WorldWideScience

Sample records for sub-20 nm trenches

  1. Materials challenges for sub-20nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, James W.

    2011-04-01

    This paper discusses the future of resist materials for sub-20nm lithography. It is my contention that polymer-bound PAG based resists will be used to 16nm node. There has been enough progress in resolution and sensitivity to justify the use of these materials. PBP resists have shown that the principal demerit of acid diffusion can be overcome through attachment of the PAG anion to the lithographic polymer. Since the introduction of this chemically amplified resist approach, we have seen steady improvement in resolution, sensitivity, and LWR. We have also seen improvement in OOB response, outgassing, and pattern collapse. There is no doubt that continuous improvement is still required for these resist systems. We believe that increasing the overall resist quantum yield for acid generation substantially improves the shot noise problem thereby leading to faster high resolution resist materials. Using a 0.30NA EUV tool with dipole, we can achieve 22nm hp resolution, with 12mJ dose, and 4.2nm LWR.

  2. Towards Using DNAzyme in Sub-20 nm Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirar, Qassim

    DNAzyme is a unique molecule with applications ranging from gene regulation to molecular machines. Another attractive venue for the use of DNAzyme is next generation lithography, sub-20 nm lithography, harnessing the unique features of specific recognition and self-assembly. Tools to achieve that goal are discussed and experimental procedures were presented. Loading DNAzyme on gold nanoparticles, depositing self-assembled monolayers and DNA patterning using soft lithographic techniques are tools that are explored. To support the findings, different characterization techniques are employed.

  3. Challenges in the Plasma Etch Process Development in the sub-20nm Technology Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kaushik

    2013-09-01

    For multiple generations of semiconductor technologies, RF plasmas have provided a reliable platform for critical and non-critical patterning applications. The electron temperature of processes in a RF plasma is typically several electron volts. A substantial portion of the electron population is within the energy range accessible for different types of electron collision processes, such as electron collision dissociation and dissociative electron attachment. When these electron processes occur within a small distance above the wafer, the neutral species, radicals and excited molecules, generated from these processes take part in etching reactions impacting selectivity, ARDE and micro-loading. The introduction of finFET devices at 22 nm technology node at Intel marks the transition of planar devices to 3-dimensional devices, which add to the challenges to etch process in fabricating such devices. In the sub-32 nm technology node, Back-end-of-the-line made a change with the implementation of Trench First Metal Hard Mask (TFMHM) integration scheme, which has hence gained traction and become the preferred integration of low-k materials for BEOL. This integration scheme also enables Self-Aligned Via (SAV) patterning which prevents via CD growth and confines via by line trenches to better control via to line spacing. In addition to this, lack of scaling of 193 nm Lithography and non-availability of EUV based lithography beyond concept, has placed focus on novel multiple patterning schemes. This added complexity has resulted in multiple etch schemes to enable technology scaling below 80 nm Pitches, as shown by the memory manufacturers. Double-Patterning and Quad-Patterning have become increasingly used techniques to achieve 64 nm, 56 nm and 45 nm Pitch technologies in Back-end-of-the-line. Challenges associated in the plasma etching of these multiple integration schemes will be discussed in the presentation. In collaboration with A. Ranjan, TEL Technology Center, America

  4. An improved method for characterizing photoresist lithographic and defectivity performance for sub-20nm node lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, Gilles; Purdy, Sara; Cooper, Ryan; Hockaday, Marjory

    2016-03-01

    The overall quality and processing capability of lithographic materials are critical for ensuring high device yield and performance at sub-20nm technology nodes in a high volume manufacturing environment. Insufficient process margin and high line width roughness (LWR) cause poor manufacturing control, while high defectivity causes product failures. In this paper, we focus on the most critical layer of a sub-20nm technology node LSI device, and present an improved method for characterizing both lithographic and post-patterning defectivity performance of state-of-the-art immersion photoresists. Multiple formulations from different suppliers were used and compared. Photoresists were tested under various process conditions, and multiple lithographic metrics were investigated (depth of focus, exposure dose latitude, line width roughness, etc.). Results were analyzed and combined using an innovative approach based on advanced software, providing clearer results than previously available. This increased detail enables more accurate performance comparisons among the different photoresists. Post-patterning defectivity was also quantified, with defects reviewed and classified using state-of-the-art inspection tools. Correlations were established between the lithographic and post-patterning defectivity performances for each material, and overall ranking was established among the photoresists, enabling the selection of the best performer for implementation in a high volume manufacturing environment.

  5. Room to high temperature measurements of flexible SOI FinFETs with sub-20-nm fins

    KAUST Repository

    Diab, Amer El Hajj

    2014-12-01

    We report the temperature dependence of the core electrical parameters and transport characteristics of a flexible version of fin field-effect transistor (FinFET) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) with sub-20-nm wide fins and high-k/metal gate-stacks. For the first time, we characterize them from room to high temperature (150 °C) to show the impact of temperature variation on drain current, gate leakage current, and transconductance. Variation of extracted parameters, such as low-field mobility, subthreshold swing, threshold voltage, and ON-OFF current characteristics, is reported too. Direct comparison is made to a rigid version of the SOI FinFETs. The mobility degradation with temperature is mainly caused by phonon scattering mechanism. The overall excellent devices performance at high temperature after release is outlined proving the suitability of truly high-performance flexible inorganic electronics with such advanced architecture.

  6. Sub-20nm hybrid lithography using optical, pitch-division, and e-beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belledent, J.; Smayling, M.; Pradelles, J.; Pimenta-Barros, P.; Barnola, S.; Mage, L.; Icard, B.; Lapeyre, C.; Soulan, S.; Pain, L.

    2012-03-01

    of resist blocking hard-mask trenches. The shapes are often small and positioned on a dense grid making this layer to be the most critical one. This is why direct-write e-beam patterning, possibly using massively parallel beams, is well suited for this task. In this study, we show that a conventional shaped beam system can already pattern the 11nm node Metal-1 layer with reasonable overlay margin. The combination of design style, optical lithography plus pitch-division, and e-beam lithography appears to provide a scaling path far into the future.

  7. Technology for fabrication of sub-20 nm silicon planar nanowires array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miakonkikh, Andrey V.; Tatarintsev, Andrey A.; Rogozhin, Alexander E.; Rudenko, Konstantin V.

    2016-12-01

    The results presented on Silicon one-dimensional structures fabrication which are promising for application in nanoelectronics, sensors, THz-applications. We employ two-stage technology of precise anizotropic plasma etching of silicon over e-beam resist and isotropic removal of thermally oxidised defected surface layer of silicon by wet etch. As first the process for nano-fins fabrication on SOI substrate was developed. HSQ resist was used as a negative-tone electron beam resist with good etch-resistance, high resolution and high mechanical stability. The etching was performed by RIE in mix of SF6 + C4F8. plasma. By changing the ratio SF6:C4F8, the sidewall profile angle can be controlled thoroughly. Next step to minimize lateral size of structures and reduce impact of surface defects on electron mobility in core of nanowires was the application of surface thermal oxidation to defected layer. It was used for selective removal of damaged silicon layer and polymer residues. Oxidation was performed with controlled flow of dry oxygen and water vapour. Oxidation rate was precisely controlled by ex-situ spectral ellipsometry on unpatterned chips As a result the arrays of planar sub-20 nm Silicon nanowires with length in the range 200 nm - 500 um were made.

  8. Device parameter optimization for sub-20 nm node HK/MG-last bulk FinFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xu; Huaxiang, Yin; Huilong, Zhu; Xiaolong, Ma; Weijia, Xu; Yongkui, Zhang; Zhiguo, Zhao; Jun, Luo; Hong, Yang; Chunlong, Li; Lingkuan, Meng; Peizhen, Hong; Jinjuan, Xiang; Jianfeng, Gao; Qiang, Xu; Wenjuan, Xiong; Dahai, Wang; Junfeng, Li; Chao, Zhao; Dapeng, Chen; Simon, Yang; Tianchun, Ye

    2015-04-01

    Sub-20 nm node bulk FinFET PMOS devices with an all-last high-k/metal gate (HK/MG) process are fabricated and the influence of a series of device parameters on the device scaling is investigated. The high and thin Fin structure with a tapered sidewall shows better performance than the normal Fin structure. The punch through stop layer (PTSL) and source drain extension (SDE) doping profiles are carefully optimized. The device without SDE annealing shows a larger drive current than that with SDE annealing due to better Si crystal regrowth in the amorphous Fin structure after source/drain implantation. The band-edged MG has a better short channel effect immunity, but the lower effective work function (EWF) MG shows a larger driveability. A tradeoff choice for different EWF MGs should be carefully designed for the device's scaling. Project supported by the National 02 IC Projects and the Opening Project of Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Exploiting sub-20-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology challenges to design affordable systems-on-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Kaushik; Zhu, Qiuling; Liebmann, Lars; Lai, Kafai; Wu, Stephen; Liu, Renzhi; Liu, Yandong; Strojwas, Andzrej; Pileggi, Larry

    2015-01-01

    For the past four decades, cost and features have driven complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) scaling. Severe lithography and material limitations seen below the 20-nm node, however, are challenging the fundamental premise of affordable CMOS scaling. Just continuing to co-optimize leaf cell circuit and layout designs with process technology does not enable us to exploit the challenges of sub-20-nm CMOS. For affordable scaling, it is imperative to work past sub-20-nm technology impediments while exploiting its features. To this end, we propose to broaden the scope of design technology co-optimization (DTCO) to be more holistic by including microarchitecture design and computer-aided design, along with circuits, layout, and process technology. Furthermore, we undertook such a holistic DTCO for all critical design elements such as embedded memory, standard cell logic, analog components, and physical synthesis in a 14-nm process. Measurements results from experimental designs in a representative 14-nm process from IBM demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  10. Dislocation-based plasticity and strengthening mechanisms in sub-20 nm lamellar structures in pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The tensile properties and the deformation microstructure of pearlitic steel (0.8 wt % C) have been quantified in wires drawn to strains in the range from 3.7 to 5.4, having a flow stress in the range from 3.5 to 4.5 GPa. With increasing strain the interlamellar spacing (ILS) decreases from about...... 20 to 10 nm and the thickness of the cementite lamellae decreases from about 2 nm to about 0.7 nm, representing a structure, which breaks up at large strains, decomposes and releases carbon to the ferrite lamellae. The dislocation density increases continuously with strain and reaches about 5 1016 m2...

  11. On-chip nanostructuring and impedance trimming of transparent and flexible ITO electrodes by laser induced coherent sub-20 nm cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar, Maziar, E-mail: m.afshar@lmm.uni-saarland.de [Lab for Micromechanics, Microfluidics, and Microactuators, Saarland University, Saarbrücken D-66123 (Germany); Leber, Moritz [Lab for Micromechanics, Microfluidics, and Microactuators, Saarland University, Saarbrücken D-66123 (Germany); Poppendieck, Wigand [Department of Medical Engineering & Neuroprosthetics, Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, St. Ingbert D-66386 (Germany); König, Karsten [Lab for Biophotonics and Laser Technology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken D-66123 (Germany); Seidel, Helmut; Feili, Dara [Lab for Micromechanics, Microfluidics, and Microactuators, Saarland University, Saarbrücken D-66123 (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel method to make sub-20 nm nanopatterning in ITO thin films by laser writing. • A novel way to functionalize ITO bio-electrodes to yield near-field polarizing feature. • A basic characterization of ITO electrodes was performed by impedance spectroscopy. • Presentation of simulations and possible theoretical approaches to explain the results. - Abstract: In this work, the effect of laser-induced nanostructuring of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes on flexible glass is investigated. Multi-electrode arrays (MEA) for electrical and optical characterization of biological cells were fabricated using standard MEMS technologies. Optimal sputter parameters concerning oxygen flow, sputter power and ambient pressure for ITO layers with both good optical and electrical properties were determined. Afterwards, coherent sub-20 nm wide and 150 nm deep nanocuts of many micrometers in length were generated within the ITO electrodes by a sub-15 femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser. The influence of laser processing on the electrical and optical properties of electrodes was investigated. The electrochemical impedance of the manufactured electrodes was measured before and after laser modification using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A small reduction in electrode impedance was observed. These nanostructured electrodes show also polarizing effects by the visible spectrum.

  12. Flexible and transparent silicon-on-polymer based sub-20 nm non-planar 3D FinFET for brain-architecture inspired computation

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2014-02-22

    An industry standard 8′′ silicon-on-insulator wafer based ultra-thin (1 μm), ultra-light-weight, fully flexible and remarkably transparent state-of-the-art non-planar three dimensional (3D) FinFET is shown. Introduced by Intel Corporation in 2011 as the most advanced transistor architecture, it reveals sub-20 nm features and the highest performance ever reported for a flexible transistor. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Mechanisms of Low-Energy Operation of XCT-SOI CMOS Devices—Prospect of Sub-20-nm Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Omura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance prospect of scaled cross-current tetrode (XCT CMOS devices and demonstrates the outstanding low-energy aspects of sub-30-nm-long gate XCT-SOI CMOS by analyzing device operations. The energy efficiency improvement of such scaled XCT CMOS circuits (two orders higher stems from the “source potential floating effect”, which offers the dynamic reduction of effective gate capacitance. It is expected that this feature will be very important in many medical implant applications that demand a long device lifetime without recharging the battery.

  14. Work Function Tuning in Sub-20nm Titanium Nitride (TiN) Metal Gate: Mechanism and Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Mehdi

    2011-07-01

    Scaling of transistors (the building blocks of modern information age) provides faster computation at the expense of excessive power dissipation. Thus to address these challenges, high-k/metal gate stack has been introduced in commercially available microprocessors from 2007. Since then titanium nitride (TiN) metal gate’s work function (Wf) tunability with its thickness (thickness increases, work function increases) is a well known phenomenon. Many hypotheses have been made over the years which include but not limited to: trap charge and metal gate nucleation, nitrogen concentration, microstructure agglomeration and global stress, metal oxide formation, and interfacial oxide thickness. However, clear contradictions exist in these assumptions. Also, nearly all these reports skipped a comprehensive approach to explain this complex paradigm. Therefore, in this work we first show a comprehensive physical investigation using transmission electron microcopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM/EELS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to show replacement of oxygen by nitrogen in the metal/dielectric interface, formation of TiONx, reduction of Ti/N concentration and grain size increment happen with TiN thickness increment and thus may increase the work function. Then, using these finding, we experimentally show 100meV of work function modulation in 10nm TiN Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor by using low temperature oxygen annealing. A low thermal budget flow (replicating gate-last) shows similar work function boost up. Also, a work function modulation of 250meV has been possible using oxygen annealing and applying no thermal budget. On the other hand, etch-back of TiN layer can decrease the work function. Thus this study quantifies role of various factors in TiN work function tuning; it also reproduces the thickness varied TiN work function modulation in single thickness TiN thus reducing the

  15. Low leakage Ru-strontium titanate-Ru metal-insulator-metal capacitors for sub-20nm technology node in dynamic random access memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovici, M., E-mail: Mihaela.Ioana.Popovici@imec.be; Swerts, J.; Redolfi, A.; Kaczer, B.; Aoulaiche, M.; Radu, I.; Clima, S.; Everaert, J.-L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Jurczak, M. [Imec, Leuven 3001 (Belgium)

    2014-02-24

    Improved metal-insulator-metal capacitor (MIMCAP) stacks with strontium titanate (STO) as dielectric sandwiched between Ru as top and bottom electrode are shown. The Ru/STO/Ru stack demonstrates clearly its potential to reach sub-20nm technology nodes for dynamic random access memory. Downscaling of the equivalent oxide thickness, leakage current density (J{sub g}) of the MIMCAPs, and physical thickness of the STO have been realized by control of the Sr/Ti ratio and grain size using a heterogeneous TiO{sub 2}/STO based nanolaminate stack deposition and a two-step crystallization anneal. Replacement of TiN with Ru as both top and bottom electrodes reduces the amount of electrically active defects and is essential to achieve a low leakage current in the MIM capacitor.

  16. Generation of high-energy sub-20 fs pulses tunable in the 250-310 nm region by frequency doubling of a high-power noncollinear optical parametric amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Marcus; Ghotbi, Masood; Noack, Frank; Brida, Daniele; Manzoni, Cristian; Cerullo, Giulio

    2009-03-15

    We report on the generation of powerful sub-20 fs deep UV pulses with 10 microJ level energy and broadly tunable in the 250-310 nm range. These pulses are produced by frequency doubling a high-power noncollinear optical parametric amplifier and compressed by a pair of MgF2 prisms to an almost transform-limited duration. Our results provide a power scaling by an order of magnitude with respect to previous works.

  17. Two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy in the ultraviolet with sub-20 fs pump pulses and 250-720 nm supercontinuum probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, N.; Pugliesi, I.; Hauer, J.; Riedle, E.

    2013-08-01

    Experimental realizations of two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the ultraviolet (UV) must so far contend with a limited bandwidth in both the excitation and particularly the probe frequency. The pump bandwidth is at best 1500 cm-1 (full width at half maximum) at a fixed wavelength of 267 nm or 400 cm-1 for tunable pulses. The use of a replica of the pump pulse as a probe limits the observation of photochemical processes to the excitation region and makes the disentanglement of overlapping signal contributions difficult. We show that 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy can be conducted in a shaper-assisted collinear setup comprising fully tunable UV pulse pairs and supercontinuum probe spanning 250-720 nm. The pump pulses are broadened up to a useable spectral coverage of 2000 cm-1 (25 nm at 316 nm) by self-phase modulation in bulk CaF2 and compressed to 18 fs. By referencing the white light probe and eliminating pump stray light contributions, high signal-to-noise ratios even for weak probe intensities are achieved. Data acquisition times as short as 4 min for a selected population time allow the rapid recording of 2D spectra for photolabile biological samples even with the employed 1 kHz laser system. The potential of the setup is demonstrated on two representative molecules: pyrene and 2,2-diphenyl-5,6-benzo(2H)chromene. Well-resolved cross-peaks are observed and the excitation energy dependence of the relaxation processes is revealed.

  18. Transferrable Plasmonic Au Thin Film Containing Sub-20 nm Nanohole Array Constructed via High-Resolution Polymer Self-Assembly and Nanotransfer Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Soonmin; Jeon, Suwan; Kim, Jong Min; Baek, Kwang Min; Lee, Gun Ho; Kim, Hyowook; Shin, Jonghwa; Jung, Yeon Sik

    2018-01-10

    The fabrication and characterization of nanoscale hole arrays (NHA) have been extensively performed for a variety of unique characteristics including extraordinary optical transmission phenomenon observed for plasmonic NHAs. Although the size miniaturization and hole densification are strongly required for enhancement of high-frequency optical responses, from a practical point-of-view, it is still not straightforward to manufacture NHA using conventional lithography techniques. Herein, a facile, cost-effective, and transferrable fabrication route for high-resolution and high-density NHA with sub-50 nm periodicity is demonstrated. Solvent-assisted nanotransfer printing with ultrahigh-resolution combined with block copolymer self-assembly is used to fabricate well-defined Si nanomesh master template with 4-fold symmetry. An Au NHA film on quartz substrate is then obtained by thermal-evaporation on the Si master and subsequent transfer of the sample, resulting in NHA structure having a hole with a diameter of 18 nm and a density over 400 holes/μm2. A resonance peak at the wavelength of 650 nm, which is not present in the transmittance spectrum of a flat Au film, is observed for the Au NHA film. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results propose that the unexpected peak appears because of plasmonic surface guiding mode. The position of the resonance peak shows the sensitivity toward the change of the refractive index of surrounding medium, suggesting it as a promising label-free sensor application. In addition, other types of Au nanostructure arrays such as geometry-controlled NHA and nanoparticle arrays (NPAs) shows the outstanding versatility of our approach.

  19. Fabrication of metallic nanostructures of sub-20 nm with an optimized process of E-beam lithography and lift-off

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2012-01-01

    A process consisting of e-beam lithography and lift-off was optimized to fabricate metallic nanostructures. This optimized process successfully produced gold and aluminum nanostructures with features size less than 20 nm. These structures range from simple parallel lines to complex photonic structures. Optical properties of gold split ring resonators (SRRs) were characterized with Raman spectroscopy. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) on SRRs was observed with 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) as molecular probe and greatly enhanced Raman scattering was observed. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers.

  20. Optical Constants and Band Gap Evolution with Phase Transition in Sub-20-nm-Thick TiO2 Films Prepared by ALD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yue-Jie; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zheng, Hua; Li, Da-Hai; Wei, Wei; Chen, Xin; Sun, Yan; Wei, Yan-Feng; Lu, Hong-Liang; Dai, Ning; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2017-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) ultrathin films with different thicknesses below 20 nm were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on silicon substrates at 300 °C. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements were operated to investigate the effect of thickness on the optical properties of ultrathin films in the spectra range from 200 to 1000 nm with Forouhi-Bloomer (F-B) dispersion relation. It has been found that the refractive index and extinction coefficient of the investigated TiO2 ultrathin film increase while the band gap of TiO2 ultrathin film decreases monotonically with an increase in film thickness. Furthermore, with the purpose of studying the temperature dependence of optical properties of TiO2 ultrathin film, the samples were annealed at temperature from 400 to 900 °C in N2 atmosphere. The crystalline structure of deposited and annealed films was deduced by SE and supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was revealed that the anatase TiO2 film started to transform into rutile phase when the annealing temperature was up to 800 °C. In this paper, a constructive and effective method of monitoring the phase transition in ultrathin films by SE has been proposed when the phase transition is not so obvious analyzed by XRD.

  1. Preparation and characterization of sub-20 nm Cu{sub X}@Ag{sub 1} core-shell nanoparticles by changing concentration of silver precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chee, Sang-Soo; Lee, Jong-Hyun, E-mail: pljh@snut.ac.kr

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafine Ag-coated Cu (Cu@Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) less than 20 nm in diameter were prepared. After synthesizing ultrafine Cu NPs using a solvothermal method to serve as the core particles, Cu@Ag NPs were fabricated with different initial Ag precursor concentrations, resulting in different thicknesses, densities, and uniformities of Ag shells. The average thickness and density of the Ag shell increased with increasing initial Ag precursor concentration in a Cu:Ag atomic ratio from 6:1 to 1:1. However, excessive Ag precursor concentrations induced homogeneous nucleation and growth of surplus fine pure NPs. Ag dewetting behavior and Cu oxidation in the Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} NPs were observed, they occurred during heating at 200 and 250 °C, respectively. The electrical resistivities of sintered Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} films decreased with increasing temperature from 200 to 240 °C. The resistivity after washing the OA and sintering for 60 min at 240 °C in air was measured to be 4.96 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm. The film was sintered in nitrogen using the ink containing non-washed Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} NPs indicated the lower resistivity of 2.70 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm owing to the non-oxidation atmosphere, although the chemically capped oleylamine in the core-shell NPs hindered the sintering behavior. - Highlights: • Ultrafine Ag-coated Cu nanoparticles less than 20 nm in diameter were fabricated. • Different Ag precursor concentrations influenced thickness and density of Ag shell. • Excessive Ag precursor concentrations induced formation of surplus fine pure NPs. • Ag dewetting behavior and Cu oxidation in Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} nanoparticles were observed. • Electrical resistivities of sintered Cu{sub 4}@Ag{sub 1} films were 2.70–4.96 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm.

  2. Microstructural investigation of plastically deformed Ti{sub 20}Zr{sub 20}Hf{sub 20}Nb{sub 20}Ta{sub 20} high entropy alloy by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirras, G., E-mail: dirras@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM (UPR 3407) CNRS, 99 avenue JB Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Gubicza, J.; Heczel, A. [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 (Hungary); Lilensten, L.; Couzinié, J.-P.; Perrière, L.; Guillot, I. [Université Paris Est, ICMPE (UMR 7182), CNRS, UPEC, 94320 Thiais (France); Hocini, A. [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM (UPR 3407) CNRS, 99 avenue JB Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2015-10-15

    The microstructure evolution in body-centered cubic (bcc) Ti{sub 20}Zr{sub 20}Hf{sub 20}Nb{sub 20}Ta{sub 20} high entropy alloy during quasi-static compression test was studied by X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average lattice constant and other important parameters of the microstructure such as the mean crystallite size, the dislocation density and the edge/screw character of dislocations were determined by XLPA. The elastic anisotropy factor required for XLPA procedure was determined by nanoindentation. XLPA shows that the crystallite size decreased while the dislocation density increased with strain during compression, and their values reached about 39 nm and 15 × 10{sup 14} m{sup −2}, respectively, at a plastic strain of ~ 20%. It was revealed that with increasing strain the dislocation character became more screw. This can be explained by the reduced mobility of screw dislocations compared to edge dislocations in bcc structures. These observations are in line with TEM investigations. The development of dislocation density during compression was related to the yield strength evolution. - Highlights: • Ti{sub 20}Zr{sub 20}Hf{sub 20}Nb{sub 20}Ta{sub 20} high entropy alloy was processed by arc-melting. • The mechanical was evaluated by RT compression test. • The microstructure evolution was studied by XLPA and TEM. • With increasing strain the dislocation character became more screw. • The yield strength was related to the development of the dislocation density.

  3. Novel combination of near-field s-SNOM microscopy with peak-force tapping for nano-chemical and nano-mechanical material characterization with sub-20 nm spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Carneiro, Karina; Habelitz, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas; BNS Team; UCSF Team

    Heterogeneity in material systems requires methods for nanoscale chemical identification. Scattering scanning near-field microscopy (s-SNOM) is chemically sensitive in the infrared fingerprint region while providing down to 10 nm spatial resolution. This technique detects material specific tip-scattering in an atomic force microscope. Here, we present the first combination of s-SNOM with peak-force tapping (PFT), a valuable AFM technique that allows precise force control between tip and sample down to 10s of pN. The latter is essential for imaging fragile samples, but allows also quantitative extraction of nano-mechanical properties, e.g. the modulus. PFT can further be complemented by KPFM or conductive AFM for nano-electrical mapping, allowing access to nanoscale optical, mechanical and electrical information in a single instrument. We will address several questions ranging from graphene plasmonics to material distributions in polymers. We highlight a biological application where dental amelogenin protein was studied via s-SNOM to learn about its self-assembly into nanoribbons. At the same time PFT allows to track crystallization to distinguish protein from apatite crystals for which amelogenin is supposed to act as a template.

  4. Trench mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gingivae). The term trench mouth comes from World War I, when this infection was common among soldiers " ... including: Crater-like ulcers filled with plaque and food debris Destruction of gum tissue around the teeth ...

  5. Mechanical behavior and microstructure of Ti{sub 20}Hf{sub 20}Zr{sub 20}Ta{sub 20}Nb{sub 20} high-entropy alloy loaded under quasi-static and dynamic compression conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirras, G., E-mail: dirras@univ-paris13.fr [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM-CNRS, UPR 3407, 99 avenue JB Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Couque, H. [Nexter-munitions, 7 Route de Guerry, 18200 Bourges (France); Lilensten, L. [Université Paris Est, ICMPE (UMR 7182), CNRS, UPEC, 94320 Thiais (France); Heczel, A. [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, P.O.B. 32, H-1518 (Hungary); Tingaud, D. [Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, LSPM-CNRS, UPR 3407, 99 avenue JB Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Couzinié, J.-P.; Perrière, L. [Université Paris Est, ICMPE (UMR 7182), CNRS, UPEC, 94320 Thiais (France); Gubicza, J. [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, P.O.B. 32, H-1518 (Hungary); Guillot, I. [Université Paris Est, ICMPE (UMR 7182), CNRS, UPEC, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2016-01-15

    The microstructure and the mechanical behavior of equimolar Ti{sub 20}Hf{sub 20}Zr{sub 20}Ta{sub 20}Nb{sub 20} high-entropy alloy in a wide range of initial strain rates between ~ 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} and ~ 3.4 × 10{sup 3} s{sup −1} were studied. A significant increment in the yield strength with increasing strain rate was observed. The yield strength at ~ 3.4 × 10{sup 3} s{sup −1} was about 40% higher than that measured at ~ 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}. Analysis by electron backscatter diffraction shows that in the low strain rate regime (up to ~ 10 s{sup −1}) the deformation occurs mainly in evenly distributed bands, while in the dynamic regime the deformation is strongly localized in macroscopic shear bands accompanied by softening even after the onset of yielding. The Kernel Average Misorientation technique reveals a high level of lattice rotation within these bands that also carries intense shear. In addition, X-ray diffraction line profile analysis indicates that the sharp increase in the flow stress is mostly related to an increase of the dislocation density. - Highlights: • Strain rate effect on the plastic behavior of Ti{sub 20}Hf{sub 20}Zr{sub 20}Ta{sub 20}Nb{sub 20} HEA was studied. • Low strain rate regime was characterized by a continuous hardening. • At high strain rates softening occurred shortly after the onset of yielding. • Intense strain localization in shear bands occurred in the high strain rate regime. • High dislocation density explained the upturn of flow stress at high strain rates.

  6. Photosensitivity of pulsed laser deposited Ge{sub 20}As{sub 20}Se{sub 60} and Ge{sub 10}As{sub 30}Se{sub 60} amorphous thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawlová, P.; Olivier, M.; Verger, F. [Department of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Nazabal, V. [Chemical Sciences Institute of Rennes (ISCR), Glasses and Ceramics Team, UMR-CNRS 6226, University of Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Department of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Němec, P., E-mail: petr.nemec@upce.cz [Department of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous Ge{sub 20}As{sub 20}Se{sub 60}/Ge{sub 10}As{sub 30}Se{sub 60} films are fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. • Photosensitivity of the layers is studied by employing spectroscopic ellipsometry. • As-deposited/relaxed thin films were irradiated by 593, 635, and 660 nm lasers. • Ge{sub 20}As{sub 20}Se{sub 60} layers present almost zero photorefraction in relaxed state. - Abstract: Amorphous Ge{sub 20}As{sub 20}Se{sub 60} and Ge{sub 10}As{sub 30}Se{sub 60} thin films are fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. Prepared films are characterized in terms of their morphology, chemical composition, and optical properties. Special attention is given to the photosensitivity of the layers, which was studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry with as-deposited, annealed and exposed films by three different laser sources (593, 635, and 660 nm). The results show better photostability for Ge{sub 20}As{sub 20}Se{sub 60} thin films, where photoinduced change of optical band gap was found to be equal or less than 0.04 eV and these layers present almost zero photorefraction.

  7. Intense fluorescence of Au <sub>20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chongqi; Harbich, Wolfgang; Sementa, Luca; Ghiringhelli, Luca; Apra, Edoardo; Stener, Mauro; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Brune, Harald

    2017-08-21

    Ligand-protected Au clusters are non-bleaching fluorescence markers in bio- and medical applications. We show that their fluorescence is an intrinsic property of the Au cluster itself. We find a very intense and sharp fluorescence peak located at λ =739.2 nm (1.68 eV) for Au20 clusters in a Ne matrix held at 6 K. The fluorescence reflects the HOMO-LUMO diabatic bandgap of the cluster. The cluster shows a very rich absorption fine structure reminiscent of well defined molecule-like quantum levels. These levels are resolved since Au20 has only one stable isomer (tetrahedral), therefore our sample is mono-disperse in cluster size and conformation. Density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations clarify the nature of optical absorptionand predict both main absorption peaks and intrinsic fluorescence in good agreement with experiment.

  8. High-power widely tunable sub-20 fs Gaussian laser pulses for ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Bernd; Steinmann, Andy; Giessen, Harald

    2011-11-21

    We demonstrate the generation of widely tunable sub-20 fs Gaussian-shaped laser pulses using a grating-based 4-f pulse shaper and a liquid crystal spatial light modulator. Our pump source is an Yb:KGW solitary mode-locked oscillator at 44 MHz repetition rate which is coupled into a large mode area microstructured fiber to generate a broad spectrum from below 900 nm to above 1150 nm. These pulses are precompressed by a prism sequence and subsequently sent into the pulse shaper. We use the multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan (MIIPS) for phase shaping and iterative amplitude optimization to achieve Gaussian-like tunable sub-20 fs pulses with output powers of up to 142 mW as well as nontunable pulses with 310 mW output power as short as 11.5 fs. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Multi-jump magnetic switching in ion-beam sputtered amorphous Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D. K. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-08-07

    Unconventional multi-jump magnetization reversal and significant in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) in the ion-beam sputtered amorphous Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}(5–75 nm) thin films grown on Si/amorphous SiO{sub 2} are reported. While such multi-jump behavior is observed in CoFeB(10 nm) film when the magnetic field is applied at 10°–20° away from the easy-axis, the same is observed in CoFeB(12.5 nm) film when the magnetic field is 45°–55° away from easy-axis. Unlike the previous reports of multi-jump switching in epitaxial films, their observance in the present case of amorphous CoFeB is remarkable. This multi-jump switching is found to disappear when the films are crystallized by annealing at 420 °C. The deposition geometry and the energy of the sputtered species appear to intrinsically induce a kind of bond orientation anisotropy in the films, which leads to the UMA in the as-grown amorphous CoFeB films. Exploitation of such multi-jump switching in amorphous CoFeB thin films could be of technological significance because of their applications in spintronic devices.

  10. Strongly Phase-Segregating Block Copolymers with Sub-20 nm Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    grazing incidence small -angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Dense hexagonal arrays of cylindrical nanodomains normal to the substrate, having a...resolution, a new materials system based on BCPs composed of PS and a hydrophilic block derived from poly(2-oxazoline) ( POx ) is described herein...widespread adoption of POx derivatives as building blocks for a wide range of polymeric systems. In the past decade, studies involving POx have

  11. Extended Hubbard model on a C{sub 20} molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Fei [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Soerensen, Erik S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kallin, Catherine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Berlinsky, A John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2007-11-14

    The electronic correlations on a C{sub 20} molecule, as described by an extended Hubbard Hamiltonian with a nearest-neighbor Coulomb interaction of strength V, are studied using quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization methods. For electron-doped C{sub 20}, it is known that pair binding arising from a purely electronic mechanism is absent within the standard Hubbard model (V = 0). Here we show that this is also the case for hole doping for 0sub 20} are computed. The spin-spin and charge-charge correlations are very short-range, although a weak enhancement in the pairing correlation is observed for a distance equal to the molecular diameter.

  12. The thermal properties of amorphous Fe{sub 40}Pd{sub 40}B{sub 20} and Fe{sub 60}Pd{sub 20}B{sub 20} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuan-Tsung, E-mail: ytchen@yuntech.edu.tw

    2015-07-15

    The thermal stability of FePdB thin films was studied using nonisothermal and isothermal analyses. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that Fe{sub 40}Pd{sub 40}B{sub 20} and Fe{sub 60}Pd{sub 20}B{sub 20} films with thicknesses in the range 25–75 Å were amorphous, whereas Fe{sub 40}Pd{sub 40}B{sub 20} and Fe{sub 60}Pd{sub 20}B{sub 20} films with thicknesses in the range 100–200 Å exhibited a nanocrystalline FePd (111) structure. The crucial glass forming ability index (γ and γ{sub m}) was determined using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results of amorphous FePdB films. The Kissinger formula was applied to calculate the activation energy (Q) of crystallization for determining the resistance of the films to crystallization. Thermal analysis showed that the thermal stability and incubation time of Fe{sub 40}Pd{sub 40}B{sub 20} are more favorable than those of Fe{sub 60}Pd{sub 20}B{sub 20}. - Highlights: • FePdB films were amorphous in the range 25–75 Å. • FePdB films exhibited a FePd (111) structure in the range 100–200 Å. • The crucial glass forming ability index was determined using the DSC. • Kissinger formula was applied to calculate the activation energy of crystallization. • The thermal performance of Fe{sub 40}Pd{sub 40}B{sub 20} is more favorable than Fe{sub 60}Pd{sub 20}B{sub 20}.

  13. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Recent cases of trench foot.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramstead, K. D.; Hughes, R G; WEBB, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Two cases of cold injury to the lower extremities, 'trench foot', are presented. The management is essentially conservative, but in cases of severe damage, particularly in elderly people, amputation must be advised.

  15. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzhofer, F.; Oguri, K.; Middelboe, M.

    2016-01-01

    consumption rates and sediment characteristics from the trench axis of two contrasting trench systems in the Pacific Ocean; the Izu-Bonin Trench underlying mesotrophic waters and the Tonga Trench underlying oligotrophic waters. In situ oxygen consumption at the Izu-Bonin Trench axis site (9200 m; 746 +/- 103...... to the abyssal settings. Our results complement recent findings from the Challenger deep in the Mariana Trench area, which also revealed elevated diagenetic activity in the central trench underpinning the importance of hadal ecosystems for the deep sea carbon cycling....

  16. Effect of interface on magnetic properties of Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20} in ion-beam sputtered Si/CoFeB/MgO and Si/MgO/CoFeB bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M., E-mail: rajuhcu519@gmail.com [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D.K. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2013-04-15

    Effect of interface on magnetic properties of Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20} in ion-beam sputtered Si/MgO/CoFeB(top) and Si/CoFeB(bottom)/MgO bilayers is reported. The X-ray reflectivity and magneto-optical Kerr effect analysis revealed that, the interface between bottom MgO and top CoFeB is sensitive to the MgO growth process (post-oxidation, ion-assisted and reactive growth) and its process parameters (assist-ion energy). An increase in interface width from 0.17 nm to 0.47 nm correlates to increase in coercivity from 6 Oe to 34 Oe, decrease of in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) from 8×10{sup 3} to 5×10{sup 3} J/m{sup 3} and changes in magnetization reversal. In contrast, the CoFeB(bottom)/MgO interface shows different magnetic behavior and no UMA. - Highlights: ► Dependence of the magnetic response of CoFeB on interface with MgO. ► Growth methods studied for MgO are post-oxidation, reactive and ion-assisted growth. ► Significant amount of in-plane magnetic anisotropy observed for CoFeB(top)/MgO. ► Absence of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFeB(bottom)

  17. Unconventional spin distributions in thick Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanodisks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, D.; Lupo, P.; Haldar, A.; Adeyeye, A. O., E-mail: eleaao@nus.edu.sg [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2016-05-09

    We study the spin distributions in permalloy (Py: Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) nanodisks as a function of diameter D (300 nm ≤ D ≤ 1 μm) and thickness L (30 nm ≤ L ≤ 100 nm). We observed that beyond a certain thickness, for a fixed disk diameter, an unconventional spin topology precipitates which is marked by the presence of a divergence field within the magnetic vortex curl. The strength of this divergence changes anti-symmetrically from negative to positive—depending on the core polarity—along the axis of the cylindrical nanodisk. This is also accompanied by a skyrmion-like out-of-plane bending of the spin vectors farther away from the disk center. Additionally, the vortex core dilates significantly when compared to its typical size. This has been directly observed using magnetic force microscopy. We determined from the ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements that the unconventional topology in the thicker nanodisks gyrated at a frequency, which is significantly lower than what is predicted by a magnetic vortex based analytical model. Micromagnetic simulations involving dipolar and exchange interactions appear to satisfactorily reproduce the experimentally observed static and dynamic behaviors. Besides providing a physical example of an unconventional topology, these results can also aid the design of topologically protected memory elements.

  18. Backfilling of trenches exposed to waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    -closure. The backfilling process of trenches exposed to either waves or a steady current is of importance in relation to the implementation of pipelines in the marine environment. With respect to the sedimentation of trenches, the non-dimensional Trench-Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC = a/L, where a is the excursion length...... of a particle in waves and L the trench length, is investigated in detail, and an optimal KC-number for the backfilling rate is found. Coherent structures in the non-uniform unsteady trench-flow are shown to dominate the deposition rate when present. The importance of a detailed description of the flow...

  19. Possibility of gas sensor based on C{sub 20} molecular devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Wenkai [School of Physics and Optoelectronics Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Yang, Chuanlu, E-mail: yangchuanlu@126.com [School of Physics and Optoelectronics Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Zou, Dongqing [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Sun, Zhaopeng [School of Physics and Optoelectronics Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Ji, Guomin [Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Tulsa, OK 74078 (United States)

    2017-06-09

    We theoretically investigate the possibility of diatomic gas detection (NO, CO, O{sub 2}) by making use of the transport properties of the C{sub 20} molecular junctions. The calculations are performed by using nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism in combination with density functional theory (DFT). In this work, we systematically study the most stable adsorption structural configurations, adsorption energy, and the transport properties on C{sub 20} molecular junctions with these diatomic gas molecules. It is found that NO and O{sub 2} gas molecule can be detected selectively. We suggest its possibility of nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective based on C{sub 20} molecular junction systems. - Highlights: • The most favorable adsorption site is investigated. • The mechanism of gas sensors is revealed. • NO and O{sub 2} gas molecules can be detected by C{sub 20} selectively.

  20. Benthic carbon mineralization in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzhöfer, F.; Oguri, K.; Middelboe, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Hadal trenches are considered to act as depo-centers for organic material at the trench axis and host unique and elevated biomasses of living organisms as compared to adjacent abyssal plains. To explore the diagenetic activity in hadal trench environments we quantified in situ benthic O-2 consump...... to the abyssal settings. Our results complement recent findings from the Challenger deep in the Mariana Trench area, which also revealed elevated diagenetic activity in the central trench underpinning the importance of hadal ecosystems for the deep sea carbon cycling.......Hadal trenches are considered to act as depo-centers for organic material at the trench axis and host unique and elevated biomasses of living organisms as compared to adjacent abyssal plains. To explore the diagenetic activity in hadal trench environments we quantified in situ benthic O-2...... to that of nearby (60 km distance) abyssal settings (6250 m; 92 +/- 44 mu mol m(-2) d(-1); n=16) revealed a 2.5 higher activity at the trench bottom. Onboard investigations on recovered sediment furthermore revealed that the prokaryotic abundance and concentrations of phytopigments followed this overall trend (i...

  1. Absolute configuration and optical activity of laevorotatory Bi/sub 12/TiO/sub 20/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindells, D.C.N.; Leal Gonzalez, J.

    1988-02-01

    Bismuth titanium oxide, Bi/sub 12/TiO/sub 20/, M/sub r/ = 2875.64, cubic, I23 (T/sup 3/), a = 10.188(6) A, V = 1057(1) A/sup 3/, Z = 2, D/sub x/ = 9.03 Mg m/sup -3/, lambda(MoKanti ..cap alpha..) = 0.71069 A, ..mu.. = 99.60 mm/sup -1/, F(000) = 2356, T = 294 K, R = 0.0205 for 453 unique reflections. The atomic arrangement has the same chirality as that of other laevorotatory sillenites (B/sub 12/SiO/sub 20/ and Bi/sub 12/GeO/sub 20/). The optical rotatory power is calculated by the program of Devarajan and Glazer and compared with experiment.

  2. Magnetoresistivity of YbCo{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiga, Yuta; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Takehiko; Uwatoko, Yoshiya [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Fujiwara, Tetsuya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Kosaka, Masashi; Katano, Susumu, E-mail: y-saiga@issp.u-tokyo.ac.j [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    We have studied the electrical resistivity of YbCo{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} under magnetic field up to 18 T. With applying magnetic field, the contribution of the Kondo interaction to the electrical resistivity is suppressed and the Fermi liquid regime is extended to higher temperature range. Both the T{sup 2} coefficient of the electrical resistivity A and the residual resistivity rho{sub 0} strongly decrease in magnetic field. From the magnetic variation of the resistivity, it has been found that YbCo{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} is classified as a heavy fermion system with small Kondo temperature of approx 1.0K.

  3. Evidence of paleoearthquakes from trench investigations along ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An ∼4m wide trench excavated across the PGF has revealed displacement of younger Quaternary deposits along a low angle thrust fault. Either side of the trench-walls reveals contrasting slip-related deformation of lithounits. The northern wall shows displacement of lithounits along a low-angle thrust fault, while the ...

  4. Ultrafast demagnetization for Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} and half-metallic Co{sub 2}MnSi heusler alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizukami, S; Watanabe, D; Miyazaki, T [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Tsunegi, S; Kubota, T; Oogane, M; Naganuma, H; Ando, Y, E-mail: mizukami@wpi-aimr.tohoku.ac.j [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 5-5-06, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    We investigated ultrafast demagnetization for NM/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (Py)/NM (NM=Ta,Pt) and epitaxial half-metallic Co{sub 2}MnSi (CMS) films using an all-optical pump-probe technique to clarify the correlation between demagnetization time {tau}{sub M} and magnetic damping constant {alpha} or spin polarization. The signal from the all-optical time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect exhibited rapid decrease in the sub-ps time regime and damped oscillations for these films. Values of {tau}{sub M} and {alpha} were evaluated using the three- temperature model and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The {alpha} values for the NM/Py/NM films depended on both the Py thickness and NM materials while {tau}{sub M} was almost constant. The {tau}{sub M} values for the epitaxial CMS films were almost independent of L2{sub 1}-ordering and a little shorter than those for NM/Py/NM films.

  5. Magnetoresistance effect in Fe{sub 20}Ni{sub 80}/graphene/Fe{sub 20}Ni{sub 80} vertical spin valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entani, Shiro, E-mail: entani.shiro@qst.go.jp; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Sakai, Seiji [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Seki, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Saburo [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Sakuraba, Yuya [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-004 (Japan); Takanashi, Koki [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-08-22

    Vertical spin valve devices with junctions of single- and bi-layer graphene interlayers sandwiched with Fe{sub 20}Ni{sub 80} (Permalloy) electrodes were fabricated by exploiting the direct growth of graphene on the Permalloy. The linear current-voltage characteristics indicated that ohmic contacts were realized at the interfaces. The systematic characterization revealed the significant modification of the electronic state of the interfacial graphene layer on the Permalloy surface, which indicates the strong interactions at the interface. The ohmic transport was attributable to the strong interface-interaction. The vertical resistivity of the graphene interlayer and the spin asymmetry coefficient at the graphene/Permalloy interface were obtained to be 0.13 Ω cm and 0.06, respectively. It was found that the strong interface interaction modifies the electronic structure and metallic properties in the vertical spin valve devices with bi-layer graphene as well as single-layer graphene.

  6. Mariana Trench Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) created a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) for the Mariana Trench and adjacent seafloor in the Western...

  7. Thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements on PrIr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerl, Andreas; Stingl, Christian; Sakai, Akito; Gegenwart, Philipp [Experimentalphysics VI, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg (Germany); Matsumoto, Keisuke T.; Onimaru, Takahiro [Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Takabatake, Toshiro [Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Strong hybridization between electric quadrupole moments and conduction electrons gives rise to interesting physical phenomena such as new quantum phases and novel metallic properties. Non-fermi-liquid behavior based on the two channel Kondo effect is predicted by theory. PrIr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} crystallizes in the CeCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20}-type structure, where the Pr{sup 3+} ions are surrounded by the highly symmetric cubic crystal field of 16 Zn atoms. The ground state is the non-magnetic Γ{sub 3} doublet and carries only electric quadrupole and a magnetic octupole moment. At T{sub Q}=0.11 K the electric quadrupole moments order in a antiferroquadrupolar way. A superconducting transition occurs at T{sub c}=0.05 K. The phase transition at T{sub Q}=0.11 K can be suppressed by high magnetic fields parallel to the [100] direction. We investigate the thermal expansion and magnetostriction at low temperatures. By applying high magnetic fields the system is tuned towards a quadrupolar quantum critical point. Furthermore the reaction of the system on breaking the cubic symmetry by compressive stress is explored.

  8. Recent sediment dynamics in hadal trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Falahat, Saeed; Stehlikova, Jirina

    2014-01-01

    In addition to high hydrostatic pressure, scarcity of food is viewed as a factor that limits the abundance and activity of heterotrophic organisms at great ocean depths, including hadal trenches. Supply of nutritious food largely relies on the flux of organic-rich particulate matter from the surf...... but significant influence on particulate-matter dynamics and food supply in hadal trenches in particular, but possibly also in the deep seas in general. A mechanism for the influence of internal tides on sediment dynamics is proposed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. 300 Area process trench sediment analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, M.G.; Kossik, C.D.

    1987-12-01

    This report describes the results of a sampling program for the sediments underlying the Process Trenches serving the 300 Area on the Hanford reservation. These Process Trenches were the subject of a Closure Plan submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology and to the US Environmental Protection Agency in lieu of a Part B permit application on November 8, 1985. The closure plan described a proposed sampling plan for the underlying sediments and potential remedial actions to be determined by the sample analyses results. The results and proposed remedial action plan are presented and discussed in this report. 50 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Heat treatment and thickness-dependent electrical study of Se{sub 50}Te{sub 20}S{sub 30} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Elrahman, M.I.; Hafiz, M.M.; Qasem, Ammar; Abdel-Rahim, M.A. [Assiut University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Chalcogenide Se{sub 50}Te{sub 20}S{sub 30} thin film of different thickness was deposited using thermal evaporation technique. The thermogram of the chalcogenide bulk Se{sub 50}Te{sub 20}S{sub 30} was obtained using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) with heating rate of 7.5 K/min. The glass transition temperature T{sub g}, crystallization temperature T{sub c} and peak crystallization temperature T{sub p} were identified. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) examination indicates the amorphous nature of the as-deposited film and polycrystalline structure of the thermal annealed ones. The dark electrical resistivity (ρ) measurements were taken in temperature range (300-500 K) and thickness range (200-450 nm). Analysis of the electrical resistivity results revealed two types of conduction mechanisms: conduction due to extended states in the temperature range (T > T{sub c}) and variable range hopping in the temperature range (T < T{sub c}). The effect of the heat treatment and thickness on the density of localized states at the Fermi level N(E{sub F}) and hopping parameters were studied. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic Behavior of Surface Nanostructured 50-nm Nickel Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Prashant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thermally evaporated 50-nm nickel thin films coated on borosilicate glass substrates were nanostructured by excimer laser (0.5 J/cm2, single shot, DC electric field (up to 2 kV/cm and trench-template assisted technique. Nanoparticle arrays (anisotropic growth features have been observed to form in the direction of electric field for DC electric field treatment case and ruptured thin film (isotropic growth features growth for excimer laser treatment case. For trench-template assisted technique; nanowires (70–150 nm diameters have grown along the length of trench template. Coercive field and saturation magnetization are observed to be strongly dependent on nanostructuring techniques.

  12. Color View 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), the 14th Martian day after landing. It shows two trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. Soil from the right trench, informally called 'Baby Bear,' was delivered to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on Sol 12 (June 6). The following several sols included repeated attempts to shake the screen over TEGA's oven number 4 to get fine soil particles through the screen and into the oven for analysis. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. Each of the trenches is about 9 centimeters (3 inches) wide. This view is presented in approximately true color by combining separate exposures taken through different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Preparatory Groundwork in 'Snow White' Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is enlarging a trench informally named 'Snow White' to prepare a cleaned-off area at the top of a subsurface layer of hard material, possibly ice-rich soil. This image taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager camera on July 13th, the 48th Martian day, or sol, since landing, shows the trench after the previous sol's work by the lander's Robotic Arm. The size of the trench in the image is about 30 centimeters (12 inches) by 20 centimeters (8 inches). A shadow of Phoenix's helical antenna falls across the scene, which is on the northeast side of the lander. The image was taken at 3:32 p.m. local solar time at the Phoenix landing site. The Phoenix team plans to use the arm to extend the trench about 15 centimeters (6 inches) further, working toward the lander, in order to have enough surface area both for testing use of the powered rasp on the back of the scoop and also to use a combination of rasping and scooping to gather a sample of ice-rich material for delivering to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, S.N.

    1994-08-15

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 300 Area Process Trenches, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. For the purposes of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Westinghouse Hanford Company is identified as ``co-operator.`` The 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan (Revision 0) consists of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Form 3 and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application, Form 3 submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and six appendices. The 300 Area Process Trenches received dangerous waste discharges from research and development laboratories in the 300 Area and from fuels fabrication processes. This waste consisted of state-only toxic (WT02), corrosive (D002), chromium (D007), spent halogenated solvents (F001, F002, and F003), and spent nonhalogented solvent (F005). Accurate records are unavailable concerning the amount of dangerous waste discharged to the trenches. The estimated annual quantity of waste (item IV.B) reflects the total quantity of both regulated and nonregulated waste water that was discharged to the unit.

  15. Vortex distribution in small star-shaped Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, The Dang, E-mail: vu-dang@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Sciences, Vietnam National University HCMC (Viet Nam); Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Miyoshi, Hiroki [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Huy, Ho Thanh [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Sciences, Vietnam National University HCMC (Viet Nam); Shishido, Hiroaki [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kato, Masaru [Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Department of Mathematical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Ishida, Takekazu [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We found the general feature of vortex configuration in small star-shaped Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} plates such as the appearance of symmetric line, the rule of shell filling and the existence of a magic number in both theoretical predictions and experimental results. • We found that the vortex distribution in a concave decagon tends to adapt to one of the five symmetric axes of the star-shaped plate expected in confining vortices in a restricted sample geometry. • The numerical results of Ginzburg–Landau equation confirmed that the filling rules for a vortex configuration and the existence of a magic number for small star-shaped plates are in good agreement with experiment results. - Abstract: We investigated vortex states in small star-shaped Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} plates both theoretically and experimentally. The numerical calculations of the Ginzburg–Landau equation have been carried out with the aid of the finite element method, which is convenient to treat an arbitrarily shaped superconductor. The experimental results were observed by using a scanning SQUID microscope. Through systematic measurements, we figured out how vortices form symmetric configuration with increasing the magnetic field. The vortex distribution tends to adapt to one of five mirror symmetric lines when vortices were located at the five triangular horns of a star-shaped plate. The crystalline homogeneity of a sample was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and the superconducting properties so that vortices are easily able to move for accommodating vortices in the geometric symmetry of the star-shaped plate. The experimental vortex configurations obtained for a star-shaped plate are in good agreement with theoretical predictions from the nonlinear Ginzburg–Landau equation.

  16. Launch Pad Flame Trench Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Bucherl, Cori; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Steve; Whitten, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The launch complexes at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are critical support facilities for the successful launch of space-based vehicles. These facilities include a flame trench that bisects the pad at ground level. This trench includes a flame deflector system that consists of an inverted, V-shaped steel structure covered with a high temperature concrete material five inches thick that extends across the center of the flame trench. One side of the "V11 receives and deflects the flames from the orbiter main engines; the opposite side deflects the flames from the solid rocket boosters. There are also two movable deflectors at the top of the trench to provide additional protection to shuttle hardware from the solid rocket booster flames. These facilities are over 40 years old and are experiencing constant deterioration from launch heat/blast effects and environmental exposure. The refractory material currently used in launch pad flame deflectors has become susceptible to failure, resulting in large sections of the material breaking away from the steel base structure and creating high-speed projectiles during launch. These projectiles jeopardize the safety of the launch complex, crew, and vehicle. Post launch inspections have revealed that the number and frequency of repairs, as well as the area and size of the damage, is increasing with the number of launches. The Space Shuttle Program has accepted the extensive ground processing costs for post launch repair of damaged areas and investigations of future launch related failures for the remainder of the program. There currently are no long term solutions available for Constellation Program ground operations to address the poor performance and subsequent failures of the refractory materials. Over the last three years, significant liberation of refractory material in the flame trench and fire bricks along the adjacent trench walls following Space Shuttle launches have resulted in extensive investigations of

  17. GaAs on Si epitaxy by aspect ratio trapping: Analysis and reduction of defects propagating along the trench direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orzali, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.orzali@sematech.org; Vert, Alexey; O' Brien, Brendan; Papa Rao, Satyavolu S. [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd Suite 2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Herman, Joshua L.; Vivekanand, Saikumar [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, 251 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Hill, Richard J. W. [Now at Micron Technologies, 8000 S Federal Way, Boise, Idaho 83716 (United States); Karim, Zia [AIXTRON, Inc., 1139 Karlstad Dr., Sunnyvale, California 94089 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The Aspect Ratio Trapping technique has been extensively evaluated for improving the quality of III-V heteroepitaxial films grown on Si, due to the potential for terminating defects at the sidewalls of SiO{sub 2} patterned trenches that enclose the growth region. However, defects propagating along the trench direction cannot be effectively confined with this technique. We studied the effect of the trench bottom geometry on the density of defects of GaAs fins, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on 300 mm Si (001) wafers inside narrow (<90 nm wide) trenches. Plan view and cross sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy, together with High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction, were used to evaluate the crystal quality of GaAs. The prevalent defects that reach the top surface of GaAs fins are (111) twin planes propagating along the trench direction. The lowest density of twin planes, ∼8 × 10{sup 8 }cm{sup −2}, was achieved on “V” shaped bottom trenches, where GaAs nucleation occurs only on (111) Si planes, minimizing the interfacial energy and preventing the formation of antiphase boundaries.

  18. Abrupt symmetry decrease in the ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} alloys (T = 3d transition metal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uziel, A.; Bram, A.I. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel); Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel); Venkert, A. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, POB 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Kiv, A.E.; Fuks, D. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel); Meshi, L., E-mail: louisa@bgu.ac.il [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel); Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, 8410501 (Israel)

    2015-11-05

    Th-T-Al system, where T-3d transition metals, was studied at ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} stoichiometry to establish the influence of T on the structural stability of ternary aluminide formed. Different alloys were prepared, varying T in the row from Ti to Fe. Using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods it was found that ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} phase adopts CeCr{sub 2}Al{sub 20} structure type when T = Ti, V, and Cr. Starting from Mn, the symmetry of the stable Al-rich phase, which forms in the alloys with the same composition, decreases from cubic to orthorhombic. The results of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations coincide with experiments. Concepts of the Theory of Coordination Compounds and Jahn–Teller effect were used to explain the observed abrupt change of the symmetry. These considerations were supported by DFT calculations. - Highlights: • Type of transition metal influences symmetry change in the ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} alloys. • It was found that cubic ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 20} phase is stable for T = Ti, V and Cr. • When T = Mn, Fe–Al + orthorhombic ThT{sub 2}Al{sub 10} are formed, lowering the symmetry. • Experimental results and DFT calculations were in full agreement. • TCC and of Jahn–Teller effect were used for explanation of the results.

  19. Ultrasonic study of the Yb-based heavy fermion compound YbRh{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Y; Ito, K; Nakamura, M; Yoshizawa, M [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Saiga, Y; Kosaka, M [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Uwatoko, Y, E-mail: yoshiki@iwate-u.ac.j [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 227-8581 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    We report ultrasonic measurements on the high quality single crystal of the Yb-based heavy fermion compound YbRh{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} over a temperature range from 200 K to 0.5 K. A shallow, but clear minimum was observed in the temperature dependent elastic constants C{sub 11}, (C{sub 11} - C{sub 12})/2 and C{sub 44} around 15 K, probably attributed to the ground state and low-lying excited states of Yb{sup 3} in the cubic CEF. We discuss the low-temperature elastic properties and possible energy level scheme of localized 4f state of Yb{sup 3} ions in YbRh{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}. CEF ground state developed at the low temperatures and physical parameters relating to a quadrupolar moment in YbRh{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}

  20. Magnetization in a epitaxial [Fe/Cr/Co/Cr]{sub 20x} spin valve system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruessing, Frank; Toperverg, Boris; Zhernenkov, Kirill; Wolff, Maximilian; Zabel, Hartmut [Department of Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany); Theis-Broehl, Katharina [University of Applied Sciences Bremerhaven (Germany); Wiemann, Carsten; Kaiser, Alexander; Schneider, Claus M. [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Magnetic heterostructures containing different magnetic layers, such as Co and Fe, are essential elements for modern spintronic devices. As a model system we have chosen [Co/Cr/Fe/Cr(100)]{sub 20x} epitaxial superlattices with spin valve properties. The thicknesses of the Fe and Co layers were adjusted such that their magnetization magnitudes are roughly equal. The quality of the layering and the epitaxial relationship were verified via x-ray methods. Via PEEM and PNR the ground state and the magnetization reversal were studied. In this work we mainly focused on the magnetic correlation between Co and Fe mediated by Cr spacer layer and its dependence on the Co bcc-hcp martensitic transition. The alignment between neighboring Co and Fe layers can be recognized via intensity variations of the superlattice Bragg peaks, which are different for odd and even orders. For a certain thickness of the Co and Fe layers in the as grown state additional half-order peaks can be recognized, which indicate a spiral like magnetic ordering in the sample. A combination of the magnetic anisotropy of the different layers and interlayer exchange coupling is most likely the reason for the spiral state.

  1. Anisotropic relaxation behavior of InGaAs/GaAs selectively grown in narrow trenches on (001) Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W.; Mols, Y.; Belz, J.; Beyer, A.; Volz, K.; Schulze, A.; Langer, R.; Kunert, B.

    2017-07-01

    Selective area growth of InGaAs inside highly confined trenches on a pre-patterned (001) Si substrate has the potential of achieving a high III-V crystal quality due to high aspect ratio trapping for improved device functionalities in Si microelectronics. If the trench width is in the range of the hetero-layer thickness, the relaxation mechanism of the mismatched III-V layer is no longer isotropic, which has a strong impact on the device fabrication and performance if not controlled well. The hetero-epitaxial nucleation of InxGa1-xAs on Si can be simplified by using a binary nucleation buffer such as GaAs. A pronounced anisotropy in strain release was observed for the growth of InxGa1-xAs on a fully relaxed GaAs buffer with a (001) surface inside 20 and 100 nm wide trenches, exploring the full composition range from GaAs to InAs. Perpendicular to the trench orientation (direction of high confinement), the strain release in InxGa1-xAs is very efficiently caused by elastic relaxation without defect formation, although a small compressive force is still induced by the trench side walls. In contrast, the strain release along the trenches is governed by plastic relaxation once the vertical film thickness has clearly exceeded the critical layer thickness. On the other hand, the monolithic deposition of mismatched InxGa1-xAs directly into a V-shaped trench bottom with {111} Si planes leads instantly to a pronounced nucleation of misfit dislocations along the {111} Si/III-V interfaces. In this case, elastic relaxation no longer plays a role as the strain release is ensured by plastic relaxation in both directions. Hence, using a ternary seed layer facilitates the integration of InxGa1-xAs covering the full composition range.

  2. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Joshua R.; Vangala, Shivashankar; Nader, Nima; Leedy, Kevin; Guo, Junpeng; Cleary, Justin W.

    2015-11-01

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, Joshua R., E-mail: joshua.hendrickson.4@us.af.mil; Leedy, Kevin; Cleary, Justin W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Vangala, Shivashankar [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); SURVICE Engineering, 4141 Colonel Glenn Highway, Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States); Nader, Nima [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Solid State Scientific Corporation, 12 Simon St., Nashua, New Hampshire 03060 (United States); Guo, Junpeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Acoustic-Gravity Waves Interacting with a Rectangular Trench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical solution of the two-dimensional linear problem of an acoustic-gravity wave interacting with a rectangular trench, in a compressible ocean, is presented. Expressions for the flow field on both sides of the trench are derived. The dynamic bottom pressure produced by the acoustic-gravity waves on both sides of the trench is measurable, though on the transmission side it decreases with the trench depth. A successful recording of the bottom pressures could assist in the early detection of tsunami.

