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Sample records for sub-2 microm particle

  1. Evaluation of monolithic and sub 2 microm particle packed columns for the rapid screening for illicit drugs--application to the determination of drug contamination on Irish euro banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, Jonathan; Macka, Mirek; Paull, Brett

    2007-03-01

    A study comparing recently available 100 x 3 mm id, 200 x 3 mm id monolithic reversed-phase columns with a 50 x 2.1 mm id, 1.8 microm particle packed reversed-phase columns was carried out to determine the most efficient approach (using traditional van Deemter analysis and a modern kinetic plot approach) for the rapid screening of samples for 16 illicit drugs and associated metabolites. A plot of column backpressure versus plate number (N) showed a significant advantage of using the monolithic phases, with the 20 cm monolithic column exhibiting a maximum 15,000 plates at a column backpressure of approximately 70 bar, compared to approximately 7000 plates at 150 bar for the 5 cm 1.8 microm particle packed column. Optimum linear velocities were found to be 0.40 mm s(-1), 0.52 mm s(-1) and 0.98 mm s(-1) for the three above columns, respectively. The 20 cm monolithic column was subsequently applied to the separation and determination of illicit drug contamination on Irish euro banknotes, using methanol extraction followed by LC-MS/MS. Method performance data showed that the new LC-MS/MS method was significantly more sensitive than previous GC-MS/MS based methods for this application, with detection limits in the pg note(-1) region, based upon a 20 microL standard injection. All of the notes examined tested positive for trace quantities of cocaine, with benzoylecgonine detected on 12 of the 45 notes sampled. Traces of heroin were also detected on three of the 45 notes.

  2. Particle size distribution of UO sub 2 aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, B. (Radiation Safety Systems Div., BARC, Bombay (India)); Ramachandran, R.; Majumdar, S. (Radiometallurgy Div., BARC, Bombay (India))

    1991-12-01

    The Anderson cascade impactor has been used to determine the activity mean aerodynamic diameter and the particle size distribution of UO{sub 2} powders dispersed in the form of stable aerosols in an air medium. The UO{sub 2} powders obtained by the calcination of ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) and ammonium diuranate (ADU) precipitates have been used. (orig./MM).

  3. On the mechanisms of titanium particle reactions in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/Ar atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrzejak, Timothy A.; Shafirovich, Evgeny; Varma, Arvind [School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Combustion of titanium particles in air may potentially be used for the in situ synthesis of nanoscale TiO{sub 2} particles, which can photocatalytically degrade chemical and biological air pollutants. The knowledge of Ti particle reactions in O{sub 2}-containing atmospheres is required to develop this method. In the present work, large ({proportional_to}3 mm) single Ti particles were heated by a laser in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/Ar environments. High-speed digital video recording, thermocouple measurements and quenching at different stages of the process were used for diagnostics. Analysis of the obtained temperature-time curves and quenched particles does not show a significant influence of nitrogen on the oxidation of solid Ti. In all experiments, noticeable surface oxidation started at temperatures between {proportional_to}850 and {proportional_to}950 C, leading to a sharp temperature rise at {proportional_to}1400 C. During prolonged heating at the Ti melting point (1670 C), a liquid TiO{sub 2} bead formed and, after an induction period, ejected fragments. It was shown that this phenomenon may result from an excess of oxygen in the liquid bead. Fragment ejection in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} atmospheres was more intense than in O{sub 2}/Ar, indicating that N{sub 2} accelerates the oxidation of liquid Ti. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Study on CO{sub 2} absorption enhancement by adding active carbon particles into MEA solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Juan; Sun, Rui; Ma, Lian; Sun, Shaozeng [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The chemical absorption of CO{sub 2} is generally recognized as the most efficient post-combustion technology of CO{sub 2} separation at present. A study on CO{sub 2} absorption enhancement by adding small particles of active carbon into MEA solution is investigated within a self-designed glass stirring tank. Experiments of different particle loadings and different particle sizes have been conducted. When active carbon particle concentration is fewer, compared to the absorption rate of CO{sub 2} gas absorbed by MEA aqueous solution, the role of active carbon adsorption CO{sub 2} gas is negligible. The enhancement efficiency of CO{sub 2} absorption could be improved by 10% to the upmost in this liquid-particle system.

  5. Control of the Shell Thickness of TiO{sub 2} SiO{sub 2} Particles and Its Surface Functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Junho; Jung, Sung Ho; Lee, Ji Ha; Kwon, Kiyoung; Jung, Jong Hwa [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    TiO{sub 2} SiO{sub 2} yolk/core shell particles were obtained by a sol-gel polymerization. The shell thickness of TiO{sub 2} SiO{sub 2} can successfully be controlled by sol-gel reaction times. The anatase structure of TiO{sub 2} SiO{sub 2} was more stable than that of TiO{sub 2} particles calcinated at higher temperature. Moreover, acrylate-functionalized TiO{sub 2} SiO{sub 2} particles were also successfully synthesized using the TiO{sub 2} SiO{sub 2} particles as building blocks by copolymerization of trimethoxysilyl groups of MPA with the existing hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO{sub 2} SiO{sub 2} particles. Furthermore, TEM, EDX, and FTIR studies confirmed that MPA had been successfully grafted to the surface of TiO{sub 2} SiO{sub 2} particles. Finally, we believe that the present results showing the development of surface functionalized particles can be very useful in the fields of various functional applications, and could be extended to more sophisticated hybrid materials.The fabrication of functional hollow particles is of great scientific and technological interest for purposes of applications ranging from drug delivery, coatings, photonic devices, and nanoscale reaction vessels. Various methods, including approaches such as spray drying, emulsion templating techniques, and self-assembly processes, have been described for the preparation of hollow spheres out of latex, metal, and inorganic materials.

  6. Effects of aging on PuO{sub 2} . xH{sub 2}O particle size in alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Between 1944 and 1989, 54.5 metric tons of the United States' weapons-grade plutonium and an additional 12.9 metric tons of fuels-grade plutonium were produced in and separated from irradiated uranium metal fuel at the Hanford Site. Acidic high-activity wastes containing around 600 kg of plutonium were made alkaline and discharged to underground storage tanks from separations, isolation, and recycle processes to yield average plutonium concentration of about 0.003 g/L (or {proportional_to} 0.0002 wt. %) in the {proportional_to} 200 million liter tank waste volume. The plutonium is largely associated with low-solubility metal hydroxide/oxide sludges where its low concentration and intimate mixture with neutron-absorbing elements (e.g., iron) are credited in nuclear criticality safety. However, concerns have been expressed that plutonium, in the form of hydrated plutonium oxide, PuO{sub 2} . xH{sub 2}O, could undergo sufficient crystal growth through dissolution and reprecipitation in the alkaline tank waste to potentially become separable from neutron absorbing constituents by settling or sedimentation. Thermodynamic considerations and laboratory studies of systems chemically analogous to tank waste show that the plutonium, precipitated in the alkaline tank waste by neutralization from acid solution, probably entered as 2-5-nm PuO{sub 2} . xH{sub 2}O, crystallite particles that, because of the low concentration of the neutral Pu(IV) dissolved species and opposition from radiolytic processes, grow from that point at exceedingly slow rates. (orig.)

  7. Adsorption of NO{sub 2} on carbon aerosols particles at the low ppb-level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalberer, M.; Ammann, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The adsorption of NO{sub 2} at the low ppb-level (3-40 ppb) on carbon aerosol particles was investigated. A sticking coefficient of about 2.10{sup -4} was found, similar to that in previous studies using radioactively labeled {sup 13}NO{sub 2}. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  8. Layer structured Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particles as a visible-light-driven photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuting; Chen, Luyang; Huang, Yanlin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Chen, Cuili; Kim, Sun Il [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyo Jin, E-mail: hjseo@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} nanoparticles were developed by Pechini method. • The nanoparticles show high absorption in UV–vis wavelength region. • Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} has high activity in the MB dye degradation under visible light. • Hexagonal layers with heavily distorted NiO{sub 6} were superiority for photocatalysis. - Abstract: A new visible-light-driven photocatalyst of Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particle was prepared by the modified Pechini method. The crystal structure was measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the structural refinement. The sample was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–vis absorption spectrum measurements. The average size of Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particle is about 180 nm. Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particle have an efficient optical absorption in the UV–visible light wavelength region with a direct allowed electronic transition of 2.06 eV. The effective photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye was demonstrated, which benefits from the special crystal structure of Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particle. This crystal lattice has two infinite chains formed by (Ni,Na)O{sub 6} and MoO{sub 4} polyhedra standing in lines alone with the inner wall of the hexagonal tunnels. This results in the efficient optical absorption and provides more chances for electron–hole separations, which can further react with dye molecules to oxidize the dye pollutant into non-toxic products.

  9. Positively charged TiO{sub 2} particles in non-polar system for electrophoretic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Young Seon

    2005-02-15

    Electrophoretic display uses a technique called electrophoresis to represent images and letters electronically with electronic ink. Although it has good characteristics such as wide viewing angle, high contrast ratio and extremely low power consumption, there are still several issues to be resolved to improve its performances. Higher mobility and stability of the ink particles are the most important issues among them. In this study, TiO{sub 2} particles coated with acrylamide were found to be effective ink particles that satisfy higher mobility and stability. The TiO{sub 2} particles coated with 5∼40% acrylamide were prepared by dispersion polymerization using monomers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylamide. The TiO{sub 2} particles coated with acrylamide were dispersed in isopar-G with sorbitan esters such as span 20, span 80 and span 85. The size of the TiO{sub 2} particles were changed from 200±150 nm to 350∼500 nm by the coating process. The morphology of coated particles was observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). From the TGA results, the weight fraction of TiO{sub 2} and polymer in coated particle were calculated. From the zeta potential measurement, it was shown that as acrylamide concentration was increased from 5% to 30%, zeta potential of the coated TiO{sub 2} particles was increased from 50mV to about 230mV. The zeta potential of the coated TiO{sub 2} particles with 40% acrylamide was decreased to 50mV. As a stabilizer, span 85 was the most effective surfactant to improve stability of the TiO{sub 2} particles coated with acrylamide among used surfactants in this study. Span 85 showed best stability in the storage test with TiO{sub 2} particles coated with 10% acrylamide. The mobility of TiO{sub 2} particles coated with acrylamide with span 85 in dye solution (Oil Blue-N dissolved in isopar-G) were measured by ITO cell test. The mobility of TiO{sub 2} particles coated with 10∼30

  10. ZnO/TiO{sub 2} particles and their solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerli, S., E-mail: suleymankerli@ksu.edu.tr [Department of EnergySystemsEngineering, Faculty of Elbistan Technology, Kahramanmaras SutcuImamUniversity, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Akgül, Ö., E-mail: omeraakgul@gmail.com [Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Dept. of Physics, 46100 K.Maras-Turkey (Turkey); Alver, Ü., E-mail: ualver@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Eng. 61080, Trabzon-Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    ZnO/TiO{sub 2} particles were investigated for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Nano-structured ZnO particles were produced by the hydrothermal method. TiO{sub 2} (P25) nanoparticles, was bought from the company of Degussa. Crystal structures and morphological properties of particles were examined by XRD and SEM. As an application, dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated from nano-structured produced metal oxide particles. The working electrodes of the DSSCs were obtained by mixture of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} powders. I-V characteristics of the cells were measured by using a solar simulator and the efficiency of the solar cells were obtained by using I-V graphs. ZnO cells sensitized with Ruthenium 535-bisTBA (N719) dyes yield higher efficiencies than corresponding TiO{sub 2} cells. By increasing TiO{sub 2} amount in the mixture of ZnO/TiO{sub 2}, it was observed that efficiencies of cells are getting lower.

  11. Fluidized bed combustion of single coal char particles at high CO{sub 2} concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, F.; Chirone, R. [CNR, Naples (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Combustion of single coal char particles was studied at 850{sup o}C in a lab-scale fluidized bed at high CO{sub 2} concentration, typical of oxyfiring conditions. The burning rate of the particles was followed as a function of time by continuously measuring the outlet CO and O{sub 2} concentrations. Some preliminary evaluations on the significance of homogeneous CO oxidation in the reactor and of carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} in the char were also carried out. Results showed that the carbon burning rate increases with oxygen concentration and char particle size. The particle temperature is approximately equal to that of the bed up to an oxygen concentration of 2%, but it is considerably higher for larger oxygen concentrations. Both CO{sub 2} gasification of char and homogeneous CO oxidation are not negligible. The gasification reaction rate is slow and it is likely to be controlled by intrinsic kinetics. During purely gasification conditions the extent of carbon loss due to particle attrition by abrasion (estimated from the carbon mass balance) appears to be much more important than under combustion conditions.

  12. Evaluation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-generation during oxygen reduction at electrodeposited Pt particles on mask scratched electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Akira; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp

    2013-08-15

    In this study, the Pt particle deposition was systematically performed by our proposed mask scratch and subsequent Pt electrodeposition in order to investigate the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-byproduct generation efficiency during O{sub 2} reduction. By peeling a part of polymer layer coated on a glassy carbon substrate using an atomic force microscope cantilever, scratched areas are regularly made. The Pt particles are deposited only on the above-mentioned scratched areas, indicating that the controlled Pt deposition has been achieved. The background cyclic voltammetry of the prepared electrodes showed that the deposited nanoparticles are certainly composed of Pt. Moreover, the electrochemical surface area of the deposited Pt (Pt-ESA) linearly increases with the increasing scratched area, revealing that the Pt-ESAs can be controlled by the mask scratch-based Pt electrodeposition method. It should be noted that an increase in the Pt-ESA not only increases the O{sub 2} reduction currents, but also enhances the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation efficiency.

  13. Effect of nano-TiO{sub 2} particles size on the corrosion resistance of alkyd coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyab, M.A., E-mail: hamadadeiab@yahoo.com; Keera, S.T.

    2014-08-01

    The coating system containing various sizes (∼10, 50, 100, 150 nm) of nano-TiO{sub 2} were prepared and investigated for corrosion protection of carbon steel in 1.0 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} using polarization, EIS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. It was found that nano-TiO{sub 2} particles improved the corrosion resistance of alkyd coatings. The corrosion resistance occurs via physical adhesion on the metal surface. O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O permeability of coating decreased with decrease in the nano-TiO{sub 2} size. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with decreasing the size of nano-TiO{sub 2} and with decreasing the temperature. - Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2} coating were prepared and used for corrosion protection of C-steel. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} particles in coating are effective to improve the corrosion resistance. • Nano-TiO{sub 2} coating inhibit both anodic and cathodic reactions. • Corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with decrease in the size of nano-TiO{sub 2}. • O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O permeability of coating decreased with decrease in the nano-TiO{sub 2} size.

  14. Generation of MoS{sub 2} quantum dots by laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} particles in suspension and their photocatalytic activity for H{sub 2} generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldoví, Herme G.; Latorre-Sánchez, Marcos; Esteve-Adell, Iván [Universitat Politècnica de València, Instituto Universitario de Tecnología Química CSIC-UPV and Departamento de Química (Spain); Khan, Anish; Asiri, Abdullah M. [King Abdulaziz University, Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (Saudi Arabia); Kosa, Samia A. [King Abdulaziz University, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science (Saudi Arabia); Garcia, Hermenegildo, E-mail: hgarcia@qim.upv.es [Universitat Politècnica de València, Instituto Universitario de Tecnología Química CSIC-UPV and Departamento de Química (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    MoS{sub 2} quantum dots (QDs) have been obtained in colloidal suspensions by 532 nm laser ablation (7 ns fwhp/pulse, 50 mJ/pulse) of commercial MoS{sub 2} particles in acetonitrile. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show a lateral size distribution from 5 to 20 nm, but a more homogeneous particle size of 20 nm can be obtained by silica gel chromatography purification in acetonitrile. MoS{sub 2} QDs obtained by laser ablation are constituted by 3–6 MoS{sub 2} layers (1.8–4 nm thickness) and exhibit photoluminescence whose λ{sub PL} varies from 430 to 530 nm depending on the excitation wavelength. As predicted by theory, the confinement effect and the larger periphery in MoS{sub 2} QDs increasing the bandgap and having catalytically active edges are reflected in an enhancement of the photocatalytic activity for H{sub 2} generation upon UV–Vis irradiation using CH{sub 3}OH as sacrificial electron donor due to the increase in the reduction potential of conduction band electrons and the electron transfer kinetics.

  15. Investigations of percutaneous uptake of ultrafine TiO{sub 2} particles at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, F. E-mail: fmenzel@physik.uni-leipzig.de; Reinert, T.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T

    2004-06-01

    Micronised TiO{sub 2} particles with a diameter of about 15 nm are used in sunscreens as physical UV filter. Due to the small particle size it may be supposed that TiO{sub 2} particles can pass through the uppermost horny skin layer (stratum corneum) via intercellular channels and penetrate into deeper vital skin layers. Accumulations of TiO{sub 2} particles in the skin can decrease the threshold for allergies of the immune system or cause allergic reactions directly. Spatially resolved ion beam analysis (PIXE, RBS, STIM and secondary electron imaging) was carried out on freeze-dried cross-sections of biopsies of pig skin, on which four different formulations containing TiO{sub 2} particles were applied. The investigations were carried out at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION in Leipzig with a 2.25 MeV proton beam, which was focused to a diameter of 1 {mu}m. The analysis concentrated on the penetration depth and on pathways of the TiO{sub 2} particles into the skin. In these measurements a penetration of TiO{sub 2} particles through the s. corneum into the underlying stratum granulosum via intercellular space was found. Hair follicles do not seem to be important penetration pathways because no TiO{sub 2} was detected inside. The TiO{sub 2} particle concentration in the stratum spinosum was below the minimum detection limit of about 1 particle/{mu}m{sup 2}. These findings show the importance of coating the TiO{sub 2} particles in order to prevent damage of RNA and DNA of skin cells by photocatalytic reactions of the penetrated particles caused by absorption of UV light.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of ZrO{sub 2} particle dispersion strengthened 16MnV steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.A. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, N. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); CNOOC Research Institute of Oil and Petrochemicals (CRI), Beijing 100000 (China); Yang, Y.J.; Zhong, H. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma, M.Z., E-mail: mz550509@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, X.Y.; Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-04-24

    The dispersion strengthened 16MnV steels with 0.5 wt% and 1.2 wt% ZrO{sub 2} particles were prepared using medium frequency induction melting furnace. The ZrO{sub 2} particles mixed with iron powder were added into the 16MnV steel through cored-wire injection process. Optical metallographic microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to observe and analyze the microstructure, fracture morphology, dislocation configuration and strengthening mechanism of ZrO{sub 2} particle dispersion strengthened 16MnV steel under as-cast, normalizing and quenching states. Results showed that the strength of 16MnV steel under various states increased significantly after the addition of dispersed ZrO{sub 2} particles. Analysis indicates that the dislocation cell formed by high density dislocation around ZrO{sub 2} particles and attractive interaction between those particles are the main strengthening mechanism of dispersion strengthened 16MnV steel. The tensile test results showed that remarkable strengthening effect of ZrO{sub 2} particle on 16MnV steel has been observed. As the addition of 1.2 wt% ZrO{sub 2}, the improvement of strength in ZrO{sub 2}/16MnV is approximately 37.69% for as-casting, 24.2% after normalization and 29.96% after quenching, respectively. The normalized ZrO{sub 2}/16MnV with 1.2 wt% ZrO{sub 2} has the highest strength of 1453 MPa.

  17. Energy-loss straggling study of proton and alpha-particle beams incident onto ZrO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behar, M.; Fadanelli, R.C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 (Brazil); Abril, I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat d' Alacant, 03080 Alacant (Spain); Garcia-Molina, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion en Optica y Nanofisica, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Nagamine, L.C.C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P.66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    The energy-loss straggling of zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has been experimentally determined for proton and alpha-particle beams mainly by means of the Rutherford backscattering technique and in some few cases using the transmission method. The incident energies of the projectiles covers a wide range, from 200 keV up to 2000 keV for H{sup +} and from 200 keV up to 4000 keV for He{sup +} in zirconia films. In the case of alumina films the studied energy range was 100 keV - 3000 keV for H{sup +} and 100 keV - 6000 keV for He{sup +}. Our experimental results compare very well with theoretical calculations based on the dielectric formalism and a suitable description of the electronic excitation spectrum of ZrO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films through their energy-loss function. (authors)

  18. Spent UO{sub 2} TRISO coated particles. Instant release fraction and microstructure evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtius, Hildegard; Kaiser, Gabriele; Lieck, Norman; Guengoer, Murat; Klinkenberg, Martina; Bosbach, Dirk [Research Center Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6: Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety

    2015-09-01

    The impact of burn-up on the instant release fraction (IRF) from spent fuel was studied using very high burn-up UO{sub 2} fuel (∝ 100 GWd/t) from a prototype high temperature reactor (HTR). TRISO (TRi-structural-ISO-tropic) particles from the spherical fuel elements contain UO{sub 2} fuel kernels (500 μm diameter) which are coated by three tight layers ensuring the encapsulation of fission products during reactor operation. After cracking of the tight coatings {sup 85}Kr and {sup 14}C as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} were detected in the gas fraction. Xe was not detected in the gas fraction, although ESEM (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope) investigations revealed an accumulation in the buffer. UO{sub 2} fuel kernels were exposed to synthetic groundwater under oxic and anoxic/reducing conditions. U concentration in the leachate was below the detection limit, indicating an extremely low matrix dissolution. Within the leach period of 276 d {sup 90}Sr and {sup 134/137}Cs fractions located at grain boundaries were released and contribution to IRF up to max. 0.2% respectively 8%. Depending on the environmental conditions, different release functions were observed. Second relevant release steps occurred in air after ∝ 120 d, indicating the formation of new accessible leaching sites. ESEM investigations were performed to study the impact of leaching on the microstructure. In oxic environment, numerous intragranular open pores acting as new accessible leaching sites were formed and white spherical spots containing Mo and Zr were identified. Under anoxic/reducing conditions numerous metallic precipitates (Mo, Tc and Ru) filling the intragranular pores and white spherical spots containing Mo and Zr, were detected. In conclusion, leaching in different geochemical environments influenced the speciation of radionuclides and in consequence the stability of neoformed phases, which has an impact on IRF.

  19. Particle-specific toxicity and bioavailability of cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles to Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xinping; Pan, Haopeng [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Peng, E-mail: p.wang3@uq.edu.au [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); The University of Queensland, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Zhao, Fang-Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The phytotoxicity and uptake of CeO{sub 2} NPs were examined in Arabidopsis. • CeO{sub 2} NPs stimulated plant growth at low doses but were toxic at high doses. • The toxicity was due to the NPs per se, rather than from the dissolved Ce ions. • A similar up-translocation factor was found for CeO{sub 2} NPs, bulk CeO{sub 2} and Ce ions. - Abstract: The use of manufactured cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO{sub 2}-NPs) in consumer products has increased markedly over the past decade, and their release into natural ecosystems is unavoidable. This study investigated the phytotoxicity and uptake of CeO{sub 2}-NPs in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in an agar medium. Although low concentrations of CeO{sub 2}-NPs had stimulatory effects on plant growth, at higher concentrations, CeO{sub 2}-NPs reduced growth and had adverse effects on the antioxidant systems and photosystem. Importantly, the toxicity resulted from the nanoparticles per se, rather than from the dissolved Ce ions. CeO{sub 2}-NPs were taken up and subsequently translocated to shoot tissues, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of a large number of needle-like particle aggregations in the intercellular regions and the cytoplasm of leaf cells. The up-translocation factor to shoots was independent of the concentrations of Ce in the roots and the supplied forms of Ce (i.e. CeO{sub 2}-NPs, CeO{sub 2}-bulk, and ionic Ce), suggesting that endocytosis is likely to be a general mechanism responsible for the translocation of these Ce compounds. These findings provide important information regarding the toxicity and uptake of CeO{sub 2}-NPs in plants, which needs to be considered in environmental risk assessment for the safe use and disposal of CeO{sub 2}-NPs.

  20. Surface modification of submicronic TiO{sub 2} particles prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for visible light absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugandzic, Ivan M. [Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA (Serbia); Jovanovic, Dragana J. [University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Serbia); Mancic, Lidija T. [Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA (Serbia); Zheng, Nan; Ahrenkiel, Scott P. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (United States); Milosevic, Olivera B. [Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA (Serbia); Saponjic, Zoran V.; Nedeljkovic, Jovan M., E-mail: jovned@vinca.rs [University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Serbia)

    2012-10-15

    Spherical, submicronic TiO{sub 2} assemblage with high specific surface area and controllable phase composition was prepared in the process of ultrasonic spray drying/pyrolysis in a wide temperature range (150-800 Degree-Sign C) by using as a precursor aqueous colloidal solution consisting of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (4.5 nm). Submicronic, soft and grained spherical TiO{sub 2} particles (d = 370-500 nm) comprising clustered nanocrystals (<10 nm) were obtained at low processing temperature, while particle densification, intensive growth of the clustered primary units and anatase-to-rutile transformation ({approx}30 wt%) were observed at the higher temperatures. Detailed structural and morphological characterisation were performed by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning and field emission electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and laser particle size analysis. Moreover, the surface modification of TiO{sub 2} particles through the formation of charge-transfer (CT) complex was achieved with different ligands: ascorbic acid, dopamine, catechol, 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, and anthrarobin. Optical properties of the surface-modified TiO{sub 2} particles were studied by using diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The binding structure between the surface titanium atoms and different ligands was determined by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The formation of CT complexes induced significant red shift of optical absorption in comparison to unmodified TiO{sub 2} particles.

  1. Study on preparation and properties of molybdenum alloys reinforced by nano-sized ZrO{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Chaopeng; Gao, Yimin; Zhou, Yucheng [Xi' an Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province (China); Wei, Shizhong [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang (China); Henan University of Science and Technology, Engineering Research Center of Tribology and Materials Protection, Ministry of Education, Luoyang (China); Zhang, Guoshang; Zhu, Xiangwei; Guo, Songliang [Henan University of Science and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang (China)

    2016-03-15

    The nano-sized ZrO{sub 2}-reinforced Mo alloy was prepared by a hydrothermal method and a subsequent powder metallurgy process. During the hydrothermal process, the nano-sized ZrO{sub 2} particles were added into the Mo powder via the hydrothermal synthesis. The grain size of Mo powder decreases obviously with the addition of ZrO{sub 2} particles, and the fine-grain sintered structure is obtained correspondingly due to hereditation. In addition to a few of nano-sized ZrO{sub 2} particles in grain boundaries or sub-boundaries, most are dispersed in grains. The tensile strength and yield strength have been increased by 32.33 and 53.76 %. (orig.)

  2. Design of MgB{sub 2} superconducting dipole magnet for particle beam transport in accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.; Givel, J.C.; Andersen, N.H. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Zangenberg, N.; Baurichter, A. [Danfysik A/S, Jyllinge (Denmark)

    2006-11-15

    A comprehensive analysis of the innovation potential of superconductivity at Risoe was performed in February 2004 by the main author of this report. Several suggestions for new products and new markets were formulated by the superconductivity group and examined by the innovation staff at Risoe. The existing markets of superconducting technology is within highly specialized scientific areas such as magnetic confinement in fusion energy, sample environment in neutron scattering and large scale accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at Cern, or in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) community using MR-imaging scanners in medicine and phase identification in organic chemistry. Only the NMR applications can be categorized as a highly profitable and commercial market today. The superconductivity group of Risoe formulated and presented the gearless superconducting wind turbine multipole generator as the most promising new concept, but further initiatives were stopped due to unclear patent possibilities. The experience of the innovation review was used in the STVF framework program 'New superconductors: mechanisms, processes and products' to identify potential new product for the collaborating company Danfysik A/S, which has a strong tradition in building resistive magnets for particle accelerators. A technology transfer project was formulated at the end of 2005 with the purpose to collect the knowledge about the MgB2 superconductor gained in the STVF program and in the European Framework Program 6 project HIPERMAG. It was presented at the Risoe innovation seminar January 2006, and recently a collaboration between Risoe and Danfysik A/S was initialized. The present report aims to outline a potential superconducting product within the STVF program. The use of the MgB{sub 2} superconductors in a dipole magnet for guiding particle beams in a small scale accelerator is examined with the purpose to build lighter and smaller than the present resistive

  3. One-pot synthesis of Cu{sub 2}O octahedron particles and their catalytic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Biao; Li, Dan; Mu, Lei; Yang, Sung Ik [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    We report a facile one-step synthesis method of cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) hollow octahedrons with controllable size Cu{sub 2}O exhibited a great catalytic activity for the reduction of methylene blue by N{sub 2}H{sub 4} as well as NABH{sub 4}.

  4. Microplastic deformation of TiB/sub 2/ particles during vibrocrushing and pressing in high pressure chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordan' yan, S.S.; Kravchik, A.E.; Ponomarenko, V.A.; Chunov, V.D. (Leningradskij Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-04-01

    The character of plastic strain in titanium diboride particles is described. It is shown that during titanium diboride vibrocrushing unlike that of carbide there is practically no microplastic deformation that is observed only when TiB/sub 2/ particles are squeezed in high-pressure chambers at pressures not less than 3GPa.

  5. Effect of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AP composite particles on thermal decomposition of AP and on burning rate of the composite propellant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhenye [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094 (China); Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China); Li, Fengsheng; Bai, Huaping [National Special Superfine Powder Engineering Research Center, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094 (China)

    2006-12-15

    A technique of composite processing of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ammonium perchlorate (AP) was employed in making the propellant. The effects of composite processing of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on catalytic activity, on the thermal decomposition of AP, and on the burning rate of the composite propellant were investigated in this paper. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AP composite particles were prepared by a novel solvent-nonsolvent method. The results show that AP is successfully coated on the surface of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Composite processing of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and AP can improve the catalytic activity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits better catalytic effect with increasing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The larger interface between Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and AP and lower density of composite propellant (with the added Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AP composite particles) are responsible for the enhancement of the catalytic activity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Core–shell structured FeSiAl/SiO{sub 2} particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} soft magnetic composite cores with tunable insulating layer thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Xi’an, E-mail: groupfxa@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Wang, Jian, E-mail: snove418562@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Wu, Zhaoyang, E-mail: wustwuzhaoyang@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Li, Guangqiang, E-mail: ligq-wust@mail.wust.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • FeSiAl/SiO{sub 2} core–shell particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite cores were prepared. • SiO{sub 2} surrounding FeSiAl were replaced by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} during sintering process. • Fe{sub 3}Si particles were separated by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with tunable thickness in composite cores. • Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} had lower core loss and better frequency stability than FeSiAl core. • The insulating layer between ferromagnetic particles can reduce core loss. - Abstract: FeSiAl/SiO{sub 2} core–shell particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite cores with tunable insulating layer thicknesses have been synthesized via a modified Stöber method combined with following high temperature sintering process. Most of the conductive FeSiAl particles could be coated by insulating SiO{sub 2} using the modified Stöber method. During the sintering process, the reaction 4Al + 3SiO{sub 2} ≣ 2α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 3Si took place and the new Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite was formed. The Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite cores displayed more excellent soft magnetic properties, better frequency stability at high frequencies, much higher resistivity and lower core loss than the raw FeSiAl core. Based on this, several types of FeSiAl/SiO{sub 2} particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite cores with tunable insulating layer thicknesses were selectively prepared by simply varying TEOS contents. The thickness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} insulating layer and resistivity of Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite cores increased with increasing the TEOS contents, while the permeability and core loss changed in the opposite direction.

  7. Microstructural study and densification analysis of hot work tool steel matrix composites reinforced with TiB{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedrizzi, A., E-mail: anna.fedrizzi@ing.unitn.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Pellizzari, M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy); Zadra, M. [K4Sint, Start-up of the University of Trento, Viale Dante 300, 38057 Pergine Valsugana (Italy); Marin, E. [Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via Cotonificio 108, 33100 Udine (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Hot work tool steels are characterized by good toughness and high hot hardness but are less wear resistant than other tooling materials, such as high speed steel. Metal matrix composites show improved tribological behavior, but not much work has been done in the field of hot work tool steels. In this paper TiB{sub 2}-reinforced hot work tool steel matrix composites were produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Mechanical alloying (MA) was proposed as a suited process to improve the composite microstructure. Density measurements and microstructure confirmed that MA promotes sintering and produces a fine and homogeneous dispersion of reinforcing particles. X-ray diffraction patterns of the sintered composites highlighted the formation of equilibrium Fe{sub 2}B and TiC, as predicted by thermodynamic calculations using Thermo-Calc® software. Scanning electron microscopy as well as scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy highlighted the reaction of the steel matrix with TiB{sub 2} particles, showing the formation of a reaction layer at the TiB{sub 2}-steel interface. Phase investigations pointed out that TiB{sub 2} is not chemically stable in steel matrix because of the presence of carbon even during short time SPS. - Highlights: • TiB{sub 2} reinforced steel matrix composites were produced by spark plasma sintering. • TiB{sub 2} was successfully dispersed in the steel matrix by mechanical alloying. • Steel and TiB{sub 2} react during sintering forming equilibrium Fe{sub 2}B and TiC. • The new phases were investigated by means of AFM, Volta potential and XRD analyses.

  8. Effect of ZrB{sub 2} particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hybrid (ZrB{sub 2} + Al{sub 3}Zr)/AA5052 insitu composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Gaurav, E-mail: gauravgautamm1988@gmail.com; Mohan, Anita, E-mail: amohan.app@iitbhu.ac.in

    2015-11-15

    Present study outlines the effect of ZrB{sub 2} particles variation on the morphology and mechanical properties of (ZrB{sub 2}+Al{sub 3}Zr)/AA5052Al alloy composites. Composites with varying amount of ZrB{sub 2} particles have been produced by direct melt reaction (DMR) technique. These composites have been characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to confirm the presence of ZrB{sub 2} and Al{sub 3}Zr particles. Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to understand the morphology. To see the effect of ZrB{sub 2} variation on mechanical properties, hardness and tensile properties have been evaluated. The XRD and EDS results confirm the successful formation of ZrB{sub 2} particles in matrix of AA5052Al alloy. SEM and TEM studies exhibit that ZrB{sub 2} particles are mostly in hexagonal and some rectangular shape while Al{sub 3}Zr particles are in polyhedron and rectangular shapes. Most of ZrB{sub 2} particles are within a size range of 10–190 nm. Interface region is free of any impurity. OM studies show grain refinement of AA5052Al alloy matrix with formation of second phase ZrB{sub 2} particles. Tensile results indicate that the UTS and YS improve up to 3 vol.% of ZrB{sub 2} but beyond this composition a decreasing trend is observed. The strength coefficient increases with increase in ZrB{sub 2} particles up to 3 vol.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr/Al alloy composites, whereas strain hardening decreases. While beyond 3 vol.% ZrB{sub 2} particles in the Al{sub 3}Zr/Al alloy composite, opposite trend is observed in strength coefficient and strain hardening. Percentage elongation also improves with 1vol.% ZrB{sub 2}, but further addition of ZrB{sub 2} shows an adverse effect. However, a continuous increasing trend has been observed in bulk hardness. Fracture studies show facets of Al{sub 3}Zr particles and dimples of matrix, but with inclusion of ZrB{sub 2} dimple size decreases. Increase in ZrB{sub

  9. Assembly and luminescence properties of lanthanide-polyoxometalates/polyethyleneimine/SiO{sub 2} particles with core–shell structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun, E-mail: junwang924@yahoo.com.cn; Fan, Shaohua; Zhao, Weiqian; Zhang, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, two lanthanide-polyoxometalate (LnW{sub 10}) complexes were bonded on the surface of the polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified silica nanoparticles with different sizes, resulting in the formation of LnW{sub 10}/PEI/SiO{sub 2} particles. The hybrid core–shell particles were characterized by infrared, luminescent spectra, scanning electronic microscope, and transmission electronic microscope. The particles obtained exhibit the fine spherical core–shell structure and the excellent luminescence properties. The luminescence spectra studies revealed that the formation of LnW{sub 10}/PEI/SiO{sub 2} particles and the size of particle have an influence on the luminescence properties of lanthanide ions. - Highlights: ► SiO{sub 2}/polyethyleneimine (PEI) shows the chemisorption for Ln-polyoxometalates (LnW{sub 10}). ► The core-shell LnW{sub 10}/PEI/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with different sizes were fabricated. ► The hybrid particles exhibit the excellent luminescence properties. ► The sizes of particles affect the luminescence properties of lanthanide ions.

  10. SO/sub 2/ and particles--synergistic effects on guinea pig lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rylander, R; Ohrstrom, M; Hellstrom, P A; Bergstrom, R

    1971-01-01

    Damage from SO/sub 2/ (5 ppM) and/or MnO/sub 2/ (5.9 mg/m/sup 3/, 90% < 0.5 ..mu..m) to guinea pigs was assessed by a phagocytosis-clearance model. The clearance of viable and killed nonpathogenic bacteria was determined in animals exposed to pollutants 6 hr/day, 5 day/wk, for 4 wk. Percent killed and viable E. coli remaining in lung after 3 hr averaged 75 and 16 for control, 79 and 19 for MnO/sub 2/, 88 and 10 for SO/sub 2/, and 118 and 28 for SO/sub 2/ plus MnO/sub 2/ (significant vs control). Synergism was thus demonstrated.

  11. Effects of nano-SiO{sub 2} particles on surface tracking characteristics of silicone rubber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong, E-mail: tjuliuyong@tju.edu.cn; Li, Zhonglei; Du, Boxue [Key Laboratory of Smart Grid of Ministry of Education (Tianjin University), School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-09-08

    Compared with neat silicone rubber composites (SiRCs), SiRCs filled with nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles at weight ratios from 0.1 to 1.0 wt. % exhibit a higher surface flashover voltage and a greater resistance to surface tracking. Scanning electron microscopy images of tracking morphologies indicate that the SiO{sub 2} particles are situated in close proximity to the polymeric chains and act as bridges to stabilize the chains and maintain the structure of the composite. Higher concentrations of nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles, however, (above 0.3 wt. %) produce defects in the molecular network which lead to reductions in both the surface flashover voltage and the resistance to surface tracking, although these reduced values are still superior to those of neat SiRCs. Therefore, SiRCs filled with nano-sized SiO{sub 2} particles, especially at an optimal weight ratio (0.1 to 0.3 wt. %), may have significant potential applications as outdoor insulators for power systems.

  12. Lattice strain estimation for CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano particles using Williamson-Hall analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Kamal A., E-mail: kamalaly2001@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khulais, University of Jeddah, Jiddah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut (Egypt); Khalil, N.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khulais, University of Jeddah, Jiddah (Saudi Arabia); Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, 12311 Cairo (Egypt); Algamal, Yousif [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khulais, University of Jeddah, Jiddah (Saudi Arabia); Saleem, Qaid M.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khulais, University of Jeddah, Jiddah (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Education, Aden University, Sabwa (Yemen)

    2016-08-15

    CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared via coprecipitation technique through mixing 1:1 M ratio of cobalt nitrate and aluminium nitrate solutions at pH 10. CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystalline phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result reveals that the particles of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} fired at 900 °C were relatively small (21 nm) and uniform. Increased temperature to 1200 °C gives rise to blocky particles and changes in the powders shape, that because of agglomeration came from the calcination of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Furthermore, the particle size increase with increasing the calcinated temperature. The crystalline sizes were evaluated by using X-ray peak broadening analysis suggested by Williamson-Hall (W-H) analysis. It was successfully applied for lattice strain and to calculate mechanical stress and energy density values using different three models namely uniform deformation model (UDM), uniform deformation stress model (UDSM) and uniform deformation energy density model (UDEDM). Also, the root mean square strain was determined. These models gave a different strain values which suggested an isotropic nature of the nanoparticles. Besides, the obtained results W-H analysis are in good agreement with that deduced from SEM analysis and Scherrer's formula. - Highlights: • CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared via coprecipitation technique. • CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and XRD. • the lattice size and strain were investigated according to W-H analysis. • The latic size were investigated by W-H analysis, SEM and Sherrar's method. • The root mean square strain was determined.

  13. Nanoscale mechanochemical wear of phosphate laser glass against a CeO{sub 2} particle in humid air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jiaxin, E-mail: yujiaxin@swust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Testing Technology for Manufacturing Process, Ministry of Education, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); He, Hongtu; Zhang, Yafeng [Key Laboratory of Testing Technology for Manufacturing Process, Ministry of Education, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Hu, Hailong [Analysis and Testing Center, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Friction components of phosphate glass/CeO{sub 2} pair in humid air were quantified to understand the friction mechanism. • Severe nanoscale wear was directly observed by AFM topography on both phosphate glass and CeO{sub 2} particle in humid air. • The wearless behaviors of phosphate glass in vacuum were confirmed by the AFM phase image. • Capillary water bridge induced corrosion plays an important role in the mechanochemical wear of phosphate glass in air. - Abstract: Using an atomic force microscope, the friction and wear of phosphate laser glass against a CeO{sub 2} particle were quantitatively studied both in humid air and in vacuum, to reveal the water molecules induced mechanochemical wear mechanism of phosphate laser glass. The friction coefficient of the glass/CeO{sub 2} pair in air was found to be 5–7 times higher than that in vacuum due to the formation of a capillary water bridge at the friction interface, with a contribution of the capillary-related friction to the total friction coefficient as high as 65–79%. The capillary water bridge further induced a serious material removal of glass and CeO{sub 2} particle surfaces, while supplying both a local liquid water environment to corrode the glass surface and a high shearing force to assist the stretching of the Ce−O−P bond, accelerating the reaction between water and the glass/CeO{sub 2} pair. In vacuum, however, no discernable wear phenomena were observed, but the phase images captured by AFM tapping mode suggested the occurrence of potential strain hardening in the friction area of the glass surface.

  14. Nano ZrO{sub 2} particles in nanocrystalline Fe–14Cr–1.5Zr alloy powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W.Z.; Li, L.L.; Saber, M.; Koch, C.C.; Zhu, Y.T., E-mail: ytzhu@ncsu.edu; Scattergood, R.O.

    2014-09-15

    Here we report on the formation of nano ZrO{sub 2} particles in Fe–14Cr–1.5Zr alloy powders synthesized by mechanical alloying. The nano ZrO{sub 2} particles were found uniformly dispersed in the ferritic matrix powders with an average size of about 3.7 nm, which rendered the alloy powders so stable that it retained nanocrystalline structure after annealing at 900 °C for 1 h. The ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a tetragonal crystal structure and the following orientation relationship with the matrix: (0 0 2){sub ZrO2}//(0 0 2){sub Matrix} and [0 1 0]{sub ZrO2}//[1 2 0]{sub Matrix}. The size and dispersion of the ZrO{sub 2} particles are comparable to those of Y–Ti–O enriched oxides reported in irradiation-resistant ODS alloys. This suggests a potential application of the new alloy powders for nuclear energy applications.

  15. Visible active nanocrystalline N-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} particles for photocatalytic mineralization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkul, R.P. [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Sub–campus Osmanabad, 413 501, MS (India); Koli, V.B.; Shewale, V.B. [Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416 004, MS (India); Patil, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Sub–campus Osmanabad, 413 501, MS (India); Delekar, S.D., E-mail: sddelekar7@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Sub–campus Osmanabad, 413 501, MS (India); Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416 004, MS (India); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 30306-4390, FL (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (N–TiO{sub 2} NPs) with anatase phase were synthesized by sol–gel method using a single precursor containing titanium (IV) terbutoxide, glacial acetic acid, sodium dodecyl sulphate, ammonia, and urea. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the nanocrystalline nature with anatase phase of all the samples. The particle size of all samples was found in the range of 5–12 nm using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV–visible absorption measurements examined that the optical band gap of the doped samples decrease with increase in dopant concentration from 0.0 to 7.0 mol%. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive atomic X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy was employed to analyse the morphology and chemical composition of these N–TiO{sub 2} NPs. The photocatalytic activity of bare/doped TiO{sub 2} samples was demonstrated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye under direct sunlight irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation was monitored by measuring the kinetic parameters based on UV–visible spectroscopy as well as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) during the course of the reaction. The effect of dye concentration and pH of the solution on the photocatalytic degradation reaction in the presence of colloidal bare/doped TiO{sub 2} were also studied. The N–TiO{sub 2} catalyst, with a nitrogen concentration of 7.0 mol%, showed the highest activity for photocatalytic mineralization of dye at acidic or alkaline medium than neutral condition under solar light irradiation directly. - Highlights: • Nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles where synthesized by using simple sol–gel method at room temperature. • N–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles shows red shift. • Hydroxylation on the surface of TiO{sub 2} increase with increasing nitrogen concentration. • In presence of sunlight N–TiO{sub 2} shows enhancement in degradation of RhB dye.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Surrogate TRISO Particles Using 800μm ZrO<sub>2 Kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolly, Brian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Helmreich, Grant [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cooley, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In support of fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel development, coating development work is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to produce tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles with both UN kernels and surrogate (uranium-free) kernels. The nitride kernels are used to increase fissile density in these SiC-matrix fuel pellets with details described elsewhere. The surrogate TRISO particles are necessary for separate effects testing and for utilization in the consolidation process development. This report focuses on the fabrication and characterization of surrogate TRISO particles which use 800μm in diameter ZrO<sub>2 microspheres as the kernel.

  17. Quasipotential approach to the Coulomb bound state problem for spin-0 and spin-/sup 1///sub 2/ particles

    CERN Document Server

    Rizov, V A; Todorov, I T

    1975-01-01

    A recently proposed local quasipotential equation is reviewed and applied to the electromagnetic interaction of a spin-0 and a spin-/sup 1///sub 2/ particle. The Dirac particle is treated in a covariant two- component formalism in the neighbourhood of the mass shell. The fine structure of the bound state energy levels and the main part of the Lamb shift (of order alpha /sup 5/In(1/ alpha ) are evaluated with full account of relativistic recoil effects (without using any inverse mass expansion). Possible relevance of the techniques developed in this paper to fine structure calculations for meso-atomic systems is pointed out. (14 refs).

  18. Synthesis and effect of copper incorporation on the thermoluminescence and structural properties of SiO{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burruel I, S. E.; Cruz V, C.; Salas J, Ch. J. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R. [Universidad de Sonora, Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Garcia H, A. R. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castano, V. M., E-mail: silvia@gimmunison.com [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, 76000 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In this work, we evaluated the effect of Cu-dopant concentration in SiO{sub 2} particles on structural and thermoluminescence (Tl) properties, prepared by the sol-gel technique. Tl studies in silica samples containing Cu show an important enhancement of their Tl response when compared with pure silica samples. In the copper doped silica a prominent Tl peak is observed, the glow curve was observed between 70 and 450 degrees C after exposure to beta irradiation. The maximum temperature of the glow peak centered at around 140 degrees C shifts to higher values and the intensity enhancement with increasing Cu content, this glow curve is surely composed of several overlapped individual Tl peaks. Also, the particle size is affected by the concentration of Cu dopant. In the case SiO{sub 2}, only is observed a glow peak centered to 95 degrees C, which is interesting for non-Tl dosimetry of ionizing radiation, which is based in detecting the afterglow response following exposure to radiation. The dose response of SiO{sub 2}:Cu showed a linear behaviour in the interval studied with no saturation evidence until 6.4 kGy, which makes this material suitable and promising for medical, industrial and also space dosimetry applications. (Author)

  19. Analysis of PM{sub 2.5} particles in atmospheric dust of the MZVM; Analisis de particulas PM{sub 2.5} en polvo atmosferico de la ZMVM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-01-15

    The objectives and scopes of this report are: to determine the places more representative for the installation of four stations of monitoring of small particles to 2.5 micrometers (PM{sub 2.5} ) guided to protect the population's health in the regions indicated by the General Address of Environmental Administration of the Air (DGGM) of the Government of the Federal District (GDF). To select the places to collect PM{sub 2.5} in each one of the regions under study placing each place inside a contiguous cell of 2 x 2 km. To determine the concentration of PM{sub 2.5} in the selected places. To determine the temporary and space behavior of the fine particles in each one of the regions designated in this study. To determine the elementary concentration of some samples of PM{sub 2.5} in the four regions. The execution of this project will contribute to that the installation of the net of monitoring of particles of PM{sub 2.5} is carried out with scientific foundation. (Author)

  20. Spontaneous growth of whiskers from an interlayer of Mo sub 2 C beneath a diamond particle deposited in a combustion-flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Katsuyuki; Komatsu, Shojiro; Ishigaki, Takamasa; Matsumoto, Seiichiro; Moriyoshi, Yusuke (National Inst. for Research in Inorganic Materials, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    When diamond particles deposited on a molybdenum substrate in a C{sub 2}H{sub -}O{sub 2} combustion-flame were kept for one year in the ambient atmosphere at room temperature, spontaneous whisker growth from an interlayer of Mo{sub 2}C beneath the diamond particles took place. The whiskers were clarified by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a polycrystal composed of MoO{sub 2}, MoOC, and Mo{sub 2}C. The growth mechanism of them is discussed from two different points of view as follows: One is that the oxidation of an interlayer of Mo{sub 2}C beneath a diamond particle effectively reduces the surface free energy between the interlayer and diamond particle; consequently, the whisker can grow by using a screw dislocation. The other is that the internal stress existing between a diamond particle and an Mo{sub 2}C interlayer provides a very reactive zone where the growth of whisker takes place through the oxidation of Mo{sub 2}C. (orig.).

  1. The Formation of Lithiated Ti-Doped {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} Nanocrystalline Particles by Mechanical Milling of Ti-Doped Lithium Spinel Ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widatallah, H. M., E-mail: hisham@ictp.trieste.it [Khartoum University, Department of Physics (Sudan); Gismelseed, A. M.; Bouziane, K. [Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Physics (Oman); Berry, F. J. [Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Al Rawas, A. D.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Yousif, A. A.; Elzain, M. E. [Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Physics (Oman)

    2004-12-15

    The milling of spinel-related Ti-doped Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} for different times is studied with XRD, Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Milling converts the material to Li-Ti-doped {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystalline particles via an intermediate {gamma}-LiFeO{sub 2}-related phase. The role played by the dopant Ti-ion in the process is emphasized.

  2. Magnetic relaxation phenomena and inter-particle interactions in nanosized gamma-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 systems

    CERN Document Server

    Predoi, D; Tronc, E; Nogues, M; Russo, U; Principi, G; Filoti, G

    2003-01-01

    Samples of gamma-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 nano-particles with a mean size of 4.0(3) nm and with different hydration and surfactant degrees were prepared by sol-gel methods. Morphology and structural data were obtained by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, whereas the surface effects and hyperfine interactions were analysed mainly by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The relative number of surface iron positions was found to be proportional to the amount of OH sup - and SO sub 4 sup 2 sup - groups on the particle surface, which in turn is strictly dependent on the preparation conditions. Strong relaxation processes versus temperature were evidenced in the analysed systems. New criteria for the evaluation of the blocking temperature via Moessbauer measurements are proposed. The results are in good agreement with blocking temperatures obtained by magnetic measurements. Moreover, it was shown that the inter-particle magnetic interactions decrease with the number of iron surface states.

  3. Effect of ZrO{sub 2} particle on the performance of micro-arc oxidation coatings on Ti6Al4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong; Sun, Yezi; Zhang, Jin, E-mail: zhangjin@ustb.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • An anti-oxidation TiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} composite coating on Ti6Al4V alloy was prepared using micro-arc oxidation technology by adding ZrO{sub 2} particles in single phosphoric acid solution. • The composite coating displays excellent anti-oxidation characteristic at 700 °C in the air. • The concentration of ZrO{sub 2} particles not only influences the roughness and thickness of the coating, but the morphologies, phase composition, oxidation resistance and wear resistance. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of ZrO{sub 2} particle on the oxidation resistance and wear properties of coatings on a Ti6Al4V alloy generated using the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technique. Different concentrations micron ZrO{sub 2} particles were added in phosphate electrolyte and dispersed by magnetic stirring apparatus. The composition of coating was characterized using X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrum, and the morphology was examined using SEM. The high temperature oxidation resistance of the coating sample at 700 °C was investigated. Sliding wear behaviour was tested by a wear tester. The results showed that the coating consisted of ZrTiO{sub 4}, ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}. With ZrO{sub 2} particle addition, the ceramic coating's forming time reduced by the current dynamic curve. It was shown that the addition of ZrO{sub 2} particles (3 g/L, 6 g/L) expressed an excellent oxidation resistance at 700 °C and wear resistance.

  4. Antibacterial performance of nano polypropylene filter media containing nano-TiO{sub 2} and clay particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, Sara; Zarrebini, Mohammad; Naghashzargar, Elham, E-mail: e.naghashzargar@tx.iut.ac.ir; Semnani, Dariush, E-mail: d-semnani@cc.iut.ac.ir [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Textile Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Disinfection and elimination of pathogenic microorganisms from liquid can be achieved by filtration process using antibacterial filter media. The advent of nanotechnology has facilitated the introduction of membranes consisting of nano-fiber in filtration operations. The melt electro-spun fibers due to their extremely small diameters are used in the production of this particular filtration medium. In this work, antibacterial polypropylene filter medium containing clay particles and nano-TiO{sub 2} were made using melt electro-spun technology. Antibacterial performance of polypropylene nano-filters was evaluated using E. coli bacteria. Additionally, filtration efficiency of the samples in terms fiber diameter, filter porosity, and fiber distribution using image processing technique was determined. Air permeability and dust aerosol tests were conducted to establish the suitability of the samples as a filter medium. It was concluded that as far as antibacterial property is concerned, nano-fibers filter media containing clay particles are preferential to similar media containing TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  5. Investigations of mussel-inspired polydopamine deposition on WC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles: The influence of particle size and material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondin, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.mondin@chemie.tu-dresden.de [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Bergstrasse 66, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Haft, Marcel, E-mail: m.haft@ifw-dresden.de [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Institute for Solid State Research, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Wisser, Florian M., E-mail: florian.wisser@chemie.tu-dresden.de [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Bergstrasse 66, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Leifert, Annika, E-mail: annika.leifert@chemie.tu-dresden.de [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Bergstrasse 66, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Mohamed-Noriega, Nasser, E-mail: nasser.mohamed-noriega@chemie.tu-dresden.de [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Bergstrasse 66, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Dörfler, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.doerfler@chemie.tu-dresden.de [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Bergstrasse 66, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Hampel, Silke, E-mail: s.hampel@ifw-dresden.de [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Institute for Solid State Research, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Grothe, Julia, E-mail: stefan.kaskel@chemie.tu-dresden.de [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Bergstrasse 66, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Kaskel, Stefan, E-mail: julia.grothe@chemie.tu-dresden.de [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Bergstrasse 66, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Polydopamine, formed by oxidation of dopamine, is a bioinspired polymer developed for multifunctional coatings by Lee et al. in 2007 by drawing inspiration from the adhesive proteins found in mussels. Due to their high versatility and substrate-independence, polydopamine coatings are gaining considerable attention in a plethora of research fields, particularly in the coating of particles, but systematic investigations of the polydopamine coating process are lacking in the literature. In this study, we explore by TEM and thermogravimetric analysis the polydopamine coating process on alumina microparticles, tungsten carbide microparticles and tungsten carbide nanoparticles. By choosing two substrates with similar size but different material (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and WC), as well as two substrates of the same material but different size (WC micro- and nanoparticles) we investigate the effects of both substrate material and substrate size, in order to gain some insights into the polydopamine particle coating process. As opposed to what is generally assumed in the literature, we found that the polydopamine coating thicknesses on particles, as well as the thickness growing trend, depend on the particles size and material. In particular, after 24 h of polymerization time the polydopamine coatings reached a thickness of 65 ± 10 nm in the case of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} microparticles, 18 ± 4 nm in the case of WC microparticles and 33 ± 6 nm in the case of WC nanoparticles. - Highlights: • The coating of different particles with polydopamine was systematically investigated. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} microparticles and WC microparticles and nanoparticles were investigated. • The thickness of the polydopamine coating depends on the particle size. • The thickness of the polydopamine coating depends on the particle material.

