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Sample records for sub-100 nm mos

  1. Instrumentation for Gate Current Noise Measurements on sub-100 nm MOS Transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Gaioni, L; Ratti, L; Re, V; Speziali, V; Traversi, G

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a measuring system that was developed to characterize the gate current noise performances of CMOS devices with minimum feature size in the 100 nm span. These devices play an essential role in the design of present daymixedsignal integrated circuits, because of the advantages associated with the scaling process. The reduction in the gate oxide thickness brought about by CMOS technology downscaling leads to a non-negligible gate current due to direct tunneling phenomena; this current represents a noise source which requires an accurate characterization for optimum analog design. In this paper, two instruments able to perform measurements in two different ranges of gate current values will be discussed. Some of the results of gate current noise characterization will also be presented.

  2. Printed sub-100 nm polymer-derived ceramic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Binh; Gangopadhyay, Palash; Brent, Josh; Seraphin, Supapan; Loutfy, Raouf O; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Thomas, Jayan

    2013-05-01

    We proposed an unconventional fabrication technique called spin-on nanoprinting (SNAP) to generate and transfer sub-100 nm preceramic polymer patterns onto flexible and rigid substrates. The dimensions of printed nanostructures are almost the same as those of the mold, since the ceramic precursor used is a liquid. The printed patterns can be used as a replica for printing second-generation structures using other polymeric materials or they can be further converted to desirable ceramic structures, which are very attractive for high-temperature and harsh environment applications. SNAP is an inexpensive parallel process and requires no special equipment for operation.

  3. Scalability of Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions to Sub-100 nm Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuwasib, Mohammad

    films. A fully integrated FTJ device ( 300x300 nm2) was demonstrated with large ON/OFF ratio ( 200), large ON current densities ( 75A/cm 2) and long data retention (>12 h). The device tunneling current was modeled using the known band parameters, with no fitting constants, and in excellent agreement with experimental measurement. A new fabrication process using hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) planarization was developed for the integration of sub-100 nm FTJs. A fully integrated 75x75 nm2 FTJ device with composite structures Ti/SrTiO3/BaTiO 3/SrRuO3 was fabricated and tested. These FTJs have large ON current densities (103 A/cm2), which shows a lot of promise for implementation of high-density BaTiO 3 based FTJ devices in future integrated circuits.

  4. Pushing the Performance Limit of Sub-100 nm Molybdenum Disulfide Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Wu, Yecun; Zhu, Enbo; Weiss, Nathan O; He, Qiyuan; Wu, Hao; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Xu, Yang; Shakir, Imran; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-10-12

    Two-dimensional semiconductors (2DSCs) such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) have attracted intense interest as an alternative electronic material in the postsilicon era. However, the ON-current density achieved in 2DSC transistors to date is considerably lower than that of silicon devices, and it remains an open question whether 2DSC transistors can offer competitive performance. A high current device requires simultaneous minimization of the contact resistance and channel length, which is a nontrivial challenge for atomically thin 2DSCs, since the typical low contact resistance approaches for 2DSCs either degrade the electronic properties of the channel or are incompatible with the fabrication process for short channel devices. Here, we report a new approach toward high-performance MoS 2 transistors by using a physically assembled nanowire as a lift-off mask to create ultrashort channel devices with pristine MoS 2 channel and self-aligned low resistance metal/graphene hybrid contact. With the optimized contact in short channel devices, we demonstrate sub-100 nm MoS 2 transistor delivering a record high ON-current of 0.83 mA/μm at 300 K and 1.48 mA/μm at 20 K, which compares well with that of silicon devices. Our study, for the first time, demonstrates that the 2DSC transistors can offer comparable performance to the 2017 target for silicon transistors in International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), marking an important milestone in 2DSC electronics.

  5. Random Telegraph Signal Amplitudes in Sub 100 nm (Decanano) MOSFETs: A 3D 'Atomistic' Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenov, Asen; Balasubramaniam, R.; Brown, A. R.; Davies, J. H.; Saini, Subhash

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we use 3D simulations to study the amplitudes of random telegraph signals (RTS) associated with the trapping of a single carrier in interface states in the channel of sub 100 nm (decanano) MOSFETs. Both simulations using continuous doping charge and random discrete dopants in the active region of the MOSFETs are presented. We have studied the dependence of the RTS amplitudes on the position of the trapped charge in the channel and on the device design parameters. We have observed a significant increase in the maximum RTS amplitude when discrete random dopants are employed in the simulations.

  6. Random telegraph signal amplitudes in sub 100 nm (decanano) MOSFETs: a 3D `Atomistic' simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Asenov, A.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Brown, A.R.; Davies, J.H.; Saini, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we use 3D simulations to study the amplitudes of random telegraph signals (RTS) associated with the trapping of a single carrier in interface states in the channel of sub 100 nm (decanano) MOSFETs. Both simulations using continuous doping charge and random discrete dopants in the active region of the MOSFETs are presented. We have studied the dependence of the RTS amplitudes on the position of the trapped charge in the channel and on the device design parameters. We have observe...

  7. Size-resolved fluxes of sub-100-nm particles over forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, Sara; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Spaulding, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Dry deposition of atmospheric particles is critically dependent on particle size and plays a key role in dictating the mass and number distributions of atmospheric particles. However, modeling dry deposition is constrained by a lack of understanding of controlling dependencies and accurate size......-resolved observations. We present size-resolved particle number fluxes for sub-100-nm particle diameters (Dp) over a deciduous forest derived using eddy covariance applied to data from a fast mobility particle sizer. The size-resolved particle number fluxes in 18 diameters between 8 and 100 nm were collected during...... leaf-on and are statistically robust. Particle deposition velocities normalized by friction velocity (v d +) are approximately four times smaller than comparable values for coniferous forests reported elsewhere. Comparison of the data with output from a new one-dimensional mechanistic particle...

  8. Tribological performance of sub-100-nm femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonse, J., E-mail: joern.bonse@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Höhm, S. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany); Rosenfeld, A. [Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie (MBI), Max-Born-Straße 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Unter den Eichen 87, D-12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Large areas covered with sub-100 nm LIPSS (HSFL) were manufactured by fs-laser irradiation on titanium surfaces. • Tribological performance of HSFL covered areas was qualified in reciprocal sliding tests in two different lubricating oils. • HSFL on titanium do not endure the tribological tests. • For a beneficial tribological performance, the tribological sample deformation must be smaller than the LIPSS modulation depth. - Abstract: Sub-100-nm laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were processed on bulk titanium (Ti) surfaces by femtosecond laser pulse irradiation in air (30 fs pulse duration, 790 nm wavelength). The laser peak fluence, the spatial spot overlap, and the number of overscans were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry in order to obtain large surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm) covered homogeneously by the LIPSS. The laser-processed regions were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The friction coefficient of the nanostructured surfaces was tested during 1000 cycles under reciprocal sliding conditions (1 Hz, 1.0 N normal load) against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel, both in paraffin oil and in engine oil used as lubricants. Subsequently, the corresponding wear tracks were qualified by OM, SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX). The results of the tribological tests are discussed and compared to that obtained for near wavelength-sized fs-LIPSS, processed under somewhat different irradiation conditions. Some constraints for a beneficial effect of LIPSS on the tribological performance are provided.

  9. Tribological performance of sub-100-nm femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, J.; Höhm, S.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Large areas covered with sub-100 nm LIPSS (HSFL) were manufactured by fs-laser irradiation on titanium surfaces. • Tribological performance of HSFL covered areas was qualified in reciprocal sliding tests in two different lubricating oils. • HSFL on titanium do not endure the tribological tests. • For a beneficial tribological performance, the tribological sample deformation must be smaller than the LIPSS modulation depth. - Abstract: Sub-100-nm laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were processed on bulk titanium (Ti) surfaces by femtosecond laser pulse irradiation in air (30 fs pulse duration, 790 nm wavelength). The laser peak fluence, the spatial spot overlap, and the number of overscans were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry in order to obtain large surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm) covered homogeneously by the LIPSS. The laser-processed regions were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The friction coefficient of the nanostructured surfaces was tested during 1000 cycles under reciprocal sliding conditions (1 Hz, 1.0 N normal load) against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel, both in paraffin oil and in engine oil used as lubricants. Subsequently, the corresponding wear tracks were qualified by OM, SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX). The results of the tribological tests are discussed and compared to that obtained for near wavelength-sized fs-LIPSS, processed under somewhat different irradiation conditions. Some constraints for a beneficial effect of LIPSS on the tribological performance are provided.

  10. Stochastic simulation of thermally assisted magnetization reversal in sub-100 nm dots with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnama, Budi; Koga, Masashi; Nozaki, Yukio; Matsuyama, Kimihide

    2009-01-01

    Thermally assisted magnetization reversal of sub-100 nm dots with perpendicular anisotropy has been investigated using a micromagnetic Langevin model. The performance of the two different reversal modes of (i) a reduced barrier writing scheme and (ii) a Curie point writing scheme are compared. For the reduced barrier writing scheme, the switching field H swt decreases with an increase in writing temperature but is still larger than that of the Curie point writing scheme. For the Curie point writing scheme, the required threshold field H th , evaluated from 50 simulation results, saturates at a value, which is not simply related to the energy barrier height. The value of H th increases with a decrease in cooling time owing to the dynamic aspects of the magnetic ordering process. Dependence of H th on material parameters and dot sizes has been systematically studied

  11. Locally measuring the adhesion of InP directly bonded on sub-100 nm patterned Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzas, K; Patriarche, G; Beaudoin, G; Itawi, A; Sagnes, I; Talneau, A; Bourhis, E Le; Troadec, D

    2016-01-01

    A nano-scale analogue to the double cantilever experiment that combines instrumented nano-indentation and atomic force microscopy is used to precisely and locally measure the adhesion of InP bonded on sub-100 nm patterned Si using oxide-free or oxide-mediated bonding. Surface-bonding energies of 0.548 and 0.628 J m"−"2, respectively, are reported. These energies correspond in turn to 51% and 57% of the surface bonding energy measured in unpatterned regions on the same samples, i.e. the proportion of unetched Si surface in the patterned areas. The results show that bonding on patterned surfaces can be as robust as on unpatterned surfaces, provided care is taken with the post-patterning surface preparation process and, therefore, open the path towards innovative designs that include patterns embedded in the Si guiding layer of hybrid III-V/Si photonic integrated circuits. (paper)

  12. Exchange-dominated eigenmodes in sub-100 nm permalloy dots: A micromagnetic study at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, G.; Gubbiotti, G.; Madami, M.; Tacchi, S.; Stamps, R. L.

    2014-05-01

    Micromagnetic simulations at room temperature (300 K) have been carried out in order to analyse the magnetic eigenmodes (frequency and spatial profile) in elliptical dots with sub-100 nm lateral size. Features are found that are qualitatively different from those typical of larger dots because of the dominant role played by the exchange-energy. These features can be understood most simply in terms of nodal planes defined relative to the orientation of the static magnetization. A new, generalized labeling scheme is proposed that simplifies discussion and comparison of modes from different geometries. It is shown that the lowest-frequency mode for small dots is characterized by an in-phase precession of spins, without nodal planes, but with a maximum amplitude at the edges. This mode softens at an applied switching field with magnitude comparable to the coercive field and determines specific aspects of magnetization reversal. This characteristic behavior can be relevant for optimization of microwave assisting switching as well as for maximizing interdot coupling in dense arrays of dots.

  13. Sub-100 nm gold nanohole-enhanced Raman scattering on flexible PDMS sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Ongko, Andry; Kim, Ho Young; Yim, Sang-Gu; Jeon, Geumhye; Jeong, Hee Jin; Lee, Seungwoo; Kwak, Minseok; Yang, Seung Yun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a highly sensitive vibrational spectroscopy technique enabling detection of multiple analytes at the molecular level in a nondestructive and rapid manner. In this work, we introduce a new approach to fabricate deep subwavelength-scaled (sub-100 nm) metallic nanohole arrays (quasi-3D metallic nanoholes) on flexible and highly efficient SERS substrates. Target structures have been fabricated using a two-step process consisting of (i) direct pattern transfer of spin-coated polymer films onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates by plasma etching with transferred anodic aluminum oxide masks, and (ii) producing SERS-active substrates by functionalization of the etched polymeric films followed by Au deposition. Such an all-dry, top-down lithographic approach enables on-demand patterning of SERS-active metallic nanoholes with high structural fidelity even onto flexible and stretchable substrates, thus making possible multiple sensing modes in a versatile fashion. For example, metallic nanoholes on flexible PDMS substrates are highly amenable to their integration with curved glass sticks, which can be used in optical fiber-integrated SERS systems. Au surfaces immobilized by probe DNA molecules show a selective enhancement of Raman scattering with Cy5-labeled complementary DNA (as compared to flat Au surfaces), demonstrating the potential of using the quasi-3D Au nanohole arrays for bio-sensing applications.

  14. On the feasibility of sub-100 nm rad emittance measurement in plasma accelerators using permanent magnetic quadrupoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Wu, Y. P.; Nie, Z.; Guo, B.; Zhang, X. H.; Huang, S.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, Z.; Ma, Y.; Fang, Y.; Zhang, C. J.; Wan, Y.; Xu, X. L.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C. H.; Lu, W.; Gu, Y. Q.

    2018-01-01

    Low emittance (sub-100 nm rad) measurement of electron beams in plasma accelerators has been a challenging issue for a while. Among various measurement schemes, measurements based on single-shot quad-scan using permanent magnetic quadrupoles (PMQs) has been recently reported with emittance as low as ˜200 nm Weingartner (2012 Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 15 111302). However, the accuracy and reliability of this method have not been systematically analyzed. Such analysis is critical for evaluating the potential of sub-100 nm rad emittance measurement using any scheme. In this paper, we analyze the effects of various nonideal physical factors on the accuracy and reliability using the PMQ method. These factors include aberration induced by a high order field, PMQ misalignment and angular fluctuation of incoming beams. Our conclusions are as follows: (i) the aberrations caused by high order fields of PMQs are relatively weak for low emittance measurement as long as the PMQs are properly constructed. A series of PMQs were manufactured and measured at Tsinghua University, and using numerical simulations their high order field effects were found to be negligible . (ii) The largest measurement error of emittance is caused by the angular misalignment between PMQs. For low emittance measurement of ˜100 MeV beams, an angular alignment accuracy of 0.1° is necessary. This requirement can be eased for beams with higher energies. (iii) The transverse position misalignment of PMQs and angular fluctuation of incoming beams only cause a translational and rotational shift of measured signals, respectively, therefore, there is no effect on the measured value of emittance. (iv) The spatial resolution and efficiency of the detection system need to be properly designed to guarantee the accuracy of sub-100 nm rad emittance measurement.

  15. Manipulation and in situ transmission electron microscope characterization of sub-100 nm nanostructures using a microfabricated nanogripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Wierzbicki, Rafal; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Dyvelkov, Karin Nordstrøm; Sardan Sukas, Özlem; Booth, Tim; Bøggild, Peter; Occhipinti, Luigi; Herstrøm, Berit G

    2010-01-01

    We present here a polysilicon electrothermal microfabricated nanogripper capable of manipulating nanowires and nanotubes in the sub-100 nm range. The nanogripper was fabricated with a mix and match microfabrication process, combining high throughput of photolithography with 10 nm resolution of electron beam lithography. Vertically grown III–V nanowires with a diameter of 70 nm were picked up using the nanogripper, allowing direct transfer of the nanogripper-nanowire ensemble into a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for structural characterization. By refining the end-effectors with focused ion beam milling and subsequently coating these with Au, the nanogripper could lift up laterally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes from a 1 µm wide trench, while immediately making good electrical contact. One such carbon nanotube was structurally and electrically characterized real-time in TEM, showing a breakdown current density of approximately 0.5 × 10 12 Am −2 . The nanogripper is the smallest microfabricated gripper to date and is the first tool showing repeatable, 3D nanomanipulation of sub-100 nm structures.

  16. Manipulation and in situ transmission electron microscope characterization of sub-100 nm nanostructures using a microfabricated nanogripper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Wierzbicki, Rafal; Occhipini, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    ion beam milling and subsequently coating these with Au, the nanogripper could lift up laterally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes from a 1 µm wide trench, while immediately making good electrical contact. One such carbon nanotube was structurally and electrically characterized real-time in TEM......We present here a polysilicon electrothermal microfabricated nanogripper capable of manipulating nanowires and nanotubes in the sub-100 nm range. The nanogripper was fabricated with a mix and match microfabrication process, combining high throughput of photolithography with 10 nm resolution...... of electron beam lithography. Vertically grown III–V nanowires with a diameter of 70 nm were picked up using the nanogripper, allowing direct transfer of the nanogripper-nanowire ensemble into a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for structural characterization. By refining the end-effectors with focused...

  17. Sub-100 nm hard X-ray microbeam generation with Fresnel zone plate optics

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, H; Takeuchi, A

    2003-01-01

    A hard X-ray focusing test of a Fresnel zone plate has been performed with a synchrotron radiation source at the undulator beamline 20XU of SPring-8. Fresnel zone plate with a radius of 150 mu m, and an outermost zone width of 100 nm was used for the X-ray focusing device. The 248-m-long beamline provides fully coherent illumination for the focusing device. The focused beam evaluated by the knife-edge-scan method and scanning microscope test using test charts. Nearly diffraction- limited focusing with a size of 120 nm was achieved for the first-order diffraction at 10 keV X-ray. Evaluation for the third order diffraction was also performed at 8 keV X-ray, and a focal size of 50 m has been obtained. (author)

  18. Monolithic silicon photonics in a sub-100nm SOI CMOS microprocessor foundry: progress from devices to systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Miloš A.; Wade, Mark T.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Sun, Chen; Georgas, Michael; Moss, Benjamin; Kumar, Rajesh; Alloatti, Luca; Pavanello, Fabio; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Nammari, Kareem; Notaros, Jelena; Atabaki, Amir; Leu, Jonathan; Stojanović, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J.

    2015-02-01

    We review recent progress of an effort led by the Stojanović (UC Berkeley), Ram (MIT) and Popović (CU Boulder) research groups to enable the design of photonic devices, and complete on-chip electro-optic systems and interfaces, directly in standard microelectronics CMOS processes in a microprocessor foundry, with no in-foundry process modifications. This approach allows tight and large-scale monolithic integration of silicon photonics with state-of-the-art (sub-100nm-node) microelectronics, here a 45nm SOI CMOS process. It enables natural scale-up to manufacturing, and rapid advances in device design due to process repeatability. The initial driver application was addressing the processor-to-memory communication energy bottleneck. Device results include 5Gbps modulators based on an interleaved junction that take advantage of the high resolution of the sub-100nm CMOS process. We demonstrate operation at 5fJ/bit with 1.5dB insertion loss and 8dB extinction ratio. We also demonstrate the first infrared detectors in a zero-change CMOS process, using absorption in transistor source/drain SiGe stressors. Subsystems described include the first monolithically integrated electronic-photonic transmitter on chip (modulator+driver) with 20-70fJ/bit wall plug energy/bit (2-3.5Gbps), to our knowledge the lowest transmitter energy demonstrated to date. We also demonstrate native-process infrared receivers at 220fJ/bit (5Gbps). These are encouraging signs for the prospects of monolithic electronics-photonics integration. Beyond processor-to-memory interconnects, our approach to photonics as a "More-than- Moore" technology inside advanced CMOS promises to enable VLSI electronic-photonic chip platforms tailored to a vast array of emerging applications, from optical and acoustic sensing, high-speed signal processing, RF and optical metrology and clocks, through to analog computation and quantum technology.

  19. A novel ToF-SIMS operation mode for sub 100 nm lateral resolution: Application and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, Markus; Holzlechner, Gerald; Opitz, Alexander K.; Larisegger, Silvia; Hutter, Herbert; Fleig, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    A novel operation mode for time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is described for a TOF.SIMS 5 instrument with a Bi-ion gun. It features sub 100 nm lateral resolution, adjustable primary ion currents and the possibility to measure with high lateral resolution as well as high mass resolution. The adjustment and performance of the novel operation mode are described and compared to established ToF-SIMS operation modes. Several examples of application featuring novel scientific results show the capabilities of the operation mode in terms of lateral resolution, accuracy of isotope analysis of oxygen, and combination of high lateral and mass resolution. The relationship between high lateral resolution and operation of SIMS in static mode is discussed.

  20. A novel ToF-SIMS operation mode for sub 100 nm lateral resolution: Application and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Markus; Holzlechner, Gerald; Opitz, Alexander K; Larisegger, Silvia; Hutter, Herbert; Fleig, Jürgen

    2014-01-15

    A novel operation mode for time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is described for a TOF.SIMS 5 instrument with a Bi-ion gun. It features sub 100 nm lateral resolution, adjustable primary ion currents and the possibility to measure with high lateral resolution as well as high mass resolution. The adjustment and performance of the novel operation mode are described and compared to established ToF-SIMS operation modes. Several examples of application featuring novel scientific results show the capabilities of the operation mode in terms of lateral resolution, accuracy of isotope analysis of oxygen, and combination of high lateral and mass resolution. The relationship between high lateral resolution and operation of SIMS in static mode is discussed.

