSTAR scoring and consistency of findings across SRs, determined the level of confidence in the risk profile of 133 different variables. The results provide high confidence that baseline neck pain intensity and baseline disability have a strong association with outcome, while angular deformities of the neck and parameters of the initiating trauma have no effect on outcome. A vast number of predictors provide low or very low confidence or inconclusive results, suggesting there is still much work to be done in this field. Despite the presence of multiple SR and this overview, there is insufficient evidence to make firm conclusions on many potential prognostic variables. This study demonstrates the challenges in conducting overviews on prognosis where clear synthesis critieria and a lack of specifics of primary data in SR are barriers. PMID:24115971
Full Text Available Pain in the neck and shoulder has been linked with various psychosocial risk factors, as well as with occupational physical activities. However, most studies to date have been cross-sectional, making it difficult to exclude reverse causation. Moreover, they have been carried out largely in northern Europe, and the relationship to psychosocial factors might be different in other cultural environments.To explore causes of neck/shoulder pain, we carried out a longitudinal study in Iranian nurses and office workers. Participants (n =383 completed a baseline questionnaire about neck/shoulder pain in the past month and possible risk factors, and were again asked about pain 12 months later. Associations with pain at follow-up were explored by Poisson regression and summarised by prevalence rate ratios (PRRs.After adjustment for other risk factors, new pain at follow-up was more frequent in office workers than nurses (PRR 1.9, 95%CI 1.3-2.8, among those with worst mental health (PRR 1.8, 95%CI 1.0-3.0, in those who reported incentives from piecework or bonuses (PRR1.4, 95%CI 1.0-2.0, and in those reporting job dissatisfaction (PRR 1.5, 95%CI 1.0-2.1. The strongest predictor of pain persistence was somatising tendency.Our findings are consistent with a hazard of neck/shoulder pain from prolonged use of computer keyboards, although it is possible that the association is modified by health beliefs and expectations. They also indicate that the association of low mood with neck/shoulder pain extends to non-European populations, and is not entirely attributable to reverse causation. Psychosocial aspects of work appeared to have relatively weak impact.
Full Text Available Background: In this advanced era, neck and back pain has become a common musculoskeletal problem. These symptoms have a high prevalence in the community and now they are affecting even our adolescents leaving a major impact on youth’s functional and educational activities. Nevertheless, the burden of these musculoskeletal pains, which relates not only to its prevalence but also to increase in physiological and psychological stress among them, distressing their creativity. Madrassa students have a daily exposure to neck and back pain due to poor posture. The McKenzie method is a popular treatment for back and neck pain among physical therapists. So, the intention of this study is to test the effectiveness of McKenzie exercises in neck and back pain, because hardly any data is available on McKenzie technique and its outcome in Pakistan. The objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of McKenzie exercises in reducing neck and back pain among madrassa students. Methods: The students were recruited from Madrassa Darul Akram (Baldia town and Jamia Ashraf-ul-madrassa (Gulshan-e-Iqbal Karachi. One sixty three students aged between 12–18 years of both genders who were fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected from Madrassa Darul Akram (Baldia town and Jamia Ashraf-ul-madrassa (Gulshane-Iqbal. The participants received McKenzie exercises programs intervention for three consecutive weeks. Outcome Measure: Neck Disability Index (NDI, Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI and Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS Results: The present study showed significant results in all three scales in both genders (p<0.001.Among sections, the Hafiz students revealed greater score in all 3 scales before treatment as compared to ‘Alim/Alima’ and ‘Nazra’ students and after treatment showed significant results in all 3 domains (p<0.001. Conclusion: Findings of this study revealed that madrassa students were more prone to develop neck
López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Sollano-Vallez, Ernesto; Del Corral, Tamara
To investigate whether patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and having moderate to severe disability have a greater cervical motor function impairment and respiratory disturbances compared with patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain having mild disability and asymptomatic subjects; and the association between these outcomes in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and healthy controls. Cross-sectional study, 44 patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and 31 healthy subjects participated. The neck disability index was used to divide the patients into 2 groups: 1) mild disability group (scores between 5 and 14 points); and 2) moderate to severe disability group (scores >14 points). Cervical motor function was measured by cervical range of motion, forward head posture, neck flexor, and extensor muscle strength. Respiratory function and maximum respiratory pressures were also measured. Statistically differences were found between the patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain having a moderate to severe disability and the asymptomatic subjects for cervical and respiratory muscle strength. Comparisons between chronic nonspecific neck pain and the asymptomatic groups showed differences for all the variables, except for forward head posture. The regression model determined that strength of cervical flexion explained 36.4 and 45.6% of the variance of maximum inspiratory pressures and maximum expiratory pressures, respectively. Only the chronic nonspecific neck pain group with moderate to severe disability showed differences compared with the healthy subjects. Neck muscle strength could be a good predictor of respiratory muscle function. Implications for rehabilitation Neck pain severity could be closely associated with decreased respiratory pressure in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain. These findings suggest a new therapeutic approach for patients with moderate to severe disability, such as respiratory muscle training. The regression
DePauw, Robby; Coppieters, Iris; Meeus, Mira; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Danneels, Lieven; Cagnie, Barbara
Chronic neck pain affects 50% - 85% of people who have experienced an acute episode. This transition and the persistence of chronic complaints are believed to be mediated by brain alterations among different central mechanisms. This study aimed to systematically review and critically appraise the current existing evidence regarding structural and functional brain alterations in patients with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and idiopathic neck pain (INP). Additionally, associations between brain alterations and clinical symptoms reported in neck pain patients were evaluated. Systematic review. The present systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched. First, the obtained articles were screened based on title and abstract. Secondly, the screening was based on the full text. Risk of bias in included studies was investigated. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Alterations in brain morphology and function, including perfusion, neurotransmission, and blood oxygenation level dependent-signal, were demonstrated in chronic neck pain patients. There is some to moderate evidence for both structural and functional brain alterations in patients with chronic neck pain. In contrast, no evidence for structural brain alterations in acute neck pain patients was found. Only 12 articles were included, which allows only cautious conclusions to be drawn. Brain alterations were observed in both patients with chronic WAD and chronic INP. Furthermore, more evidence exists for brain alterations in chronic WAD, and different underlying mechanisms might be present in both pathologies. In addition, pain and disability were correlated with the observed brain alterations. Accordingly, morphological and functional brain alterations should be further investigated in patients with chronic WAD and chronic INP with newer and more sensitive techniques, and associative clinical measurements seem indispensable
Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of pain reported in many epidemiological studies, and the degree to which this prevalence reflects severe pain is under discussion in the literature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate use of the simple neck pain questions commonly included in large epidemiological survey studies with respect to aspects of health. We investigated if and how an increase in number of days with pain is associated with reduction in health outcomes. Methods A cohort of university students (baseline age 19–25 years were recruited in 2002 and followed annually for 4 years. The baseline response rate was 69% which resulted in 1200 respondents (627 women, 573 men. Participants were asked about present and past pain and perceptions of their general health, sleep disturbance, stress and energy levels, and general performance. The data were analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements and a random intercept logistic model. Results When reporting present pain, participants also reported lower prevalence of very good health, higher stress and sleep disturbance scores and lower energy score. Among those with current neck pain, additional questions characterizing the pain such as duration (categorized, additional pain sites and decreased general performance were associated with lower probability of very good health and higher amounts of sleep disturbance. Knowing about the presence or not of pain explains more of the variation in health between individuals, than within individuals. Conclusion This study of young university students has demonstrated that simple neck pain survey questions capture features of pain that affect aspects of health such as perceived general health, sleep disturbance, mood in terms of stress and energy. Simple pain questions are more useful for group descriptions than for describing or following pain in an individual.
P Haritha; Shanthi, C; Madhavi, K.
Background: Neck pain is a common problem within our society. Upper trapezius sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae are the most common postural muscles that tends to get shorten leading to restricted neck mobility. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation when compared with static stretching exercises. The aim is to find out the effectiveness of Post isometric relaxation Versus Static stretching in the subjects wit...
Methods. One hundred rugby union players of a mean ± standard deviation age of 22.1±2.4 years, height 1.84±0.07 m and weight 95.3±15.2 kg, completed the four-part questionnaire. Results. We found ... The players reported that neck strengthening, on-field treatment and coaching could be improved to prevent neck pain.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neck pain is a common problem and is often associated with changes in sensorimotor functions, such as reduced proprioceptive acuity of the neck, altered coordination of the cervical muscles, and increased postural sway. In line with these findings there are studies supporting the efficacy of exercises targeting different aspects of sensorimotor function, for example training aimed at improving proprioception and muscle coordination. To further develop this type of exercises we have designed a novel device and method for neck coordination training. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical applicability of the method and to obtain indications of preliminary effects on sensorimotor functions, symptoms and self-rated characteristics in non-specific chronic neck pain Methods The study was designed as an uncontrolled clinical trial including fourteen subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. A new device was designed to allow for an open skills task with adjustable difficulty. With visual feedback, subjects had to control the movement of a metal ball on a flat surface with a rim strapped on the subjects' head. Eight training sessions were performed over a four week period. Skill acquisition was measured throughout the intervention period. After intervention subjects were interviewed about their experience of the exercise and pain and sensorimotor functions, including the fast and slow components of postural sway and jerkiness-, range-, position sense-, movement time- and velocity of cervical rotation, were measured. At six-month follow up, self-rated pain, health and functioning was collected. Results The subjects improved their skill to perform the exercise and were overall positive to the method. No residual negative side-effects due to the exercise were reported. After intervention the fast component of postural sway (p = 0.019 and jerkiness of cervical rotation (p = 0.032 were reduced. The follow up
Full Text Available Background. We need to understand more about how DNF performs in different contexts and whether it affects the pain threshold over myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. Purpose. The objectives were to investigate the effect of neck muscles training on disability and pain and on pain threshold over MTrPs in people with chronic neck pain. Methods. Patients with chronic neck pain were eligible for participation with a Neck Disability Index (NDI score of over 5/50 and having at least one MTrP on either levator scapulae, upper trapezoid, or splenius capitis muscle. Patients were randomly assigned into either DNF training, superficial neck muscle exercise, or advice group. Generalized linear model (GLM was used to detect differences in treatment groups over time. Results. Out of 67 participants, 60 (47 females, mean age: 39.45 ± 12.67 completed the study. Neck disability and neck pain were improved over time between and within groups (p<0.05. However, no differences were found within and between the therapeutic groups (p<0.05 in the tested muscles’ PPTs and in cervicothoracic angle over a 7-week period. Conclusion. All three groups improved over time. This infers that the pain pathways involved in the neck pain relief are not those involved in pain threshold.
Gross, Anita; Langevin, Pierre; Burnie, Stephen J; Bédard-Brochu, Marie-Sophie; Empey, Brian; Dugas, Estelle; Faber-Dobrescu, Michael; Andres, Cristy; Graham, Nadine; Goldsmith, Charles H; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L; LeBlanc, Francis
Manipulation and mobilisation are commonly used to treat neck pain. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2010. To assess the effects of manipulation or mobilisation alone compared wiith those of an inactive control or another active treatment on pain, function, disability, patient satisfaction, quality of life and global perceived effect in adults experiencing neck pain with or without radicular symptoms and cervicogenic headache (CGH) at immediate- to long-term follow-up. When appropriate, to assess the influence of treatment characteristics (i.e. technique, dosage), methodological quality, symptom duration and subtypes of neck disorder on treatment outcomes. Review authors searched the following computerised databases to November 2014 to identify additional studies: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov, checked references, searched citations and contacted study authors to find relevant studies. We updated this search in June 2015, but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) undertaken to assess whether manipulation or mobilisation improves clinical outcomes for adults with acute/subacute/chronic neck pain. Two review authors independently selected studies, abstracted data, assessed risk of bias and applied Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods (very low, low, moderate, high quality). We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs). We included 51 trials (2920 participants, 18 trials of manipulation/mobilisation versus control; 34 trials of manipulation/mobilisation versus another treatment, 1 trial had two comparisons). Cervical manipulation versus inactive control: For subacute and chronic neck pain, a single manipulation (three trials, no meta
Mirabile, A; Airoldi, M; Ripamonti, C; Bolner, A; Murphy, B; Russi, E; Numico, G; Licitra, L; Bossi, P
Pain in head and neck cancer represents a major issue, before, during and after the oncological treatments. The most frequent cause of pain is chemo/radiation related oral mucositis, which involves 80% of the patients and worsens their quality of life inhibiting speaking, eating, drinking or swallowing and sometimes reducing the treatment compliance, the maximum dose intensity and thus the potential efficacy of treatment. Nevertheless pain is still often under estimated and undertreated. An Italian multidisciplinary group of head and neck cancer specialists met with the aim of reaching a consensus on pain management in this setting. The Delphi Appropriateness method was used for the consensus. External expert reviewers evaluated the final statements. The paper contains 30 consensus-reached statements about pain management in HNC patients and offers a review of recent literature in these topics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Naik Prashant P
Full Text Available Background and aim: Neck pain is a common health problem experienced by engineering students. Majority of the times, neck pain is due to poor workstation posture, improper workstation structure. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyze the effect of ergonomic advice on neck pain among engineering students of Belagavi. Materials and methodology: An observational study was carried out among engineering students of all academic levels in local engineering institutes of Belagavi. Data of study was collected in academic year 2016-2017 using Neck pain and disability scale from 331 students. Initially, a baseline data was collected and then booklet consisting of ergonomic advice was given and follow-up was done after 4 weeks by using same questionnaire. Results: Overall 33.96% of reduction in neck pain was seen after ergonomic advice. In accordance with movements associated with neck pain, there was significant pain reduction in relation to up-down movement. Conclusion: Ergonomic advice is effective in terms of reducing neck pain among engineering students and it should be adopted for prevention of neck pain.
Randløv, A; Østergaard, Mikkel; Manniche, C
OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical effectiveness of an intensive three-month training programme with a less intensive programme on females suffering from chronic neck/shoulder pain. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observer-blinded clinical trial including 12-month pretreatment follow-up. SETTING......: Patients were referred to the Departments of Rheumatology and Physical Medicine at Hvidovre Hospital by their general practitioners. Training was undertaken at a satellite clinic for physiotherapy of Hvidovre Hospital. SUBJECTS: Female patients aged 18-65 years suffering from chronic neck/shoulder pain...... for a minimum of six months. INTERVENTION: Patients were examined by a physician in order to exclude serious diseases. They were then randomized to either an intensive neck/shoulder training programme or a programme of lesser intensity but of similar duration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scales measuring pain...
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling
was to investigate whether a specifically tailored exercise intervention would reduce the prevalence and incidence rate of neck/shoulder pain among helicopter pilots and crew members. METHOD: This study used a prospective, parallel group, single blinded, randomized controlled design. Participants were military...... status at enrollment, and 3) operational flying within the previous 6 months. Primary outcome was change in neck and shoulder pain assessed by 1) a modified version of the "Standardized Nordic questionnaire for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms" and by 2) pressure pain threshold measurements......) or a reference group (RG). Participants in the TG performed 20-weeks of physical exercise training divided into sessions of 3 × 20 min per week. Training was completed within working hours and consisted of specific exercise training for the neck and shoulder muscles based on the principles of "Intelligent...
Katsuura, Yoshihiro; Cason, Garrick; Osborn, James
Here we present two cases of primary bone tumours of the cervical spine in patients who had persistent neck pain-in one case, lasting 8 years. In each case, there was a delay in diagnosis and referral to a spine specialist was prolonged. Primary bone tumours of the spine are rare, which is in contrast to the wide prevalence of cervical neck pain. Many primary care providers may go an entire career without encountering a symptomatic primary cervical spine tumour. In this paper, we discuss the clinical course and treatment of each patient and review the current literature on primary bone tumours of the spine. Owing to the subtle roentgenographic findings of primary cervical tumours, we highlight the importance of advanced imaging in the clinical work-up of simple axial neck pain lasting >6 weeks to avoid misdiagnosis of serious pathology. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling
was to investigate whether a specifically tailored exercise intervention would reduce the prevalence and incidence rate of neck/shoulder pain among helicopter pilots and crew members. METHOD: This study used a prospective, parallel group, single blinded, randomized controlled design. Participants were military......BACKGROUND: Flight-related neck/shoulder pain is frequent among military helicopter pilots and crew members. With a lifetime prevalence of 81 % for pilots and 84 % for crew members, the prevalence of neck pain is considered high compared to the general population. The aim of this study...... helicopter pilots and crew members recruited from the Royal Danish Air Force. Inclusion criteria were: 1) employed within the Royal Danish Air Force as a helicopter pilot or onboard crew member (technician, systems-operator, tactical helicopter observer and/or navigator), 2) maintaining operational flight...
Joshi, Gunjan S; Fomin, Daren A; Joshi, Gargi S; Serano, Richard D
Acute calcific longus colli tendinitis (ACLCT), a very rare cause of severe neck pain, dysphagia and odynophagia, is often mistaken for other common causes of neck pain. However, prompt recognition of this uncommon presentation is important to prevent unnecessary medical and surgical intervention. A 46-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 1-day history of severe neck pain, headache and odynophagia. The patient was afebrile with stable vital signs, however, the laboratory data showed mildly elevated C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The physical examination was remarkable for markedly reduced cervical range of motion. MRI revealed the pathognomonic findings of paravertebral oedema and calcification. The definitive diagnosis of ACLCT was made and the patient was successfully managed with a short course of oral steroid, benzodiazepine and aural acupuncture, with complete resolution of the condition within a week. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Walton, David M; Macdermid, Joy C; Nielson, Warren; Teasell, Robert W; Nailer, Tamara; Maheu, Phillippe
Cross-sectional convenience sample. To describe the distribution of scores for pressure pain threshold (PPT) at 2 standardized testing sites in people with neck pain of less than 90 days' duration: the angle of the upper trapezius and the belly of the tibialis anterior. A secondary objective was to identify important influences on PPT. PPT may be a valuable assessment and prognostic indicator for people with neck pain. However, to facilitate interpretation of scores, knowledge of means and variance for the target population, as well as factors that might influence scores, is needed. Participants were recruited from community-based physiotherapy clinics and underwent PPT testing using a digital algometer and standardized protocol. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviations, quartiles, skewness, and kurtosis) were calculated for the 2 sites. Simple bivariate tests of association were conducted to explore potential moderators. A positively skewed distribution was described for the 2 standardized sites. Significant moderators were sex (male higher than female), age (r = 0.22), and self-reported pain intensity (r = -0.24). Neither litigation status nor most symptomatic/least symptomatic side influenced PPT. This manuscript presents information regarding the expected scores for PPT testing in people with acute or subacute neck pain. Clinicians can compare the results of individual patients against these population values, and researchers can incorporate the significant confounders of age, sex, and self-reported pain intensity into future research designs.
Rodríguez-Huguet, Manuel; Gil-Salú, José Luis; Rodríguez-Huguet, Pablo; Cabrera-Afonso, Juan Rafael; Lomas-Vega, Rafael
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of myofascial release therapy (MRT) for improving pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and pain in patients with mechanical neck pain. Forty-one participants with neck pain were randomly allocated to either a MRT group (five sessions) or a physical therapy (PT) group (ten sessions) for 2 wks. The multimodal PT program included ultrasound therapy (US), transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, and massage. Visual analog scale (VAS) and PPTs in suboccipital and upper trapezius muscles were measured at baseline, at the end of treatment, and at 1 month follow-up. At the end of treatment, significant mean differences in VAS (-0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.82 to -0.16), in both left (0.28, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.50) and right (0.40, 95% CI = 0.16 to 0.63) suboccipital PPTs and in the right trapezius PPT (0.38, 95% CI = 0.07 to 0.69) were observed. At 1-month follow-up, significant mean differences were found for VAS (-1.85, 95% CI = -2.76 to -0.94) and both left (0.46, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.80) and right (0.38, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.69) suboccipital PPTs. This study provides evidence that MRT could be better than a multimodal PT program for short-term improvement of pain and PPTs in patients with neck pain.