  6. X-ray tomography studies on porosity and particle size distribution in cast in-situ Al-Cu-TiB{sub 2} semi-solid forged composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, James; Mandal, Animesh [School of Minerals, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India); Warnett, Jason; Williams, Mark A. [WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chakraborty, Madhusudan [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India); Srirangam, Prakash, E-mail: p.srirangam@warwick.ac.uk [WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    X-ray computed tomography (XCT) was used to characterise the internal microstructure and clustering behaviour of TiB{sub 2} particles in in-situ processed Al-Cu metal matrix composites prepared by casting method. Forging was used in semi-solid state to reduce the porosity and to uniformly disperse TiB{sub 2} particles in the composite. Quantification of porosity and clustering of TiB{sub 2} particles was evaluated for different forging reductions (30% and 50% reductions) and compared with an as-cast sample using XCT. Results show that the porosity content was decreased by about 40% due to semi-solid forging as compared to the as-cast condition. Further, XCT results show that the 30% forging reduction resulted in greater uniformity in distribution of TiB{sub 2} particles within the composite compared to as-cast and the 50% forge reduction in semi-solid state. These results show that the application of forging in semi-solid state enhances particle distribution and reduces porosity formation in cast in-situ Al-Cu-TiB{sub 2} metal matrix composites. - Highlights: •XCT was used to visualise 3D internal structure of Al-Cu-TiB{sub 2} MMCs. •Al-Cu-TiB{sub 2} MMC was prepared by casting using flux assisted synthesis method. •TiB{sub 2} particles and porosity size distribution were evaluated. •Results show that forging in semi-solid condition decreases the porosity content and improve the particle dispersion in MMCs.

  7. Growth behavior of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles formed by solid-state reactions in air and water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozawa, Takahiro, E-mail: t-kozawa@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11–1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kochi University, 2–5-1 Akebono-cho, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Murakami, Takeshi; Naito, Makio [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11–1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Morphology control of particles formed during conventional solid-state reactions without any additives is a challenging task. Here, we propose a new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles based on water vapor-induced growth of particles during solid-state reactions. We have investigated the synthesis and microstructural evolution of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles in air and water vapor atmospheres as model reactions; LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} is used as a low-cost cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. By using spherical MnCO{sub 3} precursor impregnated with LiOH, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spheres with a hollow structure were obtained in air, while angulated particles with micrometer sizes were formed in water vapor. The pore structure of the particles synthesized in water vapor was found to be affected at temperatures below 700 °C. We also show that the solid-state reaction in water vapor is a simple and valuable method for the large-scale production of particles, where the shape, size, and microstructure can be controlled. - Graphical abstract: This study has demonstrated a new strategy towards achieving morphology control without the use of additives during conventional solid-state reactions by exploiting water vapor-induced particle growth. - Highlights: • A new strategy to control the morphology of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles is proposed. • Water vapor-induced particle growth is exploited in solid-state reactions. • The microstructural evolution of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles is investigated. • The shape, size and microstructure can be controlled by solid-state reactions.

  8. Improvement microstructural and damage characterization of ceramic composites Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} – V{sub 2}O{sub 5} with MgO nano particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, T. T., E-mail: alazbrh@yahoo.com; Hasan, J. M.; Abdullah, E. T. [University of Baghdad, College of Science, Physics Department, Jaderiha, Baghdad (Iraq); Shokr, F. S. [King Abdul Aziz Universit, Faculty of Science& Art, Physics Department, Rabigh, KSA (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-04-21

    Compacted samples of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} – MgO Nano – particles wt. % sintered at different sintering temperature (700, 900, 1100, 1300) ) C° for 2 hours under static air were investigated by x-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis(DTA), to identify the phase present .Microstructure examination achieved by scanning electron microscopy .Sintered density and porosity were measured for all sintered samples .Compression was tested too and the Brake down voltage and dielectric strength were measure for all sintered samples .The clear improvement were noticed in both microstructure and damage characterization respectively after existing the MgO Nano-particles, by increasing in about 30% in sintered density and 25% for the compressive strength .The improvement also noticed on both brake down voltage and dielectric strength.

  9. Femosecond dynamics of quasi-particles in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 minus. delta. superconductor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, S.G.; Vardeny, Z.V.; Symko, O.G. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics); Koren, G. (Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on the transient electronic response of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} epitaxially grown HT{sub c} superconductor thin films in the femtosecond time domain, using transient photoinduced reflectivity ({Delta}R) with 60 fsec time resolution. For temperatures T {gt} T{sub c} only a bolometric signal was observed with {Delta}R {gt} O. For T {lt} T{sub c} {Delta}R {lt} O with a temperature dependent rise time of order 300 fsec followed by a relaxation (of order 3 psec) into a state with {Delta} are explained in terms of quasi-particle (QP) electronic response giving {Delta}R {lt} O. Thus the femtosecond rise time is interpreted as avalanche multiplication of QP across the gap 2{Delta} and the subsequent picosecond relaxation as QP recombination. The QP optical response is explained within the two fluid model.

  10. Development and characterization of copper base composite materials strengthened with TiB{sub 2} particles; Desarrollo y caracterizacion del material compuesto de base cobre reforzado con ceramicas intermetalicas de TiB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.; Camurri, C.; Corredor, D.; Jimenez, J. A.

    2005-07-01

    In this work, mechanical and electrical properties of copper base composites alloys strengthened by dispersed TiB{sub 2} particles are characterized. Powders of copper and TiB{sub 2} were mechanically ball milled in a planetary mill during 12 and 36 h under a protective atmosphere of argon. Resulting powders were compacted uniaxially at 923 K under 90 MPa during 2 h. Part of these compacts were hot rolled at temperatures ranging between 1073 and 1023 K with 20% reduction. Comparing the properties of materials after this thermomechanical process with that of as-consolidated, it was observed an electrical conductivity increase, and a decrease on hardness and ductility. (Author) 6 refs.

  11. Bactericidal effect of blue LED light irradiated TiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles on fish pathogen in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, T.C. [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China); Yao, K.S. [Department of Horticulture, National Taitung Junior College, Taiwan (China); Yeh, N. [Mingdao University, Taiwan (China); Chang, C.I. [Aquaculture Division, Fisheries Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taiwan (China); Hsu, H.C. [Department of Life Science, Mingdao University, Taiwan (China); Gonzalez, F. [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China); Chang, C.Y., E-mail: cyc1136@yahoo.com.tw [Center of General Education, National Taitung Junior College, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-31

    This study uses blue LED light ({lambda}{sub max} = 475 nm) activated TiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles to evaluate the particles' photocatalytic activity efficiency and bactericidal effects in seawater of variable salinities. Different TiO{sub 2} to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} mole ratios have been synthesized using sol-gel method. The synthesized particles contain mainly anatase TiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeTiO{sub 3}. The study has identified TiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}'s bactericidal effect to marine fish pathogen (Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida BCRC17065) in seawater. The SEM photo reveals the surface destruction in bacteria incubated with blue LED irradiated TiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The result of this study indicates that 1) TiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} acquires photocatalytic activities in both the freshwater and the seawater via blue LED irradiation, 2) higher photocatalytic activities appear in solutions of higher TiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} mole ratio, and 3) photocatalytic activity decreases as salinity increases. These results suggest that the energy saving blue LED light is a feasible light source to activate TiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} photocatalytic activities in both freshwater and seawater.

  12. Calculation of the energy of particles emitted by the reactions {sup 3}{sub 1}T (d,n) {sup 4}{sub 2}He, D (d,n) {sup 3}{sub 2}He and D (d,p) T; Calcul de l'energie des particules emises par les reactions {sup 3}{sub 1}T (d,n) {sup 4}{sub 2}He, D (d,n) {sup 3}{sub 2}He et D (d,p) T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oria, M; Sorriaux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    With a view to ease the work of research workers using 150 kV electrostatic accelerators, we have calculated the energy and the emission angle of particles emitted during the reactions {sub 1}{sup 3}T(d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He, {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He and {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,p){sub 1}{sup 3}T. The results are classified in tables and arranged according to the acceleration energy of the deuterons. Since the energies considered are relatively low we have limited our study to the non-relativistic domain; this simplification results in a maximum energy variation with respect to the real energy values of 1 per cent. We give also two curves representing the variations in the total cross-sections for the reactions T (d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He and D (d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He. (authors) [French] De facon a faciliter la tache des experimentateurs utilisant des accelerateurs electrostatiques de 150 kV, nous avons calcule l'energie et l'angle d'emission des particules emises lors des reactions {sub 1}{sup 3}T(d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He, {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He and {sub 1}{sup 2}D(d,p){sub 1}{sup 3}T. Les resultats ont ete classes dans des tableaux, et ordonnes en fonction de l'energie d'acceleration des deuterons. Les energies considerees etant relativement peu elevees, nous avons limite notre etude au domaine non relativiste, cette simplification n'entraine qu'une variation maximale de 1 pour cent sur les valeurs reelles des energies. Nous avons joint a ce calcul deux courbes representant la variation des sections efficaces totales des reactions T (d,n){sub 2}{sup 4}He et D (d,n){sub 2}{sup 3}He. (auteurs)

  13. Role of dopant concentration, crystal phase and particle size on microbial inactivation of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Manoranjan; Wu Bing; Zhu Liying; Jacobson, Craig; Wang Weining; Jones, Kristen; Goyal, Yogesh; Tang, Yinjie J; Biswas, Pratim, E-mail: pbiswas@wustl.edu [Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2011-10-14

    The properties of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) were independently controlled in a flame aerosol reactor by varying the molar feed ratios of the precursors, and by optimizing temperature and time history in the flame. The effect of the physico-chemical properties (dopant concentration, crystal phase and particle size) of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on inactivation of Mycobacterium smegmatis (a model pathogenic bacterium) was investigated under three light conditions (complete dark, fluorescent light and UV light). The survival rate of M. smegmatis (in a minimal salt medium for 2 h) exposed to the NPs varied depending on the light irradiation conditions as well as the dopant concentrations. In dark conditions, pristine TiO{sub 2} showed insignificant microbial inactivation, but inactivation increased with increasing dopant concentration. Under fluorescent light illumination, no significant effect was observed for TiO{sub 2}. However, when TiO{sub 2} was doped with copper, inactivation increased with dopant concentration, reaching more than 90% (>3 wt% dopant). Enhanced microbial inactivation by TiO{sub 2} NPs was observed only under UV light. When TiO{sub 2} NPs were doped with copper, their inactivation potential was promoted and the UV-resistant cells were reduced by over 99%. In addition, the microbial inactivation potential of NPs was also crystal-phase-and size-dependent under all three light conditions. A lower ratio of anatase phase and smaller sizes of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} NPs resulted in decreased bacterial survival. The increased inactivation potential of doped TiO{sub 2} NPs is possibly due to both enhanced photocatalytic reactions and leached copper ions.

  14. Influence of clay particles on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles transport and retention through limestone porous media: measurements and mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayat, Ali Esfandyari, E-mail: ali.esfandiari.bayat@gmail.com; Junin, Radzuan [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering (Malaysia); Mohsin, Rahmat [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM-MPRC Institute for Oil and Gas, N29A, Lengkuk Suria (Malaysia); Hokmabadi, Mehrdad [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum and Renewable Energy Engineering (Malaysia); Shamshirband, Shahaboddin [University of Malaya, Department of Computer System and Information Technology, Faculty of Computer System and Information Technology (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Utilization of nanoparticles (NPs) for a broad range of applications has caused considerable quantities of these materials to be released into the environment. Issues of how and where the NPs are distributed into the subsurface aquatic environments are questions for those in environmental engineering. This study investigated the influence of three abundant clay minerals namely kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite in the subsurface natural aquatic systems on the transport and retention of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 40 nm) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}, 10–30 nm) NPs through saturated limestone porous media. The clay concentrations in porous media were set at 2 and 4 vol% of the holder capacity. Breakthrough curves in the columns outlets were measured using a UV–Vis spectrophotometer. It was found that the maximum NPs recoveries were obtained when there was no clay particle in the porous medium. On the other hand, increase in concentration of clay particles has resulted in the NPs recoveries being significantly declined. Due to fibrous structure of illite, it was found to be more effective for NPs retention in comparison to montmorillonite and kaolinite. Overall, the position of clay particles in the porous media pores and their morphologies were found to be two main reasons for increase of NPs retention in porous media.

  15. Sulfation of CaO particles in a carbonation/calcination loop to capture CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasa, G.S.; Alonso, M.; Abanades, J.C. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    CaO is being proposed as a regenerable sorbent of CO{sub 2} via a carbonation/calcination loop. It is well known that natural sorbents lose their capacity to capture CO{sub 2} with the number of cycles due to textural degradation. In coal combustion systems, reaction with the SO{sub 2} present in flue gases also causes sorbent deactivation. This work investigates the effect of partial sorbent sulfation on the amount of CaO used in systems where both carbonation and sulfation reactions are competing. We have found that SO{sub 2} reacts with the deactivated CaO resulting from repetitive calcination/carbonation reactions. Therefore, the deactivation of CaO as a result of the presence of SO{sub 2} is lower than one would expect if one assumes that SO{sub 2} reacts only with active CaO. This work shows that changes in the texture of the sorbent due to repetitive carbonation/calcination cycles tend to increase the sulfation capacity of the sorbents tested. This suggests that the purge of deactivated CaO obtained from a CO{sub 2} capture loop could be a more effective sorbent of SO{sub 2} than fresh CaO.

  16. High-temperature mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of Al–Si piston alloy reinforced with in situ TiB{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Gang [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, 5 South Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Weizheng, E-mail: zhangwz@bit.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, 5 South Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Guohua; Feng, Zengjian; Wang, Yanjun [Shandong Binzhou Bohai Piston Co., Ltd., Binzhou 256602 (China)

    2015-05-01

    In order to assess the high-temperature performance of aluminum–silicon alloy reinforced with titanium diboride particles as potential piston material, the tensile behaviors and fracture mechanisms of in situ 4 wt% TiB{sub 2}/Al–Si composite were investigated in the temperature range 25–350 °C. The tensile results revealed that the composite exhibited higher modulus than the matrix alloy at all testing temperatures, but both the matrix alloy and the composite presented similar strength levels above 200 °C. The ductility of the composite was found to be lower than that of the unreinforced matrix alloy at 25 and 200 °C, but no obvious distinction was observed at 350 °C. The effects of temperature and the presence of TiB{sub 2} particles on tensile properties of the composite had been evaluated. Fractographic morphology studies were done using scanning electron microscope, which indicated that the fracture of the composite altered from brittle to ductile mode with temperature increasing. At 25 and 200 °C, fracture was dominated by cracked silicon particles and separated TiB{sub 2} particles, while decohesion at particle–matrix interface was prevalent at 350 °C. Analysis of the fracture surfaces also showed that regions of clustered TiB{sub 2} particles were found to be the locations prone to damage in the composite at both room and high temperatures.

  17. Oleate-based hydrothermal preparation of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, and their magnetic properties with respect to particle size and surface coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repko, Anton, E-mail: anton@a-repko.sk [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 2030/8, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Vejpravová, Jana, E-mail: vejpravo@fzu.cz [Department of Magnetic Nanosystems, Institute of Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vacková, Taťana [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Zákutná, Dominika [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 2030/8, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Nižňanský, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.niznansky@natur.cuni.cz [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 2030/8, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-15

    We present a facile and high-yield synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles by hydrothermal hydrolysis of Co–Fe oleate in the presence of pentanol/octanol/toluene and water at 180 or 220 °C. The particle size (6–10 nm) was controlled by the composition of the organic solvent and temperature. Magnetic properties were then investigated with respect to the particle size and surface modification with citric acid or titanium dioxide (leading to hydrophilic particles). The as-prepared hydrophobic nanoparticles (coated by oleic acid) had a minimum inter-particle distance of 2.5 nm. Their apparent blocking temperature (estimated as a maximum of the zero-field-cooled magnetization) was 180 K, 280 K and 330 K for the particles with size of 6, 9 and 10.5 nm, respectively. Replacement of oleic acid on the surface by citric acid decreased inter-particle distance to less than 1 nm, and increased blocking temperature by ca. 10 K. On the other hand, coating with titanium dioxide, supported by nitrilotri(methylphosphonic acid), caused increase of the particle spacing, and lowering of the blocking temperature by ca. 20 K. The CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were sufficiently stable in water, methanol and ethanol. The particles were also investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy and alternating-current (AC) susceptibility measurements, and their analysis with Vögel–Fulcher and power law. Effect of different particle coating and dipolar interactions on the magnetic properties is discussed. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by facile hydrothermal method from Co–Fe oleate. • Blocking temperature (T{sub B}) is 180–330 K for 6–10.5 nm oleate-coated particles. • The apparent T{sub B} changes with oleic acid, citrate or TiO{sub 2} coating.

  18. Comparison of LC Columns Packed with 2.6 lm Core-Shell and Sub-2 lm Porous Particles for Gradient Separation of Antibiotics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tylová, Tereza; Kameník, Zdeněk; Flieger, Miroslav; Olšovská, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 74, 1-2 (2011), s. 19-27 ISSN 0009-5893 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Column liquid chromatography * Sub-2 mu m particles * Acquity BEH C18 column Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2011

  19. Electrochemically deposited Cu{sub 2}O cubic particles on boron doped diamond substrate as efficient photocathode for solar hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrokefalos, Christos K. [Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA, England (United Kingdom); Hasan, Maksudul, E-mail: maksudul.hasan@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA, England (United Kingdom); Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Rohan, James F. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Compton, Richard G. [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QZ, England (United Kingdom); Foord, John S., E-mail: john.foord@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA, England (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Fabrication of low-cost photocathode by electrochemical method is described. • Boron-doped diamond is presented as catalyst support. • NiO nanoparticles on Cu{sub 2}O surface enhances photocurrent and electrode stability. • Synergy of metallic interaction between Cu and Ni leads to high efficiency. - Abstract: Herein, we report a novel photocathode for the water splitting reaction. The electrochemical deposition of Cu{sub 2}O particles on boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes and the subsequent decoration with NiO nanoparticles by a dip coating method to act as co-catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction is described. The morphology analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that Cu{sub 2}O particles are cubic and decorated sporadically with NiO nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the electronic interaction at the interface between Cu{sub 2}O and NiO through a binding energy shift of the main Cu 2p peak. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of NiO-Cu{sub 2}O/BDD showed a much higher current density (−0.33 mA/cm{sup 2}) and photoconversion efficiency (0.28%) compared to the unmodified Cu{sub 2}O/BDD electrode, which are only −0.12 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.06%, respectively. The enhancement in PEC performance is attributable to the synergy of NiO as an electron conduction mediator leading to the enhanced charge separation and transfer to the reaction interface for hydrogen evolution as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and charge carrier density calculation. Stability tests showed that the NiO nanoparticles loading content on Cu{sub 2}O surface is a crucial parameter in this regard.

  20. Shape and catalytic mechanism of RuO{sub 2} particles at CO oxidation reaction conditions. First-principles based multi-scale modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, Karsten [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie

    2016-11-01

    For model catalyst studies on low-index single-crystal surfaces close agreement between detailed measurements and quantitative microkinetic modeling can increasingly be achieved. However, for 'real' catalyst particles, such structure-morphology-activity relationships are only scarcely established. This is prototypically reflected by the situation for RuO{sub 2}, as a most active catalyst for CO oxidation. Here, existing first-principles kinetic modeling is restricted to just one facet, namely the RuO{sub 2}(110) surface, which is not able to fully account for activity data obtained from polycrystalline RuO{sub 2} powder catalysts. The overarching objective of this project was correspondingly to close this gap and demonstrate that similarly close agreement as for individual single-crystal model catalysts can also be achieved for catalyst particles. Specifically, we addressed experiments where an intact RuO{sub 2} bulk structure is conserved, and establish the atomic-scale structure and reactivity of other RuO{sub 2} low-index facets under the gas-phase conditions characteristic for catalytic CO oxidation.

  1. Influence of Ca amount on the synthesis of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B particles in reduction–diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Qiang [Powder and Ceramics Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Advanced Materials, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongsoo, E-mail: dskim@kims.re.kr [Powder and Ceramics Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chuljin [Powder and Ceramics Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B alloy particles with high coercivity of more than 10 kOe were successfully synthesized by adjusting the amount of Calcium (Ca) in reduction–diffusion (R–D) process. Calcium oxide (CaO) and unreacted Ca remained after R–D process in particles prepared by heat treatment in Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) atmosphere at previous step. In the ratio of 0.4 of Ca to powders (Ca/powders, wt%), residual Ca was not detected from X-ray diffraction pattern. On the other hand, Ca appeared above the ratio of 1.0 and below the ratio of 0.2, amount of Ca was not enough to reduce Nd oxide. Moreover, excess Ca affected magnetic property of final products obtained after washing, because residual Ca gave rise to evolution of H{sub 2} gas during disintegration with water and it led to the formation of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}BH{sub x} (x=1–5). Finally, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnetic particles were synthesized after washing in de-ionized water with a mean size of 2 μm and their maximum energy product showed 15.5 MGOe. - Highlights: • We employ spray drying for the preparation of precursor powders. • Critical amount of Ca for the reduction of Nd-oxides is revealed quantitatively. • The formation of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}BH{sub x} (x=1–5) occur in the Ca to powder ratio above 2.0. • Final products after washing and drying show more than 10 MGOe of (BH){sub max}. • We propose the optimum amount of Ca in reduction–diffusion process.

  2. Effect of ball milling and dynamic compaction on magnetic properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Co(P) composite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, E. A. [Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Krasnoyarsk Institute of Railways Transport, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kuzovnikova, L. A. [Krasnoyarsk Institute of Railways Transport, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Iskhakov, R. S., E-mail: rauf@iph.krasn.ru; Eremin, E. V. [Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Bukaemskiy, A. A. [Institut fur Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Nemtsev, I. V. [Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-07

    The evolution of the magnetic properties of composite Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Co(P) particles during ball milling and dynamic compaction is investigated. To prepare starting composite particles, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were coated with a Co{sub 95}P{sub 5} shell by electroless plating. The magnetic and structural properties of the composite particles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and the use of the Physical Property Measurement System. The use of composite core-shell particles as starting powder for mechanoactivation allows to decrease treatment duration to 1 h and to produce a more homogeneous bulk sample than in the case of the mixture of Co and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders. The magnetic properties of the milled composite particles are correlated with changes in the microstructure. Reduction in grain size of Co during milling leads to an increase of the volume fraction of superparamagnetic particles and to a decrease of the saturation magnetization. The local magnetic anisotropy field depends on the amount of hcp-Co phase in sample. The anisotropy field value decreases from 8.4 kOe to 3.8 kOe with an increase in milling duration up to 75 min. The regimes of dynamic compaction were selected so that the magnetic characteristics—saturation magnetization and coercive field—remained unchanged.

  3. Production and characterization of submicron hematite (α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kırcı, Burak; Ebin, Burçak; Gürmen, Sebahattin [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-12-16

    The ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method has been used to prepare submicron hematite (α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles using two different industrial pickling solutions of iron chloride (41 g/L FeCl{sub 2} and 54 g/L FeCl{sub 3}) Particles were obtained by thermal decomposition of generated aerosols from precursor solutions using 1.7 MHz ultrasonic atomizer. Reaction temperature was set up at 800 °C and aerosol droplets were carried into the heated zone by 0.7 L/min air flow rate. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies were used to determine the crystal structure and crystallite size of the particles. Results indicate that patterns correspond to hematite phase with rhombohedral crystal structure (space group: R3c). The crystallite sizes of particles prepared from FeCl{sub 2} and FeCl{sub 3} solutions that were calculated from Scherrer equation are 59 and 33 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) investigations give detailed information about particle size, morphology and composition. SEM micrographs show that hematite nanoparticles aggregate and formed spherical secondary particles in submicron range.

  4. A UV pre-ionized dual-wavelength short-pulse high-power CO{sub 2} laser facility for laser particle acceleration research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahim, N A; Mouris, J F; Davis, R W

    1994-12-01

    In this report we describe the Chalk River dual-wavelength, short-pulse, single-mode, high-power CO{sub 2} laser facility for research in laser particle acceleration and CANDU materials modifications. The facility is designed and built around UV-preionized transversely-excited atmospheric-pressure (TEA) Lumonics CO{sub 2} laser discharge modules. Peak focussed power densities of up to 2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} in 500 ps pulses have been obtained. (author). 10 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Comparative study of nano-sized particles CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} effects on superconducting properties of Y-123 and Y-358

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slimani, Y.; Hannachi, E.; Ben Salem, M.K.; Hamrita, A. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials-Structures and Properties, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Varilci, A. [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280 Bolu (Turkey); Dachraoui, W. [CINaM-CNRS, Luminy Campus, 13288 Marseille (France); Ben Salem, M., E-mail: salemwiem2005@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Physics of Materials-Structures and Properties, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Ben Azzouz, F. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials-Structures and Properties, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); College of Sciences-Girls, Department of Physics, University of Dammam (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-10-01

    The effects of nano-sized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles (10 nm) addition on the structural and the normal state resistivity of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (noted Y-123) and Y{sub 3}Ba{sub 5}Cu{sub 8}O{sub 18} (noted Y-358) polycrystalline were systematically studied. Samples were synthesized in oxygen atmosphere using a standard solid state reaction technique by adding CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} up to 2 wt%. Phases, microstructure and superconductivity have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical measurements ρ(T). XRD results reveal that the lattice parameters change for both Y-123 and Y-358 phases. SEM observations reveal that the grain size is reduced with increasing the content of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The measurements for the resistivity dependence of temperature show that the depression in superconducting temperature is more pronounced for CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} addition in Y-358 compound than in Y-123 one. These results may be attributed to the existence of much more disorder due to a greater number of Cu sites to be substituted by Fe and Co in Y-358 compared to Y-123.

  6. Particles on surfaces of laser ablated Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, X.Y.; Zhu, S. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lowndes, D.H.; Warmack, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Pulsed laser deposition of Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films grown at heater temperature of 720 and 800 C on SrTiO{sub 3} and MgO substrates with thickness ranging from a nominal 5 unit cells to 200 nm were studied by STM and SEM. Size and density of particles present in the films were found to depend on film thickness, growth temperature and substrate. STM images indicate a correlation between film growth mode and particle density: the onset of big particles comes after the growth mode changes from layer-like to island growth.

  7. Monodisperse and core-shell structured SiO{sub 2}-Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Eu, Tb, Dy, Sm, Er, Ho, and Tm) spherical particles: A facile synthesis and luminescent properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhe, E-mail: xuzh056@163.com [College of Applied Chemistry, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 100142 (China); Feng, Bin [China National Aviation Fuel Group Corporation, Planning and Development Department, Beijing 100088 (China); Bian, Shasha; Liu, Tao; Wang, Mingli; Gao, Yu; Sun, Di; Gao, Xin [College of Applied Chemistry, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 100142 (China); Sun, Yaguang, E-mail: yaguangsun@yahoo.com.cn [College of Applied Chemistry, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 100142 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The core-shell structured SiO{sub 2}-Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} particles were realized by coating the Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} phosphors onto the surface of non-aggregated, monodisperse and spherical SiO{sub 2} particles by the Pechini sol-gel method. The as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photolumiminescence (PL), and low-voltage cathodoluminescence (CL). The results indicate that the 800 Degree-Sign C annealed sample consists of crystalline Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} shells and amorphous SiO{sub 2} cores, in spherical shape with a narrow size distribution. The as-obtained particles show strong light emission with different colors corresponding to different Ln{sup 3+} ions under ultraviolet-visible light excitation and low-voltage electron beams excitation, which have potential applications in fluorescent lamps and field emission displays. - Graphical Abstract: Representative SEM and TEM images of the core-shell structured SiO{sub 2}-Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} particles; CIE chromaticity diagram showing the emission colors for SiO{sub 2}-Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+}; Multicolor emissions of SiO{sub 2}-Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ln{sup 3+} particles. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The core-shell particles were realized by coating the phosphors onto the surface of SiO{sub 2} particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample consists of crystalline Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} shells and amorphous SiO{sub 2} cores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The particles show different light emission colors corresponding to Ln{sup 3+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They have potential applications in fluorescent lamps and field emission displays.

  8. Self-healing properties of TiO{sub 2} particle-polymer composite coatings for protection of aluminum alloys against corrosion in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuki, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-hiroshima (Japan); Urushihara, W.; Kinugasa, J. [Materials Research Laboratory, KOBE STEEL, LTD., Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Sugano, K. [Machinery and Engineering Company, KOBE STEEL, LTD., Shinhama, Arai, Takasago, Hyogo (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    TiO{sub 2} particle-polymer composite coatings were applied to the surface of a 5083 aluminum alloy. After using a knife to create an artificial defect, polarization resistance was monitored in artificial seawater at a temperature of 30 C. The polarization resistance of the specimen coated with the composite polymer containing 3 vol% TiO{sub 2} particles increased significantly over time, suggesting that the composite coating had self-healing properties. A carbon-containing 2-{mu}m thick film was found on the coated aluminum substrate at the site of the artificial defect. The formation of the film was related to the dissolution of bisphenol A (BPA), which is a chemical precursor of the polymer coating that behaved as an inhibiting agent. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Electron microscopy characterization of mechanically alloyed and hot consolidates Cu-Cr3C<sub>2 particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, M.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically alloyed copper-ceramic composites have been obtained with the purpose of studying their use as copper-based material for electrical equipment. For high-temperature applications, dispersion-strengthened copper alloys are attractive due to their excellent combination of thermal and electrical conductivity, mechanical strength retention and microstructural stability. In this work, powder mixtures of pure copper with 2 vol % Cr3C<sub>2, milled during 4, 6, 10, 12 and 15 h in a high-energy planetary balls mill under argon atmosphere, were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing, applying a pressure of 100 MPa at 1073 K for two hours, to obtain materials with a fine microstructure. The Cu-Cr3C<sub>2 alloys were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, electron microprobe (EPMA and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Mechanical properties and electrical conductivity were also studied. The average tensile strength and electrical conductivity were found to be 500 MPa and 50 % IACS, respectively. The Cr3C<sub>2 ceramics show good stability during hot consolidation. Contributing to a further strengthening of the alloy during the hot consolidation, uniformly-distributed Fe-carbide particles of nanometric size precipitated in the copper matrix. Fe-Cr oxycarbides formed in the interphase between Cr3C<sub>2 particles and the copper matrix cause the low ductility of Cu-Cr3C<sub>2 alloys. Said particles are attributed to impurities/contamination generated from the milling process.

    Se obtuvieron aleaciones compuestas de Cu-Cr3C<sub>2, aleadas mecánicamente, para estudiar futuras aplicaciones en componentes eléctricos. A altas temperaturas, las aleaciones de base cobre reforzadas por dispersión, son atractivas por su excelente conductividad térmica y eléctrica, propiedades mecánicas y estabilidad microstructural. En este estudio

  10. The effect of sintering time on synthesis of in situ submicron {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles by the exothermic reactions of CuO particles in molten pure Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikici, Burak, E-mail: burakdikici@yyu.edu.tr [Yuzuncu Yil University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 65080 Van (Turkey); Gavgali, Mehmet [Ataturk University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were prepared successfully by means of hot pressing method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sintering time of the Al-CuO system effect the reaction rate and formation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in sintering time accelerates formation of submicron in situ {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness of the sintered composite for 30 min at 1000 Degree-Sign C increased from 60 to 174 HV. - Abstract: In this study, in situ {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reinforcing particles have been successfully synthesised in an Al-Cu matrix alloy by means of the conventional Hot Pressing (HP) method. The effect of sintering time on the forming of the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase at 1000 Degree-Sign C was investigated using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The sintered composites contained thermodynamically stable {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and {theta}-Al{sub 2}Cu eutectic phases, which were embedded in the Al-Cu matrix. The in situ {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were generally spherical and their mean size was observed to be less than 0.5 {mu}m. The results showed that sintering time influences not only the reaction rate of copper and the formation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Also, an increase in the sintering time accelerates the formation of submicron in situ {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and decreases the quantity of {theta}-Al{sub 2}Cu intermetallic phase in the liquid aluminium. Additionally, sintering of composite for 30 min at 1000 Degree-Sign C increased the hardness from 60 to 174 HV.

  11. Size-dependent photodegradation of CdS particles deposited onto TiO{sub 2} mesoporous films by SILAR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rasin; Will, Geoffrey; Bell, John; Wang Hongxia, E-mail: hx.wang@qut.edu.au [Queensland University of Technology, School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    The particle size, size distribution and photostability of CdS nanoparticles incorporated onto mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). High-resolution TEM indicated that the synthesized CdS particles were hexagonal phase and the particle sizes were less than 5 nm for up to nine SILAR deposition cycles. Quantum size effect was found with the CdS-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films prepared with up to nine SILAR cycles. The band gap of CdS nanoparticles decreased from 2.65 to 2.37 eV with the increase of the SILAR cycles from 1 to 11. The investigation of the stability of the CdS/TiO{sub 2} films in air under illumination (440.6 {mu}W/cm{sup 2}) showed that the photodegradation rate was up to 85 % per day for the sample prepared with three SILAR cycles. XPS analysis indicated that the photodegradation was due to the oxidation of CdS, leading to the transformation from sulphide to sulphate (CdSO{sub 4}). Furthermore, the degradation rate was strongly dependent upon the particle size of CdS. Smaller particles showed faster degradation rate. The size-dependent photo-induced oxidization was rationalized with the variation of size-dependent distribution of surface atoms of CdS particles. Molecular dynamics-based theoretical calculation has indicated that the surface sulphide anion of a large CdS particle such as CdS made with 11 cycles (CdS Multiplication-Sign 11, average particle size = 5.6 nm) accounts for 9.6 % of the material whereas this value is increased to 19.2 % for (CdS Multiplication-Sign 3)-based smaller particles (average particle size = 2.7 nm). The photostability of CdS nanoparticles was significantly enhanced when coated with ZnS particles deposited with four SILAR cycles. The growth mechanism of ZnS upon CdS nanoparticles was discussed.

  12. Particle size, spin wave and surface effects on magnetic properties of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslibeiki, B., E-mail: b.aslibeiki@tabrizu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Varvaro, G.; Peddis, D. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, National Research Council, Monterotondo Scalo, Roma 00015 (Italy); Kameli, P. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Magnesium ferrite, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, nanoparticles with a mean diameter varying from ∼6 to ∼17 nm were successfully synthesized using a simple thermal decomposition method at different annealing temperatures ranging in between 400 and 600 °C. Pure spinel ferrite nanoparticles were obtained at temperatures lower than 500 °C, while the presence of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) impurities was observed at higher temperatures. Single-phase samples show a superparamagnetic behavior at 300 K, the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) becoming larger with the increase of particles size. The temperature dependence of M{sub s} was explained in terms of surface spin-canting as well as spin wave excitations in the core. Using a modified Bloch law, [M{sub s}(T)=M{sub s}(0)(1−βT{sup α})], we observed a size dependent behavior of the Bloch constant β and the exponent α, whose values increase and decrease, respectively, as the particle size reduces. - Highlights: • MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized using a thermal decomposition method. • Pure ferrite nanoparticles were obtained at temperatures lower than 500 °C. • Samples show a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperatures. • Spin wave excitations were studied using a modified Bloch law.

  13. Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} particle distribution in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y} grains of melt growth processed YBCO oxides; Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5}-Partikelverteilung in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y}-Koernern durch das Melt-Growth-Verfahren verarbeiteter YBCO-Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan-Joong; Park, Soon-Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Neutron Science Div.; Park, Hai-Woong [Korea Univ. of Technology and Education, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of). College of Energy, Materials and Chemical Engineering

    2013-02-01

    Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (Y211) particle distribution within YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y} (Y123) grains of YBCO samples melt growth (MG) processed was examined. To understand the processing variables on the Y211 distribution, a cooling rate (R{sub C}=1 K/h to R{sub C}=20 K/h) through a peritectic temperature (T{sub p} = 1010 C), a precursor powder size and composition were changed. Two different Y211 distributions (a linear x-like track and planar butterfly-like pattern) were observed, depending on the processing variables. The linear x-like Y211 tracks were observed in the Y123 samples prepared using a stoichiometric Y123 precursor, whereas the planar butterfly-like Y211 patterns were observed in the Y{sub 1.8}Ba{sub 2.4}Cu{sub 3.4}O{sub 7-d} (Y1.8) samples prepared using an Y211-excess composition precursor. The track and planar Y211 patterns were clearer at lower R{sub C} (slower growth rate of Y123 grains) and for the smaller Y211 particles. In contrast, the random Y211 distribution was dominant at the higher R{sub C} and for the larger Y211 particles. The Y211 distribution patterns in the Y123 grains were explained in terms of the interfacial energy difference among growing Y123 fronts. (orig.)

  14. Thermal decomposition of (UO{sub 2})O{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O: Influence on structure, microstructure and hydrofluorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R. [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 - UCCS - Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Hall de Recherche de Pierrelatte, AREVA NC, BP 16, 26701 Pierrelatte (France); Rivenet, M., E-mail: murielle.rivenet@ensc-lille.fr [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 - UCCS - Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Berrier, E. [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 - UCCS - Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France); Waele, I. de [Université de Lille, CNRS, UMR 8516 – LASIR - Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman, F-59000 Lille (France); Arab, M.; Amaraggi, D.; Morel, B. [Hall de Recherche de Pierrelatte, AREVA NC, BP 16, 26701 Pierrelatte (France); Abraham, F. [Univ. Lille, CNRS, Centrale Lille, ENSCL, Univ. Artois, UMR 8181 - UCCS - Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2017-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of uranyl peroxide tetrahydrate, (UO{sub 2})O{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, was studied by combining high temperature powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analyses and spectroscopic techniques (Raman, IR and {sup 1}H NMR). In situ analyses reveal that intermediates and final uranium oxides obtained upon heating are different from that obtained after cooling at room temperature and that the uranyl precursor used to synthesize (UO{sub 2})O{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, sulfate or nitrate, has a strong influence on the peroxide thermal behavior and morphology. The decomposition of (UO{sub 2})O{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O ex sulfate is pseudomorphic and leads to needle-like shaped particles of metastudtite, (UO{sub 2})O{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, and UO{sub 3-x}(OH){sub 2x}·zH{sub 2}O, an amorphous phase found in air in the following of (UO{sub 2})O{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} dehydration. (UO{sub 2})O{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O and the compounds resulting from its thermal decomposition are very reactive towards hydrofluorination as long as their needle-like morphology is kept.

  15. CoPt and FePt magnetic alloys grown on van der Waals WSe{sub 2}(0001) surfaces and on arrays of SiO{sub 2} spherical particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Denys

    2008-06-06

    regard an interesting approach, which combines non-magnetic spherical nanoparticle self-assembly with defined magnetic properties provided by a magnetic film, deposited onto the particles, was recently proposed. This enables an elegant possibility of creating magnetic nanostructure arrays with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy provided by FePt and CoPt alloys, which is required for high thermal stability. The investigation of the magnetic and structural properties of these alloys grown on arrays of amorphous SiO{sub 2} nanospheres is thereafter discussed. (orig.)

  16. Projection of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NH{sub 3} and particle emissions - 2010-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, O -K; Plejdrup, M; Winther, M; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M; Albrektsen, R; Nielsen, M; Fauser, P; Hoffmann, L; Hjelgaard, K; Gyldenkaerne, S

    2012-01-15

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, NH{sub 3}, NMVOC, TSP, PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 25} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Agency. The emission factors refer either to international guidelines or are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (Author)

  17. Effects of hydrazine on the solvothermal synthesis of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}CdSnSe{sub 4} nanocrystals for particle-based deposition of films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ming-Hung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Fu, Yaw-Shyan, E-mail: ysfu@mail.nutn.edu.tw [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan 700 (China); Shih, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Chun-Cheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Guo, Tzung-Fang [Department of Photonics, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Lin, Wen-Tai, E-mail: wtlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The effects of hydrazine on the synthesis of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) and Cu{sub 2}CdSnSe{sub 4} (CCTSe) nanocrystals in an autoclave as a function of temperature and time were explored. On heating at 190 °C for 24-72 h, pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals could readily grow in the hydrazine-added solution, while in the hydrazine-free solution the intermediate phases such as ZnSe, Cu{sub 2}Se, and Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}, and Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} and CdSe associated with the CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals grew, respectively. This result reveals that hydrazine can speed up the synthesis of pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals via a solvothermal process. The mechanisms for the hydrazine-enhanced growth of CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were discussed. The pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were subsequently fabricated to the smooth films by spin coating without further annealing in selenium atmosphere. This processing may be beneficial to the fabrication of the absorber layer for solar cells and thermoelectric devices. - Highlights: • Hydrazine enhances the growth of pure Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}CdSnSe{sub 4} nanocrystals. • The nanocrystals can be fabricated to films by spin coating without annealing. • This solvothermal processing is promising for the fabrication of thin film devices.

  18. Influence of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} particle sizes in the mechanical and dielectric properties of vulcanized rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Neudys; Custal, Maria del Angels; Rodriguez, Daniel [Sicame Company, Barcelona (Spain); Riba, Jordi-Roger [Departament d' Enginyeria Eletrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Terrasssa (Spain); Armelin, Elaine, E-mail: elaine.armelin@upc.edu [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-07-15

    The novelty of the present study relies on the straightforward sonication of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} and incorporation to a complex formulation of latex, with other several organic-inorganic additives that influences the cross-linking reactions. The new elastomer with particles carefully sonicated exhibit improved electrical and mechanical properties. Strong interaction among the nanoparticles and the polymer amorphous phase has been proved by means of FTIR, SEM and XRD analyses. The synergistic effect of hybrid fillers with nanometric dimensions can be used to design high-performance natural rubber nanocomposites with enhanced electrical resistance and good cross-linking degree. (author)

  19. Efficiency of Cu{sub 2}O/BiVO{sub 4} particles prepared with a new soft procedure on the degradation of dyes under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera-Ruiz, Eduardo [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Ingeniería Aeronáutica, Carretera a Salinas Victoria, Km 2.3, 66600 Apodaca, NL (Mexico); García-Pérez, Ulises M., E-mail: ulisesma.garcia@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Ingeniería Aeronáutica, Carretera a Salinas Victoria, Km 2.3, 66600 Apodaca, NL (Mexico); Garza-Galván, María de la; Zambrano-Robledo, Patricia; Bermúdez-Reyes, Bárbara [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Centro de Investigación e Innovación en Ingeniería Aeronáutica, Carretera a Salinas Victoria, Km 2.3, 66600 Apodaca, NL (Mexico); and others

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}O/BiVO{sub 4} p–n heterojunctions were synthesized by a simple impregnation method. • The photocatalytic performance was evaluated using a LED lamp as visible source. • The composite with 1 wt.% of Cu{sub 2}O exhibits the best visible-light-activity. • A mechanism for the carriers transfer is proposed. • Factors as pH and O{sub 2} were found to influence the degradation rate. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}O/BiVO{sub 4} composites with different concentrations of Cu{sub 2}O were synthesized by a simple impregnation method at 200 °C under N{sub 2} atmosphere for 4 h. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflection absorption and vis photoluminescence. The morphology of the as-synthesized composites with different weight ratios of Cu{sub 2}O is composed by quasi-spherical and dendrite-like particles. The photocatalytic performance of the Cu{sub 2}O/BiVO{sub 4} composites was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange solutions under visible-LED irradiation. The results obtained show that the photocatalytic behavior of the p–n heterojunction Cu{sub 2}O/BiVO{sub 4} composites was better than pure Cu{sub 2}O and BiVO{sub 4}. The variation of the reaction parameters, such as solution pH and presence of O{sub 2}, improved the photocatalytic performance of Cu{sub 2}O/BiVO{sub 4} composite. Meanwhile, a possible mechanism for methyl orange photocatalytic degradation over Cu{sub 2}O/BiVO{sub 4} photocatalysts was proposed. The chemical stability and reusability of Cu{sub 2}O/BiVO{sub 4} powders were also investigated.

  20. Superparamagnetism and spin-glass like state for the MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-particles synthesized by the thermal decomposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Ruorui [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang Yue, E-mail: yue-zhang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Department of Electric Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu Wei [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xiong Rui [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Shi Jing [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); International Center for Material Physics, Shen Yang 110015 (China)

    2012-08-15

    MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-particles with an average size of about 7 nm were synthesized by the thermal decomposition method. Based on the magnetic hysteresis loops measured at different temperatures the temperature-dependent saturation magnetization (M{sub S}) and coercivity (H{sub C}) are determined. It is shown that above 20 K the temperature-dependence of the M{sub S} and H{sub C} indicates the magnetic behaviors in the single-domain nano-particles, while below 20 K, the change of the M{sub S} and H{sub C} indicates the freezing of the spin-glass like state on the surfaces. By measuring the magnetization-temperature (M-T) curves under the zero-field-cooling (ZFC) and field-cooling procedures at different applied fields, superparamagnetism behavior is also studied. Even though in the ZFC M-T curves peaks can be observed below 160 K, superparamagnetism does not appear until the temperature goes above 300 K, which is related with the strong inter-particle interaction. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-particles with size of 7 nm were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface spin-glass like state is frozen below 20 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The peaks in ZFC magnetization-temperature curves are observed below 160 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The inter-particle interaction inhibits the superparamagnetism at room temperature.

  1. Electrical conductivity of oxides from molten state to glassy. Effect on the incorporation of RuO{sub 2} particles; Conductivite electrique des verres et fontes d'oxides. Effets de l'incorporation de particules RuO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonnet, C

    2004-07-01

    This study concerns the electrical conductivity of oxides from molten state to glassy state and, in particular, the effect of the incorporation of RuO{sub 2} particles in the context of vitrification of radioactive waste. The material of interest in the nuclear field is basically a viscous or vitreous borosilicate containing a dispersion of RuO{sub 2} microcrystals. A very simple model of this heterogeneous material has been studied in particular (SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, RuO{sub 2}). An original method of impedance measurement in the liquid at high temperature yields reliable electrical conductivity values over a temperature range covering the liquid and vitreous phases of the borosilicates studied. In the borosilicate matrix, alkaline transport is mainly responsible for the ionic conduction. The temperature dependence of the conductivity may thus be represented by an equation combining a VFT law and an Arrhenius law to represent the electrical conductivity above and below T{sub g}. Beyond a critical volume fraction V{sub c} {approx} 0.01 of RuO{sub 2}, an electronic contribution is added to the ionic contribution of the matrix and the electrical conductivity increases significantly with the RuO{sub 2} content. This effect is described in terms of electrical percolation of the particle network. An electronic mechanism by tunnel transfer between particles is demonstrated. A mathematical model is developed to describe this mechanism in the solid composite. Beyond T{sub g}, conduction by the tunnel effect persists and the partial solubilization of RuO{sub 2} appears to be mainly responsible for the significant increase in electronic conductivity with the temperature. (author)

  2. Synthesis, microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}@SiO{sub 2} core–shell particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} soft magnetic composite core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian, E-mail: snove418562@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Fan, Xi’an, E-mail: groupfxa@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Wu, Zhaoyang, E-mail: wustwuzhaoyang@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Li, Guangqiang [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}@SiO{sub 2} core–shell particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} soft magnetic composite core have been synthesized via a modified stöber method combined with following high temperature sintering process. Most of conductive Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3} particles could be uniformly coated by insulating SiO{sub 2} using the modified stöber method. The Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}@SiO{sub 2} core–shell particles exhibited good soft magnetic properties with low coercivity and high saturation magnetization. The reaction 4Al+3SiO{sub 2}=2α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}+3Si took place during the sintering process. As a result the new Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite was formed. The Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite core displayed more excellent soft magnetic properties, better frequency stability at high frequencies, much higher electrical resistivity and lower core loss than the pure Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3} core. The method of introducing insulating layers surrounding magnetic particles provides a promising route to develop new and high compact soft magnetic materials with good magnetic and electric properties. - Graphical abstract: In Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite, Fe{sub 3}Si phases are separated by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers and the eddy currents are confined in Fe{sub 3}Si phases, thus increasing resistivity and reducing core loss. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}@SiO{sub 2} core–shell particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cores were prepared. • Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3} particles could be uniformly coated by nano-sized SiO{sub 2} clusters. • Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}@SiO{sub 2} particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cores showed good soft magnetic properties. • Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} had lower core loss and better frequency stability than Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3} cores.

  3. Influence on nickel particle size on the hydrodeoxygenation of phenol over Ni/SiO<sub>2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter M.; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Jensen, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of phenol over nickel nano-particles of different size (5-22 nm) supported on SiO2 has been investigated in a batch reactor at 275 °C and 100 bar. Deoxygenation was only observed as a consecutive step of initial hydrogenation of phenol at the given conditions. Both the hy...

  4. Characterization investigations during mechanical alloying and sintering of Ni-W solid solution alloys dispersed with WC and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genc, Aziz, E-mail: agenc@itu.edu.t [Particulate Materials Laboratories, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Luetfi Ovecoglu, M. [Particulate Materials Laboratories, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Characterization investigations on the Ni-W solid solution alloys fabricated via mechanical alloying and the evolution of the properties of the powders with increasing MA durations. {yields} Reinforcement of the selected Ni-W powders with WC and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and further MA together for 12 h. {yields} There is no reported literature on the development and characterization of Ni-W solid solution alloys matrix composites fabricated via MA. {yields} Sintering of the developed composites and the characterization investigations of the sintered samples. {yields} Identification of new 'pomegranate-like' structures in the bulk of the samples. - Abstract: Blended elemental Ni-30 wt.% W powders were mechanically alloyed (MA'd) for 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h and 48 h in a Spex mixer/mill at room temperature in order to investigate the effects of MA duration on the solubility of W in Ni and the grain size, hardness and particle size. Microstructural and phase characterizations of the MA'd powders were carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). On the basis of achieved saturation on the solid solubility, hardness and particle size, the Ni-30 wt.% W powders MA'd for 48 h were chosen as the matrix which was reinforced with different amounts of WC and/or with 1 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. The reinforced powders were further MA'd for 12 h. The MA'd powders were sintered at 1300 {sup o}C for 1 h under Ar and H{sub 2} gas flowing conditions. Microstructural characterizations of the sintered samples were conducted via XRD and SEM. Sintered densities were measured by using the Archimedes' method. Vickers microhardness tests were performed on both MA'd powders and the sintered samples. Sliding wear experiments were done in order to investigate wear behaviors of the sintered samples.

  5. Synthesis of metals chalcogenides nano-particles from H{sub 2}X (X=S, Se, Te) produced electrochemically; Synthese de nanoparticules de chalcogenures de metaux a partir de H{sub 2}X (X=S, Se, Te) produit electrochimiquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastide, S.; Tena-Zaera, R.; Alleno, E.; Godart, C.; Levy-Clement, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, 94 - Thiais (France); Hodes, G. [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, an electrochemical method to produce H{sub 2}X (X=S, Se, Te) hydrides in a controlled way (without being able to store them) and to transfer them directly in the synthesis reactor has been perfected. By this method, the use of H{sub 2}Te has been possible. The method uses the reduction of the elementary chalcogenide in acid medium. The Te being conductor, it can be directly used as electrode, on the other hand S and Se are insulators. Nevertheless, graphite-S or Se conducing composite electrodes can also be used. When the electrolyte composition (pH, salts presence) is well adjusted, the essential of the cathodic current is consumed by the chalcogenide reduction (low evolution of H{sub 2}) with faradic yields of about 100% for H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}Se and 40% for HeTe. The use of H{sub 2}X allows the synthesis of nano-particles of metals chalcogenides directly by reaction with dissolved metallic salts in aqueous or organic medium and precipitation. Thus it has been possible to prepare all the CdX compounds under the form of nano-particles of diameter between 3 and 5 nm by bubbling of the gaseous hydrides in aqueous acetate solutions of Cd. In producing concomitantly H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}Se, nano-particles of solid solutions CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} have been synthesized too. (O.M.)

  6. Effect of annealing on particle size, microstructure and gas sensing properties of Mn substituted CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, E. Ranjith, E-mail: ranjueaswar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641048, Tamil Nadu (India); Kamzin, A.S. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Janani, K. [Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-11-01

    Microstructure, morphological and gas sensor studies of Mn substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by a simple evaporation method and auto- combustion method. The influence of heat treatment on phase and particle size of spinel ferrite nanoparticles were determined by X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The XRD study reveals that the lattice constant and crystallite size of the samples increases with the increase of annealing temperature. Last one was confirmed by Mossbauer data. The lowest size of particles of MnCoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (~3 nm) is obtained by auto combustion method. The spherical shaped nanoparticles are recorded by TEM. Furthermore, conductance response of Mn–Co ferrite nanomaterial was measured by exposing the material to reducing gas like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) which showed a sensor response of ~0.19 at an optimum operating temperature of 250 °C. - Highlights: • ~3 nm sized particles were prepared by auto combustion method. • Mossbauer study was analyzed for different annealed samples. • The size of the particles increased with increasing annealing temperature.

  7. Magnetic resonance and antiresonance in microwave transmission through nanocomposites with Fe{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} and FeNi{sub 3} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinkevich, A.B. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics Ural Branch of RAS, 18 S.Kovalevskaya St, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Samoylovich, M.I. [OAO TsNITI “TEKHNOMASH”, 4 Ivana Franko St, Moscow 121108 (Russian Federation); Nemytova, O.V., E-mail: mif-83@mail.ru [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics Ural Branch of RAS, 18 S.Kovalevskaya St, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, E.A. [Nizhny Tagil branch of the Ekaterinburg state social-pedagogical university, 57 Krasnogvardeyskaya St, Nizhny Tagil 622031 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    Investigation of magnetic properties and microwave resonance phenomena in nanocomposites based on opal matrices containing the particles of intermetallide of Fe{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} and FeNi{sub 3} is carried out. The interactions which lead to the resonance changes of transmission and reflection coefficients are determined. Electromagnetic properties are measured in the millimeter frequency range. Special attention is paid to comparison between static and dynamic magnetic properties of nanocomposites. Frequency dependences of magnitude of lines of resonance features are obtained. Spectra of resonance and antiresonance are studied. The conditions when the magnetic antiresonance is observed are clarified. The X-ray phase analysis of the nanocomposites is performed and their structure is studied.

  8. Measurement and Evaluation of Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Micrometer - Sized SiO{sub 2} Particle - Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyu Sang; Kang, Hee Yong; Lee, Gyo Woo [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In this experimental study, the thermal stability values of micrometer-sized silica particle-reinforced epoxy composite specimens were evaluated by measuring their thermal expansion coefficients and Young's moduli. For all specimens used in this study (from the baseline specimen to that containing 70 wt% silica filler), the thermal expansion coefficients and Young's moduli were gradually reduced down to 25% and increased up to 51%, respectively. The results of the experiment were compared with those of certain empirical models. The experimental results of the measurement of thermal expansion coefficients corresponded well with those of Kerner's model, which considers the bulk and shear moduli of the matrix and silica filler. However, the results of the measurement of Young's moduli using the empirical Mori-Tanaka model were observed to match better with those of the experiment. The comparison of the results of the experiment with those of the empirical models demonstrated that a reliable model for measuring the thermal expansion coefficients and Young's moduli of composite specimens needs to consider certain property variations in the composites in addition to volume fraction changes in the filler and matrix.