  1. Sub-100 nm biodegradable nanoparticles: in vitro release features and toxicity testing in 2D and 3D cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, Marco; Guarnieri, Daniela; Yu Hui; Belli, Valentina; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A big challenge in tumor targeting by nanoparticles (NPs), taking advantage of the enhanced permeability and retention effect, is the fabrication of small size devices for enhanced tumor penetration, which is considered fundamental to improve chemotherapy efficacy. The purposes of this study are (i) to engineer the formulation of doxorubicin-loaded poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)–block–poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) NPs to obtain <100 nm devices and (ii) to translate standard 2D cytotoxicity studies to 3D collagen systems in which an initial step gradient of the NPs is present. Doxorubicin release can be prolonged for days to weeks depending on the NP formulation and the pH of the release medium. Sub-100 nm NPs are effectively internalized by HeLa cells in 2D and are less cytotoxic than free doxorubicin. In 3D, <100 nm NPs are significantly more toxic than larger ones towards HeLa cells, and the cell death rate is affected by the contributions of drug release and device transport through collagen. Thus, the reduction of NP size is a fundamental feature from both a technological and a biological point of view and must be properly engineered to optimize the tumor response to the NPs. (paper)

  2. Evolution of the nanomorphology of photovoltaic polyfluorene blends: sub-100 nm resolution with x-ray spectromicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, C. R.; Watts, B.; Swaraj, S.; Ade, H.; Thomsen, L.; Belcher, W.; Dastoor, P. C.

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the influence of annealing on the morphology of intimately mixed blends of the conjugated polymers poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylene-diamine) (PFB) and poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) with scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). Through the use of a zone plate with theoretical Rayleigh resolution of 30 nm, we are able to resolve sub-100 nm bulk structure in these films. Surprisingly, for unannealed films spin-coated from chloroform we observe features with an average diameter of 85 nm. The high degree of photoluminescence quenching in these as-spun films (>95%) implies that there is significant intermixing within the 85 nm structures, indicating that a hierarchy of phase separation exists even on the length scale of less than 100 nm. With annealing up to 160 °C, close to the Tg of the components, there is little change in the feature sizes observed by STXM, although an increase in variation of the composition is observed. With annealing above 160 °C the imaged features begin to evolve in size, increasing to 225 nm in extent, alongside large changes in composition with annealing to 200 °C. Comparing the evolution of morphology imaged by STXM with the change in photoluminescence quenching with annealing, we propose that phase separation first evolves via the evolution of relatively pure phases on the length scale of a few to tens of nanometres within the larger 85 nm structures. Once the length scale of compositional fluctuations exceeds 85 nm (for anneal temperatures above 160 °C) the hierarchy of phase separation is lost and the subsequent morphological evolution is readily imaged by STXM. Applying the results of an exciton diffusion and quenching model, we find good agreement between the size of the domains measured by STXM (above 180 °C) and the results of the model for an exciton diffusion length of 15 nm. The growth in domain size and towards purer structures has

  3. Evolution of the nanomorphology of photovoltaic polyfluorene blends: sub-100 nm resolution with x-ray spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, C R; Watts, B; Swaraj, S; Ade, H; Thomsen, L; Belcher, W; Dastoor, P C

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the influence of annealing on the morphology of intimately mixed blends of the conjugated polymers poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N, N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylene-diamine) (PFB) and poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) with scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). Through the use of a zone plate with theoretical Rayleigh resolution of 30 nm, we are able to resolve sub-100 nm bulk structure in these films. Surprisingly, for unannealed films spin-coated from chloroform we observe features with an average diameter of 85 nm. The high degree of photoluminescence quenching in these as-spun films (>95%) implies that there is significant intermixing within the 85 nm structures, indicating that a hierarchy of phase separation exists even on the length scale of less than 100 nm. With annealing up to 160 deg. C, close to the T g of the components, there is little change in the feature sizes observed by STXM, although an increase in variation of the composition is observed. With annealing above 160 deg. C the imaged features begin to evolve in size, increasing to 225 nm in extent, alongside large changes in composition with annealing to 200 deg. C. Comparing the evolution of morphology imaged by STXM with the change in photoluminescence quenching with annealing, we propose that phase separation first evolves via the evolution of relatively pure phases on the length scale of a few to tens of nanometres within the larger 85 nm structures. Once the length scale of compositional fluctuations exceeds 85 nm (for anneal temperatures above 160 deg. C) the hierarchy of phase separation is lost and the subsequent morphological evolution is readily imaged by STXM. Applying the results of an exciton diffusion and quenching model, we find good agreement between the size of the domains measured by STXM (above 180 deg. C) and the results of the model for an exciton diffusion length of 15 nm. The growth in domain size and towards

  4. Evolution of the nanomorphology of photovoltaic polyfluorene blends: sub-100 nm resolution with x-ray spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, C R [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Watts, B; Swaraj, S; Ade, H [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Thomsen, L; Belcher, W; Dastoor, P C [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW, 2308 (Australia)], E-mail: crm51@cam.ac.uk

    2008-10-22

    We investigate the influence of annealing on the morphology of intimately mixed blends of the conjugated polymers poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N'-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N, N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylene-diamine) (PFB) and poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) with scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM). Through the use of a zone plate with theoretical Rayleigh resolution of 30 nm, we are able to resolve sub-100 nm bulk structure in these films. Surprisingly, for unannealed films spin-coated from chloroform we observe features with an average diameter of 85 nm. The high degree of photoluminescence quenching in these as-spun films (>95%) implies that there is significant intermixing within the 85 nm structures, indicating that a hierarchy of phase separation exists even on the length scale of less than 100 nm. With annealing up to 160 deg. C, close to the T{sub g} of the components, there is little change in the feature sizes observed by STXM, although an increase in variation of the composition is observed. With annealing above 160 deg. C the imaged features begin to evolve in size, increasing to 225 nm in extent, alongside large changes in composition with annealing to 200 deg. C. Comparing the evolution of morphology imaged by STXM with the change in photoluminescence quenching with annealing, we propose that phase separation first evolves via the evolution of relatively pure phases on the length scale of a few to tens of nanometres within the larger 85 nm structures. Once the length scale of compositional fluctuations exceeds 85 nm (for anneal temperatures above 160 deg. C) the hierarchy of phase separation is lost and the subsequent morphological evolution is readily imaged by STXM. Applying the results of an exciton diffusion and quenching model, we find good agreement between the size of the domains measured by STXM (above 180 deg. C) and the results of the model for an exciton diffusion length of 15 nm. The growth in

  5. Demonstration of pattern transfer into sub-100 nm polysilicon line/space features patterned with extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G. F.; Henderson, C. C.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Mangat, P. J. S.; Cobb, J.; Hector, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    In two separate experiments, we have successfully demonstrated the transfer of dense- and loose-pitch line/space (L/S) photoresist features, patterned with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, into an underlying hard mask material. In both experiments, a deep-UV photoresist (∼90 nm thick) was spin cast in bilayer format onto a hard mask (50-90 nm thick) and was subsequently exposed to EUV radiation using a 10x reduction EUV exposure system. The EUV reticle was fabricated at Motorola (Tempe, AZ) using a subtractive process with Ta-based absorbers on Mo/Si multilayer mask blanks. In the first set of experiments, following the EUV exposures, the L/S patterns were transferred first into a SiO 2 hard mask (60 nm thick) using a reactive ion etch (RIE), and then into polysilicon (350 nm thick) using a triode-coupled plasma RIE etcher at the University of California, Berkeley, microfabrication facilities. The latter etch process, which produced steep (>85 degree sign ) sidewalls, employed a HBr/Cl chemistry with a large (>10:1) etch selectivity of polysilicon to silicon dioxide. In the second set of experiments, hard mask films of SiON (50 nm thick) and SiO 2 (87 nm thick) were used. A RIE was performed at Motorola using a halogen gas chemistry that resulted in a hard mask-to-photoresist etch selectivity >3:1 and sidewall profile angles ≥85 degree sign . Line edge roughness (LER) and linewidth critical dimension (CD) measurements were performed using Sandia's GORA(c) CD digital image analysis software. Low LER values (6-9 nm, 3σ, one side) and good CD linearity (better than 10%) were demonstrated for the final pattern-transferred dense polysilicon L/S features from 80 to 175 nm. In addition, pattern transfer (into polysilicon) of loose-pitch (1:2) L/S features with CDs≥60 nm was demonstrated. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  6. One-step direct-laser metal writing of sub-100 nm 3D silver nanostructures in a gelatin matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, SeungYeon; Vora, Kevin; Mazur, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Developing an ability to fabricate high-resolution, 3D metal nanostructures in a stretchable 3D matrix is a critical step to realizing novel optoelectronic devices such as tunable bulk metal-dielectric optical devices and THz metamaterial devices that are not feasible with alternative techniques. We report a new chemistry method to fabricate high-resolution, 3D silver nanostructures using a femtosecond-laser direct metal writing technique. Previously, only fabrication of 3D polymeric structures or single-/few-layer metal structures was possible. Our method takes advantage of unique gelatin properties to overcome such previous limitations as limited freedom in 3D material design and short sample lifetime. We fabricate more than 15 layers of 3D silver nanostructures with a resolution of less than 100 nm in a stable dielectric matrix that is flexible and has high large transparency that is well-matched for potential applications in the optical and THz metamaterial regimes. This is a single-step process that does not require any further processing. This work will be of interest to those interested in fabrication methods that utilize nonlinear light–matter interactions and the realization of future metamaterials. (fast track communication)

  7. One-step direct-laser metal writing of sub-100 nm 3D silver nanostructures in a gelatin matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, SeungYeon; Vora, Kevin; Mazur, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Developing an ability to fabricate high-resolution, 3D metal nanostructures in a stretchable 3D matrix is a critical step to realizing novel optoelectronic devices such as tunable bulk metal-dielectric optical devices and THz metamaterial devices that are not feasible with alternative techniques. We report a new chemistry method to fabricate high-resolution, 3D silver nanostructures using a femtosecond-laser direct metal writing technique. Previously, only fabrication of 3D polymeric structures or single-/few-layer metal structures was possible. Our method takes advantage of unique gelatin properties to overcome such previous limitations as limited freedom in 3D material design and short sample lifetime. We fabricate more than 15 layers of 3D silver nanostructures with a resolution of less than 100 nm in a stable dielectric matrix that is flexible and has high large transparency that is well-matched for potential applications in the optical and THz metamaterial regimes. This is a single-step process that does not require any further processing. This work will be of interest to those interested in fabrication methods that utilize nonlinear light-matter interactions and the realization of future metamaterials.

  8. A tunable sub-100 nm silicon nanopore array with an AAO membrane mask: reducing unwanted surface etching by introducing a PMMA interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Namsoo; Pak, Yusin; Kim, Jin Tae; Hwang, Youngkyu; Lee, Ryeri; Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Myoung, Nosoung; Ko, Heung Cho; Jung, Gun Young

    2015-08-01

    Highly ordered silicon (Si) nanopores with a tunable sub-100 nm diameter were fabricated by a CF4 plasma etching process using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as an etching mask. To enhance the conformal contact of the AAO membrane mask to the underlying Si substrate, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was spin-coated on top of the Si substrate prior to the transfer of the AAO membrane. The AAO membrane mask was fabricated by two-step anodization and subsequent removal of the aluminum support and the barrier layer, which was then transferred to the PMMA-coated Si substrate. Contact printing was performed on the sample with a pressure of 50 psi and a temperature of 120 °C to make a conformal contact of the AAO membrane mask to the Si substrate. The CF4 plasma etching was conducted to transfer nanopores onto the Si substrate through the PMMA interlayer. The introduced PMMA interlayer prevented unwanted surface etching of the Si substrate by eliminating the etching ions and radicals bouncing at the gap between the mask and the substrate, resulting in a smooth Si nanopore array.Highly ordered silicon (Si) nanopores with a tunable sub-100 nm diameter were fabricated by a CF4 plasma etching process using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as an etching mask. To enhance the conformal contact of the AAO membrane mask to the underlying Si substrate, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was spin-coated on top of the Si substrate prior to the transfer of the AAO membrane. The AAO membrane mask was fabricated by two-step anodization and subsequent removal of the aluminum support and the barrier layer, which was then transferred to the PMMA-coated Si substrate. Contact printing was performed on the sample with a pressure of 50 psi and a temperature of 120 °C to make a conformal contact of the AAO membrane mask to the Si substrate. The CF4 plasma etching was conducted to transfer nanopores onto the Si substrate through the PMMA interlayer. The introduced PMMA interlayer

  9. Mechanochemical Preparation of Stable Sub-100nm γ-Cyclodextrin:Buckminsterfullerene (C60) Nanoparticles by Electrostatic or Steric Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Guyse, Joachim F R; de la Rosa, Victor R; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2018-02-21

    Buckminster fullerene (C 60 )'s main hurdle to enter the field of biomedicine is its low bioavailability, which results from its extremely low water solubility. A well-known approach to increase the water solubility of C 60 is by complexation with γ-cyclodextrins. However, the formed complexes are not stable in time as they rapidly aggregate and eventually precipitate due to attractive intermolecular forces, a common problem in inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins. In this study we attempt to overcome the attractive intermolecular forces between the complexes by designing custom γ-cyclodextrin (γCD)-based supramolecular hosts for C 60 that inhibit the aggregation found in native γCD-C 60 complexes. The approach entails the introduction of either repulsive electrostatic forces or increased steric hindrance to prevent aggregation, thus enhancing the biomedical application potential of C 60 . These modifications have led to new sub-100nm nanostructures that show long-term stability in solution. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. On the relationship between rutile/anatase ratio and the nature of defect states in sub-100 nm TiO2 nanostructures: experimental insights

    KAUST Repository

    Soliman, Moamen M.

    2018-02-02

    Black TiO2 is being widely investigated due to its superior optical activity and potential applications in photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Herein, the limitations of the hydrogenation process of TiO2 nanostructures are unraveled by exploiting the fundamental tradeoffs affecting the overall efficiency of the water splitting process. To control the nature and concentration of defect states, different reduction rates are applied to sub-100 nm TiO2 nanotubes, chosen primarily for their superiority over their long counterparts. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy disclosed changes in the stoichiometry of TiO2 with the reduction rate. UV-vis and Raman spectra showed that high reduction rates promote the formation of the rutile phase in TiO2, which is inactive towards water splitting. Furthermore, electrochemical analysis revealed that such high rates induce a higher concentration of localized electronic defect states that hinder the water splitting performance. Finally, incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) highlighted the optimum reduction rate that attains a relatively lower defect concentration as well as lower rutile content, thereby achieving the highest conversion efficiency.

  11. Study of performance scaling of 22-nm epitaxial delta-doped channel MOS transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sarmista; Pandit, Soumya

    2015-06-01

    Epitaxial delta-doped channel (EδDC) profile is a promising approach for extending the scalability of bulk metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) technology for low-power system-on-chip applications. A comparative study between EδDC bulk MOS transistor with gate length Lg = 22 nm and a conventional uniformly doped channel (UDC) bulk MOS transistor, with respect to various digital and analogue performances, is presented. The study has been performed using Silvaco technology computer-aided design device simulator, calibrated with experimental results. This study reveals that at smaller gate length, EδDC transistor outperforms the UDC transistor with respect to various studied performances. The reduced contribution of the lateral electric field in the channel plays the key role in this regard. Further, the carrier mobility in EδDC transistor is higher compared to UDC transistor. For moderate gate and drain bias, the impact ionisation rate of the carriers for EδDC MOS transistor is lower than that of the UDC transistor. In addition, at 22 nm, the performances of a EδDC transistor are competitive to that of an ultra-thin body silicon-on-insulator transistor.

  12. Injection molding of high aspect ratio sub-100 nm nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels B

    2013-01-01

    We have explored the use of mold coatings and optimized processing conditions to injection mold high aspect ratio nanostructures (height-to-width >1) in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC). Optimizing the molding parameters on uncoated nickel molds resulted in slight improvements in replication quality...... as described by height, width and uniformity of the nanoscopic features. Use of a mold temperature transiently above the polymer glass transition temperature (Tg) was the most important factor in increasing the replication fidelity. Surface coating of the nickel molds with a fluorocarbon-containing thin film...... (FDTS) greatly enhanced the quality of replicated features, in particular at transient mold temperatures above Tg. Injection molding using the latter mold temperature regime resulted in a bimodal distribution of pillar heights, corresponding to either full or very poor replication of the individual...

  13. Using pMOS Pass-Gates to Boost SRAM Performance by Exploiting Strain Effects in Sub-20-nm FinFET Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Royer del Barrio, Pablo; López Vallejo, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Strained fin is one of the techniques used to improve the devices as their size keeps reducing in new nanoscale nodes. In this paper, we use a predictive technology of 14 nm where pMOS mobility is significantly improved when those devices are built on top of long, uncut fins, while nMOS devices present the opposite behavior due to the combination of strains. We explore the possibility of boosting circuit performance in repetitive structures where long uncut fins can be exploited to increase f...

  14. Electrical characteristics of AlO{sub x}N{sub y} prepared by oxidation of sub-10-nm-thick AlN films for MOS gate dielectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sang Hun; Jang, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Noh, Do Young; Hwang, Hyun Sang [Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    In this research, the feasibility of ultrathin AlO{sub x}N{sub y} prepared by oxidation of sub 100-A-thick AlN thin films for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate dielectric applications was investigated. Oxidation of 51-A-and 98-A-thick as-deposited AlN at 800 .deg. C was used to form 72-A-and 130-A-thick AlO{sub x}N{sub y}, respectively. Based on the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the MOS capacitor, the dielectric constants of 72 A-thick and 130 A-thick Al-oxynitride were 5.15 and 7, respectively. The leakage current of Al-oxynitride at low field was almost the same as that of thermal SiO{sub 2}. based on the CV data, the interface state density of Al-oxynitride was relatively higher than that of SiO{sub 2}. Although process optimization is still necessary, the Al-oxynitride exhibits some possibility for future MOS gate dielectric applications.

  15. Electrical characteristics of AlO sub x N sub y prepared by oxidation of sub-10-nm-thick AlN films for MOS gate dielectric applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, S H; Kim, H S; Noh, D Y; Hwang, H S

    2000-01-01

    In this research, the feasibility of ultrathin AlO sub x N sub y prepared by oxidation of sub 100-A-thick AlN thin films for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate dielectric applications was investigated. Oxidation of 51-A-and 98-A-thick as-deposited AlN at 800 .deg. C was used to form 72-A-and 130-A-thick AlO sub x N sub y , respectively. Based on the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the MOS capacitor, the dielectric constants of 72 A-thick and 130 A-thick Al-oxynitride were 5.15 and 7, respectively. The leakage current of Al-oxynitride at low field was almost the same as that of thermal SiO sub 2. based on the CV data, the interface state density of Al-oxynitride was relatively higher than that of SiO sub 2. Although process optimization is still necessary, the Al-oxynitride exhibits some possibility for future MOS gate dielectric applications.

  16. Framing-camera tube developed for sub-100-ps range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A new framing-camera tube, developed by Electronics Engineering, is capable of recording two-dimensional image frames with high spatial resolution in the sub-100-ps range. Framing is performed by streaking a two-dimensional electron image across narrow slits; the resulting electron-line images from the slits are restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operating synchronously with the dissector deflector. We have demonstrated its performance in a prototype tube by recording 125-ps-duration framed images of 2.5-mm patterns. The limitation in the framing speed is in the external electronic drivers for the deflectors and not in the tube design characteristics. Shorter frame durations (below 100 ps) can be obtained by use of faster deflection drivers

  17. Towards nanoscale magnetic memory elements : fabrication and properties of sub - 100 nm magnetic tunnel junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabrie, C.G.C.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly growing field of spintronics has recently attracted much attention. Spintronics is electronics in which the spin degree of freedom has been added to conventional chargebased electronic devices. A magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) is an example of a spintronic device. MTJs consist of two

  18. Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition for Dual-Gated Sub-100 nm MOSFET's

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sturm, James

    2001-01-01

    ... (such as microprocessors and memory chips) is based. This project examines the scaling of MOSFET's to very small channel dimensions using a vertical structure which is defined by Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition...

  19. Experimental study of contact edge roughness on sub-100 nm various circular shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Y.; Ihm, Dongchul; Kang, Hyo C.; Lee, Jum B.; Lee, Byoung H.; Chin, Soo B.; Cho, Do H.; Song, Chang L.

    2005-05-01

    The measurement of edge roughness has become a hot issue in the semiconductor industry. Especially the contact roughness is being more critical as design rule shrinks. Major vendors offer a variety of features to measure the edge roughness in their CD-SEMs. For the line and space patterns, features such as Line Edge Roughness (LER) and Line Width Roughness (LWR) are available in current CD-SEMs. However the features currently available in commercial CD-SEM cannot provide a proper solution in monitoring the contact roughness. We had introduced a new parameter R, measurement algorithm and definition of contact edge roughness to quantify CER and CSR in previous paper. The parameter, R could provide an alternative solution to monitor contact or island pattern roughness. In this paper, we investigated to assess optimum number of CD measurement (1-D) and fitting method for CER or CSR. The study was based on a circular contact shape. Some new ideas to quantify CER or CSR were also suggested with preliminary experimental results.