Schmid, A B; Soon, B T C; Wasner, G; Coppieters, M W
Recent studies demonstrated that patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) have signs of thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in extra-median territories suggesting an involvement of central pain mechanisms. As previous studies included patients with shoulder/arm symptoms or neck pain, a potential influence of these coexisting disorders cannot be excluded. This study therefore evaluated whether widespread sensory changes (hypoesthesia or hyperalgesia) are present in patients with unilateral CTS in the absence of coexisting disorders. Twenty-six patients with unilateral CTS with symptoms localised to their hand and 26 healthy controls participated in the study. A comprehensive quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol including thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds was performed over the hands (median, ulnar and radial innervation area), lateral elbows, neck and tibialis anterior muscle. Patients with CTS demonstrated thermal and mechanical hypoesthesia in the hand but not at distant sites. Thermal or mechanical hyperalgesia was not identified at any location with traditional QST threshold testing. However, patients with CTS rated the pain during thermal pain testing significantly higher than healthy participants. This was especially apparent for heat pain ratings which were elevated not only in the affected hand but also in the neck and tibialis anterior muscle. In conclusion, CTS alone in the absence of coexisting neck and arm pain does not account for sensory changes outside the affected hand as determined by traditional QST threshold testing. Elevated pain ratings may however be an early indication of central pain mechanisms. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.
Inhestern, Johanna; Schuerer, Jenny; Illge, Christina; Thanos, Ira; Meissner, Winfried; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando
Postoperative pain within the first 24 h after head and neck cancer (HNC) surgery was assessed. Factors influencing postoperative pain were identified. In a prospective cohort single center study 145 HNC patients rated their pain on the first postoperative day using questionnaires of the German-wide project Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Treatment (QUIPS) including numeric rating scales (NRS, 0-10) for the determination of patient's pain on ambulation, his maximal and minimal pain. QUIPS allowed a standardized assessment of patients' characteristics and pain-related parameters. The influence of these parameters on the patients' postoperative pain was estimated by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. One-third had already pain prior to the surgical intervention. Overall, the mean pain on ambulation, maximal pain and minimal pain were 2.55 ± 2.36, 3.18 ± 2.86, and 1.38 ± 2.86 (NRS), respectively. 53 % of the patients had maximal pain scores >3. Multivariate analysis revealed independent predictors for more postoperative pain on ambulation: intensity of chronic preoperative pain, usage of non-opioids on ward, and existence of pain documentation on ward. Intensity of chronic preoperative pain and usage of non-opioids on ward were independent risk factors for more maximal pain. Intensity of chronic preoperative pain was independently associated to more minimal pain. Concerning pain management side effects, the risk for drowsiness increased with longer time of surgery. Postoperative pain after HNC surgery is highly variable and seems often to be unnecessarily high. Many patients seem to receive less analgesia than needed or ineffective analgesic drug regimes.
Genebra, Caio Vitor Dos Santos; Maciel, Nicoly Machado; Bento, Thiago Paulo Frascareli; Simeão, Sandra Fiorelli Almeida Penteado; Vitta, Alberto De
Neck pain is a musculoskeletal condition with high prevalence that may affect the physical, social, and psychological aspects of the individual, contributing to the increase in costs in society and business. To determine the prevalence of neck pain and associated factors in a population-based sample of adults aged 20 and more. Cross-sectional study based on a population survey. A total number of 600 individuals were interviewed in their homes, and the following data were collected: (1) participant characteristics (demographic, socioeconomic, and work-related aspects) using a pre-coded questionnaire; (2) physical activity level using the IPAQ; and (3) musculoskeletal symptoms using the Nordic questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate, and Poisson regression analyses were performed. The prevalence of neck pain was 20.3% (95% CI 17.3-23.7). The adjusted analyses showed that individuals who were widowers or separated (PR=2.26; 1.42-5.88), had a low income (PR=1.32; 1.22-6.27) or low educational level (PR=1.83; 1.02-5.26), worked while sitting and leaning (PR=1.55; 1.08-2.40), and who reported having two or more diseases (PR=1.71; 1.55-6.31) remained associated with neck pain. This study reveals the high prevalence of neck pain and remarkable association with widowed/separated people who have low income and low educational level, who perform their occupational activities in sitting and leaning positions, and who reported having two or more diseases. Knowledge of these risk factors will contribute to the development of forms of assistance in which neck pain can be prevented and better managed. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Yen, Ling-Wei; Lin, Yang-Hua; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy
Previous studies have identified sensorimotor disturbances and greater fatigability of neck muscles in patients with neck pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck pain and neck flexor fatigue on standing balance following postural perturbations. Twenty patients with chronic neck pain (CNP) (24.7±3.6 year-old) and 20 age-matched asymptomatic subjects (22.1±2.2 year-old) were recruited. Subjects stood barefoot on a force plate and experienced backward perturbations before and after neck flexor fatigue. Center of pressure, electromyography of cervical and lumbar muscles, and head/trunk accelerations were recorded. Two-way ANOVA (pain×fatigue) was used for statistical analysis. CNP group showed larger body sway during quiet standing but not during perturbed standing compared with asymptomatic adults. In both groups, neck flexor fatigue resulted in greater body sway during the quiet standing but smaller body sway during perturbed standing, increased neck muscle activations and decreased lumbar muscle activations, as well as increased time to maximal head acceleration. Disturbed balance control was observed in CNP patients during the quiet standing. However, a rigid strategy was used to minimize the postural sway and to protect the head against backward perturbations in both CNP and asymptomatic young adults after neck flexor fatigue. The results facilitate the understanding of how the subjects with chronic neck pain and with neck muscle fatigue deal with the challenging condition. Further studies are needed to verify if such phenomenon could be changed after the intervention of specific flexor muscle retraining and balance control exercises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Effect of myofascial release technique on pain, disability, maximum isometric contraction of the extensor muscles, and pressure pain threshold in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain: Double blinded randomized clinical trial
Hasan Namvar; Gholamreza olyaei; Behrouz Attarbashi Moghadam; Mohammad Hosseinifar
The impact of myofascial release technique alone has not been investigated in the patients with non-specific chronic neck pain. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of myofascial release technique on pain, disability, the maximum contraction of isometric extensor muscles of neck and pressure pain threshold in the patient with non-specific chronic neck pain compared with control group. In this clinical, randomized, double-blind trial, the patients with non-specific chr...
Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav
Several trials have shown that cupping might be an effective treatment for chronic nonspecific neck pain, but little is known about the long-term effectiveness. This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of a short series of cupping; therefore additional follow-up measurements were conducted 2 years after completion of 3 studies. Participants from 3 randomized waitlist controlled trials on cupping for chronic nonspecific neck pain were followed 2 years after treatment. Outcome measures included neck pain intensity (100 mm Visual Analog Scale; VAS), functional disability (Neck Disability Index, NDI), and health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire; SF-36). 133 of 150 patients had received cupping treatment and were contacted; 82 of them (61.7%) returned the follow-up questionnaires. No effect was found for neck pain intensity, but for physical function (∆ NDI: -3.15; 95% CI: -5.89; -0.41; p = 0.025) and quality of life (∆ physical component summary: 2.97; 95% CI: 0.97; 4.97; p = 0.004; ∆ bodily pain: 14.53; 95 % CI: 9.67; 19.39; p cupping effect was 8.9 ± 8.7 months with 16 patients reporting that neck pain had not yet reached the level before cupping. The majority of the patients did not continue cupping therapy, mostly due to lack of providers, costs or loss of interest. A series of cupping treatments did not influence neck pain intensity on the longer term, however significant increases were found for physical function and quality of life in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain. Due to the considerable drop-out rate conclusions are limited. There is evidence suggesting that cupping treatment might have sustainable effects in some patients. Further randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up are urgently needed for conclusive judgment of long-term effectiveness. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Andersen, Lars; Saervoll, Charlotte A; Mortensen, Ole S
Regular physical exercise is a cornerstone in rehabilitation programs, but adherence to comprehensive exercise remains low. This study determined the effectiveness of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training for relieving neck/shoulder pain in healthy adults with frequent symptoms......; 174 women and 24 men working at least 30 h per week and with frequent neck/shoulder pain were randomly assigned to resistance training with elastic tubing for 2 or 12 minutes per day 5 times per week, or weekly information on general health (control group). Primary outcomes were changes in intensity...
Kuo, Wen-Hsiu; Jian, Deng-Wei; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Wang, Yi-Chian
This study aimed to quantify neck muscle stiffness in the normal population with ultrasound elastography. We applied the acoustic radiation force impulse technique and measured shear wave velocities (SWVs) as representative values. The mean ± standard deviation values of SWV in 20 healthy volunteers were 2.09 ± 0.45, 1.21 ± 0.30, 1.12 ± 0.17 and 0.97 ± 0.10 m/s for the trapezius, levator scapulae, scalene anterior and sternocleidomastoid muscles, respectively. The SWV values of the four muscles significantly differed (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.001). The SWV values for the trapezius muscle correlated with body mass indexes (Pearson's correlation, p = 0.034). Subjects with chronic neck pain symptoms had significantly stiffer trapezius muscle (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.008). This study demonstrated the technique and feasibility of quantifying neck muscle stiffness using acoustic radiation force impulse elastography and shear wave velocity detection. Further study is necessary to evaluate its diagnostic power in assessing various neck muscle diseases. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is generally believed that the prevalence of back pain increases with age and as the proportion of elderly will keep rising we may be facing serious public health concerns in the future. Aim The aim of this systematic literature review is to establish whether back pain (i.e. neck, mid-back and/or low back pain becomes increasingly common in the older population, specifically to study 1 whether there is a significant increase in the prevalence of back pain after middle age, and 2 whether there is a significant gradually increasing prevalence of back pain with continued old age. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed on articles in English, published between January 2000 and July 2011. Non-clinical studies from the developed countries with prevalence estimates on elderly people (60+ on any type of self-reported back pain and on different age groups with adequate sample sizes were included in the review. The included articles were extracted for information by two independent reviewers. Results A total of 12 articles were included covering the entire spine. Neck pain was studied nine times, low back pain eight times, back pain three times, upper back two times and neck/shoulders once. All studies showed no significant increase of back pain with age, neither when passing from middle age (i.e. 45+ years of age into the sixties, nor later in life. In contrast, most studies reported a decline for the oldest group. Conclusions Back pain is no more common in the elderly population (>60 years when compared to the middle age population. Back pain does not increase with increasing age, but seems to decline in the oldest people.
Kalashnikova, L A; Dobrinina, L A; Dreval, M V; Doronina, E V; Nazarova, M A
To analyze clinical and neuroimaging data in patients with neck pain and headache as the only manifestation of the internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection (ICAD) and vertebral artery (VA) dissection (VAD). One hundred and sixty-one patients (mean age - 37.4±4,99 years, 84 women, 52%) with cervical artery dissection (CAD) verified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were enrolled. Neck pain and headache were the only CAD manifestation in 33 patients (mean age 37,3±7,4 yars, 28 women, 85%). The localization of the dissections in these patients was the following: one VA (15 patients), two VA (9), one ICA (7), two ICA (1), one ICA + two VA (1). The whole number of dissected arteries was 45: extracranial localization - 38, extra-intracranial - 6, intracranial - 1. Dissection led to stenosis of the arterial lumen in 41 arteries, to occlusion - in 2 and to dual lumen in 2 arteries. Small aneurism was found in 4 arteries. Combination of headache and the neck pain was observed in 26 out of 33 patients (79%), the only headache in 4 patients, the only neck pain in 3 patients. Along with this, 9 out of 24 VAD patients had the shoulder and/or arm pain. Headache in VAD patients was located more often in the occipital region (18 out of 24) that had never been observed in ICAD patients (p=0.0009). Fronto-temporal pain was observed more often in ICAD patients (5 out of 8 patients) than in VAD (2 out of 24 patients) (p=0.003). Neck pain in all VAD patients in comparison with 3 out ofI8 [CAD patients had posterior localization (p=0,007). Anterolateral neck pain was observed in 4 out ofI8 ICAD patients and in no patients with VAD (p=0.0009). The pain appearance was abrupt in all ICAD patients and most of the VAD patients. In 8 VAD patients the pain has been increasing during several hours. The pain intensity was severe in 19 patients, moderate in 12 and mild in 2. The characteristics of the pain were as following: constrictive/dull (26 patients), throbbing (1 patient) or combined
Nederhand, Marcus Johannes; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Turk, Dennis C.; Zilvold, Gerrit; Zilvold, G.
Objective To improve clinical decision making in posttraumatic neck pain by investigating the additional value of fear-avoidance variables in predicting chronic neck pain disability. Design An inception cohort with baseline assessment 1 week posttrauma and outcome assessment 24 weeks posttrauma.
Murphy, Donald R; Lopez, Marco
Accurate measurement of functional improvement in clinical practice is becoming increasingly recognized as essential in demonstrating whether patients are deriving meaningful benefit from care. Several simple questionnaires have been developed for this purpose. The majority of these have been developed in English. In North America, there is a growing need for clinical tools, including outcome assessment tools that are available in the Spanish language. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding spine-specific outcome assessment questionnaires that are available in Spanish and to examine the evidence on their clinical utility. Systematic review. The Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and MANTIS databases were searched for any studies on the topic of outcome assessment questionnaires in the Spanish language. Relevant articles were reviewed, and the data on reliability, validity, time to completion, and any other properties of the questionnaire was extracted. The search strategy identified 287 articles, of which 10 were deemed relevant. With regard to neck pain, data were found regarding Spanish translations of the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Core Outcome Measure for neck pain. With regard to low back pain, data were found regarding Spanish translations of the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), and the North American Spine Society-American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons questionnaire. Several reliable and valid outcome assessment questionnaires are available in the Spanish language. All were originally developed in English. It appears from the data reviewed that the most useful instruments are the NDI for neck pain patients and the ODI and RMQ for low back pain patients. The current trend is for the development of culturally adapted versions of these questionnaires that are specific to a particular country or region. Copyright © 2013
Gizzi, Leonardo; Muceli, Silvia; Petzke, Frank; Falla, Deborah
A motor task can be performed via different patterns of muscle activation that show regularities that can be factorized in combinations of a reduced number of muscle groupings (also referred to as motor modules, or muscle synergies). In this study we evaluate whether an acute noxious stimulus induces a change in the way motor modules are combined to generate movement by neck muscles. The neck region was selected as it is a region with potentially high muscular redundancy. We used the motor modules framework to assess the redistribution of muscular activity of 12 muscles (6 per side) in the neck region of 8 healthy individuals engaged in a head and neck aiming task, in non-painful conditions (baseline, isotonic saline injection, post pain) and after the injection of hypertonic saline into the right splenius capitis muscle. The kinematics of the task was similar in the painful and control conditions. A general decrease of activity was noted for the injected muscle during the painful condition together with an increase or decrease of the activity of the other muscles. Subjects did not adopt shared control strategies (motor modules inter subject similarity at baseline 0.73±0.14); the motor modules recorded during the painful condition could not be used to reconstruct the activation patterns of the control conditions, and the painful stimulus triggered a subject-specific redistribution of muscular activation (i.e., in some subjects the activity of a given muscle increased, whereas in other subjects it decreased with pain). Alterations of afferent input (i.e., painful stimulus) influenced motor control at a multi muscular level, but not kinematic output. These findings provide new insights into the motor adaptation to pain.
Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C; Alonso-Blanco, C; Miangolarra, J C
The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in the upper trapezius,sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae and suboccipital muscles between patients presenting with mechanical neck pain and control healthy subjects. Twenty subjects with mechanical neck pain and 20 matched healthy controls participated in this study. TrPs were identified, by an assessor blinded to the subjects' condition, when there was a hypersensible tender spot in a palpable taut band, local twitch response elicited by the snapping palpation of the taut band, and reproduction of the referred pain typical of each TrP. The mean number of TrPs present on each neck pain patient was 4.3 (SD: 0.9), of which 2.5 (SD: 1.3) were latent and 1.8 (SD: 0.8) were active TrPs. Control subjects also exhibited TrPs (mean: 2; SD: 0.8). All were latent TrPs. Differences in the number of TrPs between both study groups were significant for active TrPs (P latent TrPs (P > 0.5). Moreover, differences in the distribution of TrPs within the analysed cervical muscles were also significant (P Active TrPs were more frequent in patients presenting with mechanical neck pain than in healthy subjects. ©2006 Elsevier Ltd.
Yeung Jacky T
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cervical disc herniation often results in neck and arm pain in patients as a result of direct impingement of nerve roots and associated inflammatory processes. The clinical presentation usually corresponds with the side of herniation and ipsilateral symptoms predominate the clinical picture. Case presentation A 35-year-old Caucasian man presented to our facility with neck pain and left-sided upper and lower extremity pain. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed a right paramedian herniated disc at the C5 to C6 level. All other cervical levels were normal without central canal stenosis or neural foraminal stenosis. Results from magnetic reasonance imaging scans of the brain and lumbar spine were negative. An anterior cervical discectomy was performed at the C5 to C6 level, and an inter-body graft and plate were placed. Our patient had complete resolution of his neck and left arm pain. Conclusions Anterior discectomy and fusion of the cervical spine resulted in complete resolution of our patient’s neck and left arm symptoms and improvement of his contralateral left leg pain. Cervical disc herniation may present with contralateral symptoms that are different from the current perception of this disease.
Cerezo-Téllez, Ester; Lacomba, María Torres; Fuentes-Gallardo, Isabel; Mayoral Del Moral, Orlando; Rodrigo-Medina, Beatriz; Gutiérrez Ortega, Carlos
Neck pain is a frequent complaint in office workers. This pain can be caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the trapezius muscle. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of deep dry needling (DDN) of active MTrPs in the trapezius muscle. A randomized, single blinded clinical trial was carried out at the Physical Therapy Department at Physiotherapy in Women's Health Research Group at Physical Therapy Department of University of Alcalá, in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain. Forty-four office workers with neck pain and active MTrPs in the trapezius muscle were randomly allocated to either the DDN or the control group (CG). The participants in the DDN group were treated with DDN of all MTrPs found in the trapezius muscle. They also received passive stretch of the trapezius muscle. The CG received the same passive stretch of the trapezius muscle only. The primary outcome measure was subjective pain intensity, measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes were pressure pain threshold (PPT), cervical range of motion (CROM) and muscle strength. Data were collected at baseline, after interventions and 15 days after the last treatment. Differences were found between the DDN group and the CG for the VAS (P stretch seems to be more effective than passive stretch only. The effects are maintained in the short term. The results support the use of DDN in the management of trapezius muscle myofascial pain syndrome in neck pain.
Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common disorder prevailing among individuals of different populations. The myofascial pain syndrome is a disorder related to myofascial trigger points. It is defined as a hyperirritable locus in skeletal muscle and that is associated with a hypersensitive palpable nodule in a taut band of muscle. Manual therapy has got a profound role in treating and ischemic compression technique has been researched widely. Thus the study intends to analyse the effectiveness of Manual Therapy (Ischemic Compression on functional outcome in neck pain. Methods: A single blinded randomized control study was conducted for subjects of sample size 30 who met the inclusion criteria and random allocation was made. The baseline parameters as like pain severity using VAS, pain pressure threshold using pressure Algometer, active cervical lateral flexion using 360 degree goniometer and disability using NDI were recorded. Study group received ischemic compression followed by myofascial stretches while the control group received ultrasonic therapy of 1.4watts/cm2. Both received Cryotherapy post session. After 2 weeks the baseline parameters were again recorded for t-test analysis. Result: There was no statistical significance between groups (p≥0.05. But active cervical lateral flexion showed improved mobility in study group and a high statistical significance within groups (p≤0.01 in relation to all parameters. Conclusion: Both ultrasonic therapy and Ischemic compression technique was found to show better improvement in pain pressure threshold and functional outcome in neck pain.
Vernon, Howard T; Humphreys, B Kim; Hagino, Carol A
To identify the evidence base of clinical trials of conservative treatments for acute neck pain not due to whiplash injury. A comprehensive literature search was performed in MEDLINE, CINHAHL, AMED, MANTIS, Index to Chiropractic Literature, Alt HealthWatch, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, and several EBSCO Information Services databases. Systematic retrieval and evaluation procedures were used. The search generated 1980 citations. Four trials (5 publications) were accepted according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Three trials used a form of spinal manual therapy. One of these trials used only one manipulation and reported immediate effects on pain, with real manipulation producing significantly greater pain reduction than control procedure. The other 2 of these trials reported on outcomes over 1 to 3 weeks. In 1 trial, the group receiving manipulation showed significantly greater pain reduction at 1 week than did the group receiving only medication. In the other trial, the group receiving transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation had a significantly greater level of pain reduction at 3 weeks. In the fourth trial, exercise was compared to passive physiotherapy; however, outcomes were not reported until 6 and 12 months, so the results cannot be compared to the natural history of acute neck pain not due to whiplash. There is limited evidence of the benefit of spinal manipulation and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the treatment of acute neck pain not due to whiplash injury. There is a dearth of high-quality clinical trials of conservative treatments for this condition.
Ståhl, Minna K; El-Metwally, Ashraf A; Mikkelsson, Marja K; Salminen, Jouko J; Pulkkinen, Lea R; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko A
Background Prevalence of neck pain has increased among adolescents. The origins of adult chronic neck pain may lie in late childhood, but for early prevention, more information is needed about its aetiology. We investigated the relative roles of genetic and environmental factors in early adolescent neck pain with a classic twin study. Methods Frequency of neck pain was assessed with a validated pain questionnaire in a population-based sample of nearly 1800 pairs of 11–12-year-old Finnish twins. Twin pair similarity for neck pain was quantified by polychoric correlations, and variance components were estimated with biometric structural equation modelling. Results Prevalence of neck pain reported at least once monthly was 38% and at least once weekly 16%, with no significant differences between gender or zygosity. A greater polychoric correlation in liability to neck pain was found in monozygotic (0.67) than for dizygotic pairs (0.38), suggesting strong genetic influences. Model-fitting indicated that 68% (95% CI 62 to 74) of the variation in liability to neck pain could be attributed to genetic effects, with the remainder attributed to unshared environmental effects. No evidence for sex-specific genetic effects or for sex differences in the magnitude of genetic effects was found. Conclusions Genetic and unique environmental factors seem to play the most important roles in liability to neck pain in early adolescence. Future research should be directed to identifying pathways for genetic influences on neck pain and in exploring effectiveness of interventions that target already identified environmental risk factors. PMID:23139100
Taheri, Arman; Lajevardi, Mahbod; Shabani, Sanaz; Emami, Sara; Sharifi, Hassan
One hypothesis for the mechanism of neck pain in musicians, particularly string players, is changed behavior of the superficial neck flexor muscles and impairment of the cervical stabilization system. To restore the supporting capacity of neck muscles and reduce neck pain, various types of physical therapies and pain educational modalities have been recommended. However, considering the physio-psychological nature of violinists' neck pain, its treatment may benefit from addition of therapies that address postural and movement habits. In this regard, we suggest that management of violinists' neck pain might benefit from additional approaches that may help to decrease muscle overactivity during performance movements.
Stenneberg, Martijn S; Rood, Michiel; de Bie, Rob; Schmitt, Maarten A; Cattrysse, Erik; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G
To quantify differences in active cervical range of motion (aCROM) between patients with neck pain and those without neck pain, in patients with whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) and nontraumatic neck pain, and in patients with acute complaints versus those with chronic complaints. Seven bibliographic databases were searched from inception to April 2015. In addition, a manual search was performed. Full articles on a numerical comparison of aCROM in patients with neck pain and asymptomatic control persons of similar ages were included. Two reviewers independently selected studies and assessed risk of bias. Two reviewers extracted the data. Pooled mean differences of aCROM were calculated using a random-effects model. The search yielded 6261 hits; 27 articles (2366 participants, 13 low risk of bias) met the inclusion criteria. The neck pain group showed less aCROM in all movement directions compared with persons without neck pain. Mean differences ranged from -7.04° (95% CI, -9.70° to -4.38°) for right lateral bending (11 studies) to -89.59° (95% CI, -131.67° to -47.51°) for total aCROM (4 studies). Patients with WADs had less aCROM than patients with nontraumatic neck pain. No conclusive differences in aCROM were found between patients with acute and patients with chronic complaints. Patients with neck pain have a significantly decreased aCROM compared with persons without neck pain, and patients with WADs have less aCROM than those with nontraumatic neck pain. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Croft, Kate; Carter, Courtney; Hoddinott, Anna; Sprecher, Elliot; Treleaven, Julia
To evaluate short- and intermediate-term effects of kinematic training (KT) using virtual reality (VR) or laser in patients with chronic neck pain. A randomised controlled trial with three arms (laser, VR, control) to post-intervention (N = 90), and two arms (laser or VR) continuing to 3 months follow-up. Home training intervention was provided during 4 weeks to VR and laser groups while control group waited. Primary outcome measures included neck disability index (NDI), global perceived effect (GPE), and cervical motion velocity (mean and peak). Secondary outcome measures included pain intensity (VAS), health status (EQ5D), kinesiophobia (TSK), range, smoothness, and accuracy of neck motion as measured by the neck VR system. Measures were taken at baseline, immediately post-training, and 3 months later. Ninety patients with neck pain were randomised to the trial, of which 76 completed 1 month follow-up, and 56 the 3 months follow-up. Significant improvements were demonstrated in NDI and velocity with good effect sizes in intervention groups compared to control. No within-group changes were presented in the control group, compared to global improvements in intervention groups. Velocity significantly improved at both time points in both groups. NDI, VAS, EQ5D, TSK and accuracy significantly improved at both time points in VR and in laser at 3 months evaluation in all but TSK. GPE scores showed 74-84% of participants perceived improvement and/or were satisfied. Significant advantages to the VR group compared to laser were found in velocity, pain intensity, health status and accuracy at both time points. The results support home kinematic training using VR or laser for improving disability, neck pain and kinematics in the short and intermediate term with an advantage to the VR group. The results provide directions for future research, use and development. ACTRN12615000231549.
Kim, Tae-Hun; Kang, Jung Won; Kim, Kun Hyung; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Joo-Hee; Lee, Seunghoon; Shin, Mi-Suk; Jung, So-Young; Kim, Ae-Ran; Park, Hyo-Ju; Hong, Kwon Eui
This was a randomized controlled pilot trial to evaluate the effectiveness of cupping therapy for neck pain in video display terminal (VDT) workers. Forty VDT workers with moderate to severe neck pain were recruited from May, 2011 to February, 2012. Participants were randomly allocated into one of the two interventions: 6 sessions of wet and dry cupping or heating pad application. The participants were offered an exercise program to perform during the participation period. A 0 to 100 numeric rating scale (NRS) for neck pain, measure yourself medical outcome profile 2 score (MYMOP2 score), cervical spine range of motion (C-spine ROM), neck disability index (NDI), the EuroQol health index (EQ-5D), short form stress response inventory (SRI-SF) and fatigue severity scale (FSS) were assessed at several points during a 7-week period. Compared with a heating pad, cupping was more effective in improving pain (adjusted NRS difference: -1.29 [95% CI -1.61, -0.97] at 3 weeks (p=0.025) and -1.16 [-1.48, -0.84] at 7 weeks (p=0.005)), neck function (adjusted NDI difference: -0.79 [-1.11, -0.47] at 3 (p=0.0039) and 7 weeks (pcupping and 0.91 [0.86, 0.91] with heating pad treatment, p=0.0054). Four participants reported mild adverse events of cupping. Two weeks of cupping therapy and an exercise program may be effective in reducing pain and improving neck function in VDT workers.
Pinheiro, Carina Ferreira; dos Santos, Marina Foresti; Chaves, Thais Cristina
This study evaluated the flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP) and flexion-relaxation ratios (FR-ratios) using surface electromyography (sEMG) of the cervical extensor muscles of computer workers with and without chronic neck pain, as well as of healthy subjects who were not computer users. This study comprised 60 subjects 20-45years of age, of which 20 were computer workers with chronic neck pain (CPG), 20 were computer workers without neck pain (NPG), and 20 were control individuals who do not use computers for work and use them less than 4h/day for other purposes (CG). FRP and FR-ratios were analyzed using sEMG of the cervical extensors. Analysis of FR-ratios showed smaller values in the semispinalis capitis muscles of the two groups of workers compared to the control group. The reference FR-ratio (flexion relaxation ratio [FRR], defined as the maximum activity in 1s of the re-extension/full flexion sEMG activity) was significantly higher in the computer workers with neck pain compared to the CG (CPG: 3.10, 95% confidence interval [CI95%] 2.50-3.70; NPG: 2.33, CI95% 1.93-2.74; CG: 1.99, CI95% 1.81-2.17; pneck extension (concentric and eccentric phases), which could explain our results. These results also suggest that the FR-ratios of the semispinalis may be a potential functional predictive neuromuscular marker of asymptomatic neck musculoskeletal disorders since even asymptomatic computer workers showed altered values. On the other hand, the FRR values of the semispinalis capitis demonstrated a good discriminative ability to detect neck pain, and such results suggested that each FR-ratio could have a different application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling
Introduction: Flight related neck pain is frequent among helicopter pilots and crew and affect individual health, operational capacity and flight safety. Exercise training has proven effective in reducing neck pain within other job professions. The aim of this study was to investigate...... if an exercise intervention might reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew. Methods: A total of 31 helicopter pilots and 38 crew members were randomized to an exercise-training-group ETG (n=35) or a reference-group REF (n=34). ETG received 20 weeks of strength, endurance and coordination training...... targeting the deep and superficial neck muscles. Training was self-administered due to irregular work schedules. REF received no training. Primary outcome: Intensity of neck pain the previous 3 months (self-reported on a 0-10 numeric box scale) and pressure-pain threshold (PPT) in the trapezius m. (TRA...
Andersen, L.L.; Kjær, Michael; Søgaard, Kirsten
trial and recruited subjects from 7 workplaces characterized by monotonous jobs (e.g., computer-intensive work). Forty-eight employed women with chronic neck muscle pain (defined as a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia) were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of specific strength training locally...... (similar to 79%; P strength training, whereas an acute and transient decrease in pain (5 mm; P strength training had high clinical relevance and led......Objective. The prevalence of neck muscle pain has steadily increased and especially pain from the descending part of the trapezius muscle has been associated with monotonous work tasks such as computer work. Physical exercise is generally recommended as treatment, but it is unclear which type...
Korhonen, T; Ketola, R; Toivonen, R; Luukkonen, R; Häkkänen, M; Viikari-Juntura, E
To investigate work related and individual factors as predictors for incident neck pain among office employees working with video display units (VDUs). Employees in three administrative units of a medium sized city in Finland (n = 515) received mailed questionnaires in the baseline survey in 1998 and in the follow up survey in 1999. Response rate for the baseline was 81% (n = 416); respondents who reported neck pain for less than eight days during the preceding 12 months were included into the study cohort as healthy subjects (n = 232). The follow up questionnaire 12 months later was completed by 78% (n = 180). Incident neck cases were those reporting neck pain for at least eight days during the preceding 12 months. The annual incidence of neck pain was 34.4% (95% CI 25.5 to 41.3). Poor physical work environment and poor placement of the keyboard increased the risk of neck pain. Among the individual factors, female sex was a strong predictor. Smoking showed a tendency for an increased risk of neck pain. There was an interaction between mental stress and physical exercise, those with higher mental stress and less physical exercise having especially high risk. In the prevention of neck disorders in office work with a high frequency of VDU tasks, attention should be given to the work environment in general and to the more specific aspects of VDU workstation layout. Physical exercise may prevent neck disorders among sedentary employees.
Effect of myofascial release technique on pain, disability, maximum isometric contraction of the extensor muscles, and pressure pain threshold in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain: Double blinded randomized clinical trial
Full Text Available The impact of myofascial release technique alone has not been investigated in the patients with non-specific chronic neck pain. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of myofascial release technique on pain, disability, the maximum contraction of isometric extensor muscles of neck and pressure pain threshold in the patient with non-specific chronic neck pain compared with control group. In this clinical, randomized, double-blind trial, the patients with non-specific chronic neck pain have been entered the study by the available sampling method and have been located randomly into two groups of myofascial release therapy group, and control group. Pressure pain threshold, pain intensity, disability and isometric power of neck extensor muscles before and after intervention were registered through pressure algometer, visual analogue scale, neck disability index, and pressure biofeedback. The treatment was performed for 4 sessions and each session for 20 minutes. The paired t-tests and independent t-test were used for within group and between group comparison respectively. Comparing the mean of pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, neck disability index in the intervention group compared with control group showed significant reduction (P0.05. Myofascial Release is one of the effective manual therapy techniques in reducing pain, disability, improving the isometric extension strength of neck in patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain.
Sun, Zhong-ren; Yue, Jin-huan; Tian, Hong-zhao; Zhang, Qin-hong
The use of acupuncture has been suggested for the treatment of acute neck pain caused by stiff neck in China. However, current evidence is insufficient to draw any conclusions about its efficacy. Therefore this pilot study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of acupuncture at the Houxi (SI3) acupoint for treatment of acute neck pain. This pilot study will be a two-parallel-group, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Thirty-six stiff neck participants with acute neck pain will be recruited and randomly divided into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the control group will receive massage on the local neck region (5 min each session, three times a day for 3 days). In addition to massage, patients in the treatment group will receive acupuncture (one session a day for 3 days). Measures will be taken at 0, 3 and 15 days. The primary outcome is the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ). The secondary outcome is the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). The protocol for this pilot randomised clinical trial has undergone ethics scrutiny and been approved by the ethics review boards of the First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Permission number: HZYLL201303502). The findings of this study will provide important clinical evidence on the feasibility and efficacy of acupuncture treatment for stiff neck patients with acute neck pain. In addition, it will explore the feasibility of further acupuncture research. ChiCTR-TRC-13003911. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Ayad O MAR
Full Text Available Neck pain is one of the common physical problems of the adults which needs to be taken seriously in order to prevent further health problems. As the daily life of the modern people leads physical in activity, and the use of electronic devices causes imprope r effect on certain parts of the body, specials programs have to be developed as preventive treatment. Therapeutic methods can also be listed through such preventive methods. The purpose of this study was to i dentify the impact of the proposed program usin g some natural methods of treatment for the rehabilitation of people with neck pain , to i dentify the improved range of motion in all directions to the neck area , and also t o identify the extent of improvement in muscle strength for the neck and back. Twelv e patients in Ain Zara Physiotherapy Center and Tripoli Clinic (in Tripoli city were chosen as voluntarily whose age ranged from 30 to 50 years, and the subjects were divided into two groups , as experimental and control groups. This study proved that pro posed therapeutic methods help the treatment of neck pain.
Lee-Mei Chi; Li-Mei Lin; Chien-Lin Chen; Shu-Fang Wang; Hui-Ling Lai; Tai-Chu Peng
The research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of cupping therapy (CT) in changes on skin surface temperature (SST) for relieving chronic neck and shoulder pain (NSP) among community residents. A single-blind experimental design constituted of sixty subjects with self-perceived NSP. The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. The cupping group received CT at SI 15, GB 21, and LI 15 acupuncture points, and the control group received no intervention. Pain was assessed using the SST...
Huisman, Palesa A; Speksnijder, Caroline M; de Wijer, Anton
The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of thoracic spine manipulation (TSM) in reducing pain and disability in patients diagnosed with non-specific neck pain. An extensive literature search of PubMed, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL and EMBASE was conducted in February 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials evaluating the effect of TSM in patients aged 18 to 65 years with non-specific neck pain were eligible. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed according to the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale (PEDro). Qualitative analyses were conducted by means of the best evidence synthesis of van Peppen et al. The methodological quality of the 10 included RCTs (677 patients) varied between four and eight points. Eight studies reported significant reduction in pain and/or disability by TSM. Overall, according to the best evidence synthesis, there is insufficient evidence that TSM is more effective than control interventions in reducing pain and disability in patients with non-specific neck pain. TSM has a therapeutic benefit to some patients with neck pain, when compared to the effect of interventions such as electrotherapy/thermal programme, infrared radiation therapy, spinal mobilization and exercises. However, in comparison to cervical spine manipulation, no evidence is found that TSM is more effective in reducing pain and disability. Implications for Rehabilitation TSM is often used in the treatment of non-specific neck pain, which is a major health problem in the Western society. There is insufficient evidence that TSM is more effective in reducing pain and disability than control treatments in patients with non-specific neck pain. Despite the insufficient evidence that TSM is more effective than control treatments, TSM has a therapeutic benefit to some patients with neck pain. Therefore, TSM alone or in combination with other interventions is a suitable intervention to use in the treatment of non
Full Text Available Background: Various studies have shown the efficacy of conventional isometric, Pilates and yoga exercises. However, data on the effects and comparison of these specific exercises on the cervical muscle morphology are insufficient or lacking. Objective: To investigate the effects of different exercise treatments on neck muscles in patients with chronic neck pain. Design: A randomized study. Methods: Fifty-six patients with chronic neck pain were randomized into 3 groups as follows: Pilates group (n = 20, yoga group (n = 18 and isometric group (n = 18. Demographics and background information were recorded. The thickness and cross-sectional area of neck muscles were evaluated by ultrasound imaging. Cervical motions were measured with a goniometer. Pain severity was evaluated with the McGill Pain Scale, disability with the Neck Disability Index, quality of life with the Nottingham Health Profile, and emotional status with the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition to a conventional physio-therapy programme, 15 sessions of physical therapy, including hot pack, ultrasound, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, were provided to all patients. All groups performed the exercises for 6 weeks. The aforementioned assessments were performed before and 6 weeks after the treatment. Results: Although pain, disability, depression and quality of life improved similarly within all groups (all p < 0.05, muscle thickness values as regards the semispinalis capitis were increased only in the Pilates group (p = 0.022. Study limitations: The lack of complex (progressive resistive exercise treatment protocols, short treatment duration and partial supervision. Conclusion: All 3 types of exercise had favourable effects on pain and functional scores, but no differences were found among the groups, except for the Pilates group, in which the semispinalis capitis muscle increased in thickness.
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is frequent among military helicopter pilots and crew-members, and pain may influence individual health and work performance. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise intervention could reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members. METHODS: Thirty...... neck pain intensity and sensitivity improved more within the exercise-training-group but not within the reference-group. The lack of effect may be due to low adherence since only ~ 1/3 of subjects in the exercise-training-group engaged in regular training which may be due to the self-administration...
Nederhand, Marcus Johannes; Hermens, Hermanus J.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Turk, Dennis C.; Zilvold, Gerrit; Zilvold, G.