  5. Ocean mixing in deep-sea trenches: New insights from the Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.; Berndt, C.; Klaucke, I.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable very deep shipborne SBE 911plus Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD) data to within 60 m from the bottom and Kongsberg EM122 0.5° × 1° multibeam echosounder data are collected in the Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench. A new position and depth are given for the deepest point in the world's

  6. Ultra-high density out-of-plane strain sensor 3D architecture based on sub-20 nm PMOS FinFET

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2016-02-03

    Future wearable electronics require not only flexibility but also preservation of the perks associated with today\\'s high-performance, traditional silicon electronics. In this work we demonstrate a state-of-the-art fin-shaped field-effect transistor (FinFET)-based, out-of-plane strain sensor on flexible silicon through transforming the bulk device in a transfer-less process. The device preserves the functionality and high performance associated with its bulk, inflexible state. Furthermore, gate leakage current shows sufficient dependence on the value of the applied out-of-plane strain that enables permits use of the flexible device as a switching device as well as a strain sensor.

  7. Ocean mixing in deep-sea trenches: New insights from the Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, Hans; Berndt, Christian; Klaucke, Ingo

    2017-11-01

    Reliable very deep shipborne SBE 911plus Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD) data to within 60 m from the bottom and Kongsberg EM122 0.5° × 1° multibeam echosounder data are collected in the Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench. A new position and depth are given for the deepest point in the world's ocean. The data provide insight into the interplay between topography and internal waves in the ocean that lead to mixing of the lowermost water masses on Earth. Below 5000 m, the vertical density stratification is weak, with a minimum buoyancy frequency N = 1.0 ± 0.6 cpd, cycles per day, between 6500 and 8500 m. In that depth range, the average turbulence is coarsely estimated from Thorpe-overturning scales, with limited statistics to be ten times higher than the mean values of dissipation rate εT = 3 ± 2 × 10-11 m2 s-3 and eddy diffusivity KzT = 2 ± 1.5 × 10-4 m2 s-1 estimated for the depth range between 10,300 and 10,850 m, where N = 2.5 ± 0.6 cpd. Inertial and meridionally directed tidal inertio-gravity waves can propagate between the differently stratified layers. These waves are suggested to be responsible for the observed turbulence. The turbulence values are similar to those recently estimated from CTD and moored observations in the Puerto Rico Trench. Yet, in contrast to the Puerto Rico Trench, seafloor morphology in the Mariana Trench shows up to 500 m-high fault scarps on the incoming tectonic plate and a very narrow trench, suggesting that seafloor topography does not play a crucial role for mixing.

  8. Alumina nanowire growth by water decomposition and the peritectic reaction of decagonal Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 15}Co{sub 20} quasicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Téllez-Vázquez, J.O., E-mail: oswald.tellez@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Metalurgia y Materiales, UMSNH, Edificio U, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 58060 Morelia Michoacán, México (Mexico); Patiño-Carachure, C., E-mail: cpatino@pampano.unacar.mx [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Carmen, Campus III, Avenida Central S/N, Esq. Con Fracc. Mundo Maya, C.P. 24115 Ciudad del Carmen, Campeche, México (Mexico); Rosas, G., E-mail: grtrejo@yahoo07.com.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Metalurgia y Materiales, UMSNH, Edificio U, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 58060 Morelia Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, the results of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires' growth through a chemical reaction between Al and water vapor at 1050 °C are presented. Our approach is based on two primary considerations. First, at room temperature, the Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 15}Co{sub 20} alloy is affected by the following mechanism: 2Al (s) + 3H{sub 2}O (g) → Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (s) + H{sub 2} (g). In this reaction, the released hydrogen induces cleavage fracture of the material to form small particles. Second, the Al{sub 65}Cu{sub 15}Co{sub 20} quasicrystalline phase is transformed on heating to liquid + Al (Cu, Co) cubic phase through a peritectic reaction at 1050 °C. The Al-rich liquid then reacts with water vapor, forming Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the formed nanowires have a hexagonal structure, and infrared analysis further confirms the presence of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase in the final products. Transmission electron microscopy observations show that nanoparticles are present at the end of nanowires, suggesting the VLS growth mechanism. Elemental analysis by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) indicates that the particles at the tip of the nanowires are mainly formed by Co and Cu alloying elements and small amounts of Al. Electron microscopy observations showed nanowires with diameters ranging from 20 to 70 nm; the average diameter was 37 nm and the nanowire lengths were up to several micrometers. - Highlights: • Hexagonal alumina nanowires are grown at 1050 °C through the VLS process. • Alumina nanowires are obtained by the decomposition of decagonal quasicrystalline phase. • The decagonal phase decomposition follows a peritectic reaction at 1030 °C. • Nanoparticles are obtained by hydrogen embrittlement mechanism. • The nanoparticles catalyze the water decomposition to form wires.

  9. Numerical evidence for quadrupolar-octopolar order in RETM{sub 2}(Al,Zi){sub 20}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attig, Jan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne (Germany); Tse, Darrell; Lee, Eric Kin-Ho; Paramekanti, Arun; Kim, Yong Baek [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on materials of the type RETM{sub 2}(Al,Zi){sub 20} (where RE is a rare earth and TM a transition metal element) we investigate a minimal model for the pseudo-spin degrees of freedom of the rare earth ions. The model is described by J1-J2 pseudo-spin interactions in three-dimensions where the XY part models quadrupolar order and the Ising part models octopolar order. We use various computational methods such as simulating annealing to find the zero temperature phase digram and investigate further by using single-spin flip Monte Carlo simulations for finite temperature. One notable finding is the existence of non-coplanar spiral ordering of pseudo-spins, which may explain some of the experimental data on the electronic ordering in RETM{sub 2}(Al,Zi){sub 20}.

  10. Ultrafast optical responses of {beta}-carotene and lycopene probed by sub-20-fs time-resolved coherent spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, M.; Sugisaki, M. [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Gall, A.; Robert, B. [CEA, Institut de Biologie et Technologies de Saclay, and CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Cogdell, R.J. [IBLS, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, H., E-mail: hassy@sci.osaka-cu.ac.j [CREST-JST and Department of Physics, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    We investigate how structural distortions in carotenoid cause decoherences of its high-frequency vibrational modes by applying the sub-20-fs time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy to {beta}-carotene and lycopene. The results indicate that the C=C central stretching mode shows significant loss of coherence under the effects of the steric hindrance between {beta}-ionone ring and polyene backbone, whereas the other high-frequency modes do not show such dependency on the structural distortions.

  11. Scattering and extinction from high-aspect-ratio trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2015-01-01

    We construct a semi-analytical model describing the scattering, extinction and absorption properties of a high aspect-ratio trench in a metallic film. We find that these trenches act as highly efficient scatterers of free waves. In the perfect conductor limit, which for many metals is approached...

  12. Synthesis and magnetic characterization of a Cu{sub 80}Co{sub 20} thin film obtained by electrodeposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bran, Julien; Jean, Malick; Lardé, Rodrigue; Sauvage, Xavier [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS, Université et INSA de Rouen, 76801 St Etienne du Rouvray (France); Breton, Jean-Marie Le, E-mail: jean-marie.lebreton@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS, Université et INSA de Rouen, 76801 St Etienne du Rouvray (France); Morin-Grognet, Sandrine [Laboratoire de Biophysique et Biomatériaux, MERCI EA 3829, Centre Universitaire d’Evreux, Université de Rouen, 1 rue du 7ème Chasseurs, 27002 Evreux Cedex (France); Pautrat, Alain [Laboratoire Crismat, UMR 6508 CNRS ENSICAEN, 6 boulevard du maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A Cu{sub 80}Co{sub 20} alloy was obtained by low cost electrodeposition. • The structure was investigated down to the atomic scale. • No oxides were formed. • Magnetoresistance is clearly related to superparamagnetic Co nanoparticles. - Abstract: A granular Cu{sub 80}Co{sub 20} alloy was elaborated by a low cost electrodeposition technique consisting in reducing simultaneously the Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} ions onto a silicon substrate. The deposition parameters were determined from current-potential curves. The structure of the film was characterized down to the atomic scale by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The results show that the as-deposited Cu{sub 80}Co{sub 20} thin film consists mainly of a paramagnetic Cu–Co solid solution containing 10–30% of Co, in which pure Co superparamagnetic nanoparticles are dissolved. Annealing at 500 °C for 1 h leads to the decomposition of the Cu–Co solid solution into purified Cu matrix containing ferromagnetic Co-rich precipitates. The magnetoresistance effect decreases after the heat treatment, in relation with the disappearance of the superparamagnetic Co nanoparticles upon annealing.

  13. Subduction trench migration since the Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.; Flament, N. E.; Müller, D.; Butterworth, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Much of our knowledge about subduction zone processes is derived from analyzing present-day Earth. Several studies of contemporary plate motions have investigated the balance between retreating and advancing trenches and shown that subduction zone kinematics are sensitive to the choice of Absolute Plate Motion (APM) model (or "reference frame"). For past times, the absolute motions of the lithospheric plates relative to the Earth's deep interior over tens of millions of years are commonly constrained using observations from paleomagnetism and age-progressive seamount trails. In contrast, a reference frame linking surface plate motions to subducted slab remnants mapped from seismic tomography has recently been proposed. APM models derived using different methodologies, different subsets of hotspots, or differing assumptions of hotspot motion, have contrasting implications for parameters that describe the long term state of the plate-mantle system, such as the balance between advance and retreat of subduction zones, plate velocities, and net lithospheric rotation. Here we quantitatively compare the subduction zone kinematics, net lithospheric rotation and fit to hotspot trails derived the last 130 Myr for a range of alternative reference frames and a single relative plate motion model. We find that hotspot and tomographic slab-remnant reference frames yield similar results for the last 70 Myr. For the period between 130 and 70 Ma, when hotspot trails become scarce, hotspot reference frames yield a much more dispersed distribution of slab advance and retreat velocities, which is considered geodynamically less plausible. By contrast, plate motions calculated using the slab-remnant reference frame, or using a reference frame designed to minimise net rotation, yield more consistent subduction zone kinematics for times older than 70 Ma. Introducing the global minimisation of trench migration rates as a key criterion in the construction of APM models forms the foundation

  14. 3-D visualisation of palaeoseismic trench stratigraphy and trench logging using terrestrial remote sensing and GPR - a multiparametric interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderwind, Sascha; Mason, Jack; Wiatr, Thomas; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Reicherter, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two normal faults on the island of Crete and mainland Greece were studied to test an innovative workflow with the goal of obtaining a more objective palaeoseismic trench log, and a 3-D view of the sedimentary architecture within the trench walls. Sedimentary feature geometries in palaeoseismic trenches are related to palaeoearthquake magnitudes which are used in seismic hazard assessments. If the geometry of these sedimentary features can be more representatively measured, seismic hazard assessments can be improved. In this study more representative measurements of sedimentary features are achieved by combining classical palaeoseismic trenching techniques with multispectral approaches. A conventional trench log was firstly compared to results of ISO (iterative self-organising) cluster analysis of a true colour photomosaic representing the spectrum of visible light. Photomosaic acquisition disadvantages (e.g. illumination) were addressed by complementing the data set with active near-infrared backscatter signal image from t-LiDAR measurements. The multispectral analysis shows that distinct layers can be identified and it compares well with the conventional trench log. According to this, a distinction of adjacent stratigraphic units was enabled by their particular multispectral composition signature. Based on the trench log, a 3-D interpretation of attached 2-D ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles collected on the vertical trench wall was then possible. This is highly beneficial for measuring representative layer thicknesses, displacements, and geometries at depth within the trench wall. Thus, misinterpretation due to cutting effects is minimised. This manuscript combines multiparametric approaches and shows (i) how a 3-D visualisation of palaeoseismic trench stratigraphy and logging can be accomplished by combining t-LiDAR and GPR techniques, and (ii) how a multispectral digital analysis can offer additional advantages to interpret palaeoseismic and stratigraphic

  15. Plume Delineation in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, Dale F.; Sweeney, Mark D.

    2004-11-30

    HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc. and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were contracted by Fluor Hanford Group, Inc. to conduct a geophysical investigation in the area of the BC Cribs and Trenches (subject site) at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The BC Cribs and Trenches are located south of the 200 East Area. This document provides the details of the investigation to identify existing infrastructure from legacy disposal activities and to delineate the edges of a groundwater plume that contains radiological and heavy metal constituents beneath the 216-B-26 and 216-B-52 Trenches, and the 216-B-14 through 216-B-19 Cribs.

  16. Vortex distribution in amorphous Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} plates with artificial pinning center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hitoshi [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Huy, Ho Thanh [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Sciences, Vietnam National University HCMC, 227 Nguyen Van Cu, District 5, HoChiMinh City (Viet Nam); Miyoshi, Hiroki; Okamoto, Takuto; Dang, Vu The [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kato, Masaru [Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Department of Mathematical Science, Osaka Prefecture University1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Ishida, Takekazu, E-mail: ishida@center.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We reveal that the vortex distribution in small amorphous Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} superconducting starshaped plate by using a scanning SQUID microscope. • We find that vortex configuration evolves systematically when the applied magnetic field is changed at the several different fields. • We fabricate an artificial dip by Ar ion milling in a mesoscopic plate, and find this works as a pinning center by comparing the vortex behavior in a sample without pins. - Abstract: Vortices in superconductor give rise to a rich variety of phenomena because they interact with shielding currents, temperature gradients, sample defects, boundaries, and other neighboring vortices. It would be very important to understand particular features of vortex states in a downsized system. Our study focuses on vortex states in small star-shaped Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} plates with and without an artificial pin at the plate center. Vortex states are greatly influenced by the sample geometry, the temperature and the magnetic field, and they can be occasionally exotic compared to the bulk case. We use the amorphous Mo{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} films due to the nature of weak pinning in studying vortex configurations. We applied scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy because it enables us to see vortex states directly and it is the most sensitive instrument for mapping tiny local current flows or magnetic moments without damaging the sample. We interpreted that vortex configurations had essentially the nature of mirror reflection symmetry in both cases with an artificial pin and without an artificial pin and pinned cases while the influence of disorder was seen in our observation on the specimen without an artificial pin.

  17. Sub-5 nm nanostructures fabricated by atomic layer deposition using a carbon nanotube template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ju Yeon; Han, Hyo; Kim, Ji Weon; Lee, Seung-Mo; Ha, Jeong Sook; Shim, Joon Hyung; Han, Chang-Soo

    2016-07-01

    The fabrication of nanostructures having diameters of sub-5 nm is very a important issue for bottom-up nanofabrication of nanoscale devices. In this work, we report a highly controllable method to create sub-5 nm nano-trenches and nanowires by combining area-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as templates. Alumina nano-trenches having a depth of 2.6 ∼ 3.0 nm and SiO2 nano-trenches having a depth of 1.9 ∼ 2.2 nm fully guided by the SWNTs have been formed on SiO2/Si substrate. Through infilling ZnO material by ALD in alumina nano-trenches, well-defined ZnO nanowires having a thickness of 3.1 ∼ 3.3 nm have been fabricated. In order to improve the electrical properties of ZnO nanowires, as-fabricated ZnO nanowires by ALD were annealed at 350 °C in air for 60 min. As a result, we successfully demonstrated that as-synthesized ZnO nanowire using a specific template can be made for various high-density resistive components in the nanoelectronics industry.

  18. Inter-diffusion and its correlation with dynamical cross correlation in liquid Ce{sub 80}Ni{sub 20}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.L.; Zhong, L.X.; Zhu, C.A.; Zhang, B. [Hefei University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering and Anhui Provincial Key Lab of Functional Materials and Devices, Hefei (China)

    2017-03-15

    We reported the inter-diffusion coefficients in liquid Ce{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} measured by the sliding cell technique. Combined with the self-diffusion data of Ni measured by quasi-elastic neutron scattering in the literature, it was found that the relationship between inter-diffusion and self-diffusion in liquid Ce{sub 80}Ni{sub 20} was strongly deviated from the standard Darken equation with an abnormally small dynamical cross correlation factor S (the so called Manning factor) in a range of 0.6-0.8, less than unity in standard systems. Through the calculated distinct diffusion coefficient and its deviation from the standard one, it was discovered that the small S value was directly originated from enhanced distinct diffusion between Ce and Ni atoms and reduced distinct diffusion between Ni and Ni atoms. Because the inter-atomic interaction was not considered in the standard liquids, the present small S factor and intrinsic distinct diffusion coefficients were believed to be resulted from the chemical interaction between Ce and Ni in the liquid. The results provide new evidence of the dynamic cross correlation in liquid diffusion, and thus shed light on the understanding of the correlation between dynamics and structure in liquid alloys. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic properties of Fe{sub 20} Ni{sub 80} antidots: Pore size and array disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, J.L., E-mail: juan.palma.s@usach.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Gallardo, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Spinu, L.; Vargas, J.M. [Advanced Material Research Institute (AMRI) and Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria UFSM, Av. Roraima 1000, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Denardin, J.C.; Escrig, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile)

    2013-10-15

    Magnetic properties of nanoscale Fe{sub 20}Ni{sub 80} antidot arrays with different hole sizes prepared on top of nanoporous alumina membranes have been studied by means of magnetometry and micromagnetic simulations. The results show a significant increase of the coercivity as well as a reduction of the remanence of the antidot arrays, as compared with their parent continuous film, which depends on the hole size introduced in the Fe{sub 20}Ni{sub 80} thin film. When the external field is applied parallel to the antidots, the reversal of magnetization is achieved by free-core vortex propagation, whereas when the external field is applied perpendicular to the antidots, the reversal occurs through a process other than the coherent rotation (a maze-like pattern). Besides, in-plane hysteresis loops varying the angle show that the degree of disorder in the sample breaks the expected hexagonal symmetry. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties are strongly influenced by the pore diameter of the samples. • Coercive fields for antidots are higher than the values for the continuous film. • Disorder breaks the hexagonal symmetry of the sample. • Each hole acts as a vortex nucleation point. • Antidots have unique properties that allow them to be used in applications.

  20. The impact of etched trenches geometry and dielectric material on the electrical behaviour of silicon-on-insulator self-switching diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, G; Charlebois, S A [Departement de genie electrique et genie informatique, et Institut interdisciplinaire d' innovation technologique (3IT), Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500, Boulevard de l' Universite, J1K 2R1, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Morris, D [Departement de physique et Institut interdisciplinaire d' innovation technologique (3IT), Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500, Boulevard de l' Universite, J1K 2R1, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Raskin, J-P, E-mail: ghania.farhi@usherbrooke.ca [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Universite catholique de Louvain, Place du Levant, 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-10-28

    Hole electrical transport in a p-doped nanochannel defined between two L-shape etched trenches made on a silicon-on-insulator substrate is investigated using a TCAD-Medici simulator. We study the impact of the etched trenches' geometry and dielectric filling materials on the current-voltage characteristics of the device. Carrier accumulation on frontiers defined by the trenches causes a modulation of the hole density inside the conduction channel as the bias voltage varies and this gives rise to a diode-like characteristic. For a 1.2 {mu}m-long channel, plots of the electric field distribution show that a nonlinear transport regime is reached at a moderate reverse and forward bias of {+-} 2 V. Plots of the carrier velocity along the conduction channel show that holes remain hot for a few hundreds of nm outside the nanometre-wide channel, at a bias of {+-} 10 V. Filling the etched trenches with a high-{kappa} dielectric material gives rise to a lower threshold voltage, V{sub th}. A similar decrease of V{sub th} is also achieved by reducing the longitudinal and/or the transverse trench width. Our simulation results provide useful design guidelines for future integrated self-switching-diode-based circuits.

  1. Novel vertical silicon photodiodes based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Yelena [Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Haifa (Israel); TowerJazz Ltd. Migdal Haemek (Israel); Shauly, Eitan [TowerJazz Ltd. Migdal Haemek (Israel); Paz, Yaron, E-mail: paz@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Haifa (Israel)

    2015-12-07

    The classical concept of silicon photodiodes comprises of a planar design characterized by heavily doped emitters. Such geometry has low collection efficiency of the photons absorbed close to the surface. An alternative, promising, approach is to use a vertical design. Nevertheless, realization of such design is technologically challenged, hence hardly explored. Herein, a novel type of silicon photodiodes, based on salicided polysilicon trenched contacts, is presented. These contacts can be prepared up to 10 μm in depth, without showing any leakage current associated with the increase in the contact area. Consequently, the trenched photodiodes revealed better performance than no-trench photodiodes. A simple two dimensional model was developed, allowing to estimate the conditions under which a vertical design has the potential to have better performance than that of a planar design. At large, the deeper the trench is, the better is the vertical design relative to the planar (up to 10 μm for silicon). The vertical design is more advantageous for materials characterized by short diffusion lengths of the carriers. Salicided polysilicon trenched contacts open new opportunities for the design of solar cells and image sensors. For example, these contacts may passivate high contact area buried contacts, by virtue of the conformity of polysilicon interlayer, thus lowering the via resistance induced recombination enhancement effect.

  2. Gibberellin A sub 3 is biosynthesized from gibberellin A sub 20 via gibberellin A sub 5 in shoots of Zea mays L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, Shozo; Spray, C.R.; Phinney, B.O. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Gaskin, P.; MacMillan, J. (Univ. of Bristol (England)); Yamane, Hisakazu (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA) Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Takahashi, Nobutaka (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    (17-{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)-Labeled gibberellin A{sub 20} (GA{sub 20}), GA{sub 5}, and GA{sub 1} were fed to homozygous normal (+/+), heterozygous dominant dwarf (D8/+), and homozygous dominant dwarf (D8/D8) seedlings of Zea mays L. (maize). {sup 13}C-Labeled GA{sub 29}, GA{sub 8}, GA{sub 5}, GA{sub 1}, and 3-epi-GA{sub 1}, as well as unmetabolized ({sup 13}C)GA{sub 20}, were identified by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM) from feeds of (17-{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)GA{sub 20} to all three genotypes. {sup 13}C-Labeled GA{sub 8} and 3-epi-G{sub 1}, as well as unmetabolized ({sup 13}C)GA{sub 1}, were identified by GC-SIM from feeds of (17-{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)GA{sub 1} to all three genotypes. From feeds of (17-{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)GA{sub 5}, {sup 13}C-labeled GA{sub 3} and the GA{sub 3}-isolactone, as well as unmetabolized ({sup 13}C)GA{sub 5}, were identified by GC-SIM from +/+ and D8/D8, and by full scan GC-MS from D8/+. No evidence was found for the metabolism of (17-{sup 13}C, {sup 3}H)GA{sub 5} to ({sup 13}C)GA{sub 1}, either by full scan GC-mass spectrometry or by GC-SIM. The results demonstrate the presence in maize seedlings of three separate branches from GA{sub 20}, as follows: (a) GA{sub 20} {yields} GA{sub 1} {yields} GA{sub 8}; (b) GA{sub 20} {yields} GA{sub 5} {yields} GA{sub 3}; and (c) GA{sub 20} {yields} GA{sub 29}. The in vivo biogenesis of GA{sub 3} from GA{sub 5}, as well as the origin of GA{sub 5} from GA{sub 20}, are conclusively established for the first time in a higher plant (maize shoots).

  3. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-04-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  5. Trench formation and corner rounding in vertical GaN power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhao; Sun, Min; Liu, Zhihong; Piedra, Daniel; Hu, Jie; Gao, Xiang; Palacios, Tomás

    2017-05-01

    Trench formation and corner rounding are the key processes to demonstrate high-voltage trench-based vertical GaN devices. In this work, we developed a damage-free corner rounding technology combining Tetramethylammonium hydroxide wet etching and piranha clean. By optimizing the inductively coupled plasma dry etching conditions and applying the rounding technology, two main trench shapes were demonstrated: flat-bottom rounded trench and tapered-bottom rounded trench. TCAD simulations were then performed to investigate the impact of trench shapes and round corners on device blocking capability. GaN trench metal-insulator-semiconductor barrier Schottky rectifiers with different trench shapes were fabricated and characterized. A breakdown voltage over 500 V was obtained in the device with flat-bottom rounded trenches, compared to 350 V in the device with tapered-bottom rounded trenches and 150 V in the device with non-rounded trenches. Both experimental and simulation results support the use of rounded flat-bottom trenches to fabricate high-voltage GaN trench-based power devices.

  6. Structure and photocatalytic properties of Nb-doped Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} prepared by the oxidant peroxide method (OPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, André E., E-mail: andreesteves86@hotmail.com; Lima, Alan R. F., E-mail: alan_rogerio2000@yahoo.com.br [UFSCar-Universidade Federal de São Carlos, LIEC-Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Eletroquímica e Cerâmica, Departamento de Química (Brazil); Longo, Elson, E-mail: elson@iq.unesp.br [UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Química de Araraquara (Brazil); Leite, Edson R., E-mail: edson.leite@pq.cnpq.br; Camargo, Emerson R., E-mail: camargo@ufscar.br [UFSCar-Universidade Federal de São Carlos, LIEC-Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Eletroquímica e Cerâmica, Departamento de Química (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Pure (Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}) and niobium-doped (Bi{sub 12}Ti{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 20}, with “x” up to 0.15) bismuth titanates were prepared by the oxidant peroxide method (OPM) and used to photodegradate rhodamine b (RhB) under UV and visible radiation. Rietveld refinements showed samples consisting mainly of sillenite structure with small amounts of a perovskite secondary phase in the Nb-doped materials. These bismuth-based catalysts exhibited superior performance than the commercial TiO{sub 2}, with band gaps ranging from 2.53 of pure Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} to 2.73 eV depending on the amount of niobium added, which seems to be responsible for the improved photoactivity of the doped catalysts under UV radiation.

  7. Trench dynamics: Effects of dynamically migrating trench on subducting slab morphology and characteristics of subduction zones systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masaki

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of trench migration (retreat or advance) is crucial to characterizing the driving forces of Earth's tectonics plates, the origins of subducting slab morphologies in the deep mantle, and identifying the characteristics of subduction zones systems, which are among the fundamental issues of solid Earth science. A series of numerical simulations of mantle convection, focusing on plate subduction in a three-dimensional (3-D) regional spherical shell coordinate system, was performed to examine subduction zone characteristics, including geodynamic relationships among trench migration, back-arc stress, and slab morphology. The results show that a subducting slab tends to deflect around the base of the mantle transition zone and form a sub-horizontal slab because its front edge (its 'toe') is subject to resistance from the highly viscous lower mantle. As the sub-horizontal slab starts to penetrate into the lower mantle from its 'heel,' the toe of the slab is drawn into the lower mantle. The results for models with dynamically migrating trenches suggest that trench retreat is the dynamically self-consistent phenomenon in trench migration. The reason for this is that the strong lateral mantle flow that is generated as a sequence of events leading from corner flow at the subduction initiation to return flow of the formation of a sub-horizontal slab in the shallower part of mantle wedge produces the retreat of the subducting slab. In fact, a 'mantle suction force,' which is generated in the mantle wedge to fill space left by the retreating subducting plate, is enhanced by the subsequent trench retreat. Even when upwelling flow with significant positive buoyancy originates just above a mantle phase boundary at a depth of 410 km (as inferred from independent seismic tomographic, geodynamic, geochemical, and mineral physics), reaches the base of the overriding plate, and the overriding plate is slightly thinned, lithospheric stress tends to be

  8. EARTHSAWtm IN-SITU CONTAINMENT OF PITS AND TRENCHES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest E. Carter, P.E.

    2002-09-20

    EarthSaw{trademark} is a proposed technology for construction of uniform high quality barriers under and around pits and trenches containing buried radioactive waste without excavating or disturbing the waste. The method works by digging a deep vertical trench around the perimeter of a site, filling that trench with high specific gravity grout sealant, and then cutting a horizontal bottom pathway at the base of the trench with a simple cable saw mechanism. The severed block of earth becomes buoyant in the grout and floats on a thick layer of grout, which then cures into an impermeable barrier. The ''Interim Report on task 1 and 2'' which is incorporated into this report as appendix A, provided theoretical derivations, field validation of formulas, a detailed quantitative engineering description of the technique, engineering drawings of the hardware, and a computer model of how the process would perform in a wide variety of soil conditions common to DOE waste burial sites. The accomplishments of task 1 and 2 are also summarized herein Task 3 work product provides a comprehensive field test plan in Appendix B and a health and safety plan in Appendix C and proposal for a field-scale demonstration of the EarthSaw barrier technology. The final report on the subcontracted stress analysis is provided in Appendix D. A copy of the unified computer model is provided as individual non-functional images of each sheet of the spreadsheet and separately as a Microsoft Excel 2000 file.

  9. A decision tool for selecting trench cap designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, G.B.; Stone, J.J.; Lane, L.J. [USDA-ARS, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A computer based prototype decision support system (PDSS) is being developed to assist the risk manager in selecting an appropriate trench cap design for waste disposal sites. The selection of the {open_quote}best{close_quote} design among feasible alternatives requires consideration of multiple and often conflicting objectives. The methodology used in the selection process consists of: selecting and parameterizing decision variables using data, simulation models, or expert opinion; selecting feasible trench cap design alternatives; ordering the decision variables and ranking the design alternatives. The decision model is based on multi-objective decision theory and uses a unique approach to order the decision variables and rank the design alternatives. Trench cap designs are evaluated based on federal regulations, hydrologic performance, cover stability and cost. Four trench cap designs, which were monitored for a four year period at Hill Air Force Base in Utah, are used to demonstrate the application of the PDSS and evaluate the results of the decision model. The results of the PDSS, using both data and simulations, illustrate the relative advantages of each of the cap designs and which cap is the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} alternative for a given set of criteria and a particular importance order of those decision criteria.

  10. Recent Radiation Test Results for Trench Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan C.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Kim, Hak S.; Topper, Alyson D.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Label, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Single-event effect (SEE) radiation test results are presented for various trench-gate power MOSFETs. The heavy-ion response of the first (and only) radiation-hardened trench-gate power MOSFET is evaluated: the manufacturer SEE response curve is verified and importantly, no localized dosing effects are measured, distinguishing it from other, non-hardened trench-gate power MOSFETs. Evaluations are made of n-type commercial and both n- and p-type automotive grade trench-gate device using ions comparable to of those on the low linear energy transfer (LET) side of the iron knee of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum, to explore suitability of these parts for missions with higher risk tolerance and shorter duration, such as CubeSats. Part-to-part variability of SEE threshold suggests testing with larger sample sizes and applying more aggressive derating to avoid on-orbit failures. The n-type devices yielded expected localized dosing effects including when irradiated in an unbiased (0-V) configuration, adding to the challenge of inserting these parts into space flight missions.

  11. Convective mixing by internal waves in the Puerto Rico Trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.; Gostiaux, L.

    2016-01-01

    A2.4 km long deep-sea mooringwas deployed for 14 months in the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepestpart of the Atlantic Ocean. Below its top buoyancy package, the mooring line held a 200 m long stringof high-resolution temperature sensors and a current meter. Over the instrumented range between6,004 and

  12. A Generic Water Balance Model for a Trench Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Choi, Hee Joo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To quantify the exposure dose rates from the nuclide release and transport through the various pathways possible in the near- and far-fields of the LILW repository system, various scenarios are to be conveniently simulated in a straightforward manner and extensively with this GoldSim model, as similarly developed for other various types of repositories in previous studies. Through this study, a result from four scenario cases, each of which is or is not associated with water balance, are compared to each other to see what happens in different cases in which an overflow over a trench rooftop, stochastic rainfall on the trench cover, and an unsaturated flow scheme under the trench bottom are combined. The other two latter elements vary periodically owing to stochastic behavior of the time series data for the past rain-fall records. This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. An illustration conducted through a study with a new water balance scheme shows the possibility of a stochastic evaluation associated with the stochastic behavior and various pathways that happen around the trench repository.

  13. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  14. High aspect ratio titanium nitride trench structures as plasmonic biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Repän, Taavi; Takayama, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    High aspect ratio titanium nitride (TiN) grating structures are fabricated by the combination of deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques. TiN is deposited at 500 ◦C on a silicon trench template. Silicon between vertical TiN layers is selectively etched...

  15. Thermo-mechanical modelling of arc-trench regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukel, P.J. van den; Wortel, R.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal structure of the shallow part of a subduction zone, i.e. the region between the trench and the volcanic line, is calculated with a finite difference method. Published heat flow measurements, in combination with rheological arguments and the distribution of interplate thrust earthquakes,

  16. From trench to governance: A necessary metamorphosis for hamas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    destroying the State of Israel, the neighbor on the other side of the hedgerow of attrition. The paper draws a distinction between HamasH (the home team that fought in the trenches) and HamasD (Hamas in the Diaspora) and recommends that HamasH should draw sufficiently from the intelligentsia in HamasD to run the

  17. A deep micro-trench on silica glass fabricated by laserinduced backside wet etching (LIBWE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Niino, Hiroyuki; Sato, Tadatake; Narazaki, Aiko; Kurosaki, Ryozo [Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    By using laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE), we have fabricated very deep micro-trenches in silica glass of 9-{mu}m width and 300-{mu}m depth (aspect ratio {approx} 33). In this paper, we present the details of fabricating the micro-trenches, and discuss why such a deep micro-trench is available by the LIBWE method.

  18. In situ respiration measurements of megafauna in the Kermadec Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnally, Clifton C.; Friedman, Jason R.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure metabolic rates of megafauna living in depths greater than 6000 m. Echinoderms, actinarians and a polychaete were captured by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and inserted into respiration chambers in situ at depths of 4049 m, 7140 m and 8074 m in the region of the Kermadec Trench SW Pacific Ocean. Hadal research has moved into a new frontier as technological improvements now allow for a meticulous investigation of trench ecology in depths greater than 6000 m. The development of an in situ respirometer for use in these studies was deployed in the Kermadec Trench to obtain the first ever rates of basal metabolic rates of hadal megafauna. Typical deep-sea experiments of individual animal physiology must deal with covarying factors of pressure, temperature, light and food supply in this study investigated the effects of pressure and increased food supply on overall animal metabolism. In the Kermadec Trench, holothurian respiration rates (n=4), 0.079±0.011 (mean±SE) μmol-O2 g-1 h-1, were higher than those captured at abyssal depths (n=2), 0.018±0.002 μmol-O2 g-1h-1, in the same region (p<0.001). When Q10 adjusted to a common temperature of 2.5 °C trench holothurian respiration rates ranged between 0.068 and 0.119 μmol-O2 g-1 h-1. Anemone respiration rates were remarkably similar between abyssal and hadal specimens, 0.110 and 0.111 μmol-O2 g-1 h-1, respectively. Our results on echinoderm respiration when corrected for temperature and mass fall below the slope regression when compared with other in situ measurements at shallower ocean depths.

  19. Ultrasonic investigation close to quantum critical point in YbTr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} (Tr: Co, Rh, and Ir)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Y; Kamiyama, T; Ito, K; Nakamura, M; Yoshizawa, M [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Saiga, Y [Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, HigashiHiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Kosaka, M [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Uwatoko, Y, E-mail: yoshiki@iwate-u.ac.j [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 227-8581 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    We performed ultrasonic measurements on high quality single crystals of the Yb-based heavy fermion compounds YbTr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} (Tr: Co, Rh and Ir) over a temperature range from 200 K to 0.5 K, which seem to be close to a quantum critical point (QCP). A sharp contrast of the temperature dependence of elastic constants was found at low temperature among the three compounds, reflecting the 4f electronic state stemmed from Yb ion. The results indicate that a crystalline electric field (CEF) effect seems to be dominant in the systems YbRh{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} and YbIr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} at low temperatures. On the other hand, the CEF effect is much less, but an additional effect would be dominant which is most probably ascribable to non Fermi liquid characteristics formed close to the QCP. We discuss briefly each 4f electronic state developed at the low temperatures and physical parameters relating to a renormalized band model in YbTr{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} in the framework of a deformation potential approximation.

  20. Intra- and intertrench variations in flexural bending of the Manila, Mariana and global trenches: implications on plate weakening in controlling trench dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Lin, Jian; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Yang, Hongfeng; Zhan, Wenhuan

    2018-02-01

    We conducted detailed analyses of a global array of trenches, revealing systematic intra- and intertrench variations in plate bending characteristics. The intratrench variations of the Manila and Mariana Trenches were analysed in detail as end-member cases of the relatively young (16-36 Ma) and old (140-160 Ma) subducting plates, respectively. Meanwhile, the intertrench variability was investigated for a global array of additional trenches including the Philippine, Kuril, Japan, Izu-Bonin, Aleutian, Tonga-Kermadec, Middle America, Peru, Chile, Sumatra and Java Trenches. Results of the analysis show that the trench relief (W0) and width (X0) of all systems are controlled primarily by the faulting-reduced elastic thickness near the trench axis (Tem) and affected only slightly by the initial unfaulted thickness (TeM) of the incoming plate. The reduction in Te has caused significant deepening and narrowing of trench valleys. For the cases of relatively young or old plates, the plate age could be a dominant factor in controlling the trench bending shape, regardless the variations in axial loadings. Our calculations also show that the axial loading and stresses of old subducting plates can vary significantly along the trench axis. In contrast, the young subducting plates show much smaller values and variations in axial loading and stresses.

  1. An ongoing large submarine landslide at the Japan trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, S.; Kasaya, T.; Miura, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with an active submarine landslide on a landward trench slope in the Japan trench. Studied area is located on the upper terrace ranging from 400 to 1200 m in water depth, off Sendai, northeast Japan. We have surveyed in detail the seabed topography using a multi narrow beam (hereafter MBES) and a subbottom profiler (hereafter SBP) during the cruise MR12-E02 of R/V Mirai. The survey lines were 12 lines in N-S, and 3 lines in E-W, and situated in the region from 141°45'E, 37°40'N to 142°33'E, 38°32'N. Moreover, we used multi-channel seismic profile by the cruise KR04-10 of R/V Kairei in the interpretation of the SBP results. In general, horseshoe-shaped depressions of about 100 km wide along the trench slope are arrayed along the Japan trench. It has thought that they were formed by large submarine landslides, but we could not understand critically the relationship between the depressions and the submarine landslides. Based on the survey results, we found signals of an active submarine landslide in the depression as follows. 1) We observed arcuate-shaped lineaments, which are sub-parallel to a horseshoe-shaped depression. The lineaments concentrate in the south region from 38°N at about 20 km wide. These lineaments are formed by deformation structures as anticlines, synclines and normal fault sense displacements. 2) Most of the synclines and anticlines are not buried to form the lineaments. 3) Normal faults cutting about 1 km deep are observed in a multi-channel seismic profile. The normal faults are located just below the arcuate-shaped lineaments, and are tilted eastward being the downslope direction. It indicates a large submarine landslide. We concluded that the arcuate-shaped lineaments were generated by surface sediment movement with the submarine landsliding. We think that the submarine landslide of about 20 km wide and about 1 km thick move continuously down the landward trench slope. This would be the formation process of the horseshoe

  2. Silicon Drift Detectors with the Drift Field Induced by PureB-Coated Trenches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Knežević

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Junction formation in deep trenches is proposed as a new means of creating a built-in drift field in silicon drift detectors (SDDs. The potential performance of this trenched drift detector (TDD was investigated analytically and through simulations, and compared to simulations of conventional bulk-silicon drift detector (BSDD configurations. Although the device was not experimentally realized, the manufacturability of the TDDs is estimated to be good on the basis of previously demonstrated photodiodes and detectors fabricated in PureB technology. The pure boron deposition of this technology allows good trench coverage and is known to provide nm-shallow low-noise p+n diodes that can be used as radiation-hard light-entrance windows. With this type of diode, the TDDs would be suitable for X-ray radiation detection down to 100 eV and up to tens of keV energy levels. In the TDD, the drift region is formed by varying the geometry and position of the trenches while the reverse biasing of all diodes is kept at the same constant voltage. For a given wafer doping, the drift field is lower for the TDD than for a BSDD and it demands a much higher voltage between the anode and cathode, but also has several advantages: it eliminates the possibility of punch-through and no current flows from the inner to outer perimeter of the cathode because a voltage divider is not needed to set the drift field. In addition, the loss of sensitive area at the outer perimeter of the cathode is much smaller. For example, the simulations predict that an optimized TDD geometry with an active-region radius of 3100 µm could have a drift field of 370 V/cm and a photo-sensitive radius that is 500-µm larger than that of a comparable BSDD structure. The PureB diodes on the front and back of the TDD are continuous, which means low dark currents and high stability with respect to leakage currents that otherwise could be caused by radiation damage. The dark current of the 3100-µm TDD

  3. Interim characterization report for the 300 Area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Wallace, R.W.; Aaberg, R.L.; Airhart, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Cline, C.S.; Dennison, D.I.; Freshley, M.D.; Heller, P.R.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains information on the results of the Hazardous Waste Ground-Water Monitoring Compliance Program characterization studies of wastes disposed of in the 300 Area process trenches. The characterization of the 300 Area process trenches has been conducted as part of an effort initiated in June 1985, when a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented. The characterization effort is part of a regulatory ground-water monitoring compliance program for hazardous chemicals on the Hanford Site. The characterization work described in this document represents an expanded ground-water monitoring compliance effort, and incorporates or refers to previous studies useful in characterizing the 300 Area. This document is primarily a compendium of technical information on the 300 Area; therefore, data interpretations are limited to the most obvious conclusions. Final conclusions will not be presented until the analysis of data is completed in September 1989. 48 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Subduction of the Daiichi Kashima Seamount in the Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, S.; Culotta, R.; Von Huene, R.

    1989-01-01

    In 1984-1985, the Kaiko consortium collected Seabeam, single-channel seismic and submersible sampling data in the vicinity of the Daiichi-Kashima seamount and the southern Japan trench. We performed a prestack migration of a Shell multichannel seismic profile, that crosses this area, and examined it in the light of this unusually diverse Kaiko dataset. Unlike the frontal structure of the northern Japan trench, where mass-wasting appears to be the dominant tectonic process, the margin in front of the Daiichi-Kashima shows indentation, imbrication, uplift and erosion. Emplacement of the front one-third of the seamount beneath the margin front occurs without accretion. We conclude that the Daiichi-Kashima seamount exemplifies an intermediate stage between the initial collision and subduction of a seamount at a continental margin. ?? 1989.

  5. Study of Reduced Graphene Oxide for Trench Schottky Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samihah Khairir, Nur; Rofei Mat Hussin, Mohd; Nasir, Iskhandar Md; Mukhter Uz-Zaman, A. S. M.; Fazlida Hanim Abdullah, Wan; Sabirin Zoolfakar, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the study of reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) for trench Schottky diode by replacing conventional metal layer that forms schottky contact with a nanostructured carbon thin film via Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) technique. The RGO was synthesis by chemical exfoliation in which modified Hummer's method was approached. It was then deposited on the trench schottky pattern substrate by pressurized spray coating. The sample was then characterized by FESEM, Raman Spectroscopy and I-V test. The results of FESEM and Raman showed good characteristics and well deposited nanostructures of RGO flakes. The two-point I-V test showed that the samples have a low turn-on voltage and a higher break-down voltage, which is better than the conventional schottky diode used in the market.

  6. Dynamics of magnetized plasma sheaths around a trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatami, M. M., E-mail: m-hatami@kntu.ac.ir [Physics Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, 15418-49611 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Considering a magnetized plasma sheath, the temporal evolution of the ion properties (the incident ion flux, the ion impact angle, and the incident ion dose) around a rectangular trench is studied numerically. Our results show that the ion flux along the bottom surface greatly reduces in the presence of magnetic field and its uniformity improves, but the magnetic field does not considerably affect the ion flux along the sidewall. In addition, the thickness of the plasma sheath increases by increasing the magnetic field while its conformality to the target surface reduces faster. Moreover, it is shown that any increase in the magnitude (inclination angle) of the magnetic field causes a decrease (an increase) in the angle of incidence of ions on the bottom and sidewall surfaces. Furthermore, in the presence of magnetic field, the ions strike nearly normal to the surface of the bottom while they become less oblique along the sidewall surface. In addition, contrary to the corners of the trench, it is found that the magnetic field greatly affects the incident ion dose at the center of the trench surfaces. Also, it is shown that the incident ion dose along the sidewall is the highest near the center of the sidewall in both magnetized and magnetic-free cases. However, uniformity of the incident ion dose along the sidewall is better than that along the bottom in both magnetized and unmagnetized plasma sheath.

  7. Control of paleoshorelines by trench forebulge uplift, Loyalty Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2013-07-01

    Unlike most tropical Pacific islands, which lie along island arcs or hotspot chains, the Loyalty Islands between New Caledonia and Vanuatu owe their existence and morphology to the uplift of pre-existing atolls on the flexural forebulge of the New Hebrides Trench. The configuration and topography of each island is a function of distance from the crest of the uplifted forebulge. Both Maré and Lifou are fully emergent paleoatolls upon which ancient barrier reefs form highstanding annular ridges that enclose interior plateaus representing paleolagoon floors, whereas the partially emergent Ouvea paleoatoll rim flanks a drowned remnant lagoon. Emergent paleoshoreline features exposed by island uplift include paleoreef flats constructed as ancient fringing reefs built to past low tide levels and emergent tidal notches incised at past high tide levels. Present paleoshoreline elevations record uplift rates of the islands since last-interglacial and mid-Holocene highstands in global and regional sea levels, respectively, and paleoreef stratigraphy reflects net Quaternary island emergence. The empirical uplift rates vary in harmony with theoretical uplift rates inferred from the different positions of the islands in transit across the trench forebulge at the trench subduction rate. The Loyalty Islands provide a case study of island environments controlled primarily by neotectonics.

  8. Color Image of Snow White Trenches and Scraping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image was acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 31st Martian day of the mission, or Sol 31 (June 26, 2008), after the May 25, 2008 landing. This image shows the trenches informally called 'Snow White 1' (left), 'Snow White 2' (right), and within the Snow White 2 trench, the smaller scraping area called 'Snow White 3.' The Snow White 3 scraped area is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep. The dug and scraped areas are within the diggiing site called 'Wonderland.' The Snow White trenches and scraping prove that scientists can take surface soil samples, subsurface soil samples, and icy samples all from one unit. Scientists want to test samples to determine if some ice in the soil may have been liquid in the past during warmer climate cycles. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver

  9. Análise epidemiológica de lesões no futebol de salão durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Seleções Sub 20 Análisis epidemiológico de las lesiones en el fútbol de salón durante el XV Campeonato Brasileño de Selecciones Sub 20 Epidemiologic analysis of injuries occurred during the 15th Brazilian Indoor Soccer (Futsal) Sub20 Team Selection Championship

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Nogueira Ribeiro; Leonardo Oliveira Pena Costa

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Vários autores têm investigado a incidência de lesões no futebol. Entretanto, poucos trabalhos têm analisado as lesões no Futebol de Salão. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a incidência, circunstâncias e características das lesões registradas no Futebol de Salão durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20. MÉTODOS: Fisioterapeutas ou médicos de todas as seleções participantes do XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20 responderam a um questionário...

  10. Strong impact of slight trench direction misalignment from [11\\bar{2}0] on deep trench filling epitaxy for SiC super-junction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Ryoji; Ji, Shiyang; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Kouketsu, Hidenori; Kawada, Yasuyuki; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Yonezawa, Yoshiyuki; Okumura, Hajime

    2017-04-01

    A trench filling epitaxial growth technique using hot-wall chemical vapor deposition with HCl gas has been developed for SiC super-junction (SJ) device fabrication. 2-6 kV class SJ devices require p/n column structures with depths of over 10 µm. However, rapid trench closure before the trench backfilling process is complete makes these structures difficult to realize. Stripe trenches that were intentionally inclined within ±2° on a surface plane towards the [11\\bar{2}0] direction were formed on an off-angled wafer, and the effects of trench direction misalignment from the off-direction were investigated. Slight trench direction misalignment was found to affect the tilt angle of the mesa top epi-layer strongly. Tilted growth on the mesa top reduced the filling rate at the trench bottom and caused void formation. When a wafer with high orientation-flat accuracy relative to the [11\\bar{2}0] direction was used, 25-µm-deep trench backfilling was successfully demonstrated.

  11. Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (∼12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

  12. Trench 'bathtubbing' and surface plutonium contamination at a legacy radioactive waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Timothy E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Hughes, Catherine E; Johansen, Mathew P; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry L; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Rowling, Brett; Zawadzki, Atun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (~12 Bq/L of (239+240)Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest (239+240)Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0-1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the 'bathtub' effect.

  13. Multiferroic and visible light photocatalytic properties of six-layered perovskite oxide Nd{sub 6}Ti{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 20}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xiangyi; Yang, Hongshun; Ruan, Keqing; Xu, Xiaoliang [University of Science and Technology of China, Key Laboratory of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and School of Physical Sciences, Hefei (China); Meng, Dechao [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Hefei (China)

    2017-04-15

    The layered perovskite-related oxide Nd{sub 6}Ti{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 20} was prepared by incorporating NdFeO{sub 3} in the host Nd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} using floating-zone melting technique. XRD and HRTEM results suggested that the material has a layered structure of n = 6 type. Nd{sub 6}Ti{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 20} exhibited spin glass-like behavior, and its magnetic behavior was affected by magnetic Nd{sup 3+} ions strongly at low temperature. The ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties were observed by magnetic and PFM measurements at the room temperature. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy revealed that the compound is a visible light absorbing photocatalyst with a direct band gap of 2.2 eV. In addition, the photocatalytic behaviors of bulk Nd{sub 6}Ti{sub 4}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 20} were evaluated by photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. (orig.)

  14. High Density Faraday Cup Array or Other Open Trench Structures and Method of Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Christopher A. (Inventor); Gilchrist, Kristin Hedgepath (Inventor); Stoner, Brian R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A detector array and method for making the detector array. The detector array includes a substrate including a plurality of trenches formed therein, and a plurality of collectors electrically isolated from each other, formed on the walls of the trenches, and configured to collect charged particles incident on respective ones of the collectors and to output from the collectors signals indicative of charged particle collection. In the detector array, adjacent ones of the plurality of trenches are disposed in a staggered configuration relative to one another. The method forms in a substrate a plurality of trenches across a surface of the substrate such that adjacent ones of the trenches are in a staggered sequence relative to one another, forms in the plurality of trenches a plurality of collectors, and connects a plurality of electrodes respectively to the collectors.

  15. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables...... is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration trenches using...... a 19. year rainfall time series from Copenhagen as input. The annual and single event stormwater runoff reduction from infiltration trenches was determined for 9 different scenarios that covered different soil conditions and infiltration trench dimensions. Monte Carlo simulations were used in order...

  16. Low heat flow from young oceanic lithosphere at the Middle America Trench off Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Minshull, T.A.; Bartolome, R.; Byrne, S.; Danobeitia, J.

    2005-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles across the Middle America Trench at 20°N show a high amplitude bottom simulating reflector interpreted as marking a phase transition between methane hydrate and free gas in the pore space of both accreted and trench sediments. We determine the depth of the hydrate-gas phase boundary in order to estimate the geothermal gradient and hence the heat flow beneath the trench and the frontal part of the accretionary wedge which overlies the downgoing plate. After correcti...

  17. Trench sampling report Salmon Site Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This report describes trench excavation and sample-collection activities conducted by IT Corporation (IT) as part of the ongoing Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study at the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE, 1992). During construction, operation, and closure of the site wastes of unknown composition were buried in pits on site. Surface-geophysical field investigations were conducted intermittently between November 1992 and October 1993 to identify potential waste-burial sites and buried metallic materials. The geophysical investigations included vertical magnetic gradient, electromagnetic conductivity, electromagnetic in-phase component, and ground-penetrating radar surveys. A number of anomalies identified by the magnetic gradiometer survey in the Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc., (REECo) pits area indicated buried metallic objects. All of the anomalies were field checked to determine if any were caused by surface features or debris. After field checking, 17 anomalies were still unexplained; trenching was planned to attempt to identify their sources. Between December 8, 1993, and December 17, 1993, 15 trenches were excavated and soil samples were collected at the anomalies. Samples were collected, placed in 250- and 500-milliliter (m{ell}) amber glass containers, and shipped on ice to IT Analytical Services (ITAS) in St. Louis, Missouri, using standard IT chain-of-custody procedures. The samples were analyzed for various chemical and radiological parameters. Data validation has not been conducted on any of the samples. During excavation and sampling, soil samples were also collected by IT for the MSDEQ and the Mississippi Department of Radiological Health, in accordance with their instructions, and delivered into their custody.

  18. Seepage through a hazardous-waste trench cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Water movement through a waste-trench cover under natural conditions at a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 to June 1984, using tensiometers, a moisture probe, and meteorological instruments. Four methods were used to estimate seepage: the Darcy, zero-flux plane, surface-based water-budget, and groundwater-based water-budget methods. Annual seepage estimates ranged from 48 to 216 mm (5-23% of total precipitation), with most seepage occurring in spring. The Darcy method, although limited in accuracy by uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity, was capable of discretizing seepage in space and time and indicated that seepage varied by almost an order of magnitude across the width of the trench. Lowest seepage rates occurred near the center of the cover, where seepage was gradual. Highest rates occurred along the edge of the cover, where seepage was highly episodic, with 84% of the total there being traced to wetting fronts from 28 individual storms. Limitations of the zero-flux-plane method were severe enough for the method to be judged inappropriate for use in this study.Water movement through a waste-trench cover under natural conditions at a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northwestern Illinois was studied from July 1982 to June 1984, using tensiometers, a moisture probe, and meteorological instruments. Four methods were used to estimate seepage: the Darcy, zero-flux plane, surface-based water-budget, and groundwater-based water-budget methods. Annual seepage estimates ranged from 48 to 216mm (5-23% of total precipitation), with most seepage occurring in spring. The Darcy method, although limited in accuracy by uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity, was capable of discretizing seepage in space and time and indicated that seepage varied by almost an order of magnitude across the width of the trench. Lowest seepage rates occurred near the center of the cover, where seepage was gradual. Highest

  19. 3-D visualisation of palaeoseismic trench stratigraphy and trench logging using terrestrial remote sensing and GPR - combining techniques towards an objective multiparametric interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderwind, S.; Mason, J.; Wiatr, T.; Papanikolaou, I.; Reicherter, K.

    2015-09-01

    Two normal faults on the Island of Crete and mainland Greece were studied to create and test an innovative workflow to make palaeoseismic trench logging more objective, and visualise the sedimentary architecture within the trench wall in 3-D. This is achieved by combining classical palaeoseismic trenching techniques with multispectral approaches. A conventional trench log was firstly compared to results of iso cluster analysis of a true colour photomosaic representing the spectrum of visible light. Passive data collection disadvantages (e.g. illumination) were addressed by complementing the dataset with active near-infrared backscatter signal image from t-LiDAR measurements. The multispectral analysis shows that distinct layers can be identified and it compares well with the conventional trench log. According to this, a distinction of adjacent stratigraphic units was enabled by their particular multispectral composition signature. Based on the trench log, a 3-D-interpretation of GPR data collected on the vertical trench wall was then possible. This is highly beneficial for measuring representative layer thicknesses, displacements and geometries at depth within the trench wall. Thus, misinterpretation due to cutting effects is minimised. Sedimentary feature geometries related to earthquake magnitude can be used to improve the accuracy of seismic hazard assessments. Therefore, this manuscript combines multiparametric approaches and shows: (i) how a 3-D visualisation of palaeoseismic trench stratigraphy and logging can be accomplished by combining t-LiDAR and GRP techniques, and (ii) how a multispectral digital analysis can offer additional advantages and a higher objectivity in the interpretation of palaeoseismic and stratigraphic information. The multispectral datasets are stored allowing unbiased input for future (re-)investigations.

  20. Análise epidemiológica de lesões no futebol de salão durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Seleções Sub 20 Análisis epidemiológico de las lesiones en el fútbol de salón durante el XV Campeonato Brasileño de Selecciones Sub 20 Epidemiologic analysis of injuries occurred during the 15th Brazilian Indoor Soccer (Futsal Sub20 Team Selection Championship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Nogueira Ribeiro

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Vários autores têm investigado a incidência de lesões no futebol. Entretanto, poucos trabalhos têm analisado as lesões no Futebol de Salão. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a incidência, circunstâncias e características das lesões registradas no Futebol de Salão durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20. MÉTODOS: Fisioterapeutas ou médicos de todas as seleções participantes do XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20 responderam a um questionário para investigar a ocorrência de lesões durante as partidas. A taxa de resposta foi de 100%. RESULTADOS: Um total de 32 lesões foi registrado durante as 23 partidas, com incidência de 1,39 lesão por partida ou 208,6 lesões por 1.000 horas/jogo. Aproximadamente 1 a 3 lesões por partida resultaram em afastamento de jogadores em partidas ou treinamentos. As lesões de contato eram predominantes em 65,62% (21 das 32 lesões e a maioria dessas lesões não resultou no afastamento dos jogadores. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo observou que a incidência das lesões durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20 foi semelhante à registrada em torneios de Futebol de Salão, mas superior aos achados em torneios de futebol, caracterizando a especificidade do esporte. Entretanto, circunstâncias e características são similares entre eles devido à semelhança de demanda do esporte.INTRODUCCIÓN: Varios autores han estado investigando la incidencia de lesiones en el fútbol. Sin embargo, pocos trabajos han estado analizando las lesiones en el fútbol de salón. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de analizar la incidencia, y las circunstancias, y características de las lesiones registradas en el fútbol de salón durante el XV Campeonato Brasileño de Fútbol de salón Sub 20. MÉTODOS: Médicos y/o fisioterapeutas del todos los participantes del XV Campeonato Brasileño de Fútbol de salón Sub 20 contestaron una encuesta

  1. The Incident in Trench A - Follow-up and Lessons

    CERN Multimedia

    Olga Beltramello; Peter Jenni

    An incident happened on 12th October during the dismounting of the HF truck platform in Trench A in the ATLAS cavern. Nobody was injured or in direct danger to be hurt, thanks in particular to the vigilance of the lifting operation crew. However, there is ample matter to reflect upon, and to recall safety measures applicable at any time in the cavern. What happened? During the lifting operation of a lateral platform from the orange HF Truck, used for example for the calorimeter assembly, one of the ~7 m long pillars fell on the access stairs into the ATLAS detector (sector 13). The standard operation to dismount the platform consisted in first unbolting the platform from its support pillars and removing it. Then, after securing a given pillar with the crane, this pillar is unbolted from the floor and removed. By mistake, this pillar was not bolted onto the floor, and fell when the platform was removed. Nobody was present in the trench during the lifting operation and the fall of the pillar. The contractor in...

  2. Seismic structure of the subducting seamounts on the trench axis: Erimo Seamount and Daiichi-Kashima Seamount, northern and southern ends of the Japan Trench

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nishizawa, Azusa; Kaneda, Kentaro; Watanabe, Naoko; Oikawa, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    We present detailed P-wave velocity models of subducting seamounts from two wide-angle seismic experiments across the Erimo Seamount and Daiichi-Kashima Seamount, northern and southern ends of the Japan Trench...

  3. Dynamic soil properties of some deep trenches in Mashhad city, NE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microtremor survey is achieved in order to evaluate the dynamical characteristics of surface layers. For this purpose, 13 trenches were selected and microtremor measurements were performed at the top and bottom of each trench. Floor spectral ratio (FRS) analysis was accomplished to obtain frequency and amplification of ...

  4. Silicon drift detectors with the drift field induced by pureB-coated trenches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanver, Lis Karen; Kneževi´c, Tihomir; Suligoj, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Junction formation in deep trenches is proposed as a new means of creating a built-in drift field in silicon drift detectors (SDDs). The potential performance of this trenched drift detector (TDD) was investigated analytically and through simulations, and compared to simulations of conventional

  5. Start-Up Performance of Ground-Water Recharge Trenches Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    trench system as an interim remedial action. The NBT was previ- ously deficient in its recharge functions, especially west of D Street, because of the...Phillips Supac 4 NP,* a 4-oz/yd 2 nonwoven polyester. Two observational piezometers were placed in each trench (Figure 2) and ten others were located

  6. Oblique subduction modelling indicates along-trench tectonic transport of sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Cristina; Gerya, Taras; Crispini, Laura; Federico, Laura; Capponi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Convergent plate margins are currently distinguished as 'accretional' or 'erosional', depending on the tendency to accumulate sediments, or not, at the trench. Accretion and erosion can coexist along the same margin and we have noticed that this mostly occurs where subduction is oblique. Here we show that at oblique subduction zones, sediments that enter the trench are first buried, and later migrate laterally parallel to the trench and at various depths. Lateral migration of sediments continues until they reach a physical barrier where they begin to accumulate. The accretionary wedge size decreases along the trench moving away from the barrier. We therefore suggest that the gradual variation of the accretionary wedge size and sediment amount at the trench along one single subduction zone, as observed in many active plate margins worldwide, can be explained by the lateral tectonic migration of sediments driven by obliquity of subduction as well.

  7. Single-mode Fabry-Perot laser with deeply etched slanted double trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Zhu, Zhongshu; Xi, Yanping; Han, Lin; Ke, Cheng; Pan, Yue; Huang, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    This work proposed and demonstrated a single-mode Fabry-Perot (FP) laser structure with a pair of deeply etched slanted trenches inside the cavity. We implemented the proposed mode selection scheme in conventional 1310 nm InAlGaAs/InP strained-layer multiple-quantum-well ridge waveguide FP laser diodes and obtained single-mode operation with a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) as high as 35 dB . The single-mode yield was approximately 55%, and other device performance measures such as the threshold and the slope efficiency were not greatly affected. Additionally, temperature cycling and aging tests show no exceptional disadvantages when compared with the performance of conventional FP lasers. Fiber-optic transmission tests show that the proposed device can send directly modulated 2.5 Gbps and 6.25 Gbps optical signals for distances of over 50 km in standard single-mode fiber. Thus, as a cost-effective solution, this device is promising as a replacement for conventional distributed feedback laser diodes in specific applications where single-mode operation is indispensable but precise control of the lasing wavelength and/or very high SMSR (e.g., > 40 dB ) are not required.