  20. Experimental methodology of contact edge roughness on sub-100-nm pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Yong; Ihm, Dongchul; Kang, Hyo Chun; Lee, Jun Bum; Lee, Byoung-Ho; Chin, Soo-Bok; Cho, Do-Hyun; Kim, Yang Hyong; Yang, Ho Dong; Yang, Kyoung Mo

    2004-05-01

    The measurement of edge roughness has become a hot issue in the semiconductor industry. Major vendors offer a variety of features to measure the edge roughness in their CD-SEMs. However, most of the features are limited by the applicable pattern types. For the line and space patterns, features such as Line Edge Roughness (LER) and Line Width Roughness (LWR) are available in current CD-SEMs. The edge roughness is more critical in contact process. However the measurement of contact edge roughness (CER) or contact space roughness (CSR) is more complicated than that of LER or LWR. So far, no formal standard measurement algorithm or definition of contact roughness measurement exists. In this article, currently available features are investigated to assess their representability for CER or CSR. Some new ideas to quantify CER and CSR were also suggested with preliminary experimental results.

  1. Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition for Dual-Gated Sub-100 nm MOSFET's

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sturm, James

    2001-01-01

    .... The scaling of vertical p-channel MOSFET's with the source and drain doped with boron during low temperature epitaxy is limited by the diffusion of boron during subsequent side wall gate oxidation...

  2. Sub 100 nm proton beam micromachining: theoretical calculations on resolution limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Sum, T.C.; Osipowicz, T.; Watt, F.

    2000-01-01

    Proton beam micromachining is a novel direct-write process for the production of three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. A focused beam of MeV protons is scanned in a pre-determined pattern over a suitable resist material (e.g. PMMA or SU-8) and the latent image formed is subsequently developed chemically. In this paper calculations on theoretical resolution limits of proton beam micromachined three-dimensional microstructures are presented. Neglecting the finite beam size, a Monte Carlo ion transport code was used in combination with a theoretical model describing the delta-ray (δ-ray) energy deposition to determine the lateral energy deposition distribution in PMMA resist material. The energy deposition distribution of ion induced secondary electrons (δ-rays) has been parameterized using analytical models. It is assumed that the attainable resolution is limited by a convolution of the spread of the ion beam and energy deposition of the δ-rays

  3. Development of sub-100 femtosecond timing and synchronization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenyang; Du, Yingchao; Yang, Jin; Xu, Yilun; Yan, Lixin; Huang, Wenhui; Tang, Chuanxiang; Huang, Gang; Du, Qiang; Doolittle, Lawrence; Wilcox, Russell; Byrd, John

    2018-01-01

    The precise timing and synchronization system is an essential part for the ultra-fast electron and X-ray sources based on the photocathode injector where strict synchronization among RF, laser, and beams are required. In this paper, we present an integrated sub-100 femtosecond timing and synchronization system developed and demonstrated recently in Tsinghua University based on the collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. The timing and synchronization system includes the fiber-based CW carrier phase reference distribution system for delivering stabilized RF phase reference to multiple receiver clients, the Low Level RF (LLRF) control system to monitor and generate the phase and amplitude controllable pulse RF signal, and the laser-RF synchronization system for high precision synchronization between optical and RF signals. Each subsystem is characterized by its blocking structure and is also expansible. A novel asymmetric calibration sideband signal method was proposed for eliminating the non-linear distortion in the optical synchronization process. According to offline and online tests, the system can deliver a stable signal to each client and suppress the drift and jitter of the RF signal for the accelerator and the laser oscillator to less than 100 fs RMS (∼0.1° in 2856 MHz frequency). Moreover, a demo system with a LLRF client and a laser-RF synchronization client is deployed and operated successfully at the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source. The beam-based jitter measurement experiments have been conducted to evaluate the overall performance of the system, and the jitter sources are discussed.

  4. Skew scattering dominated anomalous Hall effect in Cox(MgO)<sub>100-x granular thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qiang; Wen, Yan; Zhao, Yuelei; Li, Peng; He, Xin; Zhang, Junli; He, Yao; Peng, Yong; Yu, Ronghai; Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism(s) of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in magnetic granular materials by fabricating 100-nm-thick thin films of Cox(MgO)<sub>100-x with a Co volume fraction of 34≤x≤100 using co

  5. Co{sub 100−x}Fe{sub x} magnetic thick films prepared by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, M. del C., E-mail: carmenaguirre@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola-Conicet-Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Farías, E. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Abraham, J.; Urreta, S.E. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • Low iron containing films are compact, with rounded, relatively uniform surfaces. • Larger Fe contents exhibit nanowall networks covering the surface. • Coercivity in the out of plane configuration is larger than in the easy axis direction. • Co-rich films nucleate and grow by a 3DP diffusion controlled mechanism. • For equiatomic Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} films, nucleation tends to become instantaneous. - Abstract: Co–Fe films are grown onto plane pre-treated Cu foils; the effects of the alloy composition on the morphology and the crystal texture of the electrodeposited films and their anisotropic magnetic hysteresis properties are explored. Nucleation and crystallization mechanisms in these Co-rich layers are also investigated with pulse-reverse plating techniques, using the first cathodic pulse current–time transients. In the diffusion controlled regime the deposition mechanism is found to involve progressive nucleation with three-dimensional (3D) growth, except for the equiatomic Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} solution where nucleation tends to become instantaneous. The different morphologies and size scales observed are described and correlated with coercivity. The films are electrodeposited onto electrochemically pre-treated Cu substrates from feeds of nominal Fe/Co mol ratios between 0/100 and 50/50. The composition of the deposited layers, as determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, are quite close to the nominal values. Cyclic voltammetry determinations exhibit only a single reduction process on the cathode, indicating that a unique (Co{sub 100−x}Fe{sub x}) phase grows. Depending on composition and on the substrate pre-treatment, these layers exhibit textures with features of different sizes. X ray diffraction patterns indicate that the nanostructures with Fe contents above 20 at.% crystallize in a body-centered cubic cell, while samples with Fe contents below this value are fcc. Regarding the effect of composition on the

  6. Detectors and Concepts for sub-100 ps timing with gaseous detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Diaz, D.

    2017-01-01

    We give a short compendium of the main ongoing detectors and concepts capable of performing accurate sub-100 ps timing at high particle fluxes and on large areas, through technologies based on gaseous media. We briefly discuss the state-of-the-art, technological limitations and prospects, and a new bizarre idea.

  7. Direct Observation of Sub-100 fs Mobile Charge Generation in a Polymer-Fullerene Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, D. G.; Krebs, Frederik C; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2012-01-01

    The formation of mobile charges in a roll-to-roll processed poly-3-hexylthiophene-fullerene bulk heterojunction film is observed directly by using transient terahertz spectroscopy with sub-100 fs temporal resolution. The transient terahertz ac conductivity reveals that 20% of the incident pump...

  8. Gold nanoparticles on MoS2 layered crystal flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wei; Pankratov, Vladimir; Huttula, Marko; Shi, Xinying; Saukko, Sami; Huang, Zhongjia; Zhang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic layered crystal MoS 2 is considered as one of the most promising and efficient semiconductor materials for future transistors, photoelectronics, and electrocatalysis. To boost MoS 2 -based material applications, one direction is to grow physically and chemically reactive nanoparticles onto MoS 2 . Here we report on a simple route to synthesis crystalized MoS 2 –Au complexes. The gold nanoparticles were grown on MoS 2 flakes through a wet method in the oxygen free environment at room temperature. Nanoparticles with diameters varying from 9 nm to 429 nm were controlled by the molar ratios of MoS 2 and HAuCl 4 precursors. MoS 2 host flakes keep intrinsic honeycomb layered structures and the Au nanoparticles cubic-center crystal microstructures. From product chemical states analysis, the synthesis was found driven by redox reactions between the sulphide and the chloroauric acid. Photoluminescence measurement showed that introducing Au nanoparticles onto MoS 2 stacks substantially prompted excitonic transitions of stacks, as an analogy for doping Si wafers with dopants. Such composites may have potential applications in wide ranges similar as the doped Si. - Highlights: • The Au nanoparticles were decorated on MoS 2 in oxygen free ambiences via a wet method. • The Au nanoparticles are size-controllable and crystalized. • Chemical reaction scheme was clarified. • The MoS 2 –Au complexes have strong photoluminescent properties

  9. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  10. Tailored MoS2 nanorods: a simple microwave assisted synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmi, S.; Akshaya, M. V.; Satpati, Biswarup; Roy, Anupam; Basu, Palash Kumar; Bhattacharjee, K.

    2017-11-01

    We report here the synthesis of MoS2 nanostructures by a simple liquid phase exfoliation of MoS2 powder in organic solvents followed by microwave treatment. The probe sonication and the microwave treatment play an important role in rolling and curling of the MoS2 nanosheets to give rise to MoS2 spheres and rod/tube like-structures with diameter approximately 150-200 nm. The MoS2 nanorods formed in this fashion are hollow inside with a wall thickness of 15-20 nm and the length of the nanorods is found in the order of several micrometers. Synthesis of such tailored MoS2 nanorods by liquid phase exfoliation is not yet reported. Our observations suggest the 2H phase of bulk MoS2 remains preserved in the nanostructures with high crystalline quality.

  11. Sub-100 fs high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Andreas; Markovic, Vesna; Pallmann, Wolfgang; Resan, Bojan

    2016-03-01

    Ti:sapphire oscillators are a proven technology to generate sub-100 fs (even sub-10 fs) pulses in the near infrared and are widely used in many high impact scientific fields. However, the need for a bulky, expensive and complex pump source, typically a frequency-doubled multi-watt neodymium or optically pumped semiconductor laser, represents the main obstacle to more widespread use. The recent development of blue diodes emitting over 1 W has opened up the possibility of directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillators. Beside the lower cost and footprint, a direct diode pumping provides better reliability, higher efficiency and better pointing stability to name a few. The challenges that it poses are lower absorption of Ti:sapphire at available diode wavelengths and lower brightness compared to typical green pump lasers. For practical applications such as bio-medicine and nano-structuring, output powers in excess of 100 mW and sub-100 fs pulses are required. In this paper, we demonstrate a high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator without active cooling. The SESAM modelocking ensures reliable self-starting and robust operation. We will present two configurations emitting 460 mW in 82 fs pulses and 350 mW in 65 fs pulses, both operating at 92 MHz. The maximum obtained pulse energy reaches 5 nJ. A double-sided pumping scheme with two high power blue diode lasers was used for the output power scaling. The cavity design and the experimental results will be discussed in more details.

  12. Magnetic and Structural Properties of the Mechanically Alloyed Nd{sub 2}(Fe{sub 100-x}Nb{sub x}){sub 14}B System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, D. Oyola, E-mail: doyola@ut.edu.co [University of Tolima, Department of Physics (Colombia); Zamora, L. E.; Perez Alcazar, G. A. [University of Valle, Department of Physics (Colombia); Rojas, Y. A.; Bustos, H. [University of Tolima, Department of Physics (Colombia); Greneche, J. M. [UMR CNRS 6087, Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense (France)

    2005-02-15

    In this work we report the magnetic and structural properties obtained by Moessbauer spectrometry, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer and X-ray diffraction of milled powders with initial composition Nd{sub 2}(Fe{sub 100-x}Nb{sub x}){sub 14}B with x = 0 and x = 4. The mixtures were ball milled for different times up to 240 h. Structural and microstructural parameters were derived from high statistics X-ray patterns and discussed as a function of milling time. The Moessbauer spectra of the samples were fitted by means of a sextet and an hyperfine field distribution, associated to a pure iron phase ({alpha}-Fe) and a disordered iron-based phase, respectively. The {alpha}-Fe grain size decreases from 50 nm for 6 h up to 5 nm for 240 h milling time. The Vibrating Sample Magnetometer results allow to conclude that these samples behave as soft ferromagnets.

  13. Optical studies on Zn-doped lead chalcogenide (PbSe){sub 100−x}Zn{sub x} thin films composed of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, Md. Tanweer [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), New Delhi-25 (India); Salah, Numan A. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Rafat, M. [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), New Delhi-25 (India); Zulfequar, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-25 (India); Khan, Zishan H., E-mail: zishan_hk@yahoo.co.in [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), New Delhi-25 (India)

    2016-08-01

    The effect of laser-Irradiation on the optical properties of Zn-doped PbSe thin films composed of nanoparticles has been studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations suggest the formation of nanoparticles of average size of 50 nm for all the studied Zn compositions. XRD studies show that the as-prepared thin films are polycrystalline in nature. The formation of nanoparticles of Zn-doped PbSe has been confirmed by indexing the crystal planes as observed in the XRD spectra. The addition of Zn in (PbSe){sub 100−x}Zn{sub x} thin films result in the blue shift in photoluminescence spectra, this blue shift is associated with the narrowing of the band gap. Optical absorption measurements reveal a direct band gap for the present samples, which decreases on increasing the Zn content. The same trend has also been observed for the samples irradiated with laser. Further, the calculated values of Urbach energy are found to increase with the increase in Zn contents for the as-prepared as well as laser-irradiated samples. All the above observations agree well with the results of optical band gap and suggest that the decrease in band gap may be due to increase in band tails, defects and particle size. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Zn doped (PbSe){sub 100−x}Zn{sub x} lead chalcogenides have been synthesized. • Effect of laser irradiation on optical properties of (PbSe){sub 100−x}Zn{sub x} has been studied. • A blue shift in PL spectra is obtained on Zn incorporation.

  14. Numerical simulations of recent proton acceleration experiments with sub-100 TW laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinigardi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments carried out at the Italian National Research Center, National Optics Institute Department in Pisa, are showing interesting results regarding maximum proton energies achievable with sub-100 TW laser systems. While laser systems are being continuously upgraded in laboratories around the world, at the same time a new trend on stabilizing and making ion acceleration results reproducible is growing in importance. Almost all applications require a beam with fixed performance, so that the energy spectrum and the total charge exhibit moderate shot to shot variations. This result is surely far from being achieved, but many paths are being explored in order to reach it. Some of the reasons for this variability come from fluctuations in laser intensity and focusing, due to optics instability. Other variation sources come from small differences in the target structure. The target structure can vary substantially, when it is impacted by the main pulse, due to the prepulse duration and intensity, the shape of the main pulse and the total energy deposited. In order to qualitatively describe the prepulse effect, we will present a two dimensional parametric scan of its relevant parameters. A single case is also analyzed with a full three dimensional simulation, obtaining reasonable agreement between the numerical and the experimental energy spectrum.

  15. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co{sub X}Pd{sub 100−X} alloys for magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, B.D.; Natarajarathinam, A.; Tadisina, Z.R. [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Chen, P.J.; Shull, R.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Gupta, S., E-mail: Sgupta@eng.ua.edu [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • CoPd alloy perpendicular anisotropy dependent on composition and thickness. • CIPT results show that TMR tracks with PMA of CoPd. • Potential replacement for Co/Pd multilayers. - Abstract: CoFeB/MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJ’s) with high anisotropy and low damping are critical for spin-torque transfer random access memory (STT-RAM). Most schemes of making the pinned CoFeB fully perpendicular require ferrimagnets with high damping constants, a high temperature-grown L1{sub 0} alloy, or an overly complex multilayered synthetic antiferromagnet (SyAF). We report a compositional study of perpendicular Co{sub x}Pd alloy-pinned Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}/MgO based MTJ stacks, grown at moderate temperatures in a planetary deposition system. The perpendicular anisotropy of the Co{sub x}Pd alloy films can be tuned based on the layer thickness and composition. The films were characterized by alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), energy-dispersive X-rays (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) measurements have also been performed on the compositionally varied Co{sub x}Pd MTJ stacks. The Co{sub x}Pd alloy becomes fully perpendicular at approximately x = 30% (atomic fraction) Co. Full-film MTJ stacks of Si/SiO{sub 2}/MgO (13)/Co{sub X}Pd{sub 100−x} (50)/Ta (0.3)/CoFeB (1)/MgO (1.6)/CoFeB (1)/Ta (5)/Ru (10), with the numbers enclosed in parentheses being the layer thicknesses in nm, were sputtered onto thermally oxidized silicon substrates and in-situ lamp annealed at 400 °C for 5 min. CIPT measurements indicate that the highest TMR is observed for the CoPd composition with the highest perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  16. Analysis of optical and electronic properties of MoS2 for optoelectronics and FET applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Muhammad S.; Yousuf, Abdul Hamid Bin; Es-Sakhi, Azzedin D.; Chowdhury, Masud H.

    2018-04-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is considered as a promising alternative to conventional semiconductor materials that used in the IC industry because of its novel properties. In this paper, we explore the optical and electronic properties of MoS2 for photodetector and transistors applications. This simulation is done using `DFT materials properties simulator'. Our findings show that mono- and multi-layer MoS2 is suitable for conventional and tunnel FET applications due to direct and indirect band-gap respectively. The bulk MoS2 crystal, which are composed of stacked layers have indirect bandgap and mono-layer MoS2 crystal form direct bandgap at the K-point of Brillouin zone. Indirect bandgap of bulk MoS2 crystal implies that phonons need to be involved in band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) process. Degenerately doped semiconductor, which is basically spinning the Fermi level, changing the DOS profile, and thinning the indirect bandgap that allow tunneling from valence band to conduction band. The optical properties of MoS2 is explored in terms of Absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and refractive index. Our results shows that a MoS2 based photodetector can be fabricate to detect light in the visible range (below 500nm). It is also observed that the MoS2 is most sensitive for the light of wavelength 450nm.

  17. Sequential structural and optical evolution of MoS2 by chemical synthesis and exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jungkil; Oh, Si Duck; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Various types of MoS2 structures are successfully obtained by using economical and facile sequential synthesis and exfoliation methods. Spherically-shaped lumps of multilayer (ML) MoS2 are prepared by using a conventional hydrothermal method and were subsequently 1st-exfoliated in hydrazine while being kept in autoclave to be unrolled and separated into five-to-six-layer MoS2 pieces of several-hundred nm in size. The MoS2 MLs are 2nd-exfoliated in sodium naphthalenide under an Ar ambient to finally produce bilayer MoS2 crystals of ~100 nm. The sequential exfoliation processes downsize MoS2 laterally and reduce its number of layers. The three types of MoS2 allotropes exhibit particular optical properties corresponding to their structural differences. These results suggest that two-dimensional MoS2 crystals can be prepared by employing only chemical techniques without starting from high-pressure-synthesized bulk MoS2 crystals.

  18. Oxidation of atomically thin MoS2 on SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mahito; Cullen, William; Einstein, Theodore; Fuhrer, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Surface oxidation of MoS2 markedly affects its electronic, optical, and tribological properties. However, oxidative reactivity of atomically thin MoS2 has yet to be addressed. Here, we investigate oxidation of atomic layers of MoS2 using atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. MoS2 is mechanically exfoliated onto SiO2 and oxidized in Ar/O2 or Ar/O3 (ozone) at 100-450 °C. MoS2 is much more reactive to O2 than an analogous atomic membrane of graphene and monolayer MoS2 is completely etched very rapidly upon O2 treatment above 300 °C. Thicker MoS2 (> 15 nm) transforms into MoO3 after oxidation at 400 °C, which is confirmed by a Raman peak at 820 cm-1. However, few-layer MoS2 oxidized below 400 °C exhibits no MoO3 Raman mode but etch pits are formed, similar to graphene. We find atomic layers of MoS2 shows larger reactivity to O3 than to O2 and monolayer MoS2 transforms chemically upon O3 treatment even below 100 °C. Work supported by the U. of Maryland NSF-MRSEC under Grant No. DMR 05-20741.

  19. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible boronic acid-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles at sub-100 nm scale for glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakalak, Huseyin [Selcuk University, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (Turkey); Ulasan, Mehmet; Yavuz, Emine [Selcuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center (Turkey); Camli, Sevket Tolga, E-mail: tolgacamli@gmail.com [Biyotez Machinery Chemistry R& D Co. Ltd. (Turkey); Yavuz, Mustafa Selman, E-mail: selmanyavuz@selcuk.edu.tr [Selcuk University, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (Turkey)

    2014-12-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles containing 4-vinylphenyl boronic acid were synthesized in one pot by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Boron content in the nanoparticles was confirmed by electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In polymerization process, several co-monomer ratios were studied in order to obtain optimum nanoparticle size. Average hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index of nanoparticles versus variation of acetone percentage in the solvent mixture and total monomer concentration were investigated. The effect of boronic acid concentration in the monomer mixture on nanoparticle size and size distribution was also reported. Without further functionalization to the nanoparticles, the catechol dye, alizarin red S, was bound to boronic acid-containing nanoparticles. These nanoparticles behave as a nanosensor by which glucose or fructose can be easily detected. Dye-containing nanoparticles were undertaken displacement reaction by glucose or fructose. The glucose or fructose content was also monitored by UV–Visible spectrophotometer. Furthermore, cytotoxicity studies of boronic acid-carrying poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles were carried out in 3T3 cells, which showed no toxicity effect on the cells.