Several theories about musculoskeletal pain syndromes such as whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) suggest that pain and muscle activity interact and may contribute to the chronicity of symptoms. Studies using surface electromyography (sEMG) have demonstrated abnormal muscle activation patterns of the
Falla, Deborah; O'Leary, Shaun; Farina, Dario; Jull, Gwendolen
This study evaluates the relationship between clinical symptoms and the function of the deep cervical flexor muscles in women with persistent neck pain. Thirty-two women with a history of neck pain more than 6 months participated in the study. Measures for neck pain area, intensity, duration, and perceived disability were taken. Electromyography was acquired from the deep cervical flexor muscles by a nasopharyngeal electrode suctioned over the posterior oropharyngeal wall as the patients performed 2 tasks: rapid arm movements (shoulder flexion and extension) and isometric craniocervical flexion contractions. The patients' average score for the Neck Disability Index (0 to 50) was 11.0±2.6 and their average pain intensity rated on a visual analog scale (0 to 10) was 4.7±1.8. A correlation was observed between the average intensity of pain rated on the visual analog scale and the normalized electromyography amplitude recorded from the deep cervical flexors during the craniocervical flexion contractions (r=-0.36; PDisability Index score of the patient. This study shows a relationship between the levels of neck pain intensity and the function of the deep cervical flexor muscles in women with persistent neck pain but not in other clinical features, such as location or duration of the disorder. These findings may partially explain the heterogeneity in motor control impairments in patients with neck pain.
Sahin, Nilay; Ozcan, Emel; Sezen, Kasim; Karatas, Omer; Issever, Halim
The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of electroacupuncture and sham acupuncture in the treatment of patients with chronic neck pain. 31 patients with chronic neck pain were included in a randomised, controlled trial. Electric stimulation was given for 30 minutes at low frequency (1-4Hz), pulse width of 200 micros, interrupted wave form. Of the 29 patients who completed the therapy, 13 were assigned to conventional acupuncture and 16 to sham acupuncture groups, receiving 3 sessions a week for a total of 10 sessions, each lasting for 30 minutes. Patients were evaluated before and after therapy and 3 months later by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the bodily pain subscale of the Short Form Health Survey-36 scale. The treating physician was different from the evaluating physician who, like the patient, was blinded. VAS scores in both groups significantly reduced after therapy and at 3 months post-therapy, but the difference between groups was not significant. In respect of bodily pain, there was a significant improvement in the acupuncture group after therapy (P<0.01). Stimulation of conventional acupuncture points was not generally superior to needling ofnonspecific points on the neck, and both treatments were associated with improvement of symptoms. Needles inserted into the neck are likely to be an inappropriate sham control for acupuncture.
Shabbir, Maryam; Rashid, Sajid; Umar, Bilal; Ahmad, Aqeel; Ehsan, Sarah
Neck and shoulder are the most susceptible areas for developing musculoskeletal symptoms among computer users. The modifiable risk factors for these work related musculoskeletal disorders include physical office environment and psychosocial work related factors. Computer workstation layout had been shown to be an important physical aspect of work environment that influences the upper quadrant symptoms. Our objective was to find the frequency of neck and shoulder pain and use of adjustable computer workstation among bankers of Islamabad/Rawalpindi/Multan. A cross sectional study was conducted and 120 participants were questioned. Purposive sampling technique was used in this study. Maastricht Upper Extremity Questionnaire (MUEQ) was remodeled and important questions were extracted from its detailed version. The tool was then validated by taking expert opinion. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. Pain in the neck during working hours was experienced by 71.67% of the respondents and 48.33% of the participants had experienced shoulder pain during working hours. Adjustable keyboards were used by 16.67% of respondents. Back care material was used by 40% bankers. Adjustable chairs were used by 95.83% of the participants. Only 3% of the bankers did not have chairs with adjustable heights. Chairs with adjustable armrests were used by 25% bankers. Neck and shoulder pain are common occurrences among bankers. Most of the components of workstations of bankers were adjustable but some of them still need attention.
Dr. L.P. Voogt; G.J. Kleinrensink; J.N. van der Geest; M. Janssen; B.K Ischebeck; M.A. Frens; J. de Vries
Several studies in recent decades have examined the relationship between proprioceptive deficits and neck pain. However, there is no uniform conclusion on the relationship between the two. Clinically, proprioception is evaluated using the Joint Position Sense Error (JPSE), which reflects a
Bier, Jasper D; Scholten-Peeters, Wendy G M; Staal, J Bart; Pool, Jan; van Tulder, Maurits W; Beekman, Emmylou; Knoop, Jesper; Meerhoff, Guus; Verhagen, Arianne P
The Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF) issued a clinical practice guideline for physical therapists that addresses the assessment and treatment of patients with nonspecific neck pain, including cervical radiculopathy, in Dutch primary care. Recommendations were based on a review of
Hoving, J.L.; Pool, J.J.M.; Mameren, H.H. van; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Winter, A.F. de; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck pain using the Cybex Electronic Digital Inclinometer-320 (EDI-320). DESIGN: In an outpatient clinic in a primary care setting 32 patients with at least 2
Hoving, J.L.; Pool, J.J.M.; van Mameren, H.; Deville, W.L.J.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; de Vet, H.C.W.; de Winter, A.F.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.
Background: Reproducibility measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The aim of the study is to assess the intra-rater and interrater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck pain using
Hoving, Jan Lucas; Pool, Jan J. M.; van Mameren, Henk; Devillé, Walter J. L. M.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Koes, Bart W.; Bouter, Lex M.
BACKGROUND: Reproducibility measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The aim of the study is to assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck pain using
Hoving, J.L.; Pool, J.J.M.; Mameren, van H.; Deville, W.L.J.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Vet, de H.C.W.; Winter, de A.F.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck pain using the Cybex Electronic Digital Inclinometer-320 (EDI-320). DESIGN: In an outpatient clinic in a primary care setting 32 patients with at least 2
Pool, JJM; van Mameren, H; Deville, WJLM; Assendelft, WJJ; de Vet, HCW; de Winter, AF; Koes, BW; Bouter, LM; Hoving, J.L.
Background: Reproducibility measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The aim of the study is to assess the intra-rater and interrater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion ( ROM) in patients with neck pain using
Chen, Karen B; Sesto, Mary E; Ponto, Kevin; Leonard, James; Mason, Andrea; Vanderheiden, Gregg; Williams, Justin; Radwin, Robert G
This study examined how individuals with and without neck pain performed exercises under the influence of altered visual feedback in virtual reality. Chronic neck pain (n=9) and asymptomatic (n=10) individuals were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Participants performed head rotations while receiving programmatically manipulated visual feedback from a head-mounted virtual reality display. The main outcome measure was the control-display gain (ratio between actual head rotation angle and visual rotation angle displayed) recorded at the just-noticeable difference. Actual head rotation angles were measured for different gains. Detection of the manipulated visual feedback was affected by gain. The just-noticeable gain for asymptomatic individuals, below and above unity gain, was 0.903 and 1.159, respectively. Head rotation angle decreased or increased 5.45° for every 0.1 increase or decrease in gain, respectively. The just-noticeable gain for chronic pain individuals, below unity gain, was 0.950. The head rotation angle increased 4.29° for every 0.1 decrease in gain. On average, chronic pain individuals reported that neck rotation was feasible for 84% of the unity gain trials, 66% of the individual just-noticeable difference trials, and 50% of the "nudged" just-noticeable difference trials. This research demonstrated that virtual reality may be useful for promoting the desired outcome of increased range of motion in neck rehabilitation exercises by altering visual feedback.
Fejer, René; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hartvigsen, Jan
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of neck pain (NP) in the world population and to identify areas of methodological variation between studies. A systematic search was conducted in five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, OSH-ROM, and PsycINFO), followed by a screening...
Jun, Ilsub; Kim, Kyoung
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the amount of change in the thicknesses of the deep cervical flexor (DCF) and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles in subjects with neck pain and subjects without neck pain during craniocervical flexion exercise (CCFE). [Subjects] The total number of subjects was 40, comprising 20 in the no-pain group (males 11, females 9) and 20 in the pain group (males 8, females 12). [Methods] Muscle images were obtained using ultrasound, and the thicknesses of the individual muscles were measured using the NIH ImageJ software. [Results] During CCFE, as pressure increased, the no-pain group recruited the DCF more than the pain group, while the pain group recruited the SCM more. [Conclusion] Selective DCF contraction exercises are considered very useful in the treatment of patients with neck pain.
Madeleine, Pascal; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas
-axial accelerometer package was mounted on the low back (L5-S1) to measure postural changes during cleaning tasks. The 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the angular distributions were computed to characterize postures and movements. Pain tended to play a significant role on RMS of left/right trapezius and left......The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between self-reported pain, muscular activity and postural load during cleaning tasks. Eighteen cleaners performed usual cleaning tasks in both a laboratory and a lecture room. The level of perceived pain in the neck-shoulder region...... erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Cleaners with low pain level exhibited higher muscular activity during cleaning. Pain played or tended to play a significant role on PE of left and right erector spinae muscles (P≤0.08). Pain played a significant role on the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile (P...
Palmlöf, L; Holm, L W; Alfredsson, L; Skillgate, E
Expectations have been investigated in populations seeking care for neck pain, however not considering potential confounding factors. The aim of this study was to investigate if pretreatment expectations of recovery is a prognostic factor for recovery from neck pain at 7 weeks follow-up in patients seeking manual therapy treatment. The study was based on the Stockholm Manual Intervention Trial, a randomized controlled trial investigating efficiency of three combinations of manual therapy. The patients with neck pain were included in this study (n = 716). Expectations of recovery was measured at baseline; 'How likely is it, according to your judgment, that you are completely recovered from your neck/back problems in 7 weeks'. Patients answered on a 11-point scale, further categorized into low, moderate and high expectations. The outcome was measured at 7 weeks follow-up by a modified version of the Global Perceived Recovery Question. Potential effect measure modifiers and confounders were measured at baseline. Multivariable log binomial regression models were used to analyse the association between expectations and recovery, presented as relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI). High expectations of recovery yielded a 47% increased probability of being recovered at 7 weeks follow-up. High expectations of recovery yielded improved recovery in both men and women separately, but moderate expectations yielded improved recovery only among men. Our results suggest that expectations of recovery is a prognostic factor for recovery in patients with neck pain seeking manual therapy treatment. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: We found that high expectations of recovery yielded a higher probability of recovery compared to having low expectations, also when considering potential confounding factors. Expectations seemed to have a more distinct influence on recovery among men. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Ambusam, S; Baharudin, O; Roslizawati, N; Leonard, J
Document holder is used as a remedy to address occupational neck pain among computer users. An understanding on the effects of the document holder along with other work related risk factors while working in computer workstation requires attention. A comprehensive knowledge on the optimal location of the document holder in computer use and associated work related factors that may contribute to neck pain reviewed in this article. A literature search has been conducted over the past 14 years based on the published articles from January 1990 to January 2014 in both Science Direct and PubMed databases. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords for search were neck muscle OR head posture OR muscle tension' OR muscle activity OR work related disorders OR neck pain AND/OR document location OR document holder OR source document OR copy screen holder.Document holder placed lateral to the screen was most preferred to reduce neck discomfort among occupational typists. Document without a holder was placed flat on the surface is least preferred. The head posture and muscle activity increases when the document is placed flat on the surface compared to when placed on the document holder. Work related factors such as static posture, repetitive movement, prolong sitting and awkward positions were the risk factors for chronic neck pain. This review highlights the optimal location for document holder for computer users to reduce neck pain. Together, the importance of work related risk factors for to neck pain on occupational typist is emphasized for the clinical management.
Karjalainen, K; Malmivaara, A; van Tulder, M; Roine, R; Jauhiainen, M; Hurri, H; Koes, B
Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation programs for neck and shoulder pain require substantial staff and financial resources. Despite questionable scientific evidence of their effectiveness, they are widely used. Neck and shoulder complaints are common among working age adults and they are often associated with physical work load and stress. Pain in the neck and shoulder area cause biopsychosocial difficulties for the patient, especially if disability due to pain is prolonged. To help patients with biopsychosocial problems, or to prevent their development, multidisciplinary biopsychosocial programs are used for rehabilitation for patients with neck and shoulder pain. Nevertheless, multidisciplinary treatment programmes are often laborious and rather long processes and require good collaboration between the patient, the rehabilitation team and the work place. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for neck and shoulder pain among working age adults. The reviewed studies for this review were electronically identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycLIT, CENTRAL, Medic, the Science Citation Index, reference checking and consulting experts in the rehabilitation field. The original search was planned and performed for more broad area of musculoskeletal disorders. Trials on neck and shoulder pain were separated afterwards. The literature search was updated in November 2002 by electronically searching MEDLINE and EMBASE. From all references identified in our original search, we selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled clinical trials (CCTs). Trials had to assess the effectiveness of biopsychosocial rehabilitation for working age adults suffering from neck and shoulder pain. The rehabilitation program was required to be multidisciplinary, i.e., it had to consist of a physician's consultation plus either a psychological, social or vocational
Andersen, Lars L; Nielsen, Pernille K; Søgaard, Karen
registered before and after the dynamometer test. The main findings were that shoulder abduction torque (at -60 and 60 degrees s(-1)) and trapezius EMG amplitude (at -60, 0 and 60 degrees s(-1)) were significantly lower in MYA compared with CON (pmuscle thickness...... trapezius muscle. The most consistent differences-in terms of both torque and EMG-were found during slow concentric and eccentric contractions. Activity of the synergistic pain free deltoideus muscle was not significantly lower, indicating specific inhibitory feedback of the painful trapezius muscle only......The present study investigated the effect of chronic neck muscle pain (defined as trapezius myalgia) on neck/shoulder muscle function during concentric, eccentric and static contraction. Forty-two female office workers with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and 20 healthy matched controls (CON) participated...
Mortensen, Peter; Larsen, Anders I; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt
Objectives. This study investigated long-term effects and implementation processes of workplace strength training for musculoskeletal disorders. Methods. 333 and 140 laboratory technicians from private and public sector companies, respectively, replied to a 3-year follow-up questionnaire subsequent...... to a 1-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) with high-intensity strength training for prevention and treatment of neck, shoulder, and arm pain. Being a natural experiment, the two participating companies implemented and modified the initial training program in different ways during the subsequent 2......, (2) training culture, that is, relatively more employees trained at the workplace and with colleagues, (3) self-reported health changes, and (4) prevention of neck and wrist pain development among initially pain-free employees. Conclusions. This natural experiment shows that strength training can...
Andersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Blangsted, Anne
resistance training (SRT, n = 180), all-round physical exercise (APE, n = 187), and reference intervention (REF, n = 182) with general health counseling. Physical tests were performed and questionnaires answered at pre-, mid-, and postintervention. The main outcome measures were compliance, changes......PURPOSE:: The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of three different workplace interventions on long-term compliance, muscle strength gains, and neck/shoulder pain in office workers. METHODS:: A 1-yr randomized controlled intervention trial was done with three groups: specific...... in maximal muscle strength, and changes in intensity of neck/shoulder pain (scale 0-9) in those with and without pain at baseline. RESULTS:: Regular participation was achieved by 54%, 31%, and 16% of those of the participants who answered the questionnaire in SRT (78%), APE (81%), and REF (80%), respectively...
Randløv, A; Østergaard, Mikkel; Manniche, C
and activities of daily living (ADL) were used, and strength and endurance measurements of the cervical and shoulder muscles were carried out at baseline and completion of the study. Follow-up measurements were carried out by postal questionnaire at 6 and 12 months after inclusion, and included pain, ADL......OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical effectiveness of an intensive three-month training programme with a less intensive programme on females suffering from chronic neck/shoulder pain. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observer-blinded clinical trial including 12-month pretreatment follow-up. SETTING......: Patients were referred to the Departments of Rheumatology and Physical Medicine at Hvidovre Hospital by their general practitioners. Training was undertaken at a satellite clinic for physiotherapy of Hvidovre Hospital. SUBJECTS: Female patients aged 18-65 years suffering from chronic neck/shoulder pain...
Cibulka, Michael T; Herren, Jessica; Kilian, Anne; Smith, Steven; Mahmutovic, Fatima; Dolles, Courtney
The sternocleidomastoid (SCM) is an important cervical spine muscle. Weakness of the SCM muscle has been implicated with cervical problems. No studies have examined the reliability of assessing the SCM muscle length or strength. Also no studies exist that have looked to see if imbalances in SCM muscle length or strength exists between the left and right sides in those with and without neck pain. To determine the reliability of assessing the SCM muscle for length and strength and to see if SCM length could predict SCM strength in those with and without neck pain. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-one subjects with and without mild neck pain. Intratester reliability was assessed for SCM muscle length and SCM muscle strength. Differences in SCM length and strength were examined in those with and without neck pain. Intratester reliability was shown to be excellent (ICC (2,2) > 0.90) for the left and right SCM when assessing muscle length and muscle strength for those with and without neck pain. No differences were noted when comparing left to right SCM between those with and without neck pain regarding muscle length or muscle strength. Neither regression models were able to predict SCM muscle strength from SCM muscle length. SCM muscle length and SCM strength can be reliably assessed using a bubble goniometer and HHD. No differences were found when comparing left to right SCM muscle length or strength in those with or without mild neck pain.
Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Christoffer H; Sundstrup, Emil; Pedersen, Mogens T; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L
To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131) were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77) performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54) received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups registered neck pain intensity (0-100 mm VAS) once a week. Neck pain intensity was 55 mm (SD 23) at baseline. There was a significant group by time interaction for neck pain (F-value 2.61, Pchange in pain showed three phases; a rapid decrease in the training group compared with the control group during the initial 7 weeks, a slower decrease in pain during the following weeks (week 8-15), and a plateau during the last weeks (week 16-20). Adherence to training followed a two-phase pattern, i.e. weekly participation rate was between 70-86% during the initial 7 weeks, dropping towards 55-63% during the latter half of the training period. Four weeks of specific resistance training reduced neck pain significantly, but 15 weeks is required to achieve maximal pain reduction. The time-wise change in pain followed a three-phase pattern with a rapid effect during the initial 7 weeks followed by a slower but still positive effect, and finally a plateau from week 15 and onwards. Decreased participation rate may explain the decreased efficacy during the latter phase of the intervention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although psychosocial factors are known to be highly linked with neck pain, current therapies focus on somatically based interventions such as medicinal or manipulatory therapies. This study examines how socio-demographic, psychosocial and medical history and health-promoting lifestyle factors interact with neck pain in general practice patients. Methods This is a cross-sectional survey including 448 patients from a general practice setting in Germany. Participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire including the Neck Pain and Disability Scale German version (NPAD-d and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Crude and adjusted regression analyses were done to assess the relationship between neck pain and socio-demographic, psychosocial and medical history and health-promoting lifestyle factors. Results Both in crude and adjusted regression analyses, depression and anxiety were highly significantly linked with increasing levels of neck pain. Educational level, deficits in social support and physical exercise were associated with neck pain in bivariate analyses, but these associations did not persist with adjustment for depression and anxiety. When investigating levels of depression and anxiety by NPAD-d quartile subgroups, those who were identified to have depressive mood or to be anxious were very likely to be in the group with the highest levels of neck pain. Conclusion The higher the neck pain level, the more attention should be paid to psychosocial distress as a related burden. Further research is needed to elucidate the causality and the direction of the association between psychosocial distress and neck pain and to determine the benefit of psychosocial interventions.