  8. Effect of additional elements on compositional modulated atomic layered structure of hexagonal Co{sub 80}Pt{sub 20} alloy films with superlattice diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinata, Shintaro [Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Research Fellowship Division Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Kojimachi Business Center Building, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Yamane, Akira; Saito, Shin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The effect of additional element on compositionally modulated atomic layered structure of hexagonal Co{sub 80}Pt{sub 20} alloy films with superlattice diffraction was investigated. In this study it is found that the addition of Cr or W element to Co{sub 80}Pt{sub 20} alloy film shows less deterioration of hcp stacking structure and compositionally modulated atomic layer stacking structure as compared to Si or Zr or Ti with K{sub u} of around 1.4 or 1.0 × 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} at 5 at.% addition. Furthermore, for O{sub 2} addition of O{sub 2} ≥ 5.0 × 10{sup −3} Pa to CoPt alloy, compositionally modulated atomic layer stacking structure will be deteriorated with enhancement of formation of hcp stacking structure which leads higher K{sub u} of 1.0 × 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3}.

  9. Effect of irradiation temperature on crystallization of {alpha}-Fe induced by He irradiations in Fe{sub 80}B{sub 20} amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San-noo, Toshimasa; Toriyama, Tamotsu; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Iijima, Hiroshi [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan); Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Isao

    1997-03-01

    Since amorphous alloys are generally highly resistant to irradiation and their critical radiation dose is an order of magnitude higher for Fe-B amorphous alloy than Mo-methods, these alloys are expected to become applicable as for fusion reactor materials. The authors investigated {alpha}-Fe crystallization in an amorphous alloy, Fe{sub 80}B{sub 20} using internal conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy. The amount of {alpha}-Fe component was found to increase by raising the He-irradiation dose. The target part was modified to enable He ion radiation at a lower temperature (below 400 K) by cooling with Peltier element. Fe{sub 80}B{sub 20} amorphous alloy was cooled to keep the temperature at 300 K and exposed to 40 keV He ion at 1-3 x 10{sup 8} ions/cm{sup 2}. The amount of {alpha}-Fe crystal in each sample was determined. The crystal formation was not observed for He ion radiation below 2 x 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}, but that at 3 x 10{sup 8} ions/ cm{sup 2} produced a new phase ({delta} +0.40 mm/sec, {Delta} = 0.89 mm/sec). The decrease in the radiation temperature from 430 to 300 K resulted to extremely repress the production of {alpha}-Fe crystal, suggesting that the crystallization induced by He-radiation cascade is highly depending on the radiation temperature. (M.N.)

  10. Groundwater monitoring plan for the 300 Area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.W.; Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    1995-05-23

    This document describes the groundwater monitoring program for the Hanford Site 300 Area Process Trenches (300 APT). The 300 APT are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) regulated unit. The 300 APT are included in the Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit No. WA890008967, and are subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring. This document describes a compliance monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the 300 APT. This plan describes the 300 APT monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the 300 APT. This plan will be used to meet groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the 300 APT becomes part of the Permit and through the postclosure care period until certification of final closure.

  11. A synthetic seismicity model for the Middle America Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Steven N.

    1991-01-01

    A novel iterative technique, based on the concept of fault segmentation and computed using 2D static dislocation theory, for building models of seismicity and fault interaction which are physically acceptable and geometrically and kinematically correct, is presented. The technique is applied in two steps to seismicity observed at the Middle America Trench. The first constructs generic models which randomly draw segment strengths and lengths from a 2D probability distribution. The second constructs predictive models in which segment lengths and strengths are adjusted to mimic the actual geography and timing of large historical earthquakes. Both types of models reproduce the statistics of seismicity over five units of magnitude and duplicate other aspects including foreshock and aftershock sequences, migration of foci, and the capacity to produce both characteristic and noncharacteristic earthquakes. Over a period of about 150 yr the complex interaction of fault segments and the nonlinear failure conditions conspire to transform an apparently deterministic model into a chaotic one.

  12. Design and analysis of high-power segmented-core trench-assisted Yb-free erbium doped fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Ankita; Rastogi, Vipul

    2017-10-01

    Limited power handling capacity of single mode fiber compels to design effective-single mode large-core fiber for high power amplifiers. This article proposes a 0.15 NA, large-mode-area, bend-insensitive, Yb-free EDFA for the selective amplification of fundamental mode. The fiber uses a leaky design to ensure fundamental-mode amplification by higher-order mode discrimination. The segmented-core design in the fiber helps in achieving large-mode-area. The annular segments and low index trench in the fiber control the leakage losses and gains of the modes. We show an EDFA design with 811 μm2 mode-area, 0.014 dB bending loss for 10 mm diameter loop at 1530 nm wavelength and highly selective single-mode output. Our calculations also show a linear increase in the output signal power with pump power with a slope efficiency of 52.8%.

  13. Effects of Source and Drain Resistances on Analytical Model Parameters for 20nm MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong Chul; Nakade, Yasunari; Hiroki, Akira; Inoue, Fumitaka; Tomiyama, Kenji

    In this work, the effects of source and drain resistances (RS, RD) on device characteristics are investigated for sub-20nm MOSFETs. The current driving capability is calculated for several structures such as planar bulk, SOI, and Multi gate MOSFETs by using the ITRS data. It is found that the degradation of the drain currents due to RS and RD becomes significant as the gate lengths are scale down to sub-20nm region. In order to investigate the effects of RS and RD on the device parameters such as the channel length modulation coefficient λ and the saturation drain current IDSAT, the drain currents are simulated by using the circuit simulation. The intrinsic MOSFET model parameters were extracted from the experimental ID-VD characteristic of 20nm nMOSFET. The source and drain resistances are changed from 0 to 100 ohm. It is found that the degradation of IDSAT due to RS and RD shows the linear gate voltage dependence. For the long channel MOSFET, the degradation of λ shows the linear gate voltage dependence. On the contrary, for the short channel MOSFET, the degradation of λ shows the little gate voltage dependence.

  14. The relationship between plate velocity and trench viscosity in Newtonian and power-law subduction calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott D.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between oceanic trench viscosity and oceanic plate velocity is studied using a Newtonian rheology by varying the viscosity at the trench. The plate velocity is a function of the trench viscosity for fixed Rayleigh number and plate/slab viscosity. Slab velocities for non-Newtonian rheology calculations are significantly different from slab velocities from Newtonian rheology calculations at the same effective Rayleigh number. Both models give reasonable strain rates for the slab when compared with estimates of seismic strain rate. Non-Newtonian rheology eliminates the need for imposed weak zones and provides a self-consistent fluid dynamical mechanism for subduction in numerical convection models.

  15. Temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of amorphous Co{sub 80-x}Er{sub x}B{sub 20} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touraghe, O.; Khatami, M. [LPMMAT, Universite Hassan II, Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, B.P. 5366, Route d' EL Jadida km-8, Casablanca (Morocco); Menny, A. [LPMMAT, Universite Hassan II, Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, B.P. 5366, Route d' EL Jadida km-8, Casablanca (Morocco); Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences et Technique de Nouakchott (Mauritania); Lassri, H. [LPMMAT, Universite Hassan II, Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, B.P. 5366, Route d' EL Jadida km-8, Casablanca (Morocco)], E-mail: lassrih@hotmail.com; Nouneh, K. [CENM/CNESTEN, Maamora Rabat (Morocco)

    2008-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of amorphous Co{sub 80-x}Er{sub x}B{sub 20} alloys with x=0, 3.9, 7.5 and 8.6 prepared by melt spinning in pure argon atmosphere was studied. All amorphous alloys investigated here are found to exhibit a resistivity minimum at low temperature. The electrical resistivity exhibits logarithmic temperature dependence below the temperature of resistivity minimum T{sub min}. In addition, the resistivity shows quadratic temperature behavior in the interval T{sub min}

  16. Structural relaxations in the bulk amorphous alloy Fe{sub 61}Co{sub 10}Ti{sub 3}Y{sub 6}B{sub 20}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Błoch, K., E-mail: 23kasia1@wp.pl; Nabiałek, M.; Gondro, J.

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents studies of annealing effect on the disaccommodation phenomenon in bulk amorphous alloy Fe{sub 61}Co{sub 10}Ti{sub 3}Y{sub 6}B{sub 20}. The investigated sample was prepared by suction-casting method in the form of rod. The annealing process has been performed at temperature well below the crystallisation temperature. The amorphous structure has been confirmed using X-ray diffractometer. The susceptibility and its disaccommodation were determined using completely automated set up. The disaccommodation curve was decomposed into three elementary processes, each of them was described by Gaussian distribution of relaxation times. The obtained results indicate that the disaccommodation phenomenon in studied alloy is related with directional ordering of atom pairs near the free volumes; this is in agreement with H. Kronmüller's theorem.

  17. A Novel Sub-20 V Contact Gate Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor with Fully Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Compatible Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Te Liang; Tsang Tsai, Ming; King, Ya Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a novel sub-20 V device which is called contact gate MOSFET (CGMOS) with fully CMOS logic compatible process is proposed and demonstrated. Comparing with lateral double diffusion MOSFET (LDMOS), CGMOS uses P substrate instead of N minus layer as drift region in logic process, and a contact on resistance protection oxide (RPO) layers to form an extra gate on the drain side of the channel region to provide a better gate control and reduce the surface field. This new device significantly rises up the breakdown voltage to 18 V with specific on-resistance 8.8 mΩ.mm2 in a small high voltage (HV) MOSFET area. Since there is no extra mask for creating the drift region or additional step for the wire bonding, CGMOS makes the integration of high voltage and logic circuits much simpler and area-saving.

  18. Fast recovery SOI PiN diode with multiple trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Minna; Ding, Desheng; Chen, Jian; Sun, Weifeng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a 500V SOI PiN lateral diode is proposed and investigated by simulations and experiments. The proposed structure features multiple deep-oxide trenches (MDOT) arranged in the silicon region. Two DOTs (T1 and T2) locating in the i-layer help to block the cathode-anode voltage (VCA), allowing the diode to shorten its i-layer length. With a similar breakdown voltage (BV) of 560V, the i-layer length is shortened from 47 μm for the conventional diode to 21.9 μm for the proposed MDOT diode. The shortened i-layer leads to a reduced number of stored carriers in the i-layer. Another DOT (T3) is inserted at the anode region of proposed MDOT diode and shorted with P+ anode. T3 acts as a vertical field plate, reshaping the electric potential distribution at the anode region and accelerating the depletion during the reverse recovery process. Thanks to the decreased number of the stored carriers and the accelerated depletion, the reverse recovery time (trr) of the proposed MDOT diode (211 ns) can be decreased by 56.7% compared with the conventional diode (487 ns) at the forward current density of 400 A/cm2 at T = 300 K. The proposed MDOT diode exhibits a better trade-off between forward voltage drop (VF) and reverse recovery time (trr) than the conventional and other reported diodes.

  19. Wavelength-dependent Crosstalk in Trench-Assisted Multi-Core Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2014-01-01

    Analytical expressions for wavelength-dependent crosstalk in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers are derived. The calculated results from the expressions agree well with the numerical simulation results based on finite element method....

  20. Oceanographic cruise Indian Ocean and Java Trench June 1969 (NODC Accession 7100908)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard H.M.A.S DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Java Trench and the Indian Ocean during...

  1. Oceanographic cruise: Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench, April - May 1969 (NODC Accession 7100914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard HMAS DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench...

  2. STUDY OF ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF NEW P-TYPE TRENCHED UMOSFET

    OpenAIRE

    Akansha Ephraim*, Neelesh Agrawal, Anil Kumar, A.K. Jaiswal

    2017-01-01

    In this paper p-type trenched UMOSFET was designed without super junction and constructed like any other conventional MOSFET. Characteristic curve was studied between drain current verses drain voltage and drain current verses gate voltage. The trench was designed under TCAD simulation tool Silvaco software using etching process. The specific channel length of the p-type UMOSFET has been concentrated as 0.9 microns. The device structures are designed using Silvaco Athena and characteristics w...

  3. Strain release at the trench during shallow slow slip: The example of Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Liu, Zhen; Davis, Earl E.; Schwartz, Susan Y.; Dixon, Timothy H.; Voss, Nick; Malservisi, Rocco; Protti, Marino

    2017-05-01

    The near-trench behavior of subduction megathrust faults is critical for understanding earthquake hazard and tsunami generation. The shallow subduction interface is typically located in unconsolidated sediments that are considered too weak to accumulate elastic strain. However, the spectrum of shallow fault slip behavior is still elusive, due in large part to the lack of near-field observations. Here we combine measurements from seafloor pressure sensors near the trench and an onshore GPS network in a time-dependent inversion to image the initiation and migration of a well-documented slow slip event (SSE) in 2007 at the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Our results show that the shallow SSE initiated on the shallow subduction interface at a depth of 15 km, where pore fluid pressure is inferred to be high, and propagated all the way to the trench. The migrating event may have triggered a second subevent that occurred 1 month later. Our results document the release of elastic strain at the shallow part of the subduction megathrust and suggest prior accumulation of elastic strain. In conjunction with near-trench shallow slow slip recently reported for the Hikurangi subduction zone and trench breaching ruptures revealed in some large earthquakes, our results suggest that near-trench strain accumulation and release at the shallower portions of the subduction interface is more common than previously thought.

  4. Investigation of the tensor analysing power T{sub 20} in the vector d+p→{sup 3}He+η reaction with the COSY-ANKE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenbrock, Michael Paul

    2016-07-01

    The work presented here is a contribution to the ongoing search for quasi-bound states between mesons and nuclei. Early theoretical predictions estimated that an η-meson may form a quasi-bound state with nuclei with a mass number of A≥12. Many measurements in this field have revealed evidence that such a state may indeed exist. More interestingly, it may already form at much lower mass numbers, e.g. between an η-meson and {sup 3}He nucleus. Of special note is an unpolarised measurement of the d+p→{sup 3}He+η reaction, which has been studied in unprecedented detail in the excess energy range -5 MeVsub 20}. The extracted values of T{sub 20} are compatible with a constant across this energy range. A linear fit revealed only a rather small possible energy dependence. Hence, the possible impact of the initial spin states on the extraction of the final state interaction was found to be of very little significance. Combining

  5. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests.

  6. Effect of Groundwater Table Rising and Slurry Reduction during Diaphragm Wall Trenching on Stability of Adjacent Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A.

    2015-09-01

    The process of diaphragm wall trenching normally affects the surrounding environment. The piles near a diaphragm wall trench are commonly affected by the trenching process as well. During trenching the slurry level and the natural groundwater level are assumed to be constant. However flooding may cause damage to the slurry trenches due to the increase of the groundwater table. Another possible scenario for the trench failure is due to reduction of the slurry level. The reduction of the slurry level could be due to the presence of cavities or a very coarse soil layer. Piles located near a trench could be affected greatly if the trench is subjected to reduction of slurry or increase of the groundwater level. This research focuses on studying numerically the stability of piles adjacent to the diaphragm wall during the trenching process, especially in cause of slurry reduction or increase of groundwater level. The slurry reduction were simulated numerically with the finite different analysis and compared with previous laboratory work. The increase of groundwater level is simulated for a case study in Giza, Egypt. Groundwater level was assumed to increase in the area. Piles are generally affected by the trenching process. The behaviour of the pile is related to its position from the slurry trench. The stability of the pile may not be affected greatly by a normal and successful trenching process. However slurry reduction or increase in the groundwater level may cause a great effect on the stability of the nearby piles. Trenching in general causes an increase in pile settlement, horizontal displacement and bending moment. The pile skin friction and end bearing are affected as well. The percentage of the change in slurry or groundwater levels affects piles deflection and bending moment.

  7. PLZT Electrooptic Ceramic Photonic Devices for Surface-Normal Operation in Trenches Cut Across Arrays of Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Katsuhiko

    2005-03-01

    Simple Pb_1-x La_x(Zr_y Ti_z)_1-x/4 O3 (PLZT) electrooptic ceramic photonic device arrays for surface-normal operation have been developed for application to polarization-controller arrays and Fabry-Pérot tunable filter arrays. These arrays are inserted in trenches cut across fiber arrays. Each element of the arrayed structure corresponds to one optical beam and takes the form of a cell. Each sidewall of the cell (width: 50-80 μm) is coated to form an electrode. The arrays have 16 elements at a pitch of 250 μm. The phase modulator has about 1 dB of loss and a half-wavelength voltage of 120 V. A cascade of two PLZT phase modulators (thickness: 300 μm), with each attached to a polyimide lambda/2 plate (thickness:15 μm), is capable of converting an arbitrary polarization to the transverse-electric (TE) or transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization. The response time is 1 μs. The Fabry-Pérot tunable filters have a thickness of 50 μm . The front and back surfaces of each cell are coated by 99%-reflective mirror. The free spectral range (FSR) of the filters is about 10 nm, tunable range is about 10 nm, loss is 2.2 dB, and finesse is 150. The tuning speed of these devices is high, taking only 1 μs.

  8. Diffuse scattering from an Al{sub 72}Ni{sub 20}Co{sub 8} decagonal quasicrystal on an order-disorder transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, H [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Defense Academy, 1-10-20 Hashirimizu, Yokosuka 239-8686 (Japan); Saitoh, H [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Ueno, T [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Nakao, H [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Matsuo, Y [Department of Physics, Nara Women' s University, Kitauoya-Higasi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Ohshima, K [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Matsumoto, H [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Defense Academy, 1-10-20 Hashirimizu, Yokosuka 239-8686 (Japan)

    2003-03-19

    Non-uniform distortion induced by superstructure domains has been observed during the ordering process of an order-disorder transformation in a single decagonal quasicrystal of Al{sub 72}Ni{sub 20}Co{sub 8}. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the fundamental reflections increased below the transformation temperature, T{sub c}. At the same time, the integrated intensity of the fundamental reflections varied drastically at T{sub c}. A small hysteresis was also observed in the temperature dependences of both the FWHM and the integrated intensity of the fundamental reflections. Peak broadening of the fundamental reflections is predominantly dependent on |G{sup par}| below T{sub c}. In addition, the weak dependence of the peak broadening with |G{sup perp}| is extracted from the observed FWHM of the fundamental reflections. After deconvolution, the FWHM of the fundamental reflections appears to be a linear combination of |G{sup par}| and |G{sup perp}|. Coexistence of the non-uniform distortion and of the random phason strain contributes to the ordering process below T{sub c}. The diffuse scattering from atomic short-range order (SRO) was distributed around the ideal positions of the superstructure reflections. The SRO diffuse scattering disappeared completely above T{sub c} + 10 K. In addition, a small hysteresis of the SRO diffuse scattering was found in the temperature cycle.

  9. Characterization of shallow trench isolation CMP process and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Helen; Zhang, ChunLei; Liu, JinBing; Liu, ZhengFang; Chen, Kuang Han; Gbondo-Tugbawa, Tamba; Ding, Hua; Li, Flora; Lee, Brian; Gower-Hall, Aaron; Chiu, Yang-Chih

    2016-03-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been a critical enabling technology in shallow trench isolation (STI), which is used in current integrated circuit fabrication process to accomplish device isolation. Excessive dishing and erosion in STI CMP processes, however, create device yield concerns. This paper proposes characterization and modeling techniques to address a variety of concerns in STI CMP. In the past, majority of CMP publications have been addressed on interconnect layers in backend- of-line (BEOL) process. However, the number of CMP steps in front-end-of-line (FEOL) has been increasing in more advanced process techniques like 3D-FinFET and replacement metal gate, as a results incoming topography induced by FEOL CMP steps can no longer be ignored as the topography accumulates and stacks up across multiple CMP steps and eventually propagating to BEOL layers. In this paper, we first discuss how to characterize and model STI CMP process. Once STI CMP model is developed, it can be used for screening design and detect possible manufacturing weak spots. We also work with process engineering team to establish hotspot criteria in terms of oxide dishing and nitride loss. As process technologies move from planar transistor to 3D transistor like FinFet and multi-gate, it is important to accurately predict topography in FEOL CMP processes. These incoming topographies when stacked up can have huge impact in BEOL copper processes, where copper pooling becomes catastrophic yield loss. A calibration methodology to characterize STI CMP step is developed as shown in Figure 1; moreover, this STI CMP model is validated from silicon data collected from product chips not used in calibration stage. Additionally, wafer experimental setup and metrology plan are instrumental to an accurate model with high predictive power. After a model is generated, spec limits and threshold to establish hotspots criteria can be defined. Such definition requires working closely with foundry

  10. A Numerical Study of the Screening Effectiveness of Open Trenches for High-Speed Train-Induced Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-hung Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used the 2D boundary element method in time domain to examine the screening effectiveness of open trenches on reducing vibration generated by a high-speed train. The parameters included configurations of the trench, train speed, the distance between the source and the trench, and the Poisson’s ratio of the soil. A reducing displacement level (in dB scale was defined and used to evaluate the screening effectiveness of a wave barrier. The maximal reducing displacement level reached 25 dB when an open trench was used as a wave barrier. The depth of an open trench is a main influential parameter of screening effectiveness. The cutoff frequency of the displacement spectrum increases with decreasing trench depth. The maximal screening effectiveness occurs when the depth is 0.3-0.4 Rayleigh wavelength. Using an open trench as a wave barrier can reduce 10–25 dB of vibration amplitude at frequencies between 30 and 70 Hz. A considerable increase in screening effectiveness of the open trench was observed from 30 to 70 Hz, which matches the main frequencies of vibration induced by Taiwan High Speed Rail. The influence of trench width on screening effectiveness is nonsignificant except for frequencies from 30 to 40 Hz. Poisson’s ratio has various effects on the reduction of vibration at frequencies higher than 30 Hz.

  11. Trench-parallel flow and seismic anisotropy in the Mariana and Andean subduction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Erik A; van Keken, Peter E

    2007-12-20

    Shear-wave splitting measurements above the mantle wedge of the Mariana and southern Andean subduction zones show trench-parallel seismically fast directions close to the trench and abrupt rotations to trench-perpendicular anisotropy in the back arc. These patterns of seismic anisotropy may be caused by three-dimensional flow associated with along-strike variations in slab geometry. The Mariana and Andean subduction systems are associated with the largest along-strike variations of slab geometry observed on Earth and are ideal for testing the link between slab geometry and solid-state creep processes in the mantle. Here we show, with fully three-dimensional non-newtonian subduction zone models, that the strong curvature of the Mariana slab and the transition to shallow slab dip in the Southern Andes give rise to strong trench-parallel stretching in the warm-arc and warm-back-arc mantle and to abrupt rotations in stretching directions that are accompanied by strong trench-parallel stretching. These models show that the patterns of shear-wave splitting observed in the Mariana and southern Andean systems may be caused by significant three-dimensional flow induced by along-strike variations in slab geometry.

  12. Three-dimensional laboratory modeling of the Tonga trench and Samoan plume interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druken, K. A.; Kincaid, C. R.; Pockalny, R. A.; Griffiths, R. W.; Hart, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Plume processes occurring near ridge centers (e.g. Iceland) or mid-plate (e.g. Hawaii) have been well studied; however, the behavior of a plume near a subducting plate is still poorly understood and may in fact differ from the typical expected plume surfacing patterns. We investigate how three-dimensional subduction-driven flow relates to the deformation and dispersal of nearby upwelling plume material and the associated geochemical spatial patterns, with site-specific comparisons to the Tonga trench and Samoan plume system. Eighteen plume-trench laboratory experiments were conducted with varied combinations of subduction motions (down-dip, trench rollback, slab steepening and back-arc extension) and plume parameters (position and temperature.) A phenolic plate and glucose syrup, with a temperature dependent viscosity, are used to model the slab and upper mantle, respectively. Hydraulic pistons control longitudinal, translational and steepening motions of the slab as a simplified kinematic approach to mimic dynamic experiments. Results show that the subduction-induced flow dominates the upwelling strength of the plume, causing a significant portion of the plume head to subduct before reaching the melt zone. The remaining material is entrained around the slab edge into the mantle wedge by the trench rollback-induced flow. The proportion of subducted verses entrained material is predominantly dependent on plume location (relative to the trench) and thermal strength, with additional effects from back-arc extension and plate steepening.

  13. Low heat flow from young oceanic lithosphere at the Middle America Trench off Mexico [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, Timothy A.; Bartolomé, Rafael; Byrne, Siobhán; Dañobeitia, Juanjo

    2005-10-01

    Seismic reflection profiles across the Middle America Trench at 20°N show a high amplitude bottom simulating reflector interpreted as marking a phase transition between methane hydrate and free gas in the pore space of both accreted and trench sediments. We determine the depth of the hydrate-gas phase boundary in order to estimate the geothermal gradient and hence the heat flow beneath the trench and the frontal part of the accretionary wedge which overlies the downgoing plate. After correction for sedimentation, heat flow values in the trench and through the accretionary wedge are only about half of the values predicted by plate cooling models for the 10 Ma subducting lithosphere. There is no systematic correlation between heat flow in the accretionary wedge and distance from the trench. A comparison with heat flow predicted by a simple analytical model suggests that there is little shear heating from within or beneath the wedge, despite the high basal friction suggested by the large taper angle of the wedge. The geothermal gradient varies systematically along the margin and is negatively correlated with the frontal slope of the wedge. Some local peaks may be attributed to channelised fluid expulsion.

  14. A study of SU-8 photoresist in deep trenches for silicon-embedded microinductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforge, Elias; Rabot, Caroline; Wang, Ningning; Pavlovic, Zoran; McCloskey, Paul; O'Mathúna, Cian

    2016-10-01

    Epoxy-based resist SU-8 is widely used in the development and fabrication of high-aspect-ratio (HAR) MEMS structures. It has proven to be a suitable photoresist combining thick layer coating and good adhesion on silicon substrates as well as possessing good mechanical and chemical stability. However, the trend towards minia- turization and increasing packaging density has pushed the demand for challenging micro-machining processes. As an example, a novel design of a MEMS microinductor requires a dielectric permanent layer coated in deep silicon trenches in order to insulate copper windings from the magnetic material deposited in these trenches. This requires the development of a photolithography process which enables the coating of a void-free layer filling the trenches. In this paper, the use of thick SU-8 photoresist for filling deep silicon trenches is investigated. Different SU-8 formulations are analyzed, processed and results are compared. As a result, an optimized process is developed to achieve void-free filled trenches and a uniform planar layer above them, with near vertical sidewall patterns.

  15. Power trench gate MOSFET with an integrated 6-pack configuration for a 3-phase inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jong-Il; Koo, Jin-Gun; Cho, Doo-Hyung; Park, Kun-Sik; Yang, Yil-Suk; Kim, Sang-Gi

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new 6-pack power module for a 3-phase inverter that is integrated with the six trench gate double diffused metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (TDMOS) on a single chip. An integration of each power device is performed through a trench isolation technique using deep reactive-ion etching trench technologies. Through this new technology, the integrated power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) produces a high current of above 30 A at a gate bias of 10 V. In addition, each trench power MOSFET (1-pack) has a minimum specific on-resistance of 21 mohm.cm2 and a typical breakdown voltage of 95 V. The trench isolation provides good isolation up to 120 V. The measurement results show that this 6-pack structure can successfully be integrated with other analog/driver integrated circuit on a single chip. Furthermore, to monitor the operating current of the MOSFET under an inverter-operating condition, sensing FET is integrated a FET into the main MOSFET source region without compromising either the area or the operation of the MOSFET.

  16. Three-dimensional Finite Elements Method simulation of Total Ionizing Dose in 22 nm bulk nFinFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzikyriakou, Eleni, E-mail: ec3g12@soton.ac.uk; Potter, Kenneth; Redman-White, William; De Groot, C.H.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Simulation of Total Ionizing Dose using the Finite Elements Method. • Carrier generation, transport and trapping in the oxide. • Application in three-dimensional bulk FinFET model of 22 nm node. • Examination of trapped charge in the Shallow Trench Isolation. • Trapped charge dependency of parasitic transistor current. - Abstract: Finite Elements Method simulation of Total Ionizing Dose effects on 22 nm bulk Fin Field Effect Transistor (FinFET) devices using the commercial software Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD is presented. The simulation parameters are extracted by calibrating the charge trapping model to experimental results on 400 nm SiO{sub 2} capacitors irradiated under zero bias. The FinFET device characteristics are calibrated to the Intel 22 nm bulk technology. Irradiation simulations of the transistor performed with all terminals unbiased reveal increased hardness up to a total dose of 1 MRad(SiO{sub 2}).

  17. Close-range geophotogrammetric mapping of trench walls using multi-model stereo restitution software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, J.A.; Taylor, E.M.; Schilling, S.P.

    1991-06-01

    Methods for mapping geologic features exposed on trench walls have advanced from conventional gridding and sketch mapping to precise close-range photogrammetric mapping. In our study, two strips of small-format (60 {times} 60) stereo pairs, each containing 42 photos and covering approximately 60 m of nearly vertical trench wall (2-4 m high), were contact printed onto eight 205 {times} 255-mm transparent film sheets. Each strip was oriented in a Kern DSR15 analytical plotter using the bundle adjustment module of Multi-Model Stereo Restitution Software (MMSRS). We experimented with several systematic-control-point configurations to evaluate orientation accuracies as a function of the number and position of control points. We recommend establishing control-point columns (each containing 2-3 points) in every 5th photo to achieve the 7-mm Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) accuracy required by our trench-mapping project. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Simple analytical expression for crosstalk estimation in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2014-01-01

    to the one with normal step-index structures can then be written by a simple expression. Comparison with numerical simulations confirms that the obtained analytical expression has very good accuracy for crosstalk estimation. The crosstalk properties in trench-assisted multi-core fibers, such as crosstalk......An analytical expression for the mode coupling coe cient in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers is derived, which has a sim- ple relationship with the one in normal step-index structures. The amount of inter-core crosstalk reduction (in dB) with trench-assisted structures compared...... dependence on core pitch and wavelength-dependent crosstalk, can be obtained by this simple analytical expression....

  19. Optimized shielded-gate trench MOSFET technology for high-frequency, high-efficiency power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Ashok; Sarkar, Tirthajyoti; Sapp, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Shielded-gate trench-MOSFETs yield superior performance compared to conventional gate trench devices by allowing higher doping density in the drift region and providing a `shielding effect' for the gate by placing an intermediate electrode between gate and drain. However, further design optimizations can be done for a shieldedgate trench-MOSFET to improve performance parameters particularly suited for next-generation high-frequency computing power supply applications and they have been outlined in this article. Channel optimization, substrate thinning and intrinsic gate resistance reduction (by layout enhancements) have been discussed along with their impact on cost-performance benefit on the device. Further, effects of these design optimizations on the power loss and efficiency of a high-frequency switching converter have been demonstrated by mixed device-circuit simulations.

  20. Characterisation of a neutron diffraction detector prototype based on the Trench-MWPC technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, J. C.; Clergeau, J. F.; Cuccaro, S.; Guérard, B.; Mandaroux, N.; Marchal, J.; Pentenero, J.; Platz, M.; Van Esch, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Trench Multi-Wire-Proportional-Chamber is a new type of MWPC which has been designed to fulfill the requirements of the 2D curved neutron detector under development for the XtremeD neutron diffractometer, under construction at ILL. In this design, anode wires are mounted orthogonally to a stack of metallic cathode plates which are insulated from each other by ceramic spacers. A row of teeth is spark-eroded along the edge of the cathode plates so that anode wires appear to be stretched along trenches machined across a segmented cathode plane. This design was tested on a prototype detector module mounted in a vessel filled with a mixture of 3He-Ar-CO2 at 7 bar. The detector configuration as well as measurements performed on this prototype at ILL neutron test beam line are presented. Results show that the Trench-MWPC design provides uniform amplification gain across the detection area despite the absence of the top cathode wires used to balance the electric field in standard Cathode-Anode-Cathode MWPC configurations. The presence of cathode trench side-walls surrounding anode wires minimises the spread of neutron-induced charge across electrodes, allowing for detector operation at reduced amplification gain without compromising the signal to noise per electrode. Pulse-height spectra acquired under various neutron flux conditions demonstrated that the Trench-MWPC design minimises space-charge effects, thanks to its low amplification gain combined with the fast collection of ions by cathode trench side-walls surrounding anode wires. Measurements also showed that this space-charge effect reduction results in a high local count-rate of ~100 kHz at 10% count loss when irradiating the detector with a small 5 mm × 5 mm neutron beam.

  1. Further Evidence for Medieval Faulting along the Puerto Rico Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Spiske, M.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Has the Antilles Subduction Zone produced thrust or outer-rise earthquakes east of Hispaniola? An affirmative answer is suggested by tiered evidence for overwash 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench. The evidence comes from Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 200 km east-northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico. PREVIOUS FINDINGS* suggested that a medieval overwash event had greater geologic effects at Anegada than did a Lisbon(?) event, and that both events outrank recent storms. The medieval overwash, in AD 1200-1450, dislodged brain corals from a reef, moved them as much as 500 m across a shallow subtidal flat, and scattered them as solitary boulders as much as 1000 m inland. Gentler overwash in 1650-1800, called Lisbon(?) because it may represent the 1755 tsunami, laid down a sheet of sand and island-derived shells as much as 1500 m from the north shore. A recent hurricane of category 4 left no durable geologic record other than sandy fans within 40 m of the south shore. NEW FINDINGS reinforce the ranking medieval > Lisbon(?) > storm: (1) The medieval event washed ashore marine shells that the Lisbon(?) event did not. An articulated marine bivalve (Codakia orbicularis), probably deposited live, is part of an overwash fan 400 m inland from Windlass Bight. The shell dates to the same time window as the medieval coral boulders. Additional articulated Codakia shells and a conch shell adjoin the buried base of one of these coral boulders 1500 m south of the fringing reef from which the coral was probably derived. (2) Lisbon(?) overwash used breaches that the medieval event had cut through beach ridges of the north shore. The re-use is marked by sand: on the muddy floor of a partly filled breach, on an organic soil in another such breach, and on a pre-existing fan south of an area of beach-ridge dissection. The buried organic soil, inset into a old breach, is 500 m inland from an area, near Cow Wreck High Point, where young beach ridges may have been breached for the first

  2. Large trench-parallel gravity variations predict seismogenic behavior in subduction zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Teh-Ru Alex; Simons, Mark

    2003-08-01

    We demonstrate that great earthquakes occur predominantly in regions with a strongly negative trench-parallel gravity anomaly (TPGA), whereas regions with strongly positive TPGA are relatively aseismic. These observations suggest that, over time scales up to at least 1 million years, spatial variations of seismogenic behavior within a given subduction zone are stationary and linked to the geological structure of the fore-arc. The correlations we observe are consistent with a model in which spatial variations in frictional properties on the plate interface control trench-parellel variations in fore-arc topography, gravity, and seismogenic behavior.

  3. Conductive Oxides Trench Structures as Hyperbolic Metamaterials in Mid-infrared Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    ,2]. Moreover plasmonics for mid-infrared offer unique applications such as bio-sensing, thermal imaging and quest for novel materials and structures has been continuing [3]. In this report we show that vertical trench structures made of, for example, aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) or other transparent conductive...... oxides can function as hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) for the mid-infrared wavelength region. We fabricated a probe sample by a combination of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and dry etch techniques. We templated a Si wafer with deep UV photolithography and made trenches by deep reactive ion etching...

  4. High performance trench MOS barrier Schottky diode with high-k gate oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Dong-Yuan; Zhu, Jun; Zhao, Yi; Cai, Yin-Fei; Shi, Yi; Zheng, You-Liao

    2015-07-01

    A novel trench MOS barrier Schottky diode (TMBS) device with a high-k material introduced into the gate insulator is reported, which is named high-k TMBS. By simulation with Medici, it is found that the high-k TMBS can have 19.8% lower leakage current while maintaining the same breakdown voltage and forward turn-on voltage compared with the conventional regular trench TMBS. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00607), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61106089 and 61376097), and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LR14F040001).

  5. Laboratory Investigation of Expansion and Venting and Plug Response in the MX Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    expan1SiOll all(] venting of tle trench and on the pIUg /trench interaoLtin. ’The 1/26-scale fiber-reinforced concrete trencth mode IS Were two...cntused v’’l iit to oc dur sooiiur and with less roof displacement. Tile p ressli re f-or Ites t 21 1i3 onlV tiate~Ld since no0 gageU eted~tA at the Piug

  6. High power 1060-nm super large vertical cavity semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shaoyang; Zhai, Teng; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruikang; Lu, Dan; Ji, Chen

    2014-11-01

    High power single-mode ridge waveguide 1060-nm semiconductor lasers are reported. The lasers consist of compressively strained double InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells and a GaAs/AlGaAs separate confinement vertical structure. A super large vertical optical cavity is employed to have a low internal loss, large optical spot size and low vertical optical divergence angle. The material composition and thickness of waveguide layers and claddings layer are optimized systematically. The active layer is detuned from center of the waveguide and thickness of cladding layers is optimized to guaranty single mode lasing of the large optical cavity. The large vertical cavity laser structure with thickness of 4 μm allows the lasers have a low internal loss of less than 0.6 /cm, a large optical spot size about 1μm and a vertical divergence angle about 20 degree. For lateral optical confinement, a double trench ridge waveguide is employed to maintain single-lateral-mode operation. Based on the optimization, 1.5 W continue wave optical power is achieved for broad area lasers with 1mm longitude cavity length. Narrow stripe ridge waveguide lasers of 1mm cavity length with single mode current and optical power of 700 mA and 340 mW is obtained. Suggestions for further improvements in terms of single mode power and applications of the high power semiconductors are discussed.

  7. 3 CFR 8335 - Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unacceptable threat to human health or safety or to the marine environment and admitting of no other feasible... of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument 8335 Proclamation 8335 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009 Proc. 8335 Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine...

  8. The potential influence of subduction zone polarity on overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2007-01-01

    A geodynamic model exists, the westward lithospheric drift model, in which the variety of overriding plate deformation, trench migration and slab dip angles is explained by the polarity of subduction zones. The model predicts overriding plate extension, a fixed trench and a steep slab dip for

  9. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Characterization of strain in sub-100 nm silicon transistors by convergent-beam electron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng

    As silicon devices shrink further beyond the 65 nm technology node, strain is increasingly important for the fabrication and operation of nano-devices. According to the latest International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, however, the detection and mapping of strain at the required nanometer spatial resolution has yet to be achieved. The project is to evaluate the convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) technique in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) as a nanoscale strain metrology. In this work, by using energy-filtered CBED under scanning TEM (STEM) mode, we have successfully measured strain in two types of sub-100 nm semiconductor structures: 90 nm node and 65 nm node shallow trench isolation (STI) structures, and a 65 nm node locally strained p-type metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (P-MOSFET, or PMOS) featuring SiGe source and drain (S/D). In the 90 nm STI structures, the strain is generally less than 0.1%. Nevertheless, CBED is sensitive enough to tell the strain difference in two 90 nm STI structures with different oxide trench filling conditions. In the 65 nm STI structure, the strain tensors at different positions around the oxide trench filling are measured. The experimental results are compared with finite element modeling based on isotropic elasticity theory. A large discrepancy is found between experiments and simulation, which suggests that a more sophisticated model is necessary for accurate modeling, and more importantly that CBED strain measurements can be used to check the applicability of models at nanometer scale. In the 65 nm node uniaxially strained PMOS, the lattice parameters of silicon at a distance of 25 nm to 55nm below the gate are measured. It is found that at 25 below the gate, the major stress component, 1.1 GPa, is compressive along the source-drain axis. It is also noticed that in the strained silicon area, all three diagonal components of the strain tensor are compressive. Thus the CBED strain

  11. HED-TIE: A wafer-scale approach for fabricating hybrid electronic devices with trench isolated electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sreetama; Bülz, Daniel; Solonenko, Dmytro; Reuter, Danny; Deibel, Carsten; Hiller, Karla; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Salvan, Georgeta

    2017-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid electronic devices (HEDs) offer opportunities for functionalities that are not easily obtainable with either organic or inorganic materials individually. In the strive for down-scaling the channel length in planar geometry HEDs, the best results were achieved with electron beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography. Their application on the wafer level is, however, cost intensive and time consuming. Here, we propose trench isolated electrode (TIE) technology as a fast, cost effective, wafer-level approach for the fabrication of planar HEDs with electrode gaps in the range of 100 nm. We demonstrate that the formation of the organic channel can be realized by deposition from solution as well as by the thermal evaporation of organic molecules. To underline one key feature of planar HED-TIEs, namely full accessibility of the active area of the devices by external stimuli such as light, 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS)-pentacene/Au HED-TIEs are successfully tested for possible application as hybrid photodetectors in the visible spectral range.

  12. Brevibacterium oceanic sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment of the Chagos Trench, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhadra, B.; Raghukumar, C.; Pindi, P.K.; Shivaji, S.

    Two bacterial strains, designated BBH5 and BBH7 sup(T), were isolated from a deep-sea sediment sample collected from the Chagos Trench of the Indian Ocean (11 degrees 6 minutes S 72 degrees 31 minutes E). Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence...

  13. Large Mode Area Single Trench Fiber for 2 mu m Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Deepak; Sahu, Jayanta K.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of single trench fibers has been investigated using finite-element method at 2 mu m wavelength. Numerical investigations show that an effective single mode operation for large effective area between 3000-4000 mu m(2) and 2000-3000 mu m(2) can be achieved at similar to 40 and similar t...

  14. Paleoseismic investigations along the Peel Boundary Fault : Geological setting, site selection and trenching results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M. van den; Vanneste, K.; Dost, B.; Lokhorst, A.; Eijk, M. van; Verbeeck, K.

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of a multidisciplinary approach we have unraveled the palaeo-earthquake history of a trenched section across the Peel Boundary Fault. The area shows at present one of the largest contrasts in relative motion on both sides of the fault on the basis of repeated levelling. The geological

  15. Ship motion effects in CTD-data from weakly stratified waters of the Puerto Rico trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    Shipborne SBE 911plus Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD)-casts have been made to maximum 7220 m in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). In PRT-waters from 5500 m and deeper and specifically below the 6500 m transition to the hadal-zone, the vertical density stratification is found very weak, with

  16. Geophysical characteristics of the Ninetyeast Ridge–Andaman island arc/trench convergent zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, C.; Gireesh, R.; Chand, S.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Rao, D.G.

    at about the same latitude where the NER seems to be converging upon the island arc. Seismic reflection data indicate that the NER is very close to the trench. Flexural modeling of the gravity anomalies for the subducting Indian ocean lithosphere, loaded...

  17. Design of homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers based on analytical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Tu, Jiajing; Saitoh, Kunimasa

    2016-01-01

    We present a design method of homogeneous trench-assisted multicore fibers (TA-MCFs) based on an analytical model utilizing an analytical expression for the mode coupling coefficient between two adjacent cores. The analytical model can also be used for crosstalk (XT) properties analysis, such as ...

  18. The black silicon method VI: high aspect ratio trench etching for MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Henricus V.; de Boer, Meint J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1996-01-01

    Etching high aspect ratio trenches (HART's) in silicon is becoming increasingly important for MEMS applications. Currently, the most important technique is dry reactive ion etching (RIE). This paper presents solutions for the most notorious problems during etching HART's: tilting and the aspect

  19. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaschott, L.J.

    1995-06-16

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility.

  20. Adhesion Testing of Firebricks from Launch Pad 39A Flame Trench after STS-124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Curran, Jerome P.

    2009-01-01

    Adhesion testing was performed on the firebricks in the flame trench of Launch Complex 39A to determine the strength of the epoxy/firebrick bond to the backing concrete wall. The testing used an Elcometer 110 pneumatic adhesion tensile testing instrument (PATTI).

  1. Light extinction and scattering from individual and arrayed high-aspect-ratio trenches in metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar

    2016-01-01

    for a two-dimensional scatterer. We construct a simple resonator model which predicts the wavelength-dependent extinction, scattering, and absorption cross section of the trench and compare the model findings with full numerical simulations. Both extinction and scattering cross sections are mainly...

  2. Past seismic slip-to-the-trench recorded in Central America megathrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Paola; Spagnuolo, Elena; Aretusini, Stefano; Di Toro, Giulio; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Tsutsumi, Akito; Nielsen, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    The 2011 Tōhoku-Oki earthquake revealed that co-seismic displacement along the plate boundary megathrust can propagate to the trench. Co-seismic slip to the trench amplifies hazards at subduction zones, so its historical occurrence should also be investigated globally. Here we combine structural and experimental analyses of core samples taken offshore from southeastern Costa Rica as part of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 344, with three-dimensional seismic reflection images of the subduction zone. We document a geologic record of past co-seismic slip to the trench. The core passed through a less than 1.9-million-year-old megathrust frontal ramp that superimposes older Miocene biogenic oozes onto late Miocene-Pleistocene silty clays. This, together with our stratigraphic analyses and geophysical images, constrains the position of the basal decollement to lie within the biogenic oozes. Our friction experiments show that, when wet, silty clays and biogenic oozes are both slip-weakening at sub-seismic and seismic slip velocities. Oozes are stronger than silty clays at slip velocities of less than or equal to 0.01 m s-1, and wet oozes become as weak as silty clays only at a slip velocity of 1 m s-1. We therefore suggest that the geological structures found offshore from Costa Rica were deformed during seismic slip-to-the-trench events. During slower aseismic creep, deformation would have preferentially localized within the silty clays.

  3. Initial stage oxidation on nano-trenched Si(1 0 0) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Liu, Yi-Lun; Izumi, Satoshi; Chen, Xue-Feng; Zhai, Zhi; Tian, Shao-Hua

    2018-01-01

    As the size of an electronic element shrinks to nanoscale, trench design of Si strongly influences the performance of related semiconductor devices. By reactive force field molecular dynamics (ReaxFF MD) simulation, the initial stage oxidation on nano-trenched Si(1 0 0) angled 60°, 90°, 120°, 150° under temperatures from 300 K to 1200 K has been studied. Inhomogeneous oxidation at the convex–concave corners of the Si surface was observed. In general, the initial oxidation process on the Si surface was that, firstly, the O atoms ballistically transported into surface, then a high O concentration induced compressive stress at the surface layers, which prevented further oxidation. Compared to the concave corner, the convex one contacted a larger volume of oxygen at the very beginning stage, leading an anisotropic absorption of O atoms. Afterwards, a critical compression was produced at both the convex and concave corners to limit the oxidation. As a result, an inhomogeneous oxide film grew on nano-trenched Si. Meanwhile, due to enhanced O transport and compression relaxation by increasing temperature, the inhomogeneous oxidation was more obvious under 1200 K. These present results explained the observed experimental phenomena on the oxidation of non-planar Si and provided an aspect on the design of nano-trenched electronic components in the semiconductor field.

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  5. A low on-resistance triple RESURF SOI LDMOS with planar and trench gate integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Rong; Yao, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Zheng-Yuan; Jiang, Yong-Heng; Zhou, Kun; Wang, Pei; Wang, Yuan-Gang; Lei, Tian-Fei; Zhang, Yun-Xuan; Wei, Jie

    2012-06-01

    A low on-resistance (Ron,sp) integrable silicon-on-insulator (SOI) n-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) is proposed and its mechanism is investigated by simulation. The LDMOS has two features: the integration of a planar gate and an extended trench gate (double gates (DGs)); and a buried P-layer in the N-drift region, which forms a triple reduced surface field (RESURF) (TR) structure. The triple RESURF not only modulates the electric field distribution, but also increases N-drift doping, resulting in a reduced specific on-resistance (Ron,sp) and an improved breakdown voltage (BV) in the off-state. The DGs form dual conduction channels and, moreover, the extended trench gate widens the vertical conduction area, both of which further reduce the Ron,sp. The BV and Ron,sp are 328 V and 8.8 mΩ·cm2, respectively, for a DG TR metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) by simulation. Compared with a conventional SOI LDMOS, a DG TR MOSFET with the same dimensional device parameters as those of the DG TR MOSFET reduces Ron,Sp by 59% and increases BV by 6%. The extended trench gate synchronously acts as an isolation trench between the high-voltage device and low-voltage circuitry in a high-voltage integrated circuit, thereby saving the chip area and simplifying the fabrication processes.

  6. Characterization and modeling of atomic layer deposited high-density trench capacitors in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matters-Kammerer, M.K.; Jinesh, K.B.; Rijks, T.G.S.M.; Roozeboom, F.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed electrical analysis of multiple layer trench capacitors fabricated in silicon with atomic-layer-deposited Al 2O 3 and TiN is presented. It is shown that in situ ozone annealing of the Al 2O 3 layers prior to the TiN electrode deposition significantly improves the electric properties of

  7. Pre-Earthquake Paleoseismic Trenching in 2014 Along a Mapped Trace of the West Napa Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R. S.; Dawson, T. E.; Mareschal, M.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoseismic trenching in July 2014 across a previously mapped trace of the West Napa fault in eastern Alston Park (EAP) was undertaken with NEHRP funding as part of an effort to better characterize activity of the fault for regional seismic hazard assessments, and as part of an Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning (APEFZ) evaluation. The trench was excavated across a prominent escarpment that had been interpreted by others to represent evidence of Holocene fault activity, based on faults logged in an ~1-m-deep natural drainage exposure. Our trench was located ~3 m south of the drainage exposure and encompassed the interpreted fault zone, and beyond. The trench exposed the same surficial units as the natural exposure, as well as additional Pleistocene and older stratigraphy at depth. Escarpment parallel channeling was evident within deposits along the base of the slope. Faulting was not encountered, and is precluded by unbroken depositional contacts. Our preferred interpretation is that the escarpment in EAP is a result of fluvial and differential erosion, which is consistent with existence of channels along the base of the escarpment and a lack of faulting. The location of surface rupture of the South Napa Earthquake (SNE) of 8/24/14 occurred on fault strands south and west of this study and crosses Alston Park approximately 800 m west of our trench site, at its nearest point. Pre- and post-earthquake UAVSAR from NASA's JPL been useful in identifying major and minor ruptures of the SNE. Based on the imagery, a subtle lineament has been interpreted upslope from the trench. However, field observations along this feature yielded no visible surface deformation and the origin of this lineament is uncertain. The fault rupture pattern expressed by the SNE, as reflected by detailed field mapping and UAVSAR imagery, provides a unique opportunity to better understand the complex nature of the West Napa fault. Our study illustrates the value of subsurface investigations as

  8. Investigating the degradation mechanisms caused by the TID effects in 130 nm PDSOI I/O NMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Chao, E-mail: pengchao@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, Guangzhou 510610 (China); Hu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zhengxuan [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, Guangzhou 510610 (China); Huang, Huixiang; Ning, Bingxu; Bi, Dawei [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-06-01

    This paper evaluates the radiation responses of 3.3 V I/O NMOSFETs from 130 nm partially-depleted silicon-on-insulator (PDSOI) technology. The data obtained from {sup 60}Co ionizing radiation experiments indicate that charge trapped in the shallow trench isolation, particularly at the bottom region of the trench oxide, should be the dominant contributor to the off-state drain-to-source leakage current under ON bias. The body doping profile and device dimension are two key factors affecting the performance degradation of the PDSOI transistors after radiation. Significant front gate threshold voltage shift is observed in the T-shape gate device, which is well known as the Radiation Induced Narrow Channel Effect (RINCE). The charge trapped in the buried oxide can induce large threshold voltage shift in the front gate transistor through coupling effect in the low body doping device. The coupling effect is evaluated through three-dimensional simulation. A degradation of the carrier mobility which relates to shallow trench isolation (STI) oxide trapped charge in the narrow channel device is also discussed. - Highlights: • STI and BOX have different contributions to the TID responses of PDSOI NMOSFETs. • Body doping profile and device dimensions are two key factors affecting TID effect. • Mobility degradation in narrow channel device relates to STI oxide trapped charge.

  9. DOSE ASSESSMENT OF THE FINAL INVENTORIES IN CENTER SLIT TRENCHES ONE THROUGH FIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.; Hamm, L.; Smith, F.

    2011-05-02

    In response to a request from Solid Waste Management (SWM), this study evaluates the performance of waste disposed in Slit Trenches 1-5 by calculating exposure doses and concentrations. As of 8/19/2010, Slit Trenches 1-5 have been filled and are closed to future waste disposal in support of an ARRA-funded interim operational cover project. Slit Trenches 6 and 7 are currently in operation and are not addressed within this analysis. Their current inventory limits are based on the 2008 SA and are not being impacted by this study. This analysis considers the location and the timing of waste disposal in Slit Trenches 1-5 throughout their operational life. In addition, the following improvements to the modeling approach have been incorporated into this analysis: (1) Final waste inventories from WITS are used for the base case analysis where variance in the reported final disposal inventories is addressed through a sensitivity analysis; (2) Updated K{sub d} values are used; (3) Area percentages of non-crushable containers are used in the analysis to determine expected infiltration flows for cases that consider collapse of these containers; (4) An updated representation of ETF carbon column vessels disposed in SLIT3-Unit F is used. Preliminary analyses indicated a problem meeting the groundwater beta-gamma dose limit because of high H-3 and I-129 release from the ETF vessels. The updated model uses results from a recent structural analysis of the ETF vessels indicating that water does not penetrate the vessels for about 130 years and that the vessels remain structurally intact throughout the 1130-year period of assessment; and (5) Operational covers are included with revised installation dates and sets of Slit Trenches that have a common cover. With the exception of the modeling enhancements noted above, the analysis follows the same methodology used in the 2008 PA (WSRC, 2008) and the 2008 SA (Collard and Hamm, 2008). Infiltration flows through the vadose zone are

  10. Benchmarking Exercises To Validate The Updated ELLWF GoldSim Slit Trench Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. A.; Hiergesell, R. A.

    2013-11-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) results of the 2008 Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008) sensitivity/uncertainty analyses conducted for the trenches located in the EArea LowLevel Waste Facility (ELLWF) were subject to review by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) (LFRG, 2008). LFRG comments were generally approving of the use of probabilistic modeling in GoldSim to support the quantitative sensitivity analysis. A recommendation was made, however, that the probabilistic models be revised and updated to bolster their defensibility. SRS committed to addressing those comments and, in response, contracted with Neptune and Company to rewrite the three GoldSim models. The initial portion of this work, development of Slit Trench (ST), Engineered Trench (ET) and Components-in-Grout (CIG) trench GoldSim models, has been completed. The work described in this report utilizes these revised models to test and evaluate the results against the 2008 PORFLOW model results. This was accomplished by first performing a rigorous code-to-code comparison of the PORFLOW and GoldSim codes and then performing a deterministic comparison of the two-dimensional (2D) unsaturated zone and three-dimensional (3D) saturated zone PORFLOW Slit Trench models against results from the one-dimensional (1D) GoldSim Slit Trench model. The results of the code-to-code comparison indicate that when the mechanisms of radioactive decay, partitioning of contaminants between solid and fluid, implementation of specific boundary conditions and the imposition of solubility controls were all tested using identical flow fields, that GoldSim and PORFLOW produce nearly identical results. It is also noted that GoldSim has an advantage over PORFLOW in that it simulates all radionuclides simultaneously - thus avoiding a potential problem as demonstrated in the Case Study (see Section 2.6). Hence, it was concluded that the follow

  11. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Seismic evidence for a slab tear at the Puerto Rico Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Hallie E.; Pulliam, Jay; ten Brink, Uri S.; López-Venegas, Alberto M.

    2013-01-01

    The fore-arc region of the northeast Caribbean plate north of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands has been the site of numerous seismic swarms since at least 1976. A 6 month deployment of five ocean bottom seismographs recorded two such tightly clustered swarms, along with additional events. Joint analyses of the ocean bottom seismographs and land-based seismic data reveal that the swarms are located at depths of 50–150 km. Focal mechanism solutions, found by jointly fitting P wave first-motion polarities and S/P amplitude ratios, indicate that the broadly distributed events outside the swarm generally have strike- and dip-slip mechanisms at depths of 50–100 km, while events at depths of 100–150 km have oblique mechanisms. A stress inversion reveals two distinct stress regimes: The slab segment east of 65°W longitude is dominated by trench-normal tensile stresses at shallower depths (50–100 km) and by trench-parallel tensile stresses at deeper depths (100–150 km), whereas the slab segment west of 65°W longitude has tensile stresses that are consistently trench normal throughout the depth range at which events were observed (50–100 km). The simple stress pattern in the western segment implies relatively straightforward subduction of an unimpeded slab, while the stress pattern observed in the eastern segment, shallow trench-normal tension and deeper trench-normal compression, is consistent with flexure of the slab due to rollback. These results support the hypothesis that the subducting North American plate is tearing at or near these swarms. The 35 year record of seismic swarms at this location and the recent increase in seismicity suggest that the tear is still propagating.

  13. Trench-breaching afterslip following deeper coseismic slip of the 2012 Mw 7.6 Costa Rica earthquake constrained by near-trench pressure and land-based geodetic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianhaozhe; Davis, Earl E.; Wang, Kelin; Jiang, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Large rupture of the shallowest portion of subduction thrust faults (megathrusts), such as during the 2011 moment magnitude (Mw) 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, can generate the most devastating tsunamis. However, it remains unclear whether such trench-breaching rupture is typical of other subduction earthquakes. The main difficulty in answering this question is the common lack of near-trench geodetic monitoring in subduction zones worldwide. Seafloor and sub-seafloor fluid pressure measurements at two closely located borehole observatories in the Middle America trench have provided clear evidence for the absence of trench-breaching rupture during the 2012 Mw 7.6 Costa Rica earthquake, and for the presence of substantial trench-breaching afterslip at slow rates after the rupture (Davis et al., 2015). In this study, we compare postseismic seafloor pressure change at the trench with coastal Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) displacements. The same temporal characteristics of the deformation at the trench and coastal sites indicate that both offshore and onshore deformation were the consequence of afterslip that occurred over a wide spatial range updip of the rupture. By determining the co- and post-seismic slip distributions and inferring the associated shear stress changes on the megathrust, we show that the mechanical behaviour varies in the dip direction. The slip behaviour of the shallow megathrust at Costa Rica is consistent with conventional conceptual models, and contrasts with the behaviour of the shallowest megathrust during the Tohoku-oki event.

  14. Análise epidemiológica de lesões no futebol de salão durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Seleções Sub 20

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,Rodrigo Nogueira; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Vários autores têm investigado a incidência de lesões no futebol. Entretanto, poucos trabalhos têm analisado as lesões no Futebol de Salão. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a incidência, circunstâncias e características das lesões registradas no Futebol de Salão durante o XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20. MÉTODOS: Fisioterapeutas ou médicos de todas as seleções participantes do XV Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol de Salão Sub 20 responderam a um questionário...

  15. Magnetoimpedance studies on urine treated Co{sub 66}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 7}B{sub 20} ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotagiri, Ganesh [Advanced Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Markandeyulu, G., E-mail: mark@iitm.ac.in [Advanced Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Doble, Mukesh; Nandakumar, V. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Magnetoimpedance (MI) response of Co{sub 66}Ni{sub 7}Si{sub 7}B{sub 20} ribbons treated with artificial urine with protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), artificial urine without protein BSA and healthy male urine was studied as a function of time of incubation. The maximum MI [(MI){sub m}] values of the ribbons treated with artificial urine without protein (RTAU) after 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of incubation are 30% (at 4 MHz), 15% (at 5 MHz), 14% (at 10 MHz) and 8% (at 13 MHz) respectively. On the other hand, the respective (MI){sub m} values of the ribbons treated with artificial urine with protein (RTAUP) are 33% (at 4 MHz), 25% (at 5 MHz), 20% (at 8 MHz) and 15% (12 MHz). However (MI){sub m} values of the ribbons treated with healthy male urine (RTHMU) after 4 h, 5 h, 10 h and 15 h of incubation are 71% (at 3 MHz), 57% (at 3 MHz), 25% (at 6 MHz) and 25% (at 5 MHz), respectively. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) values of RTAU after 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of incubation are 71 emu/g, 65 emu/g, 63 emu/g and 60 emu/g respectively whereas, the respective M{sub s} values of RTAUP are 73 emu/g, 69 emu/g, 67 emu/g and 64 emu/g. The M{sub s} values of RTHMU after 4 h, 5 h, 10 h and 15 h of incubation are 96 emu/g, 90 emu/g, 75 emu/g and 75 emu/g respectively. The decrease in M{sub s} and (MI){sub m} values in RTAU and RTAUP compared to as-quenched ribbon is related to the amounts of various elements etched out from the ribbons and increased surface roughness. The M{sub s} and (MI){sub m} values of RTHMU are seen to have increased after 4 h and 5 h of incubation, due to strain relaxation through removal of strain developed during rapid quenching of the ribbons. On the other hand, the M{sub s} and (MI){sub m} values of RTHMU after 10 h and 15 h have decreased due to deterioration of the surface of the ribbons and thus, increase in magnetic (surface) anisotropy. The decrease in (MI){sub m} and M{sub S} of RTAU with the time of incubation are more rapid compared to that

  16. 3D-AFM enhancement for CD metrology dedicated to lithography sub-28-nm node requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucher, J.; Rana, N.; Dezauzier, C.

    2010-03-01

    With the continuous shrinkage of feature dimensions on IC in the semiconductor industry, the measurement uncertainty is becoming one of the major components that have to be controlled in order to guarantee sufficient production yield. Already at the R&D level, we have to cope up with the accurate measurements of sub-40nm dense trenches and contact holes coming from 193 immersion lithography or E-Beam lithography. By using top-down CD-SEM it is currently impossible to extract profile information. Moreover, electron proximity effect leads to non-negligible CD bias in the final measurements. To enable measurement of challenging dimensions with better measurement and reduced measurement uncertainty we have explored and fine tuned an alternative 3D-AFM mode (so-called DT mode) for CD measurements purpose. Theoretically, this mode is supposed to be dedicated only for height measurement but for certain applications it could be extended to reach the nanometer scale accuracy of CD-measurements employing certain optimized scan parameters. In this paper, we will present and discuss results obtained related to the use of this particular mode for CD measurement purpose versus conventional 3D-AFM CD Mode that shows important limitations for aggressive trenches dimensions measurements. We will also present some results related to the use of advanced 3D-AFM tips (typically of 28nm diameter) that have been used with the enhanced DT mode parameters. Example of applications will be shown with typical sub-45nm trenches measurements dedicated to advanced lithography process development that will demonstrate that we have succeed to push ahead the limit of the 3D-AFM technology in measuring the tight dimensions that would allow to continue its use for current and upcoming technology nodes. Finally, we introduce the concept of hybrid metrology in order to smartly use the benefit of reference metrology (i.e 3D-AFM) through the optimization of CD-SEM algorithm that could be used for example

  17. Visualizing a plant defense and insect counterploy: alkaloid distribution in Lobelia leaves trenched by a plusiine caterpillar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Craig B; Dussourd, David E; Garimella, Umadevi

    2009-06-01

    Insects that feed on plants protected by latex canals often sever leaf veins or cut trenches across leaves before feeding distal to the cuts. The insects thereby depressurize the canals and reduce latex exudation at their prospective feeding site. How the cuts affect the distribution and concentration of latex chemicals was not known. We modified a microwave-assisted extraction technique to analyze the spatial distribution of alkaloids in leaves of Lobelia cardinalis (Campanulaceae) that have been trenched by a plusiine caterpillar, Enigmogramma basigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We produced sharp two dimensional maps of alkaloid distribution by microwaving leaves to transfer alkaloids to TLC plates that were then sprayed with Dragendorff's reagent to visualize the alkaloids. The leaf prints were photographed and analyzed with image processing software for quantifying alkaloid levels. A comparison of control and trenched leaves documented that trenching reduces alkaloid levels by approximately 50% both distal and proximal to the trench. The trench becomes greatly enriched in alkaloids due to latex draining from surrounding areas. Measurements of exudation from trenched leaves demonstrate that latex pressures are rapidly restored proximal, but not distal to the trench. Thus, the trench serves not only to drain latex with alkaloids from the caterpillar's prospective feeding site, but also to isolate this section, thereby preventing an influx of latex from an extensive area that likely extends beyond the leaf. Microwave-assisted extraction of leaves has potential for diverse applications that include visualizing the impact of pathogens, leaf miners, sap-sucking insects, and other herbivores on the distribution and abundance of alkaloids and other important defensive compounds.