  20. On the relationship between rutile/anatase ratio and the nature of defect states in sub-100 nm TiO2 nanostructures: experimental insights

    KAUST Repository

    Soliman, Moamen M.; Al Haron, Mohamed H.; Samir, Menna; Tolba, Sarah A.; Shaheen, Basamat; Amer, Ahmed W.; Mohammed, Omar F.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2018-01-01

    Black TiO2 is being widely investigated due to its superior optical activity and potential applications in photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Herein, the limitations of the hydrogenation process of TiO2 nanostructures are unraveled by exploiting

  1. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible boronic acid-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles at sub-100 nm scale for glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakalak, Huseyin; Ulasan, Mehmet; Yavuz, Emine; Camli, Sevket Tolga; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman

    2014-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles containing 4-vinylphenyl boronic acid were synthesized in one pot by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Boron content in the nanoparticles was confirmed by electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In polymerization process, several co-monomer ratios were studied in order to obtain optimum nanoparticle size. Average hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index of nanoparticles versus variation of acetone percentage in the solvent mixture and total monomer concentration were investigated. The effect of boronic acid concentration in the monomer mixture on nanoparticle size and size distribution was also reported. Without further functionalization to the nanoparticles, the catechol dye, alizarin red S, was bound to boronic acid-containing nanoparticles. These nanoparticles behave as a nanosensor by which glucose or fructose can be easily detected. Dye-containing nanoparticles were undertaken displacement reaction by glucose or fructose. The glucose or fructose content was also monitored by UV–Visible spectrophotometer. Furthermore, cytotoxicity studies of boronic acid-carrying poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles were carried out in 3T3 cells, which showed no toxicity effect on the cells

  2. Breakdown properties of irradiated MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paccagnella, A.; Candelori, A.; Pellizzer, F.; Fuochi, P.G.; Lavale, M.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on the breakdown properties of different types of MOS capacitors, with thick (200 nm) and thin (down to 8 nm) oxides. In general, no large variations of the average breakdown field, time-to-breakdown at constant voltage, or charge-to-breakdown at constant voltage, or charge-to-breakdown values have been observed after high dose irradiation (20 Mrad(Si) 9 MeV electrons on thin and thick oxides, 17(Si) Mrad Co 60 gamma and 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 only on thick oxides). However, some modifications of the cumulative failure distributions have been observed in few of the oxides tested

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of flower-like MoS2 nanospheres for electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoping; Xu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Shu, Dong; Ma, Lin

    2014-09-01

    Flower-like MoS2 nanospheres were synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The structure and surface morphology of the as-prepared MoS2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The supercapacitive behavior of MoS2 in 1 M KCl electrolyte was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV), constant current charge-discharge cycling (CD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The XRD results indicate that the as-prepared MoS2 has good crystallinity. SEM images show that the MoS2 nanospheres have uniform sizes with mean diameter about 300 nm. Many nanosheets growing on the surface make the MoS2 nanospheres to be a flower-like structure. The specific capacitance of MoS2 is 122 F x g(-1) at 1 A x g(-1) or 114 F x g(-1) at 2 mv s(-1). All the experimental results indicate that MoS2 is a promising electrode material for electrochemical supercapacitors.

  4. The role of silicon on the microstructure and magnetic behaviour of nanostructured (Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocine, M. [Département de Génie Mécanique, Faculté de Technologies, Université de M' sila, B.P 166 Ichbelia, M' sila (Algeria); UR-MPE, M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes, 35000 Algeria (Algeria); Guittoum, A., E-mail: aguittoum@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Hemmous, M. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Martínez-Blanco, D. [SCTs, University of Oviedo, EPM, Mieres, 33600 Spain (Spain); Gorria, P. [Department of Physics, EPI, University of Oviedo, Gijón, 33203 Spain (Spain); Rahal, B. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Blanco, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, CalvoSotelo St., Oviedo, 330 07 Spain (Spain); Sunol, J.J. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montillivi, Girona, 17071 Spain (Spain); Laggoun, A. [UR-MPE, M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes, 35000 Algeria (Algeria)

    2017-01-15

    Single-phase(Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} nanostructured powders (x=0,5, 10, 15 and 20) have been elaborated by mechanical alloying in order to investigate the effect of silicon on the microstructure and magnetic properties of these alloys. A disordered Fe(Co, Si) solid solution with body centred cubic (bcc) crystal structure is formed after 72 h of milling for all the compositions. The addition of Si gives rise to a progressive decrease of the lattice parameter, from about 2.865 Å for the binary Fe{sub 70}Co{sub 30} compound down to 2.841 Å for the powder with x=20. The sample with the uppermost Si content exhibits the lowest value for the mean grain size (≈10 nm) as well as the largest microstrain (above 1.1%). All the samples are ferromagnetic at room temperature, although the saturation magnetization value reduces almost linearly by adding Si to the composition. A similar trend is observed for the hyperfine magnetic field obtained from the analysis of the room temperature Mössbauer spectra. The hyperfine field distributions show a broad double-peak shape for x>0, which can be ascribed to multiple local environments for the Fe atoms inside a disordered solid solution. - Highlights: • Single-phase (Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} nanostructured powders (x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20) have been elaborated by mechanical alloying. • The sample with the uppermost Si content exhibits the lowest value for the mean grain size. • The magnetic and hyperfine parameters of (Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} depended intimately on Si content.

  5. Exciton-dominant Electroluminescence from a Diode of Monolayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-14

    injected electrons and holes, is a reliable technique to study exciton recombination processes in monolayer MoS2, including val- ley and spin excitation...temperature. After superimposing a white light scattering image of the de - vice, we find that the electroluminescence is localized at the edge of the...We find the emerged feature (labeled NX) peaks at 550 nm with energy of 2.255 eV. In low dimensional system, like monolayer MoS2, Coulomb interactions

  6. Electron Emission from Ultra-Large Area MOS Electron Emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Nielsen, Gunver; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm

    2009-01-01

    Ultralarge metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with an active oxide area of 1 cm2 have been fabricated for use as electron emitters. The MOS structures consist of a Si substrate, a SiO2 tunnel barrier (~5 nm), a Ti wetting layer (3–10 Å), and a Au top layer (5–60 nm). Electron emission from...... layer is varied from 3 to 10 Å which changes the emission efficiency by more than one order of magnitude. The apparent mean free path of ~5 eV electrons in Au is found to be 52 Å. Deposition of Cs on the Au film increased the electron emission efficiency to 4.3% at 4 V by lowering the work function....... Electron emission under high pressures (up to 2 bars) of Ar was observed. ©2009 American Vacuum Society...

  7. Growth, structure and stability of sputter-deposited MoS2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Kaindl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2 thin films have received increasing interest as device-active layers in low-dimensional electronics and also as novel catalysts in electrochemical processes such as the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER in electrochemical water splitting. For both types of applications, industrially scalable fabrication methods with good control over the MoS2 film properties are crucial. Here, we investigate scalable physical vapour deposition (PVD of MoS2 films by magnetron sputtering. MoS2 films with thicknesses from ≈10 to ≈1000 nm were deposited on SiO2/Si and reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC substrates. Samples deposited at room temperature (RT and at 400 °C were compared. The deposited MoS2 was characterized by macro- and microscopic X-ray, electron beam and light scattering, scanning and spectroscopic methods as well as electrical device characterization. We find that room-temperature-deposited MoS2 films are amorphous, of smooth surface morphology and easily degraded upon moderate laser-induced annealing in ambient conditions. In contrast, films deposited at 400 °C are nano-crystalline, show a nano-grained surface morphology and are comparatively stable against laser-induced degradation. Interestingly, results from electrical transport measurements indicate an unexpected metallic-like conduction character of the studied PVD MoS2 films, independent of deposition temperature. Possible reasons for these unusual electrical properties of our PVD MoS2 thin films are discussed. A potential application for such conductive nanostructured MoS2 films could be as catalytically active electrodes in (photo-electrocatalysis and initial electrochemical measurements suggest directions for future work on our PVD MoS2 films.

  8. Dosimetric properties of MOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.; Petr, I.

    1977-01-01

    The structure of MOS transistors is described and their characteristics given. The experiments performed and data in the literature show the following dosimetric properties of MOS transistors: while for low gamma doses the transistor response to exposure is linear, it shows saturation for higher doses (exceeding 10 3 Gy in tissue). The response is independent of the energy of radiation and of the dose rate (within 10 -2 to 10 5 Gy/s). The spontaneous reduction with time of the spatial charge captured by the oxide layer (fading) is small and acceptable from the point of view of dosimetry. Curves are given of isochronous annealing of the transistors following irradiation with 137 Cs and 18 MeV electrons for different voltages during irradiation. The curves show that in MOS transistors irradiated with high-energy electrons the effect of annealing is less than in transistors irradiated with 137 Cs. In view of the requirement of using higher temperatures (approx. 400 degC) for the complete ''erasing'' of the captured charge, unsealed systems must be used for dosimetric purposes. The effect was also studied of neutron radiation, proton radiation and electron radiation on the MOS transistor structure. For MOS transistor irradiation with 14 MeV neutrons from a neutron generator the response was 4% of that for gamma radiation at the same dose equivalent. The effect of proton radiation was studied as related to the changes in MOS transistor structure during space flights. The response curve shapes are similar to those of gamma radiation curves. The effect of electron radiation on the MOS structure was studied by many authors. The experiments show that for each thickness of the SiO 2 layer an electron energy exists at which the size of the charge captured in SiO 2 is the greatest. All data show that MOS transistors are promising for radiation dosimetry. The main advantage of MOS transistors as gamma dosemeters is the ease and speed of evaluation, low sensitivity to neutron

  9. Investigation on nonlinear optical properties of MoS2 nanoflake, grown on silicon and quartz substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayesteh, S.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Reyhani, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, MoS2 was directly synthesized by one-step thermal chemical vapour deposition (TCVD), on different substrates including Si/SiO2 and quartz, using MoO3 and sulfide powders as precursor. The XRD patterns demonstrate the high crystallinity of MoS2 on Si/SiO2 and quartz substrates. SEM confirmed the formation of MoS2 grown on both substrates. According to line width and frequency difference between the E1 2g and A1g in Raman spectroscopy, it is inferred that the MoS2 grown on Si/SiO2 substrate is monolayer and the MoS2 grown on quartz substrate is multilayer. Moreover, by assessment of MoS2 nanoflake band gap via UV-visible analysis, it verified the formation of few layer structures. In addition, the open-aperture and close-aperture Z-scan techniques were employed to study the nonlinear optical properties including nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of the synthesized MoS2. All experiments were performed using a diode laser with a wavelength of 532 nm as light source. The monolayer MoS2 synthesized on Si/SiO2, display considerable two-photon absorption. However, the multilayer MoS2 synthesized on quartz displayed saturable absorption (SA). It is noticeable that both samples demonstrate obvious self-defocusing behaviour.

  10. Structure and mechanical properties of as-cast (ZrTi){sub 100−x}B{sub x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, C.Q.; Jiang, X.J.; Wang, X.Y.; Zhou, Y.K.; Feng, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Tan, C.L. [Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering, Beijing 100094 (China); Ma, M.Z. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, R.P., E-mail: riping@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Trace boron additions result in significant grain refinement. • Large numbers of stacking faults are observed in ZrB{sub 2} and TiB intermetallics. • The tensile strength is enhanced by increasing the amount of B. • Intermetallics microcracking causes the failure of the alloys. - Abstract: The microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics of (Zr{sub 50}Ti{sub 50}){sub 100−x}B{sub x} alloys (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 2 at.%) obtained by casting were investigated. Trace additions of boron (B) to the Zr{sub 50}Ti{sub 50} alloys induced significant microstructural changes. Changes included the promotion of dendritic growth and refinement in prior-β grain and α′-lath size. Large numbers of stacking faults were also observed in ZrB{sub 2} and TiB intermetallics. The location of B atoms and the lattice mismatch energy between intermetallics and matrix were responsible for the stacking faults. (ZrTi)B alloys demonstrated higher tensile strength than matrix material. Both the intermetallics with high strength and modulus and the grain refinement played important roles in improving the mechanical properties of alloys. This result could be explained in terms of a shear-lag model based on the load transfer concept and Hall–Petch mechanism. The elongation-to-failure of (ZrTi)B alloys decreased with increased B concentration. The reduction in elongation-to-failure of (ZrTi)B alloys could be attributed to the presence of ZrB{sub 2} and TiB intermetallics and refinement of α′-laths.

  11. BATMAN: MOS Spectroscopy on Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, E.; Zamkotsian, F.; Moschetti, M.; Spano, P.; Boschin, W.; Cosentino, R.; Ghedina, A.; González, M.; Pérez, H.; Lanzoni, P.; Ramarijaona, H.; Riva, M.; Zerbi, F.; Nicastro, L.; Valenziano, L.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Coretti, I.; Cirami, R.

    2016-10-01

    Multi-Object Spectrographs (MOS) are the major instruments for studying primary galaxies and remote and faint objects. Current object selection systems are limited and/or difficult to implement in next generation MOS for space and ground-based telescopes. A promising solution is the use of MOEMS devices such as micromirror arrays, which allow the remote control of the multi-slit configuration in real time. TNG is hosting a novelty project for real-time, on-demand MOS masks based on MOEMS programmable slits. We are developing a 2048×1080 Digital-Micromirror-Device-based (DMD) MOS instrument to be mounted on the Galileo telescope, called BATMAN. It is a two-arm instrument designed for providing in parallel imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. With a field of view of 6.8×3.6 arcmin and a plate scale of 0.2 arcsec per micromirror, this astronomical setup can be used to investigate the formation and evolution of galaxies. The wavelength range is in the visible and the spectral resolution is R=560 for a 1 arcsec object, and the two arms will have 2k × 4k CCD detectors. ROBIN, a BATMAN demonstrator, has been designed, realized and integrated. We plan to have BATMAN first light by mid-2016.

  12. The OverMOS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, D.; Dopke, J., E-mail: jens.dopke@stfc.ac.uk; McMahon, S.J.; Turchetta, R.; Villani, G.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.

    2016-07-11

    The OverMOS project aims to create a fast radiation hard tracking detector sensor, based on High Resistivity CMOS technology. In a first prototype submission, different pixel and charge collection node geometries have been produced, which have lately been returned from fabrication and are currently under test.

  13. Effects on focused ion beam irradiation on MOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.N.; Peterson, K.A.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Soden, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of irradiation from a focused ion beam (FIB) system on MOS transistors are reported systematically for the first time. Three MOS transistor technologies, with 0.5, 1, and 3 μm minimum feature sizes and with gate oxide thicknesses ranging from 11 to 50 nm, were analyzed. Significant shifts in transistor parameters (such as threshold voltage, transconductance, and mobility) were observed following irradiation with a 30 keV Ga + focused ion beam with ion doses varying by over 5 orders of magnitude. The apparent damage mechanism (which involved the creation of interface traps, oxide trapped charge, or both) and extent of damage were different for each of the three technologies investigated

  14. Ultralarge area MOS tunnel devices for electron emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Nielsen, Gunver; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm

    2007-01-01

    density. Oxide thicknesses have been extracted by fitting a model based on Fermi-Dirac statistics to the C-V characteristics. By plotting I-V characteristics in a Fowler plot, a measure of the thickness of the oxide can be extracted from the tunnel current. These apparent thicknesses show a high degree......A comparative analysis of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics has been employed to characterize the thickness variations of the oxide on different length scales. Ultralarge area (1 cm(2)) ultrathin (similar to 5 nm oxide......) MOS capacitors have been fabricated to investigate their functionality and the variations in oxide thickness, with the use as future electron emission devices as the goal. I-V characteristics show very low leakage current and excellent agreement to the Fowler-Nordheim expression for the current...

  15. Microstructure and magnetic properties of nanostructured (Fe{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}){sub 100–x}Si{sub x} alloy produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukherroub, N. [UR-MPE, M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria); Guittoum, A., E-mail: aguittoum@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Laggoun, A. [UR-MPE, M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria); Hemmous, M. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Martínez-Blanco, D. [SCTs, University of Oviedo, EPM, 33600 Mieres (Spain); Blanco, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo St., 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Souami, N. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Gorria, P. [Department of Physics and IUTA, EPI, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijón (Spain); Bourzami, A. [Laboratoire d' Etudes des Surfaces et Interfaces des Matériaux Solides (LESIMS), Université Sétif1, 19000 Sétif (Algeria); Lenoble, O. [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, Boulevard des aiguillettes, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre lès Nancy (France)

    2015-07-01

    We report on how the microstructure and the silicon content of nanocrystalline ternary (Fe{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}){sub 100–x}Si{sub x} powders (x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 at%) elaborated by high energy ball milling affect the magnetic properties of these alloys. The formation of a single-phase alloy with body centred cubic (bcc) crystal structure is completed after 72 h of milling time for all the compositions. This bcc phase is in fact a disordered Fe(Al,Si) solid solution with a lattice parameter that reduces its value almost linearly as the Si content is increased, from about 2.9 Å in the binary Fe{sub 80}Al{sub 20} alloy to 2.85 Å in the powder with x=20. The average nanocrystalline grain size also decreases linearly down to 10 nm for x=20, being roughly half of the value for the binary alloy, while the microstrain is somewhat enlarged. Mössbauer spectra show a sextet thus suggesting that the disordered Fe(Al,Si) solid solution is ferromagnetic at room temperature. However, the average hyperfine field diminishes from 27 T (x=0) to 16 T (x=20), and a paramagnetic doublet is observed for the powders with higher Si content. These results together with the evolution of both the saturation magnetization and the coercive field are discussed in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic properties. - Highlights: • Single-phase nanocrystalline (Fe{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}){sub 100–x}Si{sub x} (x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 at%) powders were successfully fabricated by mechanical alloying for a milling time of 72 h. • The insertion of Si atoms leads to a unit-cell contraction and a decrease in the average crystallite size. • The hyperfine and magnetic properties of (Fe{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}){sub 100–x}Si{sub x} were influenced by the Si content.

  16. Investigation on nonlinear optical properties of MoS2 nanoflakes grown on silicon and quartz substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayesteh, Samaneh; Zahra Mortazavi, Seyedeh; Reyhani, Ali

    2018-05-01

    In this study, MoS2 nanoflakes were directly grown on different substrates—Si/SiO2 and quartz—by one-step thermal chemical vapor deposition using MoO3 and sulfide powders as precursors. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction patterns demonstrated the formation of MoS2 structures on both substrates. Moreover, UV-visible and photoluminescence analysis confirmed the formation of MoS2 few-layer structures. According to Raman spectroscopy, by assessment of the line width and frequency shift differences between the and A 1g, it was inferred that the MoS2 grown on the silicon substrate was monolayer and that grown on the quartz substrate was multilayer. In addition, open-aperture and close-aperture Z-scan techniques were employed to study the nonlinear optical properties including nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of the grown MoS2. All experiments were performed using a diode laser with a wavelength of 532 nm as the light source. It is noticeable that both samples demonstrate obvious self-defocusing behavior. The monolayer MoS2 grown on the silicon substrate displayed considerable two-photon absorption while, the multilayer MoS2 synthesized on the quartz exhibited saturable absorption. In general, few-layered MoS2 would be useful for the development of nanophotonic devices like optical limiters, optical switchers, etc.

  17. Dosimetric properties of MOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, I.; Frank, G.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of MOS transistors as gamma detectors has been tested. The dosimeter sensitivity has proved to be independent on the doses ranging from 10 3 to 10 6 R, and gamma energy of 137 Cs, 60 Co - sources and 5 - 18 MeV electrons. Fading of the space charge trapped by the SiO 2 layer of the transistor has appeared to be neglegible at room temperature after 400 hrs. The isochronous annealing in the temperature range of 40-260 deg C had a more substantial effect on the space charge of the transistor irradiated with 18 MeV electrons than on the 137 Cs gamma-irradiated transistors. This proved a repeated use of γ-dosemeters. MOS transistors are concluded to be promising for gamma dosimetry [ru

  18. UHV-STM manipulation of single flat gold nano-islands for constructing interconnection nanopads on MoS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, JianShu; Jie, Deng; Chandrasekhar, N; Joachim, C

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate manipulation of metallic islands containing nearly a million atoms with a precision of one lattice spacing on a MoS 2 surface, one at a time. Optimizing the growth conditions yields triangular shape metallic nano-islands 40 nm in lateral size and 12 nm in height on the MoS2 surface. The manipulation of these nano-islands is done one at a time using the scanning tunneling microscope, and a fully planar 4 pad nanostructure is demonstrated, where one apex of each triangular nano-island is pointing towards a central working MoS 2 area of 12 nm x 24 nm in which atomic cleanliness is preserved. The feedback loop conditions to achieve this manipulation are discussed. This fully planar 4 pads nano-structure is ready to be interconnected by a multi-tip system

  19. Epitaxial growth of bcc-Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} thin films on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Mitsuru, E-mail: ohtake@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Shikada, Kouhei [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan); Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} (x=100, 65, 50 at%) epitaxial thin films were prepared on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 deg. C by ultra-high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The film structure and the growth mechanism are discussed. FeCo(2 1 1) films with bcc structure grow epitaxially on MgO(1 1 0) substrates with two types of variants whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other for all compositions. Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} film growth follows the Volmer Weber mode. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings are in agreement with the values of respective bulk Fe{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} crystals with very small errors less than +-0.4%, suggesting the strains in the films are very small. High-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows that periodical misfit dislocations are preferentially introduced in the film at the Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50}/MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction. The presence of such periodical dislocations decreases the large lattice mismatch of about -17% existing at the FeCo/MgO interface along the MgO[1 1-bar 0] direction.