Background Neck-shoulder pain conditions, e.g., chronic trapezius myalgia, have been associated with sensory disturbances such as increased sensitivity to experimentally induced pain. This study investigated pain sensitivity in terms of bilateral pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles and pain responses after a unilateral hypertonic saline infusion into the right legs tibialis anterior muscle and related those parameters to intensity and area size of the clinical pain and to psychological factors (sleeping problems, depression, anxiety, catastrophizing and fear-avoidance). Methods Nineteen women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain but without simultaneous anatomically widespread clinical pain (NSP) and 30 age-matched pain-free female control subjects (CON) participated in the study. Results NSP had lower pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and over the tibialis anterior muscles and experienced hypertonic saline-evoked pain in the tibialis anterior muscle to be significantly more intense and locally more widespread than CON. More intense symptoms of anxiety and depression together with a higher disability level were associated with increased pain responses to experimental pain induction and a larger area size of the clinical neck-shoulder pain at its worst. Conclusion These results indicate that central mechanisms e.g., central sensitization and altered descending control, are involved in chronic neck-shoulder pain since sensory hypersensitivity was found in areas distant to the site of clinical pain. Psychological status was found to interact with the perception, intensity, duration and distribution of induced pain (hypertonic saline) together with the spreading of clinical pain. The duration and intensity of pain correlated negatively with pressure pain thresholds. PMID:21992460
Persson Ann L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck-shoulder pain conditions, e.g., chronic trapezius myalgia, have been associated with sensory disturbances such as increased sensitivity to experimentally induced pain. This study investigated pain sensitivity in terms of bilateral pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles and pain responses after a unilateral hypertonic saline infusion into the right legs tibialis anterior muscle and related those parameters to intensity and area size of the clinical pain and to psychological factors (sleeping problems, depression, anxiety, catastrophizing and fear-avoidance. Methods Nineteen women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain but without simultaneous anatomically widespread clinical pain (NSP and 30 age-matched pain-free female control subjects (CON participated in the study. Results NSP had lower pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and over the tibialis anterior muscles and experienced hypertonic saline-evoked pain in the tibialis anterior muscle to be significantly more intense and locally more widespread than CON. More intense symptoms of anxiety and depression together with a higher disability level were associated with increased pain responses to experimental pain induction and a larger area size of the clinical neck-shoulder pain at its worst. Conclusion These results indicate that central mechanisms e.g., central sensitization and altered descending control, are involved in chronic neck-shoulder pain since sensory hypersensitivity was found in areas distant to the site of clinical pain. Psychological status was found to interact with the perception, intensity, duration and distribution of induced pain (hypertonic saline together with the spreading of clinical pain. The duration and intensity of pain correlated negatively with pressure pain thresholds.
MacPherson, Hugh; Tilbrook, Helen; Richmond, Stewart; Woodman, Julia; Ballard, Kathleen; Atkin, Karl; Bland, Martin; Eldred, Janet; Essex, Holly; Hewitt, Catherine; Hopton, Ann; Keding, Ada; Lansdown, Harriet; Parrott, Steve; Torgerson, David; Wenham, Aniela; Watt, Ian
Management of chronic neck pain may benefit from additional active self-care-oriented approaches. To evaluate clinical effectiveness of Alexander Technique lessons or acupuncture versus usual care for persons with chronic, nonspecific neck pain. Three-group randomized, controlled trial. (Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN15186354). U.K. primary care. Persons with neck pain lasting at least 3 months, a score of at least 28% on the Northwick Park Questionnaire (NPQ) for neck pain and associated disability, and no serious underlying pathology. 12 acupuncture sessions or 20 one-to-one Alexander lessons (both 600 minutes total) plus usual care versus usual care alone. NPQ score (primary outcome) at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months (primary end point) and Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale score, quality of life, and adverse events (secondary outcomes). 517 patients were recruited, and the median duration of neck pain was 6 years. Mean attendance was 10 acupuncture sessions and 14 Alexander lessons. Between-group reductions in NPQ score at 12 months versus usual care were 3.92 percentage points for acupuncture (95% CI, 0.97 to 6.87 percentage points) (P = 0.009) and 3.79 percentage points for Alexander lessons (CI, 0.91 to 6.66 percentage points) (P = 0.010). The 12-month reductions in NPQ score from baseline were 32% for acupuncture and 31% for Alexander lessons. Participant self-efficacy improved for both interventions versus usual care at 6 months (P Alexander lessons, 3.33 percentage points [CI, 2.22 to 4.44 percentage points]). No reported serious adverse events were considered probably or definitely related to either intervention. Practitioners belonged to the 2 main U.K.-based professional associations, which may limit generalizability of the findings. Acupuncture sessions and Alexander Technique lessons both led to significant reductions in neck pain and associated disability compared with usual care at 12 months. Enhanced self-efficacy may partially explain why longer
Full Text Available Yonghui An,1,2 Jia Li,1,2 Yongqian Li,1,2 Yong Shen1,2 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China; 2The Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Biomechanics of Hebei Province, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate characteristics of Modic changes in cervical kyphosis (CK and their association with axial neck pain. Methods: Study participants included 286 asymptomatic or symptomatic patients with CK (mean age = 54.2 ± 12.2 years who were consecutively enrolled from March 2009 to October 2015. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed at a university outpatient department. CK was classified as global type, reverse sigmoid type, or sigmoid type. Results: There were 138 participants with global type CK, 103 with reverse sigmoid type CK, and 45 with sigmoid type CK. Of the 286 participants, 102 had Modic changes (Modic-1 in 38 segments and Modic-2 in 75 segments. Spinal cord compression grade and disc degeneration occurred more frequently in the group with axial neck pain compared to the group without pain. Angular motion was decreased in those with axial neck pain (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 7.8°±4.6° compared to those who were asymptomatic (mean ± SD 8.9°±5.1°; P<0.001. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, Modic changes were associated with axial neck pain (odds ratio =5.356; 95% confidence interval =1.314–12.800; P<0.001. Conclusion: Modic changes occur most commonly in association with CK global type and less commonly with reverse sigmoid type and sigmoid type. Modic changes are associated with axial neck pain in patients with CK. Keywords: cervical kyphosis, axial neck pain, Modic change, kinematic analysis, magnetic resonance imaging
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Manchikanti, Kavita N; Cash, Kimberly A; Singh, Vijay; Giordano, James
Spinal pain is common in all age groups. While the research has focused primarily on incidence and prevalence in younger working adults, there is evidence that spinal pain is one of the most frequent complaints in older persons and is responsible for functional limitations. While facet arthrosis is a common radiographic finding, which has been suggested to be a potential cause of spinal pain, nearly 10% of all adults show signs of degeneration by the time they reach age 30. Radiographic changes of osteoarthritis have been shown to be equally common in patients with and without low back or neck pain. The studies of low back pain have shown the prevalence of facet joint involvement to be approximately 15% to 45%. However, age related prevalence of facet joint neck pain has not been studied. To assess age-related prevalence and false-positive rates of facet-joint involvement in chronic spinal pain using controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks. Retrospective analysis of 424 patients, divided into 6 groups based upon age (Group I: aged 18 - 30 years, Group II: aged 31 - 40 years, Group III: aged 41 - 50 years, Group IV: aged 51 - 60, Group V: 61 - 70 years, and Group VI: greater than 70 years of age). The prevalence of cervical facet joint-related pain was the lowest (33%) in Group VI and highest (42%) in Group I. False-positive rates for cervical facet joint blocks ranged from 39% (Group III) to 58% (Group V) with an overall false-positive rate of 45%. The prevalence of facet joint involvement in lumbar spinal pain ranged from 18% (in Group II) to 44% (in Group IV), with significant differences noted when Group II and Group III were compared to other groups and with higher rates in Group V. This study demonstrated a variable age-related prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic low back pain, whereas in the cervical spine it was similar among all the age groups.
Nyman, T; Mulder, M; Iliadou, A; Svartengren, M; Wiktorin, C
To investigate if high physical workload is associated with low back pain (LBP) and/or neck-shoulder pain (NSP) when taking into account the influence of genetic and shared environmental factors. Further, the study aims to explore the potential influence of genetic and shared environmental factors in the associations between high physical workload and the three disorder subgroups: solely LBP, solely NSP, and concurrent LBP and NSP. Data on 16,107 monozygotic and dizygotic twins, born during 1959-1985, were obtained from a cross-sectional study, performed in 2005-2006 by the Swedish Twin Registry. Odds ratios (ORs) calculated in cohort analyses and co-twin control analyses were used to assess the associations between high physical workload and LBP and NSP when controlling for genetic and shared environmental factors. In the cohort analysis, the association between high physical workload and the group with any one symptom (LBP and/or NSP) was OR 1.47 (95% CI 1.37 to 1.57). The co-twin control analyses indicated that the association was not confounded by genetic and shared environmental factors with OR 1.34 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.75) for dizygotic twins and OR 1.44 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.95) for monozygotic twins. In the cohort analyses the association with high physical workload was higher for concurrent LBP and NSP (OR 1.80 (95% CI 1.62 to 1.99)) than for solely LBP (OR 1.41 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.57)) and solely NSP (OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.43)). Concurrent LBP and NSP was the only group that showed a stepwise decrease of the point estimates between the cohort analysis and the co-twin control analyses, OR 1.71 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.94) for dizygotic twins, and OR 1.29 (95% CI 0.64 to 2.59) for monozygotic twins indicating confounding by genetic and shared environmental factors. High physical workload was associated with LBP and/or NSP even after adjusting for genetic or shared environmental factors. Only for concurrent LBP and NSP, genetic and shared environmental factors seemed to
Baghi, Raziyeh; Rahnama, Leila; Karimi, Noureddin; Goodarzi, Fereshte; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Jaberzadeh, Shapour
Disturbance in neck muscle function is a well-known complication of chronic nonspecific neck pain (CNNP). It is, however, unclear which muscles are more susceptible to functional impairment in patients with CNNP during upper limb tasks. To compare ultrasonographic changes in dorsal neck muscles thickness in patients with CNNP and asymptomatic controls while they performed a light load upper-limb movement. Case control. University research laboratory. Twenty individuals with CNNP with a mean age of 23.35 ± 2.94 and 20 asymptomatic controls with a mean age of 22.30 ± 2.86, without any history of cervical diskopathy, fracture, trauma, inflammation, and spinal deformity were recruited for this study. Ultrasonographic measurement of dorsal neck muscles thickness was performed during a light load 3-second arm-elevation task (shoulder scaption to 120°) in the 2 groups. Associations between pain intensity and patients' perceived disability and between pain intensity and muscle thickness also were evaluated at the state of rest. The thickness changes of the dorsal neck muscles throughout the arm elevation were calculated. The pain intensity and the patient's perceived disability also were measured. A significant main effect of muscle activity status was revealed for the multifidus and semispinalis cervicis and the splenius capitis, indicating an increase in their thickness throughout the arm elevation (P < .001). The only muscle that showed a difference between groups was the multifidus (P = .007). Direct associations between pain and disability (r = .48, P = .03) and between pain and multifidus thickness (r = -.49, P = .03) also were observed. The deteriorating effect of CNNP on the neck muscles targets the deep layer of the dorsal neck muscles (ie, the multifidus) more than the superficial muscles during light upper-limb tasks. III. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maiers, Michele; Bronfort, Gert; Evans, Roni; Hartvigsen, Jan; Svendsen, Kenneth; Bracha, Yiscah; Schulz, Craig; Schulz, Karen; Grimm, Richard
Neck pain, common among the elderly population, has considerable implications on health and quality of life. Evidence supports the use of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) and exercise to treat neck pain; however, no studies to date have evaluated the effectiveness of these therapies specifically in seniors. To assess the relative effectiveness of SMT and supervised rehabilitative exercise, both in combination with and compared to home exercise (HE) alone for neck pain in individuals ages 65 years or older. Randomized clinical trial. Individuals 65 years of age or older with a primary complaint of mechanical neck pain, rated ≥3 (0-10) for 12 weeks or longer in duration. Patient self-report outcomes were collected at baseline and 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after randomization. The primary outcome was pain, measured by an 11-box numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes included disability (Neck Disability Index), general health status (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36), satisfaction (7-point scale), improvement (9-point scale), and medication use (days per week). This study was funded by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. Linear mixed model analyses were used for comparisons at individual time points and for short- and long-term analyses. Blinded evaluations of objective outcomes were performed at baseline and 12 weeks. Adverse event data were collected at each treatment visit. A total of 241 participants were randomized, with 95% reporting primary outcome data at all time points. After 12 weeks of treatment, the SMT with home exercise group demonstrated a 10% greater decrease in pain compared with the HE-alone group, and 5% change over supervised plus home exercise. A decrease in pain favoring supervised plus HE over HE alone did not reach statistical significance. Compared with the HE group, both combination groups reported greater improvement at week 12 and more satisfaction at all time points
Masticatory sensory-motor changes after an experimental chewing test influenced by pain catastrophizing and neck-pain-related disability in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders.
La Touche, Roy; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Pardo-Montero, Joaquín; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; Fernández-Carnero, Josué
Recent research has shown a relationship of craniomandibular disability with neck-pain-related disability has been shown. However, there is still insufficient information demonstrating the influence of neck pain and disability in the sensory-motor activity in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neck-pain-related disability on masticatory sensory-motor variables. An experimental case-control study investigated 83 patients with headache attributed to TMD and 39 healthy controls. Patients were grouped according to their scores on the neck disability index (NDI) (mild and moderate neck disability). Initial assessment included the pain catastrophizing scale and the Headache Impact Test-6. The protocol consisted of baseline measurements of pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO). Individuals were asked to perform the provocation chewing test, and measurements were taken immediately after and 24 hours later. During the test, patients were assessed for subjective feelings of fatigue (VAFS) and pain intensity. VAFS was higher at 6 minutes (mean 51.7; 95% CI: 50.15-53.26) and 24 hours after (21.08; 95% CI: 18.6-23.5) for the group showing moderate neck disability compared with the mild neck disability group (6 minutes, 44.16; 95% CI 42.65-45.67/ 24 hours after, 14.3; 95% CI: 11.9-16.7) and the control group. The analysis shows a decrease in the pain-free MMO only in the group of moderate disability 24 hours after the test. PPTs of the trigeminal region decreased immediately in all groups, whereas at 24 hours, a decrease was observed in only the groups of patients. PPTs of the cervical region decreased in only the group with moderate neck disability 24 hours after the test. The strongest negative correlation was found between pain-free MMO immediately after the test and NDI in both the mild (r = -0.49) and moderate (r = -0.54) neck disability
Kwon, Jong Won; Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kwack, Kyu-Sung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Choi, Ja-Young; Moon, Sung Gyu; Jun, Woo Sun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Yeom, Jin-Sup [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyeongi-Do (Korea); Kim, Hyun-Jib [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Gyeongi-Do (Korea); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea)
To verify the usefulness of a fluoroscopy guided cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injection (CIESI) in patients with neck pain and cervical radiculopathy and to evaluate outcome predictors. We retrospectively analyzed 91 patients from July 2004 to June 2005 in whom CIESI was initially performed for neck pain and cervical radiculopathy. Therapeutic effects were evaluated 2 weeks after the administration of CIESI, and CIESI effectiveness was graded using a five-point scale, namely, whether the pain had disappeared, was much improved, slightly improved, the same, or aggravated. We also used a visual analog scale (VAS) for the clinical evaluation. According to documentation and follow-up charts, we categorized treatments as effective or ineffective. Possible outcome predictors, namely, diagnosis (spinal stenosis vs herniated disc), primary symptoms (neck pain vs radiculopathy vs both), age, gender, and duration of pain (more or less than 6 months) were also analyzed. Fisher's exact test, the chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. After their medical records had been reviewed, 76 patients were included in this study. Inclusion criteria were: the availability of a cross-sectional image, such as a CT scan or an MR image, and a follow-up record after injection. The medical records of 76 patients (male:female = 41: 35) of mean age 53.1 years (range 32 years to 82 years) were reviewed. Two weeks after injection, 55 patients (72.4%) had experienced effective pain relief. Patients with herniated discs had significantly better results than patients with spinal stenosis (86.1% vs 60.0%) (P < 0.05). Other non-significant predictors of an improved outcome included: a symptom duration of <6 months, a young age, and the presence of cervical radiculopathy. Multiple regression analysis showed that the only factor that was significantly associated with outcome was the cause of the pain, i.e., herniated disc or
Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Gonzalez, Gladys; Funk, C G
The literature on the effects of massage therapy on neck arthritis pain is mixed depending on the dose level, and it is also based on self-report. In the present study an attempt was made to enhance the effects of weekly massage therapy by having the participants massage themselves daily. And in addition to self-reports on pain, range of motion (ROM) and the associated ROM pain were assessed before and after the first massage session and pre-post the last session one month later. Staff and faculty members at a medical school who were eligible for the study if they had neck arthritis pain were randomly assigned to a massage or a waitlist control group (N = 24 per group). The massage group received moderate pressure massages weekly by a massage therapist plus daily self-massages. The waitlist control group received the same schedule massages one month after being control subjects. The massage group showed significant short-term reductions after the first and last day massages in self-reported pain and in ROM-associated pain as well as an increase in ROM. Comparisons between the massage group (N = 23) and the control group (N = 14) on the last versus the first day data suggested significantly different changes including increased ROM and reduced ROM-associated pain for the massage group and reduced ROM and increased ROM-associated pain for the control group. These changes occurred specifically for flexion and right and left lateral flexion motions. These data highlight the importance of designing massage therapy protocols that target the most affected neck muscle groups and then assessing range of motion and related pain before and after the massage therapy. Comparisons with other studies also suggest that moderate pressure may contribute to the massage effects, and the use of daily self-massages between sessions may sustain the effects and serve as a cost-effective therapy for individuals with neck arthritis pain. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ghamkhar, Leila; Kahlaee, Amir Hossein
This study compared the relationship between some clinical factors and the size of neck flexors in participants with or without chronic neck pain. In this case-control study, the correlation between flexor endurance capacity as well as thickness, cross-section area, and shape ratio of longus colli/capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscles were examined in 30 patients with chronic neck pain and 30 asymptomatic participants. The patients showed lower flexor endurance (P = 0.02), smaller thickness (P = 0.03), and cross-section area (P neck pain. In the control group, flexor endurance was negatively correlated with longus colli shape ratio (r = -0.45, P = 0.01) but positively correlated with longus capitis thickness (r = 0.45, P = 0.01) and cross-section area (r = 0.38, P = 0.03). Neck disability and pain intensity indices were not significantly correlated with either flexor muscles endurance or size. The ultrasonographic measures of the deep neck flexor muscles and the flexor endurance test, being associated with each other, could successfully differentiate patients with chronic neck pain from asymptomatic participants. However, the endurance test scores were not correlated with self-reported disability or pain intensity indices.
Zapletal, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Leyenburg Hospital, The Hague (Netherlands); Hekster, R.E.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Leyenburg Hospital, The Hague (Netherlands); Straver, J.S. [Dept. of Neurology, Leyenburg Hospital, The Hague (Netherlands); Wilmink, J.T. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Maastricht (Netherlands); Hermans, J. [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)
We discuss the relationship of atlanto-odontoid (AO) (anterior C1-C2 joint) osteoarthritis to suboccipital pain. A questionnaire regarding suboccipital neck pain was presented to 210 consecutive patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) of the brain or sinuses for a variety of indications. In all patients the AO joint and the lateral scout image of the cervical spine were studied. In 104 (49%) degenerative changes were seen at the AO joint. There were 89 patients (42%) who reported pain in the suboccipital region, although this was not the reason for CT in any patient. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of suboccipital neck pain in all patients showed the presence of AO osteoarthritis seen on CT to be associated with occurrence of these symptoms. This association remained significant in the same study population after excluding patients with a history of rheumatoid arthritis, migraine, stress and neck trauma and patients with signs of degenerative changes of C2-C7 on the computed lateral scout image. (orig.)