  18. Seismic structure of the subducting seamounts on the trench axis: Erimo Seamount and Daiichi-Kashima Seamount, northern and southern ends of the Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, A.; Kaneda, K.; Watanabe, N.; Oikawa, M.

    2009-03-01

    We present detailed P-wave velocity models of subducting seamounts from two wide-angle seismic experiments across the Erimo Seamount and Daiichi-Kashima Seamount, northern and southern ends of the Japan Trench. Common characteristics of the velocity models of the seamounts are that the maximum crustal thicknesses of the seamounts are 12-17 km thicker than a typical oceanic crust and that Pn velocities beneath the seamounts are approximately 7.7 km/s, i.e., slower then those of the neighboring area. These features are very similar to the crustal models for the seamounts produced by the Cretaceous off-ridge volcanism on the Pacific Basin.

  19. 193 nm photodissociation of acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balko, B. A.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1991-06-01

    The product translational energy distribution P(ET) for acetylene photodissociation at 193 nm was obtained from the time-of-flight spectrum of the H atom fragments. The P(ET) shows resolved structure from the vibrational and electronic excitation of the C2H fragment; comparison of the translational energy release for given excited states of C2H with the known energy levels of these states gives D0(HCC-H) = 131.4 + or - 0.5 kcal/mol. This value is in agreement with that determined previously in this group from analogous studies of the C2H fragment and with the latest experimental and theoretical work. The high resolution of the experiment also reveals the nature of C2H internal excitation. A significant fraction of the H atoms detected at moderate laser power were from the secondary dissociation of C2H. The P(ET) derived for this channel indicates that most of the C2 is produced in excited electronic states.

  20. 193 nm photodissociation of acetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, B.A.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y.T. (Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Berkeley, California 94720 (USA))

    1991-06-15

    The product translational energy distribution {ital P}({ital E}{sub {ital T}}) for acetylene photodissociation at 193 nm was obtained from the time-of-flight spectrum of the H atom fragments. The {ital P}({ital E}{sub {ital T}}) shows resolved structure from the vibrational and electronic excitation of the C{sub 2}H fragment; comparison of the translational energy release for given excited states of C{sub 2}H with the known energy levels of these states gives {ital D}{sub 0}(HCC--H)=131.4{plus minus}0.5 kcal/mol. This value is in agreement with that determined previously in this group from analogous studies of the C{sub 2}H fragment and with the latest experimental and theoretical work. The high resolution of the experiment also reveals the nature of C{sub 2}H internal excitation. A significant fraction of the H atoms detected at moderate laser power were from the secondary dissociation of C{sub 2}H. The {ital P}({ital E}{sub {ital T}}) derived for this channel indicates that most of the C{sub 2} is produced in excited electronic states.

  1. Large-scale trench-normal mantle flow beneath central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M. C.; Rümpker, G.; Wölbern, I.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the anisotropic properties of the fore-arc region of the central Andean margin between 17-25°S by analyzing shear-wave splitting from teleseismic and local earthquakes from the Nazca slab. With partly over ten years of recording time, the data set is uniquely suited to address the long-standing debate about the mantle flow field at the South American margin and in particular whether the flow field beneath the slab is parallel or perpendicular to the trench. Our measurements suggest two anisotropic layers located within the crust and mantle beneath the stations, respectively. The teleseismic measurements show a moderate change of fast polarizations from North to South along the trench ranging from parallel to subparallel to the absolute plate motion and, are oriented mostly perpendicular to the trench. Shear-wave splitting measurements from local earthquakes show fast polarizations roughly aligned trench-parallel but exhibit short-scale variations which are indicative of a relatively shallow origin. Comparisons between fast polarization directions from local earthquakes and the strike of the local fault systems yield a good agreement. To infer the parameters of the lower anisotropic layer we employ an inversion of the teleseismic waveforms based on two-layer models, where the anisotropy of the upper (crustal) layer is constrained by the results from the local splitting. The waveform inversion yields a mantle layer that is best characterized by a fast axis parallel to the absolute plate motion which is more-or-less perpendicular to the trench. This orientation is likely caused by a combination of the fossil crystallographic preferred orientation of olivine within the slab and entrained mantle flow beneath the slab. The anisotropy within the crust of the overriding continental plate is explained by the shape-preferred orientation of micro-cracks in relation to local fault zones which are oriented parallel to the overall strike of the Andean range. Our

  2. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches. FY 1988 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E. C.; Spalding, B. P.; Lee, S. Y.; Hyder, L. K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  3. Investigation of the layout and optical proximity correction effects to control the trench etching process on 4H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoung, Sinsu; Jung, Eun-Sik; Sung, Man Young

    2017-07-01

    Although trench gate and super-junction technology have micro-trench problems when applied to the SiC process due to the material characteristics. In this paper, area effects are analyzed from the test element group with various patterns and optical proximity correction (OPC) methods are proposed and analyzed to reduce micro-trenches in the SiC trench etching process. First, the loading effects were analyzed from pattern samples with various trench widths (Wt). From experiments, the area must limited under a proper size for a uniform etching profile and reduced micro-trenches because a wider area accelerates the etch rate. Second, the area effects were more severely unbalanced at corner patterns because the corner pattern necessarily has an in-corner and out-corner that have different etching areas to each other. We can balance areas using OPC patterns to overcome this. Experiments with OPC represented improved micro-trench profile from when comparing differences of trench depth (Δdt) at out corner and in corner. As a result, the area effects can be used to improve the trench profile with optimized etching process conditions. Therefore, the trench gate and super-junction pillar of the SiC power MOSFET can have an improved uniform profile without micro-trenches using proper design and OPC.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Slow slip near the trench at the Hikurangi subduction zone, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Laura M; Webb, Spahr C; Ito, Yoshihiro; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Hino, Ryota; Henrys, Stuart; Schwartz, Susan Y; Sheehan, Anne F

    2016-05-06

    The range of fault slip behaviors near the trench at subduction plate boundaries is critical to know, as this is where the world's largest, most damaging tsunamis are generated. Our knowledge of these behaviors has remained largely incomplete, partially due to the challenging nature of crustal deformation measurements at offshore plate boundaries. Here we present detailed seafloor deformation observations made during an offshore slow-slip event (SSE) in September and October 2014, using a network of absolute pressure gauges deployed at the Hikurangi subduction margin offshore New Zealand. These data show the distribution of vertical seafloor deformation during the SSE and reveal direct evidence for SSEs occurring close to the trench (within 2 kilometers of the seafloor), where very low temperatures and pressures exist. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Recurring and triggered slow-slip events near the trench at the Nankai Trough subduction megathrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Eiichiro; Saffer, Demian M; Kopf, Achim J; Wallace, Laura M; Kimura, Toshinori; Machida, Yuya; Ide, Satoshi; Davis, Earl

    2017-06-16

    The discovery of slow earthquakes has revolutionized the field of earthquake seismology. Defining the locations of these events and the conditions that favor their occurrence provides important insights into the slip behavior of tectonic faults. We report on a family of recurring slow-slip events (SSEs) on the plate interface immediately seaward of repeated historical moment magnitude (Mw) 8 earthquake rupture areas offshore of Japan. The SSEs continue for days to several weeks, include both spontaneous and triggered slip, recur every 8 to 15 months, and are accompanied by swarms of low-frequency tremors. We can explain the SSEs with 1 to 4 centimeters of slip along the megathrust, centered 25 to 35 kilometers (km) from the trench (4 to 10 km depth). The SSEs accommodate 30 to 55% of the plate motion, indicating frequent release of accumulated strain near the trench. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Uniform lateral etching of tungsten in deep trenches utilizing reaction-limited NF3 plasma process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofuji, Naoyuki; Mori, Masahito; Nishida, Toshiaki

    2017-06-01

    The reaction-limited etching of tungsten (W) with NF3 plasma was performed in an attempt to achieve the uniform lateral etching of W in a deep trench, a capability required by manufacturing processes for three-dimensional NAND flash memory. Reaction-limited etching was found to be possible at high pressures without ion irradiation. An almost constant etching rate that showed no dependence on NF3 pressure was obtained. The effect of varying the wafer temperature was also examined. A higher wafer temperature reduced the threshold pressure for reaction-limited etching and also increased the etching rate in the reaction-limited region. Therefore, the control of the wafer temperature is crucial to controlling the etching amount by this method. We found that the uniform lateral etching of W was possible even in a deep trench where the F radical concentration was low.

  7. Source of high tsunamis along the southernmost Ryukyu trench inferred from tsunami stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masataka; Kitamura, Akihisa; Tu, Yoko; Ohashi, Yoko; Imai, Takafumi; Nakamura, Mamoru; Ikuta, Ryoya; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Shishikura, Masanobu

    2018-01-01

    Four paleotsunamis deposits are exposed in a trench on the coastal lowland north of the southern Ryukyu subduction zone trench. Radiocarbon ages on coral and bivalve shells show that the four deposits record tsunamis date from the last 2000 yrs., including a historical tsunami with a maximum run-up of 30 m in 1771, for an average recurrence interval of approximately 600 yrs. Ground fissures in a soil beneath the 1771 tsunami deposit may have been generated by stronger shaking than recorded by historical documents. The repeated occurrence of the paleotsunami deposits supports a tectonic source model on the plate boundary rather than a nontectonic source model, such as submarine landslides. Assuming a thrust model at the subduction zone, the seismic coupling ratio may be as low as 20%.

  8. A Generic Safety Assessment Model for a Trench Type LILW Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn-Myoung; Choi, Hee-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This program is ready for a total system performance assessment and is able to deterministically and probabilistically evaluate the nuclide release from a repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal circumstances, disruptive events, and scenarios that can occur after a failure of waste packages with associated uncertainty. Despite the conceptual design of a trench type LILW repository system, all parameter values associated with the repository system were assumed for the time being, and the generic model developed through this study should be helpful because the evaluation of such releases is very important. A simple and effective model for a safety assessment of a conceptual trench repository system, in which an LILW that arises from a nuclear power plant and other sources, has been developed. The computer program based on this model has also been developed as a GoldSim template using the commercial GoldSim development tool.

  9. Meiofauna towards the South Sandwich Trench (750 6300 m), focus on nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Sandra; Vermeeren, Hannelore; Vanreusel, Ann

    2004-07-01

    Meiobenthos (excluding foraminifers) from the South Sandwich Trench was studied in sediment samples collected by multiple core (MUC) or multiple grab (MG). Sampling stations were chosen along a depth transect that covered the continental slope and abyssal plain towards the trench (water depths from 747 to 6319 m). Total abundance and biomass of meiobenthos ranged between 354 and 1675 ind. 10 cm -2, and between 16.3 and 80.8 μg C 10 cm -2, respectively. Standing stock decreased, though not linearly, with increasing water depth. Biomasses and densities were situated above the world ocean's regression line of meiobenthic stocks against water depth, and higher on the trench floor (354-930 ind 10 cm -2, 18.7 μg C 10 cm -2 at 6300 m) compared to most other oceans' trench regions. This observation confirms earlier results from the Antarctic continental margins that Antarctic meiofauna is characterised by dense populations in which nematodes predominate over the other taxonomic groups (87-98% of total abundance). Taxonomic investigations at genus level revealed that Chromadoridae, Monhysteridae, Desmodoridae, Desmoscolecidae, Xyalidae and Cyatholaimidae were dominant. Most of the nematode genera (in total 94) occurred in all depths, with only a slight distinction between the "shallow" ( Daptonema, Dichromadora and Molgolaimus preferentially at 750-2300 m) and "deep" (with Tricoma preferentially from 3000 m on). The "shallow"communities were comparable to those from the Weddell Sea continental margin; the sediments at 2300-6300 m harboured in big lines similar compositions as abyssal and trench communities worldwide. Two main morph clusters were distinguished among the South Sandwich Trench nematodes: plump nematodes, with average L:W=9, belonging to the taxonomic similar selective deposit-feeding genera of the Desmoscolecida, and comparable slender nematodes ( L:W=26; biomass size class -4 to -2) such as Monhystera, Acantholaimus, Daptonema, Dichromadora, Molgolaimus

  10. Thermocouples fabricated on trench sidewall in microfluidic channel bonded with film cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Shibata, Masahiro; Kumagai, Shinya; Sasaki, Minoru

    2015-03-01

    Thermocouples on a trench sidewall fronting a flow are fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) photolithography. The conventional thermocouples on the wafer top surface are also fabricated. The performances of these devices are compared. Without the flow inside the microchannel, the thermocouple on the trench sidewall shows the same output voltage as that on the wafer top surface positioned 40 µm from the channel. As a static response, when the microchannel is heated and room-temperature air flows inside the channel, the thermocouple on the sidewall shows a lower voltage. As a dynamic response, when hot air flows inside the channel and replaces the room-temperature air, the thermocouple on the sidewall shows a faster response, increasing its output voltage, and the local temperature of the flow can be measured more precisely.

  11. Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika; Le, Tuan; Stingl, Andreas; Hasler, Karl-Heinz; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Andersen, Peter E; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2011-06-20

    For the first time a single-pass frequency doubled DBR-tapered diode laser suitable for pumping Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 110 mW (CW) and 82 mW (mode-locked) respectively at 1.2 W of pump power. This corresponds to a reduction in optical conversion efficiencies to 75% of the values achieved with a commercial diode pumped solid-state laser. However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2. The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser when pumped with our diode laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20 fs can therefore be expected.

  12. Evaluation of 1985--1986 corrective actions at ORNL liquid waste disposal trench 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1991-04-01

    Several corrective actions were taken in 1985--1986 at the site of ORNL radioactive liquid waste seepage trench 7 in an effort to reduce the discharge of radionuclides, mostly {sup 60}Co, from a groundwater seep on the eastern side of the site. First, the size of the asphalt cap over the trench was doubled, and cap runoff was diverted away from the site to the west. Second, the buried waste transfer line to the trench was excavated and plugged and its pipe trench was damned with clay backfill. These actions were designed to reduce groundwater recharge in the area that might be the source of water to the seep. Third, a series of grout injections was carried out at 5-ft intervals along a perimeter line on the eastern and northern edges of the site. A total of 65,500 gal of lime-fly-ash grout was injected at 303 locations at depths up to 40 ft in an effort to seal relict contaminated strata with probable hydrologic connection to the seep. However, the grout formulation specified in the contract would not set to a detectable compressive strength nor would the grout samples exhibit a reduction in hydraulic conductivity during over a year of observation. Thus, the material specification for the grout was inappropriate for the desired effect of in situ hydrologic isolation. Core sampling at the site revealed that the grout flowed into the soil formation along discrete thin layers. Only three grout layers, with a maximum thickness of 0.25 in., were found in over 90 ft of core from three locations along the grout injection line. Thus, this grouting action would have little potential to influence containment of radionuclides that leach from contaminated strata. 11 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Draft Level 1 Remedial Investigation Work Plan: 316-3 waste disposal trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This work plan describes the work to be performed for the initial level of site characterization for the 316.3 Trenches at the Hanford Site. This initial site characterization effort will include a review of existing environmental contamination data for the 300 Area as well as collection and analysis of environmental samples to better characterize subsurface contamination at the site. 7 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Adsorption and degradation of14C-bisphenol A in a soil trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Wang, Xin-Ze; Zhang, Zhen; Sui, Yan-Ming; Wu, Hai-Lu; Feng, Ji-Meng; Tong, Xin-Nan; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

    2017-12-31

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has caused widespread concern among scholars as a result of its estrogenic toxicity. It exists mainly in natural waters, sediments, and soil, as well as sewage and wastewater sludge. Considering that BPA is a common environmental pollutant that is removed along with chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen, and phosphorus in drainage treatment systems, it is important to research the fate of BPA in sewage treatment systems. In this research, laboratory batch experiments on soil degradation and adsorption were conducted with 14 C-BPA, aiming to discuss the transport and degradation characteristics of BPA in both simulated facilities and a soil trench. Based on the experimental results, the Freundlich model could be applied to fit the isothermal adsorption curve of the BPA in soil. A low mobility characteristic of BPA was discovered. The mineralization rate of BPA was fast and that of the reaction showed small fluctuations. After degradation, 21.3 and 17.7% of the BPA groups (the experimental group treated with ammonia oxidase (AMO) inhibitor and the control group) were converted into 14 CO 2 , respectively. This indicates that the nitrification and degradation of BPA had a certain competitive relationship. Besides, nitrification did not significantly affect the soil residue of BPA. Through the soil trench test, the average removal rate of BPA in the soil trench was 85.5%. 14 CO 2 was discharged via the mineralization of BPA, accounting for 2.5% of the initial input. BPA easily accumulated in the bottom soil of the soil trench. BPA and its metabolites in the effluent accounted for 14.5% of the initial dosage. The residual extractable BPA and its metabolites in the soil accounted for 51.3%, and the remaining part of the unextractable residue represented 19.8% of the initial radioactive dosage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sun Illuminated Color Image of the 150 meter grid of the Puerto Rico Trench (SUNILLUM.TIF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic features in the Puerto Rico trench are remotely sensed, monitored, collected, studied, and analyzed. This data set was colorized by depth and converted to...

  16. Comparison of short-circuit characteristics of trench gate and planar gate U-shaped channel SOI-LIGBTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Zhu, Jing; Sun, Weifeng; Zhao, Minna; Huang, Xuequan; Chen, Jiajun; Shi, Longxing; Chen, Jian; Ding, Desheng

    2017-09-01

    Comparison of short-circuit (SC) characteristics of 500 V rated trench gate U-shaped channel (TGU) SOI-LIGBT and planar gate U-shaped channel (PGU) SOI-LIGBT is made for the first time in this paper. The on-state carrier profile of the TGU structure is reshaped by the dual trenches (a gate trench G1 and a hole barrier trench G2), which leads to a different conduction behavior from that of the PGU structure. The TGU structure exhibits a higher latchup immunity but a severer self-heating effect. At current density (JC) lattice temperature rise caused by the high current density at the emitter side in the TGU structure, the PGU exhibits a better JC-tSC trade-off at JC > 640 A/cm2. Comparison of layouts and fabrication processes are also made between the two types of devices.

  17. Performance Analysis of Trench Power MOSFETs in High-Frequency Synchronous Buck Converter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Xiong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance perspectives and theoretical limitations of trench power MOSFETs in synchronous rectifier buck converters operating in the MHz frequency range. Several trench MOSFET technologies are studied using a mixed-mode device/circuit modeling approach. Individual power loss contributions from the control and synchronous MOSFETs, and their dependence on switching frequency between 500 kHz and 5 MHz are discussed in detail. It is observed that the conduction loss contribution decreases from 40% to 4% while the switching loss contribution increases from 60% to 96% as the switching frequency increases from 500 KHz to 5 MHz. Beyond 1 MHz frequency there is no obvious benefit to increase the die size of either SyncFET or CtrlFET. The RDS(ON×QG figure of merit (FOM still correlates well to the overall converter efficiency in the MHz frequency range. The efficiency of the hard switching buck topology is limited to 80% at 2 MHz and 65% at 5 MHz even with the most advanced trench MOSFET technologies.

  18. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal in Engineered Trenches 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-12

    Revision 0 of this UDQE addressed the proposal to place Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) in the footprint designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12) and operate using ST#12 disposal limits. Similarly, Revision 1 evaluates whether ET#4 can be located in and operated to Slit Trench #13 (ST#13) disposal limits. Both evaluations conclude that the proposed operations result in an acceptably small risk of exceeding a SOF of 1.0 and approve these actions from a performance assessment (PA) perspective. Because ET#3 will be placed in the location previously designated for ST#12, Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore, new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  19. Compact electrode design for an in-plane accelerometer on SOI with refilled isolation trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Agarwal, Rahul; Liu, Youhe; Minglin Tsai, Julius; Ranganathan, Nagarajan; Singh, Janak

    2011-09-01

    A two-axis in-plane capacitive accelerometer containing a refilled isolation trench is fabricated in 50 µm silicon-on-insulator (SOI). In the accelerometer, each stationary electrode is split into two sub-stationary electrodes by the refilled isolation trench, and the two sub-stationary electrodes form a pair of differential capacitors with the adjacent movable electrodes. With this deployment, there is no necessity to keep a wide gap between the split stationary combs to avoid stiction, and the sensing electrodes are arranged compactly. Compared with a typical design without isolation trench across the stationary comb, the presented accelerometer allows more pairs of differential capacitors arranged in a given sensing area, and thus has higher capacitance sensitivity. Experimental results show that the capacitance sensitivity is 0.19 pF g-1 and nonlinearity is 0.4%. In addition, the overlap area-changed capacitor enables the accelerometer to reduce the damping coefficient and minimize the possibility of stiction.

  20. Coseismic seafloor deformation in the trench region during the Mw8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymowicz, A.; Chadwell, C. D.; Ruiz, J.; Tréhu, A. M.; Contreras-Reyes, E.; Weinrebe, W.; Díaz-Naveas, J.; Gibson, J. C.; Lonsdale, P.; Tryon, M. D.

    2017-04-01

    The Mw 8.8 megathrust earthquake that occurred on 27 February 2010 offshore the Maule region of central Chile triggered a destructive tsunami. Whether the earthquake rupture extended to the shallow part of the plate boundary near the trench remains controversial. The up-dip limit of rupture during large subduction zone earthquakes has important implications for tsunami generation and for the rheological behavior of the sedimentary prism in accretionary margins. However, in general, the slip models derived from tsunami wave modeling and seismological data are poorly constrained by direct seafloor geodetic observations. We difference swath bathymetric data acquired across the trench in 2008, 2011 and 2012 and find ~3-5 m of uplift of the seafloor landward of the deformation front, at the eastern edge of the trench. Modeling suggests this is compatible with slip extending seaward, at least, to within ~6 km of the deformation front. After the Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, this result for the Maule earthquake represents only the second time that repeated bathymetric data has been used to detect the deformation following megathrust earthquakes, providing methodological guidelines for this relatively inexpensive way of obtaining seafloor geodetic data across subduction zone.

  1. Theoretical Investigation of Inter-core Crosstalk Properties in Homogeneous Trench-Assisted Multi-Core Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Morioka, Toshio; Tu, Jiajing

    2014-01-01

    We derive analytical expressions for inter-core crosstalk, its dependence on core pitch and wavelength in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers. They are in excellent agreement with numerical simulation results.......We derive analytical expressions for inter-core crosstalk, its dependence on core pitch and wavelength in homogeneous trench-assisted multi-core fibers. They are in excellent agreement with numerical simulation results....

  2. Soil prokaryotic communities in Chernobyl waste disposal trench T22 are modulated by organic matter and radionuclide contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Février, Laureline; Barakat, Mohamed; Ortet, Philippe; Christen, Richard; Piette, Laurie; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Sergeant, Claire; Berthomieu, Catherine; Chapon, Virginie

    2017-08-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, contaminated soils, vegetation from the Red Forest and other radioactive debris were buried within trenches. In this area, trench T22 has long been a pilot site for the study of radionuclide migration in soil. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to obtain a comprehensive view of the bacterial and archaeal diversity in soils collected inside and in the vicinity of the trench T22 and to investigate the impact of radioactive waste disposal on prokaryotic communities. A remarkably high abundance of Chloroflexi and AD3 was detected in all soil samples from this area. Our statistical analysis revealed profound changes in community composition at the phylum and OTUs levels and higher diversity in the trench soils as compared to the outside. Our results demonstrate that the total absorbed dose rate by cell and, to a lesser extent the organic matter content of the trench, are the principal variables influencing prokaryotic assemblages. We identified specific phylotypes affiliated to the phyla Crenarchaeota, Acidobacteria, AD3, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and WPS-2, which were unique for the trench soils. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. ALGORITHM OF DETERMINATION OF POWER AND ENERGY INDEXES OF SCREW INTENSIFIER ON THE BULLDOZER WORKING EQUIPMENT AT TRENCH REFILLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KROL R. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. A bulldozer work at trench refilings is conducted by cyclic, machine shuttle motions that increases a right-of-way; increasing of time charges, fuel and labour by the side of the continuous refilling method. Besides the indicated defects gets worse also the quality of the trench refilling: the uneven soil output into a trench with large portions results the damages of pipes isolation and emptinesses formation, in consequence  settling and washing of soil. A bulldozer with the screw intensifier (SI, is deprived lacks of an odinary bulldozer  moving along a trench, it moves the loose soil that does not fall on a pipeline, but rolles on it. Thus the circuitous speed of a cutting edge of SI exceeds the speed of the base machine moving that provides the strong soil treatment (before dispersion before output into a trench. Purpose. The algorithm development of the rotational moment determination on the SI driveshaft, the consumable energy, the energy intensity and the working process productivity of the reverse trench refillings depending on physical and mechanical properties of soil, geometrical parameters of SI and bulldozer optimal speed. Conclusion. The developed algorithm allows to define that at the fixed value of the rotational speed the rotational moment and indicated efficiency of SI at the optimum speed increasing of the base machine change on a linear law; the optimum speed change of the base machine practically does not influence on the energy intensity at the considered change of the rotational speed .

  4. Frequency-doubled DBR-tapered diode laser for direct pumping of Ti:sapphire lasers generating sub-20 fs pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Unterhuber, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    For the first time a single-pass frequency doubled DBR-tapered diode laser suitable for pumping Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 110 mW (CW) and 82 mW (mode-locked) respectively at 1.2 W of p....... The optical spectrum emitted by the Ti:sapphire laser when pumped with our diode laser shows a spectral width of 112 nm (FWHM). Based on autocorrelation measurements, pulse widths of less than 20 fs can therefore be expected.......For the first time a single-pass frequency doubled DBR-tapered diode laser suitable for pumping Ti:sapphire lasers generating ultrashort pulses is demonstrated. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 110 mW (CW) and 82 mW (mode-locked) respectively at 1.2 W...... of pump power. This corresponds to a reduction in optical conversion efficiencies to 75% of the values achieved with a commercial diode pumped solid-state laser. However, the superior electro-optical efficiency of the diode laser improves the overall efficiency of the Ti:sapphire laser by a factor > 2...

  5. Advances in 750 nm VECSELs (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Esa J.; Ranta, Sanna; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Saarela, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Guina, Mircea

    2017-03-01

    Lasers operating in the transmission window of tissue at wavelengths between 700 and 800 nm are needed in numerous medical and biomedical applications, including photodynamic therapy and fluorescence microscopy. However, the performance of diode lasers in this spectral range is limited by the lack of appropriate compound semiconductors. Here, we review our recent research on 750 nm VECSELs. Two approaches to reaching the 750 nm wavelength will be discussed. The first approach relies on intra-cavity frequency doubling a wafer-fused 1500 nm VECSEL. The VECSEL gain chip comprises a GaAs-based DBR and an InP-based gain section, which allows for optical pumping with low-cost commercial diodes at 980 nm. With this scheme we have achieved watt-level output powers and tuning of the laser wavelength over a 40 nm band at around 750 nm. The second approach is direct emission at 750 nm using the AlGaAs/GaAs material system. In this approach visible wavelengths are required for optical pumping. However, the consequent higher costs compared to pumping at 980 nm are mitigated by the more compact laser setup and prospects of doubling the frequency to the ultraviolet range.

  6. Observation of coupled vortex gyrations by 70-ps-time and 20-nm-space- resolved full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyunsung; Yu, Young-Sang; Lee, Ki-Suk; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Bocklage, Lars; Vogel, Andreas; Bolte, Markus; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2010-09-01

    We employed time-and space-resolved full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy to observe vortex-core gyrations in a pair of dipolar-coupled vortex-state Permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) disks. The 70 ps temporal and 20 nm spatial resolution of the microscope enabled us to simultaneously measure vortex gyrations in both disks and to resolve the phases and amplitudes of both vortex-core positions. We observed their correlation for a specific vortex-state configuration. This work provides a robust and direct method of studying vortex gyrations in dipolar-coupled vortex oscillators.

  7. Using fuzzy logic analysis for siting decisions of infiltration trenches for highway runoff control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2014-09-15

    Determining optimal locations for best management practices (BMPs), including their field considerations and limitations, plays an important role for effective stormwater management. However, these issues have been often overlooked in modeling studies that focused on downstream water quality benefits. This study illustrates the methodology of locating infiltration trenches at suitable locations from spatial overlay analyses which combine multiple layers that address different aspects of field application into a composite map. Using seven thematic layers for each analysis, fuzzy logic was employed to develop a site suitability map for infiltration trenches, whereas the DRASTIC method was used to produce a groundwater vulnerability map on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, USA. In addition, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), one of the most popular overlay analyses, was used for comparison to fuzzy logic. The results showed that the AHP and fuzzy logic methods developed significantly different index maps in terms of best locations and suitability scores. Specifically, the AHP method provided a maximum level of site suitability due to its inherent aggregation approach of all input layers in a linear equation. The most eligible areas in locating infiltration trenches were determined from the superposition of the site suitability and groundwater vulnerability maps using the fuzzy AND operator. The resulting map successfully balanced qualification criteria for a low risk of groundwater contamination and the best BMP site selection. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the suitability scores were strongly affected by the algorithms embedded in fuzzy logic; therefore, caution is recommended with their use in overlay analysis. Accordingly, this study demonstrates that the fuzzy logic analysis can not only be used to improve spatial decision quality along with other overlay approaches, but also is combined with general water quality models for initial and refined

  8. Subduction of a buoyant plateau at the Manila Trench: Tomographic evidence and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianke; Zhao, Dapeng; Dong, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    We determined P-wave tomographic images by inverting a large number of arrival-time data from 2749 local earthquakes and 1462 teleseismic events, which are used to depict the three-dimensional morphology of the subducted Eurasian Plate along the northern segment of the Manila Trench. Dramatic changes in the dip angle of the subducted Eurasian Plate are revealed from the north to the south, being consistent with the partial subduction of a buoyant plateau beneath the Luzon Arc. Slab tears may exist along the edges of the buoyant plateau within the subducted plate induced by the plateau subduction, and the subducted lithosphere may be absent at depths greater than 250 km at ˜19°N and ˜21°N. The subducted buoyant plateau is possibly oriented toward NW-SE, and the subducted plate at ˜21°N is slightly steeper than that at ˜19°N. These results may explain why the western and eastern volcanic chains in the Luzon Arc are separated by ˜50 km at ˜18°N, whereas they converge into a single volcanic chain northward, which may be related to the oblique subduction along the Manila Trench caused by the northwestern movement of the Philippine Sea Plate. A low-velocity zone is revealed at depths of 20-200 km beneath the Manila Accretionary Prism at ˜22°N, suggesting that the subduction along the Manila Trench may stop there and the collision develops northward. The Taiwan Orogeny may originate directly from the subduction of the buoyant plateau, because the initial time of the Taiwan Orogeny is coincident with that of the buoyant plateau subduction.

  9. Anaerobic methanotrophic community of a 5346-m-deep vesicomyid clam colony in the Japan Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, J; Ruff, S E; Ertefai, T; Inagaki, F; Hinrichs, K-U; Wenzhöfer, F

    2014-05-01

    Vesicomyidae clams harbor sulfide-oxidizing endosymbionts and are typical members of cold seep communities where active venting of fluids and gases takes place. We investigated the central biogeochemical processes that supported a vesicomyid clam colony as part of a locally restricted seep community in the Japan Trench at 5346 m water depth, one of the deepest seep settings studied to date. An integrated approach of biogeochemical and molecular ecological techniques was used combining in situ and ex situ measurements. In sediment of the clam colony, low sulfate reduction rates (maximum 128 nmol mL(-1) day(-1)) were coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane. They were observed over a depth range of 15 cm, caused by active transport of sulfate due to bioturbation of the vesicomyid clams. A distinct separation between the seep and the surrounding seafloor was shown by steep horizontal geochemical gradients and pronounced microbial community shifts. The sediment below the clam colony was dominated by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2c) and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae (SEEP-SRB-3, SEEP-SRB-4). Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria were not detected in the sediment, and the oxidation of sulfide seemed to be carried out chemolithoautotrophically by Sulfurovum species. Thus, major redox processes were mediated by distinct subgroups of seep-related microorganisms that might have been selected by this specific abyssal seep environment. Fluid flow and microbial activity were low but sufficient to support the clam community over decades and to build up high biomasses. Hence, the clams and their microbial communities adapted successfully to a low-energy regime and may represent widespread chemosynthetic communities in the Japan Trench. In this regard, they contributed to the restricted deep-sea trench biodiversity as well as to the organic carbon availability, also for non-seep organisms, in such oligotrophic benthic environment of the dark deep ocean. © 2014 The

  10. Flow and transport at the Las Cruces trench site: Experiment IIb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, J.; Hills, R.G. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil and Water Science

    1997-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been directed by Congress in the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 to develop regulatory guidance and assist the individual states and compacts in siting and assessing future low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. Three water flow and solute transport experiments were performed as part of a comprehensive field trench study near Las Cruces, New Mexico to test deterministic and stochastic models of vadose zone flow and transport. This report presents partial results from the third experiment (experiment IIb). Experiments IIa and b were conducted on the North side of the trench, on a plot 1.22 m wide by 12 m long, perpendicular to the trench. The area was drip irrigated during two time periods with water containing a variety of tracers. The advance of the water front during the two irrigation episodes was measured with tensiometers and neutron probes. Solute front positions were determined from soil solution sampling through suction samplers and from disturbed sampling. The results from experiment IIb show predominantly downward water movement through the layered unsaturated soil, as evidenced from neutron probe data and gravimetric sampling. Tritium plumes were only half as deep and half as wide as the water plumes at 310 days after the beginning of experiment IIb. Chromium, applied as Cr(VI), moved a readily as, and similar to tritium, but there was a loss of mass due to reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Chloride and nitrate, initially present at high concentrations in the soil solution, were displaced by the low concentration irrigation water, resulting in chloride and nitrate concentration distributions that looked like negative images of the tritium distributions. The extensive data presented should serve well as a data base for model testing.

  11. Laser hypersensitisation using 266nm light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, J.; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    UV hypersensitisation using CW 266 nm light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum sensitisation fluence is found to be in the range of 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with previous results obtained using 355 nm light, indicating the same end-process used in the photochemical reaction...

  12. Trench process and structure for backside contact solar cells with polysilicon doped regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceuster, Denis; Cousins, Peter John; Smith, David D.

    2010-12-14

    A solar cell includes polysilicon P-type and N-type doped regions on a backside of a substrate, such as a silicon wafer. An interrupted trench structure separates the P-type doped region from the N-type doped region in some locations but allows the P-type doped region and the N-type doped region to touch in other locations. Each of the P-type and N-type doped regions may be formed over a thin dielectric layer. Among other advantages, the resulting solar cell structure allows for increased efficiency while having a relatively low reverse breakdown voltage.

  13. Response of Microbial Community Function to Fluctuating Geochemical Conditions within a Legacy Radioactive Waste Trench Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsela, Andrew S.; Bligh, Mark W.; Harrison, Jennifer J.; Payne, Timothy E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the 1960s, small quantities of radioactive materials were codisposed with chemical waste at the Little Forest Legacy Site (Sydney, Australia) in 3-meter-deep, unlined trenches. Chemical and microbial analyses, including functional and taxonomic information derived from shotgun metagenomics, were collected across a 6-week period immediately after a prolonged rainfall event to assess the impact of changing water levels upon the microbial ecology and contaminant mobility. Collectively, results demonstrated that oxygen-laden rainwater rapidly altered the redox balance in the trench water, strongly impacting microbial functioning as well as the radiochemistry. Two contaminants of concern, plutonium and americium, were shown to transition from solid-iron-associated species immediately after the initial rainwater pulse to progressively more soluble moieties as reducing conditions were enhanced. Functional metagenomics revealed the potentially important role that the taxonomically diverse microbial community played in this transition. In particular, aerobes dominated in the first day, followed by an increase of facultative anaerobes/denitrifiers at day 4. Toward the mid-end of the sampling period, the functional and taxonomic profiles depicted an anaerobic community distinguished by a higher representation of dissimilatory sulfate reduction and methanogenesis pathways. Our results have important implications to similar near-surface environmental systems in which redox cycling occurs. IMPORTANCE The role of chemical and microbiological factors in mediating the biogeochemistry of groundwaters from trenches used to dispose of radioactive materials during the 1960s is examined in this study. Specifically, chemical and microbial analyses, including functional and taxonomic information derived from shotgun metagenomics, were collected across a 6-week period immediately after a prolonged rainfall event to assess how changing water levels influence microbial

  14. Shooting from the Trenches: On the Impossibility and Inability to think about the War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van der Heijden

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay Chris van der Heijden (Dat nooit meer [Never Again] answers his critics. He accepts in general what Bob Moore says, although his criticism is rather abstract. He does agree partly with Koes Aerts, but not on some crucial points – for example the method. Van der Heijden doesn’t agree at all with Wielenga, not so much because of arguments but exactly because of the lack of it. In the debate with Wielenga, he contends, the trench warfare, which is going on since almost ten years, simply goes on. According to Van der Heijden it leads to nothing.

  15. Quantitative Study of Seismogenic Potential Along Manila Trench: Effects of Scaborough Seamount Chain Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Liu, Y.; Li, D.; Ning, J.; Matsuzawa, T.; Shibazaki, B.; Hsu, Y. J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern seismicity record along the Manila Trench shows only infrequent Mw7 earthquakes, the lack of great earthquakes may indicate the subduction fault is either aseismically slipping or is accumulating strain energy toward rapid release in a megathrust earthquake. We conduct numerical simulations of the plate coupling, earthquake nucleation and dynamic rupture propagation processes along the Manila subduction fault (15-19.5ºN), taking into consideration the effects of plate geometry (including subducted seamounts), fault strength, rate-state frictional properties and pore pressure variations. Specifically, we use the bathymetry to depict the outline of Manila trench along its strike, 2681 background seismicity (1970/02/13 to 2013/09/06) from Chinese Earthquake Network Center and 540 focal mechanism solutions (1976/01/01 to 2013/01/27) from Global CMT project to constrain the geometry of the subducting Sunda/Eurasian slab. The compilation of seismicity and focal mechanism indicates the plate dipping angle gradually changes from 28º (south of the Scaborough Seamount Chain) to 12º (north of it). This geometric anomaly may due to the subducted part of the seamount chain. Preliminary modeling results using gabbro gouge friction data show that the Scaborough Seamount Chain could be a barrier to earthquake rupture propagation. Only earthquakes larger than Mw7 can overcome the barrier to rupture the entire Manila trench. Smaller earthquakes would cease rupturing when it encounters the seamount chain. Moreover, we propose that Manila trench subduction zone has the potential of rupturing in a Mw8 megathrust earthquake, if the simulation period is long enough for an Mw8 earthquake cycle and dynamic rupture overcomes the subducted Scaborough Seamount Chain. Our model parameters will be further constrained by laboratory rock mechanics experiments conducted on IODP Expedition 349, South China Sea (SCS), drilling samples (work in progress at China Earthquake Administration

  16. Capillary Condensation in 8 nm Deep Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Junjie; Riordon, Jason; Zandavi, Seyed Hadi; Xu, Yi; Persad, Aaron H; Mostowfi, Farshid; Sinton, David

    2018-02-01

    Condensation on the nanoscale is essential to understand many natural and synthetic systems relevant to water, air, and energy. Despite its importance, the underlying physics of condensation initiation and propagation remain largely unknown at sub-10 nm, mainly due to the challenges of controlling and probing such small systems. Here we study the condensation of n-propane down to 8 nm confinement in a nanofluidic system, distinct from previous studies at ∼100 nm. The condensation initiates significantly earlier in the 8 nm channels, and it initiates from the entrance, in contrast to channels just 10 times larger. The condensate propagation is observed to be governed by two liquid-vapor interfaces with an interplay between film and bridging effects. We model the experimental results using classical theories and find good agreement, demonstrating that this 8 nm nonpolar fluid system can be treated as a continuum from a thermodynamic perspective, despite having only 10-20 molecular layers.

  17. Population genetic structure of two congeneric deep-sea amphipod species from geographically isolated hadal trenches in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, H.; Jamieson, A. J.; Piertney, S. B.

    2017-01-01

    The deep ocean trenches that comprise the hadal zone have traditionally been perceived as a series of geographically isolated and demographically independent features likely to promote local species endemism through potent natural selection and restricted dispersal. Here we provide the first descriptions of intraspecific population genetic structure among trenches from which the levels of genetic connectivity can be examined explicitly. A total of 109 individuals across two species of Paralicella amphipods (Lysianassoidea: Alicellidae) were genotyped at 16 microsatellite DNA loci. An analysis of molecular variance identified that 22% of the overall genetic variance was attributable to differences between the species and a further 7% was attributable to differences between populations. The two species showed different patterns of genetic structure, with the levels of genetic differentiation between trenches explained by geographical proximity, the geological ages of the trenches, contemporary bottom current patterns and seabed topography around the Pacific Ocean. Overall, the inferred levels of gene flow among trenches was sufficient to reject the hypothesis that they are evolutionarily independent units.

  18. Trench motion-controlled slab morphology and stress variations: Implications for the isolated 2015 Bonin Islands deep earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Gurnis, Michael; Zhan, Zhongwen

    2017-07-01

    The subducted old and cold Pacific Plate beneath the young Philippine Sea Plate at the Izu-Bonin trench over the Cenozoic hosts regional deep earthquakes. We investigate slab morphology and stress regimes under different trench motion histories with mantle convection models. Viscosity, temperature, and deviatoric stress are inherently heterogeneous within the slab, which we link to the occurrence of isolated earthquakes. Models expand on previous suggestions that observed slab morphology variations along the Izu-Bonin subduction zone, exhibited as shallow slab dip angles in the north and steeper dip angles in the south, are mainly due to variations in the rate of trench retreat from the north (where it is fast) to the south (where it is slow). Geodynamic models consistent with the regional plate tectonics, including oceanic plate age, plate convergence rate, and trench motion history, reproduce the seismologically observed principal stress direction and slab morphology. We suggest that the isolated 680 km deep, 30 May 2015 Mw 7.9 Bonin Islands earthquake, which lies east of the well-defined Benioff zone and has its principal compressional stress direction oriented toward the tip of the previously defined Benioff zone, can be explained by Pacific slab buckling in response to the slow trench retreat.

  19. Laser Damage Growth in Fused Silica with Simultaneous 351 nm and 1053 nm irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, M A; Carr, A V; Carr, C W; Donohue, E E; Feit, M D; Hollingsworth, W G; Liao, Z; Negres, R A; Rubenchik, A M; Wegner, P J

    2008-10-24

    Laser-induced growth of optical damage often determines the useful lifetime of an optic in a high power laser system. We have extended our previous work on growth of laser damage in fused silica with simultaneous 351 nm and 1053 nm laser irradiation by measuring the threshold for growth with various ratios of 351 nm and 1053 nm fluence. Previously we reported that when growth occurs, the growth rate is determined by the total fluence. We now find that the threshold for growth is dependent on both the magnitude of the 351 nm fluence as well as the ratio of the 351 nm fluence to the 1053 nm fluence. Furthermore, the data suggests that under certain conditions the 1053 nm fluence does not contribute to the growth.

  20. Picosecond Yb-doped single-trench fiber amplifier with diffraction limited output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepak; Gorman, Philip; Codemard, Christophe; Jung, Yongmin; Zervas, Michalis N.; Sahu, Jayanta K.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a novel fiber design single-trench fiber (STF) for large mode area fiber laser and amplifier. Fiber offers cylindrical symmetry and also offer higher refractive index of core compared to cladding. This avoids the need of stack and draw process and refractive index compensation of core doped with index raising rare earth and co-dopants ions, which are an indispensable condition in most of other fiber designs. That is why, this fiber design can be fabricated with conventional modified chemical vapour deposition process in conjunction with solution doping process, which can dramatically reduce the fabrication cost, hence suitable for mass production. Fiber offers very high loss (>10dB/m) and low power fraction in core (80%) thanks to the resonant coupling between core and ring modes. We fabricated a preform for 30μm core STF using MCVD process in conjunction with solution doping process in a single step, without using any micro-structuration and pixilation of core. Experiments ensure the robust single mode behaviour irrespective of launching condition of input beam. Furthermore, this fiber used in three stages MOPA provides 80kW peak pulses with repetition rate of 500 kHz, average power up to 10W, with M2 ~ 1.14. Moreover, all solid structure ensures easy cleaving and splicing. In nutshell, an ultra-low cost, monolithic, compact, and an effective single mode fiber amplifier device can be achieved using single-trench fiber.

  1. Along-trench variation in seafloor displacements after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Fumiaki; Kido, Motoyuki; Ohta, Yusaku; Iinuma, Takeshi; Hino, Ryota

    2017-07-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake was the largest earthquake ever observed with seafloor geodetic techniques in and around its source region. Large crustal deformation associated with both the coseismic rupture and the rapid postseismic deformation has been reported. However, these observations are insufficient to describe the postseismic deformation processes occurring around the broad rupture area. We report the first results of seafloor Global Positioning System and acoustic ranging (GPS-A) observations based on repeated campaign surveys conducted over nearly 4 years using the extended GPS-A network deployed along the Japan Trench in September 2012. The observed postseismic displacement rates (DRs) show evident spatial variation along the trench: (i) distinct landward DRs in the large coseismic slip area [primary rupture area (PRA)], evidencing the predominance of viscoelastic relaxation; (ii) remarkable trenchward DRs in the south of the PRA, indicating rapid afterslip; and (iii) slight trenchward DRs in the north of the PRA. These features provide great insights into constructing a more complete model of viscoelastic relaxation, and they also indicate spatial variation of afterslip and fault locking along the plate interface with clear spatial resolution, providing invaluable information for the improvement of seismic hazard assessment.

  2. INTRAVAL Phase 2: Modeling testing at the Las Cruces Trench Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, R.G. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Wierenga, P.J. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil and Water Science; Luis, S.; McLaughlin, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Rockhold, M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Xiang, J.; Scanlon, B. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Wittmeyer, G. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1994-01-01

    Several field experiments have been performed by scientists from the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University at the Las Cruces Trench Site to provide data tc test deterministic and stochastic models for water flow and solute transport. These experiments were performed in collaboration with INTRAVAL, an international effort toward validation of geosphere models for the transport of radionuclides. During Phase I of INTRAVAL, qualitative comparisons between experimental data and model predictions were made using contour plots of water contents and solute concentrations. Detailed quantitative comparisons were not made. To provide data for more rigorous model testing, a third Las Cruces Trench experiment was designed by scientists from the University of Arizona and New Mexico State University. Modelers from the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analysis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, New Mexico State University, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the University of Texas provided predictions of water flow and tritium transport to New Mexico State University for analysis. The corresponding models assumed soil characterizations ranging from uniform to deterministically heterogeneous to stochastic. This report presents detailed quantitative comparisons to field data.

  3. Electrokinetic migration studies on removal of chromium and uranyl ions from 904-A trench soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.; Meaker, T.F.; O`Steen, A.B.

    1992-09-30

    This report describes a laboratory-scale study, in which electrokinetic migration technology was used to remove chromium and uranium, as well as other ions, from soil taken from a bore hole adjacent to the 904-A trench at the Savannah River Technology Center. Imposition of an electric current on humid (not saturated) soil successfully caused cations to migrate through the pore water of the soil to the cathode, where they were captured in an ISOLOCKTm polymer matrix and in a cation exchange resin incorporated in the polymer. Chemicals circulated through the anode/polymer and cathode/polymer were able to control pH excursions in the electrokinetic-cells by reacting with the H{sup +} and OH{sup {minus}} generated at the anode and cathode, respectively. The study indicates that ions adsorbed on the surface of the soil as well as those in the pores of soil particles can be caused to migrate through the soil to an appropriate electrode. After 10 days of operation at 20--25 V and 2 mA, approximately 65% of the chromium was removed from two 3.5 kg soil samples. A 57% removal of uranium was achieved. The study shows that electrokinetic migration, using the ISOLOCK{trademark} polymer will be effective as an in situ treatment method for the removal of metal ion contaminants in soil adjacent to the 904-A trench.

  4. Development of a high energy pulsed plasma simulator for the study of liquid lithium trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, S., E-mail: jung73@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Christenson, M.; Curreli, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Bryniarski, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States); Andruczyk, D.; Ruzic, D.N. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A pulse device for a liquid lithium trench study is developed. • It consists of a coaxial plasma gun, a theta pinch, and guiding magnets. • A large energy enhancement is observed with the use of the plasma gun. • A further increase in energy and velocity is observed with the theta pinch. - Abstract: To simulate detrimental events in a tokamak and provide a test-stand for a liquid-lithium infused trench (LiMIT) device [1], a pulsed plasma source utilizing a theta pinch in conjunction with a coaxial plasma accelerator has been developed. The plasma is characterized using a triple Langmuir probe, optical methods, and a calorimeter. Clear advantages have been observed with the application of a coaxial plasma accelerator as a pre-ionization source. The experimental results of the plasma gun in conjunction with the existing theta pinch show a significant improvement from the previous energy deposition by a factor of 14 or higher, resulting in a maximum energy and heat flux of 0.065 ± 0.002 MJ/m{sup 2} and 0.43 ± 0.01 GW/m{sup 2}. A few ways to further increase the plasma heat flux for LiMIT experiments are discussed.

  5. Interpretation of vadose zone monitoring system data near Engineered Trench 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Whiteside, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-12

    The E-Area Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) includes lysimeter sampling points at many locations alongside and angling beneath the Engineered Trench #1 (ET1) disposal unit footprint. The sampling points for ET1 were selected for this study because collectively they showed consistently higher tritium (H-3) concentrations than lysimeters associated with other trench units. The VZMS tritium dataset for ET1 from 2001 through 2015 comprises concentrations at or near background levels at approximately half of locations through time, concentrations up to about 600 pCi/mL at a few locations, and concentrations at two locations that have exceeded 1000 pCi/mL. The highest three values through 2015 were 6472 pCi/mL in 2014 and 4533 pCi/mL in 2013 at location VL-17, and 3152 pCi/mL in 2007 at location VL-15. As a point of reference, the drinking water standard for tritium and a DOE Order 435.1 performance objective in the saturated zone at the distant 100-meter facility perimeter is 20 pCi/mL. The purpose of this study is to assess whether these elevated concentrations are indicative of a general trend that could challenge 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA) conclusions, or are isolated perturbations that when considered in the context of an entire disposal unit would support PA conclusions.

  6. Determining sources of deep-sea mud by organic matter signatures in the Sunda trench and Aceh basin off Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Akiko; Ikehara, Ken; Arai, Kohsaku; Udrekh

    2017-12-01

    The content, optically determined properties, and stable isotope composition of organic carbon in fine-grained sediment cores were analyzed to investigate the origins of deep-sea sediments deposited in the Aceh forearc basin and on the Sunda trench floor off Sumatra from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene. In the Aceh basin, the depositional frequency of turbidite mud decreased as sea level rose during the deglaciation. The terrigenous organic carbon content was high at the end of the last glacial period, whereas during the deglaciation most of the organic carbon was of marine origin. In the Sunda trench, the Holocene turbidites consisted of remobilized slope sediments from two different sources: sediments derived from the old Bengal/Nicobar fan included thermally matured organic fragments, whereas those derived from the trench slope contained little terrigenous organic carbon.

  7. Hydrogen and helium recycling from a JxB-force convected liquid metal Ga{sub 67}In{sub 20.5}Sn{sub 12.5} under steady state plasma bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Yoshi, E-mail: hirooka.yoshihiko@nifs.ac.jp [National institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Bi, Hailin [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Shimada, Michiya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Kamikita, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ono, Masa [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    A series of first-of-a-kind laboratory-scale experiments on the JxB-force convected liquid metal divertor concept have been carried out in the temperature range from room temperature to ∼200 °C, employing a eutectic alloy: Ga{sub 67}In{sub 20.5}Sn{sub 12.5}, the melting point of which is 10.5 °C. The electrical current conducted through the alloy is set at about 70A and the magnetic field is set at about 700 G. It has reproducibly been observed that hydrogen as well as helium particle recycling is noticeably reduced under steady state plasma bombardment when the liquid is convected by the JxB force.

  8. Cascaded quadratic soliton compression at 800 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Moses, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    We study soliton compression in quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion.......We study soliton compression in quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion....

  9. Bathymetric Terrain Model of the Puerto Rico Trench and the Northeastern Caribbean Region for Marine Geological Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Brian D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William W.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Granja-Bruna, J; Carbo-Gorosabel, A

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam bathymetry data collected in the Puerto Rico Trench and Northeast Caribbean region are compiled into a seamless bathymetric terrain model for broad-scale geological investigations of the trench system. These data, collected during eight separate surveys between 2002 and 2013, covering almost 180,000 square kilometers are published here in large format map sheet and digital spatial data. This report describes the common multibeam data collection, and processing methods used to produce the bathymetric terrain model and corresponding data source polygon. Details documenting the complete provenance of the data are also provided in the metadata in the Data Catalog section.

  10. Novel 600 V Low Reverse Recovery Loss Vertical PiN Diode with Hole Pockets by Bosch Deep Trench

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukuda, Masanori; Baba, Akiyoshi; Shiba, Yuji; Omura, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a novel diode with characteristic trench shape is predicted by TCAD simulation. A novel 600 V vertical PiN diode with hole pockets by the Bosch deep trench process is proposed for a better trade-off curve between reverse recovery loss and forward voltage. The reverse recovery loss is reduced to a half. In addition, the active chip size of the novel diode is reduced to two-thirds that of the conventional PiN diode in the same forward voltage. The novel diode structure is a s...

  11. Hydrologic behaviour of stormwater infiltration trenches in a central urban area during 2 3/4 years of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnaars, E.; Larsen, A.V.; Jacobsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Two infiltration trenches were constructed in a densely built-up area in central Copenhagen and equipped with on-line sensors measuring rain, runoff flow from the connected surfaces and water level in the trenches. The paper describes the field site, the measuring system and the results from...... overflow. Analyses of falling water tables after rain indicated slight clogging, but this effect is less important than the general lack of knowledge about soil permeability for normal design situations. The results indicate that the stormwater infiltration in central urban areas with compressed soils...

  12. Grapho-epitaxial sub-10nm line and space patterning using lamellar-forming Si-containing block copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hironobu; Kasahara, Yusuke; Kihara, Naoko; Seino, Yuriko; Miyagi, Ken; Minegishi, Shinya; Kubota, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kanai, Hideki; Kodera, Katsuyoshi; Kawamonzen, Yoshiaki; Shiraishi, Masayuki; Yamano, Hitoshi; Nomura, Satoshi; Azuma, Tsukasa; Hayakawa, Teruaki

    2016-04-01

    Si-rich poly((polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane) methacrylate)-b-poly(trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (PMAPOSS-b- PTFEMA) was used to form 8-nm half-pitch line and space (L/S) pattern via grapho-epitaxy. Vertical alignment of the lamellae was achieved without using either a neutral layer or top-coating material. Because PMAPOSS-b-PTFEMA forms vertical lamellae on a variety of substrates, we used two types of physical guide structures for grapho-epitaxy; one was a substrate guide and the other was a guide with an embedded under layer. On the substrate guide structure, a fine L/S pattern was obtained with trench widths equal to 3-7 periods of the lamella spacing of the block copolymer, Lo. However, on the embedded under layer guide structure, L/S pattern was observed only with 3 Lo and 4 Lo in trench width. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope images revealed that a thick PMAPOSS layer was formed under the PMAPOSS-b-PTFEMA L/S pattern. Pattern transfer of the PMAPOSS-b-PTFEMA L/S pattern was prevented by a thick PMAPOSS layer. To achieve pattern transfer to the under layer, optimization of the surface properties is necessary.

  13. Deformation Patterns and Subduction Behavior of Continental Lithosphere Entering a Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steedman, C. E.; Kaus, B. J.; Becker, T. W.; Okaya, D.

    2007-05-01

    We perform 2-D numerical simulations of continental lithosphere entering a subduction zone, to better understand deformation patterns resulting from subduction of a continental margin. The model consists of a subduction zone in which an attached slab drives subduction of a passive continental margin beneath an oceanic plate. A particle-based 2-D visco-elasto-plastic thermo-mechanical finite element code is employed to study the dynamics of the system. A novel feature of the code is that the resolution of the model can be significantly increased in selected parts of the domain, which allows for self-consistent modelling of mantle-lithosphere interaction. In the present study we employ this feature to study how lithospheric-scale deformation around and within the subduction zone is influenced by surface processes such as erosion, and by flow in the upper mantle. Using systematic 2-D numerical simulations, we explore the parameters that are dominant in controlling near- surface structures, both with regards to changes in topography and trench location, and subsurface features such as Moho undulations. The main parameters that have been varied are: the lithospheric density structure; the lithospheric age and temperature structure; the strength of the lower crust; the presence of a weak zone at the plate interface; the amounts of erosion; the upper boundary condition (free surface versus free slip); rheology (non-Newtonian versus Newtonian, viscous, visco-elasto-plastic); and finally the effect of an imposed slab breakoff. In all cases we track surface uplift, subduction evolution and rock exhumation history. We find that the strength of the overriding plate influences surface uplift and the shape of subsurface deformation, and that the density and thermal structure of the subducting plate affects trench motion. Denser slab roll back, and younger, lighter slabs advance, while neither slab rheology nor the presence of erosion greatly affect trench location. For all cases

  14. Dynamic effects of plate-buoyancy subduction at Manila Trench, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.; Zhan, W.; Sun, J.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    Bathymetric map of SCS plate shows two subducting buoyancies, the fossil ridge and the oceanic plateau, which are supposed to impact slab segmentation into the north from Taiwan to 18°N, and the south from 17°N to Mindoro. Hypocenter distribution show that slab dip angle turns lower southwards from 45° to 30° in the north segment, and relatively equals ~45° in the south segment at the depth of 100km. Moreover, volcano distribution can be segmented into Miocene WVC, Quaternary EVC in the north and combined SVC in the south (Fig. A). We found that WVC and SVC mostly locate in a parallel belt ~50km apart to Manila trench, however EVC turn father southwards from 50km to 100km (Fig. B). Above characters congruously indicate that SCS plate kept equal dip angle in Miocene; then the north segment shallowed at 18°N and developed northwards in Quaternary, resulting in lower dip angle than the invariant south segment. To check the transformation of slab dip angle from 45° to 30° between 17~18°N, focal mechanism solution nearby 17°N are found 90° in rake and dip angle, strike parallel to the fossil ridge, indicating a slab tear located coincident with the ridge, where is a weak zone of higher heat flow and lower plate coupling ratio than the adjacent zones and slab can be easily tore as an interface for SCS plate segmentation. Subduction of the two buoyancies within SCS plate is supposed as influential dynamic factor: It caused the trench retreat rate reduced, forming a cusp and a flat convex of Manila trench shape; Moreover, the buoyancies resisted subduction, resulting in shear stress heterogeneity of SCS plate, in consequence the fossil ridge as a fragile belt potentially became stress concentration zone that easily tore; Then the buoyant oceanic plateau might lead to shallowing of the northern SCS plate. To examine the hypothesis, dynamic effects of the two subducting buoyancies are being respectively investigated based on numerical models. (Grt. 41376063, 2013

  15. Variations in Oxygen Fugacity among Forearc Peridotites from the Tonga Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birner, S.; Warren, J. M.; Cottrell, E.; Lopez, O. G.; Davis, F. A.; Falloon, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Tonga subduction zone is an extension-dominated, non-accreting convergent plate margin in the South Pacific, characterized by rapid slab rollback [1]. It is unusual among subduction zones in that forearc peridotites, thought to be pieces of lithospheric mantle originating from the overriding plate, have been dredged from the trench. These spinel peridotites appear in dredges along almost 1000 km of the trench's length, from near the Samoa hotspot in the north to the Louisville seamounts in the south, and have been dredged from 4-9 km depth. The samples are very depleted, consisting entirely of dunites and harzburgites, with no observed lherzolites. Low modal abundances of orthopyroxene and high spinel Cr# (Cr/(Cr+Al)) also indicate large degrees of melt extraction. While some samples have been variably altered by hydrothermal processes, a large fraction of them are remarkably unaltered, making them ideal targets for geochemical investigation. Oxygen fugacity is an important geochemical control on phase stability, the composition of volatiles, and the position of the mantle solidus, thus rendering it critical to the understanding of mantle processes. Previous studies have suggested that subduction zone processes result in arc magmas with increased oxygen fugacity (fO2) relative to ridge magmas [2], but few direct observations of mantle wedge fO2 are available. In order to investigate the oxygen fugacity of the Tonga peridotites, mineral major element compositions were determined via electron microprobe. Fe3+/ΣFe ratios were calculated for the spinel phase, calibrated with spinel standards of known Fe3+/ΣFe ratio provided by B.J. Wood to the Smithsonian following the procedure of Lopez et al [3]. Oxygen fugacity was calculated according to the olivine-orthopyroxene-spinel oxybarometer method of Wood et al. [4]. Results from five dredges along approximately 600 km of trench showed oxygen fugacity values of 1 log unit above the QFM buffer, compared to the global

  16. 810nm, 980nm, 1470nm and 1950nm diode laser comparison: a preliminary "ex vivo" study on oral soft tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Sozzi, Michele; Selleri, Stefano; Vescovi, Paolo; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2015-02-01

    The introduction of diode lasers in dentistry has several advantages, mainly consisting on the reduced size, reduced cost and possibility to beam delivering by optical fibers. At the moment the two diode wavelengths normally utilized in the dental field are 810 and 980 nm for soft tissues treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of four different diode wavelengths: 810, 980, 1470 and 1950 nm diode laser for the ablation of soft tissues. Several samples of veal tongue were exposed to the four different wavelengths, at different fluences. The internal temperature of the soft tissues, in the area close to the beam, was monitored with thermocouple during the experiment. The excision quality of the exposed samples have been characterized by means of an optical microscope. Tissue damages and the cut regularity have been evaluated on the base of established criteria. The lowest thermal increase was recorded for 1950 nm laser. Best quality and speed of incision were obtained by the same wavelength. By evaluating epithelial, stromal and vascular damages for all the used wavelengths, the best result, in terms of "tissue respect", have been obtained for 1470 and 1950 nm exposures. From the obtained results 1470 and 1950 nm diode laser showed to be the best performer wavelengths among these used in this "ex vivo" study, probably due to their greatest affinity to water.

  17. Radiation Failures in Intel 14nm Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossev, Dobrin P.; Duncan, Adam R.; Gadlage, Matthew J.; Roach, Austin H.; Kay, Matthew J.; Szabo, Carl; Berger, Tammy J.; York, Darin A.; Williams, Aaron; LaBel, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this study the 14 nm Intel Broadwell 5th generation core series 5005U-i3 and 5200U-i5 was mounted on Dell Inspiron laptops, MSI Cubi and Gigabyte Brix barebones and tested with Windows 8 and CentOS7 at idle. Heavy-ion-induced hard- and catastrophic failures do not appear to be related to the Intel 14nm Tri-Gate FinFET process. They originate from a small (9 m 140 m) area on the 32nm planar PCH die (not the CPU) as initially speculated. The hard failures seem to be due to a SEE but the exact physical mechanism has yet to be identified. Some possibilities include latch-ups, charge ion trapping or implantation, ion channels, or a combination of those (in biased conditions). The mechanism of the catastrophic failures seems related to the presence of electric power (1.05V core voltage). The 1064 nm laser mimics ionization radiation and induces soft- and hard failures as a direct result of electron-hole pair production, not heat. The 14nm FinFET processes continue to look promising for space radiation environments.

  18. Variable Holocene deformation above a shallow subduction zone extremely close to the trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Taylor, Frederick W; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Lavier, Luc L; Frohlich, Cliff; Wallace, Laura M; Wu, Chung-Che; Sun, Hailong; Papabatu, Alison K

    2015-06-30

    Histories of vertical crustal motions at convergent margins offer fundamental insights into the relationship between interplate slip and permanent deformation. Moreover, past abrupt motions are proxies for potential tsunamigenic earthquakes and benefit hazard assessment. Well-dated records are required to understand the relationship between past earthquakes and Holocene vertical deformation. Here we measure elevations and (230)Th ages of in situ corals raised above the sea level in the western Solomon Islands to build an uplift event history overlying the seismogenic zone, extremely close to the trench (4-40 km). We find marked spatiotemporal heterogeneity in uplift from mid-Holocene to present: some areas accrue more permanent uplift than others. Thus, uplift imposed during the 1 April 2007 Mw 8.1 event may be retained in some locations but removed in others before the next megathrust rupture. This variability suggests significant changes in strain accumulation and the interplate thrust process from one event to the next.

  19. Diversity of actinomycetes isolated from Challenger Deep sediment (10,898 m) from the Mariana Trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Stach, James E M; Ward, Alan C; Horikoshi, Koki; Bull, Alan T; Goodfellow, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Thirty-eight actinomycetes were isolated from sediment collected from the Mariana Trench (10,898 m) using marine agar and media selective for actinomycetes, notably raffinose-histidine agar. The isolates were assigned to the class Actinobacteria using primers specific for members of this taxon. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolates belonged to the genera Dermacoccus, Kocuria, Micromonospora, Streptomyces, Tsukamurella and Williamsia. All of the isolates were screened for genes encoding nonribosomal peptide and polyketide synthetases. Nonribosomal peptide synthetase sequences were detected in more than half of the isolates and polyketide synthases type I (PKS-I) were identified in five out of 38 strains. The Streptomyces isolates produced several unusual secondary metabolites, including a PKS-I associated product. In initial testing for piezotolerance, the Dermacoccus strain MT1.1 grew at elevated hydrostatic pressures.

  20. High rates of microbial carbon turnover in sediments in the deepest oceanic trench on Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie N.; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Middelboe, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    extent of the abyss, deep-sea sediments are quantitatively important for the global carbon cycle(2,3). However, the deepest regions of the ocean have remained virtually unexplored(4). Here, we present observations of microbial activity in sediments at Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench in the central...... west Pacific, which at almost 11,000 m depth represents the deepest oceanic site on Earth. We used an autonomous micro-profiling system to assess benthic oxygen consumption rates. We show that although the presence of macrofauna is restricted at Challenger Deep, rates of biological consumption......Microbes control the decomposition of organic matter in marine sediments. Decomposition, in turn, contributes to oceanic nutrient regeneration and influences the preservation of organic carbon(1). Generally, rates of benthic decomposition decline with increasing water depth, although given the vast...

  1. Discovery of dense aggregations of stalked crinoids in Izu-Ogasawara trench, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oji, Tatsuo; Ogawa, Yujiro; Hunter, Aaron W; Kitazawa, Kota

    2009-06-01

    Stalked crinoids are recognized as living fossils that typically inhabit modern deep-water environments exceeding 100 m. Previous records of stalked crinoids from hadal depths (exceeding 6000 m) are extremely rare, and no in-situ information has been available. We show here that stalked crinoids live densely on rocky substrates at depths over 9000 m in the Izu-Ogasawara Trench off the eastern coast of Japan, evidenced by underwater photos and videos taken by a remotely operated vehicle. This is the deepest in-situ observation of stalked crinoids and demonstrates that crinoid meadows can exist at hadal depths close to the deepest ocean floor, in a fashion quite similar to populations observed in shallower depths.

  2. Electrokinetic migration studies on removal of chromium and uranyl ions from 904-A trench soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.; Meaker, T.F.; O' Steen, A.B.

    1992-09-30

    This report describes a laboratory-scale study, in which electrokinetic migration technology was used to remove chromium and uranium, as well as other ions, from soil taken from a bore hole adjacent to the 904-A trench at the Savannah River Technology Center. Imposition of an electric current on humid (not saturated) soil successfully caused cations to migrate through the pore water of the soil to the cathode, where they were captured in an ISOLOCKTm polymer matrix and in a cation exchange resin incorporated in the polymer. Chemicals circulated through the anode/polymer and cathode/polymer were able to control pH excursions in the electrokinetic-cells by reacting with the H[sup +] and OH[sup [minus

  3. Shallow megathrust earthquake ruptures betrayed by their outer-trench aftershocks signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladen, Anthony; Trevisan, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    For some megathrust earthquakes, the rupture extends to the solid Earth's surface, at the ocean floor. This unexpected behaviour holds strong implications for the tsunami potential of subduction zones and for the physical conditions governing earthquakes, but such ruptures occur in underwater areas which are hard to observe, even with current instrumentation and imaging techniques. Here, we evidence that aftershocks occurring ocean-ward from the trench are conditioned by near-surface rupture of the megathrust fault. Comparison to well constrained earthquake slip models further reveals that for each event the number of aftershocks is proportional to the amount of shallow slip, a link likely related to static stress transfer. Hence, the spatial distribution of these specific aftershock sequences could provide independent constrains on the coseismic shallow slip of future events. It also offers the prospect to be able to reassess the rupture of many large subduction earthquakes back to the beginning of the instrumental era.

  4. Photomask development for 90-nm technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Cottle, Rand; Mackay, Scott; Xiao, Guangming; Unruh, James; Progler, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate the time-to-market of advanced photomasks, Photronics launched its 90nm program in spring 2003. The program included three learning cycles and a technology transfer phase. Both 90nm test masks and product masks from leading integrated device manufacturers (IDMs) and foundries were exercised through the cycles. Stringent success criteria were set based on a survey of leading customers" requirements and the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Hundreds of binary masks, embedded attenuated phase shift masks (EAPSMs), and alternating aperture phase shift masks (AAPSMs) were produced throughout the program. All targets were exceeded. This paper describes program success criteria, complexity of customer requirements, 90nm test vehicle design, and efforts on improving critical dimension (CD) uniformity and registration. Results in positive and negative chemically amplified resist (CAR) and tunable etching for AAPSM are shown. Details on AAPSM undercut optimization, intensity and CD imbalance are reported.

  5. Trench Town Rock”: Reggae Music, Landscape Inscription, and the Making of Place in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevon Rhiney

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines place inscriptions in Trench Town, Jamaica, and explores the ways these are used to reinforce, shape, or challenge dominant images of this inner-city community. On one hand, Trench Town is like many of its neighbouring communities, characterised by high levels of poverty, unemployment, political and gang violence, derelict buildings, and overcrowded homes. On the other hand, Trench Town is iconic and unique as it is recognised worldwide for being the birth place of reggae music and home to a number of well-known reggae artists including reggae superstar Bob Marley. Today, Trench Town’s landscape is filled with inscriptions reminiscent of its rich cultural past. Linked to this is a conscious effort by its residents to identify themselves with reggae music and to recapture and sustain the positive legacies that have made the community popular. This is manifested in the numerous murals, statues, and graffiti seen throughout the community evoking past images of reggae music icons such as Marley and Tosh alongside renowned black leaders such as Marcus Garvey. These inscriptions are conceived as texts and are seen as part of a broader discourse on issues relating to urban spatial identity, commoditisation, exclusion, struggle, resistance, and change.

  6. AABW-transport variation and its effect on internal wave motions between top and bottom of the Puerto Rico Trench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2017-01-01

    Slow subinertial variations in Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) are investigated interacting with internal waves and associated turbulent mixing in the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT), northwest Atlantic. Just below the PRT's top at 5,500 m, a deep-sea mooring was deployed for 14 months. Around 6,100 m, the

  7. Microbacterium indicum sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment sample from the Chagos Trench, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shivaji, S.; Bhadra, B.; Rao, R.S.; Chaturvedi, P.; Pindi, P.K.; Raghukumar, C.

    Two bacterial starins, BBH6 sup(T) and BBH9, were isolated from deep-sea sediment sample collected from the Chagos Trench, Indian Ocean, at a depth of 5904 m. The two strains were closely related in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (99.7 %) belonged...

  8. A subduction zone reference frame based on slab geometry and subduction partitioning of plate motion and trench migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2011-01-01

    The geometry of subducted slabs that interact with the transition zone depends critically on the partitioning of the subduction velocity (v S⊥) at the surface into its subducting plate motion component (vSP⊥) and trench migration component (vT⊥). Geodynamic models of progressive subduction

  9. Metrology of deep trench etched memory structures using 3D scatterometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinig, Peter; Dost, Rene; Moert, Manfred; Hingst, Thomas; Mantz, Ulrich; Moffitt, Jasen; Shakya, Sushil; Raymond, Christopher J.; Littau, Mike

    2005-05-01

    Scatterometry is receiving considerable attention as an emerging optical metrology in the silicon industry. One area of progress in deploying these powerful measurements in process control is performing measurements on real device structures, as opposed to limiting scatterometry measurements to periodic structures, such as line-space gratings, placed in the wafer scribe. In this work we will discuss applications of 3D scatterometry to the measurement of advanced trench memory devices. This is a challenging and complex scatterometry application that requires exceptionally high-performance computational abilities. In order to represent the physical device, the relatively tall structures require a high number of slices in the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) theoretical model. This is complicated further by the presence of an amorphous silicon hard mask on the surface, which is highly sensitive to reflectance scattering and therefore needs to be modeled in detail. The overall structure is comprised of several layers, with the trenches presenting a complex bow-shape sidewall that must be measured. Finally, the double periodicity in the structures demands significantly greater computational capabilities. Our results demonstrate that angular scatterometry is sensitive to the key parameters of interest. The influence of further model parameters and parameter cross correlations have to be carefully taken into account. Profile results obtained by non-library optimization methods compare favorably with cross-section SEM images. Generating a model library suitable for process control, which is preferred for precision, presents numerical throughput challenges. Details will be discussed regarding library generation approaches and strategies for reducing the numerical overhead. Scatterometry and SEM results will be compared, leading to conclusions about the feasibility of this advanced application.

  10. Liquid Carbon Reflectivity at 19 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Mincigrucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby report on a pump-probe reflectivity experiment conducted on amorphous carbon, using a 780 nm laser as a pump and a 19 nm FEL emission as probe. Measurements were performed at 50 degrees with respect to the surface normal to have an un-pumped reflectivity higher than 0.5%. A sub-10 fs time synchronization error could be obtained exploiting the nearly jitter-free capabilities of FERMI. EUV FEL-based experiments open the way to study the behaviour of a liquid carbon phase being unaffected by plasma screening.

  11. 1550-nm wavelength-tunable HCG VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Christopher; Rao, Yi; Huang, Michael; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate wavelength-tunable VCSELs using high contrast gratings (HCGs) as the top output mirror on VCSELs, operating at 1550 nm. Tunable HCG VCSELs with a ~25 nm mechanical tuning range as well as VCSELs with 2 mW output power were realized. Error-free operation of an optical link using directly-modulated tunable HCG VCSELs transmitting at 1.25 Gbps over 18 channels spaced by 100 GHz and transmitted over 20 km of single mode fiber is demonstrated, showing the suitability of the HCG tunable VCSEL as a low cost source for WDM communications systems.

  12. Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    in transmission loss, but also the reduction in the Raman gain coefficient as the amplifier wavelength is increased. Both polarization components of the Raman gain is characterized, initially for linearly co-polarized signal and pump, subsequently linearly polarized orthogonal signal and pump. The noise......We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...

  13. Geological mapping of investigation trench OL-TK18 at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, SW Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J. [GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    Survey of Finland at the Olkiluoto study site, Eurajoki, as part of Posiva Oy's site investigation programme for the development of an underground repository for nuclear waste. The E-W striking, ca. 55 m long trench is located in the central part of the Olkiluoto Island adjacent to investigation trenches OL-TK12 and OL-TK4. The trench was cleaned with a pressure washer and pressurized air. The rock types were determined macroscopically. The rock types in investigation trench OL-TK18 is of heterogeneous character, with a large variation in their composition. The rocks vary from tonalitic-granodioritic gneiss to diatexitic gneiss, with portions of K-feldspar porphyritic gneiss. Inclusions of mica gneiss and a well-preserved schollen migmatite is encountered. The trench ends in a feldspar-rich pegmatoid. The most dominant tectonic feature is D{sub 4} ductile deformation domain and associated S{sub 4} foliation. This domain and hence the S{sub 4} foliation is striking NE-SW with a moderate dip towards SE. Both ends of the trench are dominated by the earlier deformation phase, showing S{sub 3} foliation striking ENE-WSW and roughly dipping towards the S. The S{sub 3} foliation is associated with small-scaled granitic leucosome veining, while the S{sub 4} foliation have a schistose character and it is more sheared. D{sub 4} ductile deformation domain is also characterised by a sheared blastomylonitic rock having growth of roundish feldspar porphyroblasts and BTschlierens indicating high alteration of the protolith. During the fracture mapping, all fractures intersecting the central thread were investigated and a total of 117 fractures were recorded. The average fracture frequency of the trench is 2.11 fractures/m. On the basis of fracture orientations one main set can be distinguished striking NE-SW (foliation parallel) with a moderate dip towards the SE. The median fracture trace length is 1.6 m and over half of the fractures exceed 1.5 m trace length, the longest

  14. Quaternary Sediment Accumulation in the Aleutian Trench: Implications for Dehydration Reaction Progress and Pore Pressure Development Offshore Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meridth, L. N.; Screaton, E.; Jaeger, J. M.; James, S. R.; Villaseñor, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment inputs to subduction zones impart a significant control on diagenetic reaction progress, fluid production and pore pressure development and thus affect hydrologic and tectonic behavior during subduction. Intensified glaciation following the mid-Pleistocene transition increased sediment flux to the Gulf of Alaska. Rapid sediment accumulation (>1 km/my) in the Aleutian Trench increases overburden and should accelerate dehydration of hydrous sedimentary components by elevating temperatures in the incoming sediment column. These processes have the potential to generate fluid overpressures in the mud-dominated, low permeability sediments deposited on the incoming plate, offshore SE Alaska. Mineralogical analyses on incoming sediments from Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 18 and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 show that both smectite and Opal-A are present as hydrous mineral phases. A 1-D numerical model was developed to track dehydration reaction progress and pore pressures in the incoming sediment column from the abyssal plain to the Aleutian Trench. Simulated temperatures in the incoming column increase due to the insulating effect of trench sediments. As a result, trench sedimentation causes smectite dehydration to begin and Opal-A dehydration to nearly reach completion at the deformation front. Simulated excess pore pressures in the proto-decollement zone increase from nearly hydrostatic to almost half of lithostatic due to the rapid deposition of trench sediments. The 1-D modeling results were incorporated into a 2-D model that follows the underthrust column at the deformation front into the subduction zone. Simulated results of the 2-D flow model illustrate the effects of lateral flow on pore pressure distribution following subduction.

  15. Flexural modeling of the elastic lithosphere at an ocean trench: A parameter sensitivity analysis using analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo; Garay, Jeremías

    2018-01-01

    The outer rise is a topographic bulge seaward of the trench at a subduction zone that is caused by bending and flexure of the oceanic lithosphere as subduction commences. The classic model of the flexure of oceanic lithosphere w (x) is a hydrostatic restoring force acting upon an elastic plate at the trench axis. The governing parameters are elastic thickness Te, shear force V0, and bending moment M0. V0 and M0 are unknown variables that are typically replaced by other quantities such as the height of the fore-bulge, wb, and the half-width of the fore-bulge, (xb - xo). However, this method is difficult to implement with the presence of excessive topographic noise around the bulge of the outer rise. Here, we present an alternative method to the classic model, in which lithospheric flexure w (x) is a function of the flexure at the trench axis w0, the initial dip angle of subduction β0, and the elastic thickness Te. In this investigation, we apply a sensitivity analysis to both methods in order to determine the impact of the differing parameters on the solution, w (x). The parametric sensitivity analysis suggests that stable solutions for the alternative approach requires relatively low β0 values (<15°), which are consistent with the initial dip angles observed in seismic velocity-depth models across convergent margins worldwide. The predicted flexure for both methods are compared with observed bathymetric profiles across the Izu-Mariana trench, where the old and cold Pacific plate is characterized by a pronounced outer rise bulge. The alternative method is a more suitable approach, assuming that accurate geometric information at the trench axis (i.e., w0 and β0) is available.

  16. 130-nm tunable grating-mirror VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that a combination of the high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirror as movable mirror and the extended cavity configuration with an antireflection layer can provide a tuning wavelength range of 100 nm for tunable VCSELs. Here, we report that using the air-coupled cavity configurat......We have reported that a combination of the high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirror as movable mirror and the extended cavity configuration with an antireflection layer can provide a tuning wavelength range of 100 nm for tunable VCSELs. Here, we report that using the air-coupled cavity...... configuration instead of the extended cavity configuration can bring 130-nm tuning range around 1330-nm wavelength. The air-coupled cavity is known to reduce the quantum confinement factor in VCSELs, increasing threshold. In our air-coupled cavity HCG VCSEL case, the very short power penetration length...... in the HCG minimizes this reduction of the quantum confinement factor, not as significant as in the air-coupled cavity DBR VCSEL....

  17. Alveolar macrophage accumulation rates, for 28 nm and 250 nm PSL, are mediated by separate mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, O R; Wong, V A, E-mail: moss@thehamner.or [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27509-2137 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    When macrophages accumulate 28 nm and 250 nm diameter polystyrene latex (PSL) beads, the accumulation rates should reflect differences in molecular and cellular function. We used a confocal microscope to measure the accumulation rates of nanoparticles by F344-rat-alveolar macrophages (approx25,000 cells adhered to a 0.7 cm{sup 2} surface). Over the cells were layered 0.1 ml of media, and 0.1 ml of media-with-beads. Fresh cells were introduced for each exposure scenario. The maximum possible individual macrophage exposures were as follows: 8x10{sup 6}, 8x10{sup 5}, and 8x10{sup 4} 28 nm beads per macrophage; and 8x10{sup 4} and 1.12x10{sup 4} 250 nm beads per macrophage. Accumulation rates were estimated over 23 minutes. The increase in bead accumulation-rate matched changes in bead-availability: 7x increase for 250 nm beads; 100x increase for 28 nm beads; and 700x increase for all bead availabilities. The maximum sustained 28 nm bead accumulation rate was > 30,000 /min (for 5 min). Increases in bead accumulation could be explained by two mechanisms: bead-diffusion; and, for the macrophage, macropinocytosis. Also for the highest concentrations of 28 nm beads, we saw a colligative threshold - possibly due to beads masking the cell surface or obstructing cellular mechanisms.

  18. Alveolar macrophage accumulation rates, for 28 nm and 250 nm PSL, are mediated by separate mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, O. R.; Wong, V. A.

    2009-02-01

    When macrophages accumulate 28 nm and 250 nm diameter polystyrene latex (PSL) beads, the accumulation rates should reflect differences in molecular and cellular function. We used a confocal microscope to measure the accumulation rates of nanoparticles by F344-rat-alveolar macrophages (~25,000 cells adhered to a 0.7 cm2 surface). Over the cells were layered 0.1 ml of media, and 0.1 ml of media-with-beads. Fresh cells were introduced for each exposure scenario. The maximum possible individual macrophage exposures were as follows: 8x106, 8x105, and 8x104 28 nm beads per macrophage; and 8x104 and 1.12x104 250 nm beads per macrophage. Accumulation rates were estimated over 23 minutes. The increase in bead accumulation-rate matched changes in bead-availability: 7x increase for 250 nm beads; 100x increase for 28 nm beads; and 700x increase for all bead availabilities. The maximum sustained 28 nm bead accumulation rate was > 30,000 /min (for 5 min). Increases in bead accumulation could be explained by two mechanisms: bead-diffusion; and, for the macrophage, macropinocytosis. Also for the highest concentrations of 28 nm beads, we saw a colligative threshold -- possibly due to beads masking the cell surface or obstructing cellular mechanisms.

  19. Mathematical modeling of 980-nm and 1320-nm endovenous laser treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordon, Serge R; Wassmer, Benjamin; Zemmouri, Jaouad

    2007-03-01

    Endovenous laser treatment (ELT) has been proposed as an alternative in the treatment of reflux of the great saphenous vein (GSV) and small saphenous vein (SSV). Numerous studies have since demonstrated that this technique is both safe and efficacious. ELT was presented initially using diode lasers of 810 nm, 940 nm, and 980 nm. Recently, a 1,320-nm Nd:YAG laser was introduced for ELT. This study aims to provide mathematical modeling of ELT in order to compare 980 nm and 1,320 nm laser-induced damage of saphenous veins. The model is based on calculations describing light distribution using the diffusion approximation of the transport theory, the temperature rise using the bioheat equation, and the laser-induced injury using the Arrhenius damage model. The geometry to simulate ELT was based on a 2D model consisting of a cylindrically symmetric blood vessel including a vessel wall and surrounded by an infinite homogenous tissue. The mathematical model was implemented using the Macsyma-Pdease2D software (Macsyma, Inc., Arlington, MA). Calculations were performed so as to determine the damage induced in the intima tunica, the externa tunica and inside the peri-venous tissue for 3 mm and 5 mm vessels (considered after tumescent anesthesia) and different linear endovenous energy densities (LEED) usually reported in the literature. Calculations were performed for two different vein diameters: 3 mm and 5 mm and with LEED typically reported in the literature. For 980 nm, LEED: 50 to 160 J/cm (CW mode, 2 mm/second pullback speed, power: 10 W to 32 W) and for 1,320 nm, LEED: 50 to 80 J/cm (pulsed mode, pulse duration 1.2 milliseconds, peak power: 135 W, repetition rate 30 Hz to 50 Hz). Numerical simulations are in agreement with LEED reported in clinical studies. Mathematical modeling shows clearly that 1,320 nm, with a better absorption by the vessel wall, requires less energy to achieve wall damage. In the 810-1,320-nm range, blood plays only a minor role. Consequently, the

  20. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  1. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: the semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Stewart M; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with a land requirement of 0.2m(2)/person year, a cover to waste ratio of 0.2, and an estimated soil surplus of 298,000 m(3) that is valorized and used onsite. The landfill has been operated solely by the municipality with an operational cost in 2010 estimated at US$4.60 per ton. A modified water balance analysis at Villanueva shows negligible leachate generation from covered trenches and 700 m(3)/yr (60 m(3)/ha yr) from the two open

  2. Influence of silicon and atomic order on the magnetic properties of (Fe{sub 80}Al{sub 20}){sub 100}-{sub x}Si{sub x} nanostructured system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, G. Y., E-mail: gyovelca@univalle.edu.co; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Zamora, Ligia E. [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Fisica (Colombia); Romero, J. J.; Martinez, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado IMA (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Mechanically alloyed (Fe{sub 80}Al{sub 20}){sub 100-x}Si{sub x} alloys (with x = 0, 10, 15 and 20) were prepared by using a high energy planetary ball mill, with milling times of 12, 24 and 36 h. The structural and magnetic study was conducted by X-rays diffraction and Moessbauer spectrometry. The system is nanostructured and presents only the BCC disordered phase, whose lattice parameter remains constant with milling time, and decreases when the Si content increases. We found that lattice contraction is influenced 39% by the iron substitution and 61% by the aluminum substitution, by silicon atoms. The Moessbauer spectra and their respective hyperfine magnetic field distributions show that for every milling time used here, the ferromagnetism decreases when x increases. For samples with x {>=} 15 a paramagnetic component appears. From the shape of the magnetic field distributions we stated that the larger ferromagnetic phase observed in the samples alloyed during 24 and 36 h is a consequence of the structural disorder induced by mechanical alloying.

  3. Sub-10 nm Silicon Nanopillar Fabrication Using Fast and Brushless Thermal Assembly of PS-b-PDMS Diblock Copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Jérôme; Arias-Zapata, Javier; Marconot, Olivier; Arnaud, Sandrine; Böhme, Sophie; Girardot, Cécile; Buttard, Denis; Zelsmann, Marc

    2016-04-20

    A new approach to obtaining spherical nanodomains using polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) is proposed. To reduce drastically the process time, we blended a copolymer with cylindrical morphology with a PS homopolymer. Adding PS homopolymer into a low-molar-mass cylindrical morphology PS-b-PDMS system drives it toward a spherical morphology. Besides, by controlling the as-spun state, spherical PDMS nanodomains could be kept and thermally arranged. This PS-homopolymer addition allows not only an efficient, purely thermal arrangement process of spheres but also the ability to work directly on nontreated silicon substrates. Indeed, as shown by STEM measurements, no PS brush surface treatment was necessary in our study to avoid a PDMS wetting layer at the interface with the Si substrate. Our approach was compared to a sphere-forming diblock copolymer, which needs a longer thermal annealing. Furthermore, GISAXS measurements provided complete information on PDMS sphere features. Excellent long-range order spherical microdomains were therefore produced on flat surfaces and inside graphoepitaxy trenches with a period of 21 nm, as were in-plane spheres with a diameter of 8 nm with a 15 min thermal annealing. Finally, direct plasma-etching transfer into the silicon substrate was demonstrated, and 20 nm high silicon nanopillars were obtained, which are very promising results for various nanopatterning applications.

  4. Electrodeposition of Gold to Conformally Fill High Aspect Ratio Nanometric Silicon Grating Trenches: A Comparison of Pulsed and Direct Current Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znati, Sami A.; Chedid, Nicholas; Miao, Houxun; Chen, Lei; Bennett, Eric E.; Wen, Han

    2016-01-01

    Filling high-aspect-ratio trenches with gold is a frequent requirement in the fabrication of x-ray optics as well as micro-electronic components and other fabrication processes. Conformal electrodeposition of gold in sub-micron-width silicon trenches with an aspect ratio greater than 35 over a grating area of several square centimeters is challenging and has not been described in the literature previously. A comparison of pulsed plating and constant current plating led to a gold electroplating protocol that reliably filled trenches for such structures. PMID:27042384

  5. Design of an 1800 nm Raman Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    in the pump power requirement and deteriorated noise properties. Here we demonstrate a Raman amplifier designed for signal wavelengths around 1800 nm. The amplification fiber is an OFS PM Raman fiber, and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser emitting at 1680 nm [4]. The amplifier was pumped co...... suggested as potential transmission fibers for extended wavelength operation, as low losses at long wavelengths have been predicted [3]. Fig. 1 illustrates the predicted low loss limit for a hollow core fiber and for comparison the measured loss of a OFS True Wave fiber. Besides low loss transmission fibers......, also extended band amplifiers are required. As a solution to the latter challenge, Raman amplifiers are suggested as promising candidates. The main hurdle when designing a long wavelength Raman amplifier is the increased intrinsic fiber attenuation which as a consequence leads to an increase...

  6. Monitoring postseismic motion of the frontal wedge after 2011 Tohoku Earthquake by across-trench acoustic ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ryusuke; Hino, Ryota; Kido, Motoyuki; Honsho, Chie

    2017-04-01

    After the occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake causing > 50 m coseismic slip at the shallowest portion of the plate boundary (e.g. Iinuma et al., 2012, JGR), evident postseismic deformation has been observed by seafloor geodetic observations. Fast postseismic displacement rates observed by GPS/Acoustic (GPS/A) measurements both on the landward- and oceanward-slopes of the Japan Trench can be by viscoelastic relaxation induced by the mainshock (e.g. Sun et al., 2014, Nature; Watanabe et al., 2014, GRL; Tomita et al., 2015, GRL). However, the prevalence of the viscoelastic relaxation makes it difficult to evaluate behavior of the shallow megathrust after the massive coseismic slip based on the available GPS/A data. It is expected that the relative motion of the frontal wedge against the incoming oceanic plate reflects the motion of the shallow plate boundary fault and we have been carried out seafloor acoustic ranging observations across the Japan Trench to monitor it. Acoustic ranging measures two-way travel times between a pair of precision acoustic transponders placed on the seafloor. By repeating the measurements and after correcting for sound speed fluctuations, temporal change of measured travel time is converted to change of the baseline length. We have deployed instruments to make long-term continuous acoustic ranging across the Japan Trench, since 2013. Osada et al. (2014, JpGU) estimated the precision of the baseline length measurement to be several mm/year for 1 km baseline and proved that our acoustic ranging technique is capable of detecting seafloor motion at a rate of cm/year, equivalent to the expected rate of relative motions across the Japan Trench. Yamamoto et al. (2016, JpGU) reported no significant changes of the baseline lengths across the trench axis and suggested absence of afterslip on the shallow fault in the area. In this paper, we show results of most recent deployment from September 2015 to September 2016 at the same region. In this

  7. 1550 nm high contrast grating VCSEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Christopher; Rao, Yi; Hofmann, Werner; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2010-07-19

    We demonstrate an electrically pumped high contrast grating (HCG) VCSEL operating at 1550 nm incorporating a proton implant-defined aperture. Output powers of >1 mW are obtained at room temperature under continuous wave operation. Devices operate continuous wave at temperatures exceeding 60 degrees C. The novel device design, which is grown in a single epitaxy step, may enable lower cost long wavelength VCSELs.

  8. 70-nm-bandwidth achromatic waveguide coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, S B; Li, L; Burke, J J; Lee, J E; Saavedra, S S

    1995-09-20

    We report a general approach to the design of broadband waveguide couplers. A double-parallel grating assembly is used to cancel the first chromatic order, and a proper choice of prism glass and base angle is made to compensate for the second chromatic order. The technique was applied to a Corning glass 7059 waveguide, and a spectral bandwidth of 70 nm was measured by the use of two complementary procedures.

  9. Inactivation of oxytocin by 254 nm radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erndt, A.; Karolczyk-Kostuch, S.; Polaczek, E.

    1975-01-01

    Irradiation of oxytocin in diluted solutions with 254 nm light reduced markedly the hormone activity. The decrease in activity in the range between 0 and 20 percent was nearly proportional to the increase in sulfhydryl group concentration. In view of the fundamental role of cystyl residue in holding the oxytocin native backbone conformation the results suggest that disulfide bond cleavage makes an essential contribution to photoinactivation of this hormone under the conditions used.

  10. Geochemistry of the Taitao ophiolite and near-trench intrusions from the Chile margin triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeding, M.; Forsythe, R. D.; Nelson, E. P.

    The Taitao ophiolite of southern Chile lies 10 km from the buried extension of the Peru-Chile trench, and less than 50 km from the present position of the Nazca/South America/Antarctica triple junction. Plio-Pleistocene radiometric and paleontologic ages indicate its formation during ridge subduction, and an ultramafic rock, gabbro, sheeted dike, volcanic and sedimentary rock psuedostratigraphy suggests formation by typical accretionary processes for oceanic lithosphere. Yet major and trace element data show that mafic dikes and volcanic units are transitional from MORB to IAT, and there are abundant silicic volcanic units of calc-alkaline character that have high LIL element and light REE concentrations relative to oceanic plagiogranites. Sr and Nd isotopic data are consistent with that of modern oceanic suites, even though having a greater internal variability. Silicic volcanic units show the more enriched Sr and depleted Nd isotopic ratios relative to dike and gabbro samples. In addition to chemical distinctions, paleobathymetric data support a shallow water origin for some of the upper volcanic units and, assuming local compensation, suggest crustal thicknesses of continental proportion. In the vicinity of the Taitao ophiolite, and extending some 40 km landward of the plate margin, are a series of silicic stocks, sills, and plutons that were intruded into the forearc at the time of ridge collision and ophiolite generation. These calc-alkaline I-type granitoids are light REE enriched and have Sr and Nd isotopic compositions similar to those of the main volcanic chain 200 km landward. Chemically, some of the silicic intrusions are indistinguishable from volcanic units of the ophiolite. In general, major, trace, REE, and isotopic variations of both the ophiolite and the distributed intrusions are atypical of simple fractionation trends for basaltic liquids. Intermediate to silicic units lie along mixing hyperbolae between Taitao gabbro and either forearc sediment

  11. Making an outreach movie -The Puerto Rico Trench: Exploring the deepest place in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, J.; ten Brink, U. S.

    2004-12-01

    A new movie will be screened that describes the exploration of the Puerto Rico trench with a multibeam echosounder and its significance to scientific research and tsunami hazard assessment. The movie audience is the general public including high school students. It aims to stimulate interest in Oceanography and to demonstrate scientific processes as they are applied in Geological Oceanography. The extensive use of 3-D visualization fly-bys over the dramatic ocean floor of the Puerto Rico trench should be particularly appealing to a generation growing up on video games and 3-D visualizations. The film is the product of close cooperation between a film maker and a scientist through all stages of its production and post production. This level of close cooperation is necessary because scientists' and film makers' approaches to presentation of information can differ greatly. In making an educational or outreach movie, the scientist must be responsible for the contents of the message, but the film maker has to design an effective delivery method. The creation of this movie was the result of following stages: (1) live action filming during a short research cruise; (2) generating 3-D fly-by using Fledermausr software; (3) rendering the fly-by sequences to a high-definition film; (4) collecting still photos and other supporting material; (5) generating graphs illustrating crucial scientific information and concepts; (6) preparing the script for voiceover narration; (7) working with a professional actor in order to ensure accurate delivery of the information. The biggest challenge in making the movie was the editing stage when the different elements of the movie were put together, incorporating music and voiceover into an aesthetically pleasing, interesting, and above all, scientifically accurate and coherent movie. Post-editing steps included replication of the master copy, package design, and distribution. The movie was completed in several weeks on a modest budget, thanks

  12. Ultra high efficiency 1550nm multi-junction pulsed laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean-François; Vilokkinen, Ville; Rainbow, Paul; Uusimaa, Petteri; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Ranta, Sanna

    2009-09-01

    The 1550nm wavelength region is critical to the development of next generation eye safe military applications such as range finding and friend or foe identification (FOE). So far the relatively low laser external efficiency was a strong limiting factor favoring shorter wavelength diode lasers. We report on the development of a new monolithic multiple junction pulsed laser diode offering an external efficiency of more than one Watt per Amp with high brightness. Peak optical output power of more than 37 Watts has been achieved from a single multi-junction diode laser. Divergence is narrow with less than 35 degrees (FWHM) in the fast axis direction. Starting from an AlGaInAs quantum well laser structure, we show the criticality of the design of InP based tunnel junctions to the growth of the three layer epitaxial monolithic laser. We then report on trenches employed to confine carriers under the contacting stripe and on growth strategies used to decouple the multiple light sources resulting from the multi-junction design. A full set of characterization data is presented concluding with a discussion on performance limitations and their potential causes.

  13. AMS measurement of {sup 10}Be concentrations in marine sediments from Chile Trench at the TANDAR laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, D., E-mail: darodrig@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Departamento de Física Experimental, Laboratorio TANDAR, GIyA, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arazi, A. [Departamento de Física Experimental, Laboratorio TANDAR, GIyA, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernández Niello, J.O. [Departamento de Física Experimental, Laboratorio TANDAR, GIyA, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín (Argentina); CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, 25 de Mayo y Francia, B1650BWA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martí, G.V. [Departamento de Física Experimental, Laboratorio TANDAR, GIyA, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA San Martín (Argentina); and others

    2017-03-15

    The {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios in marine sediments samples from the Southern Chile Trench have been measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The samples were measured at the TANDAR accelerator, where the discrimination of the {sup 10}Be radionuclides was achieved by means of a passive absorber in front of an ionization chamber. This setup along with the high voltage available, provided a complete suppression of the {sup 10}B isobar interference. The obtained values for the {sup 10}Be concentrations, of the order of 10{sup 9} atoms/g, are the first {sup 10}Be measurements from the Southern Chile Trench and offer an excellent tracer to quantitatively study the recycling of sediments in Andean magmas.

  14. The efficiency of trenches as runoff water harvesting systems and the role of their design in minimizing water losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Pedro; Carmi, Gennady; Agam, Nurit; Leake, Solomon

    2016-04-01

    Water is a primary limiting factor to agricultural development in many arid and semi-arid regions. In these regions, much of the annual rainfall occurs as a result of a few intensive convective storms. Only a small fraction of the rain is absorbed by the soil, does not penetrate deeply into the soil profile and is mostly lost by direct evaporation into the atmosphere shortly after the rain event. Usually the fraction that is not absorbed by the soil, flows as the runoff to the lower laying parts of the land and is thus lost for plant production. The technique of collecting the runoff and conveying it to areas, in which it can be ponded, is known as runoff harvesting. This technique may be used for food, fuel production, flood and erosion control, as well as for landscape development. In terms of combating desertification and degradation, water harvesting appears to be a viable solution. Microcatchments are one of the primary techniques used for collecting, storing and conserving local surface runoff for growing trees/shrubs. In this system, runoff water is collected close-by the area in which it was generated, and trees/shrubs may utilize the water during the next dry season. The main objective of the present research was to estimate the effect the shape of the micro-catchment collection area (shallow basin and deep trench) has on the efficiency of the water conservation in the soil profile The study was carried out using regular micro-catchments (three replicates) with a surface area of 9 m2 (3 x 3 m) and a depth of 0.1 m and trenches (three replicates) with a surface area of 12 m2 (12 x 1 m) and 1 m depth. One and three olive trees were planted inside the trenches and micro-catchments, respectively. Access tubes for neutron probe were installed in micro-catchments and trenches (four and seven, respectively) to depths of 3 m. Soil water content in the soil profile was monitored. Sap flow in trees was measured by PS-TDP8 Granier sap flow system every 0.5 hour and

  15. Enzymatic (?) activity associated with humic substances in deep sediments from the Cariaco Trench and Walvis Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, Arie; Serban, Andrei

    1987-02-01

    Sediment samples from the Cariaco Trench (DSDP Leg 15) and the Walvis Ridge (DSDP Leg 65) ranging in age from Holocene to Upper Miocene (approximately 8,000,000 years BP) and in depth from 5 to 258 m were extracted with basic sodium pyrophosphate and the extract analyzed for enzymic activity. Since no dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase or esterase activity was found, it is estimated from these data that the maximum bacterial population does not exceed 10 3 cells per gram dry sediment. Peroxidase activity was, however, found in most samples: this showed marked dependence on the humic substance concentration (expressed as percent of the organic carbon content) and increased with depth at a rate of 33 units per meter. To explain this observation, we favor an hypothesis based on the presence of active humic-enzyme association. The humic substances absorb and stabilize peroxidase which is liberated throughout the sediment column by lysis of cells. The association of the enzyme with the humic substances protects it from biodegradation and denaturation. This hypothesis agrees with laboratory experiments which show the enhanced stability of humic-enzyme complexes towards degradation by biological, chemical and thermal effects.

  16. Gate field plate IGBT with trench accumulation layer for extreme injection enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaorui; Chen, Wanjun; Liu, Chao; Chen, Nan; Tao, Hong; Shi, Yijun; Ma, Yinchang; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A gate field plate IGBT (GFP-IGBT) with extreme injection enhancement is proposed and verified using TCAD simulations. The GFP-IGBT features a gate field plate (GFP) inserted into n-drift region directly and a tiny P-base region separated from the GFP. In the ON-state, the accumulation layer is formed near to not only the bottom but also the side of the trench, which enhances electron injection efficiency. And the tiny P-base region reduces the holes extracted by reverse-biased P-base/N-drift junction. Both the GFP and tiny P-base contribute to achieving extreme injection enhancement, leading to a low forward voltage drop. In the OFF-state, due to the low stored charges in N-buffer layer, GFP-IGBT shows a short current fall time, leading to a decrease of turn-off loss. The simulation results show that, compared with the conventional IGBT, the GFP-IGBT offers a forward voltage drop reduction of 25% or current fall time reduction of 89% (i.e. turn-off loss reduction of 53%), resulting in low power loss. The excellent device performance, coupled with a commercial IGBT-compatible fabrication process, makes the proposed GFP-IGBT a promising candidate for power switching applications.

  17. Sport in the trenches: the new deal for masculinity in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waquet, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    During the First World War, the life of a soldier was not just reduced to the trenches. In daily military life behind the lines, soldiers had recreational activities, some of which were seen as a test of virility, such as visiting brothels, and also, as we want to show in this paper, sport practices. For most of the French citizen-soldiers, who were working class and mainly from the countryside, the contact with allied soldiers has to be understood as a significant step in the social construction of gender. Educated in gymnastics, shooting and military exercises, French infantrymen (Poilus) and civilians saw allied sports and soldier-sportsmen as models of a modern masculinity. In a descriptive study of the development of football in the French army, our article tries to demonstrate firstly, that football learnt in the army by workers and the French rural society extended the influence of sport and its part in the construction of masculinity in France. Secondly, we show that the official recognition of sport in 1917 by the French army led to the definition of a modern French masculinity and to the recognition of the sportsmen-soldier as the model of hegemonic masculinity.

  18. INORGANIC PLUME DELINEATION USING SURFACE HIGH RESOLUTION ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AT THE BC CRIBS & TRENCHES SITE HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2007-05-29

    A surface resistivity survey was conducted on the Hanford Site over a waste disposal trench that received a large volume of liquid inorganic waste. The objective of the survey was to map the extent of the plume that resulted from the disposal activities approximately 50 years earlier. The survey included six resistivity transects of at least 200m, where each transect provided two-dimensional profile information of subsurface electrical properties. The results of the survey indicated that a low resistivity plume resides at a depth of approximately 25-44 m below ground surface. The target depth was calibrated with borehole data of pore-water electrical conductivity. Due to the high correlation of the pore-water electrical conductivity to nitrate concentration and the high correlation of measured apparent resistivity to pore-water electrical conductivity, inferences were made that proposed the spatial distribution of the apparent resistivity was due to the distribution of nitrate. Therefore, apparent resistivities were related to nitrate, which was subsequently rendered in three dimensions to show that the nitrate likely did not reach the water table and the bounds of the highest concentrations are directly beneath the collection of waste sites.

  19. Brevibacterium oceani sp. nov., isolated from deep-sea sediment of the Chagos Trench, Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Bhaskar; Raghukumar, Chandralata; Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2008-01-01

    Two bacterial strains, designated BBH5 and BBH7(T), were isolated from a deep-sea sediment sample collected from the Chagos Trench of the Indian Ocean (1 degrees 06' S 7 degrees 31' E). Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.9%), level of DNA-DNA relatedness (93%) and a number of similar phenotypic characteristics, the two strains are identified as representing the same species. Their phylogenetically nearest neighbours, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values (97.9-98.4%), were identified as Brevibacterium iodinum, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Brevibacterium linens and Brevibacterium permense. However, strains BBH5 and BBH7(T) could be distinguished from the above four species by a number of phenotypic characteristics, and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two new isolates and these Brevibacterium species were 35-42%. Therefore, strains BBH5 and BBH7(T) are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Brevibacterium, for which the name Brevibacterium oceani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BBH7(T) (=LMG 23457(T) =IAM 15353(T)).

  20. Deformation patterns in the southwestern part of the Mediterranean Ridge (South Matapan Trench, Western Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronikidis, Nikolaos; Kokinou, Eleni; Vafidis, Antonios; Kamberis, Evangelos; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil

    2017-12-01

    Seismic reflection data and bathymetry analyses, together with geological information, are combined in the present work to identify seabed structural deformation and crustal structure in the Western Mediterranean Ridge (the backstop and the South Matapan Trench). As a first step, we apply bathymetric data and state of art methods of pattern recognition to automatically detect seabed lineaments, which are possibly related to the presence of tectonic structures (faults). The resulting pattern is tied to seismic reflection data, further assisting in the construction of a stratigraphic and structural model for this part of the Mediterranean Ridge. Structural elements and stratigraphic units in the final model are estimated based on: (a) the detected lineaments on the seabed, (b) the distribution of the interval velocities and the presence of velocity inversions, (c) the continuity and the amplitudes of the seismic reflections, the seismic structure of the units and (d) well and stratigraphic data as well as the main tectonic structures from the nearest onshore areas. Seabed morphology in the study area is probably related with the past and recent tectonics movements that result from African and European plates' convergence. Backthrusts and reverse faults, flower structures and deep normal faults are among the most important extensional/compressional structures interpreted in the study area.

  1. High Power Self-Aligned, Trench-Implanted 4H-SiC JFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamvoukakis K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process technology for the fabrication of 4H-SiC trenched-implanted-gate 4H–SiC vertical-channel JFET (TI-VJFET has been developed. The optimized TIVJFETs have been fabricated with self-aligned nickel silicide source and gate contacts using a process sequence that greatly reduces process complexity as it includes only four lithography steps. A source-pillars sidewall oxidation and subsequent removal of the metallization from the top of the sidewall oxide ensured isolation between gate and source. Optimum planarization of the source pillars top has been performed by cyclotene spin coating and etch back. The effect of the channel geometry on the electrical characteristics has been studied by varying its length (0.3 and 1.2μm and its width (1.5-5μm. The voltage blocking exhibits a triode shape, which is typical for a static-induction transistor (SIT operation. The transistors exhibited high ON current handling capabilities (Direct Current density >1kA/cm2 and values of RON ranging from 6 - 12 mΩ•cm2 depending on the channel length. Maximum voltage blocking was 800V limited by the edge termination. The maximum voltage gain was 51. Most transistors were normally-on. Normally-off operation has been observed for transistors lower than 2μm channel width (mask level and deep implantation.

  2. Reprocessing and Interpretation of Vintage Seismic Reflection Data: Evidence for the Tectonic History of the Rocky Mountain Trench, Northwest Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M.; Speece, M. A.; Rutherford, B. S.; Constenius, K. N.

    2014-12-01

    In 1983 Techno, Inc. collected five seismic reflection profiles in the region between Whitefish, Montana and the United States-Canada border. The poulter method was used to gather four of these profiles and one profile was collected using a vibroseis source. We are currently reprocessing these data in order to construct a regional geological interpretation. The profiles cover a key position in the hinterland of the Cordillera in the lee of the Lewis thrust salient where the east-northeast verging Lewis thrust fault system translated (horizontal displacement >100 km) and inverted a thick, strong slab of primarily Belt-Purcell rocks out of a deep Precambrian depositional basin onto a cratonic platform. In this event, Belt-Purcell rocks were thrust over complexly imbricated Phanerozoic strata in the foreland. Late Mesozoic compressional deformation was followed by Cenozoic extensional collapse of the over-thickened Cordillera and subsequent basin and range style deformation that produced an array of northwest trending grabens. Three of the seismic profiles cross the Rocky Mountain Trench; the Trench is a linear structure of regional dimension that is an expression of the extensional fragmentation of the Cordillera. Strong reflections, interpreted as sills encased within Lower Belt rocks (encountered in the Arco-Marathon 1 Paul Gibbs borehole), outline the complexly folded and faulted structure of the eastern limb of the Purcell anticlinorium. East of the Rocky Mountain Trench stratified reflections within Belt rocks clearly outline the Wigwam Thrust. Beneath the Whitefish Range, an apparent inflection in the strongly reflective basal Cambrian veneer marks the westerly increase in dip of the Rocky Mountain Basal Detachment. The dip contrast between the foreland and hinterland might be a manifestation of the tectonic loading of the Belt basin margin and the loading might have localized extension across the Rocky Mountain Trench.

  3. Low-intensity LED (625 and 405 nm) and laser (805 nm) killing of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2009-02-01

    In the present work we have investigated in vitro sensitivity of microorganisms P. acnes and S. epidermidis to action of red (625 nm and 405 nm) and infrared (805 nm) radiations in combination with photosensitizes Methylene Blue and Indocyanine Green.

  4. Project clean city: joint trenching for urban facilities; Projeto cidade limpa: vala tecnica para instalacoes urbanas - sistema infavias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aloisio Pereira da [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to propose a join trench for urban facilities, using concepts related to planning and urban cadastre, sustainability of resource use, and mainly focus on safety during construction, operation and maintenance. The model proposes the replacement of individual construction of facilities of natural gas, potable water, telephone, data transmission and electricity (low and medium voltage) by a system that encompasses all of these facilities in a trench, the deployment may also occur in the same period or if necessary, or at different times, creating flexibility in the system. The security of facilities due to the operational interface between the concessionaires and clients will be ensured by the protected by reinforced concrete structure, designed using the concept of 'fail-safing', derived from the Toyota Production System. The joint trench model was designed from the perspective of sustainability and technological innovation for your future use of the new design of power supply, through the concept of 'Smart Grid' with the use of bidirectional power system transmission and distribution, in decentralized model for generating electricity through cogeneration systems with natural gas. (author)

  5. Methodology for determination of pipeline trenching depth in shore approach areas using local environmental data and numerical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Valeria S.; Braga, Vinicius R.; Mansur Barros, Claudio R.; Martinez, Marcio B.; Piaulino, Pedro O.; Teixeira, Marcelo J.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gusmao, Luiz A.B. [Aquamodelo Consultoria e Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Shore-approach engineering design of pipelines, including pipeline trenching specifications, presents great complexity due to comparatively (in relation to deeper waters) harsher environmental conditions and highly dynamic interaction between waves, currents and sediment transport. In general, pipelines should be buried in beach areas, but depending on the sea conditions and the trench depth, the pipeline may become unburied during its operational life. Unburied pipelines at shore-approach areas may suffer the action of unpredicted loads. The uncertainty related to these loads may decrease the structural reliability of the pipeline. the problem to be solved is how deep a pipeline requires to be trenched at the shore approach area, considering that it should be kept in this condition throughout its design life. This should be achieved with a cost-effective solution, assuring the structural reliability of the pipeline during operation, in addition to considering the feasibility of the project. Directional wave, water level, beach profile and sediment grain distribution data in the shore approach area permit determination of typical profiles, median sediment grain size, extreme and frequent wave and water level conditions, which are parameters to be used to simulate beach profile evolution through numerical model SBEACH and estimate the minimum burial depth profile. (author)

  6. In-situ stabilization of radioactively contaminated low-level solid wastes buried in shallow trenches: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, H.S.; Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J.

    1980-09-01

    The potential effectiveness of materials for in-situ encapsulation of low-level, radioactively contaminated solid waste buried in shallow trenches is enumerated. Cement, clay materials, and miscellaneous sorbents, aqueous and nonaqueous gelling fluids and their combinations are available to solidify contaminated free water in trenches, to fill open voids, and to minimize radionuclide mobility. The success of the grouting technique will depend on the availability of reliable geohydrologic data and laboratory development of a mix with enhanced sorption capacity for dominant radionuclides present in the trenches. A cement-bentonite-based grout mix with low consistency for pumping, several hours controlled rate of hardening, negligible bleeding, and more than 170 kPa (25 psi) compressive strength are a few of the suggested parameters in laboratory mix development. Cost estimates of a cement-bentonite-based grout mix indicate that effective and durable encapsulation can be accomplished at a reasonable cost (about $113 per cubic meter). However, extensive implementation of the method suggests the need for a field demonstration of the method. 53 references.

  7. A serendipitous, long-term infiltration experiment: Water and tritium circulation beneath the CAMBRIC trench at the Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed M.; Tompson, Andrew F. B.; Kollet, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used subsequently to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. In 1965, a unique, 16-year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in the saturated zone beneath Frenchman Flat, Nevada, USA, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport in a heterogeneous subsurface, tailored specifically for large-scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate tritium travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the trench and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the trench, the water table, and monitoring and pumping wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing more accurate interpretations of contaminant migration processes.

  8. Normal faulting of the Daiichi-Kashima Seamount in the Japan Trench revealed by the Kaiko I cruise, Leg 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Cadet, J.-P.; Aubouin, J.; Boulegue, J.; Dubois, J.; von, Huene R.; Jolivet, L.; Kanazawa, T.; Kasahara, J.; Koizumi, K.-i.; Lallemand, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Pautot, G.; Suyehiro, K.; Tani, S.; Tokuyama, H.; Yamazaki, T.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed topographic and geophysical survey of the Daiichi-Kashima Seamount area in the southern Japan Trench, northwestern Pacific margin, clearly defines a high-angle normal fault which splits the seamount into two halves. A fan-shaped zone was investigated along 2-4 km spaced, 100 km long subparallel tracks using narrow multi-beam (Seabeam) echo-sounder with simultaneous measurements of gravity, magnetic total field and single-channel seismic reflection records. Vertical displacement of the inboard half was clearly mapped and its normal fault origin was supported. The northern and southern extensions of the normal fault beyond the flank of the seamount were delineated. Materials on the landward trench slope are displaced upward and to sideways away from the colliding seamount. Canyons observed in the upper landward slope terminate at the mid-slope terrace which has been uplifted since start of subduction of the seamount. Most of the landward slope except for the landward walls aside the seamount comprises only a landslide topography in a manner similar to the northern Japan Trench wall. This survey was conducted on R/V "Jean Charcot" as a part of the Kaiko I cruise, Leg 3, in July-August 1984 under the auspices of the French-Japanese scientific cooperative program. ?? 1987.

  9. A new RF trench-gate multi-channel laterally-diffused MOSFET on InGaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payal, M.; Singh, Y.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a new RF power trench-gate multi-channel laterally-diffused MOSFET (TGMC-LDMOS) on InGaAs is proposed. The gate-electrodes of the new structure are placed vertically in the trenches built in the drift layer. Each gate results in the formation of two channels in the p-body region of the device. The drain metal is also placed in a trench to take contact from the n+-InGaAs region located over the substrate. In a cell length of 5 {{μ }}{{m}}, the TGMC-LDMOS structure has seven channels, which conduct simultaneously to carry drain current in parallel. The formation of multi-channels in the proposed device increases the drive current ({I}{{D}}) leading to a large reduction in the specific on-resistance ({R}{{on-sp}}). Due to better control of gates on the drain current, the new structure exhibits substantially higher transconductance ({g}{{m}}) resulting in significant improvement in cut-off frequency ({f}{{T}}) and oscillation frequency ({f}\\max ). Using two-dimensional numerical simulations, a 55 V TGMC-LDMOS is demonstrated to achieve 7 times higher {I}{{D}}, 6.2 times lower {R}{{on-sp}}, 6.3 times higher peak {g}{{m}}, 2.6 times higher {f}{{T}}, and 2.5 times increase in {f}\\max in comparison to a conventional device for the identical cell length.

  10. Conduction mechanism and dielectric properties of a Se{sub 80}Ge{sub 20-x}Cd{sub x} (x = 0, 6 and 12 at.wt%) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakra, A.M.; Farid, A.S.; Hegab, N.A.; Afifi, M.A. [Ain Shams University, Physics Department, Semiconductor Lab, Faculty of Education, Cairo (Egypt); Alrebati, A.M. [Taiz University, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Taiz (Yemen)

    2016-09-15

    AC conductivity and dielectric properties of Se{sub 80}Ge{sub 20-x}Cd{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 12 at.wt%) in thin film forms are reported in this paper. Thin films were deposited from the prepared compositions by thermal evaporation technique at 10{sup -5} Torr. The films were well characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The AC conductivity and dielectric properties have been investigated for the studied films in the temperature range 293-393 K and over a frequency range of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5} Hz. The experimental results indicate that both AC conductivity σ {sub AC}(ω) and dielectric constants depend on temperature, frequency and Cd content. The frequency exponent s was calculated, and its value lies very close to unity and is temperature independent. This behavior can be explained in terms of the correlated barrier hopping between centers forming intimate valence alternation pairs. The density of localized states N(E{sub F}) at the Fermi level is estimated. The activation energy ΔE(ω) was found to decrease with increasing frequency. The maximum barrier height W{sub m} for the studied films was calculated from an analysis of the dielectric loss ε{sub 2} according to the Guintini equation. Its values agree with that proposed by the theory of hopping of charge carriers over potential barrier as suggested by Elliott for chalcogenide glasses. The variation of the studied properties with Cd content was also investigated. (orig.)

  11. Piezoelectricity and local structural distortions in (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}-Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} flexoelectric-type polar ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L. H.; Zhao, M. L.; Wang, C. L.; Wang, J.; Kuai, W. J.; Tao, X. T. [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2012-08-06

    We have previously described sintered Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} composites as flexoelectric-type polar ceramics because they have a net macroscopic flexoelectric polarization. Here, we report on the universal existence of the macroscopic flexoelectric polarization in the (Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}){sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}-Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} system, in which enhanced piezoelectricity is observed. By combining Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques, we have identified the local flexoelectric polarization as distorted BiO{sub 5} polyhedra and TiO{sub 6} octahedra in the SrTiO{sub 3}-Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} ceramic. The macroscopic polarization may be due to the partial alignment of these distorted units located within the grain boundary amorphous phases. Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20} could have an important role in these flexoelectric-type polar ceramics.

  12. TCSPC FLIM in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1700 nm (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wolfgang; Shcheslavsky, Vladislav

    2016-03-01

    Excitation and detection in the wavelength range above 800nm is a convenient and relatively inexpensive way to increase the penetration depth in optical microscopy. Moreover, detection at long wavelength avoids the problem that tissue autofluorescence contaminates the signals from endogenous fluorescence probes. FLIM at NIR wavelength may therefore be complementary to multiphoton microscopy, especially if the lifetimes of NIR fluorophores report biological parameters of the tissue structures they are bound to. Unfortunately, neither the excitation sources nor the detectors of standard confocal and multiphoton laser scanning systems are directly suitable for excitation and detection of NIR fluorescence. Most of these problems can be solved, however, by using ps diode lasers or Ti:Sapphire lasers at their fundamental wavelength, and NIR-sensitive detectors. With NIR-sensitive PMTs the detection wavelength range can be extended up to 900 nm, with InGaAs SPAD detectors up to 1700 nm. Here, we demonstrate the use of a combination of laser scanning, multi-dimensional TCSPC, and advanced excitation sources and detectors for FLIM at up to 1700 nm. The performance was tested at tissue samples incubated with NIR dyes. The fluorescence lifetimes generally get shorter with increasing absorption and emission wavelengths of the dyes. For the cyanine dye IR1061, absorbing around 1060 nm, the lifetime was found to be as short as 70 ps. Nevertheless the fluorescence decay could still be clearly detected. Almost all dyes showed clear lifetime changes depending on the binding to different tissue constituents.

  13. Single pulse near field study on a Co(3 nm)/Cu(6 nm)/Co(20 nm) multilayer structure by using a femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmeanu, M.; Jipa, F.; Luculescu, C.; Moldovan, A.; Zamfirescu, M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Laser Department, Atomistilor 409, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele (Romania)

    2011-09-15

    Single pulse near field study on a Co(3 nm)/Cu(6 nm)/Co(20 nm) multilayer structure was experimentally investigated with a laser pulse width of 200 fs at a wavelength of 775 nm. For the near field experiments, we have used polystyrene colloidal particles of 700 nm diameter deposited by spin coating on top of the multilayer structure, as well on top of Co (50 nm) and Cu (50 nm) thin films. The diameter and the morphologies of the holes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We have estimated the fluence thresholds values for the near field and discuss their values in respect with the enhancement factor of the intensity of the electromagnetic field due to the use of the colloidal particles. We compare the depths and the widths of the holes obtained at the same peak laser fluence for the Co thin film (50 nm), Cu thin film (50 nm) and Co(3 nm)/Cu(6 nm)/Co(20 nm) multilayer structure. Depending on the laser fluence, the ablation depth can reach the first, the second, or the third layer. Theoretical estimations of the intensity enhancement were done using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) by using the RSoft software. This type of a selective distribution of the ablation depth, in the near field regime, of a planar metal/dielectric interface can open new perspective in the excitation of propagating surface plasmons. (orig.)

  14. Single pulse near field study on a Co(3 nm)/Cu(6 nm)/Co(20 nm) multilayer structure by using a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmeanu, M.; Jipa, F.; Luculescu, C.; Moldovan, A.; Zamfirescu, M.

    2011-09-01

    Single pulse near field study on a Co(3 nm)/Cu(6 nm)/Co(20 nm) multilayer structure was experimentally investigated with a laser pulse width of 200 fs at a wavelength of 775 nm. For the near field experiments, we have used polystyrene colloidal particles of 700 nm diameter deposited by spin coating on top of the multilayer structure, as well on top of Co (50 nm) and Cu (50 nm) thin films. The diameter and the morphologies of the holes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We have estimated the fluence thresholds values for the near field and discuss their values in respect with the enhancement factor of the intensity of the electromagnetic field due to the use of the colloidal particles. We compare the depths and the widths of the holes obtained at the same peak laser fluence for the Co thin film (50 nm), Cu thin film (50 nm) and Co(3 nm)/Cu(6 nm)/Co(20 nm) multilayer structure. Depending on the laser fluence, the ablation depth can reach the first, the second, or the third layer. Theoretical estimations of the intensity enhancement were done using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) by using the RSoft software. This type of a selective distribution of the ablation depth, in the near field regime, of a planar metal/dielectric interface can open new perspective in the excitation of propagating surface plasmons.

  15. Using giant piston coring within IODP to track past earthquakes in the sedimentary record along the Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Michael

    2017-04-01

    "Submarine paleoseismology" is a promising approach to investigate deposits from the deep sea, where earthquakes leave traces preserved in stratigraphic succession. The concept of studying sedimentary event deposits for reconstructing past earthquake history and related impacts to the marine environment is increasingly being applied in various settings. However, at present we lack comprehensive data sets that allow conclusive distinctions between quality and completeness of the paleoseismic archives, as they may relate to different sediment transport, erosion and deposition processes vs. variability of intrinsic seismogenic behavior across different segments. Nevertheless, many recent studies, which are mostly based on conventional 10-m-long cores, demonstrate the potential of the research concept. With ECORD opening their mission specific platform approach to include giant piston coring within IODP, a new horizon has opened up for multi-coring expeditions fully dedicated to the rapidly growing field of submarine paleoseismology. IODP is uniquely positioned to address the complex feedback mechanisms between earthquake shaking and its manifestation in the marine archive, decipher related mass fluxes from the shallow to the deep see and to eventually provide longer records to constrain earthquake recurrence far beyond historical catalogues. Initially building on what sedimentary deposits were generated from the 2011 M9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the Japan Trench is a promising study area to investigate earthquake-triggered sediment remobilization processes and how they become embedded in the stratigraphic record, and has thus been identified as a primary target for proposing giant piston coring within IODP. In this presentation we summarize recent results and available site survey data collected since the 2011 earthquake, comprising >50, 5-10m long piston and gravity cores from (i) trench-fill and graben-fill basin across the entire trench axis from 36° to 40.3° N (ii

  16. Design and Performance Analysis of 1-Bit FinFET Full Adder Cells for Subthreshold Region at 16 nm Process Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ‘Aqilah binti Abdul Tahrim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scaling process of the conventional 2D-planar metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET is now approaching its limit as technology has reached below 20 nm process technology. A new nonplanar device architecture called FinFET was invented to overcome the problem by allowing transistors to be scaled down into sub-20nm region. In this work, the FinFET structure is implemented in 1-bit full adder transistors to investigate its performance and energy efficiency in the subthreshold region for cell designs of Complementary MOS (CMOS, Complementary Pass-Transistor Logic (CPL, Transmission Gate (TG, and Hybrid CMOS (HCMOS. The performance of 1-bit FinFET-based full adder in 16-nm technology is benchmarked against conventional MOSFET-based full adder. The Predictive Technology Model (PTM and Berkeley Shortchannel IGFET Model-Common Multi-Gate (BSIM-CMG 16 nm low power libraries are used. Propagation delay, average power dissipation, power-delay-product (PDP, and energy-delay-product (EDP are analysed based on all four types of full adder cell designs of both FETs. The 1-bit FinFET-based full adder shows a great reduction in all four metric performances. A reduction in propagation delay, PDP, and EDP is evident in the 1-bit FinFET-based full adder of CPL, giving the best overall performance due to its high-speed performance and good current driving capabilities.

  17. Size-Dependent Filling Behavior of UV-Curable Di(meth)acrylate Resins into Carbon-Coated Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores of around 20 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masaru; Nakaya, Akifumi; Hoshikawa, Yasuto; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Kyotani, Takashi

    2016-11-09

    Ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprint lithography is a promising nanofabrication technology with cost efficiency and high throughput for sub-20 nm size semiconductor, data storage, and optical devices. To test formability of organic resist mask patterns, we investigated whether the type of polymerizable di(meth)acrylate monomer affected the fabrication of cured resin nanopillars by UV nanoimprinting using molds with pores of around 20 nm. We used carbon-coated, porous, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films prepared by electrochemical oxidation and thermal chemical vapor deposition as molds, because the pore diameter distribution in the range of 10-40 nm was suitable for combinatorial testing to investigate whether UV-curable resins comprising each monomer were filled into the mold recesses in UV nanoimprinting. Although the UV-curable resins, except for a bisphenol A-based one, detached from the molds without pull-out defects after radical photopolymerization under UV light, the number of cured resin nanopillars was independent of the viscosity of the monomer(s) in each resin. The number of resin nanopillars increased and their diameter decreased as the number of hydroxy groups in the aliphatic diacrylate monomers increased. It was concluded that the filling of the carbon-coated pores having diameters of around 20 nm with UV-curable resins was promoted by the presence of hydroxy groups in the aliphatic di(meth)acrylate monomers.

  18. 308-nm excimer laser in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesenhoff, Tim

    1992-06-01

    Root canal preparation was performed on 20 extracted human teeth. After opening the coronal pulp, the root canals were prepared by 308 nm excimer laser only. All root canals were investigated under SEM after separation in the axial direction. By sagittal separation of the mandibles of freshly slaughtered cows, it was possible to get access to the tissues and irradiate under optical control. Under irradiation of excimer laser light, tissue starts to fluoresce. It was possible to demonstrate that each tissue (dentin, enamel, bone, pulpal, and connective tissue) has a characteristic spectral pattern. The SEM analyses showed that it is well possible to prepare root canals safely. All organic soft tissue has been removed by excimer laser irradiation. There was no case of via falsa. The simultaneous spectroscopic identification of the irradiated tissue provides a safe protection from overinstrumentation. First clinical trials on 20 patients suffering of chronical apical parodontitis have been carried out successfully.

  19. Age and origin of the Amirante ridge-trench structure, western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, W. E.; Storey, M.; Donaldson, C. H.; Ellam, R. M.; Lelikov, E.; Tararin, G.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Amirante “arc” is a 600 km long aseismic ridge-trench structure in the northern Mascarene Basin. It is comparable in scale to the Lesser Antilles arc of the Caribbean and has characteristics of a subduction system, although the associated gravity anomaly seems insufficient. Its origin is poorly understood. Morphological studies suggest that it comprises three distinct linear segments with a trench associated only with the southerly segments. Various models have been proposed to account for the structure (or parts of it) including subduction, rifting, fracture zones and/or transform faulting, plate margin interactions during pull-apart tectonics, meteorite impact and a suggestion of hot spot volcanism. The Amirante structure is essentially basaltic in composition and an age for the structure (82 ±16 Ma) was determined by K-Ar on a single dredge sample of basalt from the central segment. We have examined this sample and the feldspars are heavily altered. A new 40Ar-39Ar laser step-heating age determination on an acid-leached feldspar separate from a fresh gabbro dredged from the southern tip of the arc gave a 10-step plateau age of (51.4 ±0.9Ma), consistent with a new K-Ar age determination of 52 ±0.5Ma. This is a much younger age than the Deccan Traps and the opening of the Carlsberg Ridge at about 65 Ma. Samples from all three segments of the Amirantes ridge display N-MORB light REE-depleted patterns. In terms of Sr and Nd isotopes the samples of the Amirantes are primitive, with mean ɛNd51 = 7.4 (range 6.1 - 9.5), mean (87Sr/86Sr)51 = 0.7040, (range 0.7034 - 0.7046), consistent with MORB or a simple ocean arc system like the Marianas. Four Amirantes samples were analysed for Pb isotopes and have more radiogenic Pb isotopes than typical Indian Ocean MORB (206Pb/204Pb = 17.8 to 18.7, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.60 to 15.69, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.8 to 39.1), possibly indicating some contamination of the magmas by sediments. These new geochemical and geochronological

  20. The unusual Samoan hotspot: A "hotspot highway" juxtaposed with a trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. G.; Konter, J. G.; Koppers, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    mantle 1) signature that is not present in Samoan shield lavas (and thus not in the Samoan plume), but the EM1 signature is present in the most recent Cook-Austral hotspot (Rarotonga) to have contributed volcanism to the region of the Pacific plate occupied by Samoa. We suggest that the lithosphere beneath Samoa was underplated with (or impregnated by) material from the Rarotonga plume at ~10 Ma. The shield stage of Samoan volcanism does not sample melts of the lithosphere. However, the region of EM1-impregnated Pacific lithosphere once occupied by the Rarotonga hotspot (which has since been rafted into the Samoan region) is now located just ~100 km from the northern terminus of the Tonga trench. We suggest that plate flexure resulting from the tectonic regime near the trench has resulted in decompression melting of the metasomatized lithosphere, which yields the EM1-flavored melts observed in Samoan rejuvenated lavas.

  1. Vadose Zone Contaminant Fate and Transport Analysis for the 216-B-26 Trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2004-10-14

    The BC Cribs and Trenches, part of the 200 TW 1 OU waste sites, received about 30 Mgal of scavenged tank waste, with possibly the largest inventory of 99Tc ever disposed to the soil at Hanford and site remediation is being accelerated. The purpose of this work was to develop a conceptual model for contaminant fate and transport at the 216-B-26 Trench site to support identification and development and evaluation of remediation alternatives. Large concentrations of 99Tc high above the water table implicated stratigraphy in the control of the downward migration. The current conceptual model accounts for small-scale stratigraphy; site-specific changes soil properties; tilted layers; and lateral spreading. It assumes the layers are spatially continuous causing water and solutes to move laterally across the boundary if conditions permit. Water influx at the surface is assumed to be steady. Model parameters were generated with pedotransfer functions; these were coupled high resolution neutron moisture logs that provided information on the underlying heterogeneity on a scale of 3 inches. Two approaches were used to evaluate the impact of remedial options on transport. In the first, a 1-D convolution solution to the convective-dispersive equation was used, assuming steady flow. This model was used to predict future movement of the existing plume using the mean and depth dependent moisture content. In the second approach, the STOMP model was used to first predict the current plume distribution followed by its future migration. Redistribution of the 99Tc plume was simulated for the no-action alternative and on-site capping. Hypothetical caps limiting recharge to 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mm yr-1 were considered and assumed not to degrade in the long term. Results show that arrival time of the MCLs, the peak arrival time, and the arrival time of the center of mass increased with decreasing recharge rate. The 1-D convolution model is easy to apply and can easily accommodate initial

  2. Optical absorption of silicon nitride membranes at 1064 nm and at 1550 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Jessica; Krüger, Christoph; Martin, Iain W.; Bell, Angus; Hough, Jim; Kaufer, Henning; Rowan, Sheila; Schnabel, Roman; Steinlechner, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    Because of a low mechanical loss, thin films made of silicon nitride (Si3N4 ) are interesting for fundamental research and development in the field of gravitational-wave detection. Si3N4 membranes allow for the characterization of quantum radiation pressure noise (RPN), which will be a limiting noise source in gravitational-wave detectors of the second and third generations. Furthermore, Si3N4 is an interesting material for possible thermal noise reduction in highly reflective mirror coatings. For both applications, the optical absorption of Si3N4 needs to be low. This paper presents absorption measurements on low-stress Si3N4 membranes showing an absorption a factor of 7 lower at 1550 nm than at 1064 nm resulting in an estimated 2 times higher sensitivity in RPN experiments at the higher wavelength and making Si3N4 an interesting material for highly reflective multimaterial mirror coatings at 1550 nm.

  3. High-sweep-rate 1310 nm MEMS-VCSEL with 150 nm continuous tuning range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, V; Cole, G D; Robertson, M; Uddin, A; Cable, A

    2012-07-05

    Microelectromechanical-systems-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (MEMS-VCSELs) capable of a 150 nm continuous tuning range near 1310 nm are demonstrated. These devices employ a thin optically pumped active region structure with large free-spectral range, which promotes wide and continuous tuning. To achieve VCSEL emission at 1310 nm, a wide-gain-bandwidth indium phosphide-based multiple quantum well active region is combined with a wide-bandwidth fully oxidised GaAs-based mirror through wafer bonding, with tuning enabled by a suspended dielectric top mirror. These devices are capable of being scanned over the entire tuning range at frequencies up to 500 kHz, making them ideal for applications such as swept source optical coherence tomography and high-speed transient spectroscopy.

  4. New species of Thelonema, Metasphaerolaimus, and Monhystrella (Nematoda, Monhysterida from Kermadec Trench, Southwest Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Leduc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the order Monhysterida are described based on specimens obtained at depths of 8081 and 9177 m in the Kermadec Trench. Thelonema clarki sp. nov. is characterised by a large body size (3230–4461 µm, short cylindrical buccal cavity, gubernaculum without apophyses, and long conico-cylindrical tail. This is the first record of the genus since its original description over two decades ago from the Peru Basin. Metasphaerolaimus constrictus sp. nov. is characterised by a relatively long body (1232–1623 µm, slightly arcuate spicules without gubernaculum, and conico-cylindrical tail with inner cuticle conspicuously thickened immediately anterior to cylindrical portion. Monhystrella kermadecensis sp. nov. is characterised by a circle of papillose outer labial sensillae slightly anterior to the four short cephalic setae, gubernaculum with caudal apophyses, the presence of distinct cuticularised piece along anterior vaginal wall, and a relatively short conical (males or conico-cylindrical tail (females with conical, ventrally-curved spinneret. M. kermadecensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from all other species of the genus, and, indeed, the entire family, based on the variable position of the anterior gonad relative to the intestine. The new species is classified within the Monhysteridae, and not the closely-related Xyalidae, based on the small body size, a smooth cuticle, and the presence of six outer labial papillae and only one testis. Further work is required to clarify the placement of M. kermadecensis sp. nov. relative to other monhysterid genera. A tabular key to all ten valid Metasphaerolaimus species is presented.

  5. Absorption Measurements of Periodically Poled Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (PPKTP at 775 nm and 1550 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Steinlechner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficient generation of second-harmonic light and squeezed light requires non-linear crystals that have low absorption at the fundamental and harmonic wavelengths. In this work the photo-thermal self-phase modulation technique is exploited to measure the absorption coefficient of periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP at 1,550 nm and 775 nm. Themeasurement results are (84±40 ppm/cmand (127±24 ppm/cm, respectively. We conclude that the performance of state-of-the-art frequency doubling and squeezed light generation in PPKTP is not limited by absorption.

  6. SPECIAL ANALYSIS FOR SLIT TRENCH DISPOSAL OF THE REACTOR PROCESS HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.; Collard, L.; Aleman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Butcher, T.

    2012-06-18

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), in response to a request from Solid Waste Management (SWM), conducted a Special Analysis (SA) to evaluate the performance of nineteen heat exchangers that are to be disposed in the E-Area low level waste facility Slit Trench 9 (ST 9). Although these nineteen heat exchangers were never decontaminated, the majority of the radionuclides in the heat exchanger inventory list were determined to be acceptable for burial because they are less than the 'generic' waste form inventory limits given in the 2008 Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008). However, as generic waste, the H-3 and C-14 inventories resulted in unacceptable sum-of-fractions (SOFs). Initial scoping analyses performed by SRNL indicated that if alterations were made to certain external nozzles to mitigate various potential leak paths, acceptable SOFs could be achieved through the use of a 'Special' waste form. This SA provides the technical basis for this new 'Special' waste form and provides the inventory limits for H-3 and C-14 for these nineteen heat exchangers such that the nineteen heat exchangers can be disposed in ST 9. This 'Special' waste form is limited to these nineteen heat exchangers in ST 9 and applies for H-3 and C-14, which are designated as H-3X and C-14X, respectively. The SA follows the same methodology used in the 2008 PA and the 2008 SA except for the modeling enhancements noted below. Infiltration rates above the heat exchangers are identical to those used in the 2008 PA; however, flow through the heat exchangers is unique. Because it is unknown exactly how sealed heat exchanger openings will perform and how surface and embedded contaminants will be released, multiple base cases or scenarios were established to investigate a set of performances. Each scenario consists of flow options (based on the performance of sealed openings) and a near-field release of contaminants (based on corrosion and

  7. Analysis of Self-Heating Effects on vertical FET according to Shallow Trench Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeong, Ilho; Son, Dokyun; Kim, Hyunsuk; Kang, Myounggon; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Self-Heating Effect (SHE) according to depth of STI was analyzed and STI thickness optimization was performed in the plate-shaped vertical field effect transistor (VFET). In case of a VFET, the path of leakage current (Ioff) is different from that of a lateral FET (LFET). As a result, Ioff of VFET is not influenced by STI depth. For this reason, the STI depth of the VFET is not needed as much as the depth needed to reduce Ioff in the LFET. As a result, if the STI depth of the VFET is reduced from 100 nm to 20 nm, which is the drain region depth doped with Arsenic, thermal resistance (Rth) is expected to be reduced by 32.19% and on current (Ion) is expected to be increased by 1.54% without affecting the Ioff as compared with STI depth of 100 nm in VFET.

  8. Picosecond Laser Shock Peening of Nimonic 263 at 1064 nm and 532 nm Wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Petronic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the surface modifications of nickel based superalloy Nimonic 263 induced by laser shock peening (LSP process. The process was performed by Nd3+:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (YAG picosecond laser using the following parameters: pulse duration 170 ps; repetition rate 10 Hz; pulse numbers of 50, 100 and 200; and wavelength of 1064 nm (with pulse energy of 2 mJ, 10 mJ and 15 mJ and 532 nm (with pulse energy of 25 mJ, 30 mJ and 35 mJ. The following response characteristics were analyzed: modified surface areas obtained by the laser/material interaction were observed by scanning electron microscopy; elemental composition of the modified surface was evaluated by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS; and Vickers microhardness tests were performed. LSP processing at both 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths improved the surface structure and microhardness of a material. Surface morphology changes of the irradiated samples were determined and surface roughness was calculated. These investigations are intended to contribute to the study on the level of microstructure and mechanical properties improvements due to LSP process that operate in a picosecond regime. In particular, the effects of laser wavelength on the microstructural and mechanical changes of a material are studied in detail.

  9. Laser Shock Processing of 6061-T6 Al alloy with 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Rosas, G., E-mail: gomezrg@hotmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierias, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd. Marcelino Garcia Barragan 1421, Guadalajara, Jalisco 44430 (Mexico); Rubio-Gonzalez, C. [Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial, Pie de la cuesta No. 702, Desarrollo San Pablo, Queretaro, Qro. 76130 (Mexico); Ocana, J.L.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J.A.; Morales, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, ETSII. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Casillas, F.J. [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologicas, Universidad de Guadalajara, Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco 47460 (Mexico)

    2010-08-01

    Laser Shock Processing (LSP) has been proposed as a competitive alternative technology to classical treatments for improving fatigue and wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results in the LSP concept for metal surface treatments in underwater laser irradiation at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The purpose of the work is to compare the effect of both wavelengths on the same material. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J/pulse (1064 nm) and 0.9 J/pulse (532 nm) in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by 10 Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with spots of a 1.5 mm in diameter moving forward along the work piece. A LSP configuration with experimental results using a pulse density of 2500 pulses/cm{sup 2} and 5000 pulses/cm{sup 2} in 6061-T6 aluminum samples are presented. High level compressive residual stresses are produced using both wavelengths. It has been shown that surface residual stress level is comparable to that achieved by conventional shot peening, but with greater depths. This method can be applied to surface treatment of final metal products.

  10. Use of OSL dating to establish the stratigraphic framework of Quaternary eolian sediments, Anton scarp upper trench, Northeastern Colorado High Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, S.A.; Noe, D.C.; McCalpin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains the results of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating used to establish stratigraphic ages and relationships of eolian sediments in a trench in northeastern Colorado, USA. This trench was located in the upper face of the Anton scarp, a major topographic lineament trending NW-SE for a distance of 135 km, in anticipation of intersecting near-surface faulting. The trench was 180 m long, 4.5-6.0 m deep, and exposed 22 m of stratigraphic section, most of which dipped gently west and was truncated by gulley channeling at the face of the scarp. No direct evidence of faulting was found in the upper trench. The stratigraphy from the trench was described, mapped and dated using OSL on quartz and potassium feldspar, and 14C obtained from woody material. OSL dating identified two upper loess units as Peoria Loess and Gilman Canyon Loess, deposited between 16 and 30 ka ago. The bottom layers of the trench were substantially older, giving OSL ages in excess of 100 ka. These older ages are interpreted as underestimates, owing to saturation of the fast component of OSL. Using OSL and 14C dating, we can constrain the erosion and down cutting of the scarp face as occurring between 16 and 5.7 ka. As the trenching investigation continues in other parts of the scarp face, the results of this preliminary study will be of importance in relating the ages of the strata that underlie different parts of the scarp, and in determining whether Quaternary faulting was a mechanism that contributed to the formation of this regional geomorphic feature.

  11. Efeito de um programa de treinamento utilizando o método Pilates® na flexibilidade de atletas juvenis de futsal Effects of a training program using the Pilates method in flexibility of sub-20 indoor soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Bertolla

    2007-08-01

    the motor capacity related with the amplitude of movement reached by each joint. The flexibility suffers decrease with the age, being that during the adolescence, in result of the fast pubertal growth, considerable loss of this characteristic occurs. It is known, also, that athletes of soccer and futsal, as result of the programs of force aiming the gesture of the kick, tend to have considerable shortening of posterior thigh muscles, that promotes a loss of income and it premakes the athletes to the muscular injuries. Thus, the objective of the present study was to verify the effect in the flexibility by a program of Pilates® in a sub-20 futsal team, that is considerate a highly inclined population to limitations of this capacity, and that can afford a lot of benefits with the increment of it. For such, it was divided the athletes group in Pilates group (GP, n = 6 and control group (GC, n = 5. It was opted to evaluate the flexibility of athletes with two methods (fleximeter and Wells's bench. Evaluations were realized in three distinct moments: pre (24 hours before the start of the program, post-immediate (24 hours after the end of the program and post-delayed (15 days after the end of the program. The program was realized three times per week with approximately 25 minutes, during four weeks. The results of the present study prove that the training protocol with the Pilates® method used by the researchers did increase the flexibility of sub-20 futsal athletes. This program presented acute effects, represented by the statistically significant increase to the flexibility in post-immediate (p 0.05 in post-delayed period to the both methods. It is suggested that more studies should be to realize with the Pilates® method aiming to elucidate all possibilities of application of this therapeutic modality.

  12. Photodissociation of ethylene at 193 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balko, B. A.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1992-07-01

    The photodissociation of ethylene at 193 nm was studied by measuring the product translational energy distributions for the H+C2H3 and H2+C2H2 channels. In agreement with previous workers, it was determined that atomic and molecular elimination occur in relatively equal amounts. Using 1,1 D2CCH2 and 1,2 cis HDCCDH, it was shown that both acetylene and vinylidene are formed and that the acetylene/vinylidene ratio is approximately 2/3 in the molecular elimination. This H2 elimination channel has a translational energy distribution peaked at around 20 kcal/mol, indicating that it is a concerted process with a substantial exit barrier. It was found that the H atom elimination channel is best described as a simple bond rupture occurring after internal conversion of the electronically excited molecule to the vibrationally excited ground state ethylene. Some of the primary C2H3 product has sufficient internal energy to spontaneously decompose to H+HC≡CH. At higher laser intensity a large fraction of the C2H3, however, absorbs another photon and fragments to H+H2C=C: (1A1 and 3B2).

  13. Photodissociation of ethylene at 193 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, B.A.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y.T. (Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1992-07-15

    The photodissociation of ethylene at 193 nm was studied by measuring the product translational energy distributions for the H+C{sub 2}H{sub 3} and H{sub 2}+C{sub 2}H{sub 2} channels. In agreement with previous workers, it was determined that atomic and molecular elimination occur in relatively equal amounts. Using 1,1 D{sub 2}CCH{sub 2} and 1,2 {ital cis} HDCCDH, it was shown that both acetylene and vinylidene are formed and that the acetylene/vinylidene ratio is approximately 2/3 in the molecular elimination. This H{sub 2} elimination channel has a translational energy distribution peaked at around 20 kcal/mol, indicating that it is a concerted process with a substantial exit barrier. It was found that the H atom elimination channel is best described as a simple bond rupture occurring after internal conversion of the electronically excited molecule to the vibrationally excited ground state ethylene. Some of the primary C{sub 2}H{sub 3} product has sufficient internal energy to spontaneously decompose to H+HC{equivalent to}CH. At higher laser intensity a large fraction of the C{sub 2}H{sub 3}, however, absorbs another photon and fragments to H+H{sub 2}C=C: ({sup 1}{ital A}{sub 1} and {sup 3}{ital B}{sub 2}).

  14. Reactive ion etching challenges for half-pitch sub-10-nm line-and-space pattern fabrication using directed self-assembly lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Seino, Yuriko; Sato, Hironobu; Kubota, Hitoshi; Kanai, Hideki; Kihara, Naoko; Minegishi, Shinya; Miyagi, Ken; Tobana, Toshikatsu; Shiraishi, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kodera, Katsuyoshi; Yamano, Hitoshi; Kawamonzen, Yoshiaki; Azuma, Tsukasa

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly is a candidate process for sub-15-nm patterning applications. It will be necessary to develop the DSA process fully and consider process integration to adapt the DSA process for use in semiconductor manufacturing. We investigated the reactive ion etching (RIE) process for the fabrication of sub-10-nm metal wires using the DSA process and the process integration requirements for electrical yield verification. We evaluated the process using an organic high-chi block copolymer (BCP) with a lamellar structure. One critical issue during DSA pattern transfer involves the BCP bottom connection. The BCP bottom connections could be removed without BCP mask loss by using the optimum bias power and the optimum BCP film thickness. The sub-10-nm DSA line-and-space (L/S) patterns were successfully transferred to a SiO2 layer with sufficient film thickness for the fabrication of the metal wire. We also evaluated the overlay technique used in the process. The connect patterns and cut patterns were overlaid on 10-nm trenches fabricated by the DSA process.

  15. Gate-all-around junctionless silicon transistors with atomically thin nanosheet channel (0.65 nm) and record sub-threshold slope (43 mV/dec)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, Vasanthan; Jhan, Yi-Ruei; Liu, Yan-Bo; Kurniawan, Erry Dwi; Lin, Yu Ru; Yang, Shang-Yi; Cheng, Che-Hsiang; Wu, Yung-Chun

    2017-01-01

    A silicon junctionless (JL) trench gate-all-around (GAA) nanowire field-effect transistor with an atomically thin channel thickness of 0.65 nm and a very thin oxide with a thickness of 12.3 nm are demonstrated experimentally. Experimental results indicate that this device with a channel thickness of 0.65 nm achieves a sub-threshold slope (SS) of 43 mV/decade, which is the best yet achieved by any reported JLFET. Owing to the atomically thin channel, this device has an extremely high ION/IOFF current ratio of >108. Furthermore, the atomically thin channel GAA JLFET exhibits a low threshold voltage (VTH) variation and negligible drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL < 0.4 mV/V). The reported device with the thinnest channel has a very high band-to-band tunneling generation rate of 1.2 × 1024/cm2 s when the channel is scaled down to <1 nm, as confirmed by using the 3D quantum transport simulation tool. This quantum tunneling provides a means of achieving an SS value much lower than its fundamental physical limit.

  16. Identification of Free-living and Particle-Associated Microbial Communities Present in Hadal regions of the Mariana Trench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eTarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Relatively few studies have described the microbial populations present in ultra-deep hadal environments, largely as a result of difficulties associated with sampling. Here we report Illumina-tag V6 16S rRNA sequence-based analyses of the free-living and particle-associated microbial communities recovered from locations within two of the deepest hadal sites on Earth, the Challenger Deep (10,918 meters below surface-mbs and the Sirena Deep (10,667 mbs within the Mariana Trench, as well as one control site (Ulithi Atoll, 761 mbs. Seawater samples were collected using an autonomous lander positioned ~1m above the seafloor. The bacterial populations within the Mariana Trench bottom water samples were dissimilar to other deep-sea microbial communities, though with overlap with those of diffuse flow hydrothermal vents and deep-subsurface locations. Distinct particle-associated and free-living bacterial communities were found to exist. The hadal bacterial populations were also markedly different from one another, indicating the likelihood of different chemical conditions at the two sites. In contrast to the bacteria, the hadal archaeal communities were more similar to other less deep datasets and to each other due to an abundance of cosmopolitan deep-sea taxa. The hadal communities were enriched in thirty four bacterial and four archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs including members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Marinimicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Atribacteria, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota. Sequences matching cultivated piezophiles were notably enriched in the Challenger Deep, especially within the particle-associated fraction, and were found in higher abundances than in other hadal studies, where they were either far less prevalent or missing. Our results indicate the importance of heterotrophy, sulfur-cycling, and methane and hydrogen utilization within the bottom waters of the deeper

  17. Multi-watt 589nm fiber laser source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAWSON, J W; DROBSHOFF, A D; BEACH, R J; MESSERLY, M J; PAYNE, S A; BROWN, A; PENNINGTON, D M; BAMFORD, D J; SHARPE, S J; COOK, D J

    2006-01-19

    We have demonstrated 3.5W of 589nm light from a fiber laser using periodically poled stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate (PPSLT) as the frequency conversion crystal. The system employs 938nm and 1583nm fiber lasers, which were sum-frequency mixed in PPSLT to generate 589nm light. The 938nm fiber laser consists of a single frequency diode laser master oscillator (200mW), which was amplified in two stages to >15W using cladding pumped Nd{sup 3+} fiber amplifiers. The fiber amplifiers operate at 938nm and minimize amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm by employing a specialty fiber design, which maximizes the core size relative to the cladding diameter. This design allows the 3-level laser system to operate at high inversion, thus making it competitive with the competing 1088nm 4-level laser transition. At 15W, the 938nm laser has an M{sup 2} of 1.1 and good polarization (correctable with a quarter and half wave plate to >15:1). The 1583nm fiber laser consists of a Koheras 1583nm fiber DFB laser that is pre-amplified to 100mW, phase modulated and then amplified to 14W in a commercial IPG fiber amplifier. As a part of our research efforts we are also investigating pulsed laser formats and power scaling of the 589nm system. We will discuss the fiber laser design and operation as well as our results in power scaling at 589nm.

  18. Superconducting gravimeter observation for identifying slow slip events at Ryukyu Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Y.; Nawa, K.; Tamura, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Miyaji, T.; Tanaka, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Analysis of the data from the dense GPS network of Japan (GEONET) revealed quasi-periodic occurrences of long-term slow slip events at the Ryukyu Trench (Heki and Kataoka, 2008). The recurrence period of the events is about half a year, much shorter than typically found in other regions where slow slips are known to take place. Therefore, this region provides an interesting field for investigating the nature of slow slip events. In February 2012, we started gravity observation using a superconducting gravimeter (SG) at the VERA Ishigakijima Station, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The Ishigakijima island is located slightly east off the presumed fault area of the slow slip events. Our purpose is to detect gravity changes associated with the slow slip events by making full use of the high resolution of the SG. Of particular interest is the possible effect of water on the slow slip events, which might be identified from gravity observations. In addition to the SG, we installed an FG5 absolute gravimeter at the Iriomotejima island, located about 10 km west of the Ishigakijima island. The SG used in this study (serial number CT36) is the one which was in operation at the Inuyama Seismological Observatory, Nagoya University for about ten years. Before moving it to Ishigakijima, we made a thorough examination of the instruments. Because we found a serious problem in transferring liquid helium because of the ice inside, we warmed up the Dewar to initialize it. This not only solved the ice problem but also resulted in a significant decrease of the heater power for the gravity sensor. As of this writing, we have about six months worth of data from the SG. The condition of the gravimeter is good except for the first month when temperature control was unstable. Because of the ground vibrations caused by the movement of the 20-m VLBI antenna (about 30 m apart from the SG), the noise level is significantly enhanced compared with other domestic SG stations. Also we

  19. Evaluating potential chlorinated methanes degradation mechanisms and treatments in interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernandez, Diana; Torrentó, Clara; Rosell, Mònica; Audí-Miró, Carme; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    A complex mixture of chlorinated organic compounds is located in an unconfined carbonated bedrock aquifer with low permeability in a former industrial area next to Barcelona (NE Spain). The site exhibited an especially high complexity due to the presence of multiple contaminant sources, wide variety of pollutants (mainly chlorinated ethenes but also chlorinated methanes) and unknown system of fractures (Palau et al., 2014). Interception trenches were installed in the place of the removed pollution sources and were filled with construction wastes with the aim of retaining and treating the accumulated contaminated recharge water before reaching the aquifer. Recycled concrete-based aggregates from a construction and demolition waste recycling plant were used to maintain alkaline conditions in the water accumulated in the trenches (pH 11.6±0.3) and thus induce chloroform (CF) degradation by alkaline hydrolysis. An efficacy of around 30-40% CF degradation in the interception trenches was calculated from the significant and reproducible CF carbon isotopic fractionation (-53±3o obtained in batch experiments (Torrentó et al., 2014). Surprisingly, although hydrolysis of carbon tetrachloride (CT) is extremely slow, a significant CT carbon isotopic enrichment was also observed in the trenches. The laboratory experiments verified the low capability of concrete to hydrolyze the CT and showed the high adsorption of CT on the concrete particles (73% after 50 days) with invariability in its δ13C values. Therefore, the significant CT isotopic fractionation observed in the interception trenches could point out the occurrence of other degradation processes distinct than alkaline hydrolysis. Geochemical speciation modelling using the code PHREEQC showed that water collected at the trenches is supersaturated with respect to several iron oxy-hydroxides and therefore, CT degradation processes related to these iron minerals cannot be discarded. In addition, the combination of alkaline

  20. The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massabuau, F. C.-P., E-mail: fm350@cam.ac.uk; Oehler, F.; Pamenter, S. K.; Thrush, E. J.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Oliver, R. A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 22 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Davies, M. J.; Dawson, P. [Photon Science Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Kovács, A.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt- Straße, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Williams, T.; Etheridge, J. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton Campus, VIC 3800 (Australia); Hopkins, M. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    The impact of trench defects in blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been investigated. Two mechanisms responsible for the structural degradation of the multiple quantum well (MQW) active region were identified. It was found that during the growth of the p-type GaN capping layer, loss of part of the active region enclosed within a trench defect occurred, affecting the top-most QWs in the MQW stack. Indium platelets and voids were also found to form preferentially at the bottom of the MQW stack. The presence of high densities of trench defects in the LEDs was found to relate to a significant reduction in photoluminescence and electroluminescence emission efficiency, for a range of excitation power densities and drive currents. This reduction in emission efficiency was attributed to an increase in the density of non-radiative recombination centres within the MQW stack, believed to be associated with the stacking mismatch boundaries which form part of the sub-surface structure of the trench defects. Investigation of the surface of green-emitting QW structures found a two decade increase in the density of trench defects, compared to its blue-emitting counterpart, suggesting that the efficiency of green-emitting LEDs may be strongly affected by the presence of these defects. Our results are therefore consistent with a model that the “green gap” problem might relate to localized strain relaxation occurring through defects.

  1. Annual Report RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspections for Corrective Action Unit 112: Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley F. Emer

    1999-01-01

    This annual Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture data obtained at the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit, located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada during the October 1997 - October 1998 period. Inspections of the Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches RCRA unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. Physical inspections of the closure were completed quarterly and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. An annual subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted in July 1998. There has been no subsidence at any of the markers since monitoring began six years ago. The objective of the neutron logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along 30 neutron access tubes and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement at a point located directly beneath each trench. All monitored access tubes are within the compliance criteria of less than 5 percent residual volumetric moisture content at the compliance point directly beneath each respective trench. Soil conditions remain dry and stable underneath the trenches.

  2. Task plan to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ grouting of an ORNL waste burial trench with a cement-based grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.

    1991-11-01

    This task will demonstrate the feasibility of using an in situ grouting technique with a particulate-grout formulation as a closure action to stabilize waste trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6. It also supports technology development for closure of other SWSAs. A particulate grout will be formulated using cement-bentonite and fly ash from a coal-fired power plant. The grout solids will be dry-blended, mixed with water, and injected (using {similar to}5 to 10 lb/in.{sup 2} pressure) into five injection wells per trench. After 28 days for setting, soil penetration resistance and hydraulic conductivity measurements will be repeated for comparison to pregrouting measurements. The primary objective of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the in situ injection of a particulate grout into waste burial trenches. Effectiveness is defined here as increased trenched stability (characterized by trench penetration resistance tests) and decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests).

  3. Task plan to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ grouting of an ORNL waste burial trench with a cement-based grout. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.

    1991-11-01

    This task will demonstrate the feasibility of using an in situ grouting technique with a particulate-grout formulation as a closure action to stabilize waste trenches in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6. It also supports technology development for closure of other SWSAs. A particulate grout will be formulated using cement-bentonite and fly ash from a coal-fired power plant. The grout solids will be dry-blended, mixed with water, and injected (using {similar_to}5 to 10 lb/in.{sup 2} pressure) into five injection wells per trench. After 28 days for setting, soil penetration resistance and hydraulic conductivity measurements will be repeated for comparison to pregrouting measurements. The primary objective of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the in situ injection of a particulate grout into waste burial trenches. Effectiveness is defined here as increased trenched stability (characterized by trench penetration resistance tests) and decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests).

  4. Magnetic Susceptibility of liquid Gd-NM (NM = Cu, Ga, Ge alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimakura Hironori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For rare earth alloys, the indirect interaction of RKKY is at work between rare-earth atoms. Therefore, the magnetism of them depends on the number of conduction electrons and the distance between rare-earth metals. In this work, to reveal the relationship between the number of conduction electrons and magnetic property of rare earth metal alloys, magnetic susceptibility measurements for liquid Gd-NM (NM = Cu, Ga, Ge was performed by Faraday method. As the results, it was observed that the sign of paramagnetic Curie temperature of Cu-Gd alloys are positive at all composition, while Ga-Gd and Ge-Gd alloys show negative paramagnetic Curie temperature at certain composition. Moreover, it was indicated when the alloy at certain composition shows highest melting temperature, it has the lowest paramagnetic Curie temperature.

  5. EFFECT OF ASE ON PERFORMANCE OF TDFA FOR 1479 nm-1555 nm WAVELENGTH RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INDERPREET KAUR

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, mathematical modelling of TDFA for broadened gain spectrum and reduced noise figure has been carried out by keeping all practical parameters in consideration. A model of TDFA has been designed based on simulation after considering all the major parameters like ASE pump and signal power. The present research claims to support 96 DWDM channels across 1479 nm-1555 nm wavelength range, with a peak gain of 26 dB (without ASE and with a peak gain 24 dB, ASE of 1.5 dBm for optimum fiber length of TDF as 10 m. With this proposed model, the gain of 24 dB and NF of 7 dB has been achieved.

  6. Distributed Humidity Sensing in PMMA Optical Fibers at 500 nm and 650 nm Wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Sascha; Breithaupt, Mathias; Krebber, Katerina

    2017-03-31

    Distributed measurement of humidity is a sought-after capability for various fields of application, especially in the civil engineering and structural health monitoring sectors. This article presents a method for distributed humidity sensing along polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer optical fibers (POFs) by analyzing wavelength-dependent Rayleigh backscattering and attenuation characteristics at 500 nm and 650 nm wavelengths. Spatially resolved humidity sensing is obtained from backscatter traces of a dual-wavelength optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). Backscatter dependence, attenuation dependence as well as the fiber length change are characterized as functions of relative humidity. Cross-sensitivity effects are discussed and quantified. The evaluation of the humidity-dependent backscatter effects at the two wavelength measurements allows for distributed and unambiguous measurement of relative humidity. The technique can be readily employed with low-cost standard polymer optical fibers and commercial OTDR devices.

  7. Absolute frequency references at 1529 nm and 1560 nm using modulation transfer spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    de Escobar, Y Natali Martinez; Coop, Simon; Vanderbruggen, Thomas; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof T; Mitchell, Morgan W

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a double optical frequency reference (1529 nm and 1560 nm) for the telecom C-band using $^{87}$Rb modulation transfer spectroscopy. The two reference frequencies are defined by the 5S$_{1/2} F=2 \\rightarrow $ 5P$_{3/2} F'=3$ two-level and 5S$_{1/2} F=2 \\rightarrow $ 5P$_{3/2} F'=3 \\rightarrow $ 4D$_{5/2} F"=4$ ladder transitions. We examine the sensitivity of the frequency stabilization to probe power and magnetic field fluctuations, calculate its frequency shift due to residual amplitude modulation, and estimate its shift due to gas collisions. The short-term Allan deviation was estimated from the error signal slope for the two transitions. Our scheme provides a simple and high performing system for references at these important wavelengths. We estimate an absolute accuracy of $\\sim$ 1 kHz is realistic.

  8. Distributed Humidity Sensing in PMMA Optical Fibers at 500 nm and 650 nm Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Sascha; Breithaupt, Mathias; Krebber, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Distributed measurement of humidity is a sought-after capability for various fields of application, especially in the civil engineering and structural health monitoring sectors. This article presents a method for distributed humidity sensing along polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer optical fibers (POFs) by analyzing wavelength-dependent Rayleigh backscattering and attenuation characteristics at 500 nm and 650 nm wavelengths. Spatially resolved humidity sensing is obtained from backscatter traces of a dual-wavelength optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). Backscatter dependence, attenuation dependence as well as the fiber length change are characterized as functions of relative humidity. Cross-sensitivity effects are discussed and quantified. The evaluation of the humidity-dependent backscatter effects at the two wavelength measurements allows for distributed and unambiguous measurement of relative humidity. The technique can be readily employed with low-cost standard polymer optical fibers and commercial OTDR devices. PMID:28362339

  9. Local CD variation in 65nm node with PSM processes STI topography characterization (I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yiming; Chang, Simon; Zhang, Gary; Kirmse, Karen; Rogers, Duncan; Olsen, Leif; Lewellen, John

    2006-03-01

    How to effectively control the critical dimension (CD) is always a hot topic in photolithography. In 65nm node using phase shift mask (PSM) techniques, any factors related to CD variations should not be ignored without full investigation due to the ever-decreasing CD budget. In this paper, we focus on the local CD variation (LCDV) at the gate level within an area of 200μm x 200μm printed on a 193nm exposure tool. In contrast with AWLV (across wafer line variation) and ACLV (across chip line variation), the more localized LCDV implies that it is more dependent on the following three major factors: i) local wafer flatness mainly dominated by STI (shallow trench isolation) steps after CMP (chemical mechanical polishing); ii) effectiveness of OPC (optical proximity correction) covering all transistors with different geometrical shapes in circuit layout and iii) line edge roughness (LER) and line width roughness (LWR) related to photo and etch processes. Although OPC errors, LER and LWR are also very important, the current discussion will be limited in characterizing the relationship between LCDV and STI step-height (S-H) due to the length limitation. The STI S-H between the active surface and the trench oxide surface always exists due to the different material selectivity in the CMP process. The major gate CD influences from STI S-H are strongly correlated to the different geometrical shapes of transistors in circuits, such as single/multi-finger, wide/narrow, interior/exterior-flare and etc. According to our experiments and simulations from both alt-PSM (alternating PSM) and att-PSM (attenuating PSM) processes, the following important conclusions can be derived. a) The gate CDs in two PSM processes show different sensitivities to STI S-Hs in different geometrical shapes of transistors in circuit layout. The alt-PSM process is more sensitive than the att-PSM, especially for isolate gates. This is a shortcoming for the alt-PSM process in effectively controlling the

  10. TUNABLE DIODE LASER MEASUREMENTS OF NO2 NEAR 670 NM AND 395 NM. (R823933)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two single-mode diode lasers were used to record high-resolution absorption spectra of NO2 (dilute in Ar) near 670.2 and 394.5 nm over a range of temperatures (296 to 774 K) and total pressures (2.4 x 10(-2) to 1 atm). A commercial InGaAsP laser was tuned 1.3 cm(-1) at a repetiti...

  11. Analysis of multi-mode to single-mode conversion at 635 nm and 1550 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Bogatzki, Angelina; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Hofmann, Jens; Schröder, Henning

    2016-03-01

    We propose two low-cost and robust optical fiber systems based on the photonic lantern (PL) technology for operating at 635 nm and 1550 nm. The PL is an emerging technology that couples light from a multi-mode (MM) fiber to several single-mode (SM) fibers via a low-loss adiabatic transition. This bundle of SM fibers is observed as a MM fiber system whose spatial modes are the degenerate supermodes of the bundle. The adiabatic transition allows that those supermodes evolve into the modes of the MM fiber. Simulations of the MM fiber end structure and its taper transition have been performed via functional mode solver tools in order to understand the modal evolution in PLs. The modelled design consists of 7 SM fibers inserted into a low-index capillary. The material and geometry of the PLs are chosen such that the supermodes match to the spatial modes of the desired step-index MM fiber in a moderate loss transmission. The dispersion of materials is also considered. These parameters are studied in two PL systems in order to reach a spectral transmission from 450 nm to 1600 nm. Additionally, an analysis of the geometry and losses due to the mismatching of modes is presented. PLs are typically used in the fields of astrophotonics and space photonics. Recently, they are demonstrated as mode converters in telecommunications, especially focusing on spatial division multiplexing. In this study, we show the use of PLs as a promising interconnecting tool for the development of miniaturized spectrometers operating in a broad wavelength range.

  12. Comparison of 3D surfaces produced by 248-nm and 193-nm excimer laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; Graumann, Christoph; Rinke, Marcus; Hesener, Hanno; Kulik, Christian

    1998-10-01

    Currently there is a strong demand for refractive optical elements made from glass in 21/2D and 3D-structures. Due to the characteristics of brittle materials like glass, only a limited number of manufacturing methods can be used to machine these materials with sub-micron resolution. Thus, current microstructures made out of glass are mainly manufactured by photolithography and etching process. Lithography techniques are only for economic purposes for a series production, but is not suitable for manufacturing prototypes or a small series. Micromachining done with Excimer Lasers in combination with high precision CNC- controlled handling systems offers flexible design possibilities for optical components. Due to the limitations of conventional machining techniques for brittle materials, a new laser machining system for material processing at a wavelength of 193 nm has been designed and built. The better absorption of 193 nm compared to 248 nm or larger wavelengths leads to damage free microstructuring of most glasses. Data generation for the volume to be ablated starts with the mathematical description of the surface shape of the optical component. The contour can be derived from a mathematical function or individual xyz-data point information from any CAD-program. A pre-processor calculates the CNC-data for laser triggering, xyz-table and the CNC- mask control. Each laser pulse leads to a material removal, defined by the illuminated surface on the workpiece as well as the energy density. Superposition or overlapping of pulses allows the creation of the desired surface. The surface roughness is determined by the wavelength as well as the chosen ablation strategy. To achieve best results, the process has to be carefully adjusted for a specific material. This technique is a sufficient method for structuring grooves in ceramics or glass as well as producing aspherical transparent optical surfaces or micro lens arrays. This paper shall describe the potential of 193 nm

  13. RESULTS OF GROUNDWATER MONITORING FOR THE 183-H SOLAR EVAPORATION BASINS AND 300 AREA PROCESS TRENCHES JANUARY-JUNE 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEEKES, D. C.

    2010-11-07

    This is one of a series of reports on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 monitoring at the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins and the 300 Area Process Trenches. It fulfills the requirement of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-645(11) to report twice each year on the effectiveness of the corrective action program. This report covers the period from January through June 2010. The concentrations of 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins contaminants remained below applicable concentration limits during the reporting period. The most recent exceedance of a concentration limit was May 2007. The overall concentration of uranium in 300 Area Process Trenches wells remained above the 20 {micro}g/L concentration limit in the three downgradient wells screened at the water table. Fluctuations of uranium concentration are caused by changes in river stage. The concentration of cis-l ,2-dichloroethene remained above the 70 {micro}g/L concentration limit in one deep well (399-1-16B). Concentrations are relatively steady at this well and are not affected by river stage. Trichloroethene concentrations were below detection limits in all wells during the reporting period.

  14. Three new species and one new genus of abyssal Cumacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Peracarida) from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenteva, Anna V.; Mühlenhardt-Siegel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Only two species of crustacean Cumacea have been reported in publications for the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area after nine expeditions on board of the RV "Vityaz". During the KuramBio expedition 2012 to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the adjacent abyssal plain at depths 4830-5780 m no less than 72 species of cumaceans from 23 genera and 6 families were sampled. Five genera were recorded for the first time in the studied region: the genera Pseudoleptostyloides and Platycuma were detected for the first time for the Pacific Ocean; Cyclaspoides, Bathylamprops and Styloptocuma were firstly sampled in North Pacific. About 90% of the sampled species appear to be new to science. Three new deep-sea cumacean species and one new genus from the Kurile Kamchatka area are described in the present paper: Abyssoleucon tzarevae gen. n., sp. n. belonging to the family Leuconidae, Cyclaspoides borisovetsi sp. n. and Bathycuma sonne sp. n. of the family Bodotriidae. A distribution map for the species of the genus Cyclaspoides is provided.

  15. Potential for generation of natural gas in sediments of the convergent margin of the Aleutian Trench Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; von Huene, R.

    1983-01-01

    Sediment being subducted in the eastern part of the convergent margin of the Aleutian Trench has a potential to generate large volumes of natural gas, perhaps as much as 2.8 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of methane per km/sup 3/ of sediment, even though the content of organic carbon in the sediment is very low, averaging about 0.4%. This high potential for gas generation results primarily from the enormous volume of sediment undergoing subduction. Along the eastern Aleutian Arc-Trench system a 3-km thick sheet of sediment is being subducted at a rate of about 60 km per million years. We estimate, based on considerations of the stability requirements for gas hydrates observed as anomalous reflectors in some of our seismic records, and on one measurement in a deep well, that the geothermal gradient in this region is about 30/sup 0/C/km. Such a gradient suggests a temperature regime in which the maximum gas generation in the subducting sediment occurs beneath the upper slope. Thus the sediment of the upper slope, as opposed to that of the shelf and lower slope, could be the most prospective for gas accumulation if suitable reservoirs are present. 40 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Soil Characteristics and Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Performance Two Decades after Disk Trenching of Unburned and Broadcast-Burned Plots in Subboreal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob O. Boateng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of low-impact broadcast-burning and disk-trenching planting position (control, hinge, trench on soil characteristics and lodgepole pine foliar nutrition and growth over two decades at a subboreal site in British Columbia, Canada. Broadcast burning had virtually no effect on either the bulk density or chemical properties of soil. In contrast, significant reductions in soil bulk density and increases in soil nutrient availability persisted for 20 years in hinge position soils relative to undisturbed (control soil between trenches. These effects on bulk density and nutrient availability are associated with significant differences in pine size by year 6. Burning and planting positions interacted significantly in their effect on pine height, diameter, and stem volume for at least 19 years. Pine survival was high regardless of burning or planting position. Neither broadcast burning nor planting position significantly affected lodgepole pine foliar nutrient status in this study.

  17. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY (United States); Sundquist, J. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  18. Two-dimensional Numerical Models of Accretionary Wedges Deformation in Response to Subduction and Obduction: Evidence from the Middle Part of the Manila Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L.; Ding, W.; Chen, L.; Gerya, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Manila Trench is located at the eastern boundary of the South China Sea (SCS). It was created by the subduction of the South China Sea Plate beneath the Philippine Sea Plate since the early Neogene, and also influenced by the northwestern movement of the Philippine Sea Plate. There is wide discussion whether the dual-subduction and widespread seamounts in the South China Sea would have play important roles in the 'S-shaped' geometry and the different diving angle along the Manila Trench. Multi-beam tectono-geomorphological studies on the accretionary wedges have suggested that: (1) the stress direction of the subduction along the middle part of the Manila Trench, between 17o and 18 o N, is NW55 o; (2) The Manila Trench is actually caused by obduction due to the northwestern movement of the Philippine Sea Plate. Although the NW 55 o stress direction has been supported by detailed analysis on the trend of the folds, thrust faults, extension fractures and large sea-floor canyon, its obduction-origin is purely based on regional structure. Here we use 2D numerical modeling experiments to investigate the deformation style of accretionary wedge in response to the seamounts subduction and obduction, and provide new insights into the mechanism responsible for the Luzon obduction along the Manila Trench. Our preliminary results show that: (1) the accretionary wedge is eroded faster in subduction model; (2) the velocity field direction of the slab differs in two models at the beginning of seamount subduction, which is vertical in obduction model, but oblique in subduction model; (3) both sides of the accretionary wedge deform strongly in subduction model, whereas in obduction model only the leading edge shows intensive deformation. Further modelling will focus on other parts of the Manila Trench with different slab age and subduction velocity to see their tectonic influences on the accretionary wedges.

  19. MEBES reticle writers for 350-nm and 250-nm design rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Naber, Robert J.; Dean, Robert L.; Sauer, Charles A.

    1994-11-01

    New MEBES reticle writers are described that meet the production requirements of the 350- nm and 250-nm design rules required for 64 Mb and first generation 256 Mb DRAM techniques. These raster scan e-beam systems are based on the MEBES IV thermal field emission (TFE) exposure system, in production use since early 1992. The MEBES IV-TFE system exceeds its 500-nm design rule requirement and is routinely used to product reticles of first-generation 64 Mb DRAMs, prototype 256 Mb DRAMs, and phase shift masks. The success of MEBES IV-TFE is based on a close working relationship with system users, who provided input to establish the requirements of the new reticle writers. The new reticle writers are the result of a two-phase development program. The initial phase, completed in 1993, focused on productivity improvements to the base system, which proved to have excellent accuracy. These improvements ease the handling of the large pattern files, improve the use of the 160 MHz writing rate with a faster data path and more efficient writing strategy, and improve overall system utilization with in situ (maskless) beam-calibration techniques. The second phase of development, completed early in 1994, focused on the production reticle requirements of second-generation 64 Mb DRAM, including optical proximity correction features, and first-generation 256 Mb DRAM. The second development phase improves data path speed, system accuracy, and system productivity. System and subsystem performance is shown for the first and second development phases. Lithographic and write-time performance on the product is presented and discussed in the context of system requirements.

  20. Development of high energy pulsed plasma simulator for plasma-lithium trench experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soonwook

    To simulate detrimental events in a tokamak and provide a test-stand for a liquid lithium infused trench (LiMIT) device, a pulsed plasma source utilizing a theta pinch in conjunction with a coaxial plasma accelerator has been developed. An overall objective of the project is to develop a compact device that can produce 100 MW/m2 to 1 GW/m2 of plasma heat flux (a typical heat flux level in a major fusion device) in ~ 100 mus (≤ 0.1 MJ/m2) for a liquid lithium plasma facing component research. The existing theta pinch device, DEVeX, was built and operated for study on lithium vapor shielding effect. However, a typical plasma energy of 3 - 4 kJ/m2 is too low to study an interaction of plasma and plasma facing components in fusion devices. No or little preionized plasma, ringing of magnetic field, collisions of high energy particles with background gas have been reported as the main issues. Therefore, DEVeX is reconfigured to mitigate these issues. The new device is mainly composed of a plasma gun for a preionization source, a theta pinch for heating, and guiding magnets for a better plasma transportation. Each component will be driven by capacitor banks and controlled by high voltage / current switches. Several diagnostics including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, optical emission measurement, Rogowski coil, flux loop, and fast ionization gauge are used to characterize the new device. A coaxial plasma gun is manufactured and installed in the previous theta pinch chamber. The plasma gun is equipped with 500 uF capacitor and a gas puff valve. The increase of the plasma velocity with the plasma gun capacitor voltage is consistent with the theoretical predictions and the velocity is located between the snowplow model and the weak - coupling limit. Plasma energies measured with the calorimeter ranges from 0.02 - 0.065 MJ/m2 and increases with the voltage at the capacitor bank. A cross-check between the plasma energy measured with the calorimeter and the triple probe

  1. Ultraviolet 320 nm laser excitation for flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, William; Stickland, Lynn; Koschorreck, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Although multiple lasers and high-dimensional analysis capability are now standard on advanced flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (usually 325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. This is primarily due to their cost, and the small number of applications that require this wavelength. The development of the Brilliant Ultraviolet (BUV fluorochromes, however, has increased the importance of this formerly niche excitation wavelength. Historically, UV excitation was usually provided by water-cooled argon- and krypton-ion lasers. Modern flow cytometers primary rely on diode pumped solid state lasers emitting at 355 nm. While useful for all UV-excited applications, DPSS UV lasers are still large by modern solid state laser standards, and remain very expensive. Smaller and cheaper near UV laser diodes (NUVLDs) emitting at 375 nm make adequate substitutes for 355 nm sources in many situations, but do not work as well with very short wavelength probes like the fluorescent calcium chelator indo-1. In this study, we evaluate a newly available UV 320 nm laser for flow cytometry. While shorter in wavelength that conventional UV lasers, 320 is close to the 325 nm helium-cadmium wavelength used in the past on early benchtop cytometers. A UV 320 nm laser was found to excite almost all Brilliant Ultraviolet dyes to nearly the same level as 355 nm sources. Both 320 nm and 355 nm sources worked equally well for Hoechst and DyeCycle Violet side population analysis of stem cells in mouse hematopoetic tissue. The shorter wavelength UV source also showed excellent excitation of indo-1, a probe that is not compatible with NUVLD 375 nm sources. In summary, a 320 nm laser module made a suitable substitute for conventional 355 nm sources. This laser technology is available in a smaller form factor than current 355 nm units, making it useful for small cytometers with space constraints. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International

  2. Extreme event archived in the geological record of the Japan Trench: New results from R/V Sonne Cruise SO-251 towards establishing J-TRACK paleoseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Michael; Kopf, Achim; Kanamatsu, Toshyia; Moernaut, Jasper; Ikehara, Ken; McHugh, Cecila

    2017-04-01

    Our perspective of subduction zonés earthquake magnitude and recurrence is limited by short historical records. Examining prehistoric extreme events preserved in the geological record is essential towards understanding large earthquakes and assessing the geohazard potential associated with such rare events. The research field of "subaquatic paleoseismology" is a promising approach to investigate deposits from the deep sea, where earthquakes leave traces preserved in stratigraphic succession. However, at present we lack comprehensive data set that allow conclusive distinctions between quality and completeness of the paleoseismic archives as they may relate to different sediment transport, erosion and deposition processes vs. variability of intrinsic seismogenic behavior across different segments. Initially building on what sedimentary deposits were generated from the 2011 Magnitude 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the Japan Trench is a promising study area to investigate earthquake-triggered sediment remobilization processes and how they become embedded in the stratigraphic record. Here we present new results from the recent R/V Sonne expedition SO251 that acquired a complete high-resolution bathymetric map of the trench axis and nearly 2000 km of subbottom Parasound profiles, covering the entire along-strike extent of the Japan Trench from 36° to 40.3° N, and groundtruthed by several nearly 10m long piston cores retrieved from the very deep waters (7 to 8 km below sea level): Several smaller submarine landslide (up to several 100's m of lateral extent) can be identified along the trench axis in the new bathymetric data set. These features were either not yet present, or not resolved in the lower-resolution bathymetric dataset acquired before 2011. Sub-bottom acoustic reflection data reveals striking, up to several meter thick, acoustically transparent bodies interbedded in the otherwise parallel reflection pattern of the trench fill basins, providing a temporal and

  3. Thin films of molecular materials synthesized from C{sub 32}H{sub 20}N{sub 10}M (M Co, Pb, Fe): Film formation, electrical and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez Vergara, M.E., E-mail: elena.sanchez@anahuac.mx [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac del Norte, Avenida Lomas Anahuac 46, Colonia Lomas Anahuac, 52786, Huixquilucan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia Montalvo, V. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez, J.R. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad de Mexico, Calle del Puente 222, Colonia Ejidos de Huipulco, 14380 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    In this work, the synthesis of molecular materials formed from metallic phthalocyanines and 1,4-phenylenediamine is reported. The powder and thin film ({approx}80-115 nm thickness) samples of the synthesized materials, deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation, show the same intra-molecular bonds in the IR spectroscopy studies, which suggests that the thermal evaporation process does not alter these bonds. The morphology of the deposited films was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and their optical and electrical properties were studied as well. The optical parameters have been investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of transmittance in the wavelength range 200-1200 nm. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV-vis region for the deposited samples showed two bands, namely the Q and Soret bands. The optical activation energy was calculated and found to be 3.41 eV for the material with cobalt, 3.34 eV for the material including lead and 3.5 eV for the material with iron. The effect of temperature on conductivity was measured for the thin films and the corresponding conduction processes are discussed in this work.

  4. 980 nm and 808 nm excitable upconversion nanoparticles for the detection of enzyme related reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstoß, Sandy F.; Wiesholler, Lisa M.; Buchner, Markus; Muhr, Verena; Märkl, Susanne; Baeumner, Antje J.; Hirsch, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Upconverting luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) represent an interesting class of nanomaterials for bioanalytical applications. Due to their excitation in the near infrared region of the spectra, no fluorescence of biological compounds is trigged. Compared to other nanomaterials like quantum dots they exhibit low cytotoxicity, high photostability, no blinking and chemical inertness. Nevertheless, UCNPs suffer from low quantum efficiency. Here we report on two different core-shell particle systems which have a core consisting of NaYF4 doped with Yb3+/ Tm3+ and an additional inert shell (NaYF4) or an active shell (NaYF4 doped with Yb3+/Nd3+). Nanoparticles without Yb3+ as sensitizer can be excited at 980 nm. However, water has an absorption band in this region. This results in a reduction of the upconversion efficiency in aqueous systems and a heating of the solution. For bioanalytical application, more beneficial is the shifting of the wavelength to 808 nm by additional doping of the shell with Nd3+. Both core-shell systems were investigated in respect to the monitor enzymatic reactions of dehydrogenases and oxidases involving the generation of either NADH or FADH2.

  5. Alignment robustness for 90 nm and 65 nm node through copper alignment mark integration optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Scott; Hinnen, Paul; Morton, Rob; Cooper, Kevin; Sassoulas, Pierre-Olivier; Depre, Jerome; Navarro, Ramon; van Haren, Richard; Browning, Clyde; Reber, Doug; Megens, Henry

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, methods for stacking ASML scribe lane alignment marks (SPM) and improving the mark performance at initial copper metal levels are discussed. The new mark designs and the theoretical reasons for mark design and/or integration change are presented. In previous joint publications between ASML and Freescale Semiconductor [1], improved overlay performance and alignment robustness for Back End Of Line (BEOL) layers by the application of stacked scribe lane marks (SPM) was presented. In this paper, further improvements are demonstrated through the use of optimized Versatile Scribe Lane Mark design (VSPM). With the application of stacked optimized VSPM-marks, the alignment signal strength of marks in the copper metal layer is increased compared to stacked SPM marks. The gains in signal strength stability, which is typical for stacked marks, as well as significantly reduced scribe lane usage, are also maintained. Through the placement of specially designed orthogonal scatter-bars in selected layers under the VSPM-marks, the alignment performance of initial inlaid metal layers is improved as well. The integration of these marks has been evaluated for the 90 nm and 65 nm technology nodes as part of a joint development program between the Crolles2 Alliance and ASML. A measured overlay improvement of ~10-15% was obtained by a strategy change from floating copper marks to stacked optimized VSPM marks.

  6. Ground-Truth On The CSUEB Campus: Results From Integrating Geophysical, Geological And Geospatial Methods And Fault Trench Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimbola, A.; Strayer, L. M.; McEvilly, A.

    2015-12-01

    A major (>M6) earthquake on the Hayward fault would be catastrophic, resulting in wide-ranging structural damage and potential loss of life. California State University, East Bay (CSUEB), in Hayward lies within the Hayward fault zone and is home to student residents. The campus is bound to the west by the Hayward and on the east by Chabot (CF) fault and is pervasively cut by anastomosing secondary splay faults. In June 2015 three exploratory trenches were opened on CSUEB campus to evaluate faulting within the proposed construction area of new student housing. Previous work by Dibblee found minor faulting in this area that we consider to be splays of the CF. We took the opportunity to conduct an active seismic survey, coincident with two of these three trenches. The purpose of our survey was to compare the results of these two methods, to further assess seismic hazard on campus, and to contribute to the ongoing effort to create a 3D model of the campus area. P-waves were generated by plate and 3.5kg sledgehammer, recorded on a 48-channel single component array for P-wave tomography and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Line 1 was 141m long with 3m receiver spacing and 9m shot spacing, and Line 2 was 188m long with 4m receivers spacing and 12m spacing. Initial P-wave tomography models show two velocity structures. To a depth of 25m, velocities ranged from 750-3000 m/s. At depths below 25m, we recorded P-wave velocities up to 6500 m/s, flanked by lower velocities, suggesting a bedrock unit bound by tectonically sheared material. Trench results indicate that faults and shears are indeed present in the top 2m. Additional near-surface seismic surveys are planned for the fall of 2015 to extend the trace of these faults, as they appear to cut across the entire campus. Furthermore, additional analysis of current and future seismic surveys will provide data on strong ground motion and offer insight into seismic hazards on the CSUEB campus. These new data will be

  7. Frictional properties of the biogenic oozes from the CRISP drilling project: possible evidence of past slip-to-the-trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, P.; Spagnuolo, E.; Aretusini, S.; Di Toro, G.; Tsutsumi, A.; Ujiie, K.; Namiki, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku EQ revealed that co-seismic displacement along the megathrust can reach the deformation front of subduction zones. Since then the global significance of slip-to-the-trench has become an important field of study; hence investigation of past events at other active megathrusts is critical. Offshore SE Costa Rica the deformation front of the Caribbean forearc is formed by a ~10 km-wide accretionary wedge. Here, drill Site U141 has revealed a record of frontal thrusts detached along biogenic ooze, which correlates lithologically with the "reference" Site U1381. This biogenic ooze contains >70% of organic components.There are up to 15% silica-rich elements in the upper part of the formation, while clay increases downsection. The biogenic ooze is overlain by silty clay, in which smectite is the dominant mineral. Low- to high-velocity friction experiments were performed on the biogenic ooze and the silty clay to investigate the velocity dependence of friction and the micromechanical foundation of strain localization within fontal thrusts. These experiments were performed at slip-rates of 3 µms-1 to 3.5 ms-1and σn up to 12 MPa, under both room-humidity and water saturated conditions. These experimental results indicate that, at low slip-rates, the biogenic ooze is stronger than the silty clay. At increasing slip-rates silty clays have a positive dependence of friction, while biogenic oozes show a sharp decrease of their friction coefficient as slip-rate increases. This rate-weakening behavior of the biogenic oozes may enhance co-seismic slip along the megathrust. The implication of these mechanical measurements is that the geological structures found in the forearc toe offshore SE Costa Rica were formed by locally high slip-rates that have enhanced slip propagation to the trench. Under slow slip-rates, deformation can have localized easier by creeping within the clays than in the oozes as seen. As Tsunami earthquakes are known to form with pronounced slip

  8. Temperature characteristic of 808nm VCSELs with large aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuan; Feng, Dawei; Hao, Yongqin; Wang, Yong; Yan, Changling; Lu, Peng; Li, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In order to study the output characteristics of 808nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser(VCSEL) with large aperture at different temperature, 808nm VCSEL with 500μm emitting diameter are fabricated with Reticular Electrode Structure(RES). Lasing wavelength, optical power and the threshold current are measured by changing the temperature of heat sink. And an output power of 0.42W is achieved at 1.3A at room temperature under continuous wave operation. The central wavelength is 803.32nm, and the full width at half maximum is 0.16nm, the temperature shift is 0.06nm/°, the thermal resistance is 0.098°/mW. The testing results show that 808nm VCSEL with large aperture is good temperature characteristic.

  9. Dust Plasma Analogue for Interstellar 217.5 nm Extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović, I.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The new ultraviolet (UV extinction measurements of carbonaceous nanoparticles in the range from 140 nm to 260 nm are presented. The plasma polymerized hydrocarbon nanoparticles were already proposed as a new astro analogue, which describe the infrared (IR extinction spectra in an excellent way. We use the same particles to find the possible carrier of the "mysterious" UV 217.5 nm extinction "bump" of interstellar media (ISM.

  10. Antifungal effect of 405-nm light on Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, K; Tanaka, S; Ibaraki, Y; Yoshimura, K; Ito, S

    2014-12-01

    There is very little information on the fungistatic or fungicidal effect of visible light. This study investigated the effect of 405-nm light, generated by a light-emitting diode array, on the economically important fungus Botrytis cinerea. The mycelial growth of B. cinerea was inhibited to the greatest extent by light at 405 and 415 nm and was negligibly inactivated at 450 nm, suggesting the presence of a photosensitizing compound that absorbs light mainly at wavelengths of 405-415 nm. Delta-aminolevulinic acid, a precursor of endogenous photosensitizer porphyrins, was used to determine the role of these porphyrins in 405-nm light-mediated photoinactivation of the fungus. Concentration-dependent inhibition of spore germination by delta-aminolevulinic acid and accumulation of singlet oxygen in the spores was observed when the spores were exposed to 405-nm light. These results suggest that the excitation of endogenous porphyrins and subsequent accumulation of singlet oxygen could partially explain the 405-nm light-mediated photoinactivation of B. cinerea. The development of symptoms in detached tomato leaves inoculated with B. cinerea spores was significantly reduced by irradiation with 405-nm light, indicating that 405-nm light has a potential use for controlling plant diseases caused by B. cinerea. Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) is a very successful necrotroph, causing serious losses in more than 200 crop hosts. This study investigated the antifungal effect of 405-nm light on this pathogen. Our results suggest that the excitation of endogenous porphyrins and subsequent accumulation of singlet oxygen contribute to the 405-nm light-mediated photoinactivation of grey mould. The development of symptoms in detached tomato leaves inoculated with B. cinerea spores was significantly inhibited by irradiation with 405-nm light, indicating that this wavelength of light has a potential use in controlling plant diseases caused by B. cinerea. © 2014 The Society for

  11. Virus safety of plasma products using 20 nm instead of 15 nm filtration as virus removing step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenderman, A H L; ter Hart, H G J; Prins-de Nijs, I M M; Bloem, J; Stoffers, S; Kempers, A; Derksen, G J; Al, B; Dekker, L; Over, J

    2012-11-01

    During the manufacture of human plasma derivatives, a series of complementary measures are undertaken to prevent transmission of blood-borne viruses. Virus filtration using 15 nm (Planova15N) filters has successfully been implemented in manufacturing processes for various plasma derivatives primarily because virus filtration is a technique, mild for proteins, that can effectively remove even small non-lipid-enveloped viruses, such as HAV and parvovirus B19. However, the use of 15 nm filters has limitations with regard to protein capacity of the filters and the process flow, resulting in an expensive manufacturing step. Therefore, studies were performed to test whether the use of 20 nm (Planova20N) filters, having different characteristics compared to 15 nm filters, can be an alternative for the use of 15 nm filters. It is shown that 20 nm filtration can be an alternative for 15 nm filtration. However, the virus removal capacity of the 20 nm filters depends on the plasma product that is filtered. Therefore, an optimisation study must be performed with regard to process parameters such as pressure, pH and protein concentration for each plasma product. In this study, using optimised conditions, the virus removal capacity of 20 nm filters appears to be comparable or even better when compared to that of 15 nm filters. Copyright © 2012 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Generation and use of high power 213 nm and 266 nm laser radiation and tunable 210-400 nm laser radiation with BBO crystal matrix array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2000-01-01

    A 213 nm laser beam is capable of single photon ablative photodecomposition for the removal of a polymer or biological material substrate. Breaking the molecular bonds and displacing the molecules away from the substrate in a very short time period results in most of the laser photon energy being carried away by the displaced molecules, thus minimizing thermal damage to the substrate. The incident laser beam may be unfocussed and is preferably produced by quintupling the 1064 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG solid state laser, i.e., at 213 nm. In one application, the 213 nm laser beam is expanded in cross section and directed through a plurality of small beta barium borate (BBO) crystals for increasing the energy per photon of the laser radiation directed onto the substrate. The BBO crystals are arranged in a crystal matrix array to provide a large laser beam transmission area capable of accommodating high energy laser radiation without damaging the BBO crystals. The BBO crystal matrix array may also be used with 266 nm laser radiation for carrying out single or multi photon ablative photodecomposition. The BBO crystal matrix array may also be used in an optical parametric oscillator mode to generate high power tunable laser radiation in the range of 210-400 nm.

  13. Characterization of Sediments from the Soil Desiccation Pilot Test (SDPT) Site in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Truex, Michael J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Iovin, Cristian; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Chang, Hyun-shik; Clayton, Ray E.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Ward, Anderson L.; Brown, Christopher F.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Baum, Steven R.; Smith, David M.

    2009-09-25

    This technical report documents the results of laboratory geochemical and hydrologic measurements of sediments collected from new borehole 299-E13-65 (C7047) and comparison of the results with those of nearby borehole 299-13E-62 (C5923) both drilled in the BC Cribs and Trenches Area. The total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants will be used to update contaminant-distribution conceptual models and to provide more data for improving baseline risk predictions and remedial alternative selections. Improved understanding of subsurface conditions and methods to remediate these principal contaminants can be also used to evaluate the application of specific technologies to other contaminants across the Hanford Site.

  14. Elevated levels of radium-226 and radium-228 in marine sediments of the Norwegian Trench ("Norskrenna") and Skagerrak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, M; Lepland, Aivo

    2012-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction activities discharge waters bearing radium isotopes which may potentially be transported to locations distant from the discharge point. Sediment cores from the Norwegian Trench and Skagerrak, potential sinks for North Sea discharges, were analyzed for the contents of these isotopes. All cores were such that data could be obtained from periods prior to and during extensive operations in the North Sea. Results indicate elevated levels of radium isotopes in upper sedimentary layers when compared to data for the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Although diagenetic processes involving manganese cycling may be responsible for these enrichments, the data support previous work indicating a possible influence of North Sea discharges on sediments of the area. The results highlight the need for further work on elaborating background levels of these isotopes in the North Sea and related areas such that possible impacts of these discharges can be properly evaluated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fish larvae at fronts: Horizontal and vertical distributions of gadoid fish larvae across a frontal zone at the Norwegian Trench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The reproduction and early life history of many fish species are linked to the physical and biological characteristics of fronts. In order to ascertain linkages between frontal physics and fish larvae, we investigated distributional differences among gadoid fish larvae comparing these to both...... horizontal and vertical variability in hydrography and abundances of potential copepod prey The investigation was carried out at a frontal zone along the Norwegian Trench in the northern North Sea, and was based on a series of cross-bathymetric sampling transects. Tows with a large ring net and an opening......-closing net were used for describing fish larval horizontal and vertical distributions, while a submersible pump was used for describing vertical distributions of copepods. Hydrographic profiles and current velocity measurements were used to outline variability in temperature, salinity and current structure...

  16. Hydrogen-terminated diamond vertical-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with a trench gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Masafumi, E-mail: inaba-ma@ruri.waseda.jp; Muta, Tsubasa; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Saito, Toshiki; Shibata, Masanobu; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kudo, Takuya; Hiraiwa, Atsushi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kawarada, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Laboratory for Materials Science and Technology, Waseda University, 2-8-26 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan)

    2016-07-18

    The hydrogen-terminated diamond surface (C-H diamond) has a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) layer independent of the crystal orientation. A 2DHG layer is ubiquitously formed on the C-H diamond surface covered by atomic-layer-deposited-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate oxide, C-H diamond metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) operate in a trench gate structure where the diamond side-wall acts as a channel. MOSFETs with a side-wall channel exhibit equivalent performance to the lateral C-H diamond MOSFET without a side-wall channel. Here, a vertical-type MOSFET with a drain on the bottom is demonstrated in diamond with channel current modulation by the gate and pinch off.

  17. Hydrogen-terminated diamond vertical-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with a trench gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Masafumi; Muta, Tsubasa; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Saito, Toshiki; Shibata, Masanobu; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kudo, Takuya; Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    The hydrogen-terminated diamond surface (C-H diamond) has a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) layer independent of the crystal orientation. A 2DHG layer is ubiquitously formed on the C-H diamond surface covered by atomic-layer-deposited-Al2O3. Using Al2O3 as a gate oxide, C-H diamond metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) operate in a trench gate structure where the diamond side-wall acts as a channel. MOSFETs with a side-wall channel exhibit equivalent performance to the lateral C-H diamond MOSFET without a side-wall channel. Here, a vertical-type MOSFET with a drain on the bottom is demonstrated in diamond with channel current modulation by the gate and pinch off.

  18. Effective transport of event sediments from shelf to deep-sea through submarine canyon: Examples from the Japan and Ryukyu trench forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Usami, K.

    2016-02-01

    Large earthquakes and their related tsunamis resuspend and remobilize unconsolidated shallow marine sediments. Some of the resuspended grains form the dense water masses, and move downslope-ward gravitationally. Confined bathymetry of submarine canyon may play an important role on maintaining their density, and protecting dispersion and dilution of their bodies, and further leading the long-distance transport of the sediment grains from shelf to deep-sea. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and tsunami made erosion and resuspension of shelf sediments at the wide areas along the Tohoku coast. Although generation of tsunami-induced turbidity currents was reported, there are only a few examples of the shelf sediment transport to deep-sea. Weak development of submarine canyons at the upper slope may explain this phenomena. On the other hand, many turbidites were observed in the sediment cores collected from a submarine fan at a forearc basin along the southern Ryukyu Trench. A lot of bioclastic (carbonate) coarse grains of shallow marine origin composed the turbidites. Deep incision of submarine canyons along the upper forearc slope may contribute the effective transport of coarse bioclasts from shelf to deep-sea in this area. No or few submarine canyon connecting the shelf with the trench floor makes the different source of the trench fill deposits at both trenchs.

  19. Earthquake occurrence along the Java trench in front of the onset of the Wadati-Benioff zone: Beginning of a new subduction cycle?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Hanuš, Václav; Vaněk, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2007), TC1005/1-TC1005/16 ISSN 0278-7407 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Wadati-Benioff zone * earthquake occurrence * Java trench Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.398, year: 2007

  20. Optimized design method for trench-assisted grade-index ring-core fiber with low DMD and large Aeff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xihui; Tu, Jiajing; Long, Keping

    2017-02-01

    We propose a kind of trench-assisted graded-index ring-core fiber (TA-GI-RCF) with a low refractive index rod deployed in the center of the core, which supports three LP modes (LP01, LP11 and LP21) transmission. There are two difficulties about designing TA-GI-RCF, one is to depart LP21 mode from LP02 mode because their effective indices are too close which makes it difficult to realize only three LP modes transmission; the other one is how to make sure these three LP modes reach the receiver end with low differential mode delay (DMD), so that the computation complexity of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) digital signal process (DSP) can be reduced. At first, we realize the separation of LP21 mode and LP02 mode in TA-GI-RCF by enlarging the size of low refractive index rod. We next investigate the influence of the TA-GI-RCF structural parameters on DMD and DMD slope, and find that a graded-index core and a low refractive index rod can flexibly tune the DMD, and a trench can flexibly control the DMD slope. Through optimizing the core parameters, we find that the design region of α is 1.01 2.23 and that of Δ1 is 0.28% 0.46% at r1=30 μm, where α is the profile exponent and Δ1 is the relative refractive index difference between core and cladding. Simulation results show that TA-GI-RCF can achieve the effective area (Aeff) of LP01 mode over 2000 μm2 and the |DMD| between LP01 mode and LP11 mode is DMD over whole C+L band and large Aeff.

  1. Effect of external turbulence on the efficiency of film cooling with coolant injection into a transverse trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatov, A. A.; Panchenko, N. A.; Severin, S. D.

    2017-09-01

    Film cooling is among the basic methods used for thermal protection of blades in modern high-temperature gas turbines. Results of computer simulation of film cooling with coolant injection via a row of conventional inclined holes or a row of holes in a trench are presented in this paper. The ANSYS CFX 14 commercial software package was used for CFD-modeling. The effect is studied of the mainstream turbulence on the film cooling efficiency for the blowing ratio range between 0.6 and 2.3 and three different turbulence intensities of 1, 5, and 10%. The mainstream velocity was 150 and 400 m/s, while the temperatures of the mainstream and the injected coolant were 1100 and 500°C, respectively. It is demonstrated that, for the coolant injection via one row of trenched holes, an increase in the mainstream turbulence intensity reduces the film cooling efficiency in the entire investigated range of blowing ratios. It was revealed that freestream turbulence had varied effects on the film cooling efficiency depending on the blowing ratio and mainstream velocity in a blade channel. Thus, an increase in the mainstream turbulence intensity from 1 to 10% decreases the surface-averaged film cooling efficiency by 3-10% at a high mainstream velocity (400 m/s) in the blade channel and by 12-23% at a moderate velocity (of 150 m/s). Here, lower film cooling efficiencies correspond to higher blowing ratios. The effect of mainstream turbulence intensity on the film cooling efficiency decreases with increasing the mainstream velocity in the modeled channel for both investigated configurations.

  2. Submarine mass wasting processes along slopes influenced by long-term tectonic erosion: The Middle America Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harders, R.; Ranero, C. R.; Weinrebe, W.

    2011-12-01

    We have studied submarine land-sliding using a seafloor topography and side-scan sonar data along the continental slope of the Middle America Trench. This subduction zone is dominated by tectonic erosion. Studies during the last few decades have shown mass wasting structures at submarine slopes around the world's continental margins, hot-spot volcanic islands, and volcanic island arcs. At Atlantic margins slides initiate at low slope angles and appear triggered by high sediment accumulation rates. At volcanic islands large-scale land-sliding is caused by volcano sector collapse. At subduction zones with accretionary prisms, land-sliding seems associated to contractional tectonics and fluid seepage. Submarine mass movements at subduction zones dominated by tectonic erosion are comparatively limited. However, tectonic erosion is active in about 50% of the world subduction zones. Distinct failures have been studied at slopes in Peru, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and New Zealand but extensive surveys have not been obtained. We present a comprehensive data sets on seafloor mapping on a subduction zone dominated by tectonic erosion. The data covers much of the Middle America Trench (MAT) from the Mexico-Guatemala border to Costa Rica - Panama border. The goal of this contribution is to evaluate how long-term tectonics caused by subduction erosion preconditions the continental slope structure to modulate the generation of land-sliding. We show that changes in subduction erosion processes, interacting with the local topography of the subducting plate correlate to variations in the type and distribution of failures along the slope of the region.

  3. Characterization of P-channel power trench MOSFETs with polycrystalline silicon germanium gate electrode for faster switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Rohit; Daggubati, Manmohan

    2012-02-01

    Electrical switching characteristics using polycrystalline silicon-germanium (poly-Si l-xGe x) gate for P-channel power trench MOSFETs was investigated. Switching time reduction of over 22% was observed when the boron-doped poly-Si gate was replaced with a similarly boron-doped poly-SiGe gate on the P-channel power MOSFETs. The fall time ( T f) on MOSFETs with poly-SiGe gate, was found to be ˜11 ns lesser than the poly-Si gate MOSFET which is ˜60% improvement in switching performance. However, all the switching improvement was observed during the fall times ( T f). The reason could be the higher series resistance in the switching test circuit masking any reduction in the rise times ( T r). Faster switching is achieved due to a lower gate resistance ( R g) offered by the poly-SiGe gate electrode as compared to poly-silicon (pSi) material. The pSi gate resistance was found to be 6.25 Ω compared to 3.75 Ω on the poly-SiGe gate measured on the same device. Lower gate resistance ( R g) also means less power is lost during switching thereby less heat is generated in the device. A very uniform boron doping profile was achieved with-in the pSiGe gate electrode, which is critical for uniform die turn on and better thermal response for the power trench MOSFET. pSiGe thin film optimization, properties and device characteristics are discussed in details in the following sections.

  4. Anetoderma treated with combined 595-nm pulsed-dye laser and 1550-nm non-ablative fractionated laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Krystle; Ross, Nicholas Alexander; Saedi, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Anetoderma is a skin disorder characterized by a focal loss of dermal elastic tissue whereby patients present with soft, depressible lesions. We postulated that a series of combination treatment using the 595-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) and the 1550-nm non-ablative fractionated laser (NAFL) would improve the anetoderma lesions. Our patient with biopsy proven anetoderma received 3 treatments with a combination of 595-nm PDL and 1550-nm NAFL spaced 3 weeks apart. Skin biopsies were performed at baseline and immediately prior to the third treatment. Stains for hematoxylin and eosin and Verhoeff Van Gieson (VVG) were performed. Improvement in lesion color, texture, and overall appearance was noted after the second treatment and continued following the third treatment. Post-treatment VVG staining demonstrated an increase in dermal elastin fibers and a decrease in elastin fiber fragmentation. Thus, the combination of 595-nm PDL and 1550-nm NAFL should be considered as a treatment modality for anetoderma.

  5. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretel, H.; Oliveira, J. A.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Ramalho, L. T. O.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7th, 25th, and 60th day. Group GI - only Ca(OH)2, GII - laser 688 nm, and GIII - laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm2, power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm2, energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p < 0.05) and between groups GI and GIII (p < 0.01). On 60th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm.

  6. On high speed transmission with the 850 nm VCSELs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkiewicz, Jarosław P.; Chorchos, Łukasz; Puerta Ramírez, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    One of the key research challenges is development of energy efficient high bit rate data interconnects. The most promising solutions are based on 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) and multi mode fibre (MMF). In this paper options to realize energy efficient 850 nm data interc...

  7. 14/16nm FinFET Radiation Response Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    inverter-based DFF, and Figure 1. Floorplan layout of 16nm bulk FinFET test chip with multiple CREST configuration flip-flop shift registers. Figure...D. Rennie, " Neutron - and Proton-Induced Single Event Upsets for D- and DICE-Flip/Flop Designs at a 40 nm Technology Node," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci

  8. Electron beam inspection of 16nm HP node EUV masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Narukawa, Shogo; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Lin, Chia-Wen; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Jau, Jack

    2012-11-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) is the most promising solution for 16nm HP node semiconductor device manufacturing and beyond. The fabrication of defect free EUV mask is one of the most challenging roadblocks to insert EUVL into high volume manufacturing (HVM). To fabricate and assure the defect free EUV masks, electron beam inspection (EBI) tool will be likely the necessary tool since optical mask inspection systems using 193nm and 199nm light are reaching a practical resolution limit around 16nm HP node EUV mask. For production use of EBI, several challenges and potential issues are expected. Firstly, required defect detection sensitivity is quite high. According to ITRS roadmap updated in 2011, the smallest defect size needed to detect is about 18nm for 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Secondly, small pixel size is likely required to obtain the high sensitivity. Thus, it might damage Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer due to accumulated high density electron beam bombardments. It also has potential of elevation of nuisance defects and reduction of throughput. These challenges must be solved before inserting EBI system into EUV mask HVM line. In this paper, we share our initial inspection results for 16nm HP node EUV mask (64nm HP absorber pattern on the EUV mask) using an EBI system eXplore® 5400 developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). In particularly, defect detection sensitivity, inspectability and damage to EUV mask were assessed. As conclusions, we found that the EBI system has capability to capture 16nm defects on 64nm absorber pattern EUV mask, satisfying the sensitivity requirement of 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Furthermore, we confirmed there is no significant damage to susceptible Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer. We also identified that low throughput and high nuisance defect rate are critical challenges needed to address for the 16nm HP node EUV mask inspection. The high nuisance defect rate could be generated by poor LWR and stitching errors during EB writing

  9. Penetration of nanoparticles in 5 nm to 400 nm size range through two selected fibrous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochot, C.; Mouret, G.; Michielsen, N.; Chazelet, S.; Thomas, D.

    2011-07-01

    Due to the strong development of nanotechnologies, ultrafine particles could represent a growing hazard for workers health. When it is not possible to reduce the risk at its source, filtration systems are one of the means used to limit the exposure to hazardous substances such as airborne particles. The aim of this study is to measure the penetration of nanoparticles on a very large diameter range, from the nanometer size to the most penetrating particle size (MPPS). Here we present experimental results obtained for three different types of nanoparticles. Measurements of nanoparticle penetration through two low efficiency fiberglass media are carried out using two test benches presented in this article. Penetration values for carbon, copper and NaCl nanoparticles decreases with particle size, as predicted by theory. The value of the most penetrating particle size is situated between 100 and 300 nm. No thermal rebound was observed in this particle size range. The penetration values will be used, in further studies, to determine a global penetration model.

  10. Penetration of nanoparticles in 5 nm to 400 nm size range through two selected fibrous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brochot, C; Michielsen, N [Aerosol Physics and Metrology Laboratory, Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, BP68 - 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mouret, G; Thomas, D [Laboratoire Reactions et Genie des Procedes, Nancy Universite, BP 20451 - 54001 Nancy (France); Chazelet, S, E-mail: clothilde.brochot@irsn.fr [Laboratory of polluant and air cleaning process, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rue du Morvan CS 60027 - 54519 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France)

    2011-07-06

    Due to the strong development of nanotechnologies, ultrafine particles could represent a growing hazard for workers health. When it is not possible to reduce the risk at its source, filtration systems are one of the means used to limit the exposure to hazardous substances such as airborne particles. The aim of this study is to measure the penetration of nanoparticles on a very large diameter range, from the nanometer size to the most penetrating particle size (MPPS). Here we present experimental results obtained for three different types of nanoparticles. Measurements of nanoparticle penetration through two low efficiency fiberglass media are carried out using two test benches presented in this article. Penetration values for carbon, copper and NaCl nanoparticles decreases with particle size, as predicted by theory. The value of the most penetrating particle size is situated between 100 and 300 nm. No thermal rebound was observed in this particle size range. The penetration values will be used, in further studies, to determine a global penetration model.

  11. Scattering matrices of martian dust analogs at 488 nm and 647 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Dominika D.; Muñoz, Olga; Moreno, Fernando; Ramos, José L.; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Wurm, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    We present measurements of the complete scattering matrix as a function of the scattering angle of five martian dust analogs, namely montmorillonite, two palagonite (JSC-1) samples, basalt, and calcite. The measurements are performed at 488 and 647 nm, covering the scattering angle range from 3° to 177°. The experimental scattering matrices are compared with results of Lorenz-Mie calculations performed for the same size distributions and refractive indices as our analog samples. As expected, we find that scattering matrices of realistic polydispersions of dust particles cannot be replaced by such calculated matrices. In contrast, the measured phase functions for our martian dust analogs may be considered a good approximation for martian dust at the studied wavelengths. Further, because of the sensitivity of polarimetry to particle microphysics, spectro-polarimetric observations from the martian surface appear to be a powerful diagnostic tool to infer the composition of the dust in the martian atmosphere. To facilitate the use of the experimental matrices for multiple-scattering calculations with polarization included, we compute the corresponding synthetic scattering matrices based on the measurements and defined in the full angle range from 0° to 180°.

  12. NM23-H1: a Metastasis-Associated Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Torng Tee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The protein product of nm23-H1 gene has activity of nucleoside diphosphate (NDP kinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates to the corresponding nucleoside triphosphates. Reductions in nm23 expression have been significantly associated with aggressive behavior in melanoma, breast, colon, and gastric carcinomas. On the contrary, high levels of nm23 gene expression are noted in the advanced stage of thyroid carcinomas and associated with significant reductions in survival for neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma patients. Although expression of nm23/NDP kinase is divergent in various malignant tumors, its reduced expression seems to be related to increased metastatic potential in most carcinoma types. However, it is hypothesized that nm23 may play a tissue-specific role, and that different regulatory mechanisms may act in different tumors. In ovarian carcinoma, nm23-H1/NDP kinase may be correlated with some clinicopathologic characteristics. In cervical cancer, nm23-H1 is probably involved in cervical carcinogenesis and correlated with some aggressive parameters. Overexpression of nm23-H1 protein may indicate poor survival for cervical cancer patients. Other than histidine 118 residue (amino acid sequence 118: histidine concerned with NDP kinase activity of nm23-H1, serine 120 (amino acid sequence 120: serine related activity of histidine-dependent protein phosphotransfer was recently reported to be responsible for its biological suppressive effects. To inhibit metastatic potential, nm23-H1 is also demonstrated to co-immunoprecipitate the kinase suppressor of Ras and phosphorylate it, and therefore reduce activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in response to signaling.

  13. Picosecond laser texturization of mc-silicon for photovoltaics: A comparison between 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm radiation wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binetti, Simona [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Le Donne, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.ledonne@mater.unimib.it [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Rolfi, Andrea [Department of Materials Science and Milano-Bicocca Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, 20125 Milano (Italy); Jäggi, Beat; Neuenschwander, Beat [Bern University of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Information Technology, Institute for Applied Laser, Photonics and Surface Technologies ALPS, Pestalozzistrasse 20, CH-3400 Burgdorf (Switzerland); Busto, Chiara [ENI Spa, Via Giacomo Fauser, 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Frigeri, Cesare [CNR-IMEM Institute, Parco Area Delle Scienze 37/A, Fontanini, 43010 Parma (Italy); Scorticati, Davide; Longoni, Luca; Pellegrino, Sergio [Laserpoint Srl, Via Della Burrona 51, 20090 Vimodrone, Milano (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on mc-Si. • Three laser wavelengths were used which effectively reduce Si reflectivity up to 8%. • The subsurface damage induced by the three lasers was studied in detail. • μ-Raman, PL and TEM proved that UV laser provides the lowest subsurface damage. • UV laser induced damage is located above the depletion region of the p–n junction. - Abstract: Self-organized surface structures were produced by picosecond laser pulses on multi-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. Three different laser wavelengths were employed (i.e. 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) and the resulting morphologies were observed to effectively reduce the reflectivity of the samples after laser irradiation. Besides, a comparative study of the laser induced subsurface damage generated by the three different wavelengths was performed by confocal micro-Raman, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy. The results of both the structural and optical characterization showed that the mc-Si texturing performed with the laser at 355 nm provides surface reflectivity between 11% and 8% over the spectral range from 400 nm to 1 μm, while inducing the lowest subsurface damage, located above the depletion region of the p–n junction.

  14. Development of 2-channel (532 nm and 355 nm) mobile LIDAR for mapping particulate matter in the atmosphere

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors describe the developmentof 2-Channel (532 nm and 355 nm) mobile LIDAR system for studying atmospheric particulate matter. The system is currently tested in house at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  15. Efficient single-pass third-harmonic generation from 1560 nm to 520 nm for pumping doubly-resonant OPO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kong; Wang, Junmin

    2017-08-01

    A ~545 mW single-frequency tunable 520 nm green laser has been demonstrated using a periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) bulk crystal based on single-pass third-harmonic generation (THG) of a 1560 nm laser via single-pass second-harmonic generation (SHG) followed by single-pass sum-frequency generation (SFG). In single-pass SHG, two cascaded periodically-poled magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate (PPMgO:LN) crystals were used, and ~3.5 W 780.25 nm doubled laser output is produced, corresponding to maximum doubling efficiency of 26.8%. The system can provide a pump source (520 nm) for an optical parametric oscillator for two-color entangled continuous-variable optical field generation at 1560 and 780 nm and two-color local oscillators for homodyne detection.

  16. Photolysis of tryptophan with 337. 1 nm laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkman, R.F.; Hibbard, L.B.; Dillon, J.

    1986-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of L-tryptophan were photolyzed by exposure to 337.1 nm radiation from a pulsed nitrogen laser. These data were compared with results for the 290 nm conventional-source photolysis of tryptophan. The loss of Trp was observed to be first order for 290 nm photolysis but of mixed order for 337.1 nm photolysis. Five photolysis products including N-formylkynurenine, kynurenine, tryptamine and two unknown products were detected. The tryptophan-containing peptides N-acetyl-tryptophanamide (NATA) and tryptophylglycine (Trp-Gly) were also observed to photolyze upon 337.1 nm laser radiation demonstrating that this phenomenon is not restricted to free tryptophan monomer. A number of experiments were performed in an effort to determine the mechanism of photolysis at this wavelength. It is concluded that this photolysis results either from a very weak absorption tail extending to 337.1 nm in tryptophan itself or from a reaction involving an impurity sensitizer which absorbs the 337.1 nm radiation.

  17. Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate

  18. Designing to win in sub-90nm mask production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan

    2005-11-01

    An informal survey conducted with key customers by Photronics indicates that the time gap between technology nodes has accelerated in recent years. Previously the cycle was three years. However, between 130nm and 90nm there was less than a 2 year gap, and between 90nm and 65nm a 1.5 year gap exists. As a result, the technical challenges have increased substantially. In addition, mask costs are rising exponentially due to high capital equipment cost, a shrinking customer base, long write times and increased applications of 193nm EAPSM or AAPSM. Collaboration among EDA companies, mask houses and wafer manufacturers is now more important than ever. This paper will explore avenues for reducing mask costs, mainly in the areas of: write-time reduction through design for manufacturing (DFM), and yield improvement through specification relaxation. Our study conducted through layout vertex modeling suggests that a simple design shape such as a square versus a circle or an angled structure helps reduce shot count and write time. Shot count reduction through mask layout optimization, and advancement in new generation E-beam writers can reduce write time up to 65%. An advanced laser writer can produce those less critical E-beam layers in less than half the time of an e-beam writer. Additionally, the emerging imprint lithography brings new life and new challenges to the photomask industry with applications in many fields outside of the semiconductor industry. As immersion lithography is introduced for 45nm device production, polarization and MEEF effects due to the mask will become severe. Larger magnification not only provides benefits on CD control and MEEF, but also extends the life time of current 90nm/65nm tool sets where 45nm mask sets can be produced at a lower cost.

  19. Tapered diode laser pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Haynes Pak Hay; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2009-01-01

    We successfully implemented a 946 nm Nd:YAG laser based on a 808 nm tapered diode pump laser. The tapered diode is developed at the Ferdinand-Braun-Institute fur Hochstfrequenztechnik in Germany. Figure 2 shows the experimental setup and results of each pump source coupled into a 1.5 mm crystal...... laser, we show that tapered diode laser pumping potentially increase the power of 946 nm lasers by a factor of two and reduce the threshold by a factor of three....

  20. Picosecond Laser Pulse Optical Density of Three 1060-NM Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    pul- ses. These included a dyed glass plate (Schott KG-3), a polymethyl methacrylate plate ( PMMA ) developed for the Air Force for 1060-nm- specific...Schott KG-3), a polymethyl methacrylate plate ( PMMA ) developed for the Air Force for 1060-nm-specific visors, and a dielectric-coated laser cavity... Ocular tissue damage due to ultrashort 1060-nm light pulses from a mode-locked Nd:glass laser. Appl Opt 14:1759-1761 (1975). 4. Taboada, J., and D. D

  1. High power composite cavity fiber laser oscillator at 1120 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianming; Li, Cheng; Yan, Dapeng

    2017-12-01

    A high power composite cavity fiber laser oscillator at 1120 nm is demonstrated experimentally. Performances of the 1120 nm single fiber laser oscillator and the composite cavity are investigated and compared, and the parasitic oscillation created by the strong amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) can be suppressed effectively in the composite cavity scheme. 2.04-kW 1120-nm signal light with a good beam quality (M2=1.15) is obtained, and the optical conversion efficiency of the composite cavity fiber laser oscillator is about 63% in the experiment. The compact architecture of composite cavity provides an effective scheme for power scaling of long wavelength lasers.

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of

  3. Fast Identification of Near-Trench Earthquakes Along the Mexican Subduction Zone Based on Characteristics of Ground Motion in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Campos, X.; Singh, S. K.; Arroyo, D.; Rodríguez, Q.; Iglesias, A.

    2015-12-01

    The disastrous 1985 Michoacan earthquake gave rise to a seismic alert system for Mexico City which became operational in 1991. Initially limited to earthquakes along the Guerrero coast, the system now has a much wider coverage. Also, the 2004 Sumatra earthquake exposed the need for a tsunami early warning along the Mexican subduction zone. A fast identification of near-trench earthquakes along this zone may be useful in issuing a reliable early tsunami alert. The confusion caused by low PGA for the magnitude of an earthquake, leading to "missed" seismic alert, would be averted if its near-trench origin can be quickly established. It may also help reveal the spatial extent and degree of seismic coupling on the near-trench portion of the plate interface. This would lead to a better understanding of tsunami potential and seismic hazard along the Mexican subduction zone. We explore three methods for quick detection of near-trench earthquakes, testing them on recordings of 65 earthquakes at station CU in Mexico City (4.8 ≤Mw≤8.0; 270≤R≤615 km). The first method is based on the ratio of total to high-frequency energy, ER (Shapiro et al., 1998). The second method is based on parameter Sa*(6) which is the pseudo-acceleration response spectrum with 5% damping, Sa, at 6 s normalized by the PGA. The third parameter is the PGA residual, RESN, at CU, with respect to a newly-derived ground motion prediction equation at CU for coastal shallow-dipping thrust earthquakes following a bayesian approach. Since the near-trench earthquakes are relatively deficient in high-frequency radiation, we expect ER and Sa*(6) to be relatively large and RESN to be negative for such events. Tests on CU recordings show that if ER ≥ 100 and/or Sa*(6) ≥ 0.70, then the earthquake is near trench; for these events RESN ≤ 0. Such an event has greater tsunami potential. Few misidentifications and missed events are most probably a consequence of poor location, although unusual depth and source

  4. Electrical Resistivity Correlation to Vadose Zone Sediment and Pore-Water Composition for the BC Cribs and Trenches Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Ward, Anderson L.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Rucker, Dale F.; Lanigan, David C.; Benecke, Mark W.

    2009-06-01

    This technical report documents the results of geochemical and soil resistivity characterization of sediment obtained from four boreholes drilled in the BC Cribs and Trench area. Vadose zone sediment samples were obtained at a frequency of about every 2.5 ft from approximately 5 ft bgs to borehole total depth. In total, 505 grab samples and 39 six-inch long cores were obtained for characterization. The pore-water chemical composition data, laboratory-scale soil resistivity and other ancillary physical and hydrologic measurements and analyses described in this report are designed to provide a crucial link between direct measurements on sediments and the surface-based electrical-resistivity information obtained via field surveys. A second goal of the sediment characterization was to measure the total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants of concern as a function of depth and distance from the footprints of inactive disposal facilities. The total and water-leachable concentrations of key contaminants will be used to update contaminant distribution conceptual models and to provide more data for improving base-line risk predictions and remedial alternative selections. The ERC “ground truthing” exercise for the individual boreholes showed mixed results. In general, the high concentrations of dissolved salts in the pore waters of sediments from C5923, C5924 and C4191 produced a low resistivity “target” in the processed resistivity field surveys, and variability could be seen in the resistivity data that could relate to the variability in pore- water concentrations but the correlations (regression R2 were mediocre ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 at best; where perfect correlation is 1.0). The field-based geophysical data also seemed to suffer from a sort of vertigo, where looking down from the ground surface, the target (e.g., maximum pore-water salt concentration) depth was difficult to resolve. The best correlations between the field electrical

  5. Space-Qualified 1064 nm Seed and Metrology Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A space-qualified, single-frequency oscillator operating at 1064 nm is a critical component for a number of active optical measurement systems that have been...

  6. BIA Wingate High School WWTF, Fort Wingate, NM: NN0020958

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPDES Permit and Fact Sheet explaining EPA's action under the Clean Water Act to issue NPDES Permit No. NN0020958 to Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Wingate High School Wastewater Treatment Lagoon, Fort Wingate, NM.

  7. Compact 2050 nm Semiconductor Diode Laser Master Oscillator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I effort seeks to develop DFB laser master oscillators at the novel wavelength of 12050 nm. Two prototypes will be built, tested, and delivered ....

  8. Trench Foot or Non-Freezing Cold Injury As a Painful Vaso-Neuropathy: Clinical and Skin Biopsy Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Praveen; Privitera, Rosario; Yiangou, Yiangos; Donatien, Philippe; Birch, Rolfe; Misra, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Trench foot, or non-freezing cold injury (NFCI), results from cold exposure of sufficient severity and duration above freezing point, with consequent sensory and vascular abnormalities which may persist for years. Based on observations of Trench foot in World War II, the condition was described as a vaso-neuropathy. While some reports have documented nerve damage after extreme cold exposure, sensory nerve fibres and vasculature have not been assessed with recent techniques in NFCI. To assess patients with chronic sensory symptoms following cold exposure, in order to diagnose any underlying small fibre neuropathy, and provide insight into mechanisms of the persistent pain and cold hypersensitivity. Thirty soldiers with cold exposure and persistent sensory symptoms (>4 months) were assessed with quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsies. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess intraepidermal (IENF) and subepidermal (SENF) nerve fibres with a range of markers, including the pan-neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), regenerating fibres with growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), and nociceptor fibres with transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), sensory neuron-specific receptor (SNSR), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). von Willebrand factor (vWF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were used for assessing blood vessels, and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A member 1 (TRPA1) and P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) for keratinocytes, which regulate nociceptors via release of nerve growth factor. Clinical examination showed pinprick sensation was abnormal in the feet of 20 patients (67%), and between 67 and 83% had abnormalities of thermal thresholds to the different modalities. 7 patients (23%) showed reduced sensory action potential amplitude of plantar nerves. 27 patients (90%) had decreased calf skin PGP 9.5 IENF

  9. Interplate coupling and slip distribution of the megathrust earthquakes along the southernmost part of the Kuril Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, T.

    2008-12-01

    A magathrust earthquake in the subduction zone is one of the destructive geohazards along the plate boundary zones. The Kuril trench is known as one of the most active region of the repeated megathrust earthquakes where the Pacific plate is subducting beneath Hokkaido and Kuril Islands with 8 cm/yr. Modern geodetic measurements started in Hokkaido along the southernmost part of the Kuril trench in early 1900's and continuous GPS measurements (GEONET) started in 1994. The geodetic data have recorded the deformation through interseismic, coseismic, and postseismic periods in the subduction zone over a century. Using these data, I estimated the slip distribution of the past large earthquakes and the contemporary coupling distribution on the plate interface. The used geodetic data are acquired by GPS, leveling, triangulation, trilateration, and tide gauge. I collected all available geodetic data including distance measurements which have never been used for deformation analysis. The assumption of the analysis is that the observed deformation is the elastic one due to slip and locking on the plate boundary. The geometry of the plate boundary is approximated by dozens of rectangular faults. The locking boundary is represented by nominal slip opposite to the relative plate motion (N65°W) and slip amount on each rectangular fault is a parameter to estimate. It is assumed that the average velocity at the continuous GPS stations from April 1999 to March 2003 as typical interseismic deformation and estimated coupling distribution on the plate boundary. There are two peaks of strong coupling corresponding the source area of the 1973 M = 7.4 Nemuro-oki and the 2003 M = 8.0 Tokachi-oki earthquakes. Significant coupling reaches the depth of 80 km. The studied earthquakes for slip distribution are the 1952 M = 8.1 Tokachi-oki, the 1973 Nemuro-oki, the 2003 Tokachi-oki, the 2004 M = 7.1 Kushiro-oki earthquakes. The 1952 and 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquakes are estimated to have

  10. A 205GHz Amplifier in 90nm CMOS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A 205GHz Amplifier in 90nm CMOS Technology Shahab Ardalan, Senior Member, IEEE Electrical Department, Charles W. Davidson College of Engineering...greater CMOS technologies . Keywords: Amplifier, neutralization, parasitic, Psat, P1dB.   Introduction Millimeter-wave and sub-mm-wave (THz band...amplifier has been implemented and fabricated in 90nm CMOS technology . The proposed amplifier attained a gain of 10.5 dB whilst consuming a dc power

  11. Investigations of a Dual Seeded 1178 nm Raman Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Aberdeen Ave SE AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776 . NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications...ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER *Leidos, Inc 11951 Freedom Drive Reston, VA 20190 **University of New Mexico ECE Building, Room 125...AFRL/RDLT 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) AFRL-RD-PS-TP-2016-0009 12. DISTRIBUTION

  12. Investigation of a Pulsed 1550 nm Fiber Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Technical Paper APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY Directed Energy Directorate 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE...NUMBER The University of New Mexico ECE Building, Room 125 Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Air Force Research Laboratory AFRL/RDLT 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT

  13. Trends in nanosecond melanosome microcavitation up to 1540 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Noojin, Gary D.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2015-09-01

    Thresholds for microcavitation of bovine and porcine melanosomes were previously reported, using single nanosecond (ns) laser pulses in the visible (532 nm) and the near-infrared (NIR) from 1000 to 1319 nm. Here, we report average radiant exposure thresholds for bovine melanosome microcavitation at additional NIR wavelengths up to 1540 nm, which range from ˜0.159 J/cm2 at 800 nm to 4.5 J/cm2 at 1540 nm. Melanosome absorption coefficients were also estimated, and decreased with increasing wavelength. These values were compared to retinal pigment epithelium coefficients, and to water absorption, over the same wavelength range. Corneal total intraocular energy retinal damage threshold values were estimated and compared to the previous (2007) and recently changed (2014) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) safe levels. Results provide additional data that support the recent changes to the MPE levels, as well as the first microcavitation data at 1540 nm, a wavelength for which melanosome microcavitation may be an ns-pulse skin damage mechanism.

  14. EUV lithography at the 22nm technology node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Obert; Koay, Chiew-Seng; Petrillo, Karen; Mizuno, Hiroyuki; Raghunathan, Sudhar; Arnold, John; Horak, Dave; Burkhardt, Martin; McIntyre, Gregory; Deng, Yunfei; La Fontaine, Bruno; Okoroanyanwu, Uzo; Wallow, Tom; Landie, Guillaume; Standaert, Theodorus; Burns, Sean; Waskiewicz, Christopher; Kawasaki, Hirohisa; Chen, James H.-C.; Colburn, Matthew; Haran, Bala; Fan, Susan S.-C.; Yin, Yunpeng; Holfeld, Christian; Techel, Jens; Peters, Jan-Hendrik; Bouten, Sander; Lee, Brian; Pierson, Bill; Kessels, Bart; Routh, Robert; Cummings, Kevin

    2010-04-01

    We are evaluating the readiness of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for insertion into production at the 15 nm technology node by integrating it into standard semiconductor process flows because we believe that device integration exercises provide the truest test of technology readiness and, at the same time, highlight the remaining critical issues. In this paper, we describe the use of EUV lithography with the 0.25 NA Alpha Demo Tool (ADT) to pattern the contact and first interconnect levels of a large (~24 mm x 32 mm) 22 nm node test chip using EUV masks with state-of-the-art defectivity (~0.3 defects/cm2). We have found that: 1) the quality of EUVL printing at the 22 nm node is considerably higher than the printing produced with 193 nm immersion lithography; 2) printing at the 22 nm node with EUV lithography results in higher yield than double exposure double-etch 193i lithography; and 3) EUV lithography with the 0.25 NA ADT is capable of supporting some early device development work at the 15 nm technology node.

  15. Tissue measurement using 1064 nm dispersive Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Chad A.; Wu, Huawen; Yang, William

    2013-03-01

    The use of Raman spectroscopy to provide characterization and diagnosis of biological tissues has shown increasing success in recent years. Most of this work has been performed using near-infrared laser sources such as 785 or 830 nm, in a balance of reduced intrinsic fluorescence in the tissues and quantum efficiency in the silicon detectors often used. However, even at these wavelengths, many tissues still exhibit strong or prohibitive fluorescence, and these wavelengths still cause autofluorescence in many common sampling materials, such as glass. In this study, we demonstrate the use of 1064 nm dispersive Raman spectroscopy for the study of biological tissues. A number of tissues are evaluated using the 1064 nm system and compared with the spectra obtained from a 785 nm system. Sampling materials are similarly compared. These results show that 1064 nm dispersive Raman spectroscopy provides a viable solution for measurement of highly fluorescent biological tissues such as liver and kidney, which are difficult or impossible to extract Raman at 785 nm.

  16. Transillumination of interproximal caries lesions with 830-nm light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham C.; Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    New imaging technology is needed for the early detection of dental caries (decay) in the interproximal contact sites between teeth. Previous measurements have demonstrated that dental enamel is highly transparent in the near-IR near 1310-nm making that wavelength range ideal for the transillumination of interproximal lesions. However, imaging at 1310-nm involves the use of expensive InGaAs technology. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a low cost near-IR sensitive imaging system employing a CCD camera with enhanced near-IR sensitivity operating at 830-nm with the 1310-nm InGaAs system. Images of simulated caries lesions were acquired through tooth sections of varying thickness and whole teeth in order to demonstrate the utility of a near-IR dental transillumination system for the imaging of early dental caries (decay). Simulated lesions, representing the optical scattering of natural dental caries, were placed in plano-parallel dental enamel sections and whole anterior teeth. The contrast ratio between the simulated lesions and surrounding sound enamel was calculated from analysis of the respective spatial intensity profiles in the acquired projection images. This study shows that near-IR transillumination at 830-nm offers significantly improved image contrast over the visible range, but less image contrast than at 1310-nm.

  17. Recent developments in Fourier domain mode locked lasers for optical coherence tomography: imaging at 1310 nm vs. 1550 nm wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Benjamin R; Wieser, Wolfgang; Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Huber, Robert

    2009-07-01

    We report on recent progress in Fourier domain mode-locking (FDML) technology. The paper focuses on developments beyond pushing the speed of these laser sources. After an overview of improvements to FDML over the last three years, a brief analysis of OCT imaging using FDML lasers with different wavelengths is presented. For the first time, high speed, high quality FDML imaging at 1550 nm is presented and compared to a system at 1310 nm. The imaging results of human skin for both wavelengths are compared and analyzed. Sample arm optics, power on the sample, heterodyne gain, detection bandwidth, colour cut levels and sample location have been identical to identify the influence of difference in scattering and water absorption. The imaging performance at 1310 nm in human skin is only slightly better and the results suggest that water absorption only marginally affects the penetration depth in human skin at 1550 nm. For several applications this wavelength may be preferred.

  18. South-American plate advance and forced Andean trench retreat as drivers for transient flat subduction episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Gerben; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Spakman, Wim; Kosters, Martha E; Boschman, Lydian M; McQuarrie, Nadine

    2017-05-16

    At two trench segments below the Andes, the Nazca Plate is subducting sub-horizontally over ∼200-300 km, thought to result from a combination of buoyant oceanic-plateau subduction and hydrodynamic mantle-wedge suction. Whether the actual conditions for both processes to work in concert existed is uncertain. Here we infer from a tectonic reconstruction of the Andes constructed in a mantle reference frame that the Nazca slab has retreated at ∼2 cm per year since ∼50 Ma. In the flat slab portions, no rollback has occurred since their formation at ∼12 Ma, generating 'horse-shoe' slab geometries. We propose that, in concert with other drivers, an overpressured sub-slab mantle supporting the weight of the slab in an advancing upper plate-motion setting can locally impede rollback and maintain flat slabs until slab tearing releases the overpressure. Tear subduction re-establishes a continuous slab and allows the process to recur, providing a mechanism for the transient character of flat slabs.

  19. An Experimental Multi-disciplinary observatory (VENUS at the Ryukyu Trench using the Guam-Okinawa Geophysical Submarine Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shirasaki

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary Ocean Bottom Observatory (MDOBO was installed on VENUS (Versatile Eco-monitoring Network by Undersea-cable System a depth of 2,170 meters on the slope of the Ryukyu Trench. In this context, “Eco-“ refers to both economic (e.g., earthquake hazard mitigation and ecological motivation. The first step in this instillation was to insert a telemetry/power system into the submarine coaxial cable; this system could then service the MODOBO, which consist of seven major bottom sensor packages. During August-September 1999, using a deep-towed unit and both manned and unmanned submersibles coupled with precise ship navigation, the MDOBO system and its attendant cables were deployed over a range of distances from 80 m to 1 km from the telemetry system, with several meter allowance for navigational uncertainty in positioning. The unmanned submersible then extended the multi-conductor extension cables from the instrument units toward the telemetry system and connected them to undersea mateable connectors on a junction box installed on the submarine cable. The MDOBO collected one and half months of continuous records. Several kinds of useful data were collected after installation, including an aftershock (Ms=6.1 of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Ms=7.7 in Taiwan.

  20. MORPHOTECTONIC ANALYSIS AT TANIMBAR TRENCH AS A BASE FOR GAS PIPE LAYING BETWEEN MASELA BLOCK AND SELARU ISLAND, MOLUCCAS PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediar Usman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located at Masela Block and its surrounding, Moluccas Province. Result of the deep sea measurement and global data conversion provide description of three dimensions around the track lines area. This result is overlay with seismic data, that can give morphotectonic implication between Asian and Australian Plates. Track lines of MGI-2010-MSL-1, 2 and 3 show that the profile of the sea floor, form the high morphology which represents the volcanic islands. It forms west – east direction of fold-thrust belt non-volcanic outer Banda arc. The southern part trench of the Australian Continent reflected the platform system and undulation morphology. The sea floor profile ( VE 1:5 show that the slope profile ranges between 0º and 8º. Furthermore, the morphology of the sea floor can be classified as a relatively flat slope. Due to this condition, this area may be used for gas pipe laying along 146 km distance, between the Well of Abadi 1 at the Masela Block and Selaru Island at south Tanimbar Islands.

  1. Reconstructing the internal structure and long-term evolution of hazardous sinkholes combining trenching, electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregat, Ivan; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Roqué, Carles; Comas, Xavier; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Guerrero, Jesús; Linares, Rogelio

    2017-05-01

    The approaches aimed at characterising specific damaging sinkholes have received limited attention compared with other ground instability phenomena (e.g. landslides). Moreover, the practicality of the trenching technique in combination with numerical dating and retro-deformation analysis for sinkhole site-investigations has been barely explored. This work illustrates the advantages of combining geomorphic mapping, electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and trenching for sinkhole characterisation and shows how the trenching technique contributes to fill significant gaps that neither geomorphic nor geophysical methods can address. Two large sinkholes (> 200 m long) related to the interstratal karstification of evaporites and generated by contrasting subsidence mechanisms (sagging, collapse) were investigated in the Fluvia Valley, NE Spain. Although GPR data may provide high resolution information on subsidence-related stratigraphic and structural features at shallow depth, the profiles acquired in the investigated sites with 100 MHz shielded and 40 MHz unshielded antennae provided limited insight into the internal geometry of the sinkholes due to reduced signal penetration related to the presence of conductive clayey material. The ERI sections satisfactorily imaged the general geometry of the sagging and collapse subsidence structures up to depths higher than 100 m and clearly captured the basal contact of the low-resistivity sinkhole fill in the sections with adequate layout and resolution. The trenches, despite their limited depth (ca. 5 m) allowed us to obtain valuable objective information on several key aspects of the subsidence phenomenon: (1) mechanisms (deformation style) and kinematics (progressive versus episodic); (2) limits of ground deformation; (3) temporal evolution (expansion versus contraction); (4) chronology and timing of most recent deformation phase; (5) rates of subsidence and sedimentation; and (6) the role played

  2. OSL and TT-OSL dating of sediments and pottery from a paleoseismological trench across the Gyrtoni Fault, Central Greece: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsodoulos, Ioannis; Stamoulis, Konstantinos; Papachristodoulou, Christina; Ioannides, Konstantinos; Pavlides, Spyros; Chatzipetros, Alexandros; Koukouvelas, Ioannis; Caputo, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    T he preliminary results from optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from a paleoseismological trench excavated in the Gyrtoni Fault, Tyrnavos Basin, Central Greece are presented. The initial preliminary interpretation of the trench wall structure provided indications of recent reactivations of the fault. The footwall of the fault consists of well stratified lagustrine deposits, while the hanging wall consists of poorly stratified scarp-derived deposits. Seven samples, one for each lithologic unit, were collected from the upthrown fault block in order to establish a reliable chronological framework and nine sediment and pottery samples were collected from the downthrown fault block to constrain the timing of the linear morphogenic earthquakes observed in the trench and thus reconstruct the recent seismotectonic behaviour. The samples were dated following the OSL dating method, using the Riso TL/OSL DA-20 reader. The OSL ages were obtained from chemically purified quartz and a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol was followed for the equivalent dose (De) determination. Also, the natural radioactivity of soil from the surroundings of the original sample location was assessed, using gamma spectrometry. The dose rates were calculated using the appropriate dose conversion factors and corrected for the humidity content of the surrounding soils. The OSL ages from the upthrown fault block are in stratigraphic order (except one sample), but the signal of the five oldest samples occurs above the saturation level of the exponential part of the dose response curve and thus the reliability of the calculated De value for use in dating is uncertain. To obtain a more reliable De value, thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) signal has been investigated for five samples. The age of the earthquakes observed in the trench and the recent seismotectonic behavior of the fault are also discussed.

  3. Optical coherence tomography based imaging of dental demineralisation and cavity restoration in 840 nm and 1310 nm wavelength regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Vani; Rao, Suresh Ranga; Vasa, Nilesh J.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a study of in-house built optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with a wavelength of 840 nm for imaging of dental caries, progress in demineralisation and cavity restoration is presented. The caries when imaged with the 840 nm OCT system showed minute demineralisation in the order of 5 μm. The OCT system was also proposed to study the growth of lesion and this was demonstrated by artificially inducing caries with a demineralisation solution of pH 4.8. The progress of carious lesion to a depth of about 50-60 μm after 60 hours of demineralisation was clearly observed with the 840 nm OCT system. The tooth samples were subjected to accelerated demineralisation condition at pH of approximately 2.3 to study the adverse effects and the onset of cavity formation was clearly observed. The restoration of cavity was also studied by employing different restorative materials (filled and unfilled). In the case of restoration without filler material (unfilled), the restoration boundaries were clearly observed. Overall, results were comparable with that of the widely used 1310 nm OCT system. In the case of restoration with filler material, the 1310 nm OCT imaging displayed better imaging capacity due to lower scattering than 840 nm imaging.

  4. Simulation of new p-type strip detectors with trench to enhance the charge multiplication effect in the n-type electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, P.; Pellegrini, G.; Balbuena, J. P.; Quirion, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Flores, D.; Lozano, M.; Casse, G.

    2011-12-01

    This paper shows the simulation results of new p-type strip detectors with trench electrodes to enhance the charge multiplication effect in the irradiated detector. The new design includes baby microstrip detectors (area=1 cm 2) with a strip pitch of 80 μm and p-stop isolation structures. The strip has a 5 μm-wide trench along all its length, filled and doped with polysilicon to create a deep N +contact into the material bulk. The trench depth can be varied in order to study the influence of the electric field on the charge multiplication effect in heavily irradiated samples. Some alternative designs have also been studied to establish a comparison between various structures using different technologies. Simulation reproduce the electrical behaviour under different irradiation conditions, taking into account the damage accumulated after irradiation with neutrons and protons with several fluence values. The investigation of these effects provides important indications on the ability of this modified electrode geometry to control and optimise the charge multiplication effect, in order to fully recover the collection efficiency of heavily irradiated microstrip detectors, at reasonable bias voltage compatible with the voltage feed limitation of the CERN SLHC experiments.

  5. Single step integration of ZnO nano- and microneedles in Si trenches by novel flame transport approach: whispering gallery modes and photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Tim; Paulowicz, Ingo; Röder, Robert; Kaps, Sören; Lupan, Oleg; Chemnitz, Steffen; Benecke, Wolfgang; Ronning, Carsten; Adelung, Rainer; Mishra, Yogendra K

    2014-05-28

    Direct growth of quasi-one-dimensional nano- and microstructures in desired places of complex shaped substrates using simple growth methods is highly demanded aspect for various applications. In this work, we have demonstrated direct integration of ZnO nano- and microneedles into Si trenches by a novel flame transport synthesis approach in a single fabrication step. Growth of partially and fully covered or filled trenches in Si substrate with ZnO nano- and microneedles has been investigated and is discussed here. Detailed microstructural studies revealed the evolution of the ZnO nano- and microneedles as well as their firm adhesion to the wall in the Si trenches. Micro-photoluminescence measurements at different locations along the length of needles confirmed the good crystalline quality and also the presence of whispering gallery mode resonances on the top of needles due to their hexagonal shape. Faceted ZnO nano- and microstructures are also very important candidates with regard to photocatalytic activity. First, photocatalytic measurements from the grown ZnO nano- and microneedles have shown strong degradation of methylene blue, which demonstrate that these structures can be of significant interest for photocatalysis and self-cleaning chromatography columns.

  6. The photochemistry of ozone at 193 and 222 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Gierczak, Tomasz; Thompson, John E.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    1991-09-01

    Measurements at 193 and 222nm are reported for the quantum yields for the formation of O(1D) and O(3P) from the photolysis of ozone. The quantum yield for O(3P) was observed to be 0.13 + or - 0.02 at 222 nm, and the primary quantum yield for O(1D) was found to be 0.87 + or - 0.04. The present measurements are consistent with other studies of O3 photolysis within the Hartley band which indicate that a significant portion (5-12 percent) of the products are formed in the ground state. At 193 nm the quantum yield for the production of excited state O(1D) atoms is 0.46 + or - 0.29, which is significantly less than what is observed during photolysis within the lower energy Hartley band. The quantum yield for O(3P) atoms at 193 nm was found to be 0.57 + or - 0.14. It was also observed that the quantum yield for O atoms is greater than unity at 193 nm, indicating the presence of a channel which produces three O(3P) atoms.

  7. RET and DFM techniques for sub 30nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilada, E.; Entradas, J.; Gardin, C.; Pena, J. N.; Villaret, A.; Farys, V.; Beylier, C.; Robert, F.; Postnikov, S.; Armeanu, A. M.; Moyroud, C.; Chaoui, F.; Granger, F. B.; Toublan, O.

    2012-03-01

    The resolution enhancement through lithography hardware (wavelength and Numerical Aperture) has come to a stop putting the burden on computational lithography to fill in the resulting gap between design and process until the arrival of EUV tools. New Computational Lithography techniques such as Optical Proximity Correction (OPC), Sub Resolution Assist Feature (SRAF), and Lithography Friendly Design (LFD) constitute a significant transformation of the design. These new Computational Lithography applications have become one of the most computationally demanding steps in the design process. Computing farms of hundreds and even thousands of CPUs are now routinely used to run these applications. The 28nm node presents many difficulties due to low k1 lithography whereas the 20nm requires double patterning solutions. In this paper we present a global view of enhanced RET and DFM techniques deployed to provide a robust 28nm node and prepare for 20nm. These techniques include advanced OPC manipulation through end user IP insertion into EDA software, optimized sub resolution assist features (SRAF) placement and pixilated OPC. These techniques are coupled with a fast litho print check, aka LFD, for 28nm P&R.

  8. 100-nm gate lithography for double-gate transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoperova, Azalia A.; Zhang, Ying; Babich, Inna V.; Treichler, John; Yoon, Jung H.; Guarini, Kathryn; Solomon, Paul M.

    2001-09-01

    The double gate field effect transistor (FET) is an exploratory device that promises certain performance advantages compared to traditional CMOS FETs. It can be scaled down further than the traditional devices because of the greater electrostatic control by the gates on the channel (about twice as short a channel length for the same gate oxide thickness), has steeper sub-threshold slope and about double the current for the same width. This paper presents lithographic results for double gate FET's developed at IBM's T. J. Watson Research Center. The device is built on bonded wafers with top and bottom gates self-aligned to each other. The channel is sandwiched between the top and bottom polysilicon gates and the gate length is defined using DUV lithography. An alternating phase shift mask was used to pattern gates with critical dimensions of 75 nm, 100 nm and 125 nm in photoresist. 50 nm gates in photoresist have also been patterned by 20% over-exposure of nominal 100 nm lines. No trim mask was needed because of a specific way the device was laid out. UV110 photoresist from Shipley on AR-3 antireflective layer were used. Process windows, developed and etched patterns are presented.

  9. Switching Properties of sub-100 nm Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryputen, Larysa; Piotrowski, Stephan; Bapna, Mukund; Chien, Chia-Ling; Wang, Weigang; Majetich, Sara; Ross, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) have great potential for realizing high-density non-volatile memory and logic devices. It is critical to solve scalability problem to implement such devices, to achieve low resistance area and to reduce switching current density while maintaining thermal stability. We present our recent results on fabrication of high resolution Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB/Ta p-MTJ devices and characterization of their switching properties as well as topography and current mapping by using nanoscale Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy. Our patterning method is based on using hydrogen silsesquioxane resist mask combined with ion beam etching. It allows to fabricate p-MTJ devices down to 40 nm in diameter while maintaining the magnetic quality of the multilayers. Repeatable, consistent switching behaviour has been observed in the obtained p-MTJ devices of 500 nm down to 40 nm with 10 - 800 mV voltage applied. Switching field increased as device diameter decreased, from 580 Oe at 500 nm (MR = 10%) to 410 Oe at 80 nm (MR = 9%). We discuss the effect of device sizes on the switching properties. This work was supported in part by C-SPIN, one of the six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation Program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and in part through the National Science Foundation through NCN-Needs Program, Contract 12207020-EEC.

  10. The role of geophysical ERT method to evaluate the leakproofness of diapragm wall of deep foundation trenches on the example of the construction of retail and office complex in Lublin, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacanowski Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of assessing the leakproofness of the bottom of a deep foundation trench, secured by cavity wall, using geophysical methods of electrical resistivity tomography. The study was conducted on a large construction project in Lublin, in a place where there are complicated soil-water conditions: the groundwater level is above the proposed depth of foundation trench, the subsoil is heterogeneous, and there are karsted and weathered carbonate sediments with confined aquifer below the bottom of the trench. A hydraulic fracture occurred at the bottom of the trench during the engineering works, which caused the water flow into the trench. In order to recognize the soil-water conditions the first stage of geophysical measurements of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT was made. The applied methodology allowed to determine the extent of the hydraulic fracture zone within the bottom of foundation trench. In order to assess the leakproofness of Diaphragm Wall the geophysical ERT measurements were repeated (stage 2 A clear reduction in the value of the electrical resistivity of soils in the area of hydraulic fracture was caused by clay injection. The results of ERT measurements are discussed and graphically presented.

  11. Preparation and characterization of La{sub 0,60S}r{sub 0},{sub 40}Co{sub 0},{sub 20}Fe{sub 0},{sub 80}O{sub 3-{delta}} powders for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (ITSOFC) cathode; Preparacao e carcacterizacao de particulados de La{sub 0,60S}r{sub 0},{sub 40}Co{sub 0},{sub 20}Fe{sub 0},{sub 80}O{sub 3-{delta}} para catodos de IT-SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, R.A.; Chiba, R.; Bonturim, E.; Andreoli, M.; Seo, E.S.M., E-mail: ravargas@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais. Lab. de Insumos e Componentes

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays a material that is studied as cathode in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (ITSOFC) is the mixing oxide La{sub 0,60S}r{sub 0},{sub 40}Co{sub 0},{sub 20}Fe{sub 0},{sub 80}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF), that possess pseudo-perovskite structure. The objective of this work is to present the physical, chemical and microstructural of LSCF powders characteristics, prepared by the citrate technique. The main analyses utilized were: X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, laser scattering granulometry, and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the elimination of organic precursors is important for desired structure formation and that amount of this phase depends on cobalt content. Moreover, the chemical composition is next to stoichiometric calculated (x=0.40 and y=0.80) and the average sizes of particles are adjusted for ceramic suspensions preparation, contributing for the wet powder spraying step conformation. (author)

  12. A new solar reference spectrum from 165 to 3088 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc; Meftah, Mustapha; Bolsée, David; Pereira, Nuno; Bekki, Slimane; Hauchecorne, Alain; Irbah, Abdenour; Cessateur, Gaël; Sluse, Dominique

    2017-04-01

    Since April 5, 2008 and until February 15, 2017 the SOLAR/SOLSPEC spectro-radiometer on the International Space Station performed accurate measurements of Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) from the far ultraviolet to the infrared (165 nm to 3088 nm). These measurements are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and of the impact of solar variability on climate (via Earth's atmospheric photochemistry). In particular, a new reference solar spectrum is established covering most of the unusual solar cycle 24 from minimum in 2008 to maximum. Temporal variability in the UV (165 to 400 nm) is presented in several wavelengths bands. These results are possible thanks to revised engineering corrections, improved calibrations and new procedures to account for thermal and aging advanced corrections. Uncertainties on these measurements are evaluated and compare favorably with other instruments.

  13. Prototyping the HPDP Chip on STM 65 NM Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadas, C.; Dramitinos, G.; Syed, M.; Helfers, T.; Dedes, G.; Schoellkopf, J.-P.; Dugoujon, L.

    2011-08-01

    Currently Astrium GmbH is involved in the of the High Performance Data Processor (HPDP) development programme for telecommunication applications under a DLR contract. The HPDP project targets the implementation of the commercially available reconfigurable array processor IP (XPP from the company PACT XPP Technologies) in a radiation hardened technology.In the current complementary development phase funded under the Greek Industry Incentive scheme, it is planned to prototype the HPDP chip in commercial STM 65 nm technology. In addition it is also planned to utilise the preliminary radiation hardened components of this library wherever possible.This abstract gives an overview of the HPDP chip architecture, the basic details of the STM 65 nm process and the design flow foreseen for the prototyping. The paper will discuss the development and integration issues involved in using the STM 65 nm process (also including the available preliminary radiation hardened components) for designs targeted to be used in space applications.

  14. Ultraviolet photorefraction at 325 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Feifei; Zhang, Guoquan; Bo, Fang; Sun, Haifeng; Kong, Yongfa; Xu, Jingjun; Volk, Tatyana; Rubinina, Natalia M.

    2010-02-01

    We studied the photorefractive effect of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) doped with Mg, Zn, In, Hf, or codoped with Mg and Fe at an ultraviolet (UV) wavelength down to 325 nm. It is found that the UV photorefraction of LiNbO3 doped with Mg, Zn, In, or Hf was enhanced significantly as compared to that of the nominally pure LiNbO3. Our results show that the property of resistance against photorefraction in highly Mg, Zn, In, or Hf doped LiNbO3 is true only in the visible and near-infrared wavelength range. By contrast, these crystals exhibit excellent photorefractive characteristics at UV wavelength of 325 nm, even better than those at 351 nm. For example, the photorefractive two-wave coupling gain coefficient Γ and the photorefractive recording sensitivity at 325 nm were measured to be ˜38 cm-1 and 37.7 cm/J, respectively, in a LiNbO3 crystal doped with 9 mol % Zn. The photorefractive response time of a Mg:LiNbO3 with a 9 mol % Mg was measured to be 73 ms with a total recording intensity of 614 mW/cm2 at 325 nm. In highly Mg, Zn, In, or Hf doped LiNbO3 crystals, diffusion dominates over photovoltaic effect and electrons are the dominant charge carriers in UV photorefraction at 325 nm. The results are also of interest to the study on the defect structure of LiNbO3 near to the absorption edge.

  15. FDML swept source at 1060 nm using a tapered amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel frequency-swept light source working at 1060nm that utilizes a tapered amplifier as gain medium. These devices feature significantly higher saturation power than conventional semiconductor optical amplifiers and can thus improve the limited output power of swept sources...... in this wavelength range. We demonstrate that a tapered amplifier can be integrated into a fiber-based swept source and allows for high-speed FDML operation. The developed light source operates at a sweep rate of 116kHz with an effective average output power in excess of 30mW. With a total sweep range of 70 nm...

  16. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Gaëlle

    2011-01-01

    in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big smile has......, a slow axis focusing cylindrical lens of 40 mm focal length and an output coupler which is 10% reflective. In the free running mode, the laser emission spectrum was 5.5 nm wide at an operating current of 30A. The output power was measured to be in excess of 12W. Under the external cavity operation...

  17. Cost-effective tunable 1310nm DWDM transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorchos, Łukasz; Turkiewicz, Jarosław P.

    2015-09-01

    The growing demand for higher data rate transmissions in local and metropolitan area networks is main reason of developing effective and inexpensive transmission systems. In this paper, study about the possibility to realize 1310 nm tunable DWDM transmitter using commercially available low-cost DFB lasers is presented. Extensive DFB lasers characterization has been performed which led to establish relationships between laser current, operational temperature, emitted wavelength and power. An algorithm to find the laser settings for a desired wavelength grid has been proposed and tested. Generation of the 1310nm DWDM channels with frequency spacing between 120 and 240GHz has been demonstrated.

  18. 30 Gbps bottom-emitting 1060 nm VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Zheng, Y.; Rodes, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    1060 nm VCSEL-based data transmission over 50 m OM3 MMF at 30 Gbit/s is experimentally demonstrated. A highly-strained bottom-emitting QW VCSEL with p-type modulation doping is used with 3.77 mA bias and 0.55 V data amplitude.......1060 nm VCSEL-based data transmission over 50 m OM3 MMF at 30 Gbit/s is experimentally demonstrated. A highly-strained bottom-emitting QW VCSEL with p-type modulation doping is used with 3.77 mA bias and 0.55 V data amplitude....

  19. 234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Ooi, Yu Kee; Islam, S. M.; Xing, Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep; Zhang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) AlN-delta-GaN quantum well (QW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission wavelengths of 234 nm and 246 nm are proposed and demonstrated in this work. Our results reveal that the use of AlN-delta-GaN QW with ˜1-3 monolayer GaN delta-layer can achieve a large transverse electric (TE)-polarized spontaneous emission rate instead of transverse magnetic-polarized emission, contrary to what is observed in conventional AlGaN QW in the 230-250 nm wavelength regime. The switching of light polarization in the proposed AlN-delta-GaN QW active region is attributed to the rearrangement of the valence subbands near the Γ-point. The light radiation patterns obtained from angle-dependent electroluminescence measurements for the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)-grown 234 nm and 246 nm AlN-delta-GaN QW LEDs show that the photons are mainly emitted towards the surface rather than the edge, consistent with the simulated patterns achieved by the finite-difference time-domain modeling. The results demonstrate that the proposed AlN-delta-GaN QWs would potentially lead to high-efficiency TE-polarized surface-emitting DUV LEDs.

  20. Glass forming ability and magnetic properties of Co{sub (40.2−x)}Fe{sub (20.1+x)}Ni{sub 6.7}B{sub 22.7}Si{sub 5.3}Nb{sub 5} (x=0–10) bulk metallic glasses produced by suction casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarlar, Kagan [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Physics Department, Kamil Ozdag Faculty of Sciences, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, YunusEmre Campus, 70100 Karaman (Turkey); Kucuk, Ilker, E-mail: ikucuk@uludag.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    The effect of Fe concentration on the glass forming ability (GFA) and magnetic properties in Co{sub (40.2−x)}Fe{sub (20.1+x)}Ni{sub 6.7}B{sub 22.7}Si{sub 5.3}Nb{sub 5} (x=0–10) bulk metallic glasses were investigated. By suction casting method, the bulk metallic glasses with diameters up to 2 mm were produced. We try to find out which Fe concentration makes an influence on Co based system's magnetic properties and glass forming ability. The curves of thermal analysis, obtained using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), show that the Co{sub (40.2−x)}Fe{sub (20.1+x)}Ni{sub 6.7}B{sub 22.7}Si{sub 5.3}Nb{sub 5} (x=0–10) have a supercooled liquid region (∆T{sub x}) of about 44 K. The saturation magnetizations (J{sub s}) for as-cast BMG alloys were in the range of 0.62 T−0.81 T. - Highlights: • The effect of Fe concentration on the glass forming ability. • The substitution of an appropriate amount of Fe can enhance the GFA. • The substitution of Fe for Co also improves soft magnetic properties of the BMGs. • The high of J{sub s} 0.62−0.81 T with a low H{sub c} of 2−289 A/m of the alloys.

  1. Non-muscle (NM) myosin heavy chain phosphorylation regulates the formation of NM myosin filaments, adhesome assembly and smooth muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenwu; Gunst, Susan J

    2017-07-01

    Non-muscle (NM) and smooth muscle (SM) myosin II are both expressed in smooth muscle tissues, however the role of NM myosin in SM contraction is unknown. Contractile stimulation of tracheal smooth muscle tissues stimulates phosphorylation of the NM myosin heavy chain on Ser1943 and causes NM myosin filament assembly at the SM cell cortex. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable NM myosin mutant, NM myosin S1943A, in SM tissues inhibits ACh-induced NM myosin filament assembly and SM contraction, and also inhibits the assembly of membrane adhesome complexes during contractile stimulation. NM myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation but not SM myosin RLC phosphorylation is regulated by RhoA GTPase during ACh stimulation, and NM RLC phosphorylation is required for NM myosin filament assembly and SM contraction. NM myosin II plays a critical role in airway SM contraction that is independent and distinct from the function of SM myosin. The molecular function of non-muscle (NM) isoforms of myosin II in smooth muscle (SM) tissues and their possible role in contraction are largely unknown. We evaluated the function of NM myosin during contractile stimulation of canine tracheal SM tissues. Stimulation with ACh caused NM myosin filament assembly, as assessed by a Triton solubility assay and a proximity ligation assay aiming to measure interactions between NM myosin monomers. ACh stimulated the phosphorylation of NM myosin heavy chain on Ser1943 in tracheal SM tissues, which can regulate NM myosin IIA filament assembly in vitro. Expression of the non-phosphorylatable mutant NM myosin S1943A in SM tissues inhibited ACh-induced endogenous NM myosin Ser1943 phosphorylation, NM myosin filament formation, the assembly of membrane adhesome complexes and tension development. The NM myosin cross-bridge cycling inhibitor blebbistatin suppressed adhesome complex assembly and SM contraction without inhibiting NM myosin Ser1943 phosphorylation or NM myosin filament assembly. Rho

  2. Isolation of Enterococcus faecium NM113, Enterococcus faecium NM213 and Lactobacillus casei NM512 as novel probiotics with immunomodulatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nahla M; Heine, Holger; Abdou, Sania M; Shenana, Mohamed E; Zakaria, Mohamed K; El-Diwany, Ahmed

    2014-10-01

    Probiotics, defined as living bacteria that are beneficial for human health, mainly function through their immunomodulatory abilities. Hence, these microorganisms have proven successful for treating diseases resulting from immune deregulation. The aim of this study was to find novel candidates to improve on and complement current probiotic treatment strategies. Of 60 lactic acid bacterial strains that were isolated from fecal samples of healthy, full-term, breast-fed infants, three were chosen because of their ability to activate human immune cells. These candidates were then tested with regard to immunomodulatory properties, antimicrobial effects on pathogens, required pharmacological properties and their safety profiles. To identify the immunomodulatory structures of the selected isolates, activation of specific innate immune receptors was studied. The three candidates for probiotic treatment were assigned Enterococcus faecium NM113, Enterococcus faecium NM213 and Lactobacillus casei NM512. Compared with the established allergy-protective strain Lactococcus lactis G121, these isolates induced release of similar amounts of IL-12, a potent inducer of T helper 1 cells. In addition, all three neonatal isolates had antimicrobial activity against pathogens. Analysis of pharmacological suitability showed high tolerance of low pH, bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. In terms of safe application in humans, the isolates were sensitive to three antibiotics (chloramphenicol, tetracycline and erythromycin). In addition, the Enterococcus isolates were free from the four major virulence genes (cylA, agg, efaAfs and ccf). Moreover, the isolates strongly activated Toll-like receptor 2, which suggests lipopeptides as their active immunomodulatory structure. Thus, three novel bacterial strains with great potential as probiotic candidates and promising immunomodulatory properties have here been identified and characterized. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Trench Foot or Non-Freezing Cold Injury As a Painful Vaso-Neuropathy: Clinical and Skin Biopsy Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Anand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTrench foot, or non-freezing cold injury (NFCI, results from cold exposure of sufficient severity and duration above freezing point, with consequent sensory and vascular abnormalities which may persist for years. Based on observations of Trench foot in World War II, the condition was described as a vaso-neuropathy. While some reports have documented nerve damage after extreme cold exposure, sensory nerve fibres and vasculature have not been assessed with recent techniques in NFCI.ObjectiveTo assess patients with chronic sensory symptoms following cold exposure, in order to diagnose any underlying small fibre neuropathy, and provide insight into mechanisms of the persistent pain and cold hypersensitivity.MethodsThirty soldiers with cold exposure and persistent sensory symptoms (>4 months were assessed with quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction studies, and skin biopsies. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess intraepidermal (IENF and subepidermal (SENF nerve fibres with a range of markers, including the pan-neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5, regenerating fibres with growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43, and nociceptor fibres with transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1, sensory neuron-specific receptor (SNSR, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP. von Willebrand factor (vWF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were used for assessing blood vessels, and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A member 1 (TRPA1 and P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7 for keratinocytes, which regulate nociceptors via release of nerve growth factor.ResultsClinical examination showed pinprick sensation was abnormal in the feet of 20 patients (67%, and between 67 and 83% had abnormalities of thermal thresholds to the different modalities. 7 patients (23% showed reduced sensory action potential amplitude of plantar nerves. 27 patients (90% had

  4. 1700 nm and 1800 nm band tunable thulium doped mode-locked fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Siamak Dawazdah; Dashtabi, Mahdi Mozdoor; Lee, Hui Jing; Arabanian, Atoosa Sadat; Rashid, Hairul Azhar Abdul

    2017-10-06

    This paper presents short wavelength operation of tunable thulium-doped mode-locked lasers with sweep ranges of 1702 to 1764 nm and 1788 to 1831 nm. This operation is realized by a combination of the partial amplified spontaneous emission suppression method, the bidirectional pumping mechanism and the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technique. Lasing at emission bands lower than the 1800 nm wavelength in thulium-doped fiber lasers is achieved using mode confinement loss in a specially designed photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The enlargement of the first outer ring air holes around the core region of the PCF attenuates emissions above the cut-off wavelength and dominates the active region. This amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) suppression using our presented PCF is applied to a mode-locked laser cavity and is demonstrated to be a simple and compact solution to widely tunable all-fiber lasers.

  5. Low-noise design issues for analog front-end electronics in 130 nm and 90 nm CMOS technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Manghisoni, M; Re, V; Speziali, V; Traversi, G

    2007-01-01

    Deep sub-micron CMOS technologies provide wellestablished solutions to the implementation of low-noise front-end electronics in various detector applications. The IC designers’ effort is presently shifting to 130 nm CMOS technologies, or even to the next technology node, to implement readout integrated circuits for silicon strip and pixel detectors, in view of future HEP applications. In this work the results of noise measurements carried out on CMOS devices in 130 nm and 90 nm commercial processes are presented. The behavior of the 1/f and white noise terms is studied as a function of the device polarity and of the gate length and width. The study is focused on low current density applications where devices are biased in weak or moderate inversion. Data obtained from the measurements provide a powerful tool to establish design criteria in nanoscale CMOS processes for detector front-ends in LHC upgrades.

  6. Paleo-tsunami history along the northern Japan Trench: evidence from Noda Village, northern Sanriku coast, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Taiga; Goto, Kazuhisa; Nishimura, Yuichi; Watanabe, Masashi; Iijima, Yasutaka; Sugawara, Daisuke

    2017-12-01

    Throughout history, large tsunamis have frequently affected the Sanriku area of the Pacific coast of the Tohoku region, Japan, which faces the Japan Trench. Although a few studies have examined paleo-tsunami deposits along the Sanriku coast, additional studies of paleo-earthquakes and tsunamis are needed to improve our knowledge of the timing, recurrence interval, and size of historical and pre-historic tsunamis. At Noda Village, in Iwate Prefecture on the northern Sanriku coast, we found at least four distinct gravelly sand layers based on correlation and chronological data. Sedimentary features such as grain size and thickness suggest that extreme waves from the sea formed these layers. Numerical modeling of storm waves further confirmed that even extremely large storm waves cannot account for the distribution of the gravelly sand layers, suggesting that these deposits are highly likely to have formed by tsunami waves. The numerical method of storm waves can be useful to identify sand layers as tsunami deposits if the deposits are observed far inland or at high elevations. The depositional age of the youngest tsunami deposit is consistent with the AD 869 Jogan earthquake tsunami, a possible predecessor of the AD 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami. If this is the case, then the study site currently defines the possible northern extent of the AD 869 Jogan tsunami deposit, which is an important step in improving the tsunami source model of the AD 869 Jogan tsunami. Our results suggest that four large tsunamis struck the Noda site between 1100 and 2700 cal BP. The local tsunami sizes are comparable to the AD 2011 and AD 1896 Meiji Sanriku tsunamis, considering the landward extent of each tsunami deposit.

  7. Skynet Junior Scholars: From Idea to Enactment--Tales from the Trenches I. Implementation in 4-H settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Jason; Feldman, Lynn; Gurton, Suzanne; Heatherly, Sue Ann; Hoette, Vivian L.; Murray, Jenny; Zastrow, Ginger

    2016-01-01

    The creators of Skynet Junior Scholars were ambitious to say the least when they set out to:- Develop online tools that enable middle school and high school aged youth to use robotic optical and radio telescopes to do astronomy- Create an inquiry-based curriculum that promotes critical thinking and scientific habits of mind- Proactively incorporate Principles of Universal Design in all SJS development tasks to ensure access by blind/low vision and deaf/hard of hearing youth- Prepare 180 adult youth leaders from diverse backgrounds including museum educators, amateur astronomers, teachers 4-H leaders to facilitate SJS activities in a variety of settings.After 3 years of development SJS is in full implementation mode. As of August, 2015, 105 youth leaders and leader supervisors from 24 states have completed professional development and many have formed SJS youth groups. In this paper we describe what it takes for a successful implementation of Skynet Junior Scholars in a 4-H setting, from the viewpoint of adult leaders in the trenches who have created novel implementation models to make SJS work in diverse environments from monthly 4-H meetings to immersive residential camps.4-H is the nation's largest positive youth development organization, with a membership of more than six million young people in the U.S. In 2003 the national organization formed a strong commitment to STEM education with the goal to "to engage one million new youth in a dynamic process of discovery and exploration in science, engineering and technology to prepare them to meet the challenges of the 21st century". Skynet Junior Scholars has formed a strong and growing partnership with state 4-H agencies in West Virginia and Wisconsin, with a goal of establishing SJS as a national 4-H curriculum.Skynet Junior Scholars is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers 1223687, 1223235 and 1223345.

  8. Earthquake generation cycles and tsunami simulations providing possible scenarios for Turkey (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Takane; Yalciner, Ahmet; Ozel, Nurcan; Kilic, Irfan; Miyazaki, Shin'ichi; Hyodo, Mamoru

    2015-04-01

    In order to obtain comprehensive earthquake and tsunami scenarios for disaster assessment, numerical simulations of earthquake generation cycles and resultant tsunami generations have been performed in Japan. The occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake has realized us the necessity to consider all the possible scenarios without preconceptions. We have performed large-scale numerical simulations using Earth Simulator and K-computer for earthquake generation cycles along the Nankai trough, southwest Japan, where megathrust earthquakes with some segments have sequentially occurred. We have succeeded to reproduce various rupture pattern seen in historical data and geological evidences (such as tsunami deposit) being consistent with GEONET data during interseismic period. Using the results of such earthquake generation cycle simulations, we performed tsunami generation, propagation and inundation simulation. In Turkey, tsunami simulation methods and tsunami scenario database have been developed. In the research project of SATREPS -Earthquake and tsunami disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey, we are applying such earthquake generation cycle and tsunami simulations to the North Anatolian fault system to obtain possible earthquake scenarios and to improve tsunami scenario data base for Sea of Marmara. For the modeling of the fault system, we will use observation results by the earthquake source modeling group in this project to improve the existing models. The earthquake scenarios will be used also for strong motion predictions by the group of seismic characterization and damage prediction. We will visualize the simulation results for disaster education. Furthermore, we will contribute to improve semi-realtime earthquake analyses and tsunami forecasting. In the presentation, we will show some recent simulation results of earthquake generation cycles and tsunamis for Turkey (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench

  9. The epidemic typhus and trench fever are risk for public health due to increased migration in southeast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutasdemir, Nilgün; Eroglu, Fadime; Tanrıverdi, Mustafa; Dagli, Eda Icbay; Koltas, Ismail Soner

    2018-02-01

    Pediculus humanus capitis is a small ectoparasitic insect that has lived and feds on human beings for thousands of years. Molecular techniques have been used for Pediculus species identification and evolutionary, phylogenic, and ecological studies. A total of 23 adults of P. h. capitis were collected in Gaziantep, located in southeast Turkey, and DNA was isolated from all P. h. capitis using DNA extraction kit. All DNA samples were screened for investigate of Ricettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana and Borrelia recurrentis with real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we investigated genetic variation in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis using the cytochrome oxidase I genetic DNA sequence. We found 4 (17.4%) Ricettsia prowazekii and 3 (13.1%) Bartonella quintana in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis, while we did not find any Bartonella recurrentis in any of the DNA samples. We demonstrated 1.8% genetic variations in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis with Bartonella quintana. The phylogenetic tree based on the cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that P. h. capitis in southeast Turkey are classified into two clades (clade A, clade B) and Bartonella quintana was found in only clade B. However, we did not find any genetic variations in other DNA samples in this region. The genetic variations may be related to P. h.capitis vector of Bartonella quintana has found in this study. In addition, this study was shown that P. h. capitis do transmit Rickettsia prowazekii and Bartonella quintana to people, epidemic typhus and trench fever may emergence in Gaziantep southeast of Turkey in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Geostatistics: a decision-support tool for the decontamination and the recovery of radiocontaminated territories. Study at the scale of the T22 trench in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Lien; de Fouquet, Chantal; Courbet, Christelle; Simonucci, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    The explosion of Chernobyl reactor n°4 released nearly 13.1019 Bq of radionuclides in the atmosphere and led to the delineation of a 30 km radius exclusion zone. The following year, about 800 shallow trenches were dug and the low to medium activity nuclear wastes were buried in order to prevent their dispersal. However, those trenches are dug in permeable aeolian sand and do not prevent the migration of radionuclides in the superficial aquifer. As the Ukrainian authorities would like to recover part of the exclusion zone territory, it is necessary to quickly assess the radionuclide stock, which could still possibly contaminate the groundwater, by reliable means. The study of the T22 trench shows the effectiveness and the relevance of geostatistics in this issue. The stock of cesium-137 available in 1999 in the T22 trench and its uncertainties related to the spatial variability are assessed. To do so, the limits of the trench basement are first interpolated using the results of ground penetrating radar profiles, undertaken to characterize the subsoil, and using the results of the in situ gamma spectrometry carried on boreholes drilled in the trench. Different geostatistical approaches are examined. Then, the raw data characterizing the intensity of gamma radiation in the soil are analyzed according to their localization in the trench to reassess the limits of the trench, the volume of radiocontaminated soil, the stock of cesium-137 in 1999 and the associated uncertainties. The results of the current and previous analysis of the radionuclide stock and its limits are discussed and the different results of the trench limits are compared. Finally, a hydrogeological model is constructed. The hydraulic parameters are estimated and compared using different methodologies of inverse modeling. Several geostatistical simulations based on the variogram model of the radionuclide stock are introduced in the hydrogeological model in order to evaluate the impact of the

  11. Photodegradation of perfluorooctanoic acid by 185 nm vacuum ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Peng-yi; Liu, Jian

    2007-01-01

    The photodegradation of persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water by 185 nm vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light was examined to develop an effective technology to deal with PFOA pollution. PFOA degraded very slowly under irradiation of 254 nm UV light. However, 61.7% of initial PFOA was degraded by 185 nm VUV light within 2 h, and defluorination ratio reached 17.1%. Pseudo first-order-kinetics well simulated its degradation and defluorination. Besides, fluoride ion formed in water, 4 shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), that is, perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorohexanoic acid, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorobutanoic acid. These were identified as intermediates by LC-MS measurement. These PFCAs consecutively formed and further degraded with irradiation time. According to the mass balance calculation, no other byproducts were formed. It was proposed that PFCAs initially are decarboxylated by 185 nm light, and the radical thus formed reacts with water to form shorter-chain PFCA with one less CF2 unit.

  12. EST Table: NM_001046878 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046878 LOC732875 10/09/29 100 %/169 aa ref|NP_001040343.1| peripheral-type benzodiazepine... receptor [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF51223.1| peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor [Bombyx mori] 10/

  13. comparing the 810nm diode laser with conventional surgery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... SUMMARY. Aim: To compare the use of the 810nm diode laser with conventional surgery in the management of soft tissue mucogingival problems associated with orthodontic treatment. Methods: Orthodontic patients requiring different soft tissue surgical procedures were randomly assigned to.

  14. EST Table: NM_001043468 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043468 Mf-cpa 10/09/29 91 %/479 aa ref|NP_001036933.1| molting fluid carboxyp...eptidase A [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAD60916.1| molting fluid carboxypeptidase A [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 50 %/393 aa

  15. Benchmarking of 50 nm features in thermal nanoimprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gourgon, C.; Chaix, N.; Schift, H.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this benchmarking is to establish a comparison of several tools and processes used in thermal NIL with Si stamps at the nanoscale among the authors' laboratories. The Si stamps have large arrays of 50 nm dense lines and were imprinted in all these laboratories in a similar to 100...

  16. EST Table: NM_001043377 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available moting Protein [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 30 %/136 aa FBpp0237404|DvirGJ22987-PA 10/08/...NM_001043377 Pp 10/09/29 92 %/154 aa ref|NP_001036842.1| promoting protein [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAA89306.1| Pro

  17. 77 FR 62481 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Crownpoint, NM AGENCY: Federal Communications....415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications... preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR Part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO...

  18. 850-nm oxide VCSEL development at Hewlett-Packard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongyu; Dudley, James J.; Lim, Sui F.; Lei, Chun; Liang, Bing; Tashima, M.; Hodge, Lee A.; Zhang, Xuemei; Herniman, John; Herrick, Robert W.

    1999-04-01

    Oxide confined VCSELs are being developed at Hewlett-Packard for the next-generation low cost fiber optics communication applications. Compared to the existing 850 nm implant confined VCSELs, the oxide VCSELs have lower operating voltages, higher slope efficiencies, and better modal bandwidth characteristics. Preliminary data on epitaxy and oxidation control uniformity, device performance, and reliability will be discussed.

  19. EST Table: NM_001043517 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043517 Cycb 10/09/29 89 %/700 aa ref|NP_001036982.1| Cycle like factor b [Bom...byx mori] dbj|BAB91178.1| Cycle like factor BmCyc b [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 52 %/387 aa FBpp0114038|DanaGF108

  20. EST Table: NM_001167716 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001167716 Vps4 10/09/29 88 %/438 aa ref|NP_001161188.1| vacuolar protein sorting...ojGI14672-PA 10/08/29 64 %/432 aa Y34D9A.10#CE39043#WBGene00021334#locus:vps- 4#status:Confirmed#UniProt:Q9B

  1. Direct visualization of fluid dynamics in sub-10 nm nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huawei; Zhong, Junjie; Pang, Yuanjie; Zandavi, Seyed Hadi; Persad, Aaron Harrinarine; Xu, Yi; Mostowfi, Farshid; Sinton, David

    2017-07-13

    Optical microscopy is the most direct method to probe fluid dynamics at small scales. However, contrast between fluid phases vanishes at ∼10 nm lengthscales, limiting direct optical interrogation to larger systems. Here, we present a method for direct, high-contrast and label-free visualization of fluid dynamics in sub-10 nm channels, and apply this method to study capillary filling dynamics at this scale. The direct visualization of confined fluid dynamics in 8-nm high channels is achieved with a conventional bright-field optical microscope by inserting a layer of a high-refractive-index material, silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ), between the substrate and the nanochannel, and the height of which is accurately controlled down to a few nanometers by a SiO 2 spacer layer. The Si 3 N 4 layer exhibits a strong Fabry-Perot resonance in reflection, providing a sharp contrast between ultrathin liquid and gas phases. In addition, the Si 3 N 4 layer enables robust anodic bonding without nanochannel collapse. With this method, we demonstrate the validity of the classical Lucas-Washburn equation for capillary filling in the sub-10 nm regime, in contrast to the previous studies, for both polar and nonpolar liquids, and for aqueous salt solutions.

  2. Trends and challenges in VLSI technology scaling towards 100 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusu, S.; Sachdev, M.; Svensson, C.; Nauta, Bram

    Summary form only given. Moore's Law drives VLSI technology to continuous increases in transistor densities and higher clock frequencies. This tutorial will review the trends in VLSI technology scaling in the last few years and discuss the challenges facing process and circuit engineers in the 100nm

  3. EST Table: NM_001184845 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ptor) 10/09/29 63 %/2474 aa gb|ACH47049.1| target of rapamycin [Blattella germanica] 10/09/13 55 %/2493 aa F...437 aa gi|91089099|ref|XP_971819.1| PREDICTED: similar to fkbp-rapamycin associated protein [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001184845 ...

  4. Isolation and genomic characterization of Escherichia coli O157:NM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human diseases caused by Escherichia coli O157:NM and E. coli O157:H7 strains have been reported throughout the world. In developed countries, serotype O157:H7 represents the major cause of human diseases; however, there have been increasing reports of non-O157 Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli strains ...

  5. Optically pumped 1550nm wavelength tunable MEMS VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahoo, Hitesh Kumar; Ansbæk, Thor; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the design and fabrication of an optically pumped 1550nm tunable MEMS VCSEL with anenclosed MEMS. The MEMS is defined in SOI and the active material, an InP wafer with quantum wells arebonded to the SOI and the last mirror is made from the deposition of dielectric materials...

  6. EST Table: NM_001177411 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001177411 tan 10/09/29 96 %/395 aa ref|NP_001170882.1| tan protein [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAI87831.1| Tan...0/09/10 46 %/375 aa gi|91078850|ref|XP_971848.1| PREDICTED: similar to tan CG12120-PA [Tribolium castaneum] AU000330 ...

  7. High gain 1310nm Raman amplifier (withdrawal notice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CzyŻak, Paweł; Turkiewicz, Jarosław Piotr; Mazurek, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    This paper has been withdrawn. The following nearly identical paper is available in this conference proceedings: Jarosław Piotr Turkiewicz and Paweł Czyżak, "The high gain 1310nm Raman amplifier," Proc. SPIE 9228, Optical Fibers and Their Applications 2014, 92280P (May 12, 2014); doi:10.1117/12.2067055.

  8. EST Table: NM_001123349 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001123349 18w 10/09/29 92 %/1295 aa ref|NP_001116821.1| 18 wheeler [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAB85498.1| 18 wheel...|Amel|GB15177-PA 10/09/10 58 %/1242 aa gi|91076478|ref|XP_972409.1| PREDICTED: similar to 18 wheeler [Tribolium castaneum] FS922922 ...

  9. EST Table: NM_001046698 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046698 LOC692853 10/09/29 93 %/269 aa ref|NP_001040163.1| ischemia/reperfusion... inducible protein [Bombyx mori] gb|ABD36179.1| ischemia/reperfusion inducible protein [Bombyx mori] 10/09/

  10. EST Table: NM_001046937 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046937 LOC732938 10/09/29 100 %/220 aa ref|NP_001040402.1| preimplantation pr...otein [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF51322.1| preimplantation protein [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 79 %/222 aa FBpp0234606|Dv

  11. EST Table: NM_001142927 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001142927 Kynu 10/09/29 100 %/426 aa ref|NP_001136399.1| kynureninase [Bombyx mo...ri] dbj|BAH03383.1| kynureninase [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 n.h 10/08/29 32 %/432 aa C15H9.7#CE06835#WBGene00015802#kynurenina

  12. Emerging ≈800 nm Excited Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoji; Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Yuanwei; Guo, Shaohong; Pendharkar, Aarushi Iris; Lu, Min; Huang, Ling; Huang, Wei; Han, Gang

    2017-02-01

    Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles can tune near-infrared light to visible or even ultra-violet light in emissions. Due to their unique photophysical and photochemical properties, as well as their promising bioapplications, there has been a great deal of enthusiastic research performed to study the properties of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles in the past few years. Despite the considerable progress in this area, numerous challenges associated with the nanoparticles, such as a low upconversion efficiency, limited host materials, and a confined excitation wavelength, still remain, thus hindering further development with respect to their applications and in fundamental science. Recently, innovative strategies that utilize alternative sensitizers have been designed in order to engineer the excitation wavelengths of upconversion nanoparticles. Here, focusing on the excitation wavelength at ≈800 nm, recent advances in the design, property tuning, and applications of ≈800 nm excited upconversion nanoparticles are summarized. Benefiting from the unique features of ≈800 nm light, including deep tissue penetration depth and low photothermal effect, the ≈800 nm excited upconversion nanoparticles exhibit superior potential for biosensing, bioimaging, drug delivery, therapy, and three dimensional displays. The critical aspects of such emerging nanoparticles with regards to meeting the ever-changing needs of future development are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. EST Table: NM_001044201 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001044201 Tert 10/09/29 100 %/703 aa ref|NP_001037666.1| telomerase reverse tran...scriptase [Bombyx mori] gb|ABC95023.1| telomerase reverse transcriptase [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF56516.1| telomerase reverse

  14. EST Table: NM_001130897 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001130897 CCAP 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/29 100 %/103 aa ref|NP_001124369.1| crustacean... cardioactive peptide [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAG50376.1| crustacean cardioactive peptide [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 l

  15. EST Table: NM_001109916 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001109916 Coc 10/09/29 94 %/260 aa ref|NP_001103386.1| cocoonase [Bombyx mori] gb|ABR14241.1| cocoona...se [Bombyx mori] gb|ABU49588.1| cocoonase [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 41 %/232 aa FBpp014387

  16. Meeting the challenges of 157-nm microstepper technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabe, Osamu; Uchida, Noboru; Itani, Toshiro

    2002-07-01

    For the aim of fabricating next-generation semiconductor devices, researchers are now attempting to enhance 157-nm lithography so as to achieve 70-nm node level various circuit designs. Many of the challenges for 157-nm technology such as contamination and purge control, calcium fluoride intrinsic birefringence, finding resists with suitable performance characteristics, have been performed. The major challenge, in terms of stability of tool performance, has been the apparent accumulation of contamination on the bottom of the objective. This has been evidenced by a reduction in resolution performance and an increase in the non-uniformity of the illumination intensity across the image plane. Uniformity over the entire imaging field has increased from 0.58% to as much as 18.5% through the use of the tool. This paper reports our demonstration that loss of uniformity due to contamination from resist outgassing can be reversed by cleaning the bottom surface of the lens of 157-nm microstepper (Ultratech Stepper Inc.) in- situ using 157-nm light and a small concentration of O2 in the N2 purging for exposure area. With an in-situ oxygen (O2) and vacuum ultra violet (VUV) cleaning, the uniformity of over the full imaging field has been improved from 18.5% to 6.0%. The edges of the imaging field do not recover as well during a cleaning as the center of the field, as the central 0.5 mm diameter of the field uniformity has been improved to more or less 2.0%. The procedure of this in-situ O2 cleaning will also be introduced, and in addition to this in-situ O2 cleaning, some recent results in system performance will be shown and many of these challenges will be discussed.

  17. Progress on high-power 808nm VCSELs and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Delai; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Van Leeuwen, Robert; Miglo, Alexander; Wang, Qing; Kovsh, Alexey; Ghosh, Chuni

    2017-02-01

    High power 808nm semiconductor lasers are widely used for pumping neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) crystal to produce high-brightness lasing at 1064nm. In addition, there are growing interest to use such high power 808nm lasers in the field of automotive infra-red (IR) illumination and medical aesthetic treatment. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have emerged as a promising candidate and attracted increased interests for those applications, due to their combined advantages of high efficiency, low diverging circular beam, narrow emission spectrum with reduced temperature sensitivity, low-cost manufacturability, simpler coupling optics, and increased reliability, especially at high temperatures. They can emit very high power with very high power density as they can be conveniently configured into large two-dimensional arrays and modules of arrays. We report recent development on such high-power, high-efficiency 808nm VCSELs with industrial leading 55% power conversion efficiency (PCE). Top emitting VCSELs were grown by MOCVD and processed into single devices and 2D arrays using selective wet oxidation process and substrate removal technique for efficient current confinement and heat removal. Peak PCE of 51% and peak power of 800W were achieved from 5x5mm array, corresponding to peak power density of 4kW/cm2. Pumped with new generation of 2.3kW VCSEL module, Q-switched laser pulse energy at 1064nm reached 46.9mJ, more than doubled from previously reported results.

  18. Quantitative effect of temperature to the absorbance of aqueous glucose in wavelength range from 1200nm to 1700nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Houxin; An, Lin; Chen, Wenliang; Xu, Kexin

    2005-09-05

    In this paper, to find the quantitative errors of aqueous glucose induced by the temperature change at every wave point ranging from 1200nm to 1700nm, the calibration curve is calculated and shown. During the measurement the temperature varies from 30 degrees to 40 degrees , at a 2 degrees interval, and aqueous glucose concentration ranges from 100mg/dL to 500mg/dL, at a interval of 100mg/dL. The absorption of aqueous glucose decreases with the increasing of temperature, also the absorbance decreases. In addition, only 1 degrees change in the temperature induces about -7x10-3 and -4x10-3 errors in the absorbance of the aqueous glucose at the wavelength of 1550nm, 1610nm respectively. So the examined result should be correct according to the data read from the calibration curve if the temperatures of modeling and measuring are not uniform. Using this method, the error caused by the temperature change can be reduced even eliminated.

  19. Study of drain-extended NMOS under electrostatic discharge stress in 28 nm and 40 nm CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weihuai; Jin, Hao; Dong, Shurong; Zhong, Lei; Han, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Researches on the electrostatic discharge (ESD) performance of drain-extended NMOS (DeNMOS) under the state-of-the-art 28 nm and 40 nm bulk CMOS process are performed in this paper. Three distinguishing phases of avalanche breakdown stage, depletion region push-out stage and parasitic NPN turn on stage of the gate-grounded DeNMOS (GG-DeNMOS) fabricated under 28 nm CMOS process measured with transmission line pulsing (TLP) test are analyzed through TCAD simulations and tape-out silicon verification detailedly. Damage mechanisms and failure spots of GG-DeNMOS under both CMOS processes are thermal breakdown of drain junction. Improvements based on the basic structure adjustments can increase the GG-DeNMOS robustness from original 2.87 mA/μm to the highest 5.41 mA/μm. Under 40 nm process, parameter adjustments based on the basic structure have no significant benefits on the robustness improvements. By inserting P+ segments in the N+ implantation of drain or an entire P+ strip between the N+ implantation of drain and polysilicon gate to form the typical DeMOS-SCR (silicon-controlled rectifier) structure, the ESD robustness can be enhanced from 1.83 mA/μm to 8.79 mA/μm and 29.78 mA/μm, respectively.

  20. Cryogenic Lifetime Studies of 130 nm and 65 nm CMOS Technologies for High-Energy Physics Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, James R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Deptuch, G. W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wu, Guoying [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Gui, Ping [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-04

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility intends to use unprecedented volumes of liquid argon to fill a time projection chamber in an underground facility. Research is under way to place the electronics inside the cryostat. For reasons of efficiency and economics, the lifetimes of these circuits must be well in excess of 20 years. The principle mechanism for lifetime degradation of MOSFET devices and circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures is hot carrier degradation. Choosing a process technology that is, as much as possible, immune to such degradation and developing design techniques to avoid exposure to such damage are the goals. This, then, requires careful investigation and a basic understanding of the mechanisms that underlie hot carrier degradation and the secondary effects they cause in circuits. In this work, commercially available 130 nm and 65 nm nMOS transistors operating at cryogenic temperatures are investigated. Our results show that both technologies achieve the lifetimes required by the experiment. Minimal design changes are necessary in the case of the 130 nm process and no changes whatsoever are necessary for the 65 nm process.

  1. Evaluation of the Diode laser (810nm, 980 nm) on color change of teeth after external bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiomars, Nazanin; Azarpour, Pouneh; Mirzaei, Mansooreh; Hashemi Kamangar, Sedighe Sadat; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2016-12-30

    Subject and aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of diode laser-activated bleaching systems for color change of teeth. Materials & Methods: 40 premolars with intact enamel surfaces were selected for five external bleaching protocols (n=8). Two different wavelengths of diode laser (810 and 980 nm) with two different hydrogen peroxide concentrations (30% and 46%) were selected for laser bleaching. Group 1 received bleaching (Heydent- Germany) with a 810 nm diode laser; Group 2 received bleaching (Heydent- Germany) with a 980 nm diode laser; Group 3 received bleaching (laser white*20- Biolase) with a 810 nm diode laser; Group 4 received bleaching (laser white*20- Biolase) with a 980 nm diode laser, with an output power of 1.5 W, in continuous wave (cw) mode for each irradiation. Group 5 as control group received 40% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Boost, Ultradent-USA) with no light activation. The color of teeth was scored at baseline and 1 week after bleaching with spectrophotometer. Color change data on the CIEL*a*b* system were analyzed statistically by the one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Results: All the bleaching techniques resulted in shade change. According to ΔE values, all techniques were effective to bleach the teeth (ΔE ≥ 3). Statistically significant differences were detected among bleaching protocols (p=0.06). Regarding shade change values expressed as ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, ΔE*, laser bleached groups were no statistically different with each other (p>0.05). Conclusion: Bleaching with different wavelengths of diode laser resulted in the same results.

  2. Simulation of 100 nm Vertical Replacement Gate (VRG) MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, P. K.; Ibrahim, K.; Aziz, A. Abdul; Rashid, M.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, we simulate two dimensional n-type 100 nm vertical replacement gate (VRG) metal oxide semiconductor field oxide transistor (MOSFET). The simulations are done with using DEVEDIT and ATLAS from Silvaco International. The VRG VMOST with channel doping carrier concentration of 3.5×1018 cm-3 and the width of the body region between the two channel lengths of 200 nm resulted in a threshold voltage (Vth) of 0.90 V, an off-state leakage current (Ioff) of 6.71×10-15 A/μm, a subthreshold slope (S) of 95.84 mV/dec, and a drain current (ID) of 200 μA/μm. In addition, we study the effects of channel doping carrier concentration (NC) and the width of the body region between the two channel lengths (WB). Besides, the simulation results also compared with experiment result from other researchers.

  3. Photodissociation of NH3 at 106-200 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, M.; Lee, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    The absorption and fluorescence cross sections for NH3 are measured in the 106-200 nm region using synchrotron radiation as the light source. The threshold wavelengths for the production of the NH (b to X) and NH (c to a) emissions from NH3 dissociation are measured and compared with previous measurements. The heat of formation of NH determined from these thresholds agrees well with the value determined from thermochemical data. The process of dissociation of NH3 into NH2(2AL) and H2(S) has a significant quantum yield whose maximum at 134 nm is about twice the NH(c) production yield. All the vibronic levels of the B and C states produce the NH2(2A1) emission, contrary to previous theoretical interpretations.

  4. Raster Shaped Beam Pattern Generation for 70 nm Photomask Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Thomas H.; Finklestein, Ira; Kao, Huei-Mei; Krishnaswami, Sriram; Long, Darryn; Lozes, Richard L.; Pearce-Percy, Henry T.; Sagle, Allan L.; Varner, Jeffrey K.; Winter, Stacey; Gesley, Mark A.; Abboud, Frank E.

    2002-12-01

    Photomask complexity is rapidly increasing as feature sizes are scaled down and as optical proximity correction (OPC) methods become widespread. The growing data content of critical mask levels requires that pattern generator solutions be adapted to maintain productivity. Raster shaped beam (RSB) technology has been developed to enable the production of 70 nm photomasks and the development of 50 nm masks. RSB is built on and extends the capability of the 50 kV MEBES platform. The beam is shaped as it is scanned, printing the mask pattern on a calibrated flash grid. Complex OPC patterns are efficiently tiled by combining a relatively small maximum shape size with a high flash rate of 100 MHz. The maximum shape size and the current density can be adjusted to match a wide set of mask applications. Proximity effects are corrected with dose modulation using a real-time computation.

  5. Sub-100 nm wrinkling of polydimethylsiloxane by double frontal oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nania, Manuela; Foglia, Fabrizia; Matar, Omar K; Cabral, João T

    2017-02-02

    We demonstrate nanoscale wrinkling on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at sub-100 nm length scales via a (double) frontal surface oxidation coupled with a mechanical compression. The kinetics of the glassy skin propagation is resolved by neutron and X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy, combined with mechanical wrinkling experiments to evaluate the resulting pattern formation. In conventional PDMS surface oxidation, the smallest wrinkling patterns attainable have an intrinsic lower wavelength limit due to the coupling of skin formation and front propagation at fixed strain εprestrain, whose maximum is, in turn, set by material failure. However, combining two different oxidative processes, ultra-violet ozonolysis followed by air plasma exposure, we break this limit by fabricating trilayer laminates with excellent interfacial properties and a sequence of moduli and layer thicknesses able to trivially reduce the surface topography to sub-100 nm dimensions. This method provides a powerful, yet simple, non-lithographic approach to extend surface patterning from visible to the deep UV range.

  6. 1060-nm Tunable Monolithic High Index Contrast Subwavelength Grating VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Chung, Il-Sug; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2013-01-01

    We present the first tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) where the top distributed Bragg reflector has been completely substituted by an air-cladded high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirror. In this way, an extended cavity design can be realized by reducing...... the reflection at the semiconductor #x2013;air interface using an anti-reflective coating (ARC). We demonstrate how the ARC can be integrated in a monolithic structure by oxidizing AlGaAs with high Al-content. The HCG VCSEL has the potential to achieve polarization stable single-mode output with high tuning...... efficiency. The HCG VCSEL shows a total tuning range of 16 nm around an emission wavelength of 1060 nm with 1-mW output power....

  7. Tunnel junction 850-nm VCSEL for aperture uniformity and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, P. S.; Yan, J.; Wu, T. C.; Kyi, W.; Pao, J.; Riaziat, M.

    2017-02-01

    We are reporting the first successful fabrication of 850-nm buried tunnel junction (BTJ) VCSELs. Multiple parameters were considered for the design. First, n-type dopants other than silicon had to be considered for an abrupt junction. Second, proper layer thickness had to be chosen. Finally, compatibility with regrowth and processing had to be ensured. In this paper the successful fabrication and performance of 850-nm BTJ VCSELs with tunnel junctions comprised of GaAs and AlGaAs materials is demonstrated. Key achieved parameters include a significant improvement in the slope efficiency from approximately 0.45 W/A in an oxide-aperture VCSEL to over 0.6 W/A.

  8. EST Table: NM_001043458 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043458 Apkc 10/09/29 93 %/586 aa ref|NP_001036923.1| atypical protein kinase ...C [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAE17023.1| atypical protein kinase C [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 72 %/601 aa FBpp0292491|aPK...ef|XP_974234.1| PREDICTED: similar to atypical protein kinase C [Tribolium castaneum] FS907336 ...

  9. EST Table: NM_001046972 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046972 LOC732975 10/09/29 100 %/182 aa ref|NP_001040437.1| muscular protein 2...0 [Bombyx mori] gb|ABF51386.1| muscular protein 20 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 61 %/173 aa FBpp0235584|DvirGJ2116...aa gi|91077564|ref|XP_972465.1| PREDICTED: similar to muscular protein 20 [Tribolium castaneum] FS765856 ...

  10. EST Table: NM_001044218 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001044218 glv2 10/09/29 100 %/173 aa ref|NP_001037683.1| gloverin 2 [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAE53372.1| antibac...terial peptide [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAF51564.1| gloverin2 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 n.h 10/08/29 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS917189 ...

  11. EST Table: NM_001043703 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001043703 Osp 10/09/29 93 %/1801 aa ref|NP_001037168.1| ovarian serine protease ...[Bombyx mori] gb|AAL62027.1|AF294884_1 ovarian serine protease [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 43 %/583 aa FBpp016242...189234398|ref|XP_974954.2| PREDICTED: similar to ovarian serine protease [Tribolium castaneum] FS920735 ...

  12. EST Table: NM_001173359 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001173359 Surf1 10/09/29 100 %/228 aa ref|NP_001166830.1| surfeit 1 isoform 2 [B...ombyx mori] gb|ABD36359.1| surfeit protein isoform 2 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 35 %/216 aa FBpp0179156|DperGL15...|XP_972868.1| PREDICTED: similar to surfeit locus protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS918885 ...

  13. EST Table: NM_001046863 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001046863 Surf1 10/09/29 100 %/294 aa ref|NP_001040328.1| surfeit 1 isoform 1 [B...ombyx mori] gb|ABD36358.1| surfeit protein isoform 1 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 45 %/250 aa FBpp0162190|DmojGI12...|XP_972868.1| PREDICTED: similar to surfeit locus protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS918885 ...

  14. EST Table: NM_001044001 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001044001 LOC693032 10/09/29 100 %/596 aa ref|NP_001037466.1| chitooligosacchari...dolytic beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase precursor [Bombyx mori] sp|P49010.1|HEXC_BOMMO RecName: Full=Chitooligo...e; AltName: Full=Beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase; Flags: Precursor gb|AAC60521.1| chitool...igosaccharidolytic beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase [Bombyx mori] prf||2107188A chitooligosaccharidolytic be

  15. Hardmask technology for sub-100 nm lithographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, Katherina; Mahorowala, Arpan P.; Medeiros, David R.; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Petrillo, Karen E.; Angelopoulos, Marie; Grill, Alfred; Patel, Vishnubhai; Halle, Scott; Brunner, Timothy A.; Conti, Richard; Allen, Scott D.; Wise, Richard

    2003-06-01

    The importance of hardmask technology is becoming increasingly evident as the demand for high-resolution imaging dictates the use of ever-thinner resist films. An appropriately designed etch resistant hardmask used in conjunction with a thin resist can provide the combined lithographic and etch performance needed for sub-100 nm device fabrication. We have developed a silicon-based, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) prepared material that performs both as an antireflective coating (ARC) and a hardmask and thus enables the use of thin resists for device fabrication. This ARC/hardmask material offers several advantages over organic bottom antireflective coatings (BARC). These benefits include excellent tunability of the material's optical properties, which allows superior substrate reflectivity control, and high etch selectivity to resist, exceeding 2:1. In addition, this material can serve as an effective hardmask etch barrier during the plasma etching of dielectric stacks, as the underlying silicon oxide etches eight times faster than this material in typical fluorocarbon plasma. These properties enable the pattering of features in 1-2 μm dielectric stacks using thin resists, imaging that would otherwise be impossible with conventional processing. Potential extendibility of this approach to feature sizes below 100nm has been also evaluated. High resolution images as small as 50nm, have been transferred into a 300nm thick SiO2 layer by using Si ARC/hardmask material as an etch mask. Lithographic performance and etch characteristics of a thin resist process over both single layer and index-graded ARC/hardmask materials will be shown.

  16. EST Table: NM_001130877 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001130877 hibadh 10/09/29 96 %/314 aa ref|NP_001124349.1| 3-hydroxyisobutyrate d...DROGENASE PRECURSOR (EC 1.1.1.31) (HIBADH) (FRAGMENT)#status:Confirmed#UniProt:Q9...1 10/09/10 41 %/279 aa gnl|Amel|GB17533-PA 10/09/10 46 %/279 aa gi|189238804|ref|XP_974950.2| PREDICTED: similar to Hibadhb [Tribolium castaneum] FS797397 ...

  17. EST Table: NM_001044219 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NM_001044219 glv4 10/09/29 100 %/171 aa ref|NP_001037684.1| gloverin 4 [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAE53373.1| antibac...terial peptide [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAF63528.1| gloverin4 [Bombyx mori] 10/09/13 n.h 10/08/29 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h FS798027 ...

  18. Multiple faulting events revealed by trench analysis of the seismogenic structure of the 1976 Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake, Tangshan Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Jiang, Wali; Xie, Xinsheng

    2017-10-01

    The Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake occurred on 28 July 1976 at 03:42 CST. Approximately 15 h later, the Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake occurred approximately 40 km northeast of the main shock. The two earthquakes formed different surface rupture zones. The surface rupture of the Tangshan earthquake was NNE-trending and more than 47 km long. The surface rupture of the Luanxian earthquake was more than 6 km long and consisted of two sections, forming a protruding arc to the west. The north and south sections were NE- and NW-trending and 2 km and 4 km long, respectively. A trench was excavated in Sanshanyuan Village across the NE-trending rupture of the Luanxian earthquake, at the macroscopic epicenter of the Luanxian earthquake. Analysis of this trench revealed that the surface rupture is connected to the underground active fault. The following major conclusions regarding Late Quaternary fault activity have been reached. (1) The Sanshanyuan trench indicated that its fault planes trend NE30° and dip SE or NW at angles of approximately 69-82°. (2) The fault experienced four faulting events prior to the Luanxian earthquake at 27.98 ka with an average recurrence interval of approximately 7.5 ka. (3) The Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake resulted from the activity of the Luanxian Western fault and was triggered by the Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake. The seismogenic faults of the 1976 Ms7.1 Luanxian earthquake and the 1976 Ms7.8 Tangshan earthquake are not the same fault. This example of an M7 earthquake triggered by a nearly M8 earthquake after more than 10 h on a nearby fault is a worthy topic of research for the future prediction of strong earthquakes.

  19. The Early Life of a Stable Continental Craton: Mechanisms of Accretion as Consequences of a Late Neoproterozoic Ridge-Trench Interaction, Khomas Complex, Damara Belt, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, F.; Fagereng, A.; Kisters, A.; Buick, I.

    2012-12-01

    Accretion at subduction margins is a tectonic process that provides movement and transfer of surface sediments and rocks through an ever-increasing pressure-temperature-strain regime, at depths ranging from 1 km to around 80 km. The resulting accretionary wedge is then the external expression of one of the main tectonic mechanisms of continental crust growing. The late-Neoproterozoic/early-Phanerozoic Damara Belt in central Namibia records the convergence and eventual collision of the Kalahari and Congo Cratons between ca. 580 and 540-510 Ma and shows a remarkable preservation of its original architecture. We show here the results of field observations in the Khomas Complex, tentatively interpreted in the past as the accretionary prism of the belt (Kukla, 1992). The mapping and structural analysis of two traverses across the complex, where slivers of oceanic rocks ("Matchless Amphibolite") are imbricated with trench and abyssal plane sediments are presented here. Together with comparisons with Meso-Cenozoic analogues, these data allow us to reconstruct the deformation history and to interpret it as being related to events of progressive offscraping and underplating in the context of an accretionary prism. We also document evidence for ridge subduction, in the form of primary contacts between trench sediments and lower plate mafic rocks (sills and lava flow in sediments). Although ridge subduction is an inevitable consequence of subduction tectonics, it is mainly documented in recent circum-Pacific examples. It has only rarely been recognized in the geological record, with most well documented examples limited to Meso-and Cenozoic convergent margins. To our knowledge, this is the first Proterozoic documented example of a ridge-trench encounter. Ridge subduction could explain a number of features recorded on the upper plate (the Central Zone, Congo Craton) that have, hitherto, been regarded as being problematic.

  20. Large landslides associated with a diapiric fold in Canelles Reservoir (Spanish Pyrenees): Detailed geological-geomorphological mapping, trenching and electrical resistivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Linares, Rogelio; Roqué, Carles; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Rosell, Joan; Gutiérrez, Mateo

    2015-07-01

    Detailed geomorphological-geological mapping in Canelles Reservoir, the Spanish Pyrenees, reveals the presence of several large landslides overlooked in previous cartographic works. One of the slope movements, designated as the Canelles landslide, corresponds to a 40 × 106 m3 translational landslide reactivated in 2006 by a severe decline in the reservoir water level. The geomorphic features mapped in the upper part of the Canelles landslide, including surface ruptures corroborated by electrical resistivity imaging and trenching, indicate multiple displacement episodes previous to the 2006 human-induced event. Consistently, the stratigraphic and structural relationships observed in a trench record at least two displacement events older and larger in magnitude than the 2006 reactivation. The oldest recorded event occurred in the 6th to 7th Centuries and the second in 1262-1679 yr AD. This latter episode might be correlative to the 1373 Ribagorza earthquake (Mw 6.2), which caused the reactivation of a landslide and the consequent destruction of a village in the adjacent valley. The available data indicate that over more than one millennium the kinematics of the landslide has been characterised by discrete small-displacement episodes. These data, together with the available literature on rapid rockslides, do not concur with the acceleration predicted by modelling in a previous investigation, which foresees a speed of 16 m s- 1 despite the low average dip of the sliding surface (9-10°). This case study illustrates that the trenching technique may provide valuable practical information on the past behaviour of landslides, covering a much broader time span than instrumental and historical records.