  20. MOS modeling hierarchy including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.R.; Turfler, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A hierarchy of modeling procedures has been developed for MOS transistors, circuit blocks, and integrated circuits which include the effects of total dose radiation and photocurrent response. The models were developed for use with the SCEPTRE circuit analysis program, but the techniques are suitable for other modern computer aided analysis programs. The modeling hierarchy permits the designer or analyst to select the level of modeling complexity consistent with circuit size, parametric information, and accuracy requirements. Improvements have been made in the implementation of important second order effects in the transistor MOS model, in the definition of MOS building block models, and in the development of composite terminal models for MOS integrated circuits

  1. Field-effect piezoresistors for vibration detection of nanobeams by using monolithically integrated MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Haitao; Yang, Heng; Li, XinXin; Wang, Yuelin

    2013-01-01

    A novel piezoresistive sensing method is presented herein for the detection of nanobeam resonator based on a monolithically integrated MOS (metal–oxide–semiconductor) capacitor structure. The bottom layer of the nanobeam located beneath the MOS capacitor is utilized as a piezoresistor for the detection of internal stress resulting from nanobeam deformation, and therefore the challenging process of ultra-shallow junction doping is avoided. When a bias voltage applied on the MOS gate exceeds the threshold, the depletion layer width is built up to the maximum, and the piezoresistive cancellation effect beside the neutral plane is eliminated. Based on a conventional microelectromechanical (MEMS) process, an MOS capacitor is fabricated at the terminal of a double-clamped nanobeam with dimensions of 46 µm × 7 µm × 149 nm. The measured R–V curve of this MOS structure presents a 64.7 nm thick piezoresistor which closely agrees with the design. This double-clamped nanobeam is excited into mechanical resonance by mounting it on a piezoelectric ceramic, and the amplitude–frequency response is measured by a network analyzer. The measured resonant frequency is 3.97 MHz and the quality (Q)-factor is 82 in atmosphere environment. Besides, this piezoresistive sensing method is verified by a laser-Doppler vibrometry. (paper)

  2. Scalable Patterning of MoS2 Nanoribbons by Micromolding in Capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Han; Lu, Ang-Yu; Chang, Yung-Huang; Huang, Jing-Kai; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Li, Lain-Jong; Su, Ching-Yuan

    2016-08-17

    In this study, we report a facile approach to prepare dense arrays of MoS2 nanoribbons by combining procedures of micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) and thermolysis of thiosalts ((NH4)2MoS4) as the printing ink. The obtained MoS2 nanoribbons had a thickness reaching as low as 3.9 nm, a width ranging from 157 to 465 nm, and a length up to 2 cm. MoS2 nanoribbons with an extremely high aspect ratio (length/width) of ∼7.4 × 10(8) were achieved. The MoS2 pattern can be printed on versatile substrates, such as SiO2/Si, sapphire, Au film, FTO/glass, and graphene-coated glass. The degree of crystallinity of the as-prepared MoS2 was discovered to be adjustable by varying the temperature through postannealing. The high-temperature thermolysis (1000 °C) results in high-quality conductive samples, and field-effect transistors based on the patterned MoS2 nanoribbons were demonstrated and characterized, where the carrier mobility was comparable to that of thin-film MoS2. In contrast, the low-temperature-treated samples (170 °C) result in a unique nanocrystalline MoSx structure (x ≈ 2.5), where the abundant and exposed edge sites were obtained from highly dense arrays of nanoribbon structures by this MIMIC patterning method. The patterned MoSx was revealed to have superior electrocatalytic efficiency (an overpotential of ∼211 mV at 10 mA/cm(2) and a Tafel slope of 43 mV/dec) in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) when compared to the thin-film MoS2. The report introduces a new concept for rapidly fabricating cost-effective and high-density MoS2/MoSx nanostructures on versatile substrates, which may pave the way for potential applications in nanoelectronics/optoelectronics and frontier energy materials.

  3. Scalable Patterning of MoS2Nanoribbons by Micromolding in Capillaries

    KAUST Repository

    Hung, Yu-Han

    2016-07-27

    In this study, we report a facile approach to prepare dense arrays of MoS2 nanoribbons by combining procedures of micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) and thermolysis of thiosalts ((NH4)2MoS4) as the printing ink. The obtained MoS2 nanoribbons had a thickness reaching as low as 3.9 nm, a width ranging from 157 to 465 nm, and a length up to 2 cm. MoS2 nanoribbons with an extremely high aspect ratio (length/width) of ∼7.4 × 108 were achieved. The MoS2 pattern can be printed on versatile substrates, such as SiO2/Si, sapphire, Au film, FTO/glass, and graphene-coated glass. The degree of crystallinity of the as-prepared MoS2 was discovered to be adjustable by varying the temperature through postannealing. The high-temperature thermolysis (1000 °C) results in high-quality conductive samples, and field-effect transistors based on the patterned MoS2 nanoribbons were demonstrated and characterized, where the carrier mobility was comparable to that of thin-film MoS2. In contrast, the low-temperature-treated samples (170 °C) result in a unique nanocrystalline MoSx structure (x ≈ 2.5), where the abundant and exposed edge sites were obtained from highly dense arrays of nanoribbon structures by this MIMIC patterning method. The patterned MoSx was revealed to have superior electrocatalytic efficiency (an overpotential of ∼211 mV at 10 mA/cm2 and a Tafel slope of 43 mV/dec) in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) when compared to the thin-film MoS2. The report introduces a new concept for rapidly fabricating cost-effective and high-density MoS2/MoSx nanostructures on versatile substrates, which may pave the way for potential applications in nanoelectronics/optoelectronics and frontier energy materials. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  4. Visible light responsive Cu2MoS4 nanosheets incorporated reduced graphene oxide for efficient degradation of organic pollutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshbabu, R.; Vinoth, R.; Navaneethan, M.; Harish, S.; Hayakawa, Y.; Neppolian, B.

    2017-10-01

    Visible light active copper molybdenum sulfide (Cu2MoS4) nanosheets were successfully anchored on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using facile hydrothermal method. During the hydrothermal reaction, reduction of graphene oxide into rGO and the formation of Cu2MoS4 nanosheets were successfully obtained. The charge transfer interaction between the rGO sheets and Cu2MoS4 nanosheets extended the absorption to visible region in comparison with bare Cu2MoS4 nanosheets i.e without rGO sheets. Furthermore, the notable photoluminescence quenching observed for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite revealed the effective role of rGO towards the significant inhibition of electron-hole pair recombination. The photocatalytic efficiencies of bare Cu2MoS4 and Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was evaluated for the degradation of methyl orange dye under visible irradiation (λ > 420 nm). A maximum photodegradation efficiency of 99% was achieved for Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite, while only 64% photodegradation was noted for bare Cu2MoS4. The enhanced optical absorption in visible region, high surface area, and low charge carrier recombination in the presence of rGO sheets were the main reasons for the enhancement in photodegardation of MO dye. In addition, the resultant Cu2MoS4/rGO nanocomposite was found to be reusable for five successive cycles without significant loss in its photocatalytic performance.

  5. Efficient simulation of power MOS transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ugryumova, M.; Schilders, W.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we present a few industrial problems related to modeling of MOS transistors. We suggest an efficient algorithm for computing output current at the top ports of power MOS transistors for given voltage excitations. The suggested algorithm exploits the connection between the resistor and

  6. Fabrication and electrical properties of MoS2 nanodisc-based back-gated field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weixia; Shen, Jiaoyan; Ma, Xiying

    2014-02-28

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an attractive alternative semiconductor material for next-generation low-power nanoelectronic applications, due to its special structure and large bandgap. Here, we report the fabrication of large-area MoS2 nanodiscs and their incorporation into back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) whose electrical properties we characterize. The MoS2 nanodiscs, fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD), are homogeneous and continuous, and their thickness of around 5 nm is equal to a few layers of MoS2. In addition, we find that the MoS2 nanodisc-based back-gated field effect transistors with nickel electrodes achieve very high performance. The transistors exhibit an on/off current ratio of up to 1.9 × 105, and a maximum transconductance of up to 27 μS (5.4 μS/μm). Moreover, their mobility is as high as 368 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, the transistors have good output characteristics and can be easily modulated by the back gate. The electrical properties of the MoS2 nanodisc transistors are better than or comparable to those values extracted from single and multilayer MoS2 FETs.

  7. MOS Current Mode Logic Near Threshold Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shapiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Near threshold circuits (NTC are an attractive and promising technology that provides significant power savings with some delay penalty. The combination of NTC technology with MOS current mode logic (MCML is examined in this work. By combining MCML with NTC, the constant power consumption of MCML is reduced to leakage power levels that can be tolerated in certain modern applications. Additionally, the speed of NTC is improved due to the high speed nature of MCML technology. A 14 nm Fin field effect transistor (FinFET technology is used to evaluate these combined circuit techniques. A 32-bit Kogge Stone adder is chosen as a demonstration vehicle for feasibility analysis. MCML with NTC is shown to yield enhanced power efficiency when operated above 1 GHz with a 100% activity factor as compared to standard CMOS. MCML with NTC is more power efficient than standard CMOS beyond 9 GHz over a wide range of activity factors. MCML with NTC also exhibits significantly lower noise levels as compared to standard CMOS. The results of the analysis demonstrate that pairing NTC and MCML is efficient when operating at high frequencies and activity factors.

  8. MoS2 coated hollow carbon spheres for anodes of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yufei; Wang, Ye; Shi, Wenhui; Yang, Huiying; Yang, Jun; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-01-01

    With the assistance of resorcinol–formaldehyde, MoS 2 coated hollow carbon spheres (C@MoS 2 ) were synthesized through a facile hydrothermal route followed by heat and alkali treatments. The measurements indicate that the hollow carbon spheres with an average diameter of 300 nm and shell thickness of 20 nm. And the hollow core are uniformly covered by ultrathin MoS 2 nanosheets with a length increased to 400 nm. The unique hollow structure and the synergistic effect between carbon layer and MoS 2 nanosheets significantly enhance the rate capability and electrochemical stability of C@MoS 2 spheres as anode material of lithium-ion battery. The synthesized C@MoS 2 delivered a capacity of 750 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . More importantly, the C@MoS 2 maintained a reversible capacity of 533 mAh g −1 even at a high current density of 1000 mA g −1 . The study indicated that MoS 2 coated hollow carbon spheres can be promising anode material for next generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries. (paper)

  9. Three-Dimensional Tubular MoS2/PANI Hybrid Electrode for High Rate Performance Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lijun; Zhang, Gaini; Yan, Zhe; Kang, Liping; Xu, Hua; Shi, Feng; Lei, Zhibin; Liu, Zong-Huai

    2015-12-30

    By using three-dimensional (3D) tubular molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as both an active material in electrochemical reaction and a framework to provide more paths for insertion and extraction of ions, PANI nanowire arrays with a diameter of 10-20 nm can be controllably grown on both the external and internal surface of 3D tubular MoS2 by in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline monomers and 3D tubular MoS2/PANI hybrid materials with different amounts of PANI are prepared. A controllable growth of PANI nanowire arrays on the tubular MoS2 surface provides an opportunity to optimize the capacitive performance of the obtained electrodes. When the loading amount of PANI is 60%, the obtained MoS2/PANI-60 hybrid electrode not only shows a high specific capacitance of 552 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g, but also gives excellent rate capability of 82% from 0.5 to 30 A/g. The remarkable rate performance can be mainly attributed to the architecture with synergistic effect between 3D tubular MoS2 and PANI nanowire arrays. Moreover, the MoS2/PANI-60 based symmetric supercapacitor also exhibits the excellent rate performance and good cycling stability. The specific capacitance based on the total mass of the two electrodes is 124 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g and 79% of its initial capacitance is remained after 6000 cycles. The 3D tubular structure provides a good and favorable method for improving the capacitance retention of PANI electrode.

  10. MoS2-InGaZnO Heterojunction Phototransistors with Broad Spectral Responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaehyun; Kwak, Hyena; Lee, Youngbin; Kang, Yu-Seon; Cho, Mann-Ho; Cho, Jeong Ho; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Park, Seongjun; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2016-04-06

    We introduce an amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) heterostructure phototransistor consisting of solution-based synthetic molybdenum disulfide (few-layered MoS2, with a band gap of ∼1.7 eV) and sputter-deposited a-IGZO (with a band gap of ∼3.0 eV) films as a novel sensing element with a broad spectral responsivity. The MoS2 and a-IGZO films serve as a visible light-absorbing layer and a high mobility channel layer, respectively. Spectroscopic measurements reveal that appropriate band alignment at the heterojunction provides effective transfer of the visible light-induced electrons generated in the few-layered MoS2 film to the underlying a-IGZO channel layer with a high carrier mobility. The photoresponse characteristics of the a-IGZO transistor are extended to cover most of the visible range by forming a heterojunction phototransistor that harnesses a visible light responding MoS2 film with a small band gap prepared through a large-area synthetic route. The MoS2-IGZO heterojunction phototransistors exhibit a photoresponsivity of approximately 1.7 A/W at a wavelength of 520 nm (an optical power of 1 μW) with excellent time-dependent photoresponse dynamics.

  11. Friction and wear mechanisms in MoS2/Sb2O3/Au nanocomposite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, T.W.; Kotula, P.G.; Prasad, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental phenomena governing the tribological mechanisms in sputter deposited amorphous MoS 2 /Sb 2 O 3 /Au nanocomposite coatings are reported. In dry environments the nanocomposite has the same low friction coefficient as pure MoS 2 (∼0.007). However, unlike pure MoS 2 coatings, which wear through in air (50% relative humidity), the composite coatings showed minimal wear, with wear factors of ∼1.2-1.4 x 10 -7 mm 3 Nm -1 in both dry nitrogen and air. The coatings exhibited non-Amontonian friction behavior, with the friction coefficient decreasing with increasing Hertzian contact stress. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of wear surfaces revealed that frictional contact resulted in an amorphous to crystalline transformation in MoS 2 with 2H-basal (0 0 0 2) planes aligned parallel to the direction of sliding. In air the wear surface and subsurface regions exhibited islands of Au. The mating transfer films were also comprised of (0 0 0 2)-oriented basal planes of MoS 2 , resulting in predominantly self-mated 'basal on basal' interfacial sliding and, thus, low friction and wear.

  12. Micro-dressing of a carbon nanotube array with MoS2 gauze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sharon Xiaodai; Woo, Kah Whye; Ng, Junju; Lu, Junpeng; Kwang, Siu Yi; Zhang, Zheng; Tok, Eng Soon; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2015-10-01

    Few-layer MoS2 film has been successfully assembled over an array of CNTs. Using different focused laser beams with different wavelengths, site selective patterning of either the MoS2 film or the supporting CNT array is achieved. This paves the way for applications and investigations into the fundamental properties of the hybrid MoS2/CNT material with a controlled architecture. Through Raman mapping, straining and electron doping of the MoS2 film as a result of interaction with the supporting CNT array are detected. The role of the MoS2 film was further emphasized with a lower work function being detected from Ultra-violet Photoelectron Spectrsocopy (UPS) measurements of the hybrid material, compared to the CNT array. The effect of the changes in the work function was illustrated through the optoelectronic behavior of the hybrid material. At 0 V, 3.49 nA of current is measured upon illuminating the sample with a broad laser beam emitting laser light with a wavelength of 532 nm. With a strong response to external irradiation of different wavelengths, and changes to the power of the excitation source, the hybrid material has shown potential for applications in optoelectronic devices.

  13. Effect of the low magnetic field on the electrodeposition of Co{sub x}Ni{sub 100−x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olvera, S. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, 07738 México, D.F., México (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Arce Estrada, E.M. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Departamento de Ingeniería en Metalurgia y Materiales, 07738 México, D.F., México (Mexico); Sanchez-Marcos, J. [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Palomares, F.J.; Vazquez, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM-CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Herrasti, P., E-mail: pilar.herrasti@uam.es [Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Magnetic, chemical and structural properties of electrosynthesized Co{sub x}Ni{sub 100−x} have been studied. The electrodeposition has been conducted both in the presence and absence of a low magnetic field. The application of a perpendicular magnetic field during the synthesis modified slightly the morphology of the alloys. These changes depend more on the film composition than on the applied field, as demonstrated by AFM images. In the absence of magnetic field, the Co{sub x}Ni{sub 100−x} film grows along the (200) direction. However, when the magnetic field was applied, a preferential orientation along the (111) direction was observed. No important magnetic changes are induced by the presence of the magnetic field during the growth. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) experiments, the chemical composition of the films was preserved during preparation regardless of whether or not magnetic field is applied. There has been observed an increase in deposition rate in the presence of field even at these low magnetic fields. - Highlights: • CoNi alloys were electrosynthesized in the absence and presence of a low magnetic field. • Application of a magnetic field produced an orientation in the (111) plane of the alloy. • An external field changes the voltammetric curves reducing the energy required for the alloy formation. • The composition and magnetic properties were constant in the absence and presence of magnetic field.

  14. Application of MOS structures to gamma dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    1978-01-01

    Lattice disorders induced in SiO 2 layers by irradiation are described, and the possibility of using MOS transistors for gamma dosimetry is discussed. Furthermore, experimental results are given for Czechoslovakian MOS transistors of MH 2009 type after gamma irradiation. Reference measurements with other irradiation sources have shown that the transistors respond only to those types of radiation which induce space charges in the oxide layer. They are, therefore, insensitive to neutrons and thus in contrast to dosimetric silicon diodes. Circuitry, sensitivity, and fading of MOS transistors are given, and a physical functional model is compared with the experimental results. (author)

  15. Highly sensitive MOS photodetector with wide band responsivity assisted by nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yungting; Cheng, Tzuhuan; Cheng, Chungliang; Wang, Chunhsiung; Chen, Chihwei; Wei, Chihming; Chen, Yangfang

    2010-01-04

    A new approach for developing highly sensitive MOS photodetector based on the assistance of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane is proposed, fabricated, and characterized. It enables the photodetector with the tunability of not only the intensity but also the range of the response. Under a forward bias, the response of the MOS photodetector with AAO membrane covers the visible as well as infrared spectrum; however, under a reverse bias, the near-infrared light around Si band edge dominates the photoresponse. Unlike general MOS photodetectors which only work under a reverse bias, our MOS photodetectors can work even under a forward bias, and the responsivity at the optical communication wavelength of 850nm can reach up to 0.24 A/W with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 35%. Moreover, the response shows a large enhancement factor of 10 times at 1050 nm under a reverse bias of 0.5V comparing with the device without AAO membrane. The underlying mechanism for the novel properties of the newly designed device has been proposed.

  16. Energy dependence of pMOS dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, Z.; Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.; Petrovic, M.

    1996-01-01

    The results are presented of experimental work and numerical simulations of the energy response for pMOS dosimetric transistors in their custom packages. Specially produced radiation soft pMOS transistors were used in this experimental work. The irradiation of pMOS dosemeters was done using 60 Co and 137 Cs sources, a dosimetric X ray unit, and a radiotherapeutic linear accelerator in the range of photon energies from 21 keV to 8 MeV. The results show that package geometry and materials can significantly affect and smooth the energy dependence of pMOS transistors and that in custom transistor packages they are not tissue-equivalent dosemeters. Their response in the photon energy range of 45 to 250 keV is significantly larger than it should be (maximum dose enhancement factor can be as high as 8) and some energy compensation techniques must be used in order to fulfill the requirements of corresponding standards. (Author)

  17. MoS2 quantum dots@TiO2 nanotube composites with enhanced photoexcited charge separation and high-efficiency visible-light driven photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fenfen; Rong, Yuefei; Wan, Junmin; Hu, Zhiwen; Peng, Zhiqin; Wang, Bing

    2018-03-01

    MoS2 quantum dots (QDs) that are 5 nm in size were deposited on the surface of ultrathin TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) with 5 nm wall thickness by using an improved hydrothermal method to form a MoS2 QDs@TNT visible-light photocatalyst. The ultrathin TNTs with high percentage of photocatalytic reactive facets were fabricated by the commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles (P25) through an improved hydrothermal method, and the MoS2 QDs were acquired by using a surfactant-assisted technique. The novel MoS2 QDs@TNT photocatalysts showed excellent photocatalytic activity with a decolorization rate of 92% or approximately 3.5 times more than that of pure TNTs for the high initial concentration of methylene blue solution (20 mg l-1) within 40 min under visible-light irradiation. MoS2 as the co-catalysts favored the broadening of TNTs into the visible-light absorption scope. The quantum confinement and edge effects of the MoS2 QDs and the heterojunction formed between the MoS2 QDs and TNTs efficiently extended the lifetime of photoinduced charges, impeded the recombination of photoexcited electron-hole pairs, and improved the visible-light-driven high-efficiency photocatalysis.

  18. Enhancing Photoresponsivity of Self-Aligned MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors by Piezo-Phototronic Effect from GaN Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Yang, Xiaonian; Gao, Guoyun; Yang, Zhenyu; Liu, Haitao; Li, Qiang; Lou, Zheng; Shen, Guozhen; Liao, Lei; Pan, Caofeng; Lin Wang, Zhong

    2016-08-23

    We report high-performance self-aligned MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) with enhanced photoresponsivity by the piezo-phototronic effect. The FETs are fabricated based on monolayer MoS2 with a piezoelectric GaN nanowire (NW) as the local gate, and a self-aligned process is employed to define the source/drain electrodes. The fabrication method allows the preservation of the intrinsic property of MoS2 and suppresses the scattering center density in the MoS2/GaN interface, which results in high electrical and photoelectric performances. MoS2 FETs with channel lengths of ∼200 nm have been fabricated with a small subthreshold slope of 64 mV/dec. The photoresponsivity is 443.3 A·W(-1), with a fast response and recovery time of ∼5 ms under 550 nm light illumination. When strain is introduced into the GaN NW, the photoresponsivity is further enhanced to 734.5 A·W(-1) and maintains consistent response and recovery time, which is comparable with that of the mechanical exfoliation of MoS2 transistors. The approach presented here opens an avenue to high-performance top-gated piezo-enhanced MoS2 photodetectors.