Ozünlü Pekyavaş, Nihan; Kunduracılar, Zuhal; Ersin, Aybüke; Ergüneş, Cengiz; Tonga, Eda; Karataş, Metin
To investigate the relationship between scapular dyskinesia, pain, and flexibility in patients with neck, shoulder, or both injuries. A total of 160 patients who came to Baskent University Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation with pathology and pain in the neck and shoulder regions were included to our study. Patients were divided into three groups; Neck group, shoulder group and neck+shoulder group. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain intensity, goniometer for range of motion, and tape measurement for evaluation of flexibility was used. Lateral Scapular Slide Test (LSST) and Scapular Retraction Test (SRT) vs Skapular Assisstance Test (SAT) were used for evaluation of scapular dyskinesia. SRT (r=0.617, p=0.000) and SAT (r=0.565, p=0.000) positivity was found to be correlated with dominant and non-dominant sides in patients with neck pathology. Pain at night and during rest were found to correlate with pain during activity in patients with neck+shoulder pathology (r=0.572, p=0.002). No significant correlation was found between pain intensity and scapular dyskinesia in all groups. LSST values were found under 1.5 cm and therefore, scapular mobilization was considered as normal (LSST1=0.76±0.74; LSST2=0.68±0.81; LSST3=0.75±0.75). In addition to joint limitations and flexibility, scapular dyskinesia should also be evaluated in order to solve problems related to pain in patients with neck, shoulder and neck+shoulder pathology. In future studies, the classification of groups according to pathology may help to understand the impact of scapular dyskinesia on the pathology of shoulder and neck pain.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical outcome measures are important tools to monitor patient improvement during treatment as well as to document changes for research purposes. The short-form Bournemouth questionnaire for neck pain patients (BQN was developed from the biopsychosocial model and measures pain, disability, cognitive and affective domains. It has been shown to be a valid and reliable outcome measure in English, French and Dutch and more sensitive to change compared to other questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to translate and validate a German version of the Bournemouth questionnaire for neck pain patients. Methods German translation and back translation into English of the BQN was done independently by four persons and overseen by an expert committee. Face validity of the German BQN was tested on 30 neck pain patients in a single chiropractic practice. Test-retest reliability was evaluated on 31 medical students and chiropractors before and after a lecture. The German BQN was then assessed on 102 first time neck pain patients at two chiropractic practices for internal consistency, external construct validity, external longitudinal construct validity and sensitivity to change compared to the German versions of the Neck Disability Index (NDI and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPAD. Results Face validity testing lead to minor changes to the German BQN. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient for the test-retest reliability was 0.99. The internal consistency was strong for all 7 items of the BQN with Cronbach α's of .79 and .80 for the pre and post-treatment total scores. External construct validity and external longitudinal construct validity using Pearson's correlation coefficient showed statistically significant correlations for all 7 scales of the BQN with the other questionnaires. The German BQN showed greater responsiveness compared to the other questionnaires for all scales. Conclusions The German BQN is a valid and
McCaskey, Michael A; Schuster-Amft, Corina; Wirth, Brigitte; Suica, Zorica; de Bruin, Eling D
Proprioceptive training (PrT) is popularly applied as preventive or rehabilitative exercise method in various sports and rehabilitation settings. Its effect on pain and function is only poorly evaluated. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise and analyse the existing data on the effects of PrT on pain alleviation and functional restoration in patients with chronic (≥ 3 months) neck- or back pain. Relevant electronic databases were searched from their respective inception to February 2014. Randomised controlled trials comparing PrT with conventional therapies or inactive controls in patients with neck- or low back pain were included. Two review authors independently screened articles and assessed risk of bias (RoB). Data extraction was performed by the first author and crosschecked by a second author. Quality of findings was assessed and rated according to GRADE guidelines. Pain and functional status outcomes were extracted and synthesised qualitatively and quantitatively. In total, 18 studies involving 1380 subjects described interventions related to PrT (years 1994-2013). 6 studies focussed on neck-, 12 on low back pain. Three main directions of PrT were identified: Discriminatory perceptive exercises with somatosensory stimuli to the back (pPrT, n=2), multimodal exercises on labile surfaces (mPrT, n=13), or joint repositioning exercise with head-eye coordination (rPrT, n=3). Comparators entailed usual care, home based training, educational therapy, strengthening, stretching and endurance training, or inactive controls. Quality of studies was low and RoB was deemed moderate to high with a high prevalence of unclear sequence generation and group allocation (>60%). Low quality evidence suggests PrT may be more effective than not intervening at all. Low quality evidence suggests that PrT is no more effective than conventional physiotherapy. Low quality evidence suggests PrT is inferior to educational and behavioural approaches. There are few relevant
Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein
To determine the impact of occupational psychological/social and mechanical factors on neck pain, a prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 2 years was conducted with a sample of Norwegian employees. The following designs were tested: (i) cross-sectional analyses at baseline (n=4569) and follow-up (n=4122), (ii) prospective analyses with baseline predictors, (iii) prospective analyses with average exposure over time [(T1+T2)/2] as predictor, and (iv) prospective analyses with measures of change in exposure from T1 to T2 as predictors. A total of 2419 employees responded to both the baseline and follow-up questionnaire. Data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. After adjustment for age, sex, neck pain at T1, and other exposure factors that had been estimated to be confounders, the most consistent risk factors were role conflict (highest OR 2.97, 99% CI: 1.29-6.74) and working with arms raised to or above shoulder level (highest OR 1.37, 99% CI: 1.05-1.78). The most consistent protective factors were empowering leadership (lowest OR 0.53, 99% CI: 0.35-0.81) and decision control (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.36-1.00). Hence, psychological and social factors are important precursors of neck pain, along with mechanical factors. Although traditional factors such as quantitative demands and decision control play a part in the etiology of neck pain at work, in this study several new factors emerged as more important. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Priti R Sanghavi
Full Text Available Background: Head and neck cancer pain is intractable and difficult to manage. Many a times it is difficult to treat with oral opioids and adjuvants. Aim: This study aims to study the effects of transnasal sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB, administered using cotton swab/ear bud by patients' caretaker, at home, for pain management. Study Design: This is a prospective, single-arm observational study conducted on 100 head and neck cancer patients, from January 2014 to December 2015. Patients and caretaker were given a demonstration of the procedure using sterile cotton swab/ear buds. They were advised to repeat the procedure when their visual analog score (VAS was more than 5. They continued with the oral analgesics. They kept the records of pre- and post-procedure pain score (VAS, the frequency of repetition, ease of performance of procedure, and morphine requirement. A paired t-test (SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A significant reduction in pain was noted by a decrease in mean VAS from 8.57 ± 1.31 to 2.46 ± 1.23 (P 0.05 mg per day, at the end of 2 months. Ease of performance was observed in 88 patients. Conclusion: The home-based application of SPGB is an easy, safe, and cost-effective method to manage cancer pain. It provides excellent immediate pain relief with a minimum side effect. It can be performed bilaterally, repeatedly and even with a feeding tube in place.
Full Text Available Background Prevalence of low back pain (LBP and neck pain (NP in workers, especially in nurses is high, but their knowledge of ergonomics is not enough. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ergonomic training on low back pain and neck pain, posture, and function in female hospital personnel of Najaf-Abad, Iran. Patients and Methods In this queasy experimental study, 47 female staffs with LBP or NP were selected through a simple consecutive sampling method. The subjects completed a questionnaire on LBP and NP and were evaluated for posture, back tests, and cost of related treatments. Afterward, they participated in an ergonomic training program, including face to face and group education sessions on ergonomic risk factors for LBP and NP, in the work place. After six months of follow up, all the tests and data collection were repeated and data was analyzed using paired t-test and regression analysis. Results Prevalence of LBP and NP were 87% and 45.7%, respectively. Repetitive motions were the most frequent cause of pain (67%. Pain intensity, posture, risk of musculoskeletal disorders, weight, waist circumference, sick leaves, and the costs of treatments reduced significantly after intervention (P < 0.05. Conclusions With regards to the influence of ergonomic training on improving LBP and NP and decreasing the treatment costs, this intervention beside others can be useful for controlling musculoskeletal disorders in hospital personnel.
Durmus, Dilek; Alayli, Gamze; Tufekci, Tugce; Kuru, Omer
The aim of this trial was to investigate and compare the effects of phonophoresis (PP), placebo PP and exercise therapies on pain, disability, sleep quality, and depression in the patients with chronic neck pain (CNP). This is a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. A total of 61 patients with definite CNP were included in this study. The patients were randomized into three groups. Group 1 (n = 21) received PP with capsaicin treatment and exercises. Group 2 (n = 20) received placebo PP with capsaicin and exercises. Group 3 (n = 20) was given only exercises. All of the programs were performed 3 days a week, for 6 weeks. The pain (visual analog scale), disability (the neck pain disability index), depression (Beck Depression Inventory scores), and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) of all participants were evaluated. Measurements were taken before and after treatment. All of the groups showed statistically significant improvements in pain, disability, sleep quality, and depression. While there was no difference between groups regarding depression and sleep quality, intergroup comparison showed significant differences in pain and disability among three groups. These differences were statistically significant in group 1 and 2 compared to group 3, and also in group 1 compared to group 2. We observed that PP treatment was effective in the treatment for patients with CNP. A combination of PP with exercises can be used to obtain optimal clinical results.
Bau, Jian-Guo; Chia, Taipau; Wei, Shan-Hua; Li, Yung-Hui; Kuo, Fun-Chie
Modern office workers are often impacted by chronic neck/shoulder pain. Most of the previous studies which investigated the relationship of the occupational factors and musculoskeletal symptoms had adopted questionnaire survey. In this study the microcirculatory characteristics and perceived symptoms in neck/shoulder region were compared among office workers with sedentary lifestyle. Thirty-seven female office workers were recruited in this study. Microcirculatory flow in neck/shoulder region characterized by the mean blood flow (MMBF value), pulsatile blood flow (PMBF value), and the PMBF/MMBF ratio (perfusion pulsatility, PP) were investigated using Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF). A Chinese version of the Standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) were also administered to collect the information of perceived neck/shoulder symptoms. Correlations between the perfusion characteristics and the individual/occupational factors were analyzed using the Spearman test. The difference of the MMBF values between the low-pain group (pain level≤2) and the high-pain group (pain level>2) were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. There were 81% participants reported neck or shoulder pain symptoms. The duration of shoulder pain was significantly correlated with the workers' age and the duration of employment (psedentary lifestyle, was found to be more likely to evoke ischemia shoulder pain. Further studies are needed to assess current indicator, PP value, and the underlying mechanism of pain caused by sedentary lifestyle.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cervical pain is widespread, most victims are only mildly and occasionally affected. A minority, however, suffer chronic pain and/or functional impairments. Although there is abundant literature regarding nontraumatic neck pain, little focuses on diagnostic criteria. During the last decade, research on neck pain has been designed to evaluate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, without noteworthy success. Independent researchers have investigated postural balance and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility among patients with chronic neck pain, and have (in most cases concluded the source of the problem is a reduced ability in the neck's proprioceptive system. Here, we investigated cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility and postural balance among patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain. Methods Ours was a two-group, observational pilot study of patients with complaints of continuous neck pain during the 3 months prior to recruitment. Thirteen patients with chronic neck pain of nontraumatic origin were recruited from an institutional outpatient clinic. Sixteen healthy persons were recruited as a control group. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was assessed by exploring head repositioning accuracy and postural balance was measured with computerized static posturography. Results Parameters of cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility were not reduced. However, in one of six test movements (flexion, global repositioning errors were significantly larger in the experimental group than in the control group (p Conclusion In patients with nontraumatic chronic neck pain, we found statistically significant global repositioning errors in only one of six test movements. In this cohort, we found no evidence of impaired postural balance. Head repositioning accuracy and computerized static posturography are imperfect measures of functional proprioceptive impairments. Validity of (and procedures for using these
Jo, Hyun-Jin; Shin, Myung-Hoon; Hur, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jin-Sung; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Park, Chun-Kun
Cervical spondylosis and shoulder disorders share with neck and shoulder pain. Differentiating between the two can be challenging and patient with combined pathologies is less likely to have pain improvement even after successful cervical operation. We investigated clinical characteristics of the patients who were diagnosed as cervical spondylosis however, were turned out to have shoulder disorders or the patients whose pain was solely originated from shoulder. Between January 2008 and October 2009, the patients presenting neck and shoulder pain with diagnosis of cervical spondylosis were enrolled. Among them, the patients who met following inclusion criteria were grouped into shoulder disorder group and the others were into cervical spondylosis group. Inclusion criteria were as follows. (1) To have residual or unresponsive neck and shoulder pain despite of optimal surgical treatment due to concomitant shoulder disorders. (2) When the operation was cancelled for the reason that shoulder and neck pain was proved to be related with unrecognized shoulder disorders. The authors retrospectively reviewed and compared clinical characteristics, level of pathology, diagnosis of cervical spondylosis and shoulder disorders. A total of 96 patients were enrolled in this study. Shoulder disorder group was composed of 15 patients (15.8%) and needed additional orthopedic treatment. Cervical spondylosis group was composed of 81 patients (84.2%). There was no significant differences in mean age, sex ratio and major diagnosis in both shoulder disorder and cervical spondylosis group (p=0.33, 0.78, and 0.68 respectively). However, the distribution of pathologic levels was found to be significantly different (p=0.03). In shoulder disorder group, the majority of lesions (15 of 19 levels, 78.9%) were located at the level of C4-5 (36.8%) and C5-6 (42.1%). On the other hand, in cervical spondylosis group, C5-6 (39.0%) and C6-7 (37.1%) were the most frequently observed level of lesions (80
Testa, Marco; Geri, Tommaso; Gizzi, Leonardo; Petzke, Frank; Falla, Deborah
To assess whether patients with persistent neck pain display evidence of altered masticatory muscle behavior during a jaw-clenching task, despite the absence of orofacial pain or temporomandibular disorders. Ten subjects with persistent, nonspecific neck pain and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of unilateral jaw clenching followed by 5-second submaximal contractions at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% MVC were recorded by two flexible force transducers positioned between the first molar teeth. Task performance was quantified by mean distance and offset error from the reference target force as error indices, and standard deviation of force was used as an index of force steadiness. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded bilaterally from the masseter muscle with 13 X 5 grids of electrodes and from the anterior temporalis with bipolar electrodes. Normalized EMG root mean square (RMS) was computed for each location of the grid to form a map of the EMG amplitude distribution, and the average normalized RMS was determined for the bipolar acquisition. Between-group differences were analyzed with the Kruskal Wallis analysis of variance. Task performance was similar in patients and controls. However, patients displayed greater masseter EMG activity bilaterally at higher force levels (Ppain despite the absence of orofacial pain or temporomandibular disorders.
Patel, Tyag K; Weis, James C
Presented here is a rare cause of severe neck pain - acute longus colli calcific tendinitis - in a 54year old man who presented to the emergency department. The neck pain is due to inflammation caused by calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition in the tendons on the longus colli muscles. This is non-infectious. The gold standard for diagnosis is a CT neck which best shows the calcifications in the anterior vertebral column of C1-C4, where the tendons of these muscles insert bilaterally. Longus colli calcific tendinitis is not life-threatening and patients will make a full recovery after treatment with NSAIDs. However, this condition is often confused with life-threatening conditions such as infection (meningitis or retropharyngeal abscess), intracranial hemorrhage, trauma, herniation of cervical discs, or malignancy (Estimable et al. (2015) ). Symptoms associated with calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle are non-specific and include mild fever, moderate-severe headache, neck pain, and drastically reduced range of motion of the neck. More specific symptoms are the presence of dysphagia and odynophagia. Lab findings usually are significant for mild leukocytosis, and elevated ESR and CRP. Awareness of this condition by E.D. physicians can avoid unnecessary invasive interventions, increased costs, and delays that result from incorrect diagnosis and treatment. This is a unique case in which a patient who was afebrile with a normal ESR was worked up for meningitis and an intracranial process, and also empirically treated for meningitis before finally being diagnosed with acute calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle in the E.D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Changes in cervical muscle function have been observed in patients with neck pain (NP and TMD. However, the relationship between TMD severity and neck muscle strength in the presence/absence of NP is unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of TMD in women with and without mechanical NP and assess the cervical-scapular muscle strength and its association with TMD severity. Methods: Fifteen volunteers without neck pain (CG and 14 women with mechanical neck pain (NPG took part and were selected by the Neck Disability Index. The diagnosis and severity of TMD were determined by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD and Temporomandibular Index (TI, respectively. The strength of the upper trapezius muscle, and cervical flexor and extensor muscles was measured by digital hand dynamometer. Results: 64.5% of women with NP and 33.3% without NP were diagnosed with TMD (p = 0.095. The NPG showed lower strength of the cervical flexor (p = 0.044 and extensor (p=0.006 muscles, and higher TI (p = 0.038 than in the CG. It was also verified moderate negative correlation between TI and the strength of dominant (p = 0.046, r = -0.547 and non-dominant (p = 0.007, r = -0.695 upper trapezius, and cervical flexors (p = 0.023, r = -0.606 in the NPG. Conclusion: There was no difference in the prevalence of TMD in women with and without NP. However, women with NP have lower cervical muscle strength - compared to those without NP - which was associated with greater severity of TMD. Thus, in women with NP associated with TMD, it is advisable to assess and address the severity of this dysfunction and identify the cervical-scapular muscles compromise.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research was studying the impact of 8 weeks selected corrective exercises on neck pain, range of motion in the shoulder and neck of lifesaver women who suffering from forward head posture and myofascial pain syndrome. Methods: The method of research is semi-experimental. The population consists of 30 lifesaver women who suffering from forward head posture and myofascial pain syndrome who they placed randomly in two groups of experimental (33±2.2 and control (33±2.5. Research plan was as the pre-test and post-test with control group. The exercise protocol was carried out by experimental groups for 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, each session lasting 45 minutes. Studied variables include myofascial pain in the neck, shoulder and neck range of motion. The mean and standard deviation were used as descriptive statistics and in the section of inferential statistics analysis of covariance was used. Results: Results of research indicated that, the protocol on the reform exercise of neck pain (P=0.001, range of motion of shoulder joint (P=0.001 and neck range of motion (P=0.001 has significant difference. Conclusion: Therefore, lifesavers women can benefit from it as a training program to improve and prevent damage caused by head forward and myofascial pain syndrome.
Holtermann, Andreas; Hansen, Jørgen V; Burr, Hermann
to be included in our analyses: people with pain in the neck-shoulder (N=848) and low-back (N=676) regions. Data on long-term sickness absence of >or=3 weeks for the period 2001-2002 were attained from the Danish national register of social transfer payments. RESULTS: One fifth of employees with neck...
Gram, Bibi; Andersen, Christoffer; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt
Objective. To investigate the effect of workplace neck/shoulder strength training with and without regular supervision on neck/shoulder pain and headache among office workers. Method. A 20-week cluster randomized controlled trial among 351 office workers was randomized into three groups: two trai...
Hoving, Jan Lucas; Koes, Bart W.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; van der Windt, Danielle A. W. M.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; van Mameren, Henk; Devillé, Walter L. J. M.; Pool, Jan J. M.; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.; Bouter, Lex M.
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is a common problem, but the effectiveness of frequently applied conservative therapies has never been directly compared. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of manual therapy, physical therapy, and continued care by a general practitioner. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled
Hoving, J.L.; Koes, B.W.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Windt, D.A.W.M. van der; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Mameren, H. van; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Pool, J.J.M.; Scholten, R.J.P.M.; Bouter, L.M.