  9. Influence of defects on sub-Å optical linewidths in Eu{sup 3+}: Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Lima, Karmel de [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 75005 Paris (France); Rocha Gonçalves, Rogéria [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900, CEP 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil (Brazil); Giaume, Domitille [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 75005 Paris (France); Ferrier, Alban, E-mail: alban.ferrier@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 75005 Paris (France); Goldner, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.goldner@chimie-paristech.fr [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 75005 Paris (France)

    2015-12-15

    Rare earth doped nanocrystals have been recently suggested as useful materials for applications in quantum information processing. To reach optical properties closer to bulk crystals ones, it is still necessary to reduce the defects that can arise in nanoscale structures. Here, we probe the defects level by monitoring the inhomogeneous broadening of the {sup 7}F{sub 0}→{sup 5}D{sub 0} transition in particles of 0.3% at% Eu{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We find that lines as narrow as 14 GHz (0.015 nm), a value comparable to single crystals, can be obtained in 150 nm particles calcinated at 1200 °C. The additional broadening observed for particles calcinated at lower temperature is attributed to defects inside crystallites and not to surface effects. A linear correlation is also observed between optical and Raman linewidths, suggesting that both processes are sensitive to the same defects. {sup 5}D{sub 0} excited state lifetimes are well described by a model based on an effective refractive index and we conclude that the defects causing the inhomogeneous broadening have no effect on the excited state population.

  10. The improvement of corrosion resistance of fluoropolymer coatings by SiO{sub 2}/poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate) nanocomposite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China); Song, R.G., E-mail: songrg@hotmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China); Li, X.W.; Guo, Y.Q.; Wang, C.; Jiang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • We first proposed the feasibility of organic-inorganic hybrid particles can be used to reduce free space of the fluoropolymer coatings. • By grafting poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate), nano-silica particles can be better dispersed in the fluoropolymer coatings system. • The coating-substrates bound strength could be obviously seen in the FESEM cross-section images. • The effects of the corrosion resistance of fluoropolymer-coated steel were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and EIS. • Using models to analysis the anticorrosion mechanism of nanocomposite coatings. - Abstract: The effects of nano-silica particles on the anticorrosion properties of fluoropolymer coatings on mild steel have been investigated in this paper. In order to enhance the dispersibility of nano-silica in fluoropolymer coatings, we treated the surface of nano-silica with poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate) (P(St-BA)). The surface grafting of P(St-BA) on the nanoparticles were detected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface of nanocomposite coatings and the coating-substrates bond texture were detected by FE-SEM. We also used energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to analyze whether the nanocomposite particles were added into the fluoropolymer coatings. In addition, the influences of various nanoparticles on the corrosion resistance of fluoropolymer-coated steel were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results shown that nanocomposite particles can be dispersed better in fluoropolymer coatings, and the electrochemical results clearly shown the improvement of the protective properties of the nanocomposite coatings when 4 wt.% SiO{sub 2}/P(St-BA) was added to the fluoropolymer coatings.

  11. Improvement of tribological properties of magnetic tape by silica coating onto the Co-{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} fine particles; Kobaruto hichakugata {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} jisei biryushi no shisshiki shirika hyomen shori ni yoru jikitepu no suberi tokusei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kazuyuki; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Morii, Hiroko [Toda Kogyo Corporation, Hiroshima (Japan). R and D Center

    1999-01-10

    In order to improve the tribological properties of magnetic tape with Co-{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} fine particles against a magnetic head, the silica coating onto the surface of Co-{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in aqueous slurry is investigated experimentally, and the kinetic friction coefficient of magnetic tapes prepared using the coated particles is measured. By this silica coating, the amount of myristic acid absorbed on the Co-{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles tends to decrease and the kinetic friction coefficient of the magnetic tapes can be reduced from 0.4 to 0.2 because of the increase of the effective amount of myristic acid working as the lubricant when the magnetic tape is moving. Since the magnetic properties and the dispersibility of Co-{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} pigment in the magnetic lacquer are not degraded by the silica coating, this coating method is expected to result in magnetic recording media with both good magnetic and low friction properties. (author)

  12. Enhanced thermoelectric properties in p-type Bi{sub 0.4}Sb{sub 1.6}Te{sub 3} alloy by combining incorporation and doping using multi-scale CuAlO{sub 2} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Zijun; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Zhenxing; Lu, Xiaofang; Wang, Lianjun [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai (China); Institute of Functional Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Qihao [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Jiang, Wan [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai (China); Institute of Functional Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen (China); Chen, Lidong [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2017-01-15

    Multi-scale CuAlO{sub 2} particles are introduced into the Bi{sub 0.4}Sb{sub 1.6}Te{sub 3} matrix to synergistically optimize the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and the lattice thermal conductivity. Cu element originating from fine CuAlO{sub 2} grains diffuses into the Bi{sub 0.4}Sb{sub 1.6}Te{sub 3} matrix and tunes the carrier concentration while the coarse CuAlO{sub 2} particles survive as the second phase within the matrix. The power factor is improved at the whole temperatures range due to the low-energy electron filtering effect on Seebeck coefficient and enhanced electrical transport property by mild Cu doping. Meanwhile, the remaining CuAlO{sub 2} inclusions give rise to more boundaries and newly built interfaces scattering of heat-carrying phonons, resulting in the reduced lattice thermal conductivity. Consequently, the maximum ZT is found to be enhanced by 150% arising from the multi-scale microstructure regulation when the CuAlO{sub 2} content reaches 0.6 vol.%. Not only that, but the ZT curves get flat in the whole temperature range after introducing the multi-scale CuAlO{sub 2} particles, which leads to a remarkable increase in the average ZT. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Influence of the size of MoS{sub 2} particles supported on alumina on the activity and the selectivity of hydro-treating reactions; Influence de la taille des particules de MoS{sub 2} supportees sur alumine sur l`activite et la selectivite des reactions d`hydrotraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, P.

    1998-01-14

    The influence of the size of molybdenum disulfide particles supported on alumina on hydro-desulfurization and hydrogenation reactions has been studied. Different methods have been used to modify the length and the stacking of MoS{sub 2} slabs. MoS{sub 2} slab length measured from Electron Microscopy is increased from 20 to 40 angstroms by increasing loading from 4 to 22 % pds in Mo. These catalysts have been tested and characterised by different techniques. Increasing the sulfiding temperature also leads to an increase in MoS{sub 2} slab length. Bulk MoS{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showing high MoS{sub 2} slab stacking have been prepared from ammonium tetra-thio-molybdate salt. Sulfide phase characterisation results and an hexagonal MoS{sub 2} slab model have been used to estimate a number of edge and corner Mo ions. Catalysts have been characterised by Temperature Programmed Reduction and by CO adsorption at low temperatures (infra-red). Edge and corner Mo ions site densities determined by these techniques are linearly correlated with the number of sites calculated from the hexagonal MoS{sub 2} slab model and the characterisation results. Catalysts have been tested at 350 deg. C, under a total pressure of 4,5 MPa for dibenzo-thiophene hydro-desulfurization and 1-methyl naphthalene hydrogenation in the presence of nitrogen compounds. Linear correlations have been obtained between the catalytic activity and the number of edge and corner Mo sites estimated from different techniques. These results obtained from independent techniques clearly show the essential part played by edge and corner sites on catalytic activity. MoS{sub 2} slab length has no influence on the selectivity hydrogenation/hydro-desulfurization of tested catalysts. On the other side, the increase o stacking of MoS{sub 2} slab un-favours the hydrogenation reaction when compared to the hydro-desulfurization reaction. (author) 169 refs.

  14. Improving the stability and ethanol electro-oxidation activity of Pt catalysts by selectively anchoring Pt particles on carbon-nanotubes-supported-SnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.J.; Wang, J.S.; Zhao, J.H.; Song, C.Y.; Wang, L.C. [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Guo, X. [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2012-10-15

    To improve the stability and activity of Pt catalysts for ethanol electro-oxidation, Pt nanoparticles were selectively deposited on carbon-nanotubes (CNTs)-supported-SnO{sub 2} to prepare Pt/SnO{sub 2}/CNTs and Pt/CNTs was prepared by impregnation method for reference study. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to confirm the crystalline structures of Pt/SnO{sub 2}/CNTs and Pt/CNTs. The stabilities of Pt/SnO{sub 2}/CNTs and Pt/CNTs were compared by analyzing the Pt size increase amplitude using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images recorded before and after cyclic voltammetry (CV) sweeping. The results showed that the Pt size increase amplitude is evidently smaller for Pt/SnO{sub 2}/CNTs, indicating the higher stability of Pt/SnO{sub 2}/CNTs. Although both catalysts exhibit degradation of electrochemical active surface area (EAS) after CV sweeping, the EAS degradation for the former is lower, further confirming the higher stability of Pt/SnO{sub 2}/CNTs. CV and potentiostatic current-time curves were recorded for ethanol electro-oxidation on both catalysts before and after CV sweeping and the results showed that the mass specific activity of Pt/CNTs increases more than that of Pt/SnO{sub 2}/CNTs, indicating that Pt/CNTs experiences more severe evolution and is less stable. The calculated area specific activity of Pt/SnO{sub 2}/CNTs is larger than that of Pt/CNTs, indicating SnO{sub 2} can co-catalyze Pt due to plenty of interfaces between SnO{sub 2} and Pt. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Characterization of magnetic nano particles of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method; Caracterizacion de nanoparticulas magneticas de CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} y CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} preparadas por el metodo de coprecipitacion quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.; Zambrano, G.; Gomez, M. E. [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Fisica, Laboratorio de Peliculas Delgadas, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, 25360 Cali (Colombia); Prieto, P. [Universidad del Valle, Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales, Ciudad Universitaria Melendez, 25360 Cali (Colombia); Espinoza B, F. J., E-mail: javierlo21@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by co-precipitation technique from aqueous salt solutions of Co (II), ZnSO{sub 4} and Fe (III), in an alkaline medium. CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powder samples were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, showing the presence of the most intense peat at 2{theta} = 413928{sup o} (Co K{alpha}1) corresponding to the (311) crystallographic orientation of the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. The mean size of the crystalline of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles determined from the full width at half maximum of the strongest reflection of the (311) peak by using the Scherrer approximation was calculated to be 11.4 and 7.0 ({+-} o.2) nm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy studies permitted determining nanoparticle size of CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the formation of Fe-O bonds, allowing identifying the presence of ferrite spinel structure. Magnetic properties were investigated with the aid of a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature Herein, the sample showed superparamagnetic behavior, determined by the hysteresis loop finally, due to the hysteresis loop of the CoZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is very small, our magnetic nanoparticles can be considered as a soft magnetic material. These magnetic nanoparticles have interesting technological applications in biomedicine given their biocompatibility, in nano technology, and in ferro fluid preparation. (Author)

  16. First results on Fe solid-phase extraction from coastal seawater using anatase TiO{sub 2} nano-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quetel, Christophe R.; Petrov, Ivan [Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Vassileva, Emilia [Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); IAEA-Marine Environment Laboratories, Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Chakarova, Kristina; Hadjiivanov, Konstantin I. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-03-15

    This paper describes the application of TiO{sub 2} nano-particles (anatase form) for the solid-phase extraction of iron from coastal seawater samples. We investigated the adsorption processes by infra-red spectroscopy. We compared in batch and on-(mini)column extraction approaches (0.1 and 0.05 g TiO{sub 2} per sample, respectively), combined to external calibration and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at medium mass resolution. Globally, this titania phase was slightly more efficient with seawater than with ultra-pure water, although between pH 2 and pH 7, the Fe retention efficiency progressed more in ultra-pure water than in seawater (6.9 versus 4.8 times improvement). Different reaction schemes are proposed between Fe(III) species and the two main categories of titania sites at pH 2 (adsorption of [FeL{sub x}]{sup (3-x)+} via possibly the mediation of chlorides) and at pH 7 (adsorption of [Fe(OH){sub 2}]{sup +} and precipitation of [Fe(OH){sub 3}]{sup 0}). Under optimised conditions, the inlet system was pre-cleaned by pumping 6% HCl for {proportional_to}2 h, and the column was conditioned by aspirating ultra-pure water (1.7 g min {sup -1}) and 0.05% ammonia (0.6 g min {sup -1}) for 1 min. Then 3 g seawater sample was loaded at the same flow rate while being mixed on-line with 0.05% ammonia at 0.6 g min {sup -1} to adjust the pH to 7. The iron retained on the oxide powder was then eluted with 3 g 6% HCl (<0.002% residual salinity in the separated samples). The overall procedural blank was 220 {+-} 46 (2 s, n = 16) ng Fe kg {sup -1} (the titania was renewed in the column every 20 samples, with 2-min rinsing in between samples with 6% HCl at 1.5 g min {sup -1}). The recovery estimated from the Canadian certified reference material CASS-2 was 69.5 {+-} 7.6% (2 s, n = 4). Typically, the relative combined uncertainty (k = 2) estimated for the measurement of {proportional_to}1 {mu}g Fe kg {sup -1} (0.45 {mu}m filtered and acidified to pH 1

  17. Reversible Exsolution of Nanometric Fe<sub>2O3 Particles in BaFe<sub>2-x(PO4)<sub>2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2/3):The Logic of Vacancy Ordering in Novel Metal-Depleted Two-Dimensional Lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcover, Ignacio Blazquez; David, Rénald; Daviero-Minaud, Sylvie; Filimonov, Dmitry; Huvé, Marielle; Roussel, Pascal; Kabbour, Houria; Mentré, Olivier [CNRS-UMR

    2015-08-12

    We show here that the exsolution of Fe2+ ions out of two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb layers of BaFe<sub>2(PO4)<sub>2 into iron-deficient BaFe<sub>2–x(PO4)<sub>2 phases and nanometric α-Fe<sub>2O3 (typically 50 nm diameter at the grain surface) is efficient and reversible until x = 2/3 in mild oxidizing/reducing conditions. It corresponds to the renewable conversion of 12 wt % of the initial mass into iron oxide. After analyzing single crystal X-ray diffraction data of intermediate members x = 2/7, x = 1/3, x = 1/2 and the ultimate Fe-depleted x = 2/3 term, we then observed a systematic full ordering between Fe ions and vacancies (VFe) that denote unprecedented easy in-plane metal diffusion driven by the Fe2+/Fe3+ redox. Besides the discovery of a diversity of original depleted triangular {Fe2/3+<sub>2–xO6} topologies, we propose a unified model correlating the x Fe-removal and the experimental Fe/VFe ordering into periodic one-dimensional motifs paving the layers, gaining insights into predictive crystahemistry of complex low dimensional oxides. When we increased the x values it led to a progressive change of the materials from 2D ferromagnets (Fe2+) to 2D ferrimagnets (Fe2/3+) to antiferromagnets for x = 2/3 (Fe3+).

  18. Fine particles and NO{sub 2}. Development and validation of a method for the immission-relevant, dynamic re-routing of traffic; Feinstaub und NO{sub 2}. Entwicklung und Validierung einer Methode zur immissionsabhaengigen dynamischen Verkehrssteuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludes, G.; Siebers, B. [simuPlan, Dorsten (Germany); Kuhlbusch, T.; Quass, U.; Beyer, M. [Institut fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Duisburg (Germany); Weber, F. [Stadt Hagen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Due to the coming into effect of the twenty-second BImSchV comprehensive investigations on the ambient air quality have been carried out in the city of Hagen in recent years by means of measurement and modelling. High concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and respirable dust have been found along the main streets and the roads belonging to the city ring road system. Main cause of the present situation is road traffic, esp. heavy duty vehicles (HDV). Therefore the concept of measures for the implementation of the air monitoring plan and the action plan set up by the project group includes a HDV-routing system and dynamic, immission-relevant re-routing of traffic. Through this research project the practicability and the effects on air quality of the dynamic, immission-relevant re-routing of HDV-traffic will especially be examined within the highly polluted area of the ''Maerkischer Ring''. By making use of the control programme simDRIVE this innovative concept allows temporary closures of the ''Maerkischer Ring'' for HDV-traffic if transgression of critical limit values is prognosticated due to traffic volume and meteorological circumstances. During these closure periods HDV-traffic will be diverted to alternative and previously determined routes by dynamic and static traffic signs in order to guarantee that intended destinations can be reached. With the help of this research project it should be demonstrated in addition (a) if and how this particular method for NO{sub 2} can also be applied on the reduction of respirable dust, (b) how this measure affects the situation of air pollution regarding respirable dust in other parts of Hagen and (c) if the transfer of methods for the use in other cities is possible. (orig.)

  19. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} spherical particles based anti-reflection and wavelength conversion bi-functional films: Synthesis and application to solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Hui [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Ji, Ruonan [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Hu, Xiaoyun, E-mail: hxy3275@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Han, Linzi; Hao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Qian [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhang, Dekai [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Fan, Jun [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Bai, Jintao [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials & Application of Science and Technology International Cooperation Base, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); and others

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were successfully prepared. The as prepared particles can convert UV region photos to visible photons between 460 nm and 640 nm, which just matched the spectral response of most solar cells. • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is not only a good photoluminescence host material, but also it has high corrosion resistivity, thermal stability, and transparency from violet to infrared light. Cooperated with SiO{sub 2} sols, it could realize a better anti-reflection property. • As a proof-of-concept application, the as prepared bi-functional films could effectively improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency by 0.23% compared to pure SiO{sub 2} AR coating film and 0.55% compared to glass. - Abstract: In this study, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were prepared via the simple, cost-effective urea homogeneous precipitation method without additives. The chosen particles were added in the SiO{sub 2} sols to get anti-reflection (AR) and wavelength conversion bi-functional films. Careful investigations were carried out to find the optimum preparation conditions and proper morphology. SEM images showed that the particle sizes reduced as metal ion/urea ratio decreased. Additionally, the extracted particles turned from sphere to lamellar type when the deionized water, which was used as solvent, reduced to a certain extent. The mechanisms of the morphology formation and diversification were proposed as well. The as prepared materials can convert UV region photos to visible photons between 460 nm and 640 nm, which just matched the spectral response of most solar cells. The spherical sample showed better luminescence performance than the one with lamellar morphology. In addition, the optical transmittance spectra indicated that the films adding spherical particles had better anti-reflective performance, and the best adding amount was 0.08 g. Finally, As a proof-of-concept application

  20. Monoclinic β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} nanocrystalline particles employing novel urea assisted solid state route: Synthesis, characterization and sintering behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Biranchi M., E-mail: biranchi.barc@gmail.com [Powder Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Vashi Complex, Navi Mumbai 400705 (India); Mohanty, Trupti; Prakash, Deep [Powder Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Vashi Complex, Navi Mumbai 400705 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sinha, P.K. [Powder Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Vashi Complex, Navi Mumbai 400705 (India)

    2017-07-15

    Pure phase monoclinic nano-crystalline Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder was synthesized by a novel urea assisted solid state synthesis method using readily available and economical precursors. A single phase and well crystalline Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder has been obtained at slightly lower temperature (600–700 °C) and shorter duration (2 h) as compared to the conventional solid state method. The proposed method has significant advantages in comparison to other viable methods mainly in terms of phase purity, powder properties and sinterability. Analysis of chemical composition using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) shows no loss of lithium from Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} in the proposed method. The emergence of monoclinic Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of as-synthesized powder. The crystallite size of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder was calculated to be in the range of 15–80 nm, which varied as a function of urea composition and temperature. The morphology of as-prepared Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powders was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of urea composition on phase and morphology was investigated so as to delineate the role of urea. Upon sintering at < 1000 °C temperature, the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder compact attained about 98% of the theoretical density with fine grained (grain size: 2–3 μm) microstructure. It indicates excellent sinter-ability of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder synthesized by the proposed method. The fine grained structure is desirable for better tritium breeding performance of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at variable temperature showed good electrical properties of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}. The proposed method is simple, anticipated to be cost effective and convenient to realise for large scale production of phase pure nanocrystalline and having significantly enhanced sinter-ability Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder.

  1. Statistical evaluation of potential damage to the Al(OH){sub 3} layer on nTiO{sub 2} particles in the presence of swimming pool and seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virkutyte, Jurate [Pegasus Technical Services, Inc (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R., E-mail: al-abed.souhail@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Nanosized TiO{sub 2} particles (nTiO{sub 2}) are usually coated with an Al(OH){sub 3} layer when used in sunscreen to shield against the harmful effects of free radicals that are generated when these particles are exposed to UV radiation. Therefore, it is vital to insure the structural stability of these particles in the environment where the protective layer may be damaged and adverse health and environmental effects can occur. This study utilized X-ray analysis (SEM-EDS) to provide a qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of the chemical and physical characteristics of Al(OH){sub 3}-coated original and damaged nTiO{sub 2} particles (used in sunscreen lotion formulations) in the presence of both swimming pool and seawater. Also, by utilizing statistical tools, a distribution of Al/Ti (%) on the particle surface was determined and evaluated. It was found that 45 min of treatment with swimming pool and seawater significantly induced the redistribution of Al/Ti (%), which changed the surface characteristics of particles and, therefore, may have induced undesired photo-activity and the consequent formation of free radicals.

  2. Effects of calcination temperature on phase formation and particle size of Zn{sub 2}Nb{sub 34}O{sub 87} powder synthesized by solid-state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonpattaratkit, Penphitcha, E-mail: p.amonpattaratkit@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Ananta, Supon, E-mail: suponananta@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-05-15

    The solid-state mixed oxide method via a rapid vibro-milling technique was explored for the preparation of single-phase Zn{sub 2}Nb{sub 34}O{sub 87} nanopowders. Phase formation of zinc niobate was investigated as a function of calcination temperature by using a combination of thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyzer (TG/DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Morphology, particle size and chemical composition of the powders were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) technique. The obtained results clearly revealed the influences of calcination temperature on phase formation and particle size of Zn{sub 2}Nb{sub 34}O{sub 87} nanopowder. - Highlights: ► Single phase Zn{sub 2}Nb{sub 34}O{sub 87} was firstly prepared by solid-state mixed oxide method via a rapid vibro-milling technique. ► The influences of calcination temperature on phase formation and particle size were investigated. ► Zn{sub 2}Nb{sub 34}O{sub 87} powders were characterized by TG–DTA, XRD, SEM and EDX.

  3. Effect of different sulphur precursors on morphology and band-gap on the formation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) particles with microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patro, Bharati; Vijaylakshmi, S., E-mail: vlakshmi@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Sharma, Pratibha [Department of Energy Sciences and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India)

    2016-05-23

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) is a promising semiconductor material for ecological cost effective thin film Photovoltaic (PV) devices. As it contains earth abundant and non-toxic elements, it has the advantages over commercially available CIGS and CdTe thin film PV devices. In the present work, the pure phase Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} particles were successfully synthesised with microwave irradiation. The morphology and phase study was carried out for the samples prepared with two different sulphur precursors viz. thiourea and thioacetamide (TAA). CZTS particles with thiourea as sulphur precursor are more crystalline than CZTS particles with TAA. The band gap of 1.654 eV and 1.713 eV were calculated for the samples prepared with thiourea and TAA respectively.

  4. Synthesis and electromagnetic absorption properties of Ag-coated reduced graphene oxide with MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangyan287580632@126.com; Wu, Xinming; Zhang, Wenzhi; Huang, Shuo

    2016-04-15

    A ternary composite of Ag/MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The morphology, microstructure, magnetic and electromagnetic properties of as-prepared Ag/MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/RGO composite were characterized by means of XRD, TEM, XPS, VSM and vector network analyzer. The maximum reflection loss (R{sub L}) of Ag/ MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/RGO composite shows maximum absorption of −38 dB at 6 GHz with the thickness of 3.5 mm, and the absorption bandwidth with the R{sub L} below −10 dB is up to 3.5 GHz (from 3.7 to 7.2 GHz). The result demonstrates that the introduction of Ag significantly leads to the multiple absorbing mechanisms. It is believed that such composite could serve as a powerful candidate for microwave absorber. - Highlights: • A ternary composite of Ag/MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was synthesized by a facile method. • The morphology, microstructure, magnetic and electromagnetic properties were characterized. • The maximum reflection loss of Ag/MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/RGO is −38 dB at 6 GHz with a thickness of 3.5 mm. • The composite shows a wide absorption band.

  5. Effect of pH on particles size and gas sensing properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, Kanica, E-mail: kanica.anand@yahoo.com; Thangaraj, Rengasamy; Singh, Ravi Chand [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this work, indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation method and the effect of pH on the structural and sensor response values of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles has been reported. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) revealed the formation of cubic phase In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. FESEM results indicate the formation of nearly spherical shape In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The band gap energy value changed with change in pH value and found to have highest value at pH 9. Indium oxide nanoparticles thus prepared were deposited as thick films on alumina substrates to act as gas sensors and their sensing response to ethanol vapors and LPG at 50 ppm was investigated at different operating temperatures. It has been observed that all sensors exhibited optimum response at 300°C towards ethanol and at 400°C towards LPG. In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles prepared at pH 9, being smallest in size as compared to other, exhibit highest sensor response (SR).

  6. Crossover from disordered to core-shell structures of nano-oxide Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersed particles in Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, M. P.; Wang, L. M.; Gao, F., E-mail: gaofeium@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Lu, C. Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Lu, Z. [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Shao, L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Molecular dynamic simulations of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} in bcc Fe and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were used to understand the structure of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-clusters in an oxide dispersion strengthened steel matrix. The study showed that Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-clusters below 2 nm were completely disordered. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-clusters above 2 nm, however, form a core-shell structure, with a shell thickness of 0.5–0.7 nm that is independent of nano-cluster size. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-clusters were surrounded by off-lattice Fe atoms, further increasing the stability of these nano-clusters. TEM was used to corroborate our simulation results and showed a crossover from a disordered nano-cluster to a core-shell structure.

  7. Synthesis of PtSn nanostructured catalysts supported over TiO{sub 2} and Ce-doped TiO{sub 2} particles for the electro-oxidation of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.E. [Instituto de Ingeniería Electroquímica y Corrosión (INIEC), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Gravina, A.N. [Departamento de Química, INQUISUR, CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Sieben, J.M., E-mail: jmsieben@uns.edu.ar [Instituto de Ingeniería Electroquímica y Corrosión (INIEC), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Messina, P.V. [Departamento de Química, INQUISUR, CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina); Duarte, M.M.E. [Instituto de Ingeniería Electroquímica y Corrosión (INIEC), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Av. Alem 1253, Bahía Blanca B8000CPB (Argentina)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • PtSn particles supported on TiO2 and Ce-doped TiO2 were evaluated as catalysts for EOR. • PtSn/TiO2 showed better mass current and higher TON than PtSn/Ce–TiO2 materials. • The activity for EOR decreased markedly with increasing Ce content in the TiO2. - Abstract: PtSn/TiO2 and PtSn/Ce-doped TiO2 catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for ethanol electro-oxidation in acid media. Titanium dioxide and Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method followed by calcination at 923 K. Bimetallic PtSn catalysts supported on the oxide materials were synthesized by microwave assisted reduction in ethylene glycol (EG). The structural properties of the resulting materials were evaluated via TEM and XRD, and the compositions were assessed by EDX and ICP-AES analysis. PtSn nanoparticles of about 3–4 nm were deposited on TiO2 and Ce–TiO2 particles. It was found that the catalyst composition is scarcely influenced by the cerium content in the mixed oxides while the electrochemical surface area per unit mass decreases upon the incorporation of Ce in the anatase lattice. The electrochemical tests pointed out that the electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation decreases markedly as the Ce content increases. The results indicate that the presence of cerium in the titanium dioxide crystalline network induces local structural and electronic modifications, thereby leading to a reduction of the crystallinity, surface conductivity and the amount of OH species adsorbed on the surface of the oxide support.

  8. Evolution of metastable state molecules N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) in a nanosecond pulsed discharge: A particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Liang; Sun Jizhong; Feng Chunlei; Bai Jing; Ding Hongbin [School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-01-15

    A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collisions method has been employed to investigate the nitrogen discharge driven by a nanosecond pulse power source. To assess whether the production of the metastable state N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) can be efficiently enhanced in a nanosecond pulsed discharge, the evolutions of metastable state N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) density and electron energy distribution function have been examined in detail. The simulation results indicate that the ultra short pulse can modulate the electron energy effectively: during the early pulse-on time, high energy electrons give rise to quick electron avalanche and rapid growth of the metastable state N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) density. It is estimated that for a single pulse with amplitude of -9 kV and pulse width 30 ns, the metastable state N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) density can achieve a value in the order of 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}. The N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) density at such a value could be easily detected by laser-based experimental methods.

  9. Spin-phonon coupling in rod-shaped half-metallic CrO sub 2 ultrafine particles: a magnetic Raman scattering study

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, T; Sun, W X; Lin, J Y; Ding, J

    2003-01-01

    Half-metallic CrO sub 2 powder compact with rod-shaped nanoparticles was studied by micro-Raman scattering in the presence of an external magnetic field at room temperature (300 K). In the low-field region (H <= 250 mT), the frequency and intensity of the E sub g mode, an internal phonon mode of CrO sub 2 , increase dramatically with increase in the magnetic field, while the corresponding linewidth decreases. The above parameters become constant when the CrO sub 2 powder enters the saturation state at higher magnetic field. The pronounced anomalies of the Raman phonon parameters under a low magnetic field are attributed to the spin-phonon coupling enhanced by the magnetic ordering, which is induced by the external magnetic field. (letter to the editor)

  10. The photocatalytic application and regeneration of anatase thin films with embedded commercial TiO{sub 2} particles deposited on glass microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Valtierra, Jorge [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioquimica, Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos No. 182 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, Aguascalientes, Ags., 20256 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jormeval@yahoo.com; Garcia-Servin, Josafat [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioquimica, Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos No. 182 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, Aguascalientes, Ags., 20256 (Mexico)]. E-mail: josgaser@yahoo.com.mx; Frausto-Reyes, Claudio [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C., Unidad Aguascalientes, Prol. Constitucion No. 607, Reserva de Loma Bonita, Aguascalientes, Ags., 20200 (Mexico)]. E-mail: cfraus@cio.mx; Calixto, Sergio [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C., Loma del Bosque No. 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, Leon, Gto., 37150 (Mexico)]. E-mail: scalixto@cio.mx

    2006-03-15

    Anatase thin films (<200 nm in thickness) embedding Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} were prepared by sol-gel method. TiO{sub 2}-anatase thin films were deposited on a fiberglass substrate and then ground to obtain glass microrods containing the composite films. The film structure was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption and UV-vis spectrophotometry, and atomic force microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the composite films, calcined at 450 deg. C, and the regeneration of the activity under the same experimental conditions, were assessed using gas chromatography to study the photodegradation of phenol, an industrial pollutant, in water under 365 nm irradiation. The film with 15.0 wt.% of P25 TiO{sub 2} was found to be more photoactive (54 ppm of degraded phenol at 6 h of illumination) than the other ones.

  11. Rapid determination of parabens in seafood sauces by high-performance liquid chromatography: A practical comparison of core-shell particles and sub-2 μm fully porous particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Cao, Xiaoji; Cheng, Zhuo; Qin, Ye; Lu, Yanbin

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the chromatographic performance of superficially porous particles (Halo core-shell C18 column, 50 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.7 μm) was compared with that of sub-2 μm fully porous particles (Acquity BEH C18 , 50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm). Four parabens, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, were used as representative compounds for calculating the plate heights in a wide flow rate range and analyzed on the basis of the Van Deemter and Knox equations. Theoretical Poppe plots were constructed for each column to compare their kinetic performance. Both phases gave similar minimum plate heights when using nonreduced coordinates. Meanwhile, the flat C-term of the core-shell column provided the possibilities for applying high flow rates without significant loss in efficiency. The low backpressure of core-shell particles allowed this kind of column, especially compatible with conventional high-performance liquid chromatography systems. Based on these factors, a simple high-performance liquid chromatography method was established and validated for the determination of parabens in various seafood sauces using the Halo core-shell C18 column for separation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Projection of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NMVOC, NH{sub 3} and particle emissions - 2005 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M; Nielsen, Malene; Fauser, P; Gyldenkaerne, S

    2008-05-15

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, NH{sub 3}, NMVOC, TSP, PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts of activity rates are used in the models for those sectors for which the forecasts are available, i.e. the latest official forecast from the Danish Energy Authority. The emission factors refer to international guidelines and some are country-specific and refer to Danish legislation, Danish research reports or calculations based on emission data from a considerable number of plants. The projection models are based on the same structure and method as the Danish emission inventories in order to ensure consistency. (au)

  13. Environmental assessment of speeding up use of particle filters on passenger cars and vans. Air quality and population exposure for PM{sub 2.5}; Miljoevurdering af fremskyndelse af partikelfiltre pae person- og varebiler. Luftkvalitet og befolkningseksponering for PM{sub 2.5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M. [DMU, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe (Denmark)

    2006-11-15

    New stringent European Union emission standards for particles are expected to be implemented around 2010 for diesel-powered passenger cars and vans. Provided that such standards are agreed upon diesel-powered passenger cars and vans are expected to be equipped with particle filters that effectively will remove particle emissions. Against this background, the Danish Environmental Assessment Institute wanted to carry out a cost-benefit analysis of a scenario where the emission standards came into force in 2007 instead of 2010. The objective of the project is to assess the effects on particle emissions and air quality of PM{sub 2.5} (particles less than 2.5 micrometer) of moving forward the emission standards for passenger cars and vans. An assessment of a scenario is carried out that assumes that all new diesel-powered passenger cars and vans entering the vehicle fleet during January 1st, 2007 and December 31st, 2009 will be equipped with particle filters. The National Environmental Research Institute has carried out this assessment. (au)

  14. Photocatalytic activity of the binary composite CeO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} for degradation of dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phanichphant, Sukon [Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Nakaruk, Auppatham [Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Centre of Excellence for Innovation and Technology for Water Treatment, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Channei, Duangdao, E-mail: duangdaoc@nu.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Research Center for Academic Excellence in Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CeO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} composite can be explained by the presence of the SiO{sub 2} adsorbent, which effectively increased the surface area of the CeO{sub 2}. • The increased surface area of CeO{sub 2} should be helpful to facilitate more effective adsorption sites, which enhances the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant significantly. • SiO{sub 2} modification is effective in separating the photogenerated electrons and holes, which is of great importance for photocatalytic activity. • SiO{sub 2} acted as a carrier for CeO{sub 2} attachment and avoided the agglomeration of CeO{sub 2} particles. - Abstract: In this study, CeO{sub 2} photocatalyst was modified by composite with SiO{sub 2} to increase efficiency and improve photocatalytic activity. The as-prepared SiO{sub 2} particles have been incorporated into the precursor mixture of CeO{sub 2} by homogeneous precipitation and subsequent calcination process. The phase compositions of CeO{sub 2} before and after compositing with SiO{sub 2} were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology and particle size of CeO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} composite was analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed SiO{sub 2} spheres with the particle size approximately 100–120 nm, and a uniform layer of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles with a diameter of about 5–7 nm that were fully composite to the surfaces of SiO{sub 2}. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was carried out in order to characterize the change in valence state and composite characteristic by shifted peaks of binding energies. The photocatalytic activity was studied through the degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under visible light exposure. The highest photocatalytic efficiency of CeO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} composite was also obtained. To explain the high photocatalytic

  15. Mixed P25 nanoparticles and large rutile particles as a top scattering layer to enhance performance of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaohua, E-mail: mksxh@163.com; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yalong; Sun, Panpan; Huang, Niu; Sun, Yihua

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mixed P25 nanoparticles and large rutile particles were employed to form a top scattering layer. • The top scattering layer exhibits superior light scattering effect. • The bottom nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} layer can make good use of the back-scattered light. • Bilayer TiO{sub 2} photoanode shows faster interfacial electron transfer and slower charge recombination process. • Bilayer photoanode enhances the DSSC efficiency by a factor of 25%. - Abstract: Herein, we report a bilayer TiO{sub 2} photoanode composed of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} (NCT) bottom layer and mixed P25 nanoparticles and large rutile particles (PR) top scattering layer. The present structure performs well in solar light harvesting which is mainly attributed to the fact that the top scattering layer exhibits superior light scattering effect and meanwhile the NCT bottom layer with large dye-loading capacity can make better use of the back-scattered light. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit voltage decay measurements demonstrate that DSSC based on bilayer photoanode shows faster interfacial electron transfer and slower charge recombination process than that based on NCT monolayer photoanode. These advantages render the DSSCs based on NCT-PR bilayer photoanode exhibiting superior performance under AM1.5G simulated solar irradiation. As an example, by tuning mass ratio between P25 nanoparticles and large rutile particles in the top scattering layer, the DSSC based on NCT-PR bilayer photoanode exhibits an optimum solar energy conversion efficiency of 9.0%, which is about 1.25 times higher than that of monolayer NCT device (7.2%) with the same film thickness.

  16. Improvement of slip property of magnetic tape by wet silica surface treatment on cobalt-coating type {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} magnetic particles; Kobaruto hichakugata {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} jiseibiryushi no shisshiki shirika hyomenshori niyoru jikitepu no suberi tokusei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kazuyuki; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Morii, Hiroko

    1999-02-05

    During the running of a magnetic taper coated with magnetic particles, sometimes troubles of the slip property between the magnetic tape and a magnetic head occur. In this research, silica coating onto the surfaces of magnetic iron oxide particles in water slurry was carried out, and a magnetic tape coated with these surface-modified particles was prepared so as to investigate the effect of the silica coating on the slip property of the magnetic tape. It was found that, for needle cobalt-coating type {gamma}- Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the dynamic friction coefficient of the magnetic tape can be reduced from about 0.4 to abut 0.2 by coating silica at nm order. This was estimated that the adsorption amount of myristic acid as a lubricator component existing in the magnetic tape to the magnetic particles are reduced by the silica coating so that the amount of myristic acid effectively acting on the slip property of the magnetic tape surface is increased. Further, within the investigation scope of the present research, it has been clarified that the magnetic characteristics of the magnetic particles and coating dispersion property are not deteriorated by the surface treatment with silica, and a preferable magnetic recording medium retaining both magnetic characteristic and slip property can be obtained. (translated by NEDO)

  17. Comparison of particle sizes between 238PuO<sub>2 before aqueous processing, after aqueous processing, and after ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    Particle sizes determined for a single lot of incoming Russian fuel and for a lot of fuel after aqueous processing are compared with particle sizes measured on fuel after ball-milling. The single samples of each type are believed to have particle size distributions typical of oxide from similar lots, as the processing of fuel lots is fairly uniform. Variation between lots is, as yet, uncharacterized. Sampling and particle size measurement methods are discussed elsewhere.

  18. Phase Transformation Behavior of Oxide Particles Formed in Mechanically Alloyed Fe-5Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ga Eon; Choi, Jung-Sun; Noh, Sanghoon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Do [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The phase transformation behavior of the oxides formed in mechanically alloyed Fe-5Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is investigated. Non-stoichiometric Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides with sizes of less than 300 nm are observed in the mechanically alloyed powder. The diffusion and redistribution reactions of the elements in these oxides during heating of the powder above 800 ℃ were observed, and these reactions result in the formation of a Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase after heating at 1050 ℃. Thus, it is considered that the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and some Fe powder are formed from the non-stoichiometric Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides after the mechanical alloying process, and a considerable energy accumulated during the mechanical alloying process leads to a phase transformation of the Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides to Y{sub α}Fe{sub β}O{sub γ}-type phase during heating.

  19. LASIK flap characteristics using the Moria M2 microkeratome with the 90-microm single use head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanides, Ioannis M; Tsiklis, Nikolaos S; Astyrakakis, Nikolaos I; Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Jankov, Mirko R

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and consistency of corneal flap thickness, horizontal diameter, and hinge size with the Moria M2 90-microm single use head. Fifty-two myopic patients (104 eyes), mean age 32.6 years, underwent bilateral LASIK with a superior hinged flap using the Moria M2 microkeratome (90-microm single use head). Prospective evaluation included flap thickness (subtraction method), diameter, hinge size, interface particles, intraoperative complications, and visual recovery. The mean preoperative spherical equivalent refraction was -5.72 +/- 2.59 diopters (D) (range: -2.88 to -10.75 D) and -5.84 +/- 2.73 D (range: -3.13 to -9.38 D) for right and left eyes, respectively. The mean preoperative central corneal thickness was 548 +/- 24 microm and 547 +/- 25 microm for right and left eyes, respectively. The mean preoperative steepest K was 44.12 +/- 1.28 D and 44.41 +/- 1.27 D for right and left eyes, respectively. Corneal diameter (white-to-white) was 12 +/- 0.4 mm and 11.9 +/- 0.4 mm for right and left eyes, respectively. The mean postoperative flap thickness was 109 +/- 18 microm (range: 67 to 152 microm) and 103 +/- 15 microm (range: 65 to 151 microm) for right and left eyes, respectively. The mean postoperative flap diameter was 9.4 +/- 0.3 mm (expected mean according to the nomogram given by the company was 9.5 mm). The mean postoperative hinge chord was 4.4 +/- 0.4 mm (expected mean 4.2 mm). No interface particles were detected on slit-lamp examination. The Moria M2 90-microm single use head is safe with reasonable predictability for LASIK flap creation.

  20. The application of imperialist competitive algorithm for optimization of deposition rate in submerged arc welding process using TiO{sub 2} nano particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaderi, Mohammad Reza; Eslampanah, Amirhossein; Ghaderi, Kianoosh [Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghakhani, Masood [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We used a novel optimization algorithm based on the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) to optimize the deposition rate in the submerged arc welding (SAW) process. This algorithm offers some advantages such as simplicity, accuracy and time saving. Experiments were conducted based on a five factor, five level rotatable central composite design (RCCD) to collect welding data for deposition rate as a function of welding current, arc voltage, contact tip to plate distance, welding speed and thickness of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles coated on the plates of mild steel. Furthermore, regression equation for deposition rate was obtained using least squares method. The regression equation as the cost function was optimized using ICA. Ultimately, the levels of input variables to achieve maximum deposition rate were obtained using ICA. Computational results indicate that the proposed algorithm is quite effective and powerful in optimizing the cost function.

  1. Aggregation and composition effects on absorption and scattering properties of dye-sensitized anatase TiO{sub 2} particle clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, William E. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales and Escuela de Fisica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Jose (Costa Rica)], E-mail: vargasc@cariari.ucr.ac.cr

    2008-06-15

    A transition matrix approach is used to compute the scattering and absorption cross sections, as well as phase functions, asymmetry factors and forward scattering ratios, of clusters of spherical particles. In order to approach the local structure and composition of the nanosized active layer of photoelectrochemical solar cells, some clusters consist of homogeneous non-absorbing anatase spherical pigments, others have anatase particles coated with a monolayer of absorbing dye molecules, and others can consist of both uncoated and dye-coated anatase particles. Orientation average values of the volumetric scattering and absorption cross sections are computed in terms of the size of the spherical particles in the clusters and their number. The degree of scattering and absorption when considering dye-coated anatase particles in the clusters is characterized. The effect of dependent scattering on the average angular distribution of the scattered radiation is also considered.

  2. Spectroscopy of peaks at microwave range for nanostructure SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariaee, Sina, E-mail: sina.ariaee@tabrizu.ac.ir; Mehdipour, Mostafa, E-mail: Mostafa_mehdipour67@yahoo.com; Moradnia, Mina, E-mail: mina.moradnia86@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanostructure ferrite particles were synthesized via the co-precipitation of chloride salts utilizing the sodium hydroxide solution. The resulting precursors were heat-treated at 1100 °C for 4 h. After cooling in the furnace, the ferrite powders were pressed at 0.1 MPa and then sintered at 1200 °C for 4 h. The spectroscopy and characterization of peaks at the microwave range (X-band) for the nanostructure ferrite particles were investigated by the ferromagnetic resonance/transmit-line theories and Reflection Loss (RL) plots. The extracted data from these theoretical and experimental results showed that the natural ferromagnetic resonance can be lead to the narrow peaks and the width of the peaks can be related to the periodic effects. Two kinds of peaks were seen for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} at X-band (8–12 GHz); the narrow peak at (9.8 GHz) was remaining unchanged and consistent while the wide one was shifted from 11 GHz to 8.5 GHz by decreasing the thickness of the samples. These phenomena were also happened for SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} samples. The natural resonance was not happened due to the hard magnetic properties of these nano structure particles. - Highlights: • SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanostructure ferrite particles were synthesized via the co-precipitation of chloride salts. • Two kinds of peaks were seen for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} at X-band (8–12 GHz); these phenomena were also happened for SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} samples. • The narrow peaks were remained unchanged and consistent while the wide ones were shifted by decreasing the thickness of the samples. • Characterization procedure was conducted utilizing the ferromagnetic resonance/transmit-line theories and Reflection Loss (RL) plots. • It was concluded that the natural ferromagnetic resonance can be lead to the narrow peaks while the wide ones can be related to the periodic effects.

  3. Nanoscopic platinum particles on TiO{sub 2}(110). STM and point-contact studies on the chemical and photosensitivity; Nanoskopische Platin-Teilchen auf TiO{sub 2}(110). STM- und Punktkontaktuntersuchungen zur chemischen und Photosensitivitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelbach, Johannes Micha

    2009-06-23

    In the ultra high vacuum produced nanoscopical platinum particles on TiO{sub 2}(110)- single crystal surfaces are contacted with the tunneltip of a raster tunnel microscope, and the chemical as well as photo sensitivity of an individual hetero contact are determined. For the experiments a UHV equipment was developed, equipped with methods to the controlled preparation and surface-analytic techniques (LEED, AES and STM). Platinum is resistively evaporated and thus small platinum particles with a size of about 8nm are generated on the pure titanium dioxide surface and characterized by STM and STS. A new developed oxygen source based on zirconoxide ceramics enables in-situ experiments for undisturbed determination of current-voltage characteristics in the tunneling and contact mode. A special preamplifier with controllable range of amplification is applied. Applying a voltage to the ceramic oxygen can be let into the UHV chamber by the oxygen source and the partial pressure can be adjusted within the range of 1.10{sup -10} mbar to 1.10{sup -5} mbar. The effect of the oxygen on the electrical characteristics of the Pt/TiO{sub 2}-contacts was proven. The clear dependence of the current-voltage characteristics on the oxygen partial pressure can be explained as a result of interface states due to the dissociation and adsorption of the oxygen, which determine the electrical characteristic of the contact. Schottky barriere heights and quality parameters were determined and compared with values of macroscopic surface contacts. For the investigations of the photo sensitivity a special STM head was developed, which enables the coupling of laser light with a wavelength of 413.1 nm. Irradiation of the nanoscopical Pt/TiO{sub 2}-contacts changes the current-voltage characteristics as well. The results of the power-dependent measurements refer to a temperature effect, that dominates the photoelectric effect. The combined power-and oxygen partial pressure dependent measurements are

  4. Au and Pd nanoparticles supported on CeO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascente, P.A.P., E-mail: nascente@ufscar.br [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Department of Materials Engineering, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Maluf, S.S.; Afonso, C.R.M. [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Department of Materials Engineering, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Landers, R. [State University of Campinas, Institute of Physics, Department of Applied Physics, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pinheiro, A.N.; Leite, E.R. [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Department of Chemistry, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • CeO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Au and Pd nanoparticles. • Additions of 0.5 wt% of Au and Pd onto CeO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} supports. • Characterization by XRD, XPS, EDS, TEM, HRTEM, STEM, and EFTEM. - Abstract: Gold and palladium nanoparticles were incorporated on CeO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} supports prepared by a sol–gel method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), scanning TEM (STEM) in high angle annular dark field mode (HAADF), and energy filtered TEM (EFTEM) using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The XRD diffractograms presented sharp and intense peaks indicating that the samples are highly crystalline, but it did not detected any peak corresponding to Au or Pd phases. This indicates that the Au and Pd NPs were incorporated into the structures of the oxides. It was not possible to obtain an Au 4f spectrum for Au/Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to an overlap with the Mn 3p spectrum. The XPS Au 4f spectra for Au/CeO{sub 2} and Au/TiO{sub 2} present negative chemical shifts that could be attributed to particle-size-related properties. The XPS Pd 3d spectra indicate that for both CeO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} substrates, the Pd NPs were in the metallic state, while for the Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate, the Pd NPs were oxidized. The HRTEM results show the formation of nanocrystalline oxides having particles sizes between 50 and 200 nm. TEM micrographs show that the addition of Au caused the formation of Au clusters in between the CeO{sub 2} NPS, formation of Au NPs for the TiO{sub 2} support, and homogeneous distribution of Au clusters for the Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} support. The addition of Pd yielded a homogeneous dispersion throughout the CeO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, but caused the formation of Pd clusters for the Mn{sub 2}O

  5. The variable potency of TiB{sub 2} nucleant particles in the grain refinement of aluminium by Al-Ti-B additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quested, T.E.; Greer, A.L. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science; Cooper, P.S. [London and Scandinavian Metallurgical Co. Ltd., Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    The development of Al-Ti-B grain-refiners is outlined. The relationships between nucleant particle potency, number and volume efficiencies, and overall refiner performance are explored. The importance of the particle size distribution is illustrated using hypothetical log-normal distributions in a thermal model for grain refinement which uses a free-growth criterion for grain initiation. In this way the degree of optimization of a current commercial refiner is assessed. (orig.)

  6. Kinetic investigation of narrow-bore columns packed with prototype sub-2 μm superficially porous particles with various shell thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Omamogho, Jesse; Guiochon, Georges

    2011-10-07

    The recent successful breakthrough of sub-3 μm shell particles in HPLC has triggered considerable research efforts toward the design of new brands of core-shell particles. We investigated the mass transfer mechanism of a few analytes in narrow-bore columns packed with prototype 1.7 μm shell particles, made of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 μm solid nonporous cores surrounded by porous shells 350, 250, and 150 nm thick, respectively. Three probe solutes, uracil, naphthalene, and insulin, were chosen to assess the kinetic performance of these columns. Inverse size exclusion chromatography, peak parking experiments, and the numerical integration of the experimental peak profiles were carried out in order to measure the external, internal, and total column porosities, the true bulk diffusion coefficients of these analytes, the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, the longitudinal diffusion term, and the trans-particle mass transfer resistance term. The residual eddy diffusion term was measured by difference. The results show the existence of important trans-column velocity biases (7%) possibly due to the presence of particle multiplets in the slurry mixture used during the packing process. Our results illustrates some of the difficulties encountered by scientists preparing and packing shell particles into narrow-bore columns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of building characteristics in 27 dwellings in Denmark and the effect of using particle filtration units on PM<sub>2.5 concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Kolarik, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter in homes is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and respiratory problems. Due to the extended time people spend at home, reducing the particle concentration in homes may be a means to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and respiratory...... concentrations. Furthermore, the winter period and a location farther from a trafficked street were associated with increased PM2.5 mass. Overall, the use of PFU led to a decrease in the concentrations of PM2.5 of 54.5% (median value).We assessed the PFU particle-removal efficiency by using the amount...

  8. Ignition and devolatilization of pulverized coals in lower oxygen content O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhaohui; Yang, Ming; Wang, Dingbang; Zheng, Chuguang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    High speed camera is employed to capture the transient images of the burning particle in a flat-flame entrained flow reactor, some information of the burning particle, such as the optical intensity and the residence time, are obtained through analysis of transient images. The ignition and devolatilization behavior of different rank coals at 1,670, 1,770 and 1,940 K over a range of 2-30% O{sub 2} in both N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} diluent gases are researched. The results indicate that the laws of ignition and devolatilization of pulverized coals in low oxygen O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere are consistent with the literature, which focus on the environments of high oxygen contents (10-30%) or lower temperate (900-1,500 K). With the gas temperature and oxygen content increased, the ignition delay time and devolatilization time for the lower oxygen content cases decreased for both N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} atmosphere. With the use CO{sub 2} in place of N{sub 2} in low oxygen content, the ignition delay was retarded and the duration of devolatilization was increased. The effect of CO{sub 2} on coal particle ignition is explained by its higher molar specific heat. And the effect of CO{sub 2} on devolatilization results from its effect on the diffusion rates of volatile fuel and oxygen.

  9. System of Sr(NO sub 2 ) sub 2 -Sr(OH) sub 2 -H sub 2 O at 25 deg C. Sistema Sr(NO sub 2 ) sub 2 -H sub 2 O pri 25 grad C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, T B; Berdyukova, V A; Khutsistova, F M [Kalmytskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Ehlista (USSR) Rostovskij-na-Donu Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Rostov-na-Donu (USSR)

    1990-02-01

    Sr(NO{sub 2}){sub 2}-Sr(OH){sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system was investigated by the methods of solubility, density, viscosity, electric conductivity and refractometry. It was established that its compoments form the compound 4Sr(NO{sub 2}){sub 2}xSr(OH){sub 2}x8H{sub 2}O. The compound was separated from solution; its density, decomposition temperature were determined; IR spectra and X-ray patterns of prepared and initial compounds were obtained.

  10. Structural and Mössbauer studies of nanocrystalline Mn{sup 4+}-doped Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} particles prepared by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widatallah, H. M., E-mail: hishammw@squ.edu.om; Al-Mabsali, F. N.; Al-Hajri, F. S. [Sultan Qaboos University, Physics Department, College of Science (Oman); Khalifa, N. O. [University of Khartoum, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Sudan); Gismelseed, A. M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Elzain, M.; Yousif, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Physics Department, College of Science (Oman)

    2016-12-15

    The structure and magnetic properties of spinel-related Mn{sup 4+}-doped Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} nanocrystalline particles of the composition Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.25}Mn{sub 0.1875}O{sub 4}, prepared by milling a pristine sample for different times, were investigated. The average crystallite and particle size, respectively, decreased form ∼40 nm to ∼10 nm and ∼2.5 μm to ∼10 nm with increasing milling time from 0 h to 70 h. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data of the non-milled sample show the Mn{sup 4+} dopant ions to substitute for Fe{sup 3+} at the octahedral B-sites of the spinel-related structure. The Mössbauer spectra of the milled ferrites indicate that more particles turn superparamagnetic with increasing milling time. The Mössbauer data collected at 78 K suggest that while in the non-milled sample the Mn{sup 4+} ions substitute for Fe{sup 3+} at the octahedral B-sites, this is reversed as milling proceeds with doped Mn{sup 4+} ions, balancing Fe{sup 3+} vacancies and possibly Li{sup +} ions progressively migrate to the tetrahedral A-sites. This is supported by the slight increase observed in the magnetization of the milled samples relative to that of the non-milled one. The magnetic data suggest that in addition to the increasing superparamagentic component of the milled particles, thermal spin reversal and/or spin canting effects are possible at the surface layers of the nanoparticles.

  11. CO{sub 2} separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakuta, Toshikatu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The climate change induced by CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases is probably the most serious environmental threat that mankind has ever experienced. Nowadays fossil fuels occupy the majority of the world commercial energy supply. Most nations will be dependent on fossil fuels even in the first half of the next century. Around 30 % of CO{sub 2} in the world is emitted from thermal power plants. Recovering CO{sub 2} from energy conversion processes and storing it outside the atmosphere is a promising option for the mitigation of global warming. CO{sub 2} fixation and storage include CO{sub 2} disposal into oceans and underground, and utilization of CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} separation process will be used in any CO{sub 2} storage system, and is estimated to consume almost half the energy of the total system. Research and development of highly efficient CO{sub 2} separation process is most important from the viewpoint of practical application of CO{sub 2} fixation system.

  12. Influence of particle sizes on the electronic behavior of Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels (x = 0.2, 0.3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viñas, R. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Álvarez-Serrano, I., E-mail: ias@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); López, M.L.; Pico, C.; Veiga, M.L. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mompeán, F.; García-Hernández, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Relaxor ferroelectric behavior and superparamagnetism in nanoparticles of Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} obtained in supercritical water. - Highlights: • Title ferrites were prepared by hydrothermal techniques (sub and supercritical). • In supercritical (SCW) conditions highly monodispersive samples were obtained. • All samples are semiconductors; n-type or p-type response depends on the composition. • Superparamagnetic and relaxor ferroelectric response coexist in SCW samples. - Abstract: The effect of composition and particle size on the electrical and magnetic behavior of Zn{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels (x = 0.2 and 0.3) has been studied. Powdered samples of these ferrites have been synthetized by the liquid mix technique and hydrothermal method (in sub and supercritical conditions), leading to average particle sizes of ca. 50 and 10 nm, respectively. They have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric analysis, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and impedance and magnetic measurements. Permittivity values up to ca. 500 were registered at 375 K, which remained almost constant at moderate frequencies, between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6} Hz. Stabilization of polarization phenomena is very sensitive to grain size and composition. Dielectric behavior evolves to a relaxor ferroelectric response when grain size becomes nanometric and, particularly, when the sample shows high monodispersion. The conduction mechanism and type of majority charge carriers have been established from Seebeck measurements. The x = 0.3 sample, prepared in supercritical water for the first time, exhibits homogeneous particle size distribution, superparamagnetic behavior and Curie temperature lower than those corresponding to similar microsized samples. The electronic response of the ferrites obtained in supercritical conditions is interpreted considering the possible short scale polarization of nanodomains.

  13. Fabrication of heterostructured Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst and efficient photodegradation of organic contaminants under visible-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Meng; Li, Shuangli; Yan, Tao; Ji, Pengge; Zhao, Xia; Yuan, Kun; Wei, Dong [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Du, Bin, E-mail: dubin61@gmail.com [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2017-07-05

    Highlights: • The product shows efficient activity in photodegradation of RhB, BPA, and phenol. • The BBOC-10 heterojunction exhibits the best activity under visible light. • Suppressed recombination of photo-generated carriers lead to the activity enhancement. - Abstract: Heterostructured Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalysts were fabricated by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method, in which melem served as the sacrificial reagent to supply carbonate anions. The as-synthesized Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4} heterojunction catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The XRD patterns of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalysts showed the distinctive peaks of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The SEM and TEM results showed that the pure Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} possessed large plate morphology, while Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4} were composed of various nanorods and particles. As for Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4} heterojunction, it was obviously observed that Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods and particles were grown on the surfaces of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} plates. The visible light driven photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalyst was evaluated by decomposing dyes, phenol, and bisphenol A in water. Compared with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4}, the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalysts have exhibited remarkable enhanced activity under visible light. The excellent activity can be mainly attributed to the enhanced separation efficiency of photo-generated carriers. Controlled experiments using different radical scavengers proved that ·O{sub 2}{sup −} and h{sup +} played the main role in decomposing organic pollutants. The results of this work would

  14. Evaluation of luminescent properties and detection of Eu{sup 2}+ in nano structured particles of Gd{sub 2}-x Eu{sub x}O{sub 3} system (x= 0.05, 0.10 and 0.30); Evaluacion de las propiedades luminiscentes y deteccion de Eu{sup 2}+ en particulas nanoestructuradas del sistema Gd{sub 2}-xEu{sub x} O{sub 3} (x= 0.05, 0.10 y 0.30)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, J.; Mena, I.; Gomez, L. S.; Milosevic, O.; Rabanal, M. E.

    2012-11-01

    Spray Pyrolysis (SP) is performed at 700 degree centigrade in dry air atmosphere using common nitrate aqueous solutions (0,1M) as precursor in order to obtain nano structured particles with the composition Gd{sub 2}-xEu{sub x}O{sub 3} (x= 0.05, 0.10 and 0.30). In this work, three samples with different atomic europium concentration (1, 2 and 6%) were studied. After, the obtained particles were subjected to different thermal treatments with varying temperatures between 800 and 1000 degree centigrade/12 h in dry air atmosphere. The obtained particles were characterized by XRD, SEM techniques, laser dispersion and steady state fluorescence spectroscopy. The existence of two cubic phases with different symmetry cubic phases (Ia-3, Fm-3m) was identified within the as-prepared samples. Moreover, the presence of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} monoclinic phase (C{sub 2}/m) which disappears during the thermal treatments was proved. In all thermally treated samples, it was observed the stabilization of an only Ia-3 phase. Fluorescence emission measurements in all studied samples the presence of Eu{sup 2}+ ({lambda}= 430nm), whose intensity increases as long as the content of the monoclinic phase decreases of the Eu{sup 3}+ percentage. (Author) 35 refs.

  15. MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} as a gas sensor towards SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathore, Deepshikha, E-mail: deep.nano@gmail.com; Mitra, Supratim [Department of Natural Sciences, NIIT University, Neemrana, Rajasthan 301705 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The chemical co-precipitation method was used to synthesize MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Single cubic phase formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique. The average particle size of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was found to be 10.7 nm using Scherrer formula. The ultrafine powder of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was pressed to design pellet of 10 mm diameter and 1mm thickness. Copper electrodes have been deposited on the surface of pellet using silver paste in the form of capacitor. Fabricated gas sensing device of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was tested towards SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} gases. Cole-Cole plot of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was investigated with the help of electrochemical workstation. The performance of the sensors including sensitivity, response and recovery time was also determined. It was observed that the MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are more sensible for NO{sub 2} gas as compared to SO{sub 2} gas.

  16. Attapulgite-CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiazhang, E-mail: lixiazhang509@163.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Environment Functional Materials, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); W.M.Keck Center for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Zhang, Zuosong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Yao, Chao [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Lu, Xiaowang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Zhao, Xiaobing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Environment Functional Materials, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Ni, Chaoying [W.M.Keck Center for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} ternary nanocomposites were fabricated. • ATP possessed outstanding adsorption property and enhanced the stability of the network structure. • CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} couples facilitated the separation of photo-induced electrons and holes. • Mass ratio of CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} influenced the photocatalytic oxidation desulfurization. - Abstract: Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV–vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO{sub 2} to MoS{sub 2} on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO{sub 2} particles and MoS{sub 2} nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  17. Study of fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) during the dry-hot time in the Toluca city; Estudio de las particulas finas (PM{sub 2.5}) durante la epoca seca-caliente en la ciudad de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendo G, V. [ITT, 50000 Toluca (Mexico); Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vero_rosen2108@yahoo.com.mx

    2007-07-01

    The first obtained results of the analysis of the fine fraction particulate material (PM{sub 2.5}) samples collected in the Toluca City are presented. The samples analyzed are part of a more extensive campaign that contemplates the low project the one which one carries out this work and that it integrates three climatic times (dry-hot, of rains and dry-cold time) with the purpose of investigating the events of contamination in one complete year. The obtained results correspond to the dry-hot time and its include mainly the database starting from which the temporal variation graphs were obtained, the correlations among elements and the enrichment factor, as well as a multiple correlation analysis. Additionally the gravimetry was measured. Its are not observed significant episodes, however, it was found an element of the traces order, little common in other atmospheric studies as it is arsenic. From the gravimetry it was deduced that the air quality standard of fine particle, it does not violate. (Author)

  18. Structural, magnetic and optical characterization of Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano particles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Y.B., E-mail: ybkans@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Arumugam Pillai Seethai Ammal College, Tiruppattur 630211 (India); Saravanan, R. [Research Centre & PG Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai 625011 (India); Srinivasan, N. [Research Centre & PG Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009 (India); Praveena, K. [School of Physics, Univeristy of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Sadhana, K. [Material Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Bond strength values, between tetrahedral sites and octahedral sites atoms in the unit cell, are evaluated using maximum entropy method (MEM) for the Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano ferrite particles, prepared by co-precipitation method and sintered at 900 °C. The spinel structure is confirmed from the XRD analysis done using the Rietveld method. Substitution of zinc ion causes increase in lattice parameter value. Thermal behavior, morphology, magnetic properties and optical band gap energy values of the sample are determined by using thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer and UV–VIS–NIR techniques respectively. Low value of saturation magnetization is attributed to the disorder in cation distribution.

  19. Separation of VUV/UV photons and reactive particles in the effluent of a He/O{sub 2} atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S; Benedikt, J [Coupled plasma-solid state systems, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Lackmann, J-W; Narberhaus, F; Bandow, J E [Mikrobiologie, Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Denis, B [Institute for Electrical Engineering and Plasma Technology, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2011-07-27

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas can be used for treatment of living tissues or for inactivation of bacteria or biological macromolecules. The treatment is usually characterized by a combined effect of UV and VUV radiation, reactive species and ions. This combination is usually beneficial for the effectiveness of the treatment but it makes the study of fundamental interaction mechanisms very difficult. Here we report on an effective separation of VUV/UV photons and heavy reactive species in the effluent of a microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet ({mu}-APPJ). The separation is realized by an additional flow of helium gas under well-defined flow conditions, which deflects heavy particles in the effluent without affecting the VUV and UV photons. Both components of the effluent, the photons and the reactive species, can be used separately or in combination for sample treatment. The results of treatment of a model plasma polymer film and vegetative Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli cells are shown and discussed. A simple model of the He gas flow and reaction kinetics of oxygen atoms in the gas phase and at the surface is used to provide a better understanding of the processes in the plasma effluent. The new jet modification, called X-Jet for its appearance, will simplify the investigation of interaction mechanisms of atmospheric pressure plasmas with biological samples.

  20. Sol–gel hybrid membranes loaded with meso/macroporous SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} materials with high proton conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Yolanda, E-mail: castro@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICV-CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Mosa, Jadra, E-mail: jmosa@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICV-CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Aparicio, Mario [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICV-CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pérez-Carrillo, Lourdes A.; Vílchez, Susana; Esquena, Jordi [Instituto de Química Avanzada de Cataluña, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IQAC-CSIC), CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Durán, Alicia [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ICV-CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    In this work, highly conductive hybrid organic–inorganic membranes loaded with SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} meso/macroporous particles were prepared via a sol–gel process. Meso/macroporous particles were incorporated to hybrid membranes, for improving water retention and enhancing electrochemical performance. These particles with a polymodal pore size distribution were prepared by templating in highly concentrated emulsions, the particles showed a specific surface area between 50 m{sup 2}/g (TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and 300 m{sup 2}/g (SiO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The particles were dispersed in a hybrid silica sol and further sprayed onto glass paper. The films were polymerized and sintered; those loaded with meso/macroporous particles had a homogenous distribution. High temperature proton conductivity measurements confirmed a high water retention. Conductivity of these materials is higher than that of Nafion{sup ®} at higher temperatures (120 °C) (2·10{sup −2} S/cm). This study provides processing guideline to achieve hybrid electrolytes for efficient conduction of protons due to their high surface area and porous structure. - Highlights: • Hybrid electrolyte with meso/macroporous particles were synthesized by sol–gel. • Depositions of hybrid solutions by spraying onto glass substrates were performed. • Proton conductivity was evaluated as a function of composition and porous structure.

  1. Perovskite-type La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} mesoporous photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, K.; Kawakami, Y.; Imai, H.; Yokoi, T.; Tatsumi, T. [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, R1-10, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Kondo, J.N., E-mail: jnomura@res.titech.ac.jp [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, R1-10, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Crystalline particles of mesoporous La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, a perovskite-type material, were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 210 Degree-Sign C in the presence of structure directing agent. Crystallization and simultaneous sintering occurred in the time course of the hydrothermal treatment, resulting in the improvement in crystallinity with a sacrifice of the decrease in surface area. The photocatalytic property was evaluated by hydrogen evolution from water with methanol sacrificial agent. The increase and the decrease of the material in crystallinity and surface area were responsible for the photocatalytic activity: the activity was improved by crystallization but the concurrent decrease in surface area (increase in size) of crystalline particles was disadvantageous. - Graphical abstract: A homogeneous mixture of La and Ti oxide with amorphous inorganic network was hydrothermally crystallized at low temperatures to a perovskite-type La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The small La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} particles with high crystallinity showed a potential as a photocatalyst for H{sub 2} evolution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline mesopourous La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment encouraged low temperature crystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small crystalline domain was advantageous to a photocatalytic reaction.

  2. Exchange coupling behavior in bimagnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, G.C.P. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Chagas, E.F., E-mail: efchagas@fisica.ufmt.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Pereira, R.; Prado, R.J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Terezo, A.J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Alzamora, M.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 Urca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    In this work we report a study of the magnetic behavior of ferrimagnetic oxide CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ferrimagnetic oxide/ferromagnetic metal CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} nanocomposite. The latter compound is a good system to study hard ferrimagnet/soft ferromagnet exchange coupled. Two steps were followed to synthesize the bimagnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} nanocomposite: (i) first, preparation of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles using a simple hydrothermal method, and (ii) second, reduction reaction of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles using activated charcoal in inert atmosphere and high temperature. The phase structures, particle sizes, morphology, and magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were investigated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy (MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) with applied field up to 3.0 kOe at room temperature and 50 K. The mean diameter of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles is about 16 nm. Mossbauer spectra revealed two sites for Fe{sup 3+}. One site is related to Fe in an octahedral coordination and the other one to the Fe{sup 3+} in a tetrahedral coordination, as expected for a spinel crystal structure of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. TEM measurements of nanocomposite showed the formation of a thin shell of CoFe{sub 2} on the cobalt ferrite and indicate that the nanoparticles increase to about 100 nm. The magnetization of the nanocomposite showed a hysteresis loop that is characteristic of exchange coupled systems. A maximum energy product (BH){sub max} of 1.22 MGOe was achieved at room temperature for CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} nanocomposites, which is about 115% higher than the value obtained for CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} precursor. The exchange coupling interaction and the enhancement of product (BH){sub max} in nanocomposite CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CoFe{sub 2} nanocomposite

  3. Impact of ignition temperature on particle size and magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared by self-propagated MILD combustion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliyamoorthy, Venkatesan; Rajan Babu, D., E-mail: drajanbabu@vit.ac.in; Saminathan, Madeswaran

    2016-11-15

    We prepared nanocrystalline CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} by changing its ignition temperatures, using moderate and intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion technique. The effect of ignition temperature on the particle size and its magnetic behavior was investigated by HR-TEM and VSM respectively. We observed a vast change in the structural behavior and the magnetic properties of the prepared samples. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the resultant samples had single phase with different grain sizes from 23±5 nm to 16±5 nm, which was understood by observing the growth of the grains through heat released from the combustion reaction. FE-SEM analysis showed high porosity with heterogeneous distribution of the pore size based on the adiabatic temperature and EPMA analysis, which confirmed the elemental compositions of the prepared samples. The saturation magnetization values measured at room temperature, employing vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) decreased gradually from 50 to 34 emu/g when the ignition temperature was increased from 243 °C to 400 °C. Some of Fe ions on the B sites moved periodically to the A sites because of quenching treatment. The presence of Fe{sup 2+} ions in the existing ferrite structure ruled the magnetic behavior of the sample, as confirmed by the Mössbauer analysis. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by MILD combustion technique. • Structural behavior and magnetic properties were changed by ignition temperature. • Formation of ferrite complex was confirmed by using FT-IR spectroscopy. • FE-SEM image confirmed the combustion nature by exhibiting the pores and voids. • The cationic distributions were investigated by the Mössbauer analysis.

  4. Fabrication of Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} with enhanced photocatalytic performances for dye pollutants degradation by a pH-induced method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Hai-Tao, E-mail: renhaitaomail@163.com; Yang, Qing

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} was synthesized by a pH-induced chemical precipitation method. • Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} showed good activities in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. • Hydroxyl radicals played the predominant role in methyl orange photodegradation. - Abstract: Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} composites synthesized in this study were applied into the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under UV and visible light irradiation. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis demonstrated that Ag{sub 2}O nanoparticles were well distributed on the surface of TiO{sub 2} and the heterostructure of Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} was formed. Compared with the pure TiO{sub 2} and Ag{sub 2}O, the 3% and 50% Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} composite displayed much higher photocatalytic activities in MO degradation under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively. The degradation rate constant of 50% composite was 0.01508 min{sup −1} under visible light, which was almost 20.1 and 1.2 times more than that of the pure TiO{sub 2} and Ag{sub 2}O, respectively. Moreover, the formation of Ag(0) on the surface of Ag{sub 2}O under illumination contributed to the high stability of Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts. It was also found that hydroxyl radicals during the photocatalytic process played the predominant role in MO degradation. The enhanced photochemical activities were attributed to the formation of the heterostructure between Ag{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2}, the strong visible light absorption and the high separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs resulted from the highly dispersed Ag{sub 2}O particles.

  5. Study of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} - H{sub 2}O - HF compounds; Etude des composes UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} - H{sub 2}O - HF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neveu, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We study various compounds resulting from the interaction of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} with H{sub 2}O and HF (gas), and various triple compounds UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} - H{sub 2}O - HF; the conditions of decomposition and the thermodynamic limits of stability are specified. (author) [French] Nous etudions divers composes formes par reaction de UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} avec H{sub 2}O et HF (gaz) et divers composes triples UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} - H{sub 2}O - HF, en essayant de preciser les decompositions et domaines d'exisfence thermodynamiques de ces corps. (auteur)

  6. Toxicity of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} in Beagle dogs: A. Monodisperse 1.5 {mu}m AMAD particles. B. Monodisperse 3.0 {mu}m particles. XV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewhinney, J A; Gillett, N A; Muggenburg, B A; Hahn, F F; Diel, J H; Mauderly, J L; Boecker, B B; McClellan, R O

    1988-12-01

    Beagle dogs inhaled one of two sizes of monodisperse aerosols of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} that resulted in graded levels of {sup 238}Pu in the lung. All dogs are being studied for their life span. One hundred and thirty-seven dogs that had initial lung burdens ranging from 0.01 to 1.5 {mu}Ci {sup 238}Pu/kg body weight (0.37 to 56 kBq/kg) have died, 8 with radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, 8 with lung tumors, 88 with bone tumors, 10 with liver tumors, and 25 of miscellaneous causes. Eighteen control dogs have died. Observations are being continued on 8 exposed and 6 control dogs alive at 4577-5274 days after exposure. (author)

  7. High temperature oxidation behaviour of nanostructured cermet coatings in amixed CO/sub 2/ - O/sub 2/ environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrokhzad, M. A.; Khan, T. I.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured ceramic-metallic (cermet) coatings composed of nanosized ceramic particles (alpha-Al /sub 2/O/sub 3/ and TiO/sub 2/) dispersed in a nickel matrix were co-electrodeposited and then oxidized at 500 degree C, 600 degree C and 700 degree C in a mixed gas using a Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) apparatus. The mixed gas was composed of 15 percentage CO/sub 2/, 10 percentage O/sub 2/ and 75 percentage N/sub 2/. This research investigates the effects of CO/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ partial pressures on time-depended oxidation rates for coatings and compared them to the results from atmospheric oxidation under similar temperatures. The increase in partial pressure of oxygen due to the presence of CO/sub 2/ at each tested temperature was calculated and correlated to the oxidation rate of the coatings. The results showed that the presence of CO/sub 2/ in the system increased the oxidation rate of cermet coatings when compared to atmospheric oxidation at the same temperature. It was also shown that the increase in the oxidation rate is not the result of CO/sub 2/ acting as the primary oxidant but as a secondary oxidant which results in an increase of the total partial pressure of oxygen and consequently higher oxidation rates. The WDS and XRD analyses results showed that the presence of nanosized TiO/sub 2/ particles in a nickel matrix can improve oxidation behaviour of the coatings by formation of Nu i-Tau i compounds on oxidizing surface of the coating which was found beneficiary in reducing the oxidation rates for cermet coatings. (author)

  8. Characteristic of Ti-based PbO{sub 2} anodes with SnO{sub 2}+Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} intermediate layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Tong, H.; Xu, W. [Yangzhou Univ., College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou (China)

    2006-07-01

    Ceramic coatings are used in many electrochemical applications, such as organic synthetic applications, wastewater treatment and oxygen production. These processes typically occur in aqueous sulphuric acid. Desirable features for electrode materials include electro-catalytic activity, high stability, low cost, good overall performance under mild conditions and commercial availability. Lead dioxide exhibits excellent chemical stability, high conductivity, high overpotential for oxygen evolution and lower cost in an acid medium. Studies have shown that the stability of active coating prepared by depositing lead dioxide on titanium substrate is poor. In order to solve this problems, methods of doping expensive noble metals or adding an intermediate layer have been examined. Electrode coatings are very sensitive to preparation procedures, in which precursors play an important role in the surface morphology, microstructure, final composition and stability of anodes. However, appreciable inorganic salt loss has been reported using traditional precursors. A polymeric precursor (PP) method commonly used in the preparation of nano-particles has certain advantages, such as easy manipulation and insensitivity to the presence of water. This study characterized the surface morphology and electrochemical behaviour of titanium (Ti)/tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) plus antimony oxide ((Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3})/lead dioxide (PbO{sub 2}) anode with SnO{sub 2} plus Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} intermediate coatings. The electrochemical performance of Ti/SnO{sub 2}+Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PbO{sub 2} anode preparing intermediate layer by the PP method was compared with alcohol precursors. It was concluded that adding SnO{sub 2}+Sb2O{sub 3} intermediate layer to Ti/PbO{sub 2} anodes could enhance the lifetime and stability of the anodes, thus its performance. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Environmental application of millimetre-scale sponge iron (s-Fe{sup 0}) particles (IV): New insights into visible light photo-Fenton-like process with optimum dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and RhB photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yongming, E-mail: juyongming@scies.org [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Innovative Laboratory for Environmental Functional Materials and Environmental Applications of Microwave Irradiation, South China Subcenter of State Environmental Dioxin Monitoring Center, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment Integrated Control, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Yu, Yunjiang, E-mail: yuyunjiang@scies.org [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Wang, Xiaoyan; Xiang, Mingdeng; Li, Liangzhong [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Deng, Dongyang [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Guangzhou 510655 (China); Innovative Laboratory for Environmental Functional Materials and Environmental Applications of Microwave Irradiation, South China Subcenter of State Environmental Dioxin Monitoring Center, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment Integrated Control, South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering (DBCEE), University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45221-0012 (United States)

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Synergistic action of Rhodamine B (RhB), visible light, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and s-Fe{sup 0} is essential. • The complexes of RhB and Fe{sup 3+} eject one electron via ligand-to-metal charge-transfer. • RhB assists the photo-Fenton-like removal of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). - Abstract: In this study, we firstly develop the photo-Fenton-like system with millimetric sponge iron (s-Fe{sup 0}), H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, visible light (vis, λ ≥ 420 nm) and rhodamine B (RhB), and present a comprehensive study concerning the mechanism. Thus, we investigate (1) the adsorption of RhB onto s-Fe{sup 0}, (2) the photo-Fenton-like removal of RhB over iron oxides generated from the corrosion of s-Fe{sup 0}, (3) the homogeneous photo-Fenton removal of RhB over Fe{sup 2+} or Fe{sup 3+}, (4) the Fe{sup 3+}-RhB complexes, and (5) the photo-Fenton-like removal of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). The results show that neither the adsorption process over s-Fe{sup 0} nor the photo-Fenton-like process over FeOOH, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, achieved efficient removal of RhB. For comparison, in homogeneous photo-Fenton process, the presence of Fe{sup 3+} ions, rather than Fe{sup 2+} ions, effectively eliminated RhB. Furthermore, the UV–vis spectra showing new absorbance at ∼ 285 nm indicate the complexes of RhB and Fe{sup 3+} ions, adopting vis photons to form excited state and further eject one electron via ligand-to-metal charge-transfer to activate H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Additionally, efficient TBBPA removal was obtained only in the presence of RhB. Accordingly, the s-Fe{sup 0}– based photo-Fenton-like process assisted with dyestuff wastewater is promising for removing a series of persistent organic pollutants.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of MoS{sub 2} cocatalysts for H{sub 2}-generation; Darstellung und Charakterisierung von MoS{sub 2} Cokatalysatoren fuer die H{sub 2}-Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djamil, John

    2015-10-05

    } nanoparticles as a function of milling time but with the same chemical composition. In doing so, the MoS{sub 2} stacking was reduced more rapidly than the slab length, yielding in increasing aspects ratios and thus affecting the particle shape. All nanosized cocatalysts exceeded bulk MoS{sub 2} in light driven hydrogen generation. The enhancement of H{sub 2} generation on MoS{sub 2} was achieved by addition of carbon, improving the electron conductivity and suppressing recombination processes. The positive influence of MoS{sub 2} edge sites on H{sub 2} generation was proofed by structural properties of the cocatalysts. Additionally, the importance of the particle shape on photocatalytic properties was demonstrated. Photocatalytic investigations on novel transition metal sulfides and -oxides for H{sub 2} evolution yielded in a rash of promising materials.

  11. Investigation of superior electro-optical properties of SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite over its individual counterpart SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naveen Kumar, P.; Sahaya Selva Mary, J.; Chandrakala, V.; Jothi Jeyarani, W.; Merline Shyla, J., E-mail: jmshyla@gmail.com

    2017-06-01

    A comparative investigation of SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite with SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles has been conducted in the present study with the intent of learning the probable enhancement of the properties of the nanocomposite over those of the bare nanoparticles which has not been widely reported before. SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite have been synthesized via the facile and versatile sol-gel method. The samples were characterized with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) studies, Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–Visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy and Field-dependent photo conductivity technique for the evaluation of their crystallite size, structure & morphology, surface, chemical, optical and electrical properties respectively. Scherrer’s equation was used to determine the crystallite size of the as-synthesized samples from the XRD data. The particle size of SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite as observed through HRSEM was found to be reduced when compared with the bare SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles suggesting a possible increase in the optical band gap of the former which has been further confirmed in the optical studies. The surface area of SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite revealed a remarkable enrichment by approximately 5 folds in comparison with that of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles which suggests an enhancement in its corresponding optical and electrical properties. The SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite recorded appreciated values of field-dependent photo and dark currents with several folds of augmentation thereby qualifying as an efficient photoconducting material. Attributed with an improved surface area and increased photoconducting nature, the SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite could be presented as an excellent photoanode material for nanomaterials based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). - Highlights: • SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2

  12. Sintering effect on structural, magnetic and optical properties of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nano particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Y.B., E-mail: ybkans@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Arumugam Pillai Seethai Ammal College, Tiruppattur 630211 (India); Saravanan, R. [PG & Research Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai 625011 (India); Srinivasan, N. [PG & Research Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College, Madurai 625009 (India); Ismail, I. [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2017-02-01

    Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano ferrite particles have been prepared by mechanical alloying via high energy ball milling and sintered at different temperatures from 700 °C to 1000 °C. Spinel structure is confirmed from the analysis of XRD data. Rietveld refinement method is employed to refine the XRD powder data and the structural parameters are calculated from the refinement. Small amount of hematite phase is found in all samples. The SEM, EDAX and XRF analysis reveals respectively the morphology, stoichiometric composition and purity of the powder samples. Using Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) the values of the bond strength between various sites interactions in ferrites are evaluated and compared with theoretical predictions of strengthening/weakening of various sites interactions from the values of interionic distances and interionic bond angles. Ferromagnetic nature of the samples is confirmed from the vibrating sample magnetometer study. The obtained low saturation magnetization values are attributed to presence of second phase. The optical band gap energy of the samples was determined by using UV–VIS techniques. - Highlights: • Raw XRD data were refined using Rietveld refinement method using JANA 2006 software. • Fraction of zinc ions occupies at B site. • Bond strength between the atoms at A-site and B-site is studied by employing maximum entropy method (MEM). • From the MEM result, numerical values of the bond strength between various interactions (A–B, A–A, B–B) have been evaluated. • Various sites interactions results are compared with that of hitherto existing theoretical predictions.

  13. Preparation and characterization of Pt–CeO{sub 2}/C and Pt–TiO{sub 2}/C electrocatalysts with improved electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, R.M. Abdel [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Amin, R.S. [Chemical Engineering Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); El-Khatib, K.M., E-mail: Kamelced@hotmail.com [Chemical Engineering Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Fetohi, Amani E. [Chemical Engineering Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adding TiO{sub 2} or CeO{sub 2} to Pt/C reduced its Pt particle size. • Methanol oxidation current density decreased as Pt–CeO{sub 2}/C > Pt–TiO{sub 2}/C > Pt/C. • Decreased R{sub ct} values were observed at Pt–TiO{sub 2}/C and Pt–CeO{sub 2}/C. - Abstract: Pt–TiO{sub 2}/C and Pt–CeO{sub 2}/C electrocatalysts were synthesized by solid state reaction of TiO{sub 2}/C and CeO{sub 2}/C powders using intermittent microwave heating, followed by chemical reduction of platinum ions using mixed reducing agents of ethylene glycol and sodium borohydride. The crystal structure, surface morphology and chemical composition of prepared electrocatalysts were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The phase angle values of different Pt diffraction planes in Pt–TiO{sub 2}/C and Pt–CeO{sub 2}/C were shifted in the positive direction relative to those in Pt/C. Pt particles with diameter values of 3.06 and 2.78 nm were formed in Pt–TiO{sub 2}/C and Pt–CeO{sub 2}/C, respectively. The electrochemical performance of prepared electrocatalysts was examined using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Pt–CeO{sub 2}/C showed an enhanced oxidation current density when compared to Pt/C. Long time oxidation test at Pt–TiO{sub 2}/C and Pt–CeO{sub 2}/C revealed their improved stability. Lower charge transfer resistance values were estimated at Pt–metal oxide/C electrocatalysts.

  14. SiO{sub 2}@SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite with a coating and hierarchical structure as high performance anode material for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingfa; Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyzhang@gdut.edu.cn; Chen, Yiming; Li, Na; Li, Yunyong; Liu, Liying

    2016-08-25

    In order to ease the agglomeration and huge volume change of SnO{sub 2} particles, SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were usually anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and used as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Unfortunately, graphene sheets tended to overlap with adjacent ones and SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles still suffered from agglomeration and huge volume changes to some extent. In this paper, a composite SiO{sub 2}@SnO{sub 2}/rGO with coating and hierarchical structure was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles mono-dispersed on the surface of rGO sheets and SiO{sub 2} spheres, while the SiO{sub 2}@SnO{sub 2} spheres were imbedded in the layers of rGO, which was in favor of alleviating the overlapping of graphene sheets and could make large spacious room to accommodate the huge volume changes of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. SiO{sub 2}@SnO{sub 2}/rGO composite also displayed good electrochemical performance. In the first charge/discharge cycle, the SiO{sub 2}@SnO{sub 2}/rGO electrode exhibited a large discharge capacity of 1548 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} and it still retained a discharge capacity of about 600 mA h g{sup −1} after 100 cycles. - Highlights: • Anodes fabricated by using activated carbon have the highest fracture strength. • SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are mono-dispersed on the surface of rGO sheets and SiO{sub 2} spheres. • The hierarchical structure SiO{sub 2}@SnO{sub 2}/rGO shows a good electrochemical performance.

  15. Preparation of transparent fluorocarbon/TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite coating with improved self-cleaning performance and anti-aging property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianping, E-mail: zf161162@163.com; Tan, Zhongyuan; Liu, Zhilei; Jing, Mengmeng; Liu, Wenjie; Fu, Wanli

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: Semicrystalline colloidal particles of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite oxide were prepared via a sol-gel approach and annealed by a microwave heating treatment. The fabricated fluorocarbon/TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings are transparent, exhibit a highly stable and excellent hydrophilicity, an improved photocatalytic activity and outstanding self-cleaning performance. What’s more, the composite coatings display an excellent anti-aging performance toward UV irradiation. These findings indicate that the fluorocarbon/TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings could be potentially used for outdoor applications. - Highlights: • Semicrystalline colloidal particles of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite oxide presenting a particle size of 6–10 nm were prepared via a sol-gel approach and annealed by microwave heating method. • The fabricated transparent fluorocarbon/TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings exhibited a superior hydrophilicity, an improved photocatalytic activity and excellent self-cleaning performance. • The fluorocarbon/TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings exhibited an excellent anti-aging performance toward UV irradiation, rendering it quite suitable for outdoor applications. - Abstract: This work reports a facile method to fabricate transparent self-cleaning fluorocarbon coatings filled by semicrystalline colloidal particles of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite oxide presenting a particle size ranging from 6 to 10 nm. Anatase-TiO{sub 2} crystallites were successfully obtained after microwave heating treatment of the TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} colloidal particles as confirmed by XRD, TEM and FTIR measurements. The fluorocarbon/TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite coatings exhibited a superior hydrophilicity and an improved photocatalytic activity in contrast to the TiO{sub 2}-filled coatings. In particular, a water contact angle (WCA) value of 4.5° and a decolorization ratio relative to methyl orange as high as 96.0% were

  16. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhilin [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Blair, Richard G. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Orlovskaya, Nina, E-mail: Nina.Orlovskaya@ucf.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Cullen, David A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Andrew Payzant, E. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB{sub 2}-type OsB{sub 2} ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched {sup 11}B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline {sup 11}B powder was used as a raw material, only Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to −225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB{sub 2}+3O{sub 2}→2Os+2B{sub 2}O{sub 3} took place due to presence of O{sub 2}/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB{sub 2} lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276–426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB{sub 2} lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O{sub 2}, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice

  17. A novel material Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Preparation and performance as anode of lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Keqiang, E-mail: dkeqiang@263.net [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050024 (China); Zhao, Jing [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050024 (China); Zhou, Jinming, E-mail: zhoujm@iccas.ac.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050024 (China); Zhao, Yongbo; Chen, Yuying; Liu, Likun [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050024 (China); Wang, Li [Institute of Nuclear & New Energy Technology, Beijing Key Lab of Fine Ceramics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); He, Xiangming, E-mail: hexm@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear & New Energy Technology, Beijing Key Lab of Fine Ceramics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Guo, Zhanhu, E-mail: zguo10@utk.edu [Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, NT, 37996 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, the preparation and characterization of a novel anode material Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are reported in this work. The preparation of Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is conducted under the air conditions by using a subsection calcination method. The influence of annealing periods on the properties of the resultant materials is thoroughly explored. The characteristics of the materials are mainly examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results of the XRD patterns effectively demonstrate the formation of crystalline Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and the SEM images indicate that particles with octahedron crystal morphology are prepared and the 9 h-annealed sample has the smallest particle size among all the prepared samples. The results of electrochemical measurements reveal that 9 h-calcined sample delivers a high specific capacity of 203 mAh g{sup −1} after 20 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. The successful preparation of Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is believed to be able to trigger the research work concerning the novel group of Li{sub 2}MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials. - Highlights: • A novel anode material Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared under the air conditions. • Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed well-defined octahedron crystal morphology. • 9 h-annealed Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} delivered a capacity of 203 mAh g{sup −1}.

  18. Electronic structure of LaFe{sub 2}X{sub 2} (X = Si,Ge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, I., E-mail: i.hase@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yanagisawa, T. [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    We have calculated the electronic structure of LaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and LaFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} from first-principles. The obtained Fermi surfaces of LaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and LaFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} resemble those of LaRu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, which well explains the result of the dHvA experiments of CeRu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. Their density of states curves show the common feature with CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. D(E{sub F}) strongly depends on the distortion of the FeX{sub 4} tetrahedra and/or the height of the X atom, as also found in iron-pnictide system. Recently found iron-pnictide superconductor (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} both have the same crystal structure. In this paper we have calculated the electronic structure of LaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and LaFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} from first-principles. These compounds also have the same crystal structure and closely related to both of (Ba,K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and CeRu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. The obtained Fermi surfaces of LaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and LaFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} resemble those of LaRu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, which are already found that they well explain the results of the dHvA experiments of CeRu{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. Their density of states curves show the common feature with CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. The density of states at the Fermi level strongly depends on the distortion of the FeX{sub 4} tetrahedra and/or the height of the X atom from the two-dimensional Fe plane, as also found in iron-pnictide system. The electronic specific heat coefficient is 11.8 mJ/mol K{sup 2} for LaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and 12.5 mJ/mol K{sup 2} for LaFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, which is about 1/3 and 1/2 of experimental results, respectively.

  19. Nano-grain SnO{sub 2} electrodes for high conversion efficiency SnO{sub 2}-DSSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Yu-Ju [Department of Chemistry, the Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do 422-743 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Nam-Gyu [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The nano-grain ZnO/SnO{sub 2} composite electrode was prepared by adding 5 w% of the 200-250 nm ZnO particles to the 5 nm SnO{sub 2} colloid in the presence of hydroxypropylcellulose (M.W.=80,000). The nano-grain SnO{sub 2} electrode was obtained by removing the ZnO particles from the composite electrode using acetic acid. The FE-SEM micrographs revealed that both electrodes consisted of interconnected nano-grains that were ca. 800 nm in size, and the large pores between the grains furnished the wide electrolyte diffusion channels within the electrodes. The photovoltaic properties of the nano-grain electrodes were investigated by measuring the I-V behaviors, the IPCE spectra and the ac-impedance spectra. The nano-grain electrodes exhibited remarkably improved conversion efficiencies of 3.96% for the composite and 2.98% for the SnO{sub 2} electrode compared to the value of 1.66% for the usual nano-particle SnO{sub 2} electrode. The improvement conversion efficiencies were mainly attributed to the formation of nano-grains, which facilitated the electron diffusion within the grains. The improved electrolyte diffusion as well as the light-scattering effects enhanced the photovoltaic performance of the SnO{sub 2} electrode. (author)

  20. Confined release of CO{sub 2} into the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, E.E.; Zhang, X.Y.; Herzog, H.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    To help reduce global warming, it has been proposed to sequester some CO{sub 2} in the deep ocean. However, current pipe technology is limited to about 600-650 m{sup 4}, so deeper transport requires other means. Recently, it was suggested that CO{sub 2} could be released at depths of 200 - 400 m as a concentrated seawater solution. The dense solution would form a negatively buoyant gravity current and sink to greater depth. In the following we expand our previous calculations showing that an unconfined release of CO{sub 2} will not create sufficient concentration or negative buoyancy. However, release of either compressed gaseous or liquid CO{sub 2} into an appropriately designed confinement vessel could produce sufficient concentration to transport the current to deeper water. Furthermore, such a scheme may facilitate formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate particles that are heavier than seawater, causing further sinking. A recently completed Research Needs assessment study which we conducted for DOE concludes that shallow water disposal of CO{sub 2} may be the most promising CO{sub 2} disposal option.

  1. Growth of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} coherent layers on UO{sub 2} microsphere surface via sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Luciana S.; Silva, Edilaine F.; Oliveira, Felipe W.F.; Pereira, Yara S.; Brandão, Alisson F.C.; Santos, Ana Maria M.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Reis, Sergio C.; Pedrosa, Tércio A.; Santos, Armindo, E-mail: santosa@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we synthesized and characterized UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nuclear fuel via three routes, aiming to solve the problems arising from the addition of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in UO{sub 2} matrix. By the industrial route, the mixture of powders (UO{sub 2}, <90 μ and 6 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} <10 μm) results in pellets with 91% TD at 1677 °C/H{sub 2}/4 h. By the mixed route, the formation of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} coherent layers on UO{sub 2} powder (particles <90 μ) and microsphere (225 μm) surface produced UO{sub 2} - 6 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets with 95% (powder; 1625 °C/H{sub 2}/4 hr) and 83% (microsphere; 1677°C/H{sub 2}/4 hr) TD. By the sol-gel route, we obtained UO{sub 2} - 6 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a deagglomerated (powder; <70 μm) or agglomerated microsphere 232 μm) form whose pellets reached > 97% (powder) and >98% (microsphere) TI) at 1677 °C/H{sub 2}/4h. According to XRD, OM, and SEM/EDS analysis, the referred three routes do not form a complete solid solution of UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the temperatures and time of sintering used; Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} granule islands are present in the pellets originating from these routes. The obtained results suggest that the topological arrangement and the deficient nanostructuring of UO{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases, either in the raw material (powder and microsphere) as in their compacts, are the cause of low densification and irregular distribution of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in UO{sub 2} matrix; mixing of U and Gd at the molecular level does not form a solid solution; and the mixed route is a good alternative to the industrial route. (author)

  2. Precipitation of Ag{sub 2}Te in the thermoelectric material AgSbTe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugar, Joshua D. [Materials Physics Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)], E-mail: jdsugar@sandia.gov; Medlin, Douglas L. [Materials Physics Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-06-10

    The microstructure of AgSbTe{sub 2}, prepared by solidification, is investigated using electron microscopy. During solidification and thermal treatment, the material separates into a two-phase mixture of a rocksalt phase, which is Ag{sub 22}Sb{sub 28}Te{sub 50}, and silver telluride, Ag{sub 2}Te. Ag{sub 2}Te formation results either from eutectic solidification (large lamellar structures), or by solid-state precipitation (fine-scale particles). The crystal structure of the AgSbTe{sub 2} phase determined by electron diffraction is consistent with a rocksalt structure that has a disordered cation sublattice. A preferred crystallographic orientation relationship at the interface between the matrix and the low-temperature monoclinic Ag{sub 2}Te phase is defined and discussed. This orientation relationship is observed for both second-phase morphologies. In both cases, the orientation relationship originates from a topotactic (cube-on-cube) alignment of the Te sublattices in the initially cubic Ag{sub 2}Te and the matrix at elevated temperature. This Te sublattice alignment is retained as the Ag{sub 2}Te undergoes a cubic-to-monoclinic transformation during cooling. This orientation relationship is observed for both second-phase morphologies.

  3. Anti-bombing insensitivity life of molybdenum cathode doped with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinshu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)]. E-mail: wangjsh@bjut.edu.cn; Wang Yiman [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Zhou Meiling [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2006-03-15

    Anti-bombing insensitivity of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Mo secondary emitter has been studied in this paper. The variation of maximum secondary emission coefficient {delta} {sub max} with time was measured. The cathode after life experiment was analyzed by means of HRM, SEM, EDS and XRD. The results showed that {delta} {sub max} of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Mo cathode operating at 1100 deg. C under continuous electron bombardment of 300 W/cm{sup 2} was still about 2.5 after 1000 h operation, indicating that this kind of cathode had good anti-bombing insensitivity. In the internal part of the cathode, RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} (rare earth oxide) and molybdenum grains distributed alternately and there existed a certain relationship between crystallographic orientation of RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} and that of molybdenum. It was found that a RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer was formed on the surface after operation. The high {delta} {sub max} of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Mo cathode was related to the RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer on the surface and the amount of nanosized La{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles on the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer.

  4. A density functional theory study of the adsorption behaviour of CO{sub 2} on Cu{sub 2}O surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Abhishek Kumar, E-mail: akmishra@ddn.upes.ac.in, E-mail: abhishek.mishra@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: deleeuwn@cardiff.ac.uk [Research & Development, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Bidholi, Dehradun 248007 (India); Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Roldan, Alberto [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Leeuw, Nora H. de, E-mail: akmishra@ddn.upes.ac.in, E-mail: abhishek.mishra@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: deleeuwn@cardiff.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-28

    Copper has many applications, particularly in electro-catalysis, where the oxidation state of the copper electrode plays a significant role in the selectivity towards products. Although copper-based materials have clear potential as catalysts in the reduction of CO{sub 2} and conversion to products, fundamental understanding of CO{sub 2} adsorption and activation on different copper oxide surfaces is still limited. We have used DFT+U methodology to study the surface reconstruction of the three most exposed (111), (110), and (001) surfaces of Cu{sub 2}O with different possible terminations. Considering several adsorbate geometries, we have investigated CO{sub 2} adsorption on five different possible terminations and proposed eight different configurations in which CO{sub 2} binds with the surface. Similar to earlier findings, CO{sub 2} binds weakly with the most stable Cu{sub 2}O(111):O surface showing no molecular activation, whereas a number of other surfaces, which can appear in the Cu{sub 2}O particles morphology, show stronger binding as well as activation of the CO{sub 2} molecule. Different CO{sub 2} coverages were studied and a detailed structural and electronic charge analysis is presented. The activation of the CO{sub 2} molecule is characterized by structural transformations and charge transfer between the surface and the CO{sub 2} molecule, which is further confirmed by considerable red shifts in the vibrational frequencies.

  5. Preparation and near-infrared absorption of nano-SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} assemblies with doping and without doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai Shujie [Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Lu Mo Road 388, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yan Chunjie, E-mail: chjyan2005@126.co [Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials, Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Lu Mo Road 388, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu Hongjie; Xiao Guoqi; Wang Duo [Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Lu Mo Road 388, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2009-11-20

    The assemblies of nano-SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and Sb- or Pd-doped nano-SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}, in which the nano-SnO{sub 2} particles are located in the pores of mesoporous SiO{sub 2} dry gels, were synthesized. Only for the Sb-doped nano-SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} assemblies, a broad near-infrared absorption step occurs in the optical absorption spectrum of the wavelength range from 300 to 1500 nm. The near-infrared absorption phenomenon is attributed to electronic transitions from the ground states to the excitation states of the impurity energy levels, which are formed by Sb doping in SnO{sub 2}. With increasing the weight ratio of SnO{sub 2}:SiO{sub 2} or the annealing temperature, the near-infrared absorption step slope side exhibits 'red shift', which is caused by the quantum confinement effect weakening due to the increased SnO{sub 2} crystalline diameter.

  6. Preparation and characterization of Au/CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, Bartlomiej; Lambrechts, Kalle [Ugelstad Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Oye, Gisle, E-mail: gisle.oye@chemeng.ntnu.no [Ugelstad Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile method for preparing Au/CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} monoliths with hierarchical porosity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous-flow testing of the monoliths in liquid-phase oxidation of glucose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased catalytic activity in the presence of cerium oxide (stirred-batch tests). - Abstract: Porous CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} monoliths with hierarchical pore structure were prepared by mixing boehmite particles with solutions containing different amounts of cerium chloride and aluminum nitrate. The monoliths were functionalized with gold nanoparticles using the incipient wetness method. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, mercury porosimetry, UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The catalysts were tested in liquid phase glucose oxidation, comparing continuously stirred batch reactor and continuous-flow fix-bed reactor setups.

  7. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. II. H{sub 2}S AND SO{sub 2} PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN ANOXIC ATMOSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William, E-mail: hury@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere, which would condense to form aerosols if saturated. For terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars or M stars, Earth-like sulfur emission rates result in optically thick haze composed of elemental sulfur in reducing H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres for a wide range of particle diameters (0.1-1 {mu}m), which is assumed as a free parameter in our simulations. In oxidized atmospheres composed of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, optically thick haze, composed of elemental sulfur aerosols (S{sub 8}) or sulfuric acid aerosols (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), will form if the surface sulfur emission is two orders of magnitude more than the volcanic sulfur emission of Earth. Although direct detection of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} by their spectral features is unlikely, their emission might be inferred by observing aerosol-related features in reflected light with future generation

  8. Preparation and catalytic activities for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition of Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haijun, E-mail: zhanghaijun@wust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Bayan Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Refractory and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Deng, Xiangong; Jiao, Chengpeng; Lu, Lilin; Zhang, Shaowei [The State Key Laboratory of Refractory and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: PVP-protected Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) were prepared by using hydrogen sacrificial reduction method, the activity of Rh80Au20 BNPs were about 3.6 times higher than that of Rh NPs. - Highlights: • Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) of 3∼5 nm in diameter were prepared. • Activity for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition of BNPs is 3.6 times higher than that of Rh NPs. • The high activity of BNPs was caused by the existence of charged Rh atoms. • The apparent activation energy for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition over the BNPs was calculated. - Abstract: PVP-protected Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) were prepared by using hydrogen sacrificial reduction method and characterized by UV–vis, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, TEM, HR-TEM and DF-STEM, the effects of composition on their particle sizes and catalytic activities for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition were also studied. The as-prepared Rh/Au BNPs possessed a high catalytic activity for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, and the activity of the Rh{sub 80}Au{sub 20} BNPs with average size of 2.7 nm were about 3.6 times higher than that of Rh monometallic nanoparticles (MNPs) even the Rh MNPs possess a smaller particle size of 1.7 nm. In contrast, Au MNPs with size of 2.7 nm show no any activity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation as well as XPS results showed that charged Rh and Au atoms formed via electronic charge transfer effects could be responsible for the high catalytic activity of the BNPs.

  9. CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketzer, Marcelo [Brazilian Carbon Storage Research Center (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation the importance of the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} is outlined for the reduction of gas discharges of greenhouse effect; then the principles of CO{sub 2} storage in geologic formations are reviewed; afterwards, the analogs for the CO{sub 2} storage are commented, such as the storage of the acid gas, the natural gas storage and the natural CO{sub 2} deposits. Also it is spoken on the CO{sub 2} storage in coal, in water-bearing saline deposits and in oil fields, and finally the subject of the safety and monitoring of the CO{sub 2} storage is reviewed. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se expone la importancia de la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} para la reduccion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero; luego se tratan los principios de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en formaciones geologicas; despues se comentan los analogos para el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} como el almacenamiento del gas acido, el almacenamiento de gas natural y los yacimientos naturales de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se habla sobre el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en carbon, acuiferos salinos y yacimientos petroliferos y por ultimo se toca el tema de la seguridad y monitoreo del almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}.

  10. Synthesis and structure of Sr{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In and Sr{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muts, I. [Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Inorganic Chemistry Dept., Ivan Franko National Univ. of Lviv (Ukraine); Nilges, T.; Rodewald, U.C.; Poettgen, R. [Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Zaremba, V.I. [Inorganic Chemistry Dept., Ivan Franko National Univ. of Lviv (Ukraine)

    2007-12-15

    The new intermetallic compounds Sr{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In and Sr{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}In were synthesized from the elements in sealed tantalum tubes in a water-cooled sample chamber of an induction furnace. Both indides crystallize with the HT-Pr{sub 2}Co{sub 2}Al-type structure: C2/c, a = 1048.7(2), b = 603.5(2), c = 830.6(1) pm. {beta} = 103.68(2) , wR2 = 0.0492, 743 F{sup 2} values for Sr{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In; a = 1026.8(2), b = 599.0(1), c = 830.3(2) pm, {beta} = 103.17(1) , wR2 = 0.0666, 885 F{sup 2} values for Sr{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}In with 25 variables per refinement. The shortest interatomic distances occur for the Pd-In (Pt-In) and Pd-Pd (Pt-Pt) contacts. The strontium atoms are embedded in complex three-dimensional polyanionic networks of compositions [Pd{sub 2}In] and [Pt{sub 2}In]. (orig.)

  11. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sub 2}O heterostructure with enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activities under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bingkun, E-mail: liubk2015@zzuli.edu.cn [School of Material and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Mu, Lilong; Han, Bing [School of Material and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Zhang, Jingtao [School of Food and Bioengineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Shi, Hengzhen, E-mail: shihz@zzuli.edu.cn [School of Material and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sub 2}O composite photocatalyst was synthesized successfully. • The composites show better photocatalytic activity for MB under visible light. • The composites also possess good antibacterial properties. • The mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activities was investigated. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sub 2}O heterostructure prepared by a facile in situ precipitation route was used as an effective visible light-driven photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue (MB) and inactivation of E. coli. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that Ag{sub 2}O nanoparticles were well distributed on the surface of TiO{sub 2} microspheres. The TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sub 2}O composite with optimal mass ratio of TiO{sub 2} and Ag{sub 2}O displayed extremely good photodegradation ability and antibacterial capability under visible light irradiation, which was mainly ascribed to the synergistic effect between Ag{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2,} including highly dispersed smaller Ag{sub 2}O particles, increased visible light absorption and efficient separation of photo-induced charge carriers. Meanwhile, the roles of the radical species in the photocatalysis process were investigated. Our results showed that the TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sub 2}O could be used as a dual functional material in water treatment of removing the organic pollutant and killing the bacterium at the same time.

  12. Electrochemical behaviour of TiO{sub 2} reinforced Al 7075 composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karunanithi, R., E-mail: karunaponni@gmail.com; Bera, Supriya; Ghosh, K.S., E-mail: ksghosh2001@yahoo.co.uk

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Clustering of TiO{sub 2} particle and porosity increased with increasing TiO{sub 2}. • Coarse and numerous very fine η′ and η precipitates in T6 temper composite. • Shifting corrosion potential to noble direction with increasing TiO{sub 2}. • Corrosion is maximum for 30 vol.% TiO{sub 2} composite and least for 7075 alloy. • Pitting damage greater with the increasing TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Microstructures of sintered Al 7075 alloy and Al 7075 alloy reinforced with varying TiO{sub 2} composites exhibited uniform distribution of TiO{sub 2} particles, but clustering and porosity have increased with TiO{sub 2} content. TEM micrographs of the Al 7075 alloy and Al 7075 + TiO{sub 2} composite of peak aged T6 (PA) temper showed some coarse and numerous very fine η′ (MgZn{sub 2}) precipitates, and equilibrium η (MgZn{sub 2}) precipitates along the grain boundaries. Potentiodynamic electrochemical polarisation studies on the Al 7075 alloy of different tempers and Al 7075 + TiO{sub 2} composites in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution showed that the corrosion potentials (E{sub corr}) have shifted towards noble direction with the addition of TiO{sub 2}, and there is an increase of corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) beyond 10 vol.% TiO{sub 2} in the composites. This is attributed to the increase in particle-matrix interface areas enhancing pitting corrosion. Optical micrographs of the corroded surface of 30% TiO{sub 2} composites exhibited maximum pitting damage.

  13. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} sol in a neutral solution using TiCl{sub 4} as a precursor and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxidizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasirekha, Natarajan; Rajesh, Baskaran [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Wen, E-mail: ywchen@cc.ncu.edu.t [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-02

    Nanosize TiO{sub 2} thin film on glass substrate was obtained through dip-coating method using TiO{sub 2} sol. Suspended nanosize TiO{sub 2} sols with anatase structure in aqueous solution were synthesized by sol-gel method using TiCl{sub 4} as a precursor. TiCl{sub 4} was reacted with an aqueous solution of NH{sub 4}OH to form Ti(OH){sub 4}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was then added to form peroxo titanic acid. It was further heated in water and converted to TiO{sub 2}. The effects of the preparation parameters, viz., pH value of the Ti(OH){sub 4} gel, concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and heating temperature and time, on the properties of the TiO{sub 2} sol were investigated. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the primary TiO{sub 2} particles were rhombus with the major axis ca. 10 nm and minor axis ca. 4 nm, and were in anatase structure. The sol was excellent in dispersibility and was stable in neutral and even slight basic conditions for at least 2 years without causing agglomeration. The best preparation condition was optimized with the pH value of Ti(OH){sub 4} gel at 8, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} mole ratio of 2, and heating at 97 {sup o}C for 8 h. The transparent adherent TiO{sub 2} film on glass substrates exhibits strong hydrophilicity after illuminating with ultraviolet light and it can be used as an efficient photocatalyst.

  14. Electrodeposition of flake-like Cu{sub 2}O on vertically aligned two-dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanosheet array films for enhanced photoelectrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lei [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Co-operative Innovation Research Center for Weak Signal-Detecting Materials and Devices Integration, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Institute of Applied Physics AOA, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, Miao; Zhu, Kerong [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Lv, Jianguo [School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230601 (China); He, Gang [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Sun, Zhaoqi, E-mail: szq@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flake-like Cu{sub 2}O/TNS with exposed {001} facets constructed p-n heterostructure. • The TNS arrays were used as starting substrates for Cu{sub 2}O growth. • The Cu{sub 2}O/TNS prepared at −0.4 V exhibits the best photoelectrochemical property. - Abstract: A novel Cu{sub 2}O/TNS composite structure of single crystal TiO{sub 2} nanosheet (TNS) arrays decorated with flake-like Cu{sub 2}O were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal reaction followed by the electrodeposition process. The effects of deposition potential on the microstructure, morphology, and optical property of the thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectrophotometer. When the deposition potential is higher than −0.4 V, peaks corresponding to Cu appear, meanwhile, flake-like Cu{sub 2}O become agglomerating, and transform into dense Cu{sub 2}O particles. Additionally, photoelectrochemical experiments indicate that the films deposited at −0.4 V show the lowest resistivity and highest exciton separation efficiency. This enhanced photoelectrochemical properties can be explained by synergistic effect of p-type flake-like Cu{sub 2}O and n-type TiO{sub 2} heterojunctions combined with two-dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanosheet with exposed highly reactive {001} facets.

  15. Electron microscopy of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst morphology for deep desulfurization of diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yee Cia, E-mail: gabrielle.ciayin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Kait, Chong Fai, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my; Fatimah, Hayyiratul, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com; Wilfred, Cecilia, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared and characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The average particle sizes of the photocatalysts were ranging from 25.7 to 35.8 nm. Incorporation of Mg on TiO{sub 2} did not lead to any surface lattice distortion to TiO{sub 2}. HRTEM data indicated the presence of MgO and Mg(OH){sub 2} mixture at low Mg loading while at higher Mg loading, the presence of lamellar Mg-oxyhydroxide intermediates and Mg(OH){sub 2}.

  16. SO{sub 2} removal from flue gas by activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilgun Karatepe; Ilkun Orbak; Reha Yavuz; Ayse Ozyuguran [Istanbul Technical University, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey). Institute of Energy

    2007-07-01

    Adsorption of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) onto activated carbons prepared from Tuncbilek lignite with different methods was investigated. Experimental results showed that the adsorption temperature, initial SO{sub 2} concentration, particle size of the activated carbon and H{sub 2}O content in the flue gas had significantly effect on the amounts of SO{sub 2} adsorbed. Textural (BET surface area, micropore surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume and average pore size) characteristics of activated carbons also played an important role on adsorption of SO{sub 2}. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Microstructural morphologies of slag based glass-ceramics nucleated with 5 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 5 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 5 wt% TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oevecoglu, M.L.; Oezkal, B. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Enginering; Catakli, E. [Mimar Sinan Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Literature; Erkmen, Z.E. [Istnabul Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Glass-ceramic materials were developed from the blast-furnace slags by mixing 5 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 5 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 5 wt% TiO{sub 2}. The samples were nucleated for 18 h at 780 C and crystallized for 20 min. at 905 C, respectively. SEM and SEM/EDS investigations revealed the presence of clover-shaped TiO{sub 2} particles in the glassy matrix of the sample nucleated with 5 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 5 wt% TiO{sub 2} and polygonal-shaped Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} platelets for both samples. XRD scans revealed the presence of akermanite (2CaO.MgO.2SiO{sub 2}) and gehlenite (2CaO.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.SiO{sub 2}) peaks indicating the existence of the mellilite solid solution for the crystallized glass-ceramic samples. (orig.)

  18. Relaxation of photogenerated carriers under He, H sub 2 , CO sub 2 and O sub 2 on ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Han, C S; Jun, J

    1998-01-01

    The relaxation process of photogenerated carriers was investigated using conductivity measurement on ZnO under He,H sub 2 ,CO sub 2 and O sub 2. The process was well explained with the rate constant of reaction or recombination of hole and electron, k sub h and k sub e (k sub h >k sub e), respectively. Generally, k sub h increased with the pressure of the gases. The slope of k sub h with respect to the pressure increased in the order of H sub 2<=Hesub 2 , while k sub h of O sub 2 was sensitive to the history of the sample. The relaxation process on ZnO which was exposed to oxygen at 298 K and 573 K was observed during the illumination time. From the result, it was suggested that the rate constant of photo generated excess carriers was affected by the surface barrier of the semiconductor.

  19. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at √ s.sub.NN./sub. = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Hruška, I.; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Kvasnička, O.; Lipinský, L.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Panušková, M.; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Valenta, J.; Vrba, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 710, č. 3 (2012), s. 363-382 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : charged particle multiplicity * charged particle density * charged particle yield * semiconductor detector * pixel * CERN LHC Coll * ATLAS Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.569, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0370269312001864

  20. Simultaneous treatment of NO and SO{sub 2} with aqueous NaClO{sub 2} solution in a wet scrubber combined with a plasma electrostatic precipitator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun-Woo [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Regional Innovation Center for Environmental Technology of Thermal Plasma (RIC-ETTP), INHA University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sooseok, E-mail: sooseok@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong-Wha, E-mail: dwpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Regional Innovation Center for Environmental Technology of Thermal Plasma (RIC-ETTP), INHA University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • This study was conducted to investigate simultaneous removal of NO and SO{sub 2}. • Proposed process consists of wet chemical reactor and non-thermal plasma reactor. • In the wet chemical reactor, NO and SO{sub 2} were absorbed and oxidized by NaClO{sub 2}. • In the non-thermal plasma reactor, aerosol particles were collected on anode surface. • NO and SO{sub 2} were removed more efficiently by proposed process than other methods. - Abstract: NO and SO{sub 2} gases that are generally produced in thermal power plants and incinerators were simultaneously removed by using a wet scrubber combined with a plasma electrostatic precipitator. The wet scrubber was used for the absorption and oxidation of NO and SO{sub 2}, and non-thermal plasma was employed for the electrostatic precipitation of aerosol particles. NO and SO{sub 2} gases were absorbed and oxidized by aerosol particles of NaClO{sub 2} solution in the wet scrubber. NO and SO{sub 2} reacted with the generated NaClO{sub 2} aerosol particles, NO{sub 2} gas, and aqueous ions such as NO{sub 2}{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, HSO{sub 3}{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. The aerosol particles were negatively charged and collected on the surface of grounded anode in the plasma electrostatic precipitator. The NO and SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies of the proposed system were 94.4% and 100% for gas concentrations of 500 mg/m{sup 3} and a total gas flow rate of 60 Nm{sup 3}/h, when the molar flow rate of NaClO{sub 2} and the gas–liquid contact time were 50 mmol/min and 1.25 s, respectively. The total amount and number of aerosol particles in the exhaust gas were reduced to 7.553 μg/m{sup 3} and 210 /cm{sup 3} at the maximum plasma input power of 68.8 W, which are similar to the values for clean air.

  1. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of SnO{sub 2}-CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kashif [Department of Physics, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iqbal, Javed, E-mail: javed.saggu@qau.edu.pk [Laboratory of Nanoscience and Technology (LNT), Department of Physics, Qaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Jan, Tariq [Department of Physics, University of Lahore, Sargodha Campus, Sargodha (Pakistan); Wan, Dongyun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ahmad, Naeem [Department of Physics, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahamd, Ishaq [Experimental Physics Labs, National Center for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ilyas, Syed Zafar [Department of Physics, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-04-15

    The nanocomposites of (SnO{sub 2}){sub x}(CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub (1−x)} (where x=0–100 wt%) have been successfully synthesized via two steps chemical method. XRD pattern has revealed the formation of inverse spinal phases with tetragonal crystal structure without any impurity phases for CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample. The thermodynamic solubility limit of SnO{sub 2} in CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} matrix has been found to be 30 wt% and above this percentage crystal phases related to SnO{sub 2} started to appear. The average particle size and shape of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been strongly influenced by addition of SnO{sub 2} as depicted by TEM results. FTIR results have confirmed the existence of cation vibration bands at tetrahedral and octahedral sites along with Sn-O vibration band at higher concentrations, which also validates the formation of nanocomposites. Furthermore, the dielectric constant, tangent loss and conductivity of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been found to increase up to 30 wt% addition of SnO{sub 2} and then decreases with further increase which is attributed to variations in resistivity and space charge carriers. Magnetic measurements have shown that saturation magnetization decreases from 35.68 emu/gm to 10.26 emu/gm with the addition of SnO{sub 2} content. - Highlights: • SnO{sub 2}-CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites with varying SnO{sub 2} concentrations were synthesized. • The thermodynamic solubility limit for SnO{sub 2} into CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} matrix by employing current method was found to be ≤30 wt%. • At higher concentrations, structural phases related to SnO{sub 2} started to appear. • FTIR results corroborated well with the XRD results. • It has been observed that the addition of SnO{sub 2} significantly influence the morphology, dielectric and magnetic properties of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles.

  2. Improved high temperature refractory. [MgCr/sub 2/O/sub 4/ composite with ZrO/sub 2/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.P.; James, J.; Picciolo, J.J.

    1985-12-10

    A high chromia refractory composite has been developed with improved thermal shock resistance and containing about 5 to 30 wt % of unstabilized ZrO/sub 2/ having a temperature-dependent phase change resulting in large expansion mismatch between the ZrO/sub 2/ and the chromia matrix which causes microcracks to form during cooling in the high chromia matrix. The particle size preferably is primarily between about 0.6 to 5 microns and particularly below about 3 microns with an average size in the order of 1.2 to 1.8 microns.

  3. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, AIST, MITI, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean CO{sub 2} disposal.

  4. Controlled synthesis, formation mechanism, and carbon oxidation properties of Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanoplates prepared with a coordination-complex method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rui [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); You, Junhua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Han, Fei; Li, Chaoyang; Zheng, Guiyuan; Xiao, Weicheng [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, Xuanwen, E-mail: lxw@mail.neuq.edu.cn [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The crystallization mechanism relies on Ho{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+} diffusion. • The Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} particles are refined by the coordination complex method under N{sub 2} environment. • The catalytic oxidation activity of Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} samples for carbon is enhanced. - Abstract: Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanoplates with perovskite structures were synthesized via a simple solution method (SSM) and a coordination-complex method (CCM) using [HoCu(3,4-pdc){sub 2}(OAc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·8H{sub 2}O (L = 3,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) as a precursor. The CCM was also performed in an N{sub 2} environment (CCMN) under various calcination conditions. The crystallization processes were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} formed through the diffusion of CuO into Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. Cu{sup 2+} diffused faster than Ho{sup 3+} during this process. The initial products of CCMN (along with the thermal decomposition products) were initially laminarized in the N{sub 2} atmosphere, which prevented the growth of CuO particles and decreased the size of the Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} particles. The final Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} particles from CCMN had a nanoplate morphology with an average thickness of 75 nm. The decomposition of organic molecules and protection from N{sub 2} played important roles in determining the morphology of the resulting Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The catalytic oxidation activity of Ho{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 5} samples for carbon was characterized using a specific surface area measurement and thermogravimetric analysis, which revealed that the samples produced by CCMN had the highest catalytic activity.

  5. Photocatalytic performance of nano-photocatalyst from TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by mechanochemical synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorai, Tanmay K., E-mail: tanmay_ghorai@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, West Bengal State University, Barasat, North 24 Pgs, Kolkata 700126 (India); Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Chakraborty, Mukut [Department of Chemistry, West Bengal State University, Barasat, North 24 Pgs, Kolkata 700126 (India); Pramanik, Panchanan [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2011-08-11

    Graphical abstract: Nano-particles of homogeneous solution between TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (up to 5 mol%) have been prepared by mechanochemical milling. The results show that the alloy of TiO{sub 2} with 5 mol% of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (YFT1) exhibit photocatalytic activity 3-5 times higher than that of P25 TiO{sub 2} for oxidation of various dyes (RB, MO, TB and BG) under visible light irradiation. The average particle size and crystallite size of YFT1 were found to be 30 {+-} 5 nm and 12 nm measured from TEM and XRD. Optical adsorption edge is found to be 2.26 eV. Tentative schematic diagram of reaction mechanism of YFT/RFT photocatalysts under visible light irradiation. Highlights: > Synthesis of nano-sized homogeneous solid solution between Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} with high photocatalytic activity for oxidative degradation of different dyes was successfully obtained through mechanochemical synthesis. XRD data shows the formation of solid solution having anatase structure with no free Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 5 mol% of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst have crystallite size about 12-13 nm measured from XRD and particle size about 30 {+-} 5 nm measured from TEM. FT-IR of all Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} prepared catalysts is similar to pure TiO{sub 2}. The maximum solubility of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in TiO{sub 2} is 5 mol% of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} irrespective of source and this composition has highest photocatalytic activity that is 3-5 times higher than P25 TiO{sub 2} for the oxidation of different dyes. We also observed that the rate of degradation of Rhodamine B is faster among all the four dyes under prepared catalyst and visible light. - Abstract: Nano-particles of homogeneous solid solution between TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (up to 10 mol%) have been prepared by mechanochemical milling of TiO{sub 2} and yellow Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/red Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/precipitated Fe (OH){sub 3} using a planetary ball mill. Such novel solid

  6. Ternary indides Eu{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In and Eu{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muts, Ihor [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine); Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Zaremba, Vasyl I. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine); Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The indides Eu{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In and Eu{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}In were synthesized from the elements in sealed tantalum tubes in an induction furnace. The samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The structures were refined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data: HT-Pr{sub 2}Co{sub 2}Al type, C2/c, a = 1035.7(2), b = 592.9(1), c = 823.6(2) pm, β = 104.26(1) , wR2 = 0.026, 1075 F{sup 2} values, 25 variables for Eu{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In and a = 1017.2(2), b = 588.7(1), c = 826.5(1) pm, β = 103.76(1) , wR2 = 0.062, 706 F{sup 2} values, 25 variables for Eu{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}In. The indium atoms have four platinum (palladium) neighbors in strongly distorted tetrahedral coordination at Pt-In and Pd-In distances ranging from 273 to 275 pm. These InPd{sub 4/2} and InPt{sub 4/2} units are condensed via common edges to infinite InPd{sub 2} and InPt{sub 2} chains, which are surrounded by the europium atoms. The chains form the motif of hexagonal rod packing. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Crystal structure of vanuralite, Al[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}](OH) . 8.5H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plasil, Jakub [Czech Academy of Sciences, Praha (Czech Republic). Inst. of Physics

    2017-07-01

    Vanuralite, Al[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}](OH) . 8.5H{sub 2}O, is a rare supergene uranyl vanadate that forms during hydration-oxidation weathering of uraninite in oxide zones of U deposits. On the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data it is monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/n, with a = 10.4637(10), b = 8.4700(5), c = 20.527(2) Aa, β = 102.821(9) , V=1773.9(3) Aa{sup 3} and Z = 4, D{sub calc.} = 3.561 g cm{sup -3}. The structure of vanuralite (R = 0.058 for 2638 unique observed reflections) contains uranyl vanadate sheets of francevillite topology of the composition [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sup 2-}. Sheets are stacked perpendicular to c, and an interstitial complex {sup [6]}Al(OH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4.5}; adjacent structural sheets are linked through an extensive network of hydrogen bonds. Vanuralite is the most complex mineral among uranyl vanadates, with 961 bits/cell. The scarcity of occurrences is probably caused by the less common combination of elements present in the structure, as well as the relatively high complexity of the structure (compared to related minerals), arising namely from the complicated network of H-bonds.

  8. Synthesis of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} architectures in DMF–H{sub 2}O solution by precipitation method and their photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li-Li; Han, Qiao-Feng, E-mail: hanqiaofeng@njust.edu.cn; Zhao, Jin; Zhu, Jun-Wu; Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangx@njust.edu.cn; Ma, Wei-Hua

    2014-11-25

    Graphical abstract: Flowerlike α-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} architectures assembled by nanobrick-based petals with pineapple surface were firstly synthesized by precipitation method at room temperature in DMF–H{sub 2}O solution. - Highlights: • Nanobrick-based flowerlike Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals with pineapple surface were synthesized by precipitation method. • Good solubility of Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in DMF played a crucial role in the growth of flowerlike Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The growth mechanism of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcrystallites has been explained in detail. - Abstract: Well-crystalline flowerlike α-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical architectures with pineapple-shaped petals have been synthesized by precipitation method at a volume ratio of DMF/H{sub 2}O of 5, where DMF and H{sub 2}O were used to dissolve Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and KOH, respectively. If the DMF/H{sub 2}O ratio was decreased to 2:1, 1:1 and 0:30, flower-, bundle- and dendrite-shaped α-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} microcrystallites aggregated by nanorods were formed, respectively. The simple synthetic route and thus obtained Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} architectures of various morphologies provide a basis insight for their formation mechanism. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation was obviously influenced by their morphologies. Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} of nanorod-based microstructures exhibited higher photodegradation activity than nanobrick-based ones, owing to higher light absorption and carrier separation efficiency in one-dimensional (1D) nanostructured materials.

  9. Assessment of coal combustion in O{sub 2}+CO{sub 2} by equilibrium calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ligang [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Energy Technology Centre, 1 Haanel Drive, Nepean, ON (Canada); Furimsky, Edward [IMAF Group, 184 Marlborough Avenue, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-04-15

    The facility for analysis of chemical thermodynamics (F*A*C*T) method based on the Gibbs energy minimization principle was used for the environmental assessment of coal combustion in O{sub 2}+CO{sub 2} mixture compared with that in air. For the former case, the calculations predict higher emissions of CO and lower emissions of NO{sub x}. For both combustion media, SO{sub x} emissions are governed by O{sub 2} concentration, whereas distribution of trace metals was unaffected when O{sub 2} concentration in the O{sub 2}+CO{sub 2} mixture approached that in air. The effect of O{sub 2}+CO{sub 2} mixture on the distribution of chlorine- and alkali-containing compounds in the vapor phase was minor compared with that in air. In spite of the large excess of CO{sub 2} in combustion medium, sulfation was the predominant reaction occurring in ash.

  10. SO{sub 2} Retention by CaO-Based Sorbent Spent in CO{sub 2} Looping Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manovic, V.; Anthony, E.J.; Loncarevic, D.

    2009-07-15

    CaO-based looping cycles are promising processes for CO{sub 2} Capture from both syngas and flue gas. The technology is based on cyclical carbonation of CaO and regeneration of CaCO{sub 3} in a dual fluidized-bed reactor to produce a pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration. Use of spent sorbent from CO{sub 2} looping cycles for SO{sub 2} capture is investigated. Three limestones were investigated: Kelly Rock (Canada), La Blanca (Spain), and Katowice (Poland, Upper Silesia). Carbonation/calcination cycles were performed in a tube furnace with both the original limestones and samples thermally pretreated for different times (i.e., sintered). The spent sorbent samples were sulfated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The changes in the resulting sorbent pore structure were then investigated using mercury porosimetry. It has been shown that the sulfation rates of both thermally pretreated and spent sorbent samples are lower in comparison with those of the original samples. However, final conversions of both spent and pretreated sorbents after longer sulfation time were comparable or higher than those observed for the original sorbents under comparable conditions. Maximum sulfation levels strongly depend on sorbent porosity and pore surface area. The results showed that spent sorbent samples from CO{sub 2} looping cycles can be used as sorbents for SO{sub 2} retention in cases where significant porosity loss does not occur during CO{sub 2} reaction cycles. In the case of spent Kelly Rock and Katowice samples, sorbent particles are practically uniformly sulfated, achieving final conversions that are determined by the total pore volume available for the bulky CaSO{sub 4} product.

  11. A facile approach to fabricate Au nanoparticles loaded SiO{sub 2} microspheres for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Mingyi, E-mail: mingyitjucu@163.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Huang, Guanbo, E-mail: gbhuang2007@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Xianxian; Pang, Xiaobo [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Qiu, Haixia [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Hydrophilic and biocompatible macromolecules were used to improve and simplify the process for the fabrication of core/shell SiO{sub 2}@Au composite particles. The influence of polymers on the morphology of SiO{sub 2}@Au particles with different size of SiO{sub 2} cores was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optical property of the SiO{sub 2}@Au particles was studied with UV–Vis spectroscopy. The results indicate that the structure and composition of macromolecules affect the morphology of Au layers on SiO{sub 2} microspheres. The SiO{sub 2}@Au particles prepared in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) have thin and complete Au nanoshells owing to their inducing act in preferential growth of Au nanoparticles along the surface of SiO{sub 2} microspheres. SiO{sub 2}@Au particles can be also prepared from SiO{sub 2} microspheres modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane in the presence of PVA or PVP. This offers a simple way to fabricate a Au layer on SiO{sub 2} or other microspheres. The SiO{sub 2}@Au particles demonstrated high catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. - Highlights: • Facile direct deposition method for Au nanoparticles on silica microspheres. • Influence of different types of macromolecule on the formation of Au shell. • High catalytic performance of Au nanoparticles on silica microspheres.

  12. Atmospheric SO{sub 2}. Global measurements using aircraft-based CIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, V.

    2008-06-27

    Aircraft based measurements of tropospheric sulfur dioxide, SO{sub 2}, have been carried out during four campaigns in South America (TROCCINOX), Australia (SCOUT-O3), Europe (INTEX/MEGAPLUME) and Africa (AMMA). SO{sub 2} has been measured by chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS), permanently online calibrated with isotopically labelled SO{sub 2}. The measurement method is described thoroughly in this work and the measured data are presented. Moreover, the data of the different regions are compared in general and typical air mass situations with SO{sub 2} enhancement are shown. A detailed analysis of four SO{sub 2} pollution plume cases emphasizes the main features: long-range transport, SO{sub 2} from metal smelters/volcanoes or from biomass burning. The SO{sub 2} measurements are analyzed in the light of simultaneously measured trace gas, particle and meteorological data. Air mass trajectory models (FLEXPART or HYSPLIT) are employed for a determination of the pollution origin. Further going evaluations with the aerosol model AEROFOR complete the analyses and point out, that the measured SO{sub 2} mole fractions are sufficient to explain new particle formation and growth. Finally, a first comparison of the measured SO{sub 2} to results from a global circulation model (ECHAM) with implemented sulfur chemistry showed a significant underestimation of the measured SO{sub 2} mole fraction by the model in the free troposphere. (orig.)

  13. Uptake of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ by the isolated upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, E

    1968-01-01

    SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/ concentrations were measured above and below isolated tracheas of 2 dogs and 3 rabbits. Air--gas mixtures were pumped through nose to upper trachea for 10 to 15 min at rates of 3.5 and 0.75 liters/min, respectively. Gas concentrations ranged from 7 to 87 ppM SO/sub 2/ and from 4 to 41 ppM NO/sub 2/. The rate of uptake for the isolated airways was a generally constant 93.7% for SO/sub 2/ and 42.1% for NO/sub 2/, a significant difference.

  14. Phase diagrams of Ca(Fe,Ru){sub 2}As{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Kan; Gegenwart, Philipp [Experimentalphysik VI, Elektronische Korrelationen und Magnetismus, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Single crystalline Ca(Fe,Ru){sub 2}As{sub 2} series have been grown and characterized by structural, magnetic, and transport measurements. These measurement shows Ca(Fe,Ru){sub 2}As{sub 2} undergoes successive phase transitions with increasing Ru element doping. The antiferromagnetic phase with orthorhombic structure at x<0.023 (x means the doping concentration of Ru element) is directly driven to a Fermi-liquid type collapsed tetragonal (cT) phase at 0.023sub 2}As{sub 2} under hydrostatic pressure.

  15. Thermopower studies of doped CeAl sub 2 and UAl sub 2

    CERN Document Server

    Park, J G

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the thermopower of U doped CeAl sub 2 and Ce and La doped UAl sub 2. Despite different ground state properties of CeAl sub 2 and UAl sub 2 , the former being an antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion compound and the latter non-magnetic, we have found that not only thermopower data for pure CeAl sub 2 and UAl sub 2 are similar but also the thermopower results of doped samples behave similarly. Although the similarity seen in pure systems is yet to be understood, we interpret the doping effects as the results of changes in energy dependent relaxation time with doping. (author)

  16. Carbonation of Mg(OH){sub 2} in a pressurised fluidised bed for CO{sub 2} sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerlund, J.

    2012-07-01

    , but unfortunately, Mg(OH){sub 2} dehydroxylation is also affected and seemingly to a higher extent than MgCO{sub 3} formation. Although MgCO{sub 3} is thermodynamically more stable than MgO at most of the conditions investigated for this thesis, the presence of MgO in the end product has not been avoided. In other words, not all the decomposing hydroxide is able to form carbonate and the formed MgO is unreactive towards CO{sub 2} in the absence of steam. In addition, the formation of a comparatively rare crystalline carbonate form, referred to as oxymagnesite, has been detected over a range of dry or mildly dry carbonation conditions. Most of the PFB carbonation experiments have been performed (for reasons of availability) using commercially available Mg(OH){sub 2} (Dead Sea Periclase Ltd., i.e. DSP), which is much less reactive than the hydroxide produced from serpentinite (a common Mg-silicate rock) according to the first two steps of the process addressed in this thesis. At similar conditions (< 15 min, 20 bar, 500 deg C), the carbonation of serpentinite derived Mg(OH){sub 2} exceeds that of DSP-Mg(OH){sub 2} by 100%. The low reactivity of DSPMg( OH){sub 2} is not only a result of low surface area (approx 5.5 m2/g), but also of low porosity (approx 0.024 cm3/g), which apparently prevents CO{sub 2} from entering the particle, but not H{sub 2}O (which is smaller than CO{sub 2}) from exiting. The importance of water for the carbonation reaction has been demonstrated, and the reactivity of MgO in the absence of H{sub 2}O is negligible even at comparatively high CO{sub 2} pressures (20 bar). Thus it is important that excessive dehydroxylation, i.e. dehydroxylation without sequential carbonate formation, is prevented. Preliminary kinetic modelling of the carbonation step, assuming an intermediate hydrated MgO-species is produced, showed that a delicate balance between the various factors (temperature, partial pressures, fluidisation velocity and particle properties

  17. SO/sub 2/ injury to forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hontvedt, R

    1970-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is one of the most important of the air pollutants which has produced damage to trees and other vegetation. This article gives some examples of SO/sub 2/ damage to forests: At Rjukan in Norway, at Naerkes-Kvarntorp in Sweden and in German industrial regions. Then a brief summary is given of the factors which determine the effects of SO/sub 2/ on plants. Significant differences in SO/sub 2/ resistance exist, both between species and between individuals of the same species. Deciduous trees are more resistant than conifers. There appears to be a positive correlation between CO/sub 2/ assimilation and SO/sub 2/ damage in some individuals. Factors which influence co2 assimilation include, for example, the leaf development state and environmental factors (light, water, temperature, etc.). High SO/sub 2/ concentrations in the air over a brief time period are distinctly more injurious than low concentrations over a long time. Fertilization may increase the resistance of forest trees to SO/sub 2/. Some insect types predispose to SO/sub 2/, partly by increasing the number of dead and weakened trees and partially by increasing parasitization by insects.

  18. The sequestration of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thiez, P

    2004-07-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO{sub 2}, represents a major technological and societal challenge in the fight against climate change. Among the measures likely to reduce anthropic CO{sub 2} emissions, capture and geological storage holds out promise for the future. (author)

  19. Study of new CaO-SiO/sub 2/-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/CaF/sub 2/ bioactive ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, A.; Arif, I.; Siddiqi, S.A.; Shah, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    A new bioactive glass ceramic having, composition 48CaO-32SiO/sub 2/-16P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-4CaF/sub 2/ has been developed and studied for its physical and biological properties. Like the natural bone in which spastic particles are reinforced by collagen, in the present glass-ceramic, fine grained ceramic particles embedded in a glass matrix. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals wollastonite and oxyfluorapatite as the crystalline part of the glass-ceramic. Scanning electron microscopy of the samples has been carried out to see the grain size and grain distribution. Bending and compressive strength of the glass ceramic have been carried out to measured and found to be 208.60 m.Pa and 788.61 M.Pa respectively. Growth of apatite layer, which is responsible for bonding the broken part of a natural bone, on a bioactive glass-ceramic in a simulated body fluid has been studied. A small rectangular piece of this glass-ceramic has also been implanted successfully in a dog's tibia. (author)

  20. Influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of 3YSZ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abden, Md. Jaynul [International Islamic Univ., Chittagong (Bangladesh). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Afroze, Jannatul Dil [Noakhali Science and Technology Univ. (Bangladesh). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Gafur, Md. Abdul [Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Pilot Plant and Process Development Centre; Chowdhury, Faruque-Uz-Zaman [Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the amount of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content on microstructure, tetragonal phase stability and mechanical properties of 3YSZ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites are investigated in this study. The ceramic composites are obtained by means of uniaxial compacting at 210 MPa and green compacts are sintered at 1550 C for 3 h in air. The monoclinic zirconia (m-ZrO{sub 2}) phase has completely been transformed into tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO{sub 2}) phase with corresponding higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The t-ZrO{sub 2} grains induce transgranular fracture mode that has contribution in improvement of fracture toughness. The maximum flexural strength of 340 MPa, Vickers hardness value of 14.31 GPa and fracture toughness of 5.1 MPa x m{sup 1/2} in the composition containing 40 wt.-% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is attributed to the microstructure with t-ZrO{sub 2} grains as inter- and intragranular particles in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains, which makes it suitable for dental applications.

  1. Photocatalytic activity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films activated with visible light on the bacteria Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barajas-Ledesma, E., E-mail: edgar_acuario112@hotmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, edificio ' U' , Ciudad Universitaria, UMSNH, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico, C.P. 58000 (Mexico); Garcia-Benjume, M.L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, edificio ' U' , Ciudad Universitaria, UMSNH, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico, C.P. 58000 (Mexico); Espitia-Cabrera, I. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, edificio ' M' , Ciudad Universitaria, UMSNH, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico, C.P. 58000 (Mexico); Bravo-Patino, A. [Centro Multidisciplinario de Estudios en Biotecnologia, Km 9.5 Carretera Morelia-Zinapecuaro, Posta Veterinaria, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico, C.P. 58262 (Mexico); Espinoza-Beltran, F.J. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico, C.P. 76230 (Mexico); Mostaghimi, J. [Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G8 (Canada); Contreras-Garcia, M.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, edificio ' U' , Ciudad Universitaria, UMSNH, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico, C.P. 58000 (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with sputtering. A Corning* glass was used as a substrate, in which a titanium film was deposited by sputtering. Then, a precursor sol was prepared with Ti(n-OBu){sub 4} and Al(s-OBu){sub 3} and used as the medium for EPD. Next, the thin films were sintered and, finally, characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Several cultures of Escherichia coli, strain XL1-Blue, were prepared. Nine experiments were carried out. In three of them, an inoculum (a low amount of a product that contains bacteria) was prepared without a film; in the other six Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped TiO{sub 2} film-coated glass substrates were irradiated with visible light before they were introduced in the inoculum. The SEM and EDS results showed that TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were obtained, covering all the glass substrate and with uniform size of particles forming them, and that the aluminium was distributed uniformly on the film. XRD results showed that rutile phase was obtained. By TEM, the structure of TiO{sub 2} was demonstrated. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were successful at eliminating E. coli.

  2. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} photocatalyst for {beta}-naphthol photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qourzal, S., E-mail: samir_qourzal@yahoo.fr [Equipe de Materiaux Photocatalyse et Environnement, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Ibn Zohr, B. P. 8106 Cite Dakhla, Agadir (Morocco); Barka, N.; Tamimi, M.; Assabbane, A. [Equipe de Materiaux Photocatalyse et Environnement, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Ibn Zohr, B. P. 8106 Cite Dakhla, Agadir (Morocco); Nounah, A. [Ecole Superieure de Technologie, Avenue Prince Heritier Sidi Mohamed, B. P. 227, Sale-Medina (Morocco); Ihlal, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Semi-conducteurs et Energie Solaire, Departement de Physique, Faculte, des Sciences, Universite Ibn Zohr, B. P. 8106 Cite Dakhla, Agadir (Morocco); Ait-Ichou, Y. [Equipe de Materiaux Photocatalyse et Environnement, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Ibn Zohr, B. P. 8106 Cite Dakhla, Agadir (Morocco)

    2009-06-01

    Silica gel supported titanium dioxide particles (TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}) prepared by sol-gel method was as photocatalyst in the degradation of {beta}-naphthol in water under UV-illumination. The prepared sample has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The supported catalyst had large surface area and good sedimentation ability. The photodegradation rate of {beta}-naphthol under UV-irradiation depended strongly on adsorption capacity of the catalyst, and the photoactivity of the supported catalyst was much higher than that of the pure titanium dioxides. The experiments were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The photodegradation rate of {beta}-naphthol using 60% TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} particles was faster than that using TiO{sub 2} 'Degussa P-25', TiO{sub 2} 'PC-50' and TiO{sub 2} 'Aldrich' as photocatalyst by 2.7, 4 and 7.8 times, respectively. The kinetics of photocatalytic {beta}-naphthol degradation was found to follow a pseudo-first-order rate law. The effect of the TiO{sub 2} loading on the photoactivity of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} particles was also discussed. With good photocatalytic activity under UV-irradiation and the ability to be readily separated from the reaction system, this novel kind of catalyst exhibited the potential effective in the treatment of organic pollutants in aqueous systems.

  3. Comparison study on photocatalytic oxidation of pharmaceuticals by TiO{sub 2}-Fe and TiO{sub 2}-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites immobilized on optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Lu; Wang, Huiyao, E-mail: huiyao@nmsu.edu; Jiang, Wenbin; Mkaouar, Ahmed Radhi; Xu, Pei, E-mail: pxu@nmsu.edu

    2017-07-05

    Highlights: • Incorporating rGO or Fe{sup 3+} ions in TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst could enhance photocatalysis. • TiO{sub 2}-rGO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. • TiO{sub 2}-Fe demonstrated more suitable for visible light irradiation. • Reduced recombination rate contributed to enhanced photocatalysis of TiO{sub 2}-rGO. • Narrower band gap accounted for increased photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}-Fe. - Abstract: Incorporating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) or Fe{sup 3+} ions in TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst could enhance photocatalytic degradation of organic contaminants in aqueous solutions. This study characterized the photocatalytic activities of TiO{sub 2}-Fe and TiO{sub 2}-rGO nanocomposites immobilized on optical fibers synthesized by polymer assisted hydrothermal deposition method. The photocatalysts presented a mixture phase of anatase and rutile in the TiO{sub 2}-rGO and TiO{sub 2}-Fe nanocomposites. Doping Fe into TiO{sub 2} particles (2.40 eV) could reduce more band gap energy than incorporating rGO (2.85 eV), thereby enhancing utilization efficiency of visible light. Incorporating Fe and rGO in TiO{sub 2} decreased significantly the intensity of TiO{sub 2} photoluminescence signals and enhanced the separation rate of photo-induced charge carriers. Photocatalytic performance of the synthesized nanocomposites was measured by the degradation of three pharmaceuticals under UV and visible light irradiation, including carbamazepine, ibuprofen, and sulfamethoxazole. TiO{sub 2}-rGO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of pharmaceuticals under UV irradiation, while TiO{sub 2}-Fe demonstrated more suitable for visible light oxidation. The results suggested that the enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2}-rGO could be attributed to reduced recombination rate of photoexcited electrons-hole pairs, but for TiO{sub 2}-Fe nanocomposite, narrower band gap would contribute to increased photocatalytic

  4. Microstructure of a commercial W–1% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yinzhong, E-mail: shenyz@sjtu.edu.cn; Xu, Zhiqiang; Cui, Kai; Yu, Jie

    2014-12-15

    W–1% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy is considered as the most promising material for plasma-facing components of fusion reactors. The microstructure of a commercial W–1% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy was investigated using optical and transmission electron microscopes. The microstructure of pure tungsten can be improved significantly by fabrication of W–1% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys. W–1% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys can be produced with no porosities and cracks, and with various oxide phases dispersed in alloy matrix. La{sub 2}O{sub 3} with different crystal structures, La{sub 6}W{sub 2}O{sub 15}, WO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3} and W{sub 3}O{sub 8} phases were identified in as-forged W–1% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy. Long strip-like La{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a very large size, whereas spherical La{sub 6}W{sub 2}O{sub 15}, navicular WO{sub 3}, hexagonal W{sub 3}O{sub 8} and short rod-like La{sub 2}O{sub 3} are smaller particles. Most identified phases have a heterogeneous distribution. Forging leads to a more dispersive distribution of large-sized La{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles but not of fine WO{sub 3} particles compared with rolling. The mechanical properties of the alloys are also discussed.

  5. Refinement of Mg{sub 2}Si reinforcement in a commercial Al–20%Mg{sub 2}Si in-situ composite with bismuth, antimony and strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, Nur Azmah; Farahany, Saeed, E-mail: saeedfarahany@gmail.com; Ourdjini, Ali; Abu Bakar, Tuty Asma; Hamzah, Esah

    2013-12-15

    Refinement by addition elements of Al–Mg{sub 2}Si alloys is known to result in a change of primary Mg{sub 2}Si morphology. In this paper, the effects of Bi, Sb and Sr on the characteristic parameters of Al–20%Mg{sub 2}Si in-situ composite have been investigated by computer aided cooling curve thermal analysis and microstructural inspection. Size, density and aspect ratio measurements showed that additions of 0.4 wt.% Bi, 0.8 wt.% Sb and 0.01 wt.% Sr refined the Mg{sub 2}Si reinforcement. Exceeding these concentrations, however, resulted in coarsening of Mg{sub 2}Si particles with no change in the morphology. The results also showed that addition elements caused a decrease in the nucleation and growth temperatures of Mg{sub 2}Si particles. The refining effect of Bi, Sb and Sr is likely to be related to the effect of oxide bifilms suspended in the composite melt as favored nucleation substrates for Mg{sub 2}Si particles. - Highlight: • 0.4 wt.%, 0.8 wt.% and 0.01 wt.% is the optimum content for Bi, Sb and Sr addition. • Exceeding optimum concentration resulted in the coarsening of reinforcements. • Nucleation and growth temperatures decrease with addition of Bi, Sb and Sr. • The refining effect of Bi, Sb and Sr is likely to be related to the oxide bifilms.

  6. Photochemical degradation of diethyl phthalate with UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Bin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Gao Naiyun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail: gaonaiyun@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Sun Xiaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xia Shengji [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Rui Min [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Simonnot, Marie-Odile [Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Science, CNRS-INPL, 1 rue Grandville, BP451, F-54001 Nancy Cedex (France); Causserand, Christel [Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, UMR 5503 CNRS INP, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Zhao Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2007-01-02

    The decomposition of diethyl phthalate (DEP) in water using UV-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process was investigated in this paper. DEP cannot be effectively removed by UV radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} oxidation alone, while UV-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} combination process proved to be effective and could degrade this compound completely. With initial concentration about 1.0 mg/L, more than 98.6% of DEP can be removed at time of 60 min under intensity of UV radiation of 133.9 {mu}W/cm{sup 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage of 20 mg/L. The effects of applied H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose, UV radiation intensity, water temperature and initial concentration of DEP on the degradation of DEP have been examined in this study. Degradation mechanisms of DEP with hydroxyl radicals oxidation also have been discussed. Removal rate of DEP was sensitive to the operational parameters. A simple kinetic model is proposed which confirms to pseudo-first order reaction. There is a linear relationship between rate constant k and UV intensity and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration.

  7. CO sub(2) and N sub(2) O fluxes from the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; DileepKumar, M.

    and the deep water concentrations signify quantities of N sub(2)O to be consumed within the sediments. The northern Indian Ocean as a source of CO sub(2) to the atmosphere is poorly quantified. The N sub(2)O data indicate that the vertical diffusion coefficient...

  8. Recovery of UO[sub 2]/PuO[sub 2] in IFR electrorefining process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.

    1994-10-18

    A process is described for converting PuO[sub 2] and UO[sub 2] present in an electrorefiner to the chlorides, by contacting the PuO[sub 2] and UO[sub 2] with Li metal in the presence of an alkali metal chloride salt substantially free of rare earth and actinide chlorides for a time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the UO[sub 2] and PuO[sub 2] to metals while converting Li metal to Li[sub 2]O. Li[sub 2]O is removed either by reducing with rare earth metals or by providing an oxygen electrode for transporting O[sub 2] out of the electrorefiner and a cathode, and thereafter applying an emf to the electrorefiner electrodes sufficient to cause the Li[sub 2]O to disassociate to O[sub 2] and Li metal but insufficient to decompose the alkali metal chloride salt. The U and Pu and excess lithium are then converted to chlorides by reaction with CdCl[sub 2].

  9. Synthesis and photoluminescent properties of Sr{sub (1−x)}Si{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: xEu{sup 2+} phosphor prepared by polymer metal complex method for WLEDs applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Dhia A., E-mail: dhia_hassan@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Science, University of Basrah, Basrah 61004 (Iraq); Xu, Jian; Chen, Yibin; Li, Langkai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zeng, Renjie, E-mail: rjzeng@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Fujian Key Lab of Advanced Special Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • SrSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} phosphor was prepared by polymer metal complex (pechini method). • The annealing time was decreased from 6 h in solid state method to 3 h. • The particles are crystalline and dispersed well with average size 6.5 μm. - Abstract: Green emitting Sr{sub (1−x)}Si{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: xEu{sup 2+} (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1) phosphors were synthesized by polymer metal complex or pechini method. The XRD results confirm the formation of a pure phase at 1400 °C for 3 h. The SEM and particles size results indicate that the prepared phosphor consists of a polyhedral crystalline shape with well dispersed and the average particle size around 6.5 μm. The maximum PL intensity was found at 0.04% Eu{sup 2+} with a wide emission band between 460 and 640 nm and a green emission peak at 531.4 nm. The external quantum efficiency of 0.04% Eu{sup 2+} sample was 43.13%. The results indicate that pechini method is an alternative way and close in efficiency to the solid state method to prepare SrSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2} phosphor with higher homogeneity and more uniform size distribution for near UV and blue region applications for white light emitting diodes WLEDs.

  10. Particle reduction strategies - PAREST. Evaluation of emission reduction scenarios using chemical transport calculations. PM10- and NO{sub 2}-immission contributions in Germany. Wood combustion in small combustion systems; installations of the 13th and 17th BImSchV (Federal Immission Control Act). Sub-report.; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. Bewertung von Emissionsminderungsszenarien mit Hilfe chemischer Transportberechnungen. PM10- und NO{sub 2}-Immissionsbeitraege in Deutschland. Holzverbrennung in Kleinfeuerungsanlagen, Anlagen der 13. und 17. BImSchV. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Rainer [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Troposphaerische Umweltforschung

    2013-06-15

    This report was prepared within the research project ''Particle reduction strategies - PAREST.'' In this paper with the chemical transport model REM CALGRID following questions were investigated: 1 What is the contribution of the wood-fired small combustion plants in Germany to the PM10- and NO {sub 2}-concentrations? 2 What is the contribution of the 13th and 17th BlmSchV covered installations to the PM10 and NO{sub 2} concentrations in Germany? [German] Der vorliegende Bericht wurde im Rahmen des Forschungs- und Entwicklungsvorhabens ''Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung'' erstellt. In dem Beitrag werden mit dem chemischen Transportmodell REM-CALGRID folgende Fragestellungen untersucht: 1. Wie hoch ist der Beitrag der mit Holz beheizten Kleinfeuerungsanlagen in Deutschland zu den PM10- und den NO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen? 2. Wie hoch ist der Beitrag der von der 13. und 17. BImSchV erfassten Anlagen zu den PM10-und NO-2-Konzentrationen in Deutschland?.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.A., E-mail: abdelhay71@hotmail.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain-Shams University (Egypt); El-Katori, Emad E.; Gharni, Zarha H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Khaled University (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye was successfully carried over Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanorods embedded various proportion of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0–20) wt.%. Highlights: ► Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano mixed oxide samples were successfully synthesized by sol–gel method. ► Manipulation of particle size and structure were achieved by micelle template approach. ► Both adsorption and photocatalytic reactivity are the main reasons for exceptional decolorization of methylene blue dye. ► A new mechanism for electronic transition between TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was proposed. -- Abstract: The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye was successfully carried under UV irradiation over Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded various composition of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0–20) wt.% synthesized by sol–gel process. Structural and textural features of the mixed oxide samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction [XRD], Fourier transformer infra-red [FTIR], Energy dispersive X-ray [EDX], Field emission electron microscope [FESEM] and transmission electron microscope [TEM]. However, the optical features were estimated using UV–Vis spectrophotometer. The results reveal that the incorporation of various Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 7% is associated by remarkable increase in surface area, reduction of particle size, stabilization of anatase phase, shifting the photoexcitation response of the sample to visible region and exceptional degradation of methylene blue dye. On the other hand, increasing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents up to 20 wt.% is associated by anatase–rutile transformation, increasing in particle size and remarkable decrease in surface area which are prime factors in reducing the degradation process. The experimental results indicate that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles having both the advantages of photodegradation–adsorption process which considered a promising new

  12. A [Mo{sub 2}O{sub 2}S{sub 2}]-based ring system incorporating tartrate as the bridging ligand. Synthesis, structure and catalytic activity of Cs{sub 4}[Mo{sub 2}O{sub 2}(μ-S){sub 2}]{sub 2}(μ{sub 4}-tart){sub 2} (tart=[C{sub 4}H{sub 2}O{sub 6}]{sup 4-})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Ting-Ting; Cui, Yu-Jie; Xin, Zhifeng; Jia, Ai-Quan; Zhang, Qian-Feng [Anhui Univ. of Technology, Anhui (China). Inst. of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry and Anhui Province Key Lab. of Metallurgy Engineering and Resources Recycling

    2017-08-01

    Treatment of [Mo{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} with racemic tartaric acid (tartH{sub 4}) in the presence of sodium hydroxide and cesium chloride in aqueous solution led to the isolation of a new tetra-molybdenum ring cluster Cs{sub 4}[Mo{sub 2}O{sub 2}(μ-S){sub 2}]{sub 2}(μ{sub 4}-tart){sub 2}. The cyclic cluster polyanion consists of two dinuclear [Mo{sub 2}O{sub 2}(μ-S){sub 2}]{sup 2+} moieties and two bridging tart{sup 4-} ligands. The cyclic polyoxothiomolybdate cluster, supported on the mesoporous silica SBA-15, was tested for heterogenerous catalysis in thiophene hydrodesulfurization.

  13. Lead nitroprusside: A new precursor for the synthesis of the multiferroic Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5,} an anion-deficient perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Diego M. [Instituto de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Ayacucho 471, 4000 San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Nieva, Gladys [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Franco, Diego G. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisicoquímica de Córdoba (INFIQC – CONICET), Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina); Gómez, María Inés [Instituto de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Ayacucho 471, 4000 San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); and others

    2013-08-15

    In order to investigate the formation of multiferroic oxide Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the thermal decomposition of Pb[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO] has been studied. The complex precursor and the thermal decomposition products were characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy and magnetic measurements. The crystal structure of Pb[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO] was refined by Rietveld analysis. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pnma. The thermal decomposition in air produces highly pure Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} as final product. This oxide is an anion deficient perovskite with an incommensurate superstructure. The magnetic measurements confirm that Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} shows a weak ferromagnetic signal probably due to disorder in the perfect antiferromagnetic structure or spin canting. The estimated ordering temperature from the fit of a phenomenological model was 520 K. The SEM images reveal that the thermal decomposition of Pb[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO] produces Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} with small particle size. - Highlights: • Pb[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO] was synthesized and characterized. • Pb[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO] belongs to orthorhombic crystal system, space group Pnma. • Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} was obtained by thermal decomposition of Pb[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]. • Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} is a weak ferromagnet due to spin canting. • Ordering temperature of Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} from the fit of a phenomenological model was 520 K. - Graphical abstract: Field cooling (FC) and zero field cooling (ZFC) magnetization curves at H = 10 and 1000 Oe for Pb{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 5} obtained at 750 °C. Remnant magnetization after applying H = 1 T, FC procedure at 0.8 Oe. The fitted expression (see text) yield an ordering temperature T{sub o} = 520 K. Display Omitted.

  14. A facile approach to fabrication of novel CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite leads to excellent UV-shielding ability and lower catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, Newaz Mohammed, E-mail: nmbahadur@yahoo.com [Utsunomiya University, Laboratory of Powder Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Venture Business Laboratry (Japan); Kurayama, Fumio [Utsunomiya University, Center for Optical Research and Education (Japan); Furusawa, Takeshi; Sato, Masahide [Utsunomiya University, Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences (Japan); Siddiquey, Iqbal Ahmed [Utsunomiya University, Laboratory of Powder Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Venture Business Laboratry (Japan); Hossain, Md. Mufazzal [University of Dhaka, Department of Chemistry (Bangladesh); Suzuki, Noboru [Utsunomiya University, Laboratory of Powder Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Venture Business Laboratry (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    This study reports the development of a fast and facile route for the synthesis of novel CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite particles using microwave (MW) irradiation of the mixture of commercial CeO{sub 2}, titanium-tetra-n-butoxide (TBOT) and aqueous ammonia. Solutions of TBOT in ethanol and ammonia were mixed with dispersed CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles in ethanol, and the mixture was rapidly MW irradiated at 70 Degree-Sign C for 2 min. The resulting nanocomposite particles were characterized in terms of phase, shell thickness, composition, surface charge, morphology, and chemical state of the elements by XRD, TEM, XPS, SEM, Zeta potential analyzer, XRF, and FT-IR. Conventional methods of the synthesis of CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite require a long time, and TiO{sub 2} is rarely found as a coated material. In contrast, the MW method was able to synthesize CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocompsite particles within a very short time. CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite particles were fairly unaggregated with an average titania layer thickness of 2-5 nm. The obtained nanocomposites retained the crystalline cubic phase of CeO{sub 2}, and the phase of coated TiO{sub 2} was amorphous. The catalytic activities of uncoated and TiO{sub 2}-coated CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles for the oxidation of organic compounds were evaluated by the degradation study of methylene blue in air atmosphere at 403 K. The enhanced UV-shielding ability and visible transparency of the nanocomposite obtained by UV visible spectroscopic measurements suggested that the core-shell material has novel characteristics for using as a sunscreen material.

  15. Controllable growth and photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O solid microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hong; Zhang, Junying, E-mail: zjy@buaa.edu.cn; Wang, Mei

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 3 μm uniform Cu{sub 2}O solid microspheres with abundant nanopores are achieved. • NH{sub 2}OH·HCl and SDS are main factors that manipulate morphologies of Cu{sub 2}O particles. • Surface features of microspheres influenced the photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O. • Microspheres are transforming to polyhedrons with extended holding time. - Abstract: A series of Cu{sub 2}O solid microspheres with different surface features were prepared and their photocatalytic activities were studied. The experiment conditions were investigated and the formation mechanism was explored systematically. It was found that varying the amounts of NH{sub 2}OH·HCl reductant in alkaline solutions changed the reaction process and thus altered the surface features of Cu{sub 2}O microspheres. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant, introduced as a morphology directing agent, caused the nuclei aggregation and growth process of Cu{sub 2}O solid microspheres by precisely realizing the opposite charges’ directional attraction. This SDS-mediated method can be readily extended to synthesizing solid microspheres of other metal oxides. Meanwhile, it was found that Cu{sub 2}O solid microspheres with abundant nanopores on the surface showed much higher efficient catalytic activity for decoloring methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution than with other surface features under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, we found that prolonging the holding time made Cu{sub 2}O microspheres transform to polyhedrons.

  16. SERS of semiconducting nanoparticles (TIO{sub 2} hybrid composites).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajh, T.; Musumeci, A.; Gosztola, D.; Schiller, T.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Mujica, V.; Martin, D.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2009-05-06

    Raman scattering of molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was investigated. We find strong enhancement of Raman scattering in hybrid composites that exhibit charge transfer absorption with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. An enhancement factor up to {approx}10{sup 3} was observed in the solutions containing TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and biomolecules, including the important class of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and dopac (3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid). Only selected vibrations are enhanced, indicating molecular specificity due to distinct binding and orientation of the biomolecules coupled to the TiO{sub 2} surface. All enhanced modes are associated with the asymmetric vibrations of attached molecules that lower the symmetry of the charge transfer complex. The intensity and the energy of selected vibrations are dependent on the size and shape of nanoparticle support. Moreover, we show that localization of the charge in quantized nanoparticles (2 nm), demonstrated as the blue shift of particle absorption, diminishes SERS enhancement. Importantly, the smallest concentration of adsorbed molecules shows the largest Raman enhancements suggesting the possibility for high sensitivity of this system in the detection of biomolecules that form a charge transfer complex with metal oxide nanoparticles. The wavelength-dependent properties of a hybrid composite suggest a Raman resonant state. Adsorbed molecules that do not show a charge transfer complex show weak enhancements probably due to the dielectric cavity effect.

  17. SO{sub 2} retention by reactivated CaO-based sorbent from multiple CO{sub 2} capture cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilije Manovic; Edward J. Anthony [CANMET Energy Technology Centre-Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Natural Resources Canada

    2007-06-15

    This paper examines the reactivation of spent sorbent, produced from multiple CO{sub 2} capture cycles, for use in SO{sub 2} capture. CaO-based sorbent samples were obtained from Kelly Rock limestone using three particle size ranges, each containing different impurities levels. Using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), the sulfation behavior of partially sulfated and unsulfated samples obtained after multiple calcination-carbonation cycles in a tube furnace (TF), following steam reactivation in a pressurized reactor, is examined. In addition, samples calcined/sintered under different conditions after hydration are also examined. The results show that suitably treated spent sorbent has better sulfation characteristics than that of the original sorbent. Thus for example, after 2 h sulfation, {gt} 80% of the CaO was sulfated. In addition, the sorbent showed significant activity even after 4 h when {gt} 95% CaO was sulfated. The results were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, which showed that, by the end of the sulfation process, samples contained CaSO{sub 4} with only traces of unreacted CaO. The superior behavior of spent reactivated sorbent appears to be due to swelling of the sorbent particles during steam hydration. The surface area morphology of sorbent after reactivation was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ca(OH){sub 2} crystals were seen, which displayed their regular shape, and their elemental composition was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. These results allow the proposal of a new process for the use of CaO-based sorbent in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) systems, which incorporates CO{sub 2} capture, sorbent reactivation, and SO{sub 2} retention. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectral study of [Mn(acs){sub 2}(2–pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocakoç, Mehpeyker, E-mail: mkocakoc@cu.edu.tr [Çukurova University (Turkey); Tapramaz, Recep, E-mail: recept@omu.edu.tr [Ondokuz Mayıs University (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    Acesulfame potassium salt is a synthetic and non-caloric sweetener. It is also important chemically for its capability of being ligand in coordination compounds, because it can bind over Nitrogen and Oxygen atoms of carbonyl and sulfonyl groups and ring oxygen. Some acesulfame containing transition metal ion complexes with mixed ligands exhibit solvato and thermo chromic properties and these properties make them physically important. In this work single crystals of Mn{sup +2} ion complex with mixed ligand, [Mn(acs){sub 2}(2-pic){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}], was studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. EPR parameters were determined. Zero field splitting parameters indicated that the complex was highly symmetric. Variable temperature studies showed no detectable chance in spectra.

  19. Superconductivity in MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muranaka, Takahiro; Akimitsu, Jun [Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Physics and Mathematics

    2011-07-01

    We review superconductivity in MgB{sub 2} in terms of crystal and electronic structure, electron-phonon coupling, two-gap superconductivity and application. Finally, we introduce the development of new superconducting materials in related compounds. (orig.)

  20. Effect of symbiotic compound Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} on electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4}/C cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shuxin, E-mail: liushuxin88@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mianyang Normal University, Mianyang, Sichuan 621000 (China); Gu, Chunlei [School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050018 (China); Wang, Haibin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mianyang Normal University, Mianyang, Sichuan 621000 (China); Liu, Ruijiang [School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Wang, Hong; He, Jichuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mianyang Normal University, Mianyang, Sichuan 621000 (China)

    2015-10-15

    In order to study the effect of symbiotic compound Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} on electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4}/C cathode materials, the LiFePO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}/C cathode materials were synthesized by in-situ synthesis method. The phase compositions and microstructures of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Results indicate that the existence of Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} does not alter LiFePO{sub 4} crystal structure and the existence of Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} decreases the particles size of LiFePO{sub 4}. The electrochemical behavior of cathode materials was analyzed using galvanostatic measurement and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results show that the existence of Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} improves electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials in specific capability and lithium ion diffusion rate. The charge–discharge specific capacity and apparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient increase with Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} content and maximizes around the Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} content is 5 wt%. It has been had further proved that the Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} adding enhances the lithium ion transport to improve the electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials. However, excessive Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} will block the electron transfer pathway and affect the electrochemical performances of LiFePO{sub 4} directly. - Graphical abstract: The LiFePO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}/C cathode materials were synthesized by in-situ synthesis method. The existence of Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} does not alter LiFePO{sub 4} crystal structure and the existence of Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} decreases the particles size of LiFePO{sub 4}. The charge–discharge specific capacity and apparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient increase with Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} content. However, excessive Fe{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} will

  1. Synthesis, structural and electrical properties of [C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}][(SnCl(NCS){sub 2}]{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karoui, Sahel [Laboratoire genie de materiaux et environnement, ENIS, BP.1173,3038- Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Kamoun, Slaheddine, E-mail: slah.kamoun@gmail.com [Laboratoire genie de materiaux et environnement, ENIS, BP.1173,3038- Sfax, Universite de Sfax (Tunisia); Jouini, Amor [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide, Departement de Chimie, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2013-01-15

    Synthesis, structural and electrical properties are given for a new organic stannous pseudo halide material. The structure of the [C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}][(SnCl(NCS){sub 2}]{sub 2} reveals that the adjacent Sn(II) centres are bridged by a pair of SCN{sup -} anions to form a 1-D array giving rise to the anionic chains (SnCl(NCS){sub 2}){sub n}{sup n-}. These chains are themselves interconnected by means of N-H Horizontal-Ellipsis Cl(S) hydrogen bonds originating from the organic cation [(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}]{sup 2+}. The AC impedance measurements were performed as a function of both frequency and temperature. The electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation have been studied. The activation energy associated with the electrical relaxation determined from the electric modulus spectra was found close to that of the activation energy obtained for DC conductivity. The conduction mechanisms are attributed to the quantum mechanical tunneling model in phase I and to the proton hopping among hydrogen vacancies in phase II. - Graphical abstract: Atomic coordination in [C2H10N2][SnCl(NCS)2)2]. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray diffraction analysis shows the 1D network character of the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSC experiments show a phase transition at 336 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AC conductivity is interpreted in terms of Jonsher's law. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two conduction mechanisms are proposed for phase I and II.

  2. History of CO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degens, E T

    1979-01-01

    Upon arrival on earth, the reduced carbon pool split into a series of compartments: core, mantle, crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. This distribution pattern is caused by the ability of carbon to adjust structurally to a wide range of pressure and temperature, and to form simple and complex molecules with oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. Transformation also involved oxidation of carbon to CO/sub 2/ which is mediated at depth by minerals, such as magnetite, and by water vapor above critical temperature. Guided by mineral-organic interactions, simple carbon compounds evolved in near surface environments towards physiologically interesting biochemicals. Life, as an autocatalytic system, is considered an outgrowth of such a development. This article discusses environmental parameters that control the CO/sub 2/ system, past and present. Mantle and crustal evolution is the dynamo recharging the CO/sub 2/ in sea and air; the present rate of CO/sub 2/ release from the magma is 0.05 x 10/sup 15/ g C per year. Due to the enormous buffer capacity of the chemical system ocean, such rates are too small to seriously effect the level of CO/sub 2/ in our atmosphere. In the light of geological field data and stable isotope work, it is concluded that the CO/sub 2/ content in the atmosphere has remained fairly uniform since early Precambrian time; CO/sub 2/ should thus have had little impact on paleoclimate. In contrast, the massive discharge of man-made CO/sub 2/ into our atmosphere may have serious consequences for climate, environment and society in the years to come.

  3. Magnetism and thermal induced characteristics of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content bioceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chun-Shiang; Hsi, Chi-Shiung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Fang-Chi, E-mail: fangchi@nuu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yung-Sheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 803, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-15

    Magnetic properties of Li{sub 2}O-MnO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2} (LMCPS) glasses doped with various amounts of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated. There is a dramatic change in the magnetic property of pristine LMCPS after the addition of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and crystallized at 850 Degree-Sign C for 4 h. Both the electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that the glass ceramic with 4 at% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited the coexistence of superparamagnetism and ferromagnetism at room temperature. When the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content was higher than 8 at%, the LMCPS glasses showed ferromagnetism behavior. The complex magnetic behavior is due to the distribution of (Li, Mn)ferrite particle sizes driven by the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The thermal induced hysteresis loss of the crystallized LMCPS glass ceramics was characterized under an alternating magnetic field. The energy dissipations of the crystallized LMCPS glass ceramics were determined by the concentration and Mn/Fe ratios of Li(Mn, Fe)ferrite phase formed in the glass ceramics. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in LMCPS glass ceramic promotes the growth of (Li, Mn)ferrite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} determines the size of (Li,Mn)ferrite particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room temperature superparamagnetism was obtained at 4 at% of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In addition, Li(Mn, Fe)ferrite phase contributes to the magnetic energy loss. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The largest energy loss is the trade-off between the ferrite content and Mn/Fe ratio.

  4. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} doping of TiO{sub 2} electrodes and applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Tae Sung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bark, Chung Wung; Choi, Hyung Wook [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively studied since their discovery in 1991. DSSCs have been extensively researched over the past decades as cheaper alternatives to silicon solar cells due to their high energy-conversion efficiency and their low production cost. However, some problems need to be solved in order to enhance the efficiency of DSSCs. In particular, the electron recombination that occurs due to the contact between the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and a redox electrolyte is one of the main limiting factors of efficiency. In this work, we report for the first time the improvement of the photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs by doping TiO{sub 2} with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. DSSCs were constructed using composite particles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The DSSCs using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed the maximum conversion efficiency of 6.29% due to effective electron transport. DSSCs based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped TiO{sub 2} films showed better photovoltaic performance than cells fabricated with only TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. This result is attributed to the prevention of electron recombination between electrons in the TiO{sub 2} conduction band with holes in the dye or the electrolyte. There mechanism is suggested based on impedance results, which indicated improved electron transport at the TiO{sub 2}/dye/electrolyte interface.

  5. Effects of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the NO{sub 2}{sup -} levels in cell culture media analysed by Griess colorimetric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Traian, E-mail: tr.popescu@gmail.com [National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania); Lupu, Andreea R. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology (Romania); Diamandescu, Lucian; Tarabasanu-Mihaila, Doina; Teodorescu, Valentin S. [National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania); Raditoiu, Valentin; Purcar, Violeta [National Research and Development Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry (ICECHIM) (Romania); Vlaicu, Aurel M. [National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania)

    2013-02-15

    The Griess assay has been used to determine the possible changes in the measured NO{sub 2}{sup -} concentrations induced by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in three types of nitrite-containing samples: aqueous NaNO{sub 2} solutions with known concentrations, and two types of cell culture media-Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI-1640) and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM-F12) used either as delivered or enriched in NO{sub 2}{sup -} by NaNO{sub 2} addition. We have used three types of titania with average particle sizes between 10 and 30 nm: Degussa P25 and two other samples (undoped and Fe{sup 3+}-doped anatase TiO{sub 2}) synthesised by a hydrothermal route in our laboratory. The structural, morphological, optical and physicochemical characteristics of the used materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (EDX), Moessbauer spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller nitrogen adsorption, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. The opacity and sedimentation behaviour of the studied TiO{sub 2} suspensions have been investigated by photometric attenuance measurements at 540 nm. To account for the photocatalytic properties of titania in a biologically relevant context, multiple Griess tests have been performed under controlled exposure to laboratory natural daylight illumination. The results show significant variations of light attenuance (associated with NO{sub 2}{sup -} concentrations in the Griess test) depending on the opacity, sedimentation behaviour, NO{sub 2}{sup -} adsorption and photocatalytic properties of the tested TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials. These findings identify material characteristics recommended to be considered when analysing the results of Griess tests performed in biological studies involving TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  6. Improvement of CO sub 2 flood performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.F.; Heller, J.P.

    1991-06-01

    This is the final report of a six-year research project devoted to the study of processes of oil displacement using dense carbon dioxide. The topics studied have included phase behavior and physical properties of mixtures of crude oil with CO{sub 2}, the phenomena involved in the displacement of oil through reservoir rock under oilfield conditions, the influence of stabilized lamella or CO{sub 2}-foam on this displacement and the development of computer programs to simulate the displacement. In addition, the occurrence of nonuniformities in the displacement pattern has also been considered. The effect on displacement of permeability heterogeneities in the reservoir have been studied geostatistically and by direct numerical modelling. Displacement nonuniformities that are induced by viscosity and density differences between displaced and displacing fluids have also been considered, and efforts are described for the development of two different types of additive for purposes of mobility control of CO{sub 2} floods. One of these is the so-called CO{sub 2}-foam, formed by simultaneous flow through the formation of dense CO{sub 2} with a water solution of a special surfactant. The second type under development in the project is known as direct thickener, and consists of a polymer that is soluble in dense CO{sub 2} and able to viscosify it. Significant progress is reported on all of the topics mentioned above. 174 refs., 186 figs., 41 tabs.

  7. The comparison of photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} nanosize onto wool fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Namjoo Street, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah, E-mail: a.f.shojaie@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Namjoo Street, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Namjoo Street, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystals were successfully synthesized and deposited onto wool fibers using the sol-gel technique at low temperature. The photocatalytic activities of TiO{sub 2}-coated and ZrO{sub 2}-coated wool fibers were measured by studying photodegradation of methylene blue and eosin yellowish dyes. The initial and the treated samples were characterized by several techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray diffraction. The TEM study shows dispersed particles with 10-30 nm in size for TiO{sub 2}-coated and 20-40 nm in size for ZrO{sub 2}-coated samples on the fiber surface. Comparison of the photocatalytic activity of the coated samples reveals superiority of TiO{sub 2} modified sample with respect to that of ZrO{sub 2} for degradation of both dyes. Our observations indicate that by applying this technique to the fabrics, self-cleaning materials could be designed for practical application.

  8. Role of O radical on the formation of O{sub 2} gas plasma; O{sub 2} purazuma ni okeru O rajikaru no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, I. [Toshiba Reasearch and Development Ceter, Tokyo (Japan). Mechanical Systems Laboratory

    2000-11-10

    The effect of plasma formed gas on the plasma structure is investigated using a self consistent continuous fluid plasma model, which assumes that the local field approximation was attained in the RF plasma. The swarm parameter was obtained by Boltzmann analysis for O{sub 2} gas which contains various amounts of O radicals. Positive ion density, negative ion density, and electron density in the O{sub 2} RF plasma including O radical generation were calculated by self-consistent one dimensional continuous fluid plasma model. The calculation results show the dominant positive charged particle became O{sup +} from O{sub 2}{sup +} with increasing amount of O radical in O{sub 2}. The plasma positive densities are not greatly affected if O radical content did not exceed 1 % of O{sub 2}. It was concluded that O{sub 2} plasma structure can be evaluated by source gas plasma calculation neglecting radical formation, since O radical formation in the O{sub 2} plasma is estimated as less than 0.2 % of O{sub 2}. (author)

  9. Thermal transport properties of MoS <sub>2 and MoSe <sub>2 monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandemir, Ali; Yapicioglu, Haluk; Kinaci, Alper; Çağın, Tahir; Sevik, Cem

    2016-01-11

    Isolation of single to few layer transition metal dichalgogenides open alternate venues in application of 2 dimensional materials to nanoelectronics. Either for general overheating issues or specific application in thermoelectric devices, the characterization of the thermal transport in these new low dimensional materials is needed for their efficient implementation. In this study, lattice thermal conductivities of single layer MoS<sub>2 and MoSe<sub>2 are evaluated using classical molecular dynamics method. The interactions between atoms are defined by Stillinger-Weber type empirical potentials that are developed to represent structural, mechanical, and vibrational properties of the given materials. In parameterization of the potentials, a stochastic optimization algorithm, namely particle swarm optimization is utilized. The final parameter sets produce quite consistent results with DFT in terms of lattice parameters, bond distances, elastic constants and vibrational properties of both single layer MoS<sub>2 and MoSe<sub>2. The predicted thermal properties of both materials are in very good agreement with earlier first principles calculations. The discrepancies between calculations and experimental measurements are most likely to be caused by pristine nature of the structures in our simulations.

  10. Toughening behavior in ceramics associated with the transformation of tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    The contribution of the stress-induced phase transformation ZrO/sub 2/ to the fracture toughness of ceramics is described in terms of the zone size, the critical transformation stress and the influence of these parameters on the tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. For example in partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ), the ΔK/sub lC//sup T/ is shown to depend upon the martensite start (M/sub s/) temperature, which can be altered by the solute content and the particle or precipitate size. This behavior is consistent with the thermodynamics of the transformation. Experimental data correspond to the behavior predicted for various systems toughened by the addition of tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/ [e.g. PSZ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Z/sub 4/O/sub 2/(Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/). The stress required to transform the ZrO/sub 2/ is also modified by residual stresses due to the mismatch in matrix and particle (esp. thermal expansion) properties in the composite systems. The total residual stress acting on a particle is the sum of the particle's internal stress and the stress field of neighboring particles, and as a result, the total residual stress increases with volume fraction of ZrO/sub 2/ (V/sub f/). In the case of the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-ZrO/sub 2/ composites the pertinent stresses are tensile in character and thus promote the ZrO/sub 2/ transformation as V/sub f/ increases] For each level of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the ZrO/sub 2/, ΔK/sub lc//sup T/ then goes through a maximum with increase in V/sub f/ at a value of V/sub f/ where σ/sub R//sup T/ - σ/sub C//sup T/. The critical transformation stress is thus described for different levels of solute (e.g. Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/) in the ZrO/sub 2/. The dependence of ΔK/sub lc//sup T/ upon (σ/sub C//sup T/ - σ/sub R//sup T/) obtained is found to agree with the predicted behavior

  11. Direct Synthesis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} over Ti-Containing Molecular Sieves Supported Gold Catalysts: A Comparative Study for In-situ-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-ODS of Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Han; Song, Haiyan; Chen, Chunxia; Han, Fuqin; Hu, Shaozheng [Northeast Forestry Univ., Harbin (China); Liu, Guangliang [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs (United States); Chen, Ping; Zhao, Zhixi [Xinjiang Normal Univ., Urumqi (China)

    2013-10-15

    Direct synthesis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and in situ oxidative desulfurization of model fuel over Au/Ti-HMS and Au/TS-1 catalysts has been comparatively investigated in water or methanol. Maximum amount (82%) of active Au{sup 0} species for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} synthesis was obtained. Au/Ti-HMS and Au/TS-1 exhibited the contrary performances in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} synthesis as CH{sub 3}OH/H{sub 2}O ratio of solvent changed. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition and hydrogenation in water was inhibited by the introduction of methanol. Effect of O{sub 2}/H{sub 2} ratio on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, H{sub 2} conversion and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} selectivity revealed a relationship between H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and H2 consumption. The highest dibenzothiophene removal rate (83.2%) was obtained over Au/Ti-HMS in methanol at 1.5 of O{sub 2}/H{sub 2} ratio and 60 .deg. C. But removal of thiophene over Au/TS-1 should be performed in water without heating to obtain a high removal rate (61.3%). Meanwhile, H{sub 2} conversion and oxidative desulfurization selectivity of H{sub 2} were presented.

  12. The europium(II) oxide halides Eu{sub 2}OBr{sub 2} and Eu{sub 2}OI{sub 2}; Die Europium(II)-Oxidhalogenide Eu{sub 2}OBr{sub 2} und Eu{sub 2}OI{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, Daniel; Schleid, Thomas [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2017-07-01

    The syntheses and crystal structures of the two isotypic europium(II) oxide halides Eu{sub 2}OBr{sub 2} and Eu{sub 2}OI{sub 2} are reported. They crystallize orthorhombically in the space group Ibam (Z=4; Eu{sub 2}OBr{sub 2}: a=709.86(5), b=1200.34(9), c=628.71(4) pm; Eu{sub 2}OI{sub 2}: a=739.78(5), b=1295.13(9), c=644.82(4) pm). The unit cell parameters presented here, and thus the interatomic distances of Eu{sub 2}OI{sub 2}, are significantly smaller than the ones reported in the literature, which is explained by the substitution of europium with larger barium cations due to the synthesis route described in the early study. Central building blocks of both crystal structures are trans-edge-connected [OEu{sub 4}]{sup 6+} tetrahedra forming straight {sup 1}{sub ∞}{[OEu"e_4_/_2]"2"+} chains running parallel to the [001] direction. Bundled like a hexagonal rod packing, their interaction is achieved by Br{sup -} or I{sup -} anions for charge compensation.

  13. Structure compatibility of TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarský, Jonáš, E-mail: jonas.tokarsky@vsb.cz; Čapková, Pavla

    2013-11-01

    A simple method for the estimation of the most suitable mutual crystallographic orientations of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles anchored on SiO{sub 2} substrate is presented in this work. Number of overlapping titanium and oxygen atoms creating atomic pairs can be used to quantify the structure compatibility. These atomic pairs are obtained directly from non-optimized TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} atomic planes. The descriptions of algorithms being implemented as scripts into the MATLAB environment in order to make the method more effective are also provided. This method can help with the selection of the most promising (h k l) planes of TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} adjacent surfaces and the outputs are in good agreement with results of molecular modeling of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles anchored on SiO{sub 2} surfaces within the meaning of ability to determine the optimized models with the highest and the lowest TiO{sub 2}–SiO{sub 2} adhesion energies. To the best of our knowledge, there is no other such simple and efficient method providing this information, which is very important for molecular modeling of nanoparticle-crystalline substrate systems.

  14. Simultaneous oxidative conversion and co/sub 2/ reforming of methane to syngas over modified Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eli, W.

    2013-01-01

    A series of Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and modified Ni-M/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (MLa, Na, K, Ca and Ba) catalysts have been prepared and characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, TGA, TEM and SEM. The performance of these catalysts for simultaneous oxidative conversion and CO/sub 2/ reforming of methane to syngas was evaluated using a fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that the catalytic activity of Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ increased with Ni loading, and reached maximum at 12% Ni loading. The La-modified Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ exhibited an excellent catalytic activity and stability within 20 h as compared with unmodified and Na-modified ones. It was found that the addition of La decreased the particle size of nickel, thus increased the Ni dispersion accordingly as indicated by the characterization data. The catalytic activity of Na-modified Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ decreased obviously only after 6 h of reaction due to aggregation of metallic Ni particles. Hence, it was suggested that the sintering of Ni particles dominated the catalyst deactivation during the catalytic reaction process. (author)

  15. Preparation and crystal structure of SrCu/sub 2/Sb/sub 2/ and SrZnBi/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, G; Eisenmann, B; Schaefer, H [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Anorganische Chemie und Kernchemie

    1976-10-01

    SrCu/sub 2/Sb/sub 2/ and SrZnBi/sub 2/ have been prepared and analytically and structurally characterized. SrCu/sub 2/Sb/sub 2/ crystallizes tetragonal in the CaBe/sub 2/Ge/sub 2/ structure type. SrZnBi/sub 2/ has its own structure type. In both structures the transition metal atoms form with the semimetal atoms tetragonal pyramids, which are connected by common edges of the basis to twodimensional sheets. These sheets are separated in the case of SrCu/sub 2/Sb/sub 2/ by single sheets of strontium atoms, in the case of SrZnBi/sub 2/ by double sheets of strontium atoms in which fourfold nets of Bi atoms are located.

  16. Influence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on LPG fuel performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Saad, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com; Ahmed, Iqbal, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com; Mutalib, Mohammad Ibrahim bin Abdul, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com; Nadeem, Saad, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com; Ali, Shahid, E-mail: iqbalmouj@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    The objective of this mode of combustion is to insertion of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) combustion on spark plug ignition engines. The addition of hydrogen peroxide may probably decrease the formation of NO{sub x}, CO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbons. Hypothetically, Studies have shown that addition of hydrogen peroxide to examine the performance of LPG/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} mixture in numerous volumetric compositions starting from lean LPG until obtaining a better composition can reduce the LPG fuel consumption. The theory behind this idea is that, the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can cover the lean operation limit, increase the lean burn ability, diminution the burn duration along with controlling the exhaust emission by significantly reducing the greenhouse gaseous.

  17. CO{sub 2} uptake by the Kalanchoe plant; CO{sub 2}-opname bij Kalanchoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verberkt, H.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a study on the assimilation of the Kalanchoe plant are presented. The aim of the study is to determine the optimal time period of a natural day (24 hours) to supply carbon dioxide to a Kalanchoe plant. A Kalanchoe plant originally is a so-called CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) plant: CO{sub 2} uptake at night and chemical conversion of CO{sub 2} into malic acid. By day the fixed CO{sub 2} is used for photosynthesis. It appears that a Kalanchoe plant also takes up CO{sub 2} by day, which is directly used for photosynthesis. For Dutch horticulture conditions (20C, sufficient moisture) extra CO{sub 2} supply by day in the spring results in an increase of both the fresh weight and the dry weight compared to no extra CO{sub 2} supply. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 19 refs., 4 appendices

  18. Magnetic properties of FeZr{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}Zr intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapat, C. L., E-mail: prajapat@barc.gov.in; Singh, M. R.; Mishra, P. K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, INDIA-400085 (India); Chattaraj, D. [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, INDIA-400085 (India); Mishra, R. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, INDIA-400085 (India); Ravikumar, G. [Scientific Information Resources Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, INDIA-400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Magnetic properties of Fe-Zr system, viz., FeZr{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}Zr have been studied. Both the compounds show soft ferromagnetic behavior. Curie temperature is well above the room temperature. Lower saturation magnetization for the zirconium rich sample, FeZr{sub 2}, could be due to possible donation of electrons from the Zr-rich neighbors to Fe atoms or diminution of long range magnetic order by defects.

  19. Li{sub 4}Ba[BN{sub 2}]{sub 2} - structure and vibrational spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Rodewald, Ute C.; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Somer, Mehmet; Kiraz, Kamil [Chemistry Department, Koc University, Sariyer-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-12-13

    The nitridoborate Li{sub 4}Ba[BN{sub 2}]{sub 2} was synthesized from a 4:1 molar ratio of Li{sub 3}[BN]{sub 2} and Ba{sub 3}[BN{sub 2}]{sub 2} in an arc-welded niobium ampoule at a maximum annealing temperature of 1173 K. The structure was refined from single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data: new type, P1, a = 533.9(2), b = 585.0(3), c = 860.6(4) pm, α = 80.72(3), β = 73.84(6), γ = 89.87(4) , wR{sub 2} = 0.1196, 1429 F{sup 2} values, 50 variables. The Li{sub 4}Ba[BN{sub 2}]{sub 2} structure contains two crystallographically independent [BN{sub 2}]{sup 3-} units with 134 pm B-N distance, which are slightly bent: 178 for N2-B1-N1 and 175 for N4-B2-N3. Due to the high lithium content both [BN{sub 2}]{sup 3-} units have a strongly distorted coordination by 8Li{sup +} + 3Ba{sup 2+}. The four crystallographically independent lithium cations show distorted tetrahedral coordination by [BN{sub 2}]{sup 3-} units with Li-N distances ranging from 195 to 247 pm. IR and Raman spectra show the typical vibrations of the [BN{sub 2}] unit along with a well-resolved splitting of the ν({sup 10}B) and ν({sup 11}B) frequencies. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Creation of Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoprecipitates to strengthen the Fe-14Cr-3Al-2W steels by adding Ti hydride and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Linbo; Bai, Zhonglian; Shen, Hailong; Wang, Chenxi; Liu, Tong, E-mail: tongliu@buaa.edu.cn

    2017-05-15

    In order to prohibit the formation of large Y-Al-O precipitates, Ti hydride nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and used to replace Ti as raw particles to fabricate the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-14Cr-3Al-2W-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} steels by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). As the content of Ti hydride increases from 0.1 to 0.5 and 1.0 wt%, the oxide nanoprecipitates in the ODS steels changes from Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase to Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} phase (semicoherent with the matrix), and the particle size is successfully reduced. The tensile strength of the ODS steel increases remarkably with increasing Ti hydride content. The sample with 1.0 wt% Ti hydride exhibits a high strength of 1049 MPa at 25 °C and 278 MPa at 700 °C. The creation of Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoprecipitates by adding Ti hydride NPs opens a new way to control the structure and size of the oxide precipitates in the ODS steels. - Graphical abstract: The creation of Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoprecipitates by adding Ti hydride nanoparticles remarkably increases the mechanical properties of the Al-containing ODS steels. - Highlights: •TiH{sub 1.971} reacts with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} to form Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} in the Al-containing ODS steel. •Addition of TiH{sub 1.971} nanoparticles can prevent the formation of Y-Al-O phases. •Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles share semicoherent interface with the ferrite matrix. •The mean size of oxide dispersion is reduced to 11.2 ± 7.1 nm with 1.0 wt% TiH{sub 1.971}. •The tensile strength of the ODS steel enlarges with increasing TiH{sub 1.971} content.

  1. Microstructure and kinetics evolution in MgH{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} pellets after hydrogen cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabile Gattia, D., E-mail: daniele.mirabile@enea.it; Di Girolamo, G.; Montone, A.

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • MgH{sub 2} was ball milled with TiO{sub 2} anatase phase and expanded graphite to prepare pellets. • Different pellets have been prepared at different compression load. • Pellets were repeatedly cycled under hydrogen pressure to simulate tank exercise and verify their stability. • The compression load highly affects the stability of the pellets to cycling. • Microstructural evolution of the particles due to cycling have been observed. - Abstract: The interest in Mg-based hydrides for solid state hydrogen storage is associated to their capability to reversibly absorb and desorb large amounts of hydrogen. In this work MgH{sub 2} powder with 5 wt.% TiO{sub 2} was ball milled for 10 h. The as-milled nanostructured powder was enriched with 5 wt.% of Expanded Natural Graphite (ENG) and then compacted in cylindrical pellets by cold pressing using different loads. Both the powder and the pellets were subjected to kinetic and thermodynamic tests using a Sievert’s type gas reaction controller, in order to study the microstructural and kinetic changes which took place during repeated H{sub 2} absorption and desorption cycles. The pellets exhibited good kinetic performance and durability, even if the pressure of compaction revealed to be an important parameter for their mechanical stability. Scanning Electron Microscopy observations of as-prepared and cycled pellets were carried out to investigate the evolution of their microstructure. In turn the phase composition before and after cycling was analyzed by X-ray diffraction.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped UO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldati, A.L., E-mail: asoldati@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atómico Bariloche (CAB) – Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), Av. Bustillo 9500, CP: 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. De los Pioneros 2300, CP: 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Gana Watkins, I. [Centro Atómico Bariloche (CAB) – Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), Av. Bustillo 9500, CP: 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Fernández Zuvich, A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche (CAB) – Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), Av. Bustillo 9500, CP: 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, CP: 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Napolitano, F.; Troiani, H. [Centro Atómico Bariloche (CAB) – Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), Av. Bustillo 9500, CP: 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. De los Pioneros 2300, CP: 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); and others

    2016-10-15

    UO{sub 2} nanoparticles doped with 4, 8, 10 and 15 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}were synthesized by a reverse strike method. Crystal structure and chemical homogeneity were evaluated using a combination of X-ray diffraction and microscopy tools. An exhaustive study of the composition and its homogeneity at the micro and at the nanometer level was carried out in this nuclear fuel material. Field Emission Gun Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy images revealed the presence of micrometer scale agglomerates of nanoparticles, with rounded morphology and an average crystallite size of 100 nm. Rietveld refinements of high-statistic X-ray Diffraction data determined the crystal structure and composition. Furthermore, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy using a 2 nm{sup 2} spot on the sample surface determined a Gd concentration variation around the average of ±5% in different spots of a single crystallite and of ±10% between different crystallites. However, when measuring large amounts of nanoparticles the concentration averages, producing a homogeneous composition distribution at the micrometer scale. - Highlights: • Synthesis of 4, 8, 10 and 15wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped UO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • Crystallite sizes around 100 nm and rounded morphology. • 90% Gd distribution homogeneity between particles for the less concentrated sample. • High Statistic X-ray Rietveld analysis determined an U{sub 1−x}Gd{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} fcc structure. • Phases with similar crystal structure and symmetry, but different lattice parameter.

  3. Zn-ZrO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings: Elecrodeposition and evaluation of corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vathsala, Kanagalasara, E-mail: vathsala.mahesh@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta-577451, Karnataka (India); Venkatesha, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah, E-mail: drtvvenkatesha@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Studies in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta-577451, Karnataka (India)

    2011-08-15

    The Zn and Zn-ZrO{sub 2} composite coatings were produced by electrodeposition technique using sulphate bath. ZrO{sub 2} particles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ZrO{sub 2} particle size distribution in the plating bath and Zeta potential and the ZrO{sub 2} were measured using dynamic light scattering technique (DLS). The corrosion resistance properties of Zn and Zn-ZrO{sub 2} composite coatings were compared by examining the experimental data acquired through polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and Tafel measurements. The corrosion environment was 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The variation of amount of ZrO{sub 2} in the solution on their % wt inclusion in the composite and on composite microhardness was investigated. XRD patterns were recorded for Zn and Zn-ZrO{sub 2} coatings to compare their grain size. The SEM images of coatings before and after corrosion under chemical and electrochemical conditions were presented. The results were analyzed to establish the superiority of Zn-ZrO{sub 2} composite over Zn coating.

  4. Structural, morphological, optical and photocatalytic investigation of Ag-doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Virender Singh; Tanwar, Amit [Department of Electronic Science, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119 (India); Singh, Davender, E-mail: Davender-kadian@rediffmail.com; Maan, A. S. [Departments of Physics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The pure and Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by using Titanium isoproxide (TTIP), silver nitrate sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide. The calcined nanoparticles at 400°C were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD analyses reveal that the nanoparticles of various doping concentration were having anatase phase. The particle size was calculated by Scherrer formula and was found 11.08 nm for pure TiO{sub 2} and 8.86 nm for 6 mol % Ag doped TiO{sub 2}. The morphology and nature of nanoparticles was analyzed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), the optical absorption spectra of pure TiO{sub 2} and Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles showed that absorption edge increases towards longer wavelength from 390 nm (pure) to 450 nm (doped), also band gap energy calculated from Tauc’s plot decrease from 3.20eV to 2.92eV with increase in doing. The measurement of photocatalytic properties of pure TiO{sub 2} and Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles showed that Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} degrades MB dye more efficiently than pure TiO{sub 2}.

  5. Nanosized {alpha}-LiFeO{sub 2} as electrochemical supercapacitor electrode in neutral sulfate electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Pena, J., E-mail: iq2sanpe@uco.e [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica e Ingenieria Quimica, Edificio Marie Curie, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Crosnier, O.; Brousse, T. [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Ecole Polytechnique de l' Universite de Nantes, Site de la Chantrerie, rue Christian Pauc s/n, 44376 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2010-10-30

    In this work we have explored the electrochemical properties of two lithiated iron oxide powders for supercapacitor purposes. These samples mainly consisted of {alpha}-LiFeO{sub 2} in nanosized or micrometric form. Electrolyte was an aqueous 0.5 M Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution and voltage range studied was between 0 and -0.7 V vs. a Ag/AgCl reference electrode. As expected, electrochemical performance was dependent on the particle size. When electrolyte was deaerated a stable capacitance of {approx}50 F g{sup -1} is provided by the nanosized sample for several hundred cycles. Other sulfate based salts (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Cs{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) were investigated as electrolytes but only Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leads to a stable capacitance upon cycling, probably due to lithium intercalation. An hybrid cell consisting of this sample and MnO{sub 2} as negative and positive electrodes, respectively, delivered 0.3 F cm{sup -2} (10 F g{sup -1}). Although these values are lower than reported for other aqueous hybrid cell, {alpha}-LiFeO{sub 2}/MnO{sub 2} asymmetric capacitor is interesting from both, an economic and an environmental point of view.

  6. Silver film on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support: Photocatalytic and antimicrobial ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukoje, Ivana D., E-mail: ivanav@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tomašević-Ilić, Tijana D., E-mail: tommashev@gmail.com [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zarubica, Aleksandra R., E-mail: zarubica2000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Niš, Višegradska 33, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Dimitrijević, Suzana, E-mail: suzana@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Budimir, Milica D., E-mail: mickbudimir@gmail.com [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vranješ, Mila R., E-mail: mila@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Šaponjić, Zoran V., E-mail: saponjic@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nedeljković, Jovan M., E-mail: jovned@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Simple photocatalytic rout for deposition of Ag on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films. • High antibactericidal efficiency of deposited Ag on TiO{sub 2} support. • Improved photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} films in the presence of deposited Ag. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films were prepared on glass slides by the dip coating technique using colloidal solutions consisting of 4.5 nm particles as a precursor. Photoirradiation of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} film modified with alanine that covalently binds to the surface of TiO{sub 2} and at the same time chelate silver ions induced formation of metallic silver film. Optical and morphological properties of thin silver films on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support were studied by absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Improvement of photocatalytic performance of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films after deposition of silver was observed in degradation reaction of crystal violet. Antimicrobial ability of deposited silver films on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support was tested in dark as a function of time against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The silver films ensured maximum cells reduction of both bacteria, while the fungi reduction reached satisfactory 98.45% after 24 h of contact.

  7. Ammonothermal synthesis and characterization of Cs{sub 2}[Zn(NH{sub 2}){sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Theresia M.M.; Niewa, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569, Stuttgart (Germany); Alt, Nicolas S.A.; Schluecker, Eberhard [Lehrstuhl fuer Prozessmaschinen und Anlagentechnik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Cauerstrasse 4, 91058, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Cs{sub 2}[Zn(NH{sub 2}){sub 4}] was synthesized under ammonothermal conditions (sc-NH{sub 3}, 523 K, 155 MPa) from CsNH{sub 2} and Zn. Growth of cm-sized crystals succeeded upon application of a temperature gradient. The crystal structure is based on the motif of a hexagonal closed packing of [Zn(NH{sub 2}){sub 4}]{sup 2-} ions with occurrence of no significant hydrogen bridges according to distances and vibrational spectroscopy. Cs{sup +} ions are located within octahedral and tetrahedral holes of the packing. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Thermoelectric power of TTF[Ni(dmit){sub 2}]{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaddour, Wafa, E-mail: wafa.kaddour@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR8502-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 510, Orsay F-91405 (France); Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Auban-Senzier, Pascale, E-mail: senzier@lps.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR8502-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 510, Orsay F-91405 (France); Pasquier, Claude, E-mail: pasquier@lps.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR8502-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 510, Orsay F-91405 (France); Valade, Lydie, E-mail: valade@lcc-toulouse.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2012-06-01

    The 1D organic salt TTF[Ni(dmit){sub 2}]{sub 2} becomes superconductor with T{sub c}=1.6 K under an applied hydrostatic pressure of 7 kbar. Structural determinations in this system lead us to suspect that superconductivity (SC) coexists with a charge density wave (CDW) instability at low pressure. In order to better understand how SC emerge from a CDW and to revisit the pressure-temperature phase diagram of the TTF[Ni(dmit){sub 2}]{sub 2} we performed transport and thermoelectric power measurements under pressure.

  9. Macroscopic and microscopic defects and nonlinear optical properties of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} crystals with embedded TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grachev, Valentin G.; Vrable, Ian A.; Malovichko, Galina I. [Physics Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States); Pritula, Igor M.; Bezkrovnaya, Olga N.; Kosinova, Anna V. [Institute for Single Crystals, NAS of Ukraine, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Yatsyna, Vasyl O.; Gayvoronsky, Vladimir Ya. [Institute of Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2012-07-01

    Results from the successful growth of high quality KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP) crystals with incorporated TiO{sub 2} anatase nanoparticles and the characterization of these crystals using several complementary methods are presented. The study allowed the nature and distribution of macroscopic and microscopic defects in the KDP:TiO{sub 2} crystals to be clarified. The relationship between these defects and the distribution of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, and the influence of incorporated nanoparticles on the nonlinear optical properties of composite crystals in comparison with pure crystals were also elucidated. Visual observations, transmission and scanning electron microscopy have shown that the anatase nanoparticles were captured mainly by the pyramidal growth sector and, to a considerably lesser extent, by the prismatic growth sector. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis was able to confirm that the growth layer stacks contain the TiO{sub 2} particles. Fourier transformation infrared spectra have clearly shown the presence of an absorption band at about 800 cm{sup -1} in both KDP:TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, and the disappearance of the band, associated with hydroxyl OH{sup -} groups on the TiO{sub 2} surface in KDP:TiO{sub 2}. Significant variation in the imaginary and real parts of the cubic nonlinear optical susceptibilities and refractive index changes at continuous wave excitation were found in prism and pyramid parts of pure KDP and KDP:TiO{sub 2} samples. Deciphering complicated electron paramagnetic resonance spectra in KDP:TiO{sub 2} and comparison with published data permitted the identification of paramagnetic defects along with their associated g-factors and zero-field splitting parameters (in some cases for the first time). It was found that the dominant lines belong to four different centers Fe{sub A}{sup 3+}, Fe{sub B}{sup 3+}, Cr{sub R}{sup 3+}, and Cr{sub GB}{sup 3+}. From analysis of line intensities it was concluded that the concentration of intrinsic

  10. Preparation of CdS@CeO{sub 2} core/shell composite for photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2} under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijaz, Sana [CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakaryia University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Ehsan, Muhammad Fahad [CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem, E-mail: naeemashiqqau@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakaryia University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Karamat, Nazia [Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakaryia University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); He, Tao, E-mail: het@nanoctr.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • CdS@CeO{sub 2}core(*)/shell composite is fabricated using a two-step method. • CdS@CeO{sub 2} can photoreduce CO{sub 2} into CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 3}OH under visible-light irradiation. • CdS@CeO{sub 2} can enhance photocatalytic activity due to increased charge separation. • Core shell strategy for photocatalyst preparation can improve photostability. - Abstract: Present work demonstrates fabrication of CdS@CeO{sub 2} core/shell composite and its application in the photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2} under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). CdS@CeO{sub 2} composite has been successfully prepared by two-step chemical method, while CeO{sub 2} and CdS have been synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the formation of fluorite cubic structure of CeO{sub 2} and cubic phase of CdS. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy reveal the microsphere morphology of CdS, while CeO{sub 2} (shell) is in the form of spherical particles that surround the CdS (core) in case of the composite. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to confirm the composition, oxidation state of the elements and valance band of the obtained materials. The CdS@CeO{sub 2} core/shell composite and CdS can convert CO{sub 2} into methane and methanol under visible-light irradiation. The CdS@CeO{sub 2} composite shows higher yield for both methane and methanol than CdS due to low recombination rate of photogenerated electron/hole pairs, as well as a larger BET specific surface area. Moreover, the CdS@CeO{sub 2} core/shell composite also shows improved stability upon photocatalysis.

  11. Stability of Zn-Ni-TiO{sub 2} and Zn-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings in near-neutral sulphate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, A., E-mail: aboavida@fc.ul.pt; Almeida, I.; Frade, T. [CCMM, Departamento Quimica e Bioquimica da Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Tavares, A. C. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Energie Materiaux et Telecommunications (INRS-EMT) (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Zn-Ni-TiO{sub 2} and Zn-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared by galvanostatic cathodic square wave deposition. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the occlusion of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (spherical shaped with diameter between 19.5 and 24.2 nm) promotes the formation of the {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21} phase, changes the preferred crystallographic orientation of Zn from (101) and (102) planes to (002), and decreases the particle size of the metallic matrices. The stability of the nanocomposites immersed in near-neutral 0.05 mold m{sup -3} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution (pH 6.2) was investigated over 24 h. The initial open circuit potential for the Zn-Ni-TiO{sub 2} and Zn-TiO{sub 2} coatings were -1.32 and -1.51 V (vs. Hg/Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), respectively, and changed to -1.10 and -1.49 V (vs. Hg/Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after 24 h of immersion. Data extracted from the steady state polarization curves demonstrated that the metal-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites have, with respect to the metal coatings, a higher corrosion potential in the case of the Zn-Ni alloy composite; a lower corrosion potential in the case of Zn-based nanocomposite albeit the predominant (002) crystallographic orientation; and a lower initial corrosion resistance due to the smaller grain size and higher porosity in the Zn-Ni-TiO{sub 2} and Zn-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. Morphological and chemical analyses showed that a thicker passive layer is formed on the surface of the Zn-Ni-TiO{sub 2} and Zn-TiO{sub 2} deposits. After 24 h of immersion in the sulphate solution, the Zn-Ni-TiO{sub 2} coating has the highest corrosion stability due to the double-protective action created by the deposit's surface enrichment in Ni plus the higher amount of corrosion products.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of bimetallic Pd-Ni catalysts in a CeO{sub 2} matrix for the generation of H{sub 2} by the reforming reaction of methanol; Sintesis y caracterizacion de catalizadores bimetalicos Pd-Ni en una matriz de CeO{sub 2} para la generacion de H{sub 2} mediante la reaccion de reformado de metanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras C, R.

    2016-07-01

    The hydrothermal method was used for the synthesis of CeO{sub 2} nano rods using Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 4}OH. The catalytic support was calcined at 700 degrees Celsius. The synthesis of CeO{sub 2} nano rods were impregnated with an aqueous solution of Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O by an incipient wetness impregnation method at an appropriate concentration to yield 5 and 15% of Ni in the catalysts. Then 0.5% of Pd was impregnated using PdCl{sub 2}. The samples obtained were calcined at 400 and reduced at 450 degrees Celsius. The catalytic materials were characterized by: temperature programmed reduction (TPR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) , surface area and X-ray diffraction (XRD) . Sem results showed that the CeO{sub 2} is formed by nano rods and in lesser proportion semi spherical particles. Bet surface area of the catalysts decreases with Ni loading onto the CeO{sub 2} nano rods. Pd O and Ni O were reduced at low and high temperature as was observed by TPR. The CeO{sub 2} one-dimensional nano rods showed a highly crystalline structure with sharp diffraction peaks, with a typical fluorite structure (cubic structure of the CeO{sub 2}) and characteristic peaks corresponding to metallic Ni. No diffraction peaks of Pd were found. This is due to the low concentration of this metal in the catalyst. These catalysts showed high activity and selectivity to H{sub 2} at maximum reaction temperature. According to the results of activity and selectivity, the catalysts with Pd-Ni are an alternative for the H{sub 2} production in auto thermal reforming reaction of methanol. (Author)

  13. Co-doping TiO{sub 2} with boron and/or yttrium elements: Effects on antimicrobial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuzheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Wu, Yusheng, E-mail: henanwys@sina.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870 (China); Yang, He; Xue, Xiangxin; Liu, Zhihua [Institute of Metallurgical Resources and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • B-Y/TiO{sub 2} nano materials firstly applied to the fields of antibacterial materials. • Systems analysis the existence state of boron and yttrium ion in TiO{sub 2}. • Doping B and Y greatly strengthened the antibacterial activity of TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Pure TiO{sub 2}, boron and/or yttrium doped TiO{sub 2} nano-materials were synthesized by a sol–gel method and characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and PL. XRD analysis indicates that, in the pure TiO{sub 2} and B single doped TiO{sub 2} (B-TiO{sub 2}) nano-materials calcinated at 700 °C, the presence of TiO{sub 2} is a mixture of anatase and rutile; in the Y single doped (Y-TiO{sub 2}), B and Y co-doped TiO{sub 2} nano-materials (B/Y-TiO{sub 2}), the presence of TiO{sub 2} is anatase. SEM image shows the prepared materials have a common round morphology and hexagonal plate morphology caused by the agglomeration of particles. Boron atoms are partially embedded into the TiO{sub 2} interstitial structure or incorporated into the TiO{sub 2} lattice through occupying the position of the oxygen atoms. The results of antimicrobial experiment show that B/Y-TiO{sub 2} material has a remarkable antimicrobial activity. Compared with the visible light irradiation, antimicrobial activity of B/Y-TiO{sub 2} in dark is significant poor.

  14. The uranium(VI) oxoazides [UO{sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 2}.CH{sub 3}CN], [(bipy){sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 4}], [(bipy)UO{sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sup -}, [UO{sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 2-}, and [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 8}]{sup 4-}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiges, Ralf; Christe, Karl O. [Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Vasiliu, Monica; Dixon, David A. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2017-01-12

    The reaction between [UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}] and an excess of Me{sub 3}SiN{sub 3} in acetonitrile solution results in fluoride-azide exchange and the uranium(VI) dioxodiazide adduct [UO{sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 2}.CH{sub 3}CN] was isolated in quantitative yield. The subsequent reaction of [UO{sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 2}.CH{sub 3}CN] with 2,2{sup '}-bipyridine (bipy) resulted in the formation of the azido-bridged binuclear complex [(bipy){sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 4}]. The triazido anion [(bipy)UO{sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sup -} was obtained by the reaction of [UO{sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 2}.CH{sub 3}CN] with stoichiometric amounts of bipy and the ionic azide [PPh{sub 4}][N{sub 3}]. The reaction of [UO{sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 2}] with two equivalents of the [PPh{sub 4}][N{sub 3}] resulted in the formation of the mononuclear tetraazido anion [UO{sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup 2-} as well as the azido-bridged binuclear anion [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 8}]{sup 4-}. The novel uranium oxoazides were characterized by their vibrational spectra and in the case of [(bipy){sub 2}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 4}].CH{sub 3}CN, [PPh{sub 4}][(bipy)UO{sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 3}], [PPh{sub 4}]{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 4}], [PPh{sub 4}]{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 4}].2CH{sub 3}CN, and [PPh{sub 4}]{sub 4}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(N{sub 3}){sub 8}].4CH{sub 3}CN by their X-ray crystal structures. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. An improved synthesis of (H/sub 2/EDTA)Tc(EDTAH/sub 2/) . 5H/sub 2/O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, K.E.; Davison, A.; Jones, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    A new procedure for the preparation of the dimeric technetium complex (H/sub 2/EDTA)Tc(μ-O)/sub 2/Tc(EDTAH/sub 2/)-5H/sub 2/O,/sup 1/ has been developed. In the original preparation of this complex, HTcO/sub 4/, NaHSO/sub 3/, and EDTA were heated at 70 0 C for several days and a crude product isolated by separating out crystals from a reaction mixture that had been allowed to evaporate very slowly. Analysis of the time course of this reaction shows that a reduced, presumably Tc(III), gold complex forms rapidly and that the prolonged reaction time is required only to decompose excess reducing agent and to oxidize the gold compound to the desired red product 1. The authors have found that careful oxidation of this gold complex with peroxide, followed by the addition of dilute HC1O/sub 4/, precipitates high yields of the sparingly soluble free acid form of 1 from the reaction mixture. The synthesis requires 24 hours, rather than several days

  16. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. Evaluation of emission reduction scenarios using chemical transport calculations. NO{sub 2}- and O{sub 3} reduction potentials of package of measures for further reduction of immissions in Germany; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. Bewertung von Emissionsminderungsszenarien mit Hilfe chemischer Transportberechnungen. NO{sub 2}- und O{sub 3}-Minderungspotenziale von Massnahmenpaketen zur weiteren Reduzierung der Immissionen in Deutschland. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Rainer [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Troposphaerische Umweltforschung

    2013-06-15

    This report documents the effects of additional emission control measures the NO{sub 2}- and ozone-air quality in Germany (PM = particulate matter). The immission effects of the planned measures were calculated with the Chemistry-Aerosol-Transport Model REM CALGRID (RCG). [German] Dieser Bericht dokumentiert die Auswirkungen zusaetzlicher emissionsmindernder Massnahmen auf die NO{sub 2}- und die Ozon-Luftqualitaet in Deutschland. Die immissionsseitigen Auswirkungen der geplanten Massnahmen wurden auf der Basis von Berechnungen mit dem Chemie- Aerosol-Transportmodell REM-CALGRID (RCG) bestimmt. Grundlage der Szenarienrechnungen sind die im Rahmen des F and E-Vorhabens entwickelten Emissionsabschaetzungen, die die Aenderung der Emissionen aufgrund von technischen oder nicht-technischen Massnahmen beschreiben. Die den Berechnungen zugrunde liegende horizontale Aufloesung betraegt 0.125 Laenge und 0.0625 Breite oder circa 7 km x 8 km. Das meteorologische Referenzjahr ist 2005.

  17. Ni/TiO<sub>2 composite electrocoatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kollia, C.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Nickel composite coatings have been studied in order to provide increased properties on engineering materials surfaces, such as higher electrical conductivity, wear and corrosion resistance and to decrease the end product manufacturing cost by plating on cheap materials. Adding TiO<sub>2 particles in the bath during the deposition process produced composite coatings. This was tried on electrodeposition from a Watts bath by conventional DC conditions and by pulse plating. The surfaces were studied by SEM, by profilometry and by Vickers microhardness, and its structure by X-ray diffraction. The incorporation percentage of TiO<sub>2 particles in the metallic matrix was estimated by EDS analysis. Corrosion measurements of the deposits were taken by Tafel curves. The results obtained show that particle incorporation percentage is higher for the Ni/TiO<sub>2 electrodeposits produced by pulse current and the microhardness is significantly increased compared to the electrodeposits produced by DC.

    Los electrodepósitos compuestos de níquel confieren mejores propiedades a la superficies de los materiales utilizados en ingeniería, tales como conductividad eléctrica, desgaste y resistencia a la corrosión, y disminuyen el costo del producto manufacturado al utilizarse como recubrimiento de acabado sobre materiales base más económicos. La adición de partículas de TiO<sub>2 al baño durante la electrodeposicion da lugar a la formación de recubrimientos compuestos. La electrodeposicion se llevó cabo en un baño Watts en condiciones convencionales de corriente continua y por electrodepósito pulsante. Las superficies fueron estudiadas por SEM y microanálisis EDS; se midió su microrrugosidad y microdureza Vickers; y su estructura se analizó mediante Difracción de Rayos X. Las medidas de corrosión de los depósitos se realizaron a partir del trazado de curvas de Tafel. Los resultados muestran que el porcentaje de

  18. Novel synthetic route to molybdenum hydrido-thiocarbamoyl and hydrosulfido-carbyne complexes by reactions of trans-Mo(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} with N,N-dimethylthioformamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.L.; Kubas, G.J.; Burns, C.J.; Butcher, R.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The reactions of bis(dinitrogen)molybdenum complexes trans-Mo(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} (R = Ph, Et) with N,N-dimethylthioformamide (HC(S)NMe{sub 2}) in refluxing benzene under argon give the molybdenum hydrido-thiocarbamoyl complexes MoH({eta}{sup 2}-C(S)NMe{sub 2})(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} (R = Ph (1a), Et (1b)). On heating at 125{degree}C in toluene solutions, compounds 1a and 1b rearrange to form the molybdenum hydrosulfido-aminocarbyne complexes trans-Mo(SH)-(=CNMe{sub 2})(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} (R = Ph (2a), Et (2b)). A mechanism is proposed for this thermal rearrangement which involves migration of the hydride ligand from molybdenum to the sulfur atom of the thiocarbamoyl ligand to give the 16-electron Fischer carbene intermediate Mo-(=C(SH)NMe{sub 2})(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2}, followed by migration of the hydrosulfido group from the carbene carbon to molybdenum. The molecular structures of compounds 1a and 2a have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. 30 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Electronic structures of ReS sub 2 , ReSe sub 2 and TcS sub 2 in the real and the hypothetical undistorted structures

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, C M; Haas, C; Groot, R A D

    1997-01-01

    The transition-metal dichalcogenides ReX sub 2 (X = S or Se) and TcS sub 2 with a d sup 3 electron configuration have distorted CdCl sub 2 and Cd(OH) sub 2 structures, respectively, with the Re(Tc) atoms in each layer forming parallelogram-shaped connected clusters (diamond chain). Ab-initio band-structure calculations were performed for ReX sub 2 and TcS sub 2 , and the hypothetical undistorted 1T-TcS sub 2 and 3R-ReX sub 2 structures. The calculations show that ReS sub 2 , ReSe sub 2 and TcS sub 2 are semiconductors with energy gaps of about 1.0 eV, 0.5 eV and 0.7 eV, respectively, while for the undistorted structures the Fermi level is in the partly filled band of d sub x sub sup 2 sub - sub y sub sup 2 and d sub x sub y orbitals of the t sub 2 sub g manifold. X-ray photoemission spectra for the core levels and valence band of ReSe sub 2 and ReS sub 2 are presented. The valence x-ray photoemission spectra showed that ReS sub 2 is a p-type semiconductor with an energy gap of about 1.5 eV, while ReSe sub 2 i...

  20. High-Rate, Durable Sodium-Ion Battery Cathode Enabled by Carbon-Coated Micro-Sized Na 3 V <sub>2 (PO 4 ) 3 Particles with Interconnected Vertical Nanowalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Bi, Xuanxuan [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South, Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Bai, Ying [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Yuan, Yifei [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South, Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive Houghton MI 49931 USA; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive Houghton MI 49931 USA; Wu, Chuan [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing 100081 China; Wu, Feng [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environment Science and Engineering, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing 100081 China; Lu, Jun [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South, Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South, Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA

    2016-02-08

    Na-ion batteries have been regarded as promising alternatives for Li-ion batteries due to the extensive sodium reserves in the world. Na3V2(PO4)3 has been proved to be a good candidate of the cathode materials in Na-ion batteries but the intrinsic low electrical conductivity and sluggish kinetics handicapped its application. Here, 3D hierarchical Na3V2(PO4)3 particles are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, constructed by carbon-coated 2D Na3V2(PO4)3 nanowalls. Superior cell performance of high rate capability and cycle stability are observed in the well-defined structure. As the cathode in Na-ion batteries, it delivers a high capacity almost reaching the theoretical one and exhibits high capacity retention. The enhanced rate capability and cycle performance can be attributed to the improved electrical conductivity from the interconnected carbon layer and the shortened ion diffusion length and high specific surface area from the nanowalls.

  1. The reduction of I{sub 2} by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J M; Hnatiw, J B [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.; Sims, H E [AEA Technology, Harwell Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The reduction of iodine by hydrogen peroxide is an important process which leads to a lower amount of molecular iodine in irradiated solutions of iodide as the pH is increased. There is quite a large amount of information on the reaction now but no consensus in the literature on the mechanisms for reaction and the generally accepted mechanism does not appear to be correct. A number of studies of the kinetics of the reaction in the pH range 2-7 have been carried out where the iodine reduction process exhibited a 1/[H{sup +}]{sup 2} dependence consistent with the proposed mechanism which were attributed primarily to the reaction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with IO{sup -}. Deviations were observed in the pH range 6-7 and were explained by incorporating the reaction of I{sub 2}OH{sup -} with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In some other experiments it was suggested that the failure to maintain a 1/[H{sup +}]{sup 2} dependence at high pH was due to the iodine hydrolysis being rate determining. Data from an experimental program performed at AECL described in this paper confirms that the 1/[H{sup +}]{sup 2} dependence does not hold at high pH. These studies were carried out as a function of acid, iodide, peroxide and buffer concentration for three buffers, barbital, citrate and phosphate. This paper discuss two mechanisms which involve the formation of an HOOI intermediate in the rate determining step and which adequately describe the experimental data. (author) 4 figs., 2 tabs., 23 refs.

  2. Evaluation of sintering effects on SiC-incorporated UO{sub 2} kernels under Ar and Ar–4%H{sub 2} environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Chinthaka M., E-mail: silvagw@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee TN 37831-6223 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37996-2100, United States. (United States); Lindemer, Terrence B.; Hunt, Rodney D.; Collins, Jack L.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Snead, Lance L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee TN 37831-6223 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is suggested as an oxygen getter in UO{sub 2} kernels used for tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particle fuels and to prevent kernel migration during irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry analyses performed on sintered kernels verified that an internal gelation process can be used to incorporate SiC in UO{sub 2} fuel kernels. Even though the presence of UC in either argon (Ar) or Ar–4%H{sub 2} sintered samples suggested a lowering of the SiC up to 3.5–1.4 mol%, respectively, the presence of other silicon-related chemical phases indicates the preservation of silicon in the kernels during sintering process. UC formation was presumed to occur by two reactions. The first was by the reaction of SiC with its protective SiO{sub 2} oxide layer on SiC grains to produce volatile SiO and free carbon that subsequently reacted with UO{sub 2} to form UC. The second process was direct UO{sub 2} reaction with SiC grains to form SiO, CO, and UC. A slightly higher density and UC content were observed in the sample sintered in Ar–4%H{sub 2}, but both atmospheres produced kernels with ∼95% of theoretical density. It is suggested that incorporating CO in the sintering gas could prevent UC formation and preserve the initial SiC content.

  3. Crystal field levels of tetravalent actinide ions in actinide dioxides UO sub 2 , NpO sub 2 and PuO sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupa, J.C. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (FR). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire); Gajek, Z. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw (PL). Inst. Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych)

    1991-01-01

    Crystal-field parameters resulting from analysis of optical spectroscopy and neutron diffraction data recorded on UO{sub 2} and NpO{sub 2} as well as ab-initio calculated parameters were used to calculate the crystal-field eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the J ground-state manifold of U{sup 4+}, Np{sup 4+} and Pu{sup 4+} in UO{sub 2}, NpO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}.

  4. Heat-capacity behaviour of Ce{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, R; Sampathkumaran, E V [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India)

    1997-12-31

    We report here the magnetic behaviour of Ce{sub 2}Pd{sub 2}In by heat capacity (C) and magnetization studies and propose that this compound exhibits two magnetic transitions, T{sub N}=4.5K and T{sub C}=3.6K. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Electrical transport properties of the unconventional superconductor YFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semeniuk, Konstantin; Chen, Jiasheng; Brown, Philip; Zou, Yang; Grosche, Malte [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Feng, Zhuo [London Centre of Nanotechnology, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Lampronti, Giulio [Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    YFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is a paramagnetic d-electron system which stands out due to its high Sommerfeld ratio of its specific heat capacity of 100 mJ/(mol K{sup 2}) and non Fermi-liquid T{sup 3/2} power law temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity. The material was found to be superconducting below about 1.8 K. Advances in YFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} crystal growth allowed us to obtain high quality samples with residual resistivity ratios of the order of 200. Recent measurements of magnetisation and heat capacity provide further evidence for superconductivity, and the correlation between the transition temperature and the sample quality, the enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient and the anomalous T-dependence of the resistivity indicate that superconductivity in YFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is unconventional. We report the results of detailed electrical resistivity measurements on YFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} as a function of temperature, magnetic field and hydrostatic pressure, which provide further insight into the nature of superconducting and normal states of the material.

  6. Superconductivity induced by oxygen doping in Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xiyue; Deng, Shuiquan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter (FJIRSM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Fuzhou (China); Gordon, Elijah E. [Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Whangbo, Myung-Hwan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter (FJIRSM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Fuzhou (China); Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-08-14

    When doped with oxygen, the layered Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}Bi phase becomes a superconductor. This finding raises questions about the sites for doped oxygen, the mechanism of superconductivity, and practical guidelines for discovering new superconductors. We probed these questions in terms of first-principles calculations for undoped and O-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}Bi. The preferred sites for doped O atoms are the centers of Bi{sub 4} squares in the Bi square net. Several Bi 6p x/y bands of Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}Bi are raised in energy by oxygen doping because the 2p x/y orbitals of the doped oxygen make antibonding possible with the 6p x/y orbitals of surrounding Bi atoms. Consequently, the condition necessary for the ''flat/steep'' band model for superconductivity is satisfied in O-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}Bi. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Room Temperature Radiolytic Synthesized Cu@CuAlO<sub>2-Al<sub>2O3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayereh Soltani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal Cu@CuAlO<sub>2-Al<sub>2O3 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by a gamma irradiation method in an aqueous system in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and isopropanol respectively as a colloidal stabilizer and scavenger of hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals. The gamma irradiation was carried out in a 60Co gamma source chamber with different doses up to 120 kGy. The formation of Cu@CuAlO<sub>2-Al<sub>2O3 nanoparticles was observed initially by the change in color of the colloidal samples from colorless to brown. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the presence of bonds between polymer chains and the metal surface at all radiation doses. Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX, and X-ray diffraction (XRD showed that Cu@CuAlO<sub>2-Al<sub>2O3 nanoparticles are in a core-shell structure. By controlling the absorbed dose and precursor concentration, nanoclusters with different particle sizes were obtained. The average particle diameter increased with increased precursor concentration and decreased with increased dose. This is due to the competition between nucleation, growth, and aggregation processes in the formation of nanoclusters during irradiation.

  8. Structural and morphological characterization of TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} powders obtained by the polymeric precursors method; Caracterizacao estrutural e morfologica de pos de TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} obtidos pelo metodo dos precursores polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, M.A.; Gama, L.; Bispo, A.; Neiva, L.S., E-mail: m_aparecidaribeiro@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Bernardi, M.I.B. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the structure and morphology of TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} powders obtained by polymeric precursor method. For this we studied the following compositions: 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 moles of Zr and calcined at 800 deg C for one hour. The powders obtained were characterized by XRD, SEM and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed that the powders had a phase of TiO{sub 2} in the anatase form and a tetragonal phase of ZrO{sub 2}. The crystallite size was between 8, 13 and 11 nm respectively. The analysis of scanning electron microscopy showed the growth of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles and that these comprise spherical agglomerates of less than 100 nm. Particle size determined by the BET ranging 28.1-29.5 nm, showing thereby the character of nanosized powders. (author)

  9. Optimization of UO{sub 2} Granule Characteristics for UO{sub 2}-Mo Pellet Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjoo; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Keon Sik; Oh, Jang Soo; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yanghyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The in-reactor performance, integrity, safety and accident tolerance of the nuclear fuel can be significantly affected by the thermal conductivity of the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet. The improvement in the thermal conductivity of the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet can enhance the fuel performance in various ways. Typically, the FGR (Fission Gas Release) can be reduced by the application of a large-grain fuel pellet because the moving path of the fission gas to the grain boundary is much longer. In addition, the mobility of the fission gases is reduced by the lower temperature gradient in the UO{sub 2} fuel pellet. That is to say, the capacity of the fission gas retention of the fuel pellet can increase. In addition, the lower centerline temperature of the fuel pellet affects the accident tolerance for nuclear fuel as well as the enhancement of fuel safety and fuel pellet integrity under normal operation conditions. In addition, the nuclear reactor power can be uprated owing to the higher safety margin. Thus, many researches on enhancing the thermal conductivity of a nuclear fuel pellet for LWRs have been performed in various ways. From the viewpoint of the development of fuel pellet fabrication technology, an enhancement of the thermal conductivity of a pellet can be obtained by the addition of a higher thermal conductive material in the UO{sub 2} pellet. It is known that a UO{sub 2}-metal composite pellet is one of the most effective concepts. However, to maximize the effect of the metallic phase for thermal conductivity enhancement, a continuous channel of the metallic phase in the UO{sub 2} matrix must be formed. Additionally, if the fabrication process of a UO{sub 2}-metal composite pellet is compatible with a conventional sintering process, the developed technology will be favorable. To enhance the thermal conductivity of a UO{sub 2} pellet, there are the various methods for an appropriate arrangement of the high thermal conductive material in a UO{sub 2} matrix. In this

  10. Structural order parameter in the pyrochlore superconductor Cd sub 2 Re sub 2 O sub 7

    CERN Document Server

    Sergienko, I A

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that both structural phase transitions in Cd sub 2 Re sub 2 O sub 7 , which occur at T sub s sub 1 = 200 K and T sub s sub 2 = 120 K, are due to an instability of the Re tetrahedral network with respect to the same doubly degenerate long-wavelength phonon mode. The primary structural order parameter transforms according to the irreducible representation E sub u of the point group O sub h. We argue that the transition at T sub s sub 1 may be of the second order, in accordance with experimental data. We obtain the phase diagram in the space of phenomenological parameters and propose a thermodynamic path that Cd sub 2 Re sub 2 O sub 7 follows upon cooling. Coupling of the itinerant electronic system and localized spin states in pyrochlores and spinels to atomic displacements are discussed. (author)

  11. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties of nanocrystaline Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated TiO{sub 2} in the ethanol dehydration reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, Humberto Vieira [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Longo, Elson [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisico-Quimica; Leite, Edson Roberto; Libanori, Rafael [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Probst, Luiz Fernando Dias [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Carreno, Neftali Lenin Villarreal [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Inorganica

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, TiO{sub 2} nano powder was partially coated with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} precursors generated by a sol-gel modified route. The system of nanocoated particles formed an ultra thin structure on the TiO{sub 2} surfaces. The modified nanoparticles were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Zeta potential and surface area through N{sub 2} physisorption measurements. Bioethanol dehydration was used as a probe reaction to investigate the modifications on the nanoparticles surface. The process led to the obtainment of nanoparticles with important surface characteristics and catalytic behavior in the bioethanol dehydration reaction, with improved activity and particular selectivity in comparison to their non-coated analogs. The ethylene production was disfavored and selectivity toward acetaldehyde, hydrogen and ethane increased over modified nanoparticles. (author)

  12. Synthesis, structure and chemical bonding of CaFe{sub 2−x}Rh{sub x}Si{sub 2} (x=0, 1.32, and 2) and SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlukhyy, Viktor, E-mail: viktor.hlukhyy@lrz.tu-muenchen.de; Hoffmann, Andrea V.; Fässler, Thomas F.

    2013-07-15

    The finding of superconductivity in Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} put the attention on the investigation of compounds that crystallize with ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure type such as AT{sub 2}X{sub 2} (A=alkali/alkaline earth/rare earth element; T=transition metal and X=element of the 13–15th group). In this context the silicides CaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, CaFe{sub 0.68(6)}Rh{sub 1.32(6)}Si{sub 2}, CaRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} have been synthesized by reaction of the elements under an argon atmosphere. Single crystals were obtained by special heat treatment in welded niobium/tantalum ampoules. The compounds were investigated by means of powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. All compounds crystallize in the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure with space group I4/mmm (No. 139): a=3.939(1) Å, c=10.185(1) Å, R{sub 1}=0.045, 85 F{sup 2} values, 8 variable parameters for CaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}; a=4.0590(2) Å, c=9.9390(8) Å, R{sub 1}=0.030, 90 F{sup 2} values, 10 variable parameters for CaFe{sub 0.68(6)}Rh{sub 1.32(6)}Si{sub 2}; a=4.0695(1) Å, c=9.9841(3) Å, R{sub 1}=0.031, 114 F{sup 2} values, 9 variable parameters for CaRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}; and a=3.974(1) Å, c=10.395(1) Å, R{sub 1}=0.036, 95 F{sup 2} values, 8 variable parameters for SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. The structure of SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} contains isolated [Co{sub 2}Si{sub 2}]{sup 2−} 2D-layers in the ab-plane whereas in CaFe{sub 2−x}Rh{sub x}Si{sub 2} the [T{sub 2}Si{sub 2}] layers (T=Fe and Rh) are interconnected along the c-axis via Si3Si bonds resulting in a three-dimentional (3D) [T{sub 2}Si{sub 2}]{sup 2−} polyanions and therefore belong to the so-called collapsed form of the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure. The SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CaRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are isoelectronic to the parent 122 iron–pnictide superconductors AeFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (Ae=alkaline earth elements), whereas CaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is a full substituted variant (As/Si) of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2

  13. Fabrication of blue luminescent MoS{sub 2} quantum dots by wet grinding assisted co-solvent sonication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Junaid; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung Hyun, E-mail: amm@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yunseok [Department of Printed Electronics, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials, Daejeon, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kangtaek [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) belongs to transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) family and has vital position among 2D materials. Here, an efficient strategy for the synthesis of zero-dimensional MoS{sub 2} quantum dots (QDs) has been represented. This strategy consists of wet grinding of pristine MoS{sub 2} in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) followed by sonication in NMP and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB). The efficacy of this approach to synthesize MoS{sub 2} QDs has been reported by analyzing the as synthesized MoS{sub 2} QDs by different characterization techniques such as high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. The concentration (yield) of as synthesized MoS{sub 2} QDs was found to be 7 mg mL{sup −1}. Most of the MoS{sub 2} QDs were measured around 2–5 nm in size. The as synthesized MoS{sub 2} QDs showed distinct blue luminescence upon UV excitation. - Highlights: • Synthesis of MoS{sub 2} quantum dots. • Wet grinding of MoS{sub 2} flakes for 6 h in NMP. • Ultrasonication of MoS{sub 2} in NMP and DCB. • Particle size 2–5 nm and concentration 7 mg/ml. • MoS{sub 2} QDs showed blue luminescence.

  14. CO{sub 2} separation from exhaust gas; CO{sub 2} separasjon fra eksosgass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magelssen, Paul Fr. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    When Saga wanted to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from Snorre B, cleaning of CO{sub 2} from exhaust gas was one of several options considered. CO{sub 2} cleaning using membrane/amine technology is under development. Saga required that the technology should be qualified and that the yield of the Snorre B project should not be reduced. This presentation discusses qualification of combined membrane/amine technology, environmental issues, economic issues and implementation on the Snorre B platform. Flue gas from the gas turbine is passed to a CO{sub 2} absorption and desorption stage from which the CO{sub 2} is passed on for compression and disposal while the cleaned flue is let out. The membrane is situated between the flue gas and the absorbent liquid. The pores are large enough for the CO{sub 2} to pass through quickly and small enough to prevent the liquid from penetrating into the pores. The packing factor is high, 500 - 1000 m2/m3, there is no formation of froth, ducts or entrainment of the liquid. New technology implies 65 - 70% size reduction of the main equipment and 39 - 40% reduction of the energy consumption. Research on amines brings out new chemicals which imply 80% reduction in the consumption of chemicals and the quantity of special waste produced. If a CO{sub 2} cleaning plant is installed on a LM 2500, the CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by 97,200 ton/year given the right operational conditions. Although it was decided in 1998 not to install the module with the CO{sub 2} pilot cleaning plant, Snorre B is still a good environmental project having CO{sub 2} emission within the values set by Miljoesok.

  15. Rapid preparation of ultrafine BaSO{sub 3} by SO{sub 2} storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fei; Sha, Feng; Qiao, Xian Shu; Zhao, Tian Xiang; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Jian Bin [College of Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Huhhot (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In this work, a green and efficient process was developed for the preparation of ultrafine BaSO{sub 3} with layered nanostructure surface via the reaction of BaCl{sub 2} with a SO{sub 2} storage material (SO{sub 2}SM) at room temperature. The absorption of SO{sub 2} with equimolar ethylenediamine (EDA) and ethylene glycol (EG) afforded SO{sub 2}SM, which not only offered alkyl sulfite but also released EDA and EG that served as efficient surfactants to promote the formation of BaSO{sub 3} with spherical morphology and porous structure in the process of synthesis of ultrafine BaSO{sub 3}. The factors affecting the morphology and size of BaSO{sub 3} particle were assessed by investigating the effects of SO{sub 2}SM concentration, BaCl{sub 2} concentration, stirring time and speed. It was found that a higher SO{sub 2}SM concentration led to a higher degree of supersaturation, and the particle size of BaSO{sub 3} could be reduced by increasing SO{sub 2}SM concentration. Moreover, under the identified optimal reaction conditions, ultrafine BaSO{sub 3} was obtained with an average diameter of 450 nm. In addition, a plausible formation process of BaSO{sub 3} was proposed to explain the observed reaction results. Overall, the developed process in this work provides an efficient method for the capture, utilization, and conversion of SO{sub 2} into a valuable chemical.

  16. Peierls-distorted Ru-chains and boron dumbbells in Nb{sub 2}RuB{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}RuB{sub 2} from first-principles calculations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzani, Rachid S.; Mbarki, Mohammed; Chen, Ximeng [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Fokwa, Boniface P.T. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of California Riverside (UCR), Riverside, CA (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Nb{sub 2}RuB{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}RuB{sub 2} phases were recently predicted by GGA-VASP structure optimization to crystallize in the Nb{sub 2}OsB{sub 2}-type structure. Although the Fe-based (Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} type) and Os-based (Nb{sub 2}OsB{sub 2} type, superstructure variant of Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} type) analogues have been synthesized and characterized successfully, the Ru-based phases remained unknown. Crystal structure prediction of Nb{sub 2}RuB{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}RuB{sub 2} phases, using an evolutionary algorithm, led to the AlMn{sub 2}B{sub 2}-type structure in contrast to the aforementioned optimization; however, phonon calculations showed that the Nb{sub 2}OsB{sub 2}-type phases are dynamically more stable than the AlMn{sub 2}B{sub 2}-type phases. A slightly modified synthetic strategy finally led to the successful preparation of the predicted phases. The extremely quick arc-melting procedure, under argon atmosphere, not only led to a quantitative amount of the phases but also to single crystals suitable for structure determination. Powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as EDX analysis of the metal ratio have confirmed the GGA-VASP structure optimization: Nb{sub 2}RuB{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}RuB{sub 2} compounds indeed crystallize isotypically with Nb{sub 2}OsB{sub 2} structure, a superstructure variant of Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} type, in which B-dumbbells and Peierls-distorted Ru-chains are found. Susceptibility measurements on a Ta{sub 2}RuB{sub 2} single crystal reveal no superconducting transition down to 2 K, even though some features in the band structures of both phases, similar to those reported in superconducting NbRuB, hinted at possible superconductivity. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Interaction of Al with O{sub 2} exposed Mo{sub 2}BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, Hamid; Music, Denis, E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Al adheres to many surfaces. • Solid–solid interactions challenging for real (oxidized) surfaces. • Dissociative O{sub 2} adsorption on Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0). • Al nonamer is disrupted on oxidized Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0). • Adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide. - Abstract: A Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0) surface was exposed to O{sub 2}. The gas interaction was investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of air exposed surfaces. The calculations suggest that the most dominating physical mechanism is dissociative O{sub 2} adsorption whereby Mo−O, O−Mo−O and Mo{sub 2}−C−O bond formation is observed. To validate these results, Mo{sub 2}BC thin films were synthesized utilizing high power pulsed magnetron sputtering and air exposed surfaces were probed by XPS. MoO{sub 2} and MoO{sub 3} bond formation is observed and is consistent with here obtained ab initio data. Additionally, the interfacial interactions of O{sub 2} exposed Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0) surface with an Al nonamer is studied with ab initio molecular dynamics to describe on the atomic scale the interaction between this surface and Al to mimic the interface present during cold forming processes of Al based alloys. The Al nonamer was disrupted and Al forms chemical bonds with oxygen contained in the O{sub 2} exposed Mo{sub 2}BC(0 4 0) surface. Based on the comparison of here calculated adsorption energy with literature data, Al−Al bonds are shown to be significantly weaker than the Al−O bonds formed across the interface. Hence, Al−Al bond rupture is expected for a mechanically loaded interface. Therefore the adhesion of a residual Al on the native oxide layer is predicted. This is consistent with experimental observations. The data presented here may also be relevant for other oxygen containing surfaces in a contact with Al or Al based alloys for example during forming operations.

  18. Structures for capturing CO.sub.2, methods of making the structures, and methods of capturing CO.sub.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher W; Hicks, Jason C; Fauth, Daniel J; McMahan, Gray

    2012-10-30

    Briefly described, embodiments of this disclosure, among others, include carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sorption structures, methods of making CO.sub.2 sorption structures, and methods of using CO.sub.2 sorption structures.

  19. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}/ZrO{sub 2}(3Y) ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lei [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Application of Shenyang, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning 110142 (China); Ma, Weimin, E-mail: maleisy2003@163.com [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Application of Shenyang, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning 110142 (China); Sun, Xudong, E-mail: xdsun@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110819 (China); Ji, Lianyong; Liu, Jianan; Hang, Kai [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Application of Shenyang, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang, Liaoning 110142 (China)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}/ZrO{sub 2}(3Y) composites were prepared using vacuum sintering. • The phase composition and microstructure are studied. • Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}/ZrO{sub 2}(3Y) materials show superior mechanical properties. • The solid solution strengthening and stress-induced phase transformation toughening mechanism are proposed. • Two kinds of mechanisms explain the improvement of mechanical properties. - Abstract: Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}/ZrO{sub 2}(3Y) composite ceramics were prepared by vacuum sintering using Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and ZrO{sub 2}(3Y) nanoparticles. The ceramics were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), the three-point-bending technique and single-edge-notched-beam tests. The effect of various proportions of ZrO{sub 2}(3Y) on the phase composition, microstructure, bending strength and fracture toughness of the final Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}/ZrO{sub 2}(3Y) composite ceramics was also analyzed. The change from m-ZrO{sub 2} to t-ZrO{sub 2} phase contents, before and after fracture, was measured using XRD quantitative phase analysis. The results confirm that, with the increasing content of ZrO{sub 2}(3Y), a phase transition from solid solution to saturated precipitation occurs and the bending strength and fracture toughness of the samples increase gradually. When the content of ZrO{sub 2}(3Y) reached 95 vol.%, the Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}/ZrO{sub 2}(3Y) composite ceramics had a bending strength of 547 MPa and a fracture toughness of 5.5 MPa m{sup 1/2}, indicating that stress-induced phase transformation toughening was an efficient way to increase the mechanical properties of the Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics.

  20. In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} heterostructured nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yonglei [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Yin, Xingtian; He, Zuoli; Liu, Xiaobin; Yang, Yawei; Shao, Jinyou [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, International Center for Dielectric Research, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Kong, Ling Bing, E-mail: ELBKong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Visible-light photocatalytic activities of the nanostructured In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} heterostructures were studied. • Effect of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} content on the photocatalytic activity of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} heterostructure was evaluated. • 0.1In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} heterostructure photocatalyst shows a superior photocatalytic activity. • Based on Mott-Schottky analysis and active species detection, a mechanism for the separation of photogenerated carriers is proposed. • The effective separation process of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs was testified by photocurrent test. - Abstract: In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} composite photocatalysts with various contents of cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were fabricated by using impregnation method. A thriving modification of Bi{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} by an introduction of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The samples composed of hybrids of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light, as compared with pure In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles. Optimized composition of the composite photocatalysts was 0.1In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Bi{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which shows a rate constant higher than those of pure In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} by 4.06 and 3.21 times, respectively. Based on Mott-Schottky analysis and active species detection, the photoexcited electrons in the conduction band of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the holes in the valence band of Bi{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} participated in reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively. Hence, ·OH, ·O{sub 2}{sup −} and h

  1. Sugar supported H/sub 2/ production and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction by the cyanobiont Anabaena azollae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozen, A.; Tel-Or, E.

    1986-01-01

    Sugar supported activities of H/sub 2/ production and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction were characterized in axenic cell cultures of the cyanobiont Anabaena azollae isolated from the water fern Azolla filiculoides. Fructose was found to be the favoured substrate, enhancing activities in both the light and the dark even at relatively low concentrations of 0.5-1.0 mM. Higher concentrations of sucrose, (10-20mM) also supported H/sub 2/ production and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction, while glucose was less effective. Levels of H/sub 2/ production were always lower than those of C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ reduction. 13 references.

  2. Influence of TiO{sub 2} incorporation in HfO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based capacitor dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukli, Kaupo [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: Kaupo.Kukli@helsinki.fi; Ritala, Mikko [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Leskelae, Markku [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Sundqvist, Jonas [Qimonda Dresden GmbH and Co. OHG, Koenigsbruecker Strasse 180, 01099 Dresden (Germany); Oberbeck, Lars [Qimonda Dresden GmbH and Co. OHG, Koenigsbruecker Strasse 180, 01099 Dresden (Germany); Heitmann, Johannes [Qimonda Dresden GmbH and Co. OHG, Koenigsbruecker Strasse 180, 01099 Dresden (Germany); Schroeder, Uwe [Qimonda Dresden GmbH and Co. OHG, Koenigsbruecker Strasse 180, 01099 Dresden (Germany); Aarik, Jaan [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Taehe 4, 51010 Tartu (Estonia); Aidla, Aleks [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Taehe 4, 51010 Tartu (Estonia)

    2007-06-04

    Atomic layer deposition was applied to fabricate metal oxide films on planar substrates and also in deep trenches with appreciable step coverage. Atomic layer deposition of Ru electrodes was realized on planar substrates. Electrical and structural behaviour of HfO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} nanolaminates and mixtures as well as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were evaluated. The lowest leakage current densities with the lowest equivalent oxide thickness were achieved in mixed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} films annealed at 700 deg. C, compared to all other films in as-deposited state as well as annealed at 900 deg. C. The highest permittivities in this study were measured on HfO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanolaminates.

  3. Preparation and structural properties of nonlinear optical borates K{sub 2(1-x)}Rb{sub 2x}Al{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}, 0 < x < 0.75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atuchin, V.V., E-mail: atuchin@thermo.isp.nsc.ru [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation); Bazarov, B.G. [Laboratory of Oxide Systems, Baikal Institute of Nature Management, SB RAS, Ulan-Ude 47, 670047 (Russian Federation); Gavrilova, T.A. [Laboratory of Nanodiagnostics and Nanolithography, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Grossman, V.G. [Laboratory of Oxide Systems, Baikal Institute of Nature Management, SB RAS, Ulan-Ude 47, 670047 (Russian Federation); Molokeev, M.S. [Laboratory of Crystal Physics, Institute of Physics, SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Bazarova, Zh.G. [Laboratory of Oxide Systems, Baikal Institute of Nature Management, SB RAS, Ulan-Ude 47, 670047 (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid solutions K{sub 2(1-x)}Rb{sub 2x}Al{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} are synthesized over wide composition range up to x {approx} 0.83. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structure of K{sub 2(1-x)}Rb{sub 2x}Al{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} solutions is determined in space group P321. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Second harmonic generation is observed in KRbAl{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Drastic variation of cell parameters is found over KABO-type crystal family. - Abstract: The structures of K{sub 2(1-x)}Rb{sub 2x}Al{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}, x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, have been determined in space group P321 through Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data. The solubility limit in K{sub 2(1-x)}Rb{sub 2x}Al{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystals has been estimated as x {approx} 0.83-0.9. Nonlinear optical properties of KRbAl{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been verified by powder Kurtz-Perry method. Mechanisms of structural parameter variation in K{sub 2}Al{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystal family have been discussed.

  4. On the mechanism of nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} toxicity to freshwater algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Brad M., E-mail: Brad.Angel@csiro.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water Flagship, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Vallotton, Pascal [Digital Productivity Flagship, CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Apte, Simon C. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water Flagship, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} less toxic than micron-sized CeO{sub 2}. • UV light filters prevented ROS generation by CeO{sub 2}. • ROS not toxic mechanism: CeO{sub 2} toxicity was similar in presence and absence of ROS. • Strong sorption of nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in synthetic fresh water. • CeO{sub 2} sorption to cells was prevented and toxicity mitigated in the presence of DOC. - Abstract: The factors affecting the chronic (72-h) toxicity of three nanoparticulate (10–34 nm) and one micron-sized form of CeO{sub 2} to the green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were investigated. To characterise transformations in solution, hydrodynamic diameters (HDD) were measured by dynamic light scatter, zeta potential values by electrophoretic mobility, and dissolution by equilibrium dialysis. The protective effects of humic and fulvic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on toxicity were also assessed. To investigate the mechanisms of algal toxicity, the CytoViva hyperspectral imaging system was used to visualise algal–CeO{sub 2} interactions in the presence and absence of DOC, and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated by ‘switching off’ ROS production using UV-filtered lighting conditions. The nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} immediately aggregated in solution to HDDs measured in the range 113–193 nm, whereas the HDD and zeta potential values were significantly lower in the presence of DOC. Negligible CeO{sub 2} dissolution over the time course of the bioassay ruled out potential toxicity from dissolved cerium. The nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} concentration that caused 50% inhibition of algal growth rate (IC50) was in the range 7.6–28 mg/L compared with 59 mg/L for micron-sized ceria, indicating that smaller particles were more toxic. The presence of DOC mitigated toxicity, with IC50s increasing to greater than 100 mg/L. Significant ROS were generated in the nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2

  5. Electro-synthesis, characterization and photoconducting performance of ITO/polybithiophene–MnO{sub 2} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zouaoui, H.; Abdi, D. [Laboratoire d’Energétique et d’Electrochimie du Solide, Université Ferhat Abbas Sétif-1, Sétif 19000 (Algeria); Bahloul, A.; Nessark, B. [Laboratoire d’Electrochimie et Matériaux, Université Ferhat Abbas Sétif-1, Sétif 19000 (Algeria); Briot, E.; Groult, H. [Sorbonne Universités, Université Paris 6 (UPMC), Physicochimie des Electrolytes et Nanosystèmes Interfaciaux (PHENIX), 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Mauger, A. [Sorbonne Universités, Université Paris 6 (UPMC), Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés (IMPMC), 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Julien, C.M., E-mail: christian.julien@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, Université Paris 6 (UPMC), Physicochimie des Electrolytes et Nanosystèmes Interfaciaux (PHENIX), 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • PBTh–MnO{sub 2} composites are prepared by electro-polymerization of bithiophene on ITO. • Photocurrent of ITO/PBTh–MnO{sub 2} films is three times higher than that of ITO/PBTh substrate. • Electrochemical gap, HOMO and LUMO potentials are determined. • ITO/PBTh–MnO{sub 2} films can be used as a new active material in solar cells. - Abstract: Manganese dioxide is synthesized by reduction reaction of potassium permanganate with hydrogen peroxide. The as-synthesized α-MnO{sub 2} is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The MnO{sub 2} particles are used to prepare composite films containing polybithophene (PBTh) on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates. The composite films ITO/PBTh–MnO{sub 2} are obtained by electro-polymerization of bithiophene in the presence the α-MnO{sub 2} particles dispersed in the electrolytic solution. The XRD and SEM analyses show that the α-MnO{sub 2} particles of size in the range 100–300 nm are incorporated in the polymer. The films are characterized by cyclic voltammetry impedance spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. As a result, the electrochemical gap and the optical gap are shifted by the incorporation of MnO{sub 2} from 2.15 eV for ITO/PBTh to 1.88 eV for ITO/PBTh–MnO{sub 2}, while the electrical conductivity decreases from 195.35 S/cm for ITO/PBTh down to 0.047 S/cm for ITO/PBTh–MnO{sub 2} at the highest MnO{sub 2} investigated. The photo-electrochemical measurements also indicate that the ITO/PBTh–MnO{sub 2} films show a photocurrent that is three times higher than that of ITO/PBTh substrate to reach 20.6 μA cm{sup −2}, so that such a composite can be used as a new active material in solar cells.

  6. Electronic structure and vibrational properties of KRbAl{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atuchin, V.V. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation); Adichtchev, S.V. [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Spectroscopy, Institute of Automation and Electrometry, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation); Bazarov, B.G.; Bazarova, Zh.G. [Laboratory of Oxide Systems, Baikal Institute of Nature Management, SB RAS, Ulan-Ude 47, 670047 (Russian Federation); Gavrilova, T.A. [Laboratory of Nanodiagnostics and Nanolithography, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Grossman, V.G. [Laboratory of Oxide Systems, Baikal Institute of Nature Management, SB RAS, Ulan-Ude 47, 670047 (Russian Federation); Kesler, V.G. [Laboratory of Physical Principles for Integrated Microelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Meng, G.S. [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lin, Z.S., E-mail: zslin@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100190 (China); Surovtsev, N.V. [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Spectroscopy, Institute of Automation and Electrometry, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: With the KRbAl{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} powder formed by solid state synthesis (left), Raman spectrum (right upper) and XPS valence electronic states (right lower) were measured, agreed with the first-principles results. Highlights: ► KRbAl{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} powder was obtained by solid state synthesis. ► Vibrational properties of KRbAl{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} were determined by unpolarized Raman spectrum. ► Electronic structures of KRbAl{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} were measured by XPS. ► Experimental electronic structure is consistent with the first-principles result. ► KRbAl{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} has a noticeable refractive indices increase and small NLO effects decrease compared to K{sub 2}Al{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}. - Abstract: The physical properties of KRbAl{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been considered in comparison with those of K{sub 2}Al{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Rb{sub 2}Al{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The vibrational parameters of KRbAl{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been measured by Raman spectroscopy as very similar to those of K{sub 2}Al{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The electronic structures of KRbAl{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio computations using CASTEP package. A noticeable refractive indices increase and small decrease of nonlinear optical properties have been found in KRbAl{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} in reference to optical parameters of K{sub 2}Al{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7}.

  7. The influence of included minerals on the intrinsic reactivity of chars prepared under N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Huan; Chen, Jiabao; Zhao, Bo; Hu, Guangzhou [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Oxy-fuel technology could be successfully used to retrofit existing coal-fired power plants or alternatively be used to design and build new coal-fired power plants with almost zero emissions. Char reactivity under oxy-fuel conditions will have a significant impact on the coal burnout. In this paper, two fractions, representing organic-rich particles and organic particles with included minerals, were separated from each of three Chinese coals of different rank. They were then devolatilized at 1,450 C in a drop tube furnace (DTF) under N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} environment, respectively. The chars were subjected to nitrogen adsorption study, thermogravimetric analysis and XRD analysis. It was found that char reactivity of all three pairs of chars were increased under CO{sub 2} environment as compared with that under N{sub 2} environment, but with differing trend. For the organic-rich samples the reactivity difference is increased with decreasing rank. On the contrary, for the samples of organic particles with included minerals, the reactivity difference is decreased with decreasing rank. Mechanism analysis showed that they are resulted not from gasification, but from a combination of changes in surface area and in the orderness of carbon structure in the chars, both of which, in turn, are resulted from the higher heat capacity of CO{sub 2} and the interaction between metastable liquid phase and the included minerals.

  8. Unusual antiferromagnetic structure of YbCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mufti, N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, State University of Malang, Malang (Indonesia); Kaneko, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai (Japan); Hoser, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Gutmann, M. [ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Geibel, C.; Stockert, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Krellner, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We report on extensive powder and single crystal neutron diffraction experiments to study the magnetic structure in YbCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} below the Neel temperature T{sub N} = 1.7 K in detail. Representation analysis has been used to find the possible magnetic structure models compatible with the experiments. Two different magnetically ordered phases can clearly be distinguished. At lowest temperatures a commensurate magnetic structure with a propagation vector k{sub 1} = (0.25 0.25 1) and equal moments or about 1.4 μ{sub B}/Yb is found, while the intermediate phase (T > 0.9 K) is characterized by an incommensurate amplitude-modulated magnetic structure with k{sub 2} = (0.25 0.086 1). The magnetic structure in YbCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is in stark contrast to all other compounds of the RCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} family (R = rare earth element) likely due to some itineracy of the Yb 4f states being responsible for the magnetism.

  9. Synthesis and magnetic structure of the YbMn{sub 2}Sb{sub 2} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozkin, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: morozkin@general.chem.msu.ru; Isnard, O. [Institute Laue-Langevin, 6 Rue J. Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Henry, P. [Institute Laue-Langevin, 6 Rue J. Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Granovsky, S. [Physics Department, Moscow State University, GSP-2, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nirmala, R. [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Manfrinetti, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2006-08-31

    A neutron diffraction investigation has been carried out on the trigonal La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-type (hP5, space group P3-bar ml, No. 164; also CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type) YbMn{sub 2}Sb{sub 2} intermetallic. A two-step synthesis route has been tried in this work, and successfully utilised to prepare single phase samples of this compound. This study shows that YbMn{sub 2}Sb{sub 2} presents antiferromagnetic ordering below 120K. The magnetic structure of this intermetallic consists of antiferromagnetically coupled magnetic moments of the manganese atoms, in the Mn1 (1/3, 2/3, Z{sub Mn}) and Mn2 (2/3, 1/3, 1-Z{sub Mn}) sites; the direction of magnetic moments of manganese atoms forming a {phi} and a {theta} angle, respectively with the X- and the Z-axis. At 4K the magnetic moment of the Mn1 atom is {mu}{sub Mn}=3.6(1) {mu}{sub B}, with {phi}=0{sup o} and {theta}=62(4){sup o}, whilst the Mn2 atom has a magnetic moment {mu}{sub Mn}=3.6(1) {mu}{sub B}, with {phi}=0{sup o} and {theta}=242(4){sup o}. On the other hand, in this compound no local moment was detected on the Yb site.

  10. Surface crystallization in a Li{sub 2}O-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass; Cristalizacao de superficie em vidro do sistema Li{sub 2}O-ZrO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio Pedro Novaes de; Teixeira, Alexandre Henrique Bortolotto; Venturelli, Hugo Henrique, E-mail: bortolotto_teixeira@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: venturellihugo@gmail.com, E-mail: antonio.pedro@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (VITROCER/PGMAT/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Vitroceramicos; Montedo, Oscar Rubem Klegues, E-mail: oscar.rkm@gmail.com [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (CERTEC/PPGCEM/UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisa em Ceramica Tecnica

    2017-04-15

    Growth kinetics of crystallized surface layer in a LZSA glass composition, 11.7Li{sub 2}O·12.6ZrO{sub 2}·68.6SiO{sub 2}·7.1Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (wt%), was studied. For the production of the LZSA glass, it was used commercial raw materials (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, ZrSiO{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) which were mixed and melted at 1550 °C for 120 min and then poured into a metallic mold. Samples of the obtained glass were cut and subjected to heat treatments at different temperatures (825 - 925 °C) and times (30 - 150 min) for formation and growth of crystalline layer. Cross-sections of the heat-treated samples were ground and polished such that images of the formed crystallized layers could be visualized and measured by microscopy. Results showed that it is possible to obtain LZSA glasses with crystallized layers formed by β-spodumene, zircon and lithium silicate, which present thicknesses between 13 and 665 μ and grow at rates varying from 0.4 to 4.8 μm/min in the studied temperature range. (author)

  11. Synthesis, structure, and luminescence properties of In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7}/SnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunghoon; An, Soyeon; Jin, Changhyun; Lee, Chongmu [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7}/SnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires were synthesized by using a two-step process: thermal evaporation of a mixture of In and Ge powders and atomic layer deposition of SnO{sub 2}. The core-shell nanowires were characterized using by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} cores in these core-shell nanowires varied from 50 to 100 nanometers in diameter and up to a few hundreds of micrometers in length, and the SnO{sub 2} shell layer thickness ranged from 5 to 15 nm. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanowires had a weak broad violet emission band centered at approximately 405 nm. In contrast, the In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7}/SnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires had a taller blue-violet emission peak at approximately 440 nm. The optimum shell layer thickness of the In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7}/SnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires for the highest PL intensity was found to be 15 nm. Our results also showed that the intensity of the blue-violet emission was increased further by thermal annealing in an Ar atmosphere. The origins of the change on and the enhancement of the luminescence of the In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanowires by SnO{sub 2} coating and annealing are discussed.

  12. The catalytic activity of Ag{sub 2}S-montmorillonites as peroxidase mimetic toward colorimetric detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingyun, E-mail: qyliu@sdust.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510 (China); Jiang, Yanling; Zhang, Leyou; Zhou, Xinpei [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510 (China); Lv, Xintian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252000 (China); Ding, Yanyuan; Sun, Lifang; Chen, Pengpeng [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510 (China); Yin, Hailiang [Academy of Science & Technology, China University of Petroleum, Dongying 257061 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Nanocomposites based on silver sulfide (Ag{sub 2}S) and Ca-montmorillonite (Ca{sup 2+}-MMT) were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). The as-prepared Ag{sub 2}S-MMT nanocomposites were firstly demonstrated to possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and could rapidly catalytically oxidize the substrate 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to produce a blue product which can be seen by the naked eye in only one minute. The experimental results revealed that the Ag{sub 2}S-MMT nanocomposites exhibit higher thermal durance. Based on the TMB–H{sub 2}O{sub 2} catalyzed color reaction, the Ag{sub 2}S-MMT nanocomposites were exploited as a new type of biosensor for detection and estimation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} through a simple, cheap and selective colorimetric method. - Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}S – montmorillonites (MMT) was synthesized by a facile one step method. • The as-prepared Ag{sub 2}S-MMT nanocomposites firstly demonstrate to possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. • Ag{sub 2}S-MMT nanocomposites showed highly catalytic activity. • Ag{sub 2}S-MMT could rapidly catalytically oxidize substrates TMB in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in 1 min. • The catalytic mechanism is from the generation of hydroxyl radical (·OH) decomposed from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  13. Structure and crystallization of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Yin, E-mail: zjbcy@126.co [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Xiao Hanning [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Shuguang Chen; Tang Bingzhong [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China)

    2009-05-01

    B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glasses with different B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of 0.4-1.3 were prepared by the melting-quenching method at 1500-1600 deg. C for 2 h. Fragility index F was used to estimate the glass-forming ability. The infrared (IR) absorption curves and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves of the glasses have been investigated for estimating the influence of the B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio on glass structure and crystallization of the B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glass system. The crystallization kinetics of the glasses were described by activation energy (E) for crystallization and calculated by the Kissinger method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM analyses were also used to describe the types and morphologies of the crystals precipitated from the B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} glasses. The results show that with the increase of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, glass stability improves and the trend of crystallization decreases relatively. However, when the B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio reaches 1.3, boron-abnormal phenomenon appears and results in the raising trend of crystallization. Rod-like crystals of Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} and Al{sub 20}B{sub 4}O{sub 36} were observed in the crystallized samples.

  14. Investigation on structural, surface morphological and dielectric properties of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagadevan, Suresh [Department of Physics, AMET University, Chennai (India); Podder, Jiban, E-mail: sureshsagadevan@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Zinc doped Tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method. The average crystallite size of pure and Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was calculated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The FT-IR spectrum indicated the strong presence of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The morphology and the particle size were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle size of the Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was also analyzed, using the Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) experiment. The optical properties were studied by the UV-Visible absorption spectrum. The dielectric properties of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were studied at different frequencies and temperatures. The ac conductivity of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was also studied. (author)

  15. Characterization of nano-crystalline ZrO{sub 2} synthesized via reactive plasma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, S., E-mail: sjayakumar.physics@gmail.com [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 014 (India); Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Perumal, K. [Department of Physics, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 020 India (India); Thiyagarajan, T.K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mishra, S.C. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engg, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008 (India); Su, L.T.; Tok, A.I.Y.; Guo, J. [School of Materials Science and Engg, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639 798 (Singapore)

    2011-07-25

    Highlights: > Direct conversion of micron-sized zirconium hydride powder to nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} powder. > The experimental approach uses reactive plasma processing technique. > The product has been characterized by various analytical tools to support the findings. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline ZrO{sub 2} powder has been synthesized via reactive plasma processing. The synthesized ZrO{sub 2} powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthesized powder consists of a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phases of zirconia. Average crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern shows that particles with crystallite size 20 nm or less than 20 nm are in tetragonal phase, whereas particles greater than 20 nm are in the monoclinic phase. TEM results show that particles have spherical morphology with maximum percentage of particles distributed in a narrow size from about 15 nm to 30 nm.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts for H{sub 2} evolution from aqueous solution with different scavengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanping; Wang, Baowei, E-mail: wangbw@tju.edu.cn; Liu, Sihan; Duan, Xiaofei; Hu, Zongyuan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst are prepared by a facile ethanol reduction method. • The heterojunction between p-type Cu{sub 2}O and n-type TiO{sub 2} improves activity of TiO{sub 2}. • An optimal molar fraction of Cu{sub 2}O is reported in Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts. • The effect of different alcohols scavengers on activity of Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} is discussed. - Abstract: A series of Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts with different molar fraction of Cu{sub 2}O were prepared by a facile modified ethanol-induced approach followed by a calcination process. The chemical state of copper compound was proved to be cuprous oxide by the characterization of X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). Furthermore, these composite oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption desorption and UV–vis techniques to study the morphologies, structures, and optical properties of the as-prepared samples. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of n-type TiO{sub 2} was significantly enhanced by combined with p-type Cu{sub 2}O, due to the efficient p–n heterojunction. The p–n heterojunction between Cu{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} can enhance visible-light adsorption, efficiently suppress charge recombination, improve interfacial charge transfer, and especially provide plentiful reaction active sites on the surface of photocatalyst. As a consequence, the prepared 2.5-Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for H{sub 2} evolution rate and reached 2048.25 μmol/(g h), which is 14.48 times larger than that of pure P25. The apparent quantum yield (AQY) of the 2.5-Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} sample at 365 nm was estimated to be 4.32%. In addition, the influence of different scavengers, namely methanol, anhydrous ethanol, ethylene glycol and glycerol, on the photocatalytic activity for H{sub 2} evolution rate was

  17. Estimated critical conditions for UO[sub 2]F[sub 2]--H[sub 2]O systems in fully water-reflected spherical geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document reference calculations performed using the SCALE-4.0 code system to determine the critical parameters of UO[sub 2]F[sub 2]-H[sub 2]O spheres. The calculations are an extension of those documented in ORNL/CSD/TM-284. Specifically, the data for low-enriched UO[sub 2]F[sub 2]-H[sub 2]O spheres have been extended to highly enriched uranium. These calculations, together with those reported in ORNL/CSD/TM-284, provide a consistent set of critical parameters (k[sub [infinity

  18. Capacitive properties of PANI/MnO{sub 2} synthesized via simultaneous-oxidation route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jie [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Shu Dong, E-mail: dshu@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tianneng Group, Changxing 313100, Zhejiang Province (China); Base of Production, Education and Research on Energy Storage and Power Battery of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang Tianren [Tianneng Group, Changxing 313100, Zhejiang Province (China); Chen Hongyu [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Base of Production, Education and Research on Energy Storage and Power Battery of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhao Haimin; Wang Yongsheng [Tianneng Group, Changxing 313100, Zhejiang Province (China); Sun Zhenjie; Tang Shaoqing [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Fang Xueming [Tianneng Group, Changxing 313100, Zhejiang Province (China); Cao Xiufang [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PANI/MnO{sub 2} composite was synthesized by the simultaneous-oxidation route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good contact in inter-molecule level between PANI and MnO{sub 2} improves the conductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The separation between PANI and MnO{sub 2} prevents the aggregation of nano-composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum specific capacitance of the PANI/MnO{sub 2} electrode is 320 F/g. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-prepared PANI/MnO{sub 2} exhibits excellent cycle stability of 84% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) and manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) composite (PANI/MnO{sub 2}) was synthesized via a simultaneous-oxidation route. In this route, all reactants were dispersed homogenously in precursor solution and existed as ions and molecules, and involved reactions of ions and molecules generating PANI and MnO{sub 2} simultaneously. In this way, PANI molecule and MnO{sub 2} molecule contact each other and arrange alternately in the composite. The inter-molecule contact improves the conductivity of the composite. The alternative arrangement of PANI molecules and MnO{sub 2} molecules separating each other, and prevents the aggregation of PANI and cluster of MnO{sub 2} so as to decrease the particle size of the composite. The morphology, structure, porous and capacitive properties are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Branauer-Emmett-Teller test, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge test and the electrochemical impedance measurements. The results show that MnO{sub 2} is predominant in the PANI/MnO{sub 2} composite and the composite exhibits larger specific surface area than pure MnO{sub 2}. The maximum specific capacitance of the composite electrode reaches up to 320 F/g by charge-discharge test, 1.56 times

  19. MoS{sub 2} on an amorphous HfO{sub 2} surface: An ab initio investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scopel, W. L., E-mail: wlscopel@if.uff.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil and Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janerio (Brazil); Miwa, R. H., E-mail: hiroki@infis.ufu.br; Schmidt, T. M., E-mail: tome@infis.ufu.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Venezuela, P., E-mail: vene@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janerio (Brazil)

    2015-05-21

    The energetic stability, electronic and structural properties of MoS{sub 2} adsorbed on an amorphous a-HfO{sub 2} surface (MoS{sub 2}/HfO{sub 2}) are examined through ab initio theoretical investigations. Our total energy results indicate that the formation of MoS{sub 2}/HfO{sub 2} is an exothermic process with an adsorption energy of 34 meV/Å{sup 2}, which means that it is more stable than similar systems like graphene/HfO{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}. There are no chemical bonds at the MoS{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} interface. Upon formation of MoS{sub 2}/HfO{sub 2}, the electronic charge distribution is mostly localized at the interface region with no net charge transfer between the adsorbed MoS{sub 2} sheet and –HfO{sub 2} surface. However, the MoS{sub 2} sheet becomes n-type doped when there are oxygen vacancies in the HfO{sub 2} surface. Further investigation of the electronic distribution reveals that there are no electron- and hole-rich regions (electron-hole puddles) on the MoS{sub 2} sheet, which makes this system promising for use in high-speed nanoelectronic devices.

  20. Can reduced size of metals induce hydrogen absorption: ZrAl{sub 2} case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, I., E-mail: izi@bgu.ac.il [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Deledda, S. [Physics Department, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Bereznitsky, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Yeheskel, O. [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Filipek, S.M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Mogilyanski, D.; Kimmel, G. [Institute for Applied Research, P.O. Box 653, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Hauback, B.C. [Physics Department, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)

    2011-09-15

    Research highlights: > 15 nm particles of ZrAl{sub 2} and Zr(Al{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}){sub 2} are obtained by attrition and cryomilling. > ZrAl{sub 2} nanoparticles remain inert to hydrogen absorption up to pressure of {approx}2 GPa. > Zr(Al{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}){sub 2} nanoparticles exhibit reduced hydrogen absorption as compared to the corresponding bulk compounds. - Abstract: The hydrogen absorption ability of the non-absorbing Al-rich ZrAl{sub 2} compound was examined after reducing its particles-size to the nanometer regime. The hydrogen abstinence of bulk ZrAl{sub 2} has been previously related to its excessive elastic shear stiffening. The particle size of ZrAl{sub 2} was reduced by attrition milling and cryomilling. The minimal average particle size was estimated from powder X-ray diffraction analysis to be in the range of 10-20 nm. The hydrogen absorption of the milled compounds was measured in different hydrogenation systems at hydrogen pressures between {approx}6 MPa and {approx}2 GPa. In all the cases the hydrogen absorption was negligible. In addition, there was a reduction of the hydrogen absorption capacity of nanosized Zr(Al{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}){sub 2} as compared to the corresponding bulk compound at the same conditions. We suggest, in view of our and other results, that no significant improvement of the thermodynamics (unlike the kinetics) of the hydrogen absorption can be achieved via the nanoparticle avenue.

  1. Preparation of Ag/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} films via photo-assisted deposition and adsorptive self-assembly for catalytic bactericidal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Baojuan, E-mail: baojuanxi@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Chu, Xiaona; Hu, Jiangyong [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Bhatia, Charanjit Singh; Danner, Aaron James; Yang, Hyunsoo [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • We prepared controlledly the silver nanoparticles on TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} film by the facile photoreduction under the aid of structure-directing agents. • We studied the effect of silver loading on the antibactierial behavior of TiO{sub 2} film and optimized the content of silver. • We extended the route to fabricate other metals on substrates. - Abstract: The deterioration of water supply quality due to the waterborne bacteria is an environmental problem requiring the urgent attention. Due to the excellent and synergic antimicrobial capability, Ag-loaded TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst emerges as a feasible measure to guard the water. In our work, Ag nanoparticles have been prepared by the photoassisted reduction of AgNO{sub 3} on the TiO{sub 2} film fabricated by solution-based adsorptive self-assembly approach. The role of surfactant on the growth rate and size controlling of particles is also studied. In this connection, different kinds of surfactants, such as PVP, Tween-20, Tween-40 and so on, are applied in the system to investigate the formation of Ag nanoparticles. The surface profile and elemental analysis of Ag/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} films are examined by scanning electron microscopy and attached energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. In the anti-bacteria detection, Ag nanoparticles are found to enhance the bactericidal efficiency strongly comparing with the pure TiO{sub 2} film under the same condition. In addition, by comparison with Ag/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} film in the dark environment as the reference experiment, UV–visible light plays a vital role in the improved bactericidal behavior, demonstrating the more efficient charge separation induced by metal silver. Because of the versatility of the method, the present photoreductive route is also exploited for the synthesis of Au nanoparticles on TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} films. The corresponding photocatalytical detection results demonstrate the loading of Au nanoparticles can

  2. Zr powder and Zr-16% Al alloy as getters for O sub 2 , H sub 2 , H sub 2 O, CO and CO sub 2 gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, S P [CRM Jat Coll., Hisar (India); Gulbransen, E A [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA); Vijendran, P [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1990-01-01

    Both zirconium and its 16 wt% aluminium alloy react with the common gases O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO and CO{sub 2} to form zirconium oxide, hydride and carbide or carbon and a thermochemical and stoichiometric analysis has been made of the several reactions. The capacity and reactivity of 30-40 {mu} zirconium powder and pellets of a 16 wt% aluminium-zirconium alloy, ST 101 getter, were studied using a sensitive vacuum microbalance, a mass spectrometer and Debye-Scherrer X-ray diffraction. The direct hydrogen reaction at 400{sup 0}C and 10 torr pressure and a slow oxidation reaction at 250-600{sup 0}C were used to measure the availability of the materials (capacity) for getter reactions. Special care must be taken to remove water vapour and any other reactive gas from the vacuum system in using the hydrogen method. The hydrogen-getter reaction must be carried out well below 400{sup 0}C if hydrogen is to be removed completely. The reactivity of water vapour in the presence of 10 torr of hydrogen gas was studied at 400{sup 0}C. Fourteen micrograms of water vapour in the reaction system could be detected. The carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide-getter reactions were studied at 500{sup 0}C and 600{sup 0}C at 10 torr pressure. Zirconium powder reacts much faster with both gases as compared to that with St 101 getter, activity of which with oxygen has been stabilized by adding aluminium. Carbon monoxide is produced in the carbon dioxide-getter reaction under conditions of excess gas in the reaction. Carbon and carbide were not observed in the carbon monoxide-getter reaction under excess gas conditions. (author).

  3. MoS{sub 2} spaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasekara, Charith, E-mail: charith.jayasekara@monash.edu; Premaratne, Malin [Advanced Computing and Simulation Laboratory (A chi L), Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gunapala, Sarath D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Stockman, Mark I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States)

    2016-04-07

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a spaser made of a circular shaped highly doped molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) resonator. “Spaser” is an acronym for “surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”–a nanoscale source of surface plasmons generated by stimulated emission in a plasmonic resonator which receives energy nonradiatively. By considering localized surface plasmon modes, operation characteristics of the model are analysed, and tunability of the design is demonstrated. We find the optimum geometric and material parameters of the spaser that provides efficient outputs and carryout a comparative analysis with a similar circular spaser made of graphene. Owing to physical and chemical properties of MoS{sub 2} and the active medium, the proposed design delivers efficient outputs in terms of spaser mode energy, operating thresholds, Q-factor, and electric field amplitude. Lower operating thresholds and higher mode energies are notable advantages of the design. Owing to having many superior features to existing similar designs, this MoS{sub 2} spaser may be much suited for applications in nanoplasmonic devices.

  4. Interaction of Ce{sub 1−x}Er{sub x}O{sub 2−y} nanoparticles with SiO{sub 2}-effect of temperature and atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepinski, L., E-mail: L.Kepinski@int.pan.wroc.pl; Krajczyk, L.; Mista, W.

    2014-01-15

    Morphology, microstructure and phase evolution of homogeneous, nanocrystalline Ce{sub 1−x}Er{sub x}O{sub 2−x/2} mixed oxide (x=0.3 and 0.5), prepared by microemulsion method, supported on amorphous SiO{sub 2} was studied in oxidizing and reducing atmosphere by XRD, TEM, SEM-EDS and N{sub 2} adsorption. The system is structurally and chemically stable in the oxidizing atmosphere up to 1000 °C, exhibiting only a small increase of the mean crystallite size of the oxide to ∼4 nm. At 1100 °C formation of Er silicate with unusual structure isomorphic with y-Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (yttrialite), stabilized by Ce{sup 4+} ions was observed. In the reducing atmosphere the Ce{sub 1−x}Er{sub x}O{sub 2−x/2} reacted with SiO{sub 2} already at 900 °C, due to high affinity of the reduced Ce{sup 3+} to form a silicate phase. At higher temperature the silicate crystallized into the tetragonal, low temperature A-(Ce{sub 1−x}Er{sub x}){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} polymorph. Such systems, containing nanocrystalline silicate particles with Er{sup 3+} ions placed in well defined sites embedded in silica matrix, may be interesting as highly efficient active components of optical waveguides amplifiers integrated with Si microelectronics. The nanocrystalline Ce–Er–O/SiO{sub 2} system prepared by the impregnation of the silica with the aqueous solution of nitrates appeared to be chemically inhomogeneous and less stable in both oxidising and reducing atmosphere. - Graphical abstract: Structure evolution of Ce{sub 0.5}Er{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.75} in air and in H{sub 2}. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Homogeneous 3 nm Ce{sub 1−x}Er{sub x}O{sub 2−y} particles were prepared and uniformly dispersed on SiO{sub 2}. • Er diffusion to SiO{sub 2} determines the stability of the mixed oxide in air to ∼1000 °C. • Spreading of Ce{sub 1−x}Er{sub x}O{sub 2−y} onto SiO{sub 2} occurs in hydrogen at 900 °C. • Nanocrystalline A-(Ce,Er){sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} silicate forms in H{sub

  5. Efficient degradation of carbamazepine by easily recyclable microscaled CuFeO{sub 2} mediated heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yaobin, E-mail: yaobinding@mail.scuec.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Hebin [College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Songbo [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Heqing, E-mail: tangheqing@mail.scuec.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • CuFeO{sub 2} microparticles were prepared by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • CuFeO{sub 2} microparticles efficiently catalyzed the activation of peroxymonosulfate. • Quenching experiments confirmed sulfate radicals as the major reactive radicals. • Carbamazepine was rapidly degraded by micro-CuFeO{sub 2}/peroxymonosulfate. • Feasibility of CuFeO{sub 2}/peroxymonosulfate was tested for treatment of actual water. - Abstract: Microscaled CuFeO{sub 2} particles (micro-CuFeO{sub 2}) were rapidly prepared via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the micro-CuFeO{sub 2} was of pure phase and a rhombohedral structure with size in the range of 2.8 ± 0.6 μm. The micro-CuFeO{sub 2} efficiently catalyzed the activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to generate sulfate radicals (SO{sub 4}·−), causing the fast degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ). The catalytic activity of micro-CuFeO{sub 2} was observed to be 6.9 and 25.3 times that of micro-Cu{sub 2}O and micro-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. The enhanced activity of micro-CuFeO{sub 2} for the activation of PMS was confirmed to be attributed to synergistic effect of surface bonded Cu(I) and Fe(III). Sulfate radical was the primary radical species responsible for the CBZ degradation. As a microscaled catalyst, micro-CuFeO{sub 2} can be easily recovered by gravity settlement and exhibited improved catalytic stability compared with micro-Cu{sub 2}O during five successive degradation cycles. Oxidative degradation of CBZ by the couple of PMS/CuFeO{sub 2} was effective in the studied actual aqueous environmental systems.

  6. Atomic disorder in Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, F. X. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Lang, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Ewing, R. C. [Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-05-11

    Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlore with different degrees of cation disorder were synthesized by isothermal annealing at various temperatures (1100–1550 °C), and the related changes in the structure were investigated by ambient and high pressure x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Unit cell parameters increase almost linearly with increasing treatment temperature. The degree of cation order in pyrochlore also increases with the increase of temperature, but saturates at ∼60%. The compressibility of the pyrochlore structures decreases when the degree of cation order increases. High pressure XRD measurements also indicate that the phase stability of Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} is not very sensitive to the degree of atomic disorder in the pyrochlore structure.

  7. Heat conductance of sintered UO{sub 2}; Toplotna provodljivost sinterovanog UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katanic-Popovic, J; Stevanovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1966-11-15

    Phenomena influencing the heat conductance of the sintered UO{sub 2} were analyzed, first of all when used as nuclear fuel. Influence of temperature, density and porosity, additives and irradiation in the reactor are shown. Based on the available literature, the measured heat conductance values were analyzed for the sintered UO{sub 2} outside the reactor and in the reactor during irradiation. Analizirane su pojave koje uticu na toplotnu provodljivost sinterovanog UO{sub 2}, pre svega, sa aspekta njegove primene kao goriva. Izlozen je uticaj temperature, gustine i poroznosti, aditiva i ozracivanja u reaktoru. Na osnovu pregleda dostupne literature kriticki su prikazani rezultati merenja toplotne provodljivosti sinterovanog UO{sub 2} van reaktora i u reaktoru pri ozracivanju (author)

  8. Theoretical reconsideration of antiferromagnetic Fermi surfaces in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Hiroshi, E-mail: yamagami@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    In an itinerant 5f-band model, the antiferromagnetic (AFM) Fermi surfaces of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are reconsidered using a relativistic LAPW method within a local spin-density approximation, especially taking into account the lattice parameters dependent on pressures. The reduction of the z-coordinate of the Si sites results in the effect of flattening the Ru-Si layers of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} crystal structure, thus weakening a hybridization/mixing between the U-5f and Ru-4d states in the band structure. Consequently the 5f bands around the Fermi level are more flat in the dispersion with decreasing the z-coordinate, thus producing three closed Fermi surfaces like 'curing-stone', 'rugby-ball' and 'ball'. The origins of de Haas-van Alphen branches can be qualitatively interpreted from the obtained AFM Fermi surfaces.

  9. Thermal conductivity of the sintered UO{sub 2}; Toplotna provodljivost sinterovanog UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katanic-Popovic, J; Stevanovic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1967-04-15

    Phenomena influencing the thermal conductivity of the sintered UO{sub 2} fuel were analyzed. Influence of temperature, density and porosity, additives and irradiation in the reactor core are presented. Thermal conductivity of sintered UO{sub 2} was measured both outside the reactor and during the irradiation in the reactor. Results are discussed and analyzed based on the available literature. Analizirane su pojave koje uticu na toplotnu provodljivost sinterovanog UO{sub 2}, pre svega, sa aspekta njegove primene kao goriva. Izlozen je uticaj temperature, gustine i poroznosti, aditiva i ozracivanja u reaktoru. Na osnovu pregleda dostupne literature kriticki su prikazani rezultati merenja toplotne provodljivosti sinterovanog UO{sub 2} van reaktora i u reaktoru pri ozracivanju (author)

  10. Selection of nanoparticles using CO.sub.2-expanded liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher B; McLeod, Marshall Chandler; Anand, Madhu

    2013-02-19

    A method for size selection of nanostructures comprising utilizing a gas-expanded liquids (GEL) and controlled pressure to precipitate desired size populations of nanostructures, e.g., monodisperse. The GEL can comprise CO.sub.2 antisolvent and an organic solvent. The method can be carried out in an apparatus comprising a first open vessel configured to allow movement of a liquid/particle solution to specific desired locations within the vessel, a second pressure vessel, a location controller for controlling location of the particles and solution within the first vessel, a inlet for addition of antisolvent to the first vessel, and a device for measuring the amount of antisolvent added. Also disclosed is a method for forming nanoparticle thin films comprising utilizing a GEL containing a substrate, pressurizing the solution to precipitate and deposit nanoparticles onto the substrate, removing the solvent thereby leaving a thin nanoparticle film, removing the solvent and antisolvent, and drying the film.

  11. Electrochemical properties of SnO{sub 2}/carbon composite materials as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao Hailei, E-mail: hlzhao@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Lab of New Energy Materials and Technologies, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu Xiaotong; Wang Jing; Wang Chunmei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > SnO{sub 2}/carbon powders with a cauliflower-like particle structure were synthesized. > Post-annealing can improve the electrochemical properties of SnO{sub 2}/C composite. > The 500 deg. C-annealed SnO{sub 2}/C shows the best electrochemical performance. > The lithium ion diffusion coefficients of the SnO{sub 2}/C electrodes were calculated. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2}/carbon composite anode materials were synthesized from SnCl{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O and sucrose via a hydrothermal route and a post heat-treatment. The synthesized spherical SnO{sub 2}/carbon powders show a cauliflower-like micro-sized structure. High annealing temperature results in partial reduction of SnO{sub 2}. Metallic Sn starts to emerge at 500 deg. C. High Sn content in SnO{sub 2}/carbon composite is favorable for the increase of initial coulombic efficiency but not for the cycling stability. The SnO{sub 2}/carbon annealed at 500 deg. C exhibits high specific capacity ({approx}400 mAh g{sup -1}), stable cycling performance and good rate capability. The generation of Li{sub 2}O in the first lithiation process can prevent the aggregation of active Sn, while the carbon component can buffer the big volume change caused by lithiation/delithiation of active Sn. Both of them make contribution to the better cycle stability.

  12. Separation of UO{sub 2} powder; Separacija praha UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristic, M M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Laboratorija za reaktorske materijale, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1962-10-15

    This report deals with theoretical approach to separation process and describes the constructed separator with liquid medium. The separator was calibrated and tested with Al{sub 3}O{sub 3} and UO{sub 2}. it has been concluded that it can be used for separation of powders with sufficient accuracy if the separation is performed for a longer period of time. The separated fractions were characterised by microscopic method and the UO{sub 2} fraction additionally by sedimentation method.

  13. Biological H{sub 2} from syngas and from H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P.; Maness, P.C.; Markov, S.; Martin, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The two stand-alone objectives of the research are to economically produce neat H{sub 2} in the near term from biomass (thermally gasified to syngas) and in the mid term from H{sub 2}O using cyanobacteria or algae with an oxygen-tolerant bacterial hydrogenase. Photosynthetic bacteria have four different terminal enzymes that mediate their H{sub 2} metabolisms-nitrogenase, uptake hydrogenase, fermentative hydrogenase, and carbon monoxide-linked hydrogenase. Each has been microbiologically and biochemically examined for their potential to specifically generate H{sub 2} in large-scale processes. Based on measurements of maximal activities, stabilities, energy requirements, equilibria, and partial pressures of the H{sub 2} producing reactions, the CO-linked hydrogenase is easily the most suited for practical applications. The enzyme mediates H{sub 2} production from CO at rates up to 1.5 mmol/min/g cell dry weight at near ambient temperature and pressure. Hydrogen can be produced and evolved at linear rates up to at least 2 atmospheres of partial pressure (100% CO). The rate-limiting step with high cell density suspensions is the mass transfer of CO into the aqueous phase. Bioreactor designs have been examined which enhance the mass transfer. Hollow-fiber bioreactors with bacterial cells immobilized on the fiber surfaces evolve H{sub 2} at ambient pressure at rates of about 0.3-0.7 mmol/min/g cdw. One such reactor has been producing H{sub 2} from CO continuously for 9 months with only occasional changes of liquid medium. A trickle-filter reactor with bacteria immobilized on beads removed from a bulk water phase and a pumped-bubble coil reactor with bacteria in suspension are also being examined.

  14. Solar2Fuel: XPS and TPD characterization of functionalized TiO{sub 2} surfaces for photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staier, Florian; Grunze, Michael; Zharnikov, Michael [Angewandte Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Heidelberg, INF 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The handling of CO{sub 2} produced by industrial installations and power plants has become a very important environmental issue nowadays because of it's generally accepted impact on the green house effect. In this context, a storage of CO{sub 2} or its conversation to fuel or useful chemicals are highly desirable. Along these lines, the solar2fuel project, funded by BMBF, aims on photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol with a sufficient quantum efficiency which can justify and make rentable an industrial realization of the process. As the primary catalytic system TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle powder coatings are used. These particles are doped with metals to enhance their catalytic activity and functionalized with specially designed dyes which promote photocatalytic reaction and move the absorption spectrum from UV (characteristic of TiO{sub 2}) to the visible range. We present first results on characterization of these catalytic systems by several complimentary techniques as well as on temperature-programmed-desorption of CO{sub 2} and methanol from these functionalized surfaces.

  15. Estimated Critical Conditions for UO(Sub 2)F(Sub 2)-H(Sub 2)O Systems in Fully Water-Reflected Spherical Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document reference calculations performed using the SCALE-4.0 code system to determine the critical parameters of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O spheres. The calculations are an extension of those documented in ORNL/CSD/TM-284. Specifically, the data for low-enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O spheres have been extended to highly enriched uranium. These calculations, together with those reported in ORNL/CSD/TM-284, provide a consistent set of critical parameters (k{sub {infinity}}, volume, mass, mass of water) for UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and water over the full range of enrichment and moderation ratio.

  16. Estimated critical conditions for UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}--H{sub 2}O systems in fully water-reflected spherical geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, W.C.; Turner, J.C.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document reference calculations performed using the SCALE-4.0 code system to determine the critical parameters of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O spheres. The calculations are an extension of those documented in ORNL/CSD/TM-284. Specifically, the data for low-enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O spheres have been extended to highly enriched uranium. These calculations, together with those reported in ORNL/CSD/TM-284, provide a consistent set of critical parameters (k{sub {infinity}}, volume, mass, mass of water) for UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and water over the full range of enrichment and moderation ratio.

  17. Effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the corrosion behavior of 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Taek Ho

    1994-02-15

    In connection with the safe storage of high level nuclear waste, effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the corrosion behavior of 304L stainless steel was examined. Open circuit potentials and polarization curves were measured with and without H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The experimental results show that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased corrosion potential and decreased pitting potential. The passive range, therefore, decreased as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration increased, indicating that pitting resistance was decreased by the existence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the electrolyte. These effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on corrosion of 304L stainless steel are considered to be similar to those of γ-irradiation. To compare the effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with those of O{sub 2}, cathodic and anodic polarization curves were made in three types of electrolyte such as aerated, deaerated, and stirred electrolyte. The experimental results show that the effects of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the corrosion behavior were very similar to those of O{sub 2} such as increase of corrosion potential, decrease of pitting resistance, and increase of repassivation potential. Further, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} played much greater role in controlling cathodic reaction rate in neutral water environment. In acid and alkaline media, potential shifts by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were restricted by the large current density of proton reduction and by the le Chatelier's principle respectively.

  18. Characterizations of electrodeposited Ni–CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturibai, S., E-mail: s.kasturibai@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamilnadu (India); Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings Laboratory, Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamilnadu (India); Kalaignan, G. Paruthimal, E-mail: pkalaignan@yahoo.com [Advanced Nanocomposite Coatings Laboratory, Department of Industrial Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-10-15

    The expansion of current machinery requires metallic materials with better surface properties. In the present investigation, CeO{sub 2} reinforced nickel nanocomposite coatings were deposited on mild steel substrate by direct current electrodeposition process employing nickel acetate bath. The effect of incorporation of CeO{sub 2} particles in the Ni nanocomposite coatings on the micro hardness and corrosion behaviour has been evaluated. Smooth and compact nanocomposite deposits containing well-distributed cerium oxide particles were obtained. The crystallite structure was fcc for electrodeposited nickel and Ni–CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings. It has been observed that, the presence of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles favours the [111] and [200] texture of nickel matrix. The co-deposition of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles with nickel was found to be favoured at applied current density of 8 A dm{sup −2}. The micro hardness values of the nickel nanocomposite coatings (725 HV) was higher than that of pure nickel (265 HV).The decrease in I{sub corr} values and increase in Constant Phase Element values were investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution which showed the higher corrosion resistant nature of Ni–CeO{sub 2} coatings. - Highlights: • Ni–CeO{sub 2} composite coatings have electrodeposited from eco-friendly acetate bath. • Inclusion of CeO{sub 2} in the composite coating has refined the crystallite size. • Micro hardness values have increased with CeO{sub 2} content in the composite coatings. • The negative shift of E{sub corr} confirming cathodic protective nature of coatings.

  19. International trade and CO{sub 2} emissions; International handel og CO{sub 2}-udledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munksgaard, J.; Pade, L.L. [AKF, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lenzen, M. [Univ. of Sydney (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    International trade has an impact on national CO{sub 2} emissions and consequently on the ability to fulfil national CO{sub 2} reduction targets. Through goods and services traded in a globally interdependent world, the consumption in each country is linked to greenhouse gas emissions in other countries. It has been argued that in order to achieve equitable reduction targets, international trade has to be taken into account when assessing nations' responsibility for abating climate change. Especially for open economies such as Denmark, greenhouse gases embodied in international traded commodities can have a considerable influence on the national greenhouse gas responsibility. Founded in the concepts of 'producer CO{sub 2} responsibility', 'consumer CO{sub 2} responsibility' and 'CO{sub 2} trade balance' the aim of the present study has been to develop the single-region input-output model as used in a previous study into a multi-region input-output model in order to get a more realistic description of the production technologies actually used in the countries of imports. The study concludes that trade is the key to define CO{sub 2} responsibility on macroeconomics level and that imports should be founded in a multi-region model approach. The study also points at the need to consider the impact from foreign trade when negotiating national reduction targets and base line scenarios within the context of international climate agreements. (BA)

  20. Separation of CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} by means of a carbon membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Y.; Braun, G. [Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Cologne (Germany); Kaltenborn, N.; Voigt, I. [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, IKTS, Hermsdorf (Germany); Brunner, G. [Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The permeation and separation performance of an ultramicroporous carbon membrane for separation of CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures were investigated. The experiments were conducted using the steady-state measurement method with pure gases (dead-end mode) and a CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} gas mixture (20/80 mol.-%) (cross-flow mode) in the temperature range from 293 K to 363 K and at feed pressures of up to 1.4 MPa and atmospheric pressure on the permeate side. The membrane exhibited a selectivity of about 25 and permeability of about 500 Barrer for CO{sub 2} in the mixture with N{sub 2}. The single-gas measurements do not reflect the membrane performance correctly. An adsorption-selective effect is assumed to be the main separation mechanism. Moreover, membrane-aging effects causing blocking due to pore constrictions through adsorption were observed. These pore constrictions lower the permeability, but they raise the selectivity. Operation at high temperatures leads to a reduction of aging effects. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Fermi liquid breakdown and superconductivity in YFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yang; Logg, Peter; Chen, Jiasheng; Grosche, Malte F. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Feng, Zhuo [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lampronti, Giulio [London Centre of Nanotechnology, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The investigation of quantum critical phenomena associated with incipient antiferromagnetic or spin density wave order in transition metal compounds has been held back by the scarcity of candidate systems in this class of materials. The paramagnetic d-electron system YFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} displays an unusually high Sommerfeld ratio of the specific heat capacity C/T ≅ 100 mJ/molK{sup 2} at low temperature and can be tuned to the border of spin density wave order by partial substitution of Y with isoelectronic Lu, suggesting that YFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is located close to a spin density wave quantum critical point. Our ambient pressure, low temperature measurements reveal signatures of Fermi liquid breakdown such as an increasing C/T on cooling and a 3/2 power law temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity. Moreover, samples of YFe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} with high residual resistance ratios display full superconducting transitions below T{sub c} ≅ 1.8 K in the electrical resistivity and up to 80% Meissner volume fraction in bulk zero-field-cooled magnetisation measurements, or 20% in powdered samples.

  2. Magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric compound AlFe{sub 2}B{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedervall, Johan, E-mail: johan.cedervall@kemi.uu.se [Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Andersson, Mikael Svante; Sarkar, Tapati [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Delczeg-Czirjak, Erna K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Bergqvist, Lars [Department of Materials and Nano Physics and Swedish e-Science Research Centre (SeRC), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); Hansen, Thomas C. [Institut Laue-Langevin, B.P. 156, Grenoble Cedex 9, 38042 France (France); Beran, Premysl [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez, 25068 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Nordblad, Per [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Sahlberg, Martin [Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 538, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-04-15

    The crystal and magnetic structures of AlFe{sub 2}B{sub 2} have been studied with a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction and electronic structure calculations. The magnetic and magnetocaloric properties have been investigated by magnetisation measurements. The samples have been produced using high temperature synthesis and subsequent heat treatments. The compound crystallises in the orthorhombic crystal system Cmmm and it orders ferromagnetically at 285 K through a second order phase transition. At temperatures below the magnetic transition the magnetic moments align along the crystallographic a-axis. The magnetic entropy change from 0 to 800 kA/m was found to be −1.3 J/K kg at the magnetic transition temperature. - Graphical abstract: The magnetic structure of AlFe{sub 2}B{sub 2} has been investigated using neutron diffraction and the magnetic spins have been found to align ferromagnetically along the crystallographic a-axis. - Highlights: • The crystal and magnetic structures of AlFe{sub 2}B{sub 2} have been studied. • Orders ferromagnetically at 285 K via a second order phase transition. • The magnetic moments are found to be aligned along the crystallographic a-axis. • The magnetic entropy change from 0 to 800 kA/m was found to be −1.3 J/K kg.

  3. Irradiation of UO{sub 2}; Ozracivanje UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanovic, M [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1965-10-15

    Based on the review of the available literature concerned with UO{sub 2} irradiation, this paper describes and explains the phenomena initiated by irradiation of the UO{sub 2} fuel in a reactor dependent on the burnup level and temperature. A comprehensive review of UO{sub 2} radiation damage studies is given as a broad research program. This part includes the abilities of our reactor as well as needed elements for such study. The third part includes the defions of the specific power, burnup level and temperature in the center of the fuel element needed for planning and performing the irradiation. Methods for calculating these parameters are includedSerb. Na osnovu pregleda dostupne literature o ozracivanju UO{sub 2} u ovom radu su izlozene i objasnjene pojave koje nastaju pri ozracivanju goriva od UO{sub 2} u reaktoru do razlicitih stepena izgaranja i na razlicitim temperaturama. Pored toga, dat je pregled svih mogucih ispitivanja na radijacionom ostecenju UO{sub 2} u formi sirokog programa istrazivanja. Ovaj deo je dopunjen sudom o mogucnostima naseg reaktora kao i o elementima koji su potrebni za ovakav rad. U trecem delu su izlozeni definicija parametara: specificna snaga, stepen izgaranja i temperatura centra goriva i njihovo izracunavanje za potrebe postavljanja i izvodjenja ozracivanja (author)

  4. Spheroidization of primary Mg{sub 2}Si in Al-20Mg{sub 2}Si-4.5Cu alloy modified with Ca and Sb during T6 heat treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hong-Chen; Wang, Hui-Yuan, E-mail: wanghuiyuan@jlu.edu.cn; Chen, Lei; Zha, Min, E-mail: minzha@jlu.edu.cn; Wang, Cheng; Li, Chao; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2017-02-08

    The morphology evolution of primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles in a Al-20Mg{sub 2}Si-4.5Cu alloy both unmodified and modified with 0.5 wt% Ca-Sb prepared by hot-extrusion followed by T6 heat treatment was investigated in the present study. Interestingly, we found that the combination of hot-extrusion and T6 heat treatment was efficient in transforming truncated octahedral primary Mg{sub 2}Si into sphere in the modified alloy. In contrast, the primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles still kept dentritic in the unmodified alloy. It suggested that the formation of truncated octahedral primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles in as-cast state, the fragmentation of particles by hot-extrusion and the enhanced solid-state diffusion of Si and/or Mg atoms during heat treatment were responsible for the spheroidization of primary Mg{sub 2}Si. Moreover, the existence of fine (~10–20 µm) spherical primary Mg{sub 2}Si played an important role in strengthening the alloy, i.e., the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increased from ~227 MPa in the unmodified alloy to ~303 MPa in the modified one. It is because the fine spherical primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles can provide a higher fracture stress and strength of the matrix/particle interface. Our study offered a simple methodology to prepare spherical primary Mg{sub 2}Si in an Al-high Mg{sub 2}Si alloy, which is beneficial to design novel light-weight Al-Mg-Si alloys with improved mechanical properties.

  5. Poly(lactic acid)/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites as alternative biocidal and antifungal materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Carmen; Ochoa, Almudena [POLCA, Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Química y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería y Diseño Industrial, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, Madrid (Spain); Ulloa, Maria Teresa; Alvarez, Eduardo [Programa de Microbiología y Micología. ICBM-Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Chile, Dirección, Avenida Independencia 1027, Comuna Independencia, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Daniel [Grupo Polímeros, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Zapata, Paula A., E-mail: paula.zapata@usach.cl [Grupo Polímeros, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-12-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) ~ 10-nm nanoparticles were produced by the melting process and their main properties were evaluated. The nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the matrix with a low degree of agglomeration, as seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} was added, showing that the nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents this trend was confirmed by optical images. The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA at 5 wt.% of nanoparticles. Despite these improvements, PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed lower shear viscosity than neat PLA, possibly reflecting degradation of the polymer due to the particles. Regarding biocidal properties, after 2 h of contact the PLA/TiO{sub 2} composites with 8 wt.% TiO{sub 2} showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of ~ 82% under no UVA irradiation compared to pure PLA. This biocidal characteristic can be increased under UVA irradiation, with nanocomposites containing 8 wt.% TiO{sub 2} killing 94% of the bacteria. The PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against Aspergillus fumigatus under the UVA irradiation. - Highlights: • PLA composites with titanium oxide (10 nm) were produced by the melting process. • The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} was added. • The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA. • The PLA/TiO{sub 2} composites showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of 94%. • The PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against fungi.

  6. Predictive models of circulating fluidized bed combustors: SO[sub 2] sorption in the CFB loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D.; Therdthianwong, A. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this investigation is to develop experimentally verified models for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors. Sorption of S0[sub 2] with calcined limestone was studied in a PYROFLOW type CFB loop at conditions approximating those found in a CFB combustor. Initially the CFB loop contained 150 micron CaO particles of a density of 3.3 g/cm[sup 3] and air at 1143[degrees]K and 3.25 atm. Atzero time, air containing 600 ppm SO[sub 2], was introduced into the riser bottom at 1143[degrees]K. The effect of gas velocity, sorbent inventory and inlet pressure on the sorption of SO[sub 2], were studied isothermally by running our hydrodynamic code with the S0[sub 2] sorption conservation of species equation. At a velocity of 5m/sec., reported to be a typical velocity by PYROPOWER, there is reasonably good S0[sub 2] removal. At 10 m/sec the S0[sub 2] removal is poor. The best SO[sub 2], removal is for a velocity of 5 m/s and a high bed inventory, initial bed height, H = 9m. Most of the S0[sub 2] is removed in the first two meters of the reactor. However, the S0[sub 2] removal is not complete at the bed outlet. This is due to mixing. At the left wall of the reactor (wall opposite the solids inlet) the S0[sub 2] removal was poor due to gas bypassing caused by the asymmetrical solids inlet. Simulation of the PYROPOWER loop with a symmetrical inlet gave us an order of magnitude improvement over the conventional PYROPOWER system. These results demonstrate the practical utility of the predictive model that we have developed over the last three years.

  7. Liquid CO<sub>2/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasigan, Jose [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Goldstein, Harvey [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dooher, John [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO<sub>2/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO<sub>2 has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO<sub>2 is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO<sub>2 through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO<sub>2 is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO<sub>2 is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO<sub>2 slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO<sub>2 has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO<sub>2 over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO<sub>2/coal slurry properties.

  8. Topologically identical, but geometrically isomeric layers in hydrous α-, β-Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O and anhydrous Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Na; Klepov, Vladislav V. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), 52428 Jülich (Germany); Villa, Eric M. [Department of Chemistry, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha NE 68178 (United States); Bosbach, Dirk [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), 52428 Jülich (Germany); Suleimanov, Evgeny V. [Department of Chemistry, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Depmeier, Wulf [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Universität zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E., E-mail: albrecht-schmitt@chem.fsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, 102 Varsity Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4390 (United States); Alekseev, Evgeny V., E-mail: e.alekseev@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), 52428 Jülich (Germany); Institut für Kristallographie, RWTH Aachen University, 52066 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The hydrothermal reaction of uranyl nitrate with rubidium nitrate and arsenic (III) oxide results in the formation of polymorphic α- and β-Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O (α-, β-RbUAs) and the anhydrous phase Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})] (RbUAs). These phases were structurally, chemically and spectroscopically characterized. The structures of all three compounds are based upon topologically identical, but geometrically isomeric layers. The layers are linked with each other by means of the Rb cations and hydrogen bonding. Dehydration experiments demonstrate that water deintercalation from hydrous α- and β-RbUAs yields anhydrous RbUAs via topotactic reactions. - Graphical abstract: Three different layer geometries observed in the structures of Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})] and α- and β- Rb[UO{sub 2}(AsO{sub 3}OH)(AsO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2})]·H{sub 2}O. Two different coordination environments of uranium polyhedra (types I and II) are shown schematically on the top of the figure. - Highlights: • Three new uranyl arsenates were synthesized from the hydrothermal reactions. • The phases consist of the topologically identical but geometrically different layers. • Topotactic transitions were observed in the processes of mono-hyrates dehydration.

  9. Homogeneous samples of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, B.W.; Kadowaki, K.; Revaz, B.; Fischer, O

    2003-09-15

    Recently, much attention has been paid to inhomogeneity in samples of the high-temperature superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}. In this work it is shown that homogeneous samples can indeed be obtained in the slightly overdoped range. However, the homogeneity critically depends on sample preparation.

  10. Crystallization and magnetic properties of a 10Li{sub 2}O–9MnO{sub 2}–16Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–25CaO–5P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–35SiO{sub 2} glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Huy-Zu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, 1 123456789Hsueh-Cheng Road, Section 1, Ta-Hsu, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Huey-Jiuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lien-Da Road, Kung-Ching Li, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chien-Fu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, 1 123456789Hsueh-Cheng Road, Section 1, Ta-Hsu, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan (China); Hsi, Chi-Shiung, E-mail: chsi@nuu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lien-Da Road, Kung-Ching Li, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-15

    The crystallization behavior and magnetic properties of 10Li{sub 2}O–9MnO{sub 2}–16Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–25CaO–5P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–35SiO{sub 2} (10LFS) glass have been studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) to observe the crystallization behavior and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) for measurements of the magnetic properties. The DTA shows that the 10LFS glass has one broad exothermic peak at approximately 674 °C and one sharp (the highest) exothermic peak at 764 °C. When the 10LFS glass crystallized at 850 °C for 4 h, the crystalline phases identified by XRD were lithium silicate (Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}), β-wollastonite (β-CaSiO{sub 3}), lithium orthophosphate (Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}), magnetite (FeFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and triphylite (Li(Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5})PO{sub 4}). The SEM surface analysis revealed that the β-wollastonite and lithium silicate have a lath morphology. The TEM microstructure examination showed that the largest FeFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles have a size of approximately 0.3 μm. When the 10LFS glass was heat treated at 850 °C for 16 h and a magnetic field of 1000 Oe was applied, a very small remnant magnetic induction of 0.01 emu g{sup −1} and a coercive force of 50 Oe were obtained, which revealed an inverse spinel structure. - Highlights: ► The phases formed at 850 °C in the 10LFS glass-ceramics are LiSiO{sub 3}, β-CaSiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, FeFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Li(Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5})PO{sub 4}. ► The β-wollastonite and lithium silicate have a lath morphology. ► When 10LFS glass-ceramics applied magnetic field showing the ferromagnetic behavior of an inverse spinel structure.

  11. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of single-crystalline K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} and K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Se{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yuu, E-mail: tsuchiya.yuu1990@gmail.com; Ikeda, Shugo; Kobayashi, Hisao [University of Hyogo (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    We have investigated the physical properties of single-crystalline K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} and K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Se{sub 2} samples using {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The observed {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra were reconstructed using a major antiferromagnetic ordered K{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}Se{sub 5} phase and a minor paramagnetic phase down to 5 K, despite being superconducting below 32.2 K in K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Se{sub 2}. The analysis of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum for K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} at 290 K confirms the presence of a major antiferromagnetic ordered K{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}S{sub 5} phase and a minor paramagnetic phase in the K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} single crystal. The derived hyperfine interaction parameters of the paramagnetic phase in K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} suggest that the microstructure of this phase in K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} is similar to that of the superconducting phase in K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Se{sub 2} although the K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} single crystals exhibit no superconductivity down to 5 K.

  12. Crystal field excitations of YbMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mole, R.A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Hofmann, M. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching (Germany); Adroja, D.T. [ISIS Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Moze, O. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Campbell, S.J., E-mail: stewart.campbell@adfa.edu.au [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    The crystal field excitations of the rare earth intermetallic compound YbMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} have been measured by inelastic neutron scattering over the temperature range 2.5–50 K. The YbMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} spectra exhibit three low energy excitations (∼3–7 meV) in the antiferromagnetic AFil region above the magnetic phase transition at T{sub N2} = 30(5) K. The crystal field parameters have been determined for YbMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} in the antiferromagnetic AFil region. A further two inelastic excitations (∼9 meV, 17 meV) are observed below T{sub N2}=30(5) K, the temperature at which the high temperature antiferromagnetic structure is reported to exhibit doubling of the magnetic cell. Energy level diagrams have been determined for Yb{sup 3+} ions in the different sites above (single site) and below the magnetic transition temperature (two sites). The excitation energies for both sites are shown to be temperature independent with the temperature dependences of the transition intensities for the two sites described well by a simple Boltzmann model. The spectra below T{sub N2} cannot be described fully in terms of molecular field models based on either a single Yb{sup 3+} site or two Yb{sup 3+} sites. This indicates that the magnetic behaviour of YbMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is more complicated than previously considered. The inability to account fully for excitations below the magnetic phase transition may be due to an, as yet, unresolved structural transition associated with the magnetic transition. - Highlights: • The inelastic neutron scattering from YbMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} has been investigated over the temperature range 2.5–50 K. • The crystal field splitting has been monitored through the magnetic transition at 30(5) K. • We have determined the crystal field parameters for the antiferromagnetic AFil region. • The transition intensities are described well by Boltzmann occupancy models. • The spectra below the magnetic transition have been analysed by

  13. Preparation of Ag@mSiO{sub 2} and Pt@mSiO{sub 2}nano composites using trioctylmethyl ammonium hydrogen phthalate (TOMAHP) ionic liquid as reaction medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Sujoy, E-mail: sujoyb@barc.gov.in [Chemical Engineering Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dasgupta, Kinshuk [Materials Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bahadur, Jitendra [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tewari, Raghavendra [Materials Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mazumder, Subhasish [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-09-15

    A novel one step green chemistry approach utilizing trioctylmethyl ammonium hydrogen phthalate (TOMAHP), task specific ionic liquid has been attempted for synthesis of Ag and Pt nanoparticles supported on silica (Ag@mSiO{sub 2} and Pt@mSiO{sub 2}). Structure, size distribution and morphology of these nano-composite particles were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle neutron scattering (SANS) as well as small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. The XRD results show that Ag/Pt metal nanoparticles deposited on to SiO{sub 2} surface are face center cubic (fcc) in nature. The TEM and SAXS/SANS results show the morphology and size distributions of Ag and Pt nanoparticles loaded on to the surface of SiO{sub 2}. It has been found that Ag nanoparticles are well dispersed on to the SiO{sub 2} surface and are quite monodisperse in size, whereas Pt nanoparticles are quite polydisperse in size and forms aggregate or chain like structure on SiO{sub 2} surface containing primary nanoparticles of typical size range 3–7 nm. The stability of nanoparticles, which controls its dispersion on SiO{sub 2} substrate, has been discussed. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism for Ag@mSiO{sub 2} and Pt@mSiO{sub 2} nano composites in TOMAHP ionic liquid medium. - Highlights: • Novel methods for preparation of Pt@SiO{sub 2} and Ag@SiO{sub 2} nano composite in functionalized ionic liquid. • Pt@SiO{sub 2} and Ag@SiO{sub 2} nano composite are characterized using XRD, TEM as well as small angle x-ray scattering techniques. • The sizes of nano composite is <10 nm in size. • The method is simple one step, green chemical reduction method to prepare SiO{sub 2} support nano catalyst.

  14. Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} cocatalyst improving photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance of TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Difa; Hai, Yang; Zhang, Xiangchao; Zhang, Shiying; He, Rongan, E-mail: hslra@tom.com

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Bi-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-anatase-rutile TiO{sub 2} multijunction photocatalyst was prepared. • Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} quantum dots with size of 2–3 nm were uniformly distributed. • Improved H{sub 2} evolution was noticed in glycerol-water mixture. • Optimal amount of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was found to be 0.89 mol%. - Abstract: Photocatalytic hydrogen production using water splitting is of potential importance from the viewpoint of renewable energy development. Herein, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} composite photocatalysts presented as Bi-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-anatase-rutile TiO{sub 2} multijunction were first fabricated by a simple impregnation-calcination method using Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} as H{sub 2}-production cocatalysts. The obtained multijunction samples exhibit an obvious enhancement in photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution activity in the presence of glycerol. The effect of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} amount on H{sub 2}-evolution activity of TiO{sub 2} was investigated and the optimal Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content was found to be 0.89 mol%, achieving a H{sub 2}-production rate of 920 μmol h{sup −1}, exceeding that of pure TiO{sub 2} by more than 73 times. The enhanced mechanism of photocatalytic H{sub 2}-evolution activity is proposed. This study will provide new insight into the design and fabrication of TiO{sub 2}-based hydrogen-production photocatalysts using low-cost Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} as cocatalyst.

  15. Surface modification and enhanced photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction performance of TiO{sub 2}: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Jingxiang; Cheng, Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Application of modified TiO{sub 2} for photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction is summarized. • Different surface modification strategies of TiO{sub 2} are highlighted. • Summary and future perspectives in photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction are presented. - Abstract: Recently, the excessive consumption of fossil fuels has caused high emissions of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} into atmosphere and global energy crisis. Mimicking the natural photosynthesis by using semiconductor materials to achieve photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction into valuable solar fuels such as CH{sub 4}, HCO{sub 2}H, CH{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 3}OH is known as one of the best solutions for addressing the aforementioned issue. Among various proposed photocatalysts, TiO{sub 2} has been extensively studied over the past several decades for photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction because of its cheapness and environmental friendliness. Particularly, surface modification of TiO{sub 2} has attracted numerous interests due to its capability of enhancing the light absorption ability, facilitating the electron-hole separation, tuning the CO{sub 2} reduction selectivity and increasing the CO{sub 2} adsorption and activation ability of TiO{sub 2} for photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction. In this review, recent approaches of the surface modification of TiO{sub 2} for photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction, including impurity doping, metal deposition, alkali modification, heterojunction construction and carbon-based material loading, are presented. The photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction mechanism and pathways of TiO{sub 2} are discussed. The future research direction and perspective of photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction over surface-modified TiO{sub 2} are also presented.

  16. 4,6-Dimethyl-dibenzothiophene conversion over Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}-supported noble metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Sara [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, Iztapalapa, 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Escobar, Jose, E-mail: jeaguila@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Gustavo A. Madero, 07730, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Vazquez, Armando; Reyes, Jose Antonio de los [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, Iztapalapa, 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez-Barrera, Melissa [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Gustavo A. Madero, 07730, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} (molar ratio Al/Ti = 2, AT2) mixed oxides were pore-filling impregnated to obtain Pd, Pt and Pd-Pt catalysts with {approx}1 wt% nominal metal loading. {yields} Reduced catalysts were tested in the 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS). {yields} In Pd-containing materials, TiO{sub 2} incorporation into the alumina support was favorable to the catalytic activity of noble metal catalysts. {yields} Enhanced intrinsic activity (per exposed metallic site) was obtained in Pt-containing catalysts supported on the AT2 mixed oxide. {yields} Yield to different products over various catalysts seemed to be strongly influenced by metallic particles dispersion. - Abstract: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} (molar ratio Al/Ti = 2, AT2) mixed oxides were synthesized using a low-temperature sol-gel method and were further pore-filling impregnated to obtain Pd and Pt catalysts with {approx}1 wt% nominal metal loading. Simultaneous impregnation was used to prepare bimetallic materials at Pd:Pt = 80:20. Solids characterization was carried out by N{sub 2}-physisorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM and E-FTEM), X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed reduction and CO-chemisorption. Reduced (350 deg. C, H{sub 2} flow) catalysts were tested in the 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) (in n-dodecane, at 300 deg. C and 5.5 MPa, batch reactor). In Pd-containing materials, TiO{sub 2} incorporation into the alumina support was favorable to the catalytic activity of noble metal catalysts, where bimetallic Pd-Pt with AT2 carrier had the highest organo-S compound conversion. Enhanced intrinsic activity (per exposed metallic site) was obtained in Pt-containing catalysts supported on the AT2 mixed oxide (as compared to alumina-supported ones). Yield to different products over various catalysts seemed to be strongly influenced by

  17. Process for analyzing CO{sub 2} in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, J.E.; Akse, J.R.; DeHart, J.

    1997-07-01

    The process of this invention comprises providing a membrane for separating CO{sub 2} into a first CO{sub 2} sample phase and a second CO{sub 2} analyte phase. CO{sub 2} is then transported through the membrane thereby separating the CO{sub 2} with the membrane into a first CO{sub 2} sample phase and a second CO{sub 2} analyte liquid phase including an ionized, conductive, dissociated CO{sub 2} species. Next, the concentration of the ionized, conductive, dissociated CO{sub 2} species in the second CO{sub 2} analyte liquid phase is chemically amplified using a water-soluble chemical reagent which reversibly reacts with undissociated CO{sub 2} to produce conductivity changes therein corresponding to fluctuations in the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in the first CO{sub 2} sample phase. Finally, the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO{sub 2} species is introduced to a conductivity measuring instrument. Conductivity changes in the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO{sub 2} species are detected using the conductivity measuring instrument. 43 figs.

  18. Process for analyzing CO.sub.2 in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; DeHart, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    The process of this invention comprises providing a membrane for separating CO.sub.2 into a first CO.sub.2 sample phase and a second CO.sub.2 analyte phase. CO.sub.2 is then transported through the membrane thereby separating the CO.sub.2 with the membrane into a first CO.sub.2 sample phase and a second CO.sub.2 analyte liquid phase including an ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species. Next, the concentration of the ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species in the second CO.sub.2 analyte liquid phase is chemically amplified using a water-soluble chemical reagent which reversibly reacts with undissociated CO.sub.2 to produce conductivity changes therein corresponding to fluctuations in the partial pressure of CO.sub.2 in the first CO.sub.2 sample phase. Finally, the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species is introduced to a conductivity measuring instrument. Conductivity changes in the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species are detected using the conductivity measuring instrument.

  19. The solubility of Ni in molten Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (52/48) in H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/CO{sub 2} atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Andreas; Lindbergh, Goeran [KTH Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Yoshikawa, Masahiro [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Sector, Energy Conversion Engineering, Energy Engineering Research Laboratory, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan)

    2007-03-30

    In this work the solubility of a Ni-Al anode for MCFC has been studied at atmospheric pressure and two different temperatures using various gas compositions containing H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/CO{sub 2}. It is well known that nickel is dissolved at cathode conditions in an MCFC. However, the results in this study show that nickel can be dissolved also at the anode, indicating that the solubility increases with increasing CO{sub 2} partial pressure of the inlet gas and decreasing with increasing temperature. This agrees with the results found by other authors concerning the solubility of NiO at cathode conditions. The dissolution of Ni into the melt can proceed in two ways, either by the reduction of water or by the reduction of carbon dioxide. (author)

  20. SnO{sub 2} foam grain-shaped nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and UVA light induced photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelkader, Elaziouti, E-mail: elaziouti_a@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Electronic Microscope and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO M. B), BP 1505 El M' naouar, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Nadjia, Laouedj, E-mail: nlaouedj@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry and Application, University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO M. B), BP 1505 El M' naouar, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Naceur, Benhadria, E-mail: nacer1974@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry and Application, University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO M. B), BP 1505 El M' naouar, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Noureddine, Bettahar, E-mail: nbettahar2001@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Chemistry and Application, University of Science and Technology of Oran (USTO M. B), BP 1505 El M' naouar, 31000 Oran (Algeria)

    2016-09-15

    Cassiterite (tin oxide; SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (NPs), has been successfully synthesized via a sol-gel method. The obtained compounds are subsequently calcined at 80, 450 and 650 °C for 4 h and are assigned as SnO{sub 2}-80, SnO{sub 2}-450 NPs and SnO{sub 2}-650 NPs, respectively. All prepared samples were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-SM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS). The XRD results confirmed the aggregated cassiterite SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) with a size ranging from 13 to 23 nm. The absorption edge of the SnO{sub 2} NPs samples calcined at higher temperatures showed 25 nm (SnO{sub 2}-450 NPs) and 10 nm (SnO{sub 2}-650 NPs) red shifted compared with that of commercial SnO{sub 2}-com NPs sample. The photodegradation efficiency of SnO{sub 2} NPs was investigated using Congo red (CR) dye, as model organic pollutant. The effect of environmental factors (e.g., reaction time and calcination temperature) on the photocatalysis process of CR on SnO{sub 2} NPs was investigated in photocatalysis process under UVA light irradiation. We found that the SnO{sub 2}-650 NPs with 23 nm particle size and about 3.49 eV band gap was higher than that of the SnO{sub 2}-450 as well as the commercial SnO{sub 2}-com NPs. Pseudo-first-order kinetic model gave the best fit, with highest correlation coefficients (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.95). On the basis of the energy band diagram positions, the enhanced photodegradation efficiency SnO{sub 2} NPs catalyst could be proceeded via direct reactions with (O{sub 2}·{sup -} and ·OH), as active oxidative species involved in the photocatalysis process of CR dye under UVA-light irradiation. - Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} NPs photocatalysts were synthesized using a facile sol–gel route. • As-prepared SnO{sub 2} NPs were characterized by XRD, SEM and UV–vis-DRS techniques. • Noticeably UVA

  1. The first 3D malonate bridged copper [Cu(O{sub 2}C-CH{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}H){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O]: Structure, properties and electronic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguatni, A., E-mail: seguatni@gmail.com [LBPC-INSERM U 698, Institut Galilee, Universite Paris XIII, 99, avenue J. B. Clement 93430, Villetaneuse (France); Fakhfakh, M. [Unite de recherche UR 12-30, Synthese et Structure de Materiaux Inorganiques, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Departement de Chimie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, Succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Que., H3C 3P8 (Canada); Smiri, L.S. [Unite de recherche UR 12-30, Synthese et Structure de Materiaux Inorganiques, Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Gressier, P.; Boucher, F. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Jouini, N. [Departement de Chimie, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, Succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Que., H3C 3P8 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    A new inorganic-organic compound [Cu(O{sub 2}C-CH{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}H){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O] ([Cumal]) was hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. [Cumal] is the first three-dimensional compound existing in the system Cu(II)-malonic acid-H{sub 2}O. Its framework is built up through carboxyl bridged copper where CuO{sub 6} octahedra are elongated with an almost D{sub 4h} symmetry (4+2) due to the Jahn-Teller effect. The magnetic properties were studied by measuring its magnetic susceptibility in the temperature range of 2-300 K indicating the existence of weak ferromagnetic interactions. The electronic structure of [Cumal] was calculated within the density functional theory (DFT) framework. Structural features are well reproduced using DFT structural optimizations and the optical spectra, calculated within the dielectric formalism, explain very well the light blue colour of the compound. It is shown that a GGA+U approach with a U{sub eff} value of about 6 eV is necessary for a better correlation with the experiment. - Graphical abstract: [Cu(O{sub 2}C-CH{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}H){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O]: the first 3D hybrid organic-inorganic compound built up carboxyl groups. The network presents a diamond-like structure achieved via carboxyl. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new organic-inorganic material with an unprecedented topology is synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallographic structure is determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic structure is obtained from DFT, GGA+U calculation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Framework can be described as formed from CuC{sub 4} tetrahedron sharing four corners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This structure can be classified as an extended diamond structure.

  2. Crystal structure of a new polar borate Na{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}[BO{sub 2}(OH)][BO{sub 3}]{sub 2} · H{sub 2}O with isolated boron triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topnikova, A. P.; Belokoneva, E. L., E-mail: elbel@geol.msu.ru; Dimitrova, O. V.; Volkov, A. S. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Crystals of a new polar borate Na{sub 2}Ce{sub 2}[BO{sub 2}(OH)][BO{sub 3}]{sub 2} · H{sub 2}O were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The crystals are orthorhombic, a = 7.2295(7) Å, b = 11.2523(8) Å, c = 5.1285(6) Å, Z = 2, sp. gr. C2mm (Amm2), R = 0.0253. The formula of the compound was derived from the structure determination. The Ce and Na atoms are coordinated by nine and six O atoms, respectively. The Ce position is split, and a small amount of Ce is incorporated into the Na1 site with the isomorphous substitution for Na. The anionic moieties exist as isolated BO{sub 3} and BO{sub 2}(OH) triangles. The planes of the BO{sub 2}(OH) triangles with mm2 symmetry are parallel to the ab plane. The planes of the BO{sub 3} triangles with m symmetry are perpendicular to the ab plane and are rotated in a diagonal way. The splitting of the Ce positions and the polar arrangement of the BO{sub 2}(OH) triangles, water molecules, and Na atoms are observed along the polar a axis. The new structure is most similar to the new borate NaCa{sub 4}[BO{sub 3}]{sub 3} (sp. gr. Ama2), in which triangles of one type are arranged in a polar fashion along the c axis. Weak nonlinear-optical properties of both polar borates are attributed to the quenching of the second-harmonic generation due to the mutually opposite orientation of two-thirds of B triangles in the unit cell.

  3. H{sub 2} storage in nanocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, T.K.; Chahine, R.; Cossement, D. [Quebec Univ., Trois-Rivieres, PQ (Canada). Institut de recherche sur l' hydrogene

    2001-06-01

    Reports concerning high hydrogen uptake in carbon nanostructures such as graphite nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanographites prompted research and development efforts. The emphasis is being placed mainly on synthesis and activation of nanocarbons, structural characterization, and hydrogen adsorption measurements. The authors discussed the preparation of GNF and that of the nanotubes, followed by structural characterization. The adsorption measurements were described and the results presented. After a number of conclusions were listed, the authors indicated that the results obtained did not substantiate previous claims in scientific literature concerning high H{sub 2} uptake in GNFs. tabs., figs.

  4. Remarks on A sub 2 Toda theory

    CERN Document Server

    Apikyan, S A

    2001-01-01

    The Toda field theory with finite Lie algebras using an extension of the Goulian-Li technique was studied. In this way, it was shown that after integrating over the zero mode in the correlation functions of the exponential fields, the resulting correlation function resembles that of a free theory. It is shown that for same ratios of the charges of the exponential fields the four-point correlation functions which contain a degenerate field satisfy the Riemann ordinary differential equation. Using this fact and the crossing symmetry a set of functional equations for the structure constants of the A sub 2 Toda field theory was derived

  5. Morphology transformation of Cu{sub 2}O by adding TEOA and their antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Weijia; Zheng, Min, E-mail: zhengmin@suda.edu.cn; Li, Rong; Wang, Yuyuan [Soochow University, National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering (China)

    2016-11-15

    Cu{sub 2}O polyhedral particles and hollow spheres were successfully synthesized by adjusting the concentration of triethanolamine (TEOA). The as-prepared samples were structurally characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results revealed that the solid polyhedral Cu{sub 2}O with sizes ranging from 70 to 150 nm was in good crystallization. The diameter of the hollow Cu{sub 2}O spheres increased to 350–450 nm. It was found that the sizes and morphologies of the products could be significantly affected by the concentration of TEOA. And the morphology of Cu{sub 2}O transformed from solid polyhedrons to hollow spheres with the further enrichment of TEOA concentration. A possible mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of the hollow Cu{sub 2}O spheres. In addition, we investigated the antibacterial activities of the samples. It was demonstrated that the hollow Cu{sub 2}O sphere exhibited better antibacterial activities for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) compared with the solid polyhedral Cu{sub 2}O.

  6. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue on TiO{sub 2}-halloysite adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Pengwu [Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang (China)

    2014-11-15

    TiO{sub 2}-halloysite (TiO{sub 2}-HNT) composites were fabricated by depositing anatase TiO{sub 2} on the halloysite (HNT) surfaces with calcination treatment at 100, 200, 300 and 500 .deg. C. The obtained composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). HNT was attached with TiO{sub 2} particles or clusters in sizes of 10-30 nm. With the increasing of calcination temperature, the crystalline of anatase became more perfect, but the structure of HNT could be destroyed at 500 .deg. C. The adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) by TiO{sub 2}-HNTs were investigated. The kinetic adsorption fit the pseudo second-order, and the isotherm data followed the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities of MB were in the range of 38.57 to 54.29 mg/g. TiO{sub 2}-HNTs exhibited an efficient photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of MB. For TiO{sub 2}-HNT calcined at 300 .deg. C, 81.6% MB were degraded after 4 h treatment of UV irradiation.

  7. Properties of lithium disilicate reinforced with ZrO{sub 2} (3mol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Propriedades de dissilicato de litio reforcado com ZrO{sub 2} (3mol%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M.F.R.P.; Cossu, C.M.F.A.; Santos, C., E-mail: manuelfellipealves@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia; Silva, C.L.M. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UniFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Simba, B.G. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia; Fernandes, M.H.F. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-07-01

    The new generation of dental ceramics based on lithium disilicate, Li{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}, allows the production of restorative prosthetic with reduced times compared to alumina and / or zirconia (Y-TZP). A great limitation of their use is related low fracture strength of such glass-ceramics, which reduces their use in unit fixed prosthesis. In this work, lithium disilicate reinforced with 10% ZrO{sub 2} (3-mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is characterized by relative density, crystalline phase, hardness, fracture toughness and microstructural aspects. Lithium metasilicate and tetragonal zirconia, prior to heat treatment. After thermal treatment under vacuum at 840 deg C-8min the lithium metasilicate is converted to lithium disilicate as the ZrO{sub 2} phase remains in the tetragonal structure. This maintenance of the tetragonal phase ensures the material a good fracture toughness, reaching average values near 2MPam{sup 1/2}, while the average hardness of 600HV. Morphological analysis of the samples indicates that ZrO{sub 2} particles are uniformly dispersed in the matrix composed of high aspect ratio lithium disilicate grains, which contributes to the results presented.. A critical analysis of the performance of toughening mechanisms such as cracks deflection, phase transformation of ZrO{sub 2} (T-M), residual stress between the matrix and the reinforcement are presented, discussed and compared with other ceramic materials used in dentistry restorer. (author)

  8. ALD Produced B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} Coatings on Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} Burnable Poison Nanoparticles and Carbonaceous TRISO Coating Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, Alan

    2012-11-26

    This project will demonstrate the feasibility of using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to apply ultrathin neutron-absorbing, corrosion-resistant layers consisting of ceramics, metals, or combinations thereof, on particles for enhanced nuclear fuel pellets. Current pellet coating technology utilizes chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in a fluidized bed reactor to deposit thick, porous layers of C (or PyC) and SiC. These graphitic/carbide materials degrade over time owing to fission product bombardment, active oxidation, thermal management issues, and long-term irradiation effects. ALD can be used to deposit potential ceramic barrier materials of interest, including ZrO{sub 2}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and TiO{sub 2}, or neutron-absorbing materials, namely B (in BN or B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and Gd (in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}). This project consists of a two-pronged approach to integrate ALD into the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) fuel pellet manufacturing process:

  9. Bifunctional bridging linker-assisted synthesis and characterization of TiO{sub 2}/Au nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žunič, Vojka, E-mail: vojka.zunic@ijs.si, E-mail: vojka13@gmail.com; Kurtjak, Mario; Suvorov, Danilo [Jožef Stefan Institute, Advanced Materials Department (Slovenia)

    2016-11-15

    Using a simple organic bifunc