  19. Integrated amplifying circuit with MOS transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylac, B; Merckel, G; Meunier, P

    1974-01-25

    The invention relates to a feedback-pass-band amplifier with MOS-transistors. The differential stage of conventional amplifiers is changed into an adding state, whereas the differential amplification stages are changed into amplifier inverter stages. All MOS transistors used in that amplifier are of similar configuration and are interdigitized, whereby the operating speed dispersion is reduced. This can be applied to obtaining a measurement channel for proportional chambers.

  20. Annealing effects on the ferromagnetic resonance linewidths of sputter-deposited Fe{sub 100−x}Co{sub x}(001) thin films (x < 11)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusaoka, A.; Kimura, J.; Takahashi, Y., E-mail: takahasy@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp; Inaba, N. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Kirino, F. [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan); Ohtake, M.; Futamoto, M. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    Effects of post-growth annealing on the magnetic damping of 3d transition alloy thin films were investigated. Fe{sub 100−x}Co{sub x} (x < 11 at. %) thin films were epitaxially deposited on GaAs(001) substrates by rf magnetron sputtering, and some of them were annealed without exposing to atmosphere. Electrical measurement showed that in-plane resistivity was smaller in the annealed films than in the as-deposited ones, indicating that the annealing mitigates crystalline imperfections and leads to reduced electron scattering rates. Magnetic damping was evaluated by the peak widths of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra obtained by a conventional Q-band spectrometer. Comparison of as-deposited and annealed specimens showed that the damping was decreased by annealing. Combined with the electrical and FMR measurements, these observations are consistent with the theoretical predictions that crystalline imperfections strongly influence the magnetic damping, both in intrinsic and extrinsic origins.

  1. Sub-100 fs pulses from an all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillator with an anomalous dispersion higher-order-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhoef, A. J.; Zhu, L.; Israelsen, Stine Møller

    2015-01-01

    , was investigated for different settings of the intracavity dispersion. When the cavity is operated with close to zero net dispersion, highly stable 0.5-nJ pulses externally compressed to sub-100-fs are generated. These are to our knowledge the shortest pulses generated from an all-polarization-maintaining Yb-fiber......We present an Yb-fiber oscillator with an all-polarizationmaintaining cavity with a higher-order-mode fiber for dispersion compensation. The polarization maintaining higher order mode fiber introduces not only negative second order dispersion but also negative third order dispersion in the cavity......, in contrast to dispersion compensation schemes used in previous demonstrations of all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillators. The performance of the saturable absorber mirror modelocked oscillator, that employs a free space scheme for coupling onto the saturable absorber mirror and output coupling...

  2. Sub-100 fs pulses from an all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillator with an anomalous dispersion higher-order-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhoef, A.J.; Zhu, L.; Israelsen, Stine Møller

    2015-01-01

    , was investigated for different settings of the intracavity dispersion. When the cavity is operated with close to zero net dispersion, highly stable 0.5-nJ pulses externally compressed to sub-100-fs are generated. These are to our knowledge the shortest pulses generated from an all-polarization-maintaining Yb-fiber......We present an Yb-fiber oscillator with an all-polarization-maintaining cavity with a higher-order-mode fiber for dispersion compensation. The polarization maintaining higher order mode fiber introduces not only negative second order dispersion but also negative third order dispersion in the cavity......, in contrast to dispersion compensation schemes used in previous demonstrations of all-polarization maintaining Yb-fiber oscillators. The performance of the saturable absorber mirror modelocked oscillator, that employs a free space scheme for coupling onto the saturable absorber mirror and output coupling...

  3. A simple route to Cu{sub x}Sn{sub (100−x)} intermetallic nanoparticle catalyst for ultra-phenol hydroxylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pithakratanayothin, Sakollapath [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College and Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Tongsri, Ruangdaj [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit - PM-RDU, National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Chaisuwan, Thanyalak [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College and Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wongkasemjit, Sujitra, E-mail: dsujitra@chula.ac.th [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College and Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-09-15

    A practical methodology and novel, economical materials were proposed to successfully prepare nanoparticle catalysts for phenol hydroxylation. The preparation was carried out via mechanical alloying (MA) of Cu{sub x}Sn{sub (100−x)} powder mixtures (where x = 30, 50, 70, and 100%wt). The mechanical alloyed nanoparticles were characterized using various techniques. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that η-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}, ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn, and CuSn phases could be formed in the mechanical alloyed Cu{sub x}Sn{sub (100−x)} materials. Transmission electron micrographs and selected area electron diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of η-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}, ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn, and CuSn phases. Activity of the catalysts, using the optimal conditions of 70 °C reaction temperature for 1 h, 50 mg of Cu{sub 0.5}Sn{sub 0.5}, and 1:3 phenol:H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ratio, provided more than 98% conversion with 70% catechol (CAT) and 29% hydroquinone (HQ). Experimental results suggested that the presence of the ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn phase gave higher activity while Sn reduced benzoquinone (BQ) to HQ. The catalyst maintained its stability with no structural collapse for more than 24 h. - Highlights: • Cu{sub x}Sn{sub y} intermetallic as a catalyst was successfully synthesized via mechanical alloying. • Cu{sub x}Sn{sub y} intermetallics promoted impressive phenol hydroxylation. • 98% conversion was achieved with high selectivity of catechol.

  4. Growth of centimeter-scale atomically thin MoS2 films by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene Siegel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting the growth of single layer and few-layer MoS2 films on single crystal sapphire substrates using a pulsed-laser deposition technique. A pulsed KrF excimer laser (wavelength: 248 nm; pulse width: 25 ns was used to ablate a polycrystalline MoS2 target. The material thus ablated was deposited on a single crystal sapphire (0001 substrate kept at 700 °C in an ambient vacuum of 10−6 Torr. Detailed characterization of the films was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL measurements. The ablation of the MoS2 target by 50 laser pulses (energy density: 1.5 J/cm2 was found to result in the formation of a monolayer of MoS2 as shown by AFM results. In the Raman spectrum, A1g and E12g peaks were observed at 404.6 cm−1 and 384.5 cm−1 with a spacing of 20.1 cm−1, confirming the monolayer thickness of the film. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum exhibited two exciton absorption bands at 672 nm (1.85 eV and 615 nm (2.02 eV, with an energy split of 0.17 eV, which is in excellent agreement with the theoretically predicted value of 0.15 eV. The monolayer MoS2 exhibited a PL peak at 1.85 eV confirming the direct nature of the band-gap. By varying the number of laser pulses, bi-layer, tri-layer, and few-layer MoS2 films were prepared. It was found that as the number of monolayers (n in the MoS2 films increases, the spacing between the A1g and E12g Raman peaks (Δf increases following an empirical relation, Δ f = 26 . 45 − 15 . 42 1 + 1 . 44 n 0 . 9 cm − 1 .

  5. Photoluminescence of MoS2 Prepared by Effective Grinding-Assisted Sonication Exfoliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliation of bulk molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 using sonication in appropriate solvent is a promising route to large-scale preparation of few-layered or monolayered crystals. Grinding-assisted sonication exfoliation was used for preparing monolayered MoS2 nanosheets from natural mineral molybdenite. By controlling the sonication time, larger crystallites could be further exfoliated to smaller as well as thinner nanosheets without damaging their structures. The concentration of 1.6 mg mL−1 of final solution could be achieved. Several microscopic techniques like scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to evaluate the exfoliation results. Strong photoluminescence with the peak centered at 440 nm was also observed in the resulting dispersion which included several small lateral-sized (~3 nm nanostructures.

  6. Reevaluating the worst-case radiation response of MOS transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, D. M.

    Predicting worst-case response of a semiconductor device to ionizing radiation is a formidable challenge. As processes change and MOS gate insulators become thinner in advanced VLSI and VHSIC technologies, failure mechanisms must be constantly re-examined. Results are presented of a recent study in which more than 100 MOS transistors were monitored for up to 300 days after Co-60 exposure. Based on these results, a reevaluation of worst-case n-channel transistor response (most positive threshold voltage shift) in low-dose-rate and postirradiation environments is required in many cases. It is shown for Sandia hardened n-channel transistors with a 32 nm gate oxide, that switching from zero-volt bias, held during the entire radiation period, to positive bias during anneal clearly leads to a more positive threshold voltage shift (and thus the slowest circuit response) after Co-60 exposure than the standard case of maintaining positive bias during irradiation and anneal. It is concluded that irradiating these kinds of transistors with zero-volt bias, and annealing with positive bias, leads to worst-case postirradiation response. For commercial devices (with few interface states at doses of interest), on the other hand, device response only improves postirradiation, and worst-case response (in terms of device leakage) is for devices irradiated under positive bias and annealed with zero-volts bias.

  7. MOSFET and MOS capacitor responses to ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, J. M.; Boesch, H. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The ionizing radiation responses of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) field-effect transistors (FETs) and MOS capacitors are compared. It is shown that the radiation-induced threshold voltage shift correlates closely with the shift in the MOS capacitor inversion voltage. The radiation-induced interface-state density of the MOSFETs and MOS capacitors was determined by several techniques. It is shown that the presence of 'slow' states can interfere with the interface-state measurements.

  8. Edge-spin-derived magnetism in few-layer MoS2 nanomeshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kondo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetism arising from edge spins is highly interesting, particularly in 2D atomically thin materials in which the influence of edges becomes more significant. Among such materials, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2; one of the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD family is attracting significant attention. The causes for magnetism observed in the TMD family, including in MoS2, have been discussed by considering various aspects, such as pure zigzag atomic-structure edges, grain boundaries, and vacancies. Here, we report the observation of ferromagnetism (FM in few-layer MoS2 nanomeshes (NMs; honeycomb-like array of hexagonal nanopores with low-contamination and low-defect pore edges, which have been created by a specific non-lithographic method. We confirm robust FM arising from pore edges in oxygen(O-terminated MoS2-NMs at room temperature, while it disappears in hydrogen(H-terminated samples. The observed high-sensitivity of FM to NM structures and critical annealing temperatures suggest a possibility that the Mo-atom dangling bond in pore edge is a dominant factor for the FM.

  9. Relation between film thickness and surface doping of MoS2 based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart de la Rosa, César J.; Arutchelvan, Goutham; Leonhardt, Alessandra; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Radu, Iuliana; Heyns, Marc; De Gendt, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-thin MoS2 film doping through surface functionalization with physically adsorbed species is of great interest due to its ability to dope the film without reduction in the carrier mobility. However, there is a need for understanding how the thickness of the MoS2 film is related to the induced surface doping for improved electrical performance. In this work, we report on the relation of MoS2 film thickness with the doping effect induced by the n-dopant adsorbate poly(vinyl-alcohol). Field effect transistors built using MoS2 films of different thicknesses were electrically characterized, and it was observed that the ION/OFF ratio after doping in thin films is more than four orders of magnitudes greater when compared with thick films. Additionally, a semi-classical model tuned with the experimental devices was used to understand the spatial distribution of charge in the channel and explain the observed behavior. From the simulation results, it was revealed that the two-dimensional carrier density induced by the adsorbate is distributed rather uniformly along the complete channel for thin films (<5.2 nm) contrary to what happens for thicker films.

  10. Parametric Conversion Using Custom MOS Varactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iniewski Krzysztof (Kris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible role of customized MOS varactors in amplification, mixing, and frequency control of future millimeter wave CMOS RFICs is outlined. First, the parametric conversion concept is revisited and discussed in terms of modern RF communications systems. Second, the modeling, design, and optimization of MOS varactors are reconsidered in the context of their central role in parametric circuits. Third, a balanced varactor structure is proposed for robust oscillator frequency control in the presence of large extrinsic noise expected in tightly integrated wireless communicators. Main points include the proposal of a subharmonic pumping scheme based on the MOS varactor, a nonequilibrium elastance-voltage model, optimal varactor layout suggestions, custom m-CMOS varactor design and measurement, device-level balanced varactor simulations, and parametric circuit evaluation based on measured device characteristics.

  11. Radiation hardening of MOS devices by boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchenko, V.

    1975-01-01

    A novel technique is disclosed for radiation hardening of MOS devices and specifically for stabilizing the gate threshold potential at room temperature of a radiation subjected MOS field-effect device of the type having a semiconductor substrate, an insulating layer of oxide on the substrate, and a gate electrode disposed on the insulating layer. In the preferred embodiment, the novel inventive technique contemplates the introduction of boron into the insulating oxide, the boron being introduced within a layer of the oxide of about 100A to 300A thickness immediately adjacent the semiconductor-insulator interface. The concentration of boron in the oxide layer is preferably maintained on the order of 10 atoms/ cm 3 . The novel technique serves to reduce and substantially annihilate radiation induced positive gate charge accumulations, which accumulations, if not eliminated, would cause shifting of the gate threshold potential of a radiation subjected MOS device, and thus render the device unstable and/or inoperative. (auth)

  12. Electron microscopy studies on MoS2 nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilsgaard

    Industrial-style MoS2-based hydrotreating catalysts are studied using electron microscopy. The MoS2 nanostructures are imaged with single-atom sensitivity to reveal the catalytically important edge structures. Furthermore, the in-situ formation of MoS2 crystals is imaged for the first time....

  13. Magnetic and structural properties of the Nd{sub 2}(Fe{sub 100-x}Nb{sub x}){sub 14}B system prepared by arc melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyola Lozano, D., E-mail: doyola@ut.edu.co [University of Tolima, Department of Physics (Colombia); Zamora, L. E.; Perez Alcazar, G. A. [University of Valle, Department of Physics (Colombia); Rojas, Y. A.; Bustos, H. [University of Tolima, Department of Physics (Colombia); Greneche, J. M. [Universite du Maine, Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS 6087 (France)

    2006-04-15

    In this work the magnetic and structural properties are investigated by Moessbauer spectrometry, Vibrating Sample Magnetometry and X-ray diffraction of Nd{sub 2}(Fe{sub 100-x}Nb{sub x}){sub 14}B powdered alloys with x = 0, 2 and 4 prepared by arc melting. The Moessbauer spectra of the samples were fitted with several contributions from: Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, {alpha}-Fe and a paramagnetic phase associated with Nd{sub 1.1}Fe{sub 4}B{sub 4} for x = 0 and additionally from NbFeB and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} for x = 2 and x = 4. The relative fractions of {alpha}-Fe and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B are smaller for x = 4 than for x = 0, indicating that the amount of these two phases is reduced with increasing Nb content, while the relative fraction of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} increases. The {alpha}-Fe grain size slightly decreases while that of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase is increasing, when the Nb content increases. The hysteresis loops indicate that these samples behave as hard ferromagnets, with a coercive field which decreases when the Nb content increases, but with rather low remanent magnetization.

  14. Direct, CMOS In-Line Process Flow Compatible, Sub 100 °C Cu-Cu Thermocompression Bonding Using Stress Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Asisa Kumar; Ghosh, Tamal; Kumar, C. Hemanth; Singh, Shiv Govind; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna

    2018-05-01

    Diffusion of atoms across the boundary between two bonding layers is the key for achieving excellent thermocompression Wafer on Wafer bonding. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel mechanism to increase the diffusion across the bonding interface and also shows the CMOS in-line process flow compatible Sub 100 °C Cu-Cu bonding which is devoid of Cu surface treatment prior to bonding. The stress in sputtered Cu thin films was engineered by adjusting the Argon in-let pressure in such a way that one film had a compressive stress while the other film had tensile stress. Due to this stress gradient, a nominal pressure (2 kN) and temperature (75 °C) was enough to achieve a good quality thermocompression bonding having a bond strength of 149 MPa and very low specific contact resistance of 1.5 × 10-8 Ω-cm2. These excellent mechanical and electrical properties are resultant of a high quality Cu-Cu bonding having grain growth between the Cu films across the boundary and extended throughout the bonded region as revealed by Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy. In addition, reliability assessment of Cu-Cu bonding with stress engineering was demonstrated using multiple current stressing and temperature cycling test, suggests excellent reliable bonding without electrical performance degradation.

  15. Structural features of spin-coated thin films of binary As{sub x}S{sub 100−x} chalcogenide glass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J. [Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN 37075 (United States); Slang, S. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Golovchak, R. [Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN 37075 (United States); Jain, H. [International Materials Institute for New Functionality in Glass, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Vlcek, M. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Kovalskiy, A., E-mail: kovalskyya@apsu.edu [Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN 37075 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Spin-coating technology offers a convenient method for fabricating photostable chalcogenide glass thin films that are especially attractive for applications in IR optics. In this paper we report the structure of spin-coated As{sub x}S{sub 100−x} (x = 30, 35, 40) thin films as determined using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy, especially in relation to composition (i.e. As/S ratio) and preparation process variables. It was observed that As atoms during preparation have a tendency to precipitate out in close to stoichiometric compositions. The mechanism of bonding between the inorganic matrix and organic residuals is discussed based on the experimental data. A weak interaction between S ions and amine-based clusters is proposed as the basis of structural organization of the organic–inorganic interface. - Highlights: • As–S spin-coated chalcogenide thin films with different As/S were fabricated. • XPS measurements support the cluster-like structure of spin-coated films. • As{sub 2}O{sub 3} was confirmed as the composition of precipitate formed during dissolution. • Lack of As–As bonds explains the observed photostability of the thin films.

  16. Direct, CMOS In-Line Process Flow Compatible, Sub 100 °C Cu-Cu Thermocompression Bonding Using Stress Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Asisa Kumar; Ghosh, Tamal; Kumar, C. Hemanth; Singh, Shiv Govind; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna

    2018-03-01

    Diffusion of atoms across the boundary between two bonding layers is the key for achieving excellent thermocompression Wafer on Wafer bonding. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel mechanism to increase the diffusion across the bonding interface and also shows the CMOS in-line process flow compatible Sub 100 °C Cu-Cu bonding which is devoid of Cu surface treatment prior to bonding. The stress in sputtered Cu thin films was engineered by adjusting the Argon in-let pressure in such a way that one film had a compressive stress while the other film had tensile stress. Due to this stress gradient, a nominal pressure (2 kN) and temperature (75 °C) was enough to achieve a good quality thermocompression bonding having a bond strength of 149 MPa and very low specific contact resistance of 1.5 × 10-8 Ω-cm2. These excellent mechanical and electrical properties are resultant of a high quality Cu-Cu bonding having grain growth between the Cu films across the boundary and extended throughout the bonded region as revealed by Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy. In addition, reliability assessment of Cu-Cu bonding with stress engineering was demonstrated using multiple current stressing and temperature cycling test, suggests excellent reliable bonding without electrical performance degradation.

  17. Electron emission from MOS electron emitters with clean and cesium covered gold surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunver; Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Johansson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) electron emitters consisting of a Si substrate, a SiO2 tunnel barrier and a Ti (1 nm)/Au(7 nm) top-electrode, with an active area of 1 cm(2) have been produced and studied with surface science techniques under UHV (ultra high vacuum) conditions and their emission...... characteristics have been investigated. It is known, that deposition of an alkali metal on the emitting surface lowers the work function and increases the emission efficiency. For increasing Cs coverages the surface has been characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS...

  18. Enhancement of near-infrared detectability from InGaZnO thin film transistor with MoS2 light absorbing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Sang Woo; Chu, Dongil; Song, Da Ye; Kyo Lee, Seung; Kim, Eun Kyu

    2017-11-01

    We report an enhancement of near-infrared (NIR) detectability from amorphous InGaZnO (α-IGZO) thin film transistor in conjunction with randomly distributed molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) flakes. The electrical characteristics of the α-IGZO grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering exhibit high effective mobility exceeding 15 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current on/off ratio up to 107. By taking advantages of the high quality α-IGZO and MoS2 light absorbing layer, photodetection spectra are able to extend from ultra-violet to NIR range. The α-IGZO channel detector capped by MoS2 show a photo-responsivity of approximately 14.9 mA W-1 at 1100 nm wavelength, which is five times higher than of the α-IGZO device without MoS2 layer.

  19. Changes in the composition, structure and friction property of sputtered MoS2 films by LEO environment exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Hu, Ming; Sun, Jiayi; Fu, Yanlong; Yang, Jun; Liu, Weimin; Weng, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sputtered MoS 2 films were exposed in real low earth orbit (LEO) environment. • LEO exposure resulted in the oxidation and S loss of MoS 2 film surface. • Depth affected by the LEO exposure was limited within 10 nm. • The exposed MoS 2 film exhibited a slight increase in friction coefficient at initial sliding stage. - Abstract: Radio frequency-sputtered MoS 2 films had been exposed for 43.5 h in real low earth orbit (LEO) space environment by a space environment exposure device (SEED) aboard China Shenzhou-7 manned spaceship. The composition, morphology, phase structure and friction property of the exposed films were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and ball-on-disk tribometer. XRD and EDS results revealed that the as-deposited MoS 2 films were characterized by a MoS x O y phase structure, in which x and y values were determined to be ∼0.65 and 1.24, respectively. XPS analysis revealed that due to space atomic oxygen attack, the film surface was oxidized to MoO 3 and MoS x O y with higher O concentration, while the partial S was lost. However, the affected depth was restricted within the surface layer because of protective function of the oxidation layer. As a result, the friction coefficient only exhibited a slight increase at initial stage of sliding friction

  20. Remarkably enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution over MoS2 nanosheets loaded on uniform CdS nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Bo; Xu, Mengqiu; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Zhandong

    2018-02-01

    The MoS2/CdS composites with layered MoS2 loaded on uniform CdS nanospheres were synthesized by a two-step process combination hydrothermal and solvothermal treatments, and then applied in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectra, UV-vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra (UV-DRS), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and photoelectrochemical tests. The effects of loading contents of MoS2 in the composites on the photocatalytic H2 evolution activity were comparatively investigated with 0.45 mol L-1 Na2S and 0.55 mol L-1 Na2SO3 as sacrificial agents. The results showed that the 5 wt% MoS2/CdS composite could achieve the highest photocatalytic H2 evolution rate of 372 μmol h-1 and apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) about 7.31% under 420 nm monochromatic light irradiation. The remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity of MoS2/CdS composite could be attributed to the effective transfer and separation of photogenerated charge carriers, and MoS2 being as a cocatalyst to facilitating photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction. A tentative mechanism of MoS2/CdS composites as photocatalysts for H2 evolution was proposed.