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is a common problem, but the effectiveness of frequently applied conservative therapies has never been directly compared. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of manual therapy, physical therapy, and continued care by a general practitioner. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled
Alipour, Akbar; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Shariati, Batoul; Jensen, Irene; Vingard, Eva
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper extremities are a major problem globally, though most relevant studies have been reported from high income countries. The prevalence of neck and shoulder pain and its association with work-related physical and psychosocial factors and life style was determined by a cross-sectional survey using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) in the largest Iranian car manufacturing company, with more than 18,000 employees. A total of 14,384 (79.8%) of all employees completed the questionnaire. Depending on the questions used to measure neck and shoulder symptoms, the prevalence varied widely (from 20.5% to 3.9%). In the multiple logistic regression model, limited to employees with at least 1 year of work experience, risk indicators for disabling pain of the neck and/or shoulder that remained for male were: duration of employment, high visual demands, repetitive work, sitting position at work, awkward working position, no regular exercise, monotonous work, lack of encouraging organizational culture, and anxiety concerning change. For female repetitive work, sitting position at work and no support if there is trouble at work were the only remaining factors. The study confirms the effects of physical and psychosocial factors on neck and shoulder symptoms among automobile manufacturing workers in a low to middle income country in spite of the relative youth and job insecurity of the population. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Pattison, Natalie; Brown, Matthew Rd; Gubbay, Anthony; Peacock, Janet; Ross, Joy R; Chapman, Suzanne; Sauzet, Odile; Williams, John
Treatment for head and neck cancer can frequently be a painful experience with implications for patients in terms of quality of life, nutrition and ultimately treatment outcomes. Pain may arise for a number of reasons in this patient group including the influence of localised tissue damage from radiotherapy, the effects of chemotherapeutic agents as well as the disease process itself. Early identification of cancer pain, through screening and early analgesic and pain management are thought to be the most appropriate approaches to the problem. To explore in-depth, patients' views of the experience of pain related to radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, within the context of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of pain screening and intervention. A purposive sample of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy who were participating in a separate RCT of a proactive pain screening intervention. A qualitative design using one-off, face-to-face, in-depth interviews. Data were inductively analysed for themes using thematic analysis. Data were collected from September 2012 to January 2013. Eight participants were interviewed. Several issues around pain management arose and the influence of various factors became apparent. Four dominant themes emerged: facets of radiotherapy pain in head and neck cancer, facilitators and barriers to pain management, pain services and finally interdisciplinary working. The specific issues faced by head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy highlight the need for pain relieving interventions delivered by pain specialists, in tandem with the development of robust self-management strategies. An integrated approach to care is optimal, comprising pain screening at each outpatient encounter, and review by specialists as necessary.
Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H
performed maximal voluntary contractions at a static 90-degree shoulder joint angle. Rapid force development was determined as the rate of torque development and maximal muscle strength was determined as the peak torque. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, rate of torque development increased 31.0 Nm......OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. METHODS: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women.......05) for both training groups. Maximal muscle strength increased only ~5-6% [mean and 95% confidence interval for 2- and 12-min groups to control, respectively: 2.5 Nm (0.05-0.73) and 2.2 Nm (0.01-0.70)]. No significant differences between the 2- and 12-min groups were evident. A weak but significant...
Gallego Izquierdo, Tomás; Pecos-Martin, Daniel; Lluch Girbés, Enrique; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Rodríguez Caldentey, Ricardo; Mayor Melús, Rodrigo; Blanco Mariscal, Diego; Falla, Deborah
To compare the effects of cranio-cervical flexion vs cervical proprioception training on neuromuscular control, pressure pain sensitivity and perceived pain and disability in patients with chronic neck pain...
Sparks, Cheryl L; Liu, Wen C; Cleland, Joshua A; Kelly, Joseph P; Dyer, Sarah J; Szetela, Kathryn M; Elliott, James M
The purpose of this study was to examine whether cerebral activation in response to noxious mechanical stimuli varies with thrust manipulation (TM) when compared with sham manipulation (SM) as measured by blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-four volunteers (67% female) with complaints of acute or subacute mechanical (nontraumatic) neck pain satisfied eligibility requirements and agreed to participate. Participants were randomized to receive TM to the thoracic spine or SM, and then underwent functional magnetic resonance scanning while receiving noxious stimuli before and after TM or SM. An 11-point numeric pain rating scale was administered pre- and postmanipulation for neck pain and to determine perceptions of pain intensity with respect to neck pain and mechanical stimuli. Blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging recorded the cerebral hemodynamic response to the mechanical stimuli. Imaging revealed significant group differences, with those individuals in the manipulation group exhibiting increased areas of activation (postmanipulation) in the insular and somatosensory cortices and individuals in the sham group exhibiting greater areas of activation in the precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, and cingulate cortices (P < .05). However, between-group differences on the numeric pain rating scale for mechanical stimuli and for self-reported neck pain were not statistically significant. This study provides preliminary level 2b evidence suggesting cortical responses in patients with nontraumatic neck pain may vary between thoracic TM and a sham comparator. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lange, Britt; Torp-Svendsen, Jørgen; Toft, Palle
Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased. We surveyed 58 F-16 pilots from the Royal Danish Air Force by anonymous questionnaires. More than half of these pilots used JHMCS regularly. The response rate was 100%. Of the pilots, 97% experienced neck pain in flight or shortly after flying, 83% within the last year. Right side neck pain was significantly more frequent than left side, odds ratio 3.25. There was a strong tendency toward predominant right-sided shoulder pain. The pilots reported that combined rotation and extension movements were especially hazardous. Only 1 in 10 pilots moved his head independent of G-load. Neck pain influenced operational flying, especially the ability to perform a "check six" movement sufficiently, and affected flying with high G loads as occurs in basic fighter maneuvers and air combat maneuvering. To avoid neck problems the majority of pilots aim to avoid certain head movements and to fix their neck before exposing themselves to high +Gz loads. With the implementation of JHMCS, two conflicting goals are evident and working at cross-purposes. A pilot's head should remain stationary while exposed to high +Gz loads. However, maximizing the advantages of JHMCS encourages the pilot to move his head sharply while exposed to high +Gz loads. Training programs to help the pilots cope with these challenges are warranted.
Full Text Available Objective. To compare ultrasound-guided miniscalpel-needle (UG-MSN release versus ultrasound-guided dry needling (UG-DN for chronic neck pain. Methods. A total of 169 patients with chronic neck pain were randomized to receive either UG-MSN release or UG-DN. Before treatment and at 3 and 6 months posttreatment, pain was measured using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS. Neck function was examined using the neck disability index. Health-related quality of life was examined using the physical component score (PCS and mental component score (MCS of the SF-36 health status scale. Results. Patients in the UG-MSN release had greater improvement on the VAS (by 2 points at 3 months and 0.9 points at 6 months versus in the UG-DN arm; (both P<0.0001. Patients receiving UG-MSN release also showed significantly lower scores on the adjusted neck disability index, as well as significantly lower PCS. No severe complications were observed. Conclusion. UG-MSN release was superior to UG-DN in reducing pain intensity and neck disability in patients with chronic neck pain and was not associated with severe complications. The procedural aspects in the two arms were identical; however, we did not verify the blinding success. As such, the results need to be interpreted with caution.
Full Text Available Anne Schaller,1 Elena Dragioti,1 Gunilla M Liedberg,2 Britt Larsson1 1Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, 2Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden Background: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC have a potentially severe diagnosis and often suffer from tumor-related pain as well as from adverse side effects of treatment such as radiotherapy (RT. Knowledge about quality of life (QoL during early RT in this group is limited and should be assessed in relation to diagnosis and treatment.Purpose: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify potential factors that may influence QoL in patients with HNC during the early stages of RT (no later than two weeks of ongoing RT. We hypothesized that pain intensity, pain interference, catastrophizing, and mood disturbances are associated with QoL during early RT.Patients and methods: In this study, 54 patients (53% of eligible patients diagnosed with HNC were consecutively recruited from the regular flow to the Pain and Rehabilitation Center at Linköping University. The patients completed self-reported questionnaires on sociodemographics, pain intensity, pain interference, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophizing, and QoL.Results: The patients in this study scored high for QoL, low for pain intensity, and low for pain interference. The patients reported minor depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. Regression analyses showed that pain intensity and depressive symptoms negatively influenced QoL. Conclusion: No later than two weeks of RT, pain intensity and depression negatively influenced QoL in patients with HNC. Early screening for pain and depression in a targeted preventive strategy might maintain QoL during the course of the RT for patients with HNC. This assumption needs to
Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas; Mulder, Marie; Josephson, Malin; Alfredsson, Lars; Wiktorin, Christina
To determine associations between work-related exposures and the prognosis of self-reported neck/shoulder pain. This prospective cohort study was based on 803 working subjects who reported neck/shoulder pain at baseline. The proportion of subjects who 5-6 years later were symptom-free was calculated. Data concerning work-related biomechanical, psychosocial, and organizational exposures were collected at baseline. The Cox regression analyses were used to calculate the relative chances (RC) of being symptom-free at the end of the study for single exposures, and also for up to three simultaneous work-related exposures. Adjustments were made for sex and age. Only 36% of the subjects were symptom-free 5-6 years later. The relative chance for being symptom-free at the end of the study was 1.32 (95% CI = 0.99-1.74) for subjects who were exposed to sitting > or =75% of the working time and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.02-2.29) for subjects who were exposed to job strain, i.e., the combination of high demands and low decision latitude. The relative chance of being symptom-free at the end of the study was 0.61 (95% CI = 0.40-0.94) for subjects with at least two out of three simultaneous biomechanical exposures at work; manual handling, working with the hands above shoulder level, and working with vibrating tools. In a heterogeneous population with moderate nonspecific neck/shoulder pain, sedentary work enhanced the chance of being symptom-free 5-6 years later, whereas simultaneous exposures to at least two of manual handling, working with hands above shoulder level and working with vibrating tools were associated with a lower chance of being symptom-free at the end of the study. This could imply that subjects with neck/shoulder pain should avoid such simultaneous exposures.
severe enough to require epidural, two required opiates, four required muscle relaxants, ten used non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs ) and...that adverse posture with night vision goggles (NVG) contributed to neck pain were more likely to have more than 2500 flying hours, more than 750...tasks Pilot Sometimes mobility and reaction time Pilot On occasion it limits the range of motion Pilot Discomfort is distracting; hard to focus on
Hannerz Harald; Roessler Kirsten K; Boysen Marianne; Pedersen Mette M; Andersen Christoffer H; Mortensen Peter; Pedersen Mogens T; Andersen Lars L; Zebis Mette K; Mortensen Ole S; Sjøgaard Gisela
Abstract Background Although leisure-time physical activity is important for health, adherence to regular exercise is challenging for many adults. The workplace may provide an optimal setting to reach a large proportion of the adult population needing regular physical exercise. This study evaluates the effect of implementing strength training at the workplace on non-specific neck and shoulder pain among industrial workers. Methods Cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 537 adults from ...
Yapali, Gökmen; Günel, Mintaze Kerem; Karahan, Sevilay
The study design was cross-cultural adaptation and investigation of reliability and validity of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS). The aim of this study was to translate the CNFDS into Turkish language and assess its reliability and validity among patients with neck pain in Turkish population. The CNFDS is a reliable and valid evaluation instrument for disability, but there is no published the Turkish version of the CNFDS. One hundred one subjects who had chronic neck pain were included in this study. The CNFDS, Neck Pain and Disability Scale, and visual analogue scale were administered to all subjects. For investigating test-retest reliability, correlation between CNFDS scores, applied at 1-week interval, intraclass correlation coefficient score for test-retest reliability was 0.86 (95% confidence interval = 0.679-0.935). There was no difference between test-retest scores (P validity, correlation between total score of the CNFDS and the mean visual analogue scale was r = 0.73 (P validity of the CNFDS was very good. For investigating construct validity, correlation between total score of the CNFDS and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale was r = 0.78 (P validity of the CNFDS was also very good. Our results suggest that the Turkish version of the CNFDS is a reliable and valid instrument for Turkish people.
Jovic, R; Dragicevic, D; Komazec, Z; Sabo, A
Recently, nonsteroidal analgoantipyretics are recommended in the management of postoperative pain, with great attention to their safety. We conducted a randomized, single blind study to compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of ketoprofen and dipyrone (metamizole) after major head and neck surgery. 60 patients received postoperatively 100 mg ketoprofen or 2.5 g metamizole i.v. every 8h over 72h with additional administration of tramadol in case of inadequate analgesia. Pain was assessed by visual numeric scale every 2h during the 72h. Patients in both groups had similar pain score during the first 2 postoperative days, while on the 3rd postoperative day patients in the ketoprofen group had significantly lower pain score (p metamizole during the first 48h, while ketoprofen was superior to metamizole during the 3rd postoperative day.
Cardoso, Leticia Rodrigues; Rizzo, Cláudia Carvalho; de Oliveira, Cleyton Zanardo; dos Santos, Carlos Roberto; Carvalho, André Lopes
Patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer may develop myofascial pain syndrome as sequelae. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and quality of life (QOL) related to myofascial pain syndrome. This was a prospective study including patients with head and neck cancer with at least a 1-year disease-free interval. One hundred sixty-seven patients were analyzed, and myofascial pain syndrome was diagnosed in 20 (11.9%). In the multivariate analysis, hypopharyngeal tumors (odds ratio [OR] = 6.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58-25.56) and neck dissection (OR = 3.43; 95% CI = 1.16-10.17) were independent factors for myofascial pain syndrome. The pain (p < .001) and shoulder domain (p < .001) as well as overall University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) score (p = .006) were significantly lower in the patients with myofascial pain syndrome. Myofascial pain syndrome was observed in 1 of 9 patients after head and neck cancer treatment and a worse QOL was observed among them. Tumor site and neck dissection were found to be risk factors for myofascial pain syndrome. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rodríguez-Fuentes, Iván; De Toro, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gustavo; de Oliveira, Iris Machado; Meijide-Faílde, Rosa; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac Manuel
As myofascial release therapy is currently under development, the objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of myofascial release therapy with manual therapy for treating occupational mechanical neck pain. A randomized, single-blind parallel group study was developed. The sample (n = 59) was divided into GI, treated with manual therapy, and GII, treated with myofascial release therapy. Variables studied were intensity of neck pain, cervical disability, quality of life, craniovertebral angle, and ranges of cervical motion. At five sessions, clinical significance was observed in both groups for all the variables studied, except for flexion in GI. At this time point, an intergroup statistical difference was observed, which showed that GII had better craniovertebral angle (P = 0.014), flexion (P = 0.021), extension (P = 0.003), right side bending (P = 0.001), and right rotation (P = 0.031). A comparative analysis between therapies after intervention showed statistical differences indicating that GII had better craniovertebral angle (P = 0.000), right (P = 0.000) and left (P = 0.009) side bending, right (P = 0.024) and left (P = 0.046) rotations, and quality of life. The treatment of occupational mechanical neck pain by myofascial release therapy seems to be more effective than manual therapy for correcting the advanced position of the head, recovering range of motion in side bending and rotation, and improving quality of life.
Korb, Cheri; Awisat, Abid; Rimar, Doron; Rosner, Itzhak; Schpigelman, Arsen; Militianu, Daniela; Slobodin, Gleb
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has recently become the leading imaging modality in the study of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), has not been evaluated in the assessment of disease-specific changes at the craniocervical junction (CCJ) in patients with AS. To describe the spectrum of active inflammatory lesions at the CCJ using MRI in a cohort of patients with AS and neck pain. The study included 18 patients with AS presenting with neck pain and a control group of 9 fibromyalgia patients matched for age and levels of neck pain. All patients underwent a focused rheumatologic examination, X-ray of the cervical spine, and a 3T MRI study, which included STIR, CUBE T2, FSE and FSE FAT SAT sequences before and after administration of gadolinium. The median age of AS patients was 43 years with a median disease duration of 7 years. Fifteen of 18 patients were under biologic treatment. Seven of 18 AS patients had evidence of cervical syndesmophytes on X-ray films. Active inflammatory lesions of atlanto-occipital joints and apical and alar ligaments were detected in MRIs in 2 out of the 18 patients with AS and in none of the patients with fibromyalgia. Both AS patients with active inflammation of CCJ detected on MRI received treatment with biological agents prior to and during the study. Active inflammation of both entheses and joints of the CCJ can be demonstrated by MRI in patients with AS.
Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
To investigate the association between pain, disability, trigger points (TrPs) and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in patients with mechanical (MNP) or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Forty-six MNP and fifty-one WAD patients underwent a physical examination consisting of cervical range of motion, PPTs in the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, TrPs examination in the upper trapezius, and collection of clinical data including disability, pain intensity and spontaneous symptomatic pain area. A significantly moderate positive association between pain and disability was found in both groups (Pactive TrPs in the upper trapezius exhibited higher intensity of neck pain, higher neck disability and lower PPTs than those with latent TrPs in upper trapezius in both groups. The association between pain, disability, and PPTs is common in subjects with neck pain regardless of the origin of neck pain. The presence of active TrPs was related to higher pain intensity and related-disability and lower PPTs.
Ris Hansen, Inge; Søgaard, Karen; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many patients suffer from chronic neck pain following a whiplash injury. A combination of cognitive, behavioural therapy with physiotherapy interventions has been indicated to be effective in the management of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders. The objective...... is to present the design of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a combined individual physical and cognitive behavioural-graded activity program on self-reported general physical function, in addition to neck function, pain, disability and quality of life in patients...
Andersen, Lars L; Nielsen, Pernille K; Søgaard, Karen; Andersen, Christoffer H; Skotte, Jørgen; Sjøgaard, Gisela
The present study investigated the effect of chronic neck muscle pain (defined as trapezius myalgia) on neck/shoulder muscle function during concentric, eccentric and static contraction. Forty-two female office workers with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and 20 healthy matched controls (CON) participated. Isokinetic (-60, 60 and 180 degrees s(-1)) and static maximal voluntary shoulder abductions were performed in a Biodex dynamometer, and electromyography (EMG) obtained in the trapezius and deltoideus muscles. Muscle thickness in the trapezius was measured with ultrasound. Pain and perceived exertion were registered before and after the dynamometer test. The main findings were that shoulder abduction torque (at -60 and 60 degrees s(-1)) and trapezius EMG amplitude (at -60, 0 and 60 degrees s(-1)) were significantly lower in MYA compared with CON (p<0.001-0.05). Deltoideus EMG and trapezius muscle thickness were not significantly different between the groups. While perceived exertion increased in both groups in response to the test (p<0.0001), pain increased in MYA only (p<0.0001). In conclusion, having trapezius myalgia was associated with decreased strength capacity and lowered activity of the painful trapezius muscle. The most consistent differences-in terms of both torque and EMG-were found during slow concentric and eccentric contractions. Activity of the synergistic pain free deltoideus muscle was not significantly lower, indicating specific inhibitory feedback of the painful trapezius muscle only. Parallel increase in pain and perceived exertion among MYA were observed in response to the maximal contractions, emphasizing that heavy physical exertion provokes pain increase only in conditions of myalgia.