  1. Improved Gate Dielectric Deposition and Enhanced Electrical Stability for Single-Layer MoS2 MOSFET with an AlN Interfacial Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qingkai; Li, Baikui; Hua, Mengyuan; Zhang, Zhaofu; Lan, Feifei; Xu, Yongkuan; Yan, Ruyue; Chen, Kevin J

    2016-06-09

    Transistors based on MoS2 and other TMDs have been widely studied. The dangling-bond free surface of MoS2 has made the deposition of high-quality high-k dielectrics on MoS2 a challenge. The resulted transistors often suffer from the threshold voltage instability induced by the high density traps near MoS2/dielectric interface or inside the gate dielectric, which is detrimental for the practical applications of MoS2 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). In this work, by using AlN deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) as an interfacial layer, top-gate dielectrics as thin as 6 nm for single-layer MoS2 transistors are demonstrated. The AlN interfacial layer not only promotes the conformal deposition of high-quality Al2O3 on the dangling-bond free MoS2, but also greatly enhances the electrical stability of the MoS2 transistors. Very small hysteresis (ΔVth) is observed even at large gate biases and high temperatures. The transistor also exhibits a low level of flicker noise, which clearly originates from the Hooge mobility fluctuation instead of the carrier number fluctuation. The observed superior electrical stability of MoS2 transistor is attributed to the low border trap density of the AlN interfacial layer, as well as the small gate leakage and high dielectric strength of AlN/Al2O3 dielectric stack.

  2. Energy dependence of pMOS dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, Z. [Military Technical Institute, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.; Petrovic, M. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation Protection Dept.

    1996-10-01

    The results are presented of experimental work and numerical simulations of the energy response for pMOS dosimetric transistors in their custom packages. Specially produced radiation soft pMOS transistors were used in this experimental work. The irradiation of pMOS dosemeters was done using {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs sources, a dosimetric X ray unit, and a radiotherapeutic linear accelerator in the range of photon energies from 21 keV to 8 MeV. The results show that package geometry and materials can significantly affect and smooth the energy dependence of pMOS transistors and that in custom transistor packages they are not tissue-equivalent dosemeters. Their response in the photon energy range of 45 to 250 keV is significantly larger than it should be (maximum dose enhancement factor can be as high as 8) and some energy compensation techniques must be used in order to fulfill the requirements of corresponding standards. (Author).

  3. Tunable Electrical and Optical Characteristics in Monolayer Graphene and Few-Layer MoS2 Heterostructure Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Servin; Lee, Inyeal; Lim, Dongsuk; Wang, Jianwei; Ochiai, Yuichi; Aoki, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Yu, Young-Jun; Kim, Philip; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2015-08-12

    Lateral and vertical two-dimensional heterostructure devices, in particular graphene-MoS2, have attracted profound interest as they offer additional functionalities over normal two-dimensional devices. Here, we have carried out electrical and optical characterization of graphene-MoS2 heterostructure. The few-layer MoS2 devices with metal electrode at one end and monolayer graphene electrode at the other end show nonlinearity in drain current with drain voltage sweep due to asymmetrical Schottky barrier height at the contacts and can be modulated with an external gate field. The doping effect of MoS2 on graphene was observed as double Dirac points in the transfer characteristics of the graphene field-effect transistor (FET) with a few-layer MoS2 overlapping the middle part of the channel, whereas the underlapping of graphene have negligible effect on MoS2 FET characteristics, which showed typical n-type behavior. The heterostructure also exhibits a strongest optical response for 520 nm wavelength, which decreases with higher wavelengths. Another distinct feature observed in the heterostructure is the peak in the photocurrent around zero gate voltage. This peak is distinguished from conventional MoS2 FETs, which show a continuous increase in photocurrent with back-gate voltage. These results offer significant insight and further enhance the understanding of the graphene-MoS2 heterostructure.

  4. Two-dimensional MoS2-graphene hybrid nanosheets for high gravimetric and volumetric lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yakai; Ding, Lixin; Liu, Qixing; Zhan, Liang; Wang, Yanli; Yang, Shubin

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) MoS2-graphene (MoS2-G) hybrid is fabricated simultaneously and scalablely with an efficient electrochemical exfoliation approach from the combined bulk MoS2-graphite wafer. The as-prepared 2D MoS2-G hybrid is tightly covered with each other with lateral sizes of 600 nm to few micrometers and can be directly assembled to flexible films for lithium storage. When used as anode material for lithium ion battery, the resultant MoS2-G hybrid film exhibits both high gravimetric (750 mA h g-1 at 50 mA g-1) and volumetric capacities (1200 mA h cm-3 at 0.1 mA cm-2). Such excellent electrochemical performance should attributed to the unique 2D structure and good conductive graphene network, which not only facilitates the diffusion of lithium ions, but also improves the fast transfer of electrons, satisfying the kinetics requirements for rapid lithium storage.

  5. Formation of metastable cubic phase in Ce{sub 100−x}Al{sub x} (x=45, 50) alloys and their thermal and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idzikowski, Bogdan, E-mail: idzi@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Centre for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Śniadecki, Zbigniew [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Centre for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Puźniak, Roman [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Kaczorowski, Dariusz [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland); Centre for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland)

    2017-01-01

    Ce{sub 100−x}Al{sub x} (x=45 and 50) alloys were synthesized by rapid quenching technique in the form of ribbons composed of nanocrystalline phase of CeAl with the ClCs-type structure (Pm-3m space group) embedded in an amorphous matrix. The cubic CeAl phase is known as metastable with random distribution of Ce and Al atoms in the unit cell. The crystalline volume fraction is about 7.5% in Ce{sub 55}Al{sub 45} and 3% in Ce{sub 50}Al{sub 50}. The alloy Ce{sub 55}Al{sub 45} shows better thermal stability than Ce{sub 50}Al{sub 50}, indicated by higher effective activation energy and higher crystallization temperature. Small off-stoichiometry in Ce{sub 55}Al{sub 45} results in degrading the glass forming ability and promotes formation of the cubic CeAl phase, as confirmed by magnetic measurements. In both alloys, the Ce ions are in stable trivalent state and order magnetically near 20 K. Another magnetic phase transition close to 10 K was found for Ce{sub 50}Al{sub 50} and was attributed to the presence of the well-known stable orthorhombic CeAl phase. To the best of our knowledge, the magnetic behavior of the CeAl cubic phase is reported here for the first time. - Highlights: • Synthesis of metastable cubic CeAl phase by rapid quenching. • The Ce ions in Ce{sub 55}Al{sub 45} and Ce{sub 50}Al{sub 50} are in stable trivalent state. • Magnetic transition near 10 K connected with the orthorhombic CeAl phase. • Phase transition at about 20 K originates from the cubic CeAl phase.

  6. Rheological and tribological behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet MoS2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qingming; Jin, Yi; Sun, Pengcheng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    This work concerns rheological and frictional behaviour of lubricating oils containing platelet molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoparticles (average diameter 50 nm; single layer thickness 3 nm). Stable nano-MoS2 lubricants were formulated and measured for their rheological behaviour and tribological performance. Rheological experiments showed that the nano-MoS2 oils were non-Newtonian following the Bingham plastic fluid model. The viscosity data fitted the classic Hinch-Leal (H-L) model if an agglomeration factor of 1.72 was introduced. Tribological experiments indicated that the use of MoS2 nanoparticles could enhance significantly the tribological performance of the base lubricating oil (reduced frictional coefficient, reduced surface wear and increased stability). Scanning electron microscopy, laser confocal microscope and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses suggested that the reduced frictional coefficient and surface wear be associated with surface patching effects. Such patching effects were shown to depend on the concentration of MoS2 nanoparticles, and an effective patching required a concentration over approximately 1 wt%. The increased stability could be attributed to the enhanced heat transfer and lubricating oil film strength due to the presence of nanoparticles.

  7. Uniform photoresponse in thermally oxidized Ni and MoS2 heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wei; Peng, Gang; Wang, Fei; Miao, Feng; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Qin, Shiqiao

    2017-01-01

    Non-uniform photocurrent is usually generated at the overlapped region of the heterostructures, and its potential applications may be hindered by the spatial uniformity issue of the device photoresponse. Here, nearly a uniform photoresponse at the overlapped region of the thermally oxidized Ni and molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) heterostructures is obtained. Further characterizations reveal that several nanometers Ni is rightly under the NiO x layer formed at the surface of the film in the oxidation process. The heterostructures based on layered MoS 2 /NiO x /Ni with highly conductive bottom Ni show a high uniform photoresponse with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1.4% at 532 nm. Moreover, successful integration of multiple devices suggests a great priority for such a structure for highly integrated uniform photodetectors. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Synthesis and structural determination of twisted MoS2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, P.; Schabes-Retchkiman, P.; Ascencio, J.A.; Mendoza, D.; Perez-Alvarez, M.; Espinosa, A.; Reza-SanGerman, C.; Camacho-Bragado, G.A.; Jose-Yacaman, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work we report the synthesis of MoS 2 nanotubes with diameters greater than 10 nm using a template method. The length and properties of these nanotubes are a direct result of the preparation method. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is used to study the structure of these highly curved entities. Molecular dynamics simulations of MoS 2 nanotubes reveal that one of the stable forms of the nanotubes is a twisted one. The twisting of the nanotubes produces a characteristic contrast in the images, which is also studied using simulation methods. The analysis of the local contrast close to the perpendicular orientation shows geometrical arrays of dots in domain-like structures, which are demonstrated to be a product of the atomic overlapping of irregular curvatures in the nanotubes. The configuration of some of the experimentally obtained nanotubes is demonstrated to be twisted with a behavior suggesting partial plasticity. (orig.)

  9. Anomalous lattice vibrations of monolayer MoS 2 probed by ultraviolet Raman scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hsiang Lin; Guo, Huaihong; Yang, Teng; Zhang, Zhidong; Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Shen, Chih Chiang; Hsu, Yu Te; Li, Lain-Jong; Saito, Riichiro; Kawata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive Raman scattering study of monolayer MoS2 with increasing laser excitation energies ranging from the near-infrared to the deep-ultraviolet. The Raman scattering intensities from the second-order phonon modes are revealed to be enhanced anomalously by only the ultraviolet excitation wavelength 354 nm. We demonstrate theoretically that such resonant behavior arises from a strong optical absorption that forms near the Γ point and of the band structure and an inter-valley resonant electronic scattering by the M-point phonons. These results advance our understanding of the double resonance Raman scattering process in low-dimensional semiconducting nanomaterials and provide a foundation for the technological development of monolayer MoS2 in the ultraviolet frequency range. © the Owner Societies 2015.

  10. Hydrothermal fabrication of few-layer MoS2 nanosheets within nanopores on TiO2 derived from MIL-125(Ti) for efficient photocatalytic H2 evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Li, Houfen; Yu, Hongtao; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie

    2017-12-01

    Protons tend to bond strongly with unsaturated-coordinate S element located at the edge of nano-MoS2 and are consequently reduced to H2. Therefore, increasing the active S atoms quantity will be a feasible approach to enhance hydrogen evolution. Herein we developed a porous TiO2 derived from metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as scaffold to restrict the growth and inhibit the aggregation of MoS2 nanosheets. As a result, the thickness of the prepared MoS2 nanosheets was less than 3 nm (1-4 layers), with more edges and active S atoms being exposed. This few-layer MoS2-porous TiO2 exhibits a H2 evolution rate of 897.5 μmol h-1 g-1, which is nearly twice as much as free-stand MoS2 nanosheets and twenty times more than physical mixture of MoS2 with porous TiO2. The high performance is attributed to that more active edge sites in few-layer MoS2-porous TiO2 are exposed than pure MoS2. This work provides a new method to construct MOFs derived porous structures for controlling MoS2 to expose active sites for HER.

  11. Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locking with MoS2-polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liming; Li, Xing; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Duanduan; Dai, Shixun; Peng, Jian; Weng, Jian; Nie, Qiuhua

    2018-03-01

    We have designed an all-fiber passive mode-locking thulium-doped fiber laser that uses molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a saturable absorber (SA) material. A free-standing few-layer MoS2-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film is fabricated by liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) and is then transferred onto the end face of a fiber connector. The excellent saturable absorption of the fabricated MoS2-based SA allows the laser to output soliton pulses at a pump power of 500 mW. Fundamental frequency mode-locking is realized at a repetition frequency of 13.9 MHz. The central wavelength is 1926 nm, the 3 dB spectral bandwidth is 2.86 nm and the pulse duration is 1.51 ps. Additionally, third-order harmonic mode-locking of the laser is also achieved. The pulse duration is 1.33 ps, which is slightly narrower than the fundamental frequency mode-locking bandwidth. The experimental results demonstrate that the few-layer MoS2-PVA SA is promising for use in 2 μm laser systems.

  12. Investigation of structural and electrical properties on substrate material for high frequency metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M.; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Janardhan Reddy, K.; JagadeeshChandra, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films were grown on cleaned P-type Ge and Si substrates by using atomic layer deposition technique (ALD) with thickness of 8 nm. The composition analysis of as-deposited and annealed HfO2 films was characterized by XPS, further electrical measurements; we fabricated the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with Pt electrode. Post deposition annealing in O2 ambient at 500 °C for 30 min was carried out on both Ge and Si devices. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) curves measured at 1 MHz. The Ge MOS devices showed improved interfacial and electrical properties, high dielectric constant (~19), smaller EOT value (0.7 nm), and smaller D it value as Si MOS devices. The C-V curves shown significantly high accumulation capacitance values from Ge devices, relatively when compare with the Si MOS devices before and after annealing. It could be due to the presence of very thin interfacial layer at HfO2/Ge stacks than HfO2/Si stacks conformed by the HRTEM images. Besides, from current-voltage (I-V) curves of the Ge devices exhibited similar leakage current as Si devices. Therefore, Ge might be a reliable substrate material for structural, electrical and high frequency applications.

  13. Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetector based on internal photoemission in CVD grown p-type MoS2/graphene Schottky junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabbina, PhaniKiran; Choudhary, Nitin; Chowdhury, Al-Amin; Sinha, Raju; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Das, Santanu; Choi, Wonbong; Pala, Nezih

    2015-07-22

    Two dimensional (2D) Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has evolved as a promising material for next generation optoelectronic devices owing to its unique electrical and optical properties, such as band gap modulation, high optical absorption, and increased luminescence quantum yield. The 2D MoS2 photodetectors reported in the literature have presented low responsivity compared to silicon based photodetectors. In this study, we assembled atomically thin p-type MoS2 with graphene to form a MoS2/graphene Schottky photodetector where photo generated holes travel from graphene to MoS2 over the Schottky barrier under illumination. We found that the p-type MoS2 forms a Schottky junction with graphene with a barrier height of 139 meV, which results in high photocurrent and wide spectral range of detection with wavelength selectivity. The fabricated photodetector showed excellent photosensitivity with a maximum photo responsivity of 1.26 AW(-1) and a noise equivalent power of 7.8 × 10(-12) W/√Hz at 1440 nm.

  14. One-Step Preparation of Large Area Films of Oriented MoS2 Nanoparticles on Multilayer Graphene and Its Electrocatalytic Activity for Hydrogen Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available MoS2 is a promising material to replace Pt-based catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER, due to its excellent stability and high activity. In this work, MoS2 nanoparticles supported on graphitic carbon (about 20 nm with a preferential 002 facet orientation have been prepared by pyrolysis of alginic acid films on quartz containing adsorbed (NH42MoS4 at 900 °C under Ar atmosphere. Although some variation of the electrocatalytic activity has been observed from batch to batch, the MoS2 sample exhibited activity for HER (a potential onset between 0.2 and 0.3 V vs. SCE, depending on the concentrations of (NH42MoS4 precursor used in the preparation process. The loading and particle size of MoS2, which correlate with the amount of exposed active sites in the sample, are the main factors influencing the electrocatalytic activity.

  15. Target Capture during Mos1 Transposition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, Aude; Jaillet, Jerôme; Petit, Agnès; Augé-Gouillou, Corinne; Renault, Sylvaine

    2014-01-01

    DNA transposition contributes to genomic plasticity. Target capture is a key step in the transposition process, because it contributes to the selection of new insertion sites. Nothing or little is known about how eukaryotic mariner DNA transposons trigger this step. In the case of Mos1, biochemistry and crystallography have deciphered several inverted terminal repeat-transposase complexes that are intermediates during transposition. However, the target capture complex is still unknown. Here, we show that the preintegration complex (i.e., the excised transposon) is the only complex able to capture a target DNA. Mos1 transposase does not support target commitment, which has been proposed to explain Mos1 random genomic integrations within host genomes. We demonstrate that the TA dinucleotide used as the target is crucial both to target recognition and in the chemistry of the strand transfer reaction. Bent DNA molecules are better targets for the capture when the target DNA is nicked two nucleotides apart from the TA. They improve strand transfer when the target DNA contains a mismatch near the TA dinucleotide. PMID:24269942

  16. Synthesis of MoS2-reduced graphene oxide/Fe3O4 nanocomposite for enhanced electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Jagdees; Singh, Ashwani Kumar; Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R. K.; Singh, Kedar

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a facile two step hydrothermal process for the synthesis of MoS2-reduced graphene oxide/Fe3O4 (MoS2-rGO/Fe3O4) nanocomposite and its application as an excellent electromagnetic interference shielding material. Characterization tools like; scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy were used to confirm the formation of nanocomposite and found that spherical Fe3O4 nanoparticles are well dispersed over MoS2-rGO composite with average particle size ∼25–30 nm was confirmed by TEM. Structural characterization done by XRD was found inconsistent with the known lattice parameter of MoS2 nanosheet, reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of MoS2-rGO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite was evaluated and found to be an excellent EMI shielding material in X-band range (8.0–12.0 GHz). MoS2-rGO composite shows poor shielding capacity (SET ∼ 3.81 dB) in entire range as compared to MoS2-rGO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite (SET ∼ 8.27 dB). It is due to interfacial polarization in the presence of EM field. The result indicates that MoS2-rGO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite provide a new stage for the next generation in high-performance EM wave absorption and EMI shielding effectiveness.

  17. Faceted MoS2 nanotubes and nanoflowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepak, Francis Leonard; Mayoral, Alvaro; Yacaman, Miguel Jose

    2009-01-01

    A simple synthesis of novel faceted MoS 2 nanotubes (NTs) and nanoflowers (NFs) starting from molybdenum oxide and thiourea as the sulphur source is reported. The MoS 2 nanotubes with the faceted morphology have not been observed before. Further the as-synthesized MoS 2 nanotubes have high internal surface area. The nanostructures have been characterized by a variety of electron microscopy techniques. It is expected that these MoS 2 nanostrutures will find important applications in energy storage, catalysis and field emission.

  18. MoS2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite for sensitive sensing of cysteamine in presence of uric acid in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekin, Fereshteh; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid nanocomposite of MoS 2 nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was fabricated by a facile and effective method. The morphology and structure of the nanocomposite (MoS 2 -rGO) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The MoS 2 nanosheets were uniformly anchored on the rGO framework with strong adhesion. A glassy carbon electrode modified by drop-casting with MoS 2 -rGO was used for the electrochemical oxidation of cysteamine (CA) in the presence of uric acid (UA). Under optimum conditions, the anodic peak current of CA shows a linear relation with the CA concentration between 0.01 and 20 μM with a detection limit of 7 nM. The proposed electrochemical sensor was used for determination of CA in human plasma. - Highlights: • The hybrid nanocomposite composed of MoS 2 nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide was fabricated by a facile and effective method. • The MoS 2 nanosheets were uniformly anchored on the rGO framework with strong adhesion. • Glassy carbon electrodes modified with MoS 2 -rGO was used for electro-oxidation of cysteamine (CA) in presence of uric acid (UA). • The anodic peak current of CA at the surface of modified electrode is linear to its concentration ranges at 0.01 to 20 μM with a detection limit of 7 nM. • The proposed electrochemical sensor was used for determination of CA in human plasma. • The accuracy of the method was as excellent comparing with the obtained results using reference method.

  19. Cube-like Cu2MoS4 photocatalysts for visible light-driven degradation of methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cube-like Cu2MoS4 nanoparticles with low-index facets and high crystallinity were fabricated via a hydrothermal method. The as-obtained nanocubes with an average size of 40-60 nm are composed of stacking-Cu2MoS4 layers separated by a weak Van der Waals gap of 0.5 nm. A strong absorption at visible light region is observed in the nanocube aqueous solution, indicating its optical-band gap of 1.78 eV. The photocatalytic measurements reveal that the nanocubes can thoroughly induce the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation with good structural stability. Our finding may provide a way in design and fabrication of transition metal dichalcogenide nanostructures for practical applications.

  20. Low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of 2-D MoS2 : Large area, thickness control and tuneable morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.; Verheijen, M.A.; Wu, L.; Karwal, S.; Vandalon, V.; Knoops, H.C.M.; Sundaram, R.S.; Hofmann, J.P.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bol, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Low-temperature controllable synthesis of monolayer-to-multilayer thick MoS2 with tuneable morphology is demonstrated by using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The characteristic self-limiting ALD growth with a growth-per-cycle of 0.1 nm per cycle and digital thickness control down

  1. Integrated circuits and logic operations based on single-layer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisavljevic, Branimir; Whitwick, Michael Brian; Kis, Andras

    2011-12-27

    Logic circuits and the ability to amplify electrical signals form the functional backbone of electronics along with the possibility to integrate multiple elements on the same chip. The miniaturization of electronic circuits is expected to reach fundamental limits in the near future. Two-dimensional materials such as single-layer MoS(2) represent the ultimate limit of miniaturization in the vertical dimension, are interesting as building blocks of low-power nanoelectronic devices, and are suitable for integration due to their planar geometry. Because they are less than 1 nm thin, 2D materials in transistors could also lead to reduced short channel effects and result in fabrication of smaller and more power-efficient transistors. Here, we report on the first integrated circuit based on a two-dimensional semiconductor MoS(2). Our integrated circuits are capable of operating as inverters, converting logical "1" into logical "0", with room-temperature voltage gain higher than 1, making them suitable for incorporation into digital circuits. We also show that electrical circuits composed of single-layer MoS(2) transistors are capable of performing the NOR logic operation, the basis from which all logical operations and full digital functionality can be deduced.

  2. Magnetoresistance in Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Ye, Meng; Wang, Yangyang; Quhe, Ruge; Pan, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ying; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Guo, Wanlin; Lu, Jing

    2016-06-28

    Semiconducting single-layer (SL) and few-layer MoS2 have a flat surface, free of dangling bonds. Using density functional theory coupled with non-equilibrium Green's function method, we investigate the spin-polarized transport properties of Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions with MoS2 layer numbers of N = 1, 3, and 5. Well-defined interfaces are formed between MoS2 and metal electrodes. The junctions with a SL MoS2 spacer are almost metallic owing to the strong coupling between MoS2 and the ferromagnets, while those are tunneling with a few layer MoS2 spacer. Both large magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance are found when fcc or hcp Co is used as an electrode. Therefore, flat single- and few-layer MoS2 can serve as an effective nonmagnetic spacer in a magnetoresistance or tunneling magnetoresistance device with a well-defined interface.

  3. Réalisation et caractérisation de transistors MOS à base de nanofils verticaux en silicium

    OpenAIRE

    GUERFI , Youssouf

    2015-01-01

    In order to further downscaling of the MOS transistors, the semiconductor industry has anticipated the limitations of miniaturization by the introduction of new materials and new architectures. The advent of triple gate structures (FinFET) allowed mastering the short channel effects and further miniaturization efforts (14 nm technology node in 2014). The ultimate case to the electrostatic control of the gate on the channel is given by a gate completely surrounding the device channel. For this...

  4. Effects of layer sequence and postdeposition annealing temperature on performance of La2O3 and HfO2 multilayer composite oxides on In0.53Ga0.47As for MOS capacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Hao; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Chuang, Ting-Wei; Chen, Yu-Chen; Hou, Tzu-Ching; Yao, Jing-Neng; Chang, Po-Chun; Iwai, Hiroshi; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Chang, Edward Yi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we report on high-k composite oxides that are formed by depositing multiple layers of HfO2 and La2O3 on In0.53Ga0.47As for MOS device application. Both multilayer HfO2 (0.8 nm)/La2O3 (0.8 nm)/In0.53Ga0.47As and La2O3 (0.8 nm)/HfO2 (0.8 nm)/In0.53Ga0.47As MOS structures were investigated. The effects of oxide thickness and postdeposition annealing (PDA) temperature on the interface properties of the composite oxide MOS capacitors were studied. It was found that a low CET of 1.41 nm at 1 kHz was achieved using three-layer composite oxides. On the other hand, a small frequency dispersion of 2.8% and an excellent Dit of 7.0 × 1011 cm-2·eV-1 can be achieved using multiple layers of La2O3 (0.8 nm) and HfO2 (0.8 nm) on the In0.53Ga0.47As MOS capacitor with optimum thermal treatment and layer thickness.

  5. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of MOS capacitors with Ge nanocrystals embedded in ZrO2 gate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye-Ryoung; Choi, Samjong; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2007-01-01

    Capacitance versus voltage (C-V) curves of Ge-nanocrystals (NCs)-embedded metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are characterized in this work. Ge NCs were formed in 20-nm thick ZrO 2 gate layers by ion implantation and subsequent annealing procedures. The formation of the Ge NCs in the ZrO 2 gate layers was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The C-V curves obtained from a representative MOS capacitor embedded with the Ge NCs exhibit a 3 V memory window as bias voltage varied from 9 to - 9 V and then back to the initial positive voltage, whereas MOS capacitors without Ge NCs show negligible memory windows at the same voltage range. This indicates the presence of charge storages in the Ge NCs. The counterclockwise hysteresis observed from the C-V curves implies that electrons are trapped in Ge NCs presented inside the ZrO 2 gate layer. And our experimental results obtained from capacitance versus time measurements show good retention characteristics of Ge-NCs-embedded MOS capacitors with ZrO 2 gate material for the application of NFGM

  6. Design method for a digitally trimmable MOS transistor structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ning, Feng; Bruun, Erik

    1996-01-01

    A digitally trimmable MOS transistor is a MOS transistor consisting of a drain, a source, and a main gate as well as several subgates. The transconductance of the transistor is tunabledigitally by means of connecting subgates either to the main gate or to the source terminal. In this paper, a sys...

  7. Power mos devices: structures and modelling procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossel, P.; Charitat, G.; Tranduc, H.; Morancho, F.; Moncoqut

    1997-05-01

    In this survey, the historical evolution of power MOS transistor structures is presented and currently used devices are described. General considerations on current and voltage capabilities are discussed and configurations of popular structures are given. A synthesis of different modelling approaches proposed last three years is then presented, including analytical solutions, for basic electrical parameters such as threshold voltage, on-resistance, saturation and quasi-saturation effects, temperature influence and voltage handling capability. The numerical solutions of basic semiconductor devices is then briefly reviewed along with some typical problems which can be solved this way. A compact circuit modelling method is finally explained with emphasis on dynamic behavior modelling

  8. High-resolution magnetic-domain imaging by Fourier transform holography at 21 nm wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffert, Stefan; Pfau, Bastian; Günther, Christian M; Schneider, Michael; Korff Schmising, Clemens von; Eisebitt, Stefan; Geilhufe, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the L-edges of 3d transition metals, Fourier transform holography has become a standard technique to investigate magnetic samples with sub-100 nm spatial resolution. Here, magnetic imaging in the 21 nm wavelength regime using M-edge circular dichroism is demonstrated. Ultrafast pulses in this wavelength regime are increasingly available from both laser- and accelerator-driven soft x-ray sources. We explain the adaptations concerning sample preparation and data evaluation compared to conventional holography in the 1 nm wavelength range. We find the correction of the Fourier transform hologram to in-plane Fourier components to be critical for high-quality reconstruction and demonstrate 70 nm spatial resolution in magnetization imaging with this approach. (paper)

  9. Intercalation of Si between MoS2 layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik van Bremen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of the growth of sub-monolayer amounts of silicon (Si on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2. At room temperature and low deposition rates we have found compelling evidence that the deposited Si atoms intercalate between the MoS2 layers. Our evidence relies on several experimental observations: (1 Upon the deposition of Si on pristine MoS2 the morphology of the surface transforms from a smooth surface to a hill-and-valley surface. The lattice constant of the hill-and-valley structure amounts to 3.16 Å, which is exactly the lattice constant of pristine MoS2. (2 The transitions from hills to valleys are not abrupt, as one would expect for epitaxial islands growing on-top of a substrate, but very gradual. (3 I(V scanning tunneling spectroscopy spectra recorded at the hills and valleys reveal no noteworthy differences. (4 Spatial maps of dI/dz reveal that the surface exhibits a uniform work function and a lattice constant of 3.16 Å. (5 X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy measurements reveal that sputtering of the MoS2/Si substrate does not lead to a decrease, but an increase of the relative Si signal. Based on these experimental observations we have to conclude that deposited Si atoms do not reside on the MoS2 surface, but rather intercalate between the MoS2 layers. Our conclusion that Si intercalates upon the deposition on MoS2 is at variance with the interpretation by Chiappe et al. (Adv. Mater. 2014, 26, 2096–2101 that silicon forms a highly strained epitaxial layer on MoS2. Finally, density functional theory calculations indicate that silicene clusters encapsulated by MoS2 are stable.

  10. A 77 K MOS magnetic field detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R S; Torres, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Puebla (Mexico); Garcia, P.J. [Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz (Mexico); Gutierrez, E.A. [Motorola, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-12-01

    An integrated MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor)-compatible magnetic field detector (split-drain MAGFET) for operation at liquid-nitrogen temperature LNT (77 K) is presented. The measured relative magnetic sensibility (S{sub a}) is approximately 14%/T (double the value ever reported) using a non-optimized MAGFET structure (W/L) = (100 mm/125 mm). The cryo-magnetic structure was tested without a built-in preamplifier. It presents a power consumption of the order of mW. [Spanish] A traves de este articulo se presenta un detector de campo magnetico (split-drain MAGFET), basado en el transistor de efecto de campo MOS (metal-oxido-semiconductor), y totalmente compatible con procesos de fabricacion de circuitos integrados CMOS. La operacion optima de este detector es a temperaturas criogenicas. Aqui se presentan los resultados experimentales de la caracterizacion de una estructura no optimizada con dimensiones (W / L) = (100 mm/125 mm) a la temperatura del nitrogeno liquido (77 K). La sensibilidad relativa medida es de cerca del 14 % T, casi el doble del valor maximo antes reportado en la literatura. El dispositivo se midio sin un pre-amplificador integrado, mostrando un consumo de potencia del orden de microwatts.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from in situ formation of few-layered MoS2/CdS nanosheet-based van der Waals heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Pan, Ziwei; Zhou, Kebin

    2017-05-25

    Here we report for the first time that the H 2 bubbles generated by photocatalytic water splitting are effective in the layer-by-layer exfoliation of MoS 2 nanocrystals (NCs) into few layers. The as-obtained few layers can be in situ assembled with CdS nanosheets (NSs) into van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) of few-layered MoS 2 /CdS NSs which, in turn, are effective in charge separation and transfer, leading to enhanced photocatalytic H 2 production activity. The few-layered MoS 2 /CdS vdWHs exhibited a H 2 evolution rate of 140 mmol g (CdS) -1 h -1 and achieved an apparent quantum yield of 66% at 420 nm.

  12. Determination of the hole effective mass in thin silicon dioxide film by means of an analysis of characteristics of a MOS tunnel emitter transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vexler, M I; Tyaginov, S E; Shulekin, A F

    2005-01-01

    The value of m h = 0.33 m 0 has been experimentally obtained for hole effective mass in a tunnel-thin (2-3 nm) SiO 2 film. The use of this value ensures the adequate modelling of a direct-tunnelling hole current in MOS devices. For the first time, in order to determine m h , the characteristics of a MOS tunnel emitter transistor have been mathematically processed, that allows for the precise estimation of the effective oxide thickness, as the electron effective mass in SiO 2 is independently known from the literature. The formulae for simulation of currents in a tunnel MOS structure are listed along with the necessary parameter values

  13. Industrial grade 2D molybdenum disulphide (MoS2): an in vitro exploration of the impact on cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Caroline; Movia, Dania; Smith, Ronan J.; Hanlon, Damien; Lebre, Filipa; Lavelle, Ed C.; Byrne, Hugh J.; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Volkov, Yuri; McIntyre, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    The recent surge in graphene research, since its liquid phase monolayer isolation and characterization in 2004, has led to advancements which are accelerating the exploration of alternative 2D materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), whose unique physico-chemical properties can be exploited in applications ranging from cutting edge electronic devices to nanomedicine. However, to assess any potential impact on human health and the environment, the need to understand the bio-interaction of MoS2 at a cellular and sub-cellular level is critical. Notably, it is important to assess such potential impacts of materials which are produced by large scale production techniques, rather than research grade materials. The aim of this study was to explore cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and inflammatory responses in established cell-lines that mimic different potential exposure routes (inhalation, A549; ingestion, AGS; monocyte, THP-1) following incubation with MoS2 flakes of varying sizes (50 nm, 117 nm and 177 nm), produced by liquid phase exfoliation. Using high content screening (HCS) and Live/Dead assays, it was established that 1 µg ml-1 (for the three different MoS2 sizes) did not induce toxic effects on any of the cell-lines. Confocal microscopy images revealed a normal cellular morphology in all cases. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the uptake of all MoS2 nanomaterials in all the cell-lines, the MoS2 ultimately locating in single membrane vesicles. At such sub-lethal doses, inflammatory responses are observed, however, associated, at least partially, with the presence of lipopolysaccharide endotoxin in nanomaterial suspensions and surfactant samples. Therefore, the inflammatory response of the cells to the MoS2 or endotoxin contamination was interrogated using a 10-plex ELISA which illustrates cytokine production. The experiments carried out using wild-type and endotoxin hyporesponsive bone marrow derived dendritic cells confirmed that the

  14. Photoluminescence wavelength variation of monolayer MoS2 by oxygen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Su; Nam, Giwoong; Park, Seki; Kim, Hyun; Han, Gang Hee; Lee, Jubok; Dhakal, Krishna P.; Leem, Jae-Young; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2015-01-01

    We performed nanoscale confocal photoluminescence (PL), Raman, and absorption spectral imaging measurements to investigate the optical and structural properties of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) monolayers synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method and subjected to oxygen plasma treatment for 10 to 120 s under high vacuum (1.3 × 10 −3 Pa). Oxygen plasma treatment induced red shifts of ~ 20 nm in the PL emission peaks corresponding to A and B excitons. Similarly, the peak positions corresponding to A and B excitons of the absorption spectra were red-shifted following oxygen plasma treatment. Based on the confocal PL, absorption, and Raman microscopy results, we suggest that the red-shifting of the A and B exciton peaks originated from shallow defect states generated by oxygen plasma treatment. - Highlights: • Effects of oxygen plasma on optical properties of monolayer MoS 2 were investigated. • Confocal photoluminescence, Raman, and absorption spectral maps are presented. • Wavelength tuning up to ~ 20 nm for the peak emission wavelength was achieved

  15. Dynamical observations on the crack tip zone and stress corrosion of two-dimensional MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Ly, Thuc Hue

    2017-01-18

    Whether and how fracture mechanics needs to be modified for small length scales and in systems of reduced dimensionality remains an open debate. Here, employing in situ transmission electron microscopy, atomic structures and dislocation dynamics in the crack tip zone of a propagating crack in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer MoS2 membrane are observed, and atom-to-atom displacement mapping is obtained. The electron beam is used to initiate the crack; during in situ observation of crack propagation the electron beam effect is minimized. The observed high-frequency emission of dislocations is beyond previous understanding of the fracture of brittle MoS2. Strain analysis reveals dislocation emission to be closely associated with the crack propagation path in nanoscale. The critical crack tip plastic zone size of nearly perfect 2D MoS2 is between 2 and 5 nm, although it can grow to 10 nm under corrosive conditions such as ultraviolet light exposure, showing enhanced dislocation activity via defect generation.

  16. 300 mm arrays and 30 nm Features: Frontiers in Sorting Biological Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Robert; Comella, Brandon; D'Silva, Joseph; Sturm, James

    2014-03-01

    One of the great challenges in prediction of metastasis is determining when the metastatic process actually begins. It is presumed that this process occurs due to passage of biological objects in the blood from tumor to remote sites. We will discuss our attempts to find both very large objects (circulating tumor cell clumps) and very small (exosomes) using a combination of extremely large scale photolithography on 300 mm wafers and deep-UV lithography to produce sub-100 nm arrays to sort exosomes. These technologies push the envelope of present day academic facilities . Supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Cancer Institute.

  17. Monitoring the formation of inorganic fullerene-like MoS2 nanostructures by laser ablation in liquid environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compagnini, Giuseppe; Sinatra, Marco G.; Messina, Gabriele C.; Patanè, Giacomo; Scalese, Silvia; Puglisi, Orazio

    2012-01-01

    Laser ablation of solid targets in liquid media is emerging as a simple, clean and reproducible way to generate a large number of intriguing nanometric structures with peculiar properties. In this work we present some results on the formation of MoS 2 fullerene-like nanoparticles (10-15 nm diameter) obtained by the ablation of crystalline targets in water. Such a top-down approach can be considered greener than standard sulphidization reactions and represents an intriguing single step procedure. The generation of the MoS 2 nanostructures is in competition with that of oxide clusters and strongly depends on the oxidative environment created by the plasma plume. The size, shape and crystalline phase of the obtained nanoparticles are studied by microscopy while X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy is used to investigate the chemical state of produced nanostructures and to propose mechanisms for their growth.

  18. Chemical sensitivity of Mo gate Mos capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, R.M.; Aragon, R. [Laboratorio de Peliculas delgadas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Colon 850, 1063, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    Mo gate Mos capacitors exhibit a negative shift of their C-V characteristic by up to 240 mV, at 125 C, in response to 1000 ppm hydrogen, in controlled nitrogen atmospheres. The experimental methods for obtaining capacitance and conductance, as a function of polarisation voltage, as well as the relevant equivalent circuits are reviewed. The single-state interface state density, at the semiconductor-dielectric interface, decreases from 2.66 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} e-v{sup -1}, in pure nitrogen, to 2.5 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} e-v{sup -1} in 1000 ppm hydrogen in nitrogen mixtures, at this temperature. (Author)

  19. Development and characterization of vertical double-gate MOS field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trellenkamp, S.

    2004-07-01

    Planar MOS-field-effect transistors are common devices today used by the computer industry. When their miniaturization reaches its limit, alternate transistor concepts become necessary. In this thesis the development of vertical Double-Gate-MOS-field-effect transistors is presented. These types of transistors have a vertically aligned p-n-p junction (or n-p-n junction, respectively). Consequently, the source-drain current flows perpendicular with respect to the surface of the wafer. A Double-Gate-field-effect transistor is characterized by a very thin channel region framed by two parallel gates. Due to the symmetry of the structure and less bulk volume better gate control and hence better short channel behavior is expected, as well as an improved scaling potential. Nanostructuring of the transistor's active region is very challenging. Approximately 300 nm high and down to 30 nm wide silicon ridges are requisite. They can be realized using hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) as inorganic high resolution resist for electron beam lithography. Structures defined in HSQ are then transferred with high anisotropy and selectivity into silicon using ICP-RIE (reactive ion etching with inductive coupled plasma). 25 nm wide and 330 nm high silicon ridges are achieved. Different transistor layouts are realized. The channel length is defined by epitaxial growth of doped silicon layers before or by ion implantation after nanostructuring, respectively. The transistors show source-drain currents up to 380 μA/μm and transconductances up to 480 μS/μm. Improved short channel behavior for decreasing width of the silicon ridges is demonstrated. (orig.)

  20. Fast and slow border traps in MOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent lines of evidence are reviewed which show that near-interfacial oxide traps (border traps) that exchange charge with the Si can strongly affect the performance, radiation response, and long-term reliability of MOS devices. Observable effects of border traps include capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis, enhanced l/f noise, compensation of trapped holes, and increased thermally stimulated current in MOS capacitors. Effects of faster (switching times between ∼10 -6 s and ∼1 s) and slower (switching times greater than ∼1 s) border traps have been resolved via a dual-transistor technique. In conjunction with studies of MOS electrical response, electron paramagnetic resonance and spin dependent recombination studies suggest that E' defects (trivalent Si centers in SiO 2 associated with O vacancies) can function as border traps in MOS devices exposed to ionizing radiation or high-field stress. Hydrogen-related centers may also be border traps

  1. Monolayer MoS2 heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Menglin

    2014-08-26

    We realized photovoltaic operation in large-scale MoS2 monolayers by the formation of a type-II heterojunction with p-Si. The MoS 2 monolayer introduces a built-in electric field near the interface between MoS2 and p-Si to help photogenerated carrier separation. Such a heterojunction photovoltaic device achieves a power conversion efficiency of 5.23%, which is the highest efficiency among all monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide-based solar cells. The demonstrated results of monolayer MoS 2/Si-based solar cells hold the promise for integration of 2D materials with commercially available Si-based electronics in highly efficient devices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. Regulation of mariner transposition: the peculiar case of Mos1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Jaillet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mariner elements represent the most successful family of autonomous DNA transposons, being present in various plant and animal genomes, including humans. The introduction and co-evolution of mariners within host genomes imply a strict regulation of the transposon activity. Biochemical data accumulated during the past decade have led to a convergent picture of the transposition cycle of mariner elements