Janssen, Malou; Ischebeck, Britta K; de Vries, Jurryt; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Frens, Maarten A; van der Geest, Jos N
This is a cross-sectional study. The purpose of this study is to support and extend previous observations on oculomotor disturbances in patients with neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) by systematically investigating the effect of static neck torsion on smooth pursuit in response to both predictably and unpredictably moving targets using video-oculography. Previous studies showed that in patients with neck complaints, for instance due to WAD, extreme static neck torsion deteriorates smooth pursuit eye movements in response to predictably moving targets compared with healthy controls. Eye movements in response to a smoothly moving target were recorded with video-oculography in a heterogeneous group of 55 patients with neck pain (including 11 patients with WAD) and 20 healthy controls. Smooth pursuit performance was determined while the trunk was fixed in 7 static rotations relative to the head (from 45° to the left to 45° to right), using both predictably and unpredictably moving stimuli. Patients had reduced smooth pursuit gains and smooth pursuit gain decreased due to neck torsion. Healthy controls showed higher gains for predictably moving targets compared with unpredictably moving targets, whereas patients with neck pain had similar gains in response to both types of target movements. In 11 patients with WAD, increased neck torsion decreased smooth pursuit performance, but only for predictably moving targets. Smooth pursuit of patients with neck pain is affected. The previously reported WAD-specific decline in smooth pursuit due to increased neck torsion seems to be modulated by the predictability of the movement of the target. The observed oculomotor disturbances in patients with WAD are therefore unlikely to be induced by impaired neck proprioception alone. 3.
de Koning, Chantal H P; van den Heuvel, Sylvia P; Staal, J Bart; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Hendriks, Erik J M
Neck pain is a significant health problem in modern society. There is evidence to suggest that neck muscle strength is reduced in patients with neck pain. This article provides a critical analysis of the research literature on the clinimetric properties of tests to measure neck muscle strength or endurance in patients with non-specific neck pain, which can be used in daily practice. A computerised literature search was performed in the Medline, CINAHL and Embase databases from 1980 to January 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed the clinimetric properties of identified measurement methods, using a checklist of generally accepted criteria for reproducibility (inter- and intra-observer reliability and agreement), construct validity, responsiveness and feasibility. The search identified a total of 16 studies. The instruments or tests included were: muscle endurance tests for short neck flexors, craniocervical flexion test with an inflatable pressure biofeedback unit, manual muscle testing of neck musculature, dynamometry and functional lifting tests (the cervical progressive iso-inertial lifting evaluation (PILE) test and the timed weighted overhead test). All the articles included report information on the reproducibility of the tests. Acceptable intra- and inter-observer reliability was demonstrated for t enduranctest for short neck flexors and the cervical PILE test. Construct validity and responsiveness have hardly been documented for tests on muscle functioning. The endurance test of the short neck flexors and the cervical PILE test can be regarded as appropriate instruments for measuring different aspects of neck muscle function in patients with non-specific neck pain. Common methodological flaws in the studies were their small sample size and an inappropriate description of the study design.
Smits-Engelsman Bouwien CM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is a significant health problem in modern society. There is evidence to suggest that neck muscle strength is reduced in patients with neck pain. This article provides a critical analysis of the research literature on the clinimetric properties of tests to measure neck muscle strength or endurance in patients with non-specific neck pain, which can be used in daily practice. Methods A computerised literature search was performed in the Medline, CINAHL and Embase databases from 1980 to January 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed the clinimetric properties of identified measurement methods, using a checklist of generally accepted criteria for reproducibility (inter- and intra-observer reliability and agreement, construct validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Results The search identified a total of 16 studies. The instruments or tests included were: muscle endurance tests for short neck flexors, craniocervical flexion test with an inflatable pressure biofeedback unit, manual muscle testing of neck musculature, dynamometry and functional lifting tests (the cervical progressive iso-inertial lifting evaluation (PILE test and the timed weighted overhead test. All the articles included report information on the reproducibility of the tests. Acceptable intra- and inter-observer reliability was demonstrated for t enduranctest for short neck flexors and the cervical PILE test. Construct validity and responsiveness have hardly been documented for tests on muscle functioning. Conclusion The endurance test of the short neck flexors and the cervical PILE test can be regarded as appropriate instruments for measuring different aspects of neck muscle function in patients with non-specific neck pain. Common methodological flaws in the studies were their small sample size and an inappropriate description of the study design.
Karimi, Noureddin; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Rahnama, Leila; Noori-Kochi, Farhang; Jaberzadeh, Shapour
Altered pattern of muscle activity is commonly seen with chronic neck pain (CNP). However, limited investigations have been done on dorsal neck muscles' activity pattern while performing upper limb tasks in patients with CNP. To investigate dorsal neck muscles' thickness changes during isometric contraction of shoulder muscles. Case-control study. This study investigated dorsal neck muscles' thickness changes during isometric contraction of shoulder muscles in 20 healthy participants (mean age 27 ± 4.37) and 17 patients with CNP (mean age 29 ± 5.50). Effects of isometric force of shoulder muscles on dorsal neck muscles' thickness changes were also evaluated. Significant muscle × group interaction was observed for the dorsal neck muscles thickness changes (p = 0.008) indicating different pattern of muscle activity in terms of changes in muscle thickness of two groups. Significant main effects of direction was observed (P = 0.003), with the abduction had the greatest impact on changing the dorsal neck muscles thickness. patients with CNP showed altered pattern of muscle thickness changes in comparison to healthy participants. Isometric abduction of shoulder muscles induced the greatest changes of dorsal neck muscles thickness among other force directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Niemisto, L; Kalso, E; Malmivaara, A; Seitsalo, S; Hurri, H
thermocoagulation was not effective for discogenic low-back pain. The selected trials provide limited evidence that radiofrequency denervation offers short-term relief for chronic neck pain of zygapophyseal joint origin and for chronic cervicobrachial pain; conflicting evidence on the short-term effect of radiofrequency lesioning on pain and disability in chronic low-back pain of zygapophyseal joint origin; and limited evidence that intradiscal radiofrequency thermocoagulation is not effective for chronic discogenic low-back pain. There is a need for further high-quality RCTs with larger patient samples and data on long-term effects, for which current evidence is inconclusive. Furthermore, RCTs are needed in non-spinal indications where radiofrequency denervation is currently used without any scientific evidence.
Silva, Anabela G; Punt, T David; Sharples, Paul; Vilas-Boas, João P; Johnson, Mark I
To compare standing head posture measurements between patients with nontraumatic neck pain (NP) and pain-free individuals. Single-blind (assessor) cross-sectional study. Hospital and general community. Consecutive patients (n=40) with chronic nontraumatic NP and age- and sex-matched pain-free participants (n=40). Not applicable. Three angular measurements: the angle between C7, the tragus of the ear, and the horizontal; the angle between the tragus of the ear, the eye, and the horizontal; and the angle between the inferior margins of the right and the left ear and the horizontal were calculated through the digitization of video images. NP patients were found to have a significantly smaller angle between C7, the tragus, and the horizontal, resulting in a more forward head posture than pain-free participants (NP, mean +/- SD, 45.4 degrees +/-6.8 degrees ; pain-free, mean +/- SD, 48.6 degrees +/-7.1 degrees ; P50y) revealed an interaction, with a statistically significant difference in head posture for younger participants with NP compared with younger pain-free participants (NP, mean +/- SD, 46.1 degrees +/-6.7 degrees ; pain-free, mean +/- SD, 51.8 degrees +/-5.9 degrees ; Ppain-free, mean +/- SD, 45.1 degrees +/-6.7 degrees ; P>.05; CI for the difference between groups, -4.9 degrees -4.2 degrees ). No other differences were found between patients and pain-free participants. Younger patients with chronic nontraumatic NP were shown to have a more forward head posture in standing than matched pain-free participants. However, the difference, although statistically significant, was perhaps too small to be clinically meaningful.
Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro
OBJECTIVE : To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. METHODS : Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28...... with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after...... the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. RESULTS : Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability (P = 0...
Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that conventional treatment methods with drugs, physiotherapy and exercises for common neck pain (CNP may be inadequate. Yoga techniques have been found to be effective complimentary therapies in chronic low back pain and also for stress reduction in other diseases. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the complimentary role of a yogic relaxation called mind sound resonance technique (MSRT in non-surgical management of CNP. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 60 patients with CNP were assigned to two groups (yoga, n=30 and (control, n=30. The yoga group received yogic MSRT for 20 minutes in supine position after the conventional physiotherapy program for 30 minutes using pre-recorded audio CD and the control group had non-guided supine rest for 20 minutes (after physiotherapy, for 10 days. MSRT provides deep relaxation for both mind and body by introspective experience of the sound resonance in the whole body while repeating the syllables A, U, M and Om and a long chant (Mahamrityunjaya mantra several times in a meaningful sequence. Both the groups had pre and post assessments using visual pain analog scale, tenderness scoring key, neck disability score (NDS questionnaire, goniometric measurement of cervical spinal flexibility, and state and trait anxiety inventory-Y1 (STAI-Y1. Results: Mann-Whitney U test showed significant difference between groups in pain (P<0.01, tenderness (P<0.01, neck movements (P<0.01. NDS (P<0.01 and state anxiety (STAI-Y1 showed higher reduction in yoga (P<0.01 than that in the control group. Wilcoxon′s test showed a significant improvement in both groups on all variables (P<0.01. Conclusions : Yoga relaxation through MSRT adds significant complimentary benefits to conventional physiotherapy for CNP by reducing pain, tenderness, disability and state anxiety and providing improved flexibility.
Kristensen, Lars Askær; Grøndberg, Thomas Stig; Murray, Mike
INTRODUCTION Flight related neck and shoulder pain is a frequent problem in helicopter pilots and crew . Pain causes personnel suffering, reduces operational capabilities and incurs high financial cost due to the loss of manpower. Evidence suggests that the occupational loading such as posture...... adopted during flight and increased weight added to the mass of the head due to the helmet and night vision equipment contribute to the development of neck and shoulder pain. Strength training has among other occupational groups been found to reduce musculoskeletal pain . A 20-week exercise program...... for the neck and shoulder muscles using elastic bands has been applied for helicopter pilots and crew in the Royal Danish Air Force to prevent and reduce pain. The exercise program had an initial loading of 20RM and was increased progressively towards 12RM in the final weeks. A muscle activity >60% MVE...
Leijon, Ola; Wahlström, Jens; Mulder, Marie
Analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys. To investigate the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent low back pain and psychological distress in a geographical area over a 16-year period. A large number of studies have shown that nonspecific neck, shoulder, and arm pain is a very common symptom in the general population. However, few studies have followed the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain within a geographical area, in order to investigate time-trends. This study provides an analysis of questionnaire data collected every 4 years between 1990 and 2006 on the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent low back pain or psychological distress in the County of Stockholm, Sweden (response rate: 61%-69%). All individuals aged 21 to 64 years (n = 1976-26,611) were included in the study. Over the 16-year period, the prevalence of self-reported neck-shoulder-arm pain rose slightly, from 22.8% to 25.0% among females (prevalence rate ratio [PRR]: 1.10) and from 12.8% to 15.4% among males (PRR: 1.21). The prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain with concurrent low back pain also rose slightly, from 8.4% to 10.8% among females (PRR: 1.28) and from 5.3% to 6.6% among males (PRR: 1.24). In contrast, the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain with concurrent psychological distress rose more substantially, from 4.4% to 8.5% among females (PRR: 1.91) and from 2.0% to 4.3% among males (PRR: 2.18). All prevalence rates rose between 1990 and 2002, and decreased in 2006 compared to 2002. The gender gap in prevalence did not change over time. Although the prevalence of neck-shoulder-arm pain and concurrent symptoms decreased in 2006 compared to 2002, it is still too early to conclude that we have reached and passed the peak of the "epidemic" of neck-shoulder-arm pain.
Castaldo, Matteo; Ge, Hong-You; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Villafane, Jorge H; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
The aim of this study was to investigate pain patterns and the distribution of myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in whiplash-associated disorders (WADs II and III) as compared with mechanical neck pain (MNP). Manual examination of suboccipital, upper trapezius, elevator scapula, temporalis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, deltoid, and sternocleidomastoid muscles, was done to search for the presence of both active or latent MTPs in 49 WAD patients and 56 MNP patients. Local pain and referred pain from each active MTP was recorded on an anatomical map. The mean number of active MTPs was significantly greater in the WAD group (6.71 ± 0.79) than in the MNP group (3.26 ± 0.33) (P latent MTPs (3.95 ± 0.57 vs. 2.82 ± 0.34; P > 0.05). In the WAD group, the current pain intensity (visual analogue scale) of the patients was significantly correlated with the number of active MTPs (rs = 0.03, P = 0.03) and the spontaneous pain area (rs = 0.25, P = 0.07), and the number of active MTPs was significantly correlated with the spontaneous pain area (rs = 0.3, P = 0.03). In the MNP group, significant correlation was found only between pain duration and spontaneous pain area (rs = 0.29, P = 0.02). Active MTPs are more prominent in WAD than MNP and related to current pain intensity and size of the spontaneous pain distribution in whiplash patients. This may underlie a lower degree of sensitization in MNP than in WAD. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Andersen, Christoffer H; Andersen, Lars L; Zebis, Mette K; Sjøgaard, Gisela
Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Treatment has varied from passive rest to active treatments and active treatments have often been divided into either training of the painful area or the surrounding musculature avoiding direct training of the painful area. Our study investigates the effect of the latter approach. The purpose of this study was in a randomised controlled trial to investigate if intensive scapular function training (SFT)-in terms of training of the lower trapezius and the serratus anterior muscle while minimizing direct training of the upper trapezius-is effective in reducing pain in adults with chronic non-specific pain in the neck/shoulder region. 47 office workers with chronic non-specific pain in the neck/shoulder region were randomized to 10 weeks 3 × 20 min SFT with training supervision or to a control group. At baseline and at follow-up the participants were tested for maximum isometric shoulder strength by a blinded tester. Further, once a week participants reported pain intensity of the neck/shoulder during the previous week. In intention-to-treat analysis neck- and shoulder pain decreased 2.0 (95 % CI 0.35; 3.64) in SFT compared with control group (p Shoulder elevation strength increased 7.7 kg in SFT compared with the control group (p shoulder protraction strength. SFT reduces pain intensity and increases shoulder elevation strength in adults with chronic non-specific pain in the neck/shoulder region. The magnitude of improvement in pain intensity was clinically relevant.
Effectiveness evaluation of an integrated automatic termomechanic massage system (SMATH® system in non-specific sub-acute and chronic low back pain - a randomized double-blinded controlled trial, comparing SMATH therapy versus sham therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is a major health problem in modern society, with 70-85% of the population experiencing LBP at some time in their lives. Each year, 5-10% of the workforce misses work due to LBP, most for less than 7 days. Almost 10% of all patients are at risk of developing chronic pain and disability. Little clinical evidence is available for the majority of treatments used in LBP therapy. However, moderate evidence exists for interdisciplinary rehabilitation, exercise, acupuncture, spinal manipulation, and cognitive behavioral therapy for subacute and chronic LBP. The SMATH® system (system for automatic thermomechanic massage in health is a new medical device (MD that combines basic principles of mechanical massage, thermotherapy, acupressure, infrared therapy, and moxibustion. SMATH® is suitable for automatic multidisciplinary treatment on patients with non-specific sub-acute and chronic LBP. Methods/design This paper describes the protocol for a double-blinded, sham-controlled, randomized, single-center short term clinical trial in patients with non-specific sub-acute and chronic LBP aged 18 to 70 years. The primary outcome will be the effectiveness of SMATH® versus sham therapy (medical device without active principles determined by evaluating self perceived physical function with Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ scores after 4 weeks of treatment (end of treatment. Major secondary outcome will be effectiveness of SMATH® determined by evaluating self perceived physical function comparing RMDQ scores between end of treatment and baseline. The trial part of the study will take 7 months while observational follow-up will take 11 months. The sample size will be 72 participants (36 for each arm. The project has been approved by the Ethical Committee of Cremona Hospital, Italy on 29 November 2010. Discussion Compared to other medical specialties, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM has not yet received
Mette K Zebis
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131 were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77 performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54 received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups registered neck pain intensity (0-100 mm VAS once a week. RESULTS: Neck pain intensity was 55 mm (SD 23 at baseline. There was a significant group by time interaction for neck pain (F-value 2.61, P<0.001, DF = 19. Between-group differences in neck pain reached significance after 4 weeks (11 mm, 95% CI 2 to 20. The time-wise change in pain showed three phases; a rapid decrease in the training group compared with the control group during the initial 7 weeks, a slower decrease in pain during the following weeks (week 8-15, and a plateau during the last weeks (week 16-20. Adherence to training followed a two-phase pattern, i.e. weekly participation rate was between 70-86% during the initial 7 weeks, dropping towards 55-63% during the latter half of the training period. CONCLUSION: Four weeks of specific resistance training reduced neck pain significantly, but 15 weeks is required to achieve maximal pain reduction. The time-wise change in pain followed a three-phase pattern with a rapid effect during the initial 7 weeks followed by a slower but still positive effect, and finally a plateau from week 15 and onwards. Decreased participation rate may explain the decreased efficacy during the latter phase of the intervention.
Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Mousavi Khatir, Seyedeh Roghayeh
The cervical flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP) is a neck extensor myoelectric "silence" that occurs during complete cervical and lumbar flexion. In contrast to low back pain, the changes that occur during FRP in chronic neck pain (CNP) patients are still not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of this phenomenon in the cervical region in CNP patients and controls. Twenty-two women (23 ± 2.62 years) with chronic non-specific neck pain and 21 healthy women (23.4 ± 1.68 years) participated in this study. They accomplished a cervical flexion and extension from neutral position. Neck angle and surface electromyographic activity of cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius muscles were recorded. Appearance, onset and offset angle of the FRP were analysed and compared between the two groups. There were significant differences in the appearance of FRP between the two groups (P ≤ 0.001). The FRP in the CES muscles was observed in 85.7 % of healthy subjects and in 36.3 % of CNP patients, and no FRP was observed in the upper trapezius. Results of this study show that the onset and offset of FRP parameters were significantly different between the two groups (P ≤ 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that FRP in CNP patients was seen less than the healthy subjects, and moreover the FRP period was reduced in CNP patients. Our results also suggest that the changes in FRP of CNP patients may be due to the increased CES activity in these patients.
McLean, Samuel A; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Slade, Gary D; Soward, April C; Swor, Robert A; Peak, David A; Jones, Jeffrey S; Rathlev, Niels K; Lee, David C; Domeier, Robert M; Hendry, Phyllis L; Bortsov, Andrey V; Bair, Eric
Debate continues regarding the influence of litigation on pain outcomes after motor vehicle collision (MVC). In this study we enrolled European Americans presenting to the emergency department (ED) in the hours after MVC (n=948). Six weeks later, participants were interviewed regarding pain symptoms and asked about their participation in MVC-related litigation. The incidence and predictors of neck pain and widespread pain 6weeks after MVC were compared among those engaged in litigation (litigants) and those not engaged in litigation (nonlitigants). Among the 859 of 948 (91%) participants completing 6-week follow-up, 711 of 849 (83%) were nonlitigants. Compared to nonlitigants, litigants were less educated and had more severe neck pain and overall pain, and a greater extent of pain at the time of ED evaluation. Among individuals not engaged in litigation, persistent pain 6weeks after MVC was common: 199 of 711 (28%) had moderate or severe neck pain, 92 of 711 (13%) had widespread pain, and 29 of 711 (4%) had fibromyalgia-like symptoms. Incidence of all 3 outcomes was significantly higher among litigants. Initial pain severity in the ED predicted pain outcomes among both litigants and nonlitigants. Markers of socioeconomic disadvantage predicted worse pain outcomes in litigants but not nonlitigants, and individual pain and psychological symptoms were less predictive of pain outcomes among those engaged in litigation. These data demonstrate that persistent pain after MVC is common among those not engaged in litigation, and provide evidence for bidirectional influences between pain outcomes and litigation after MVC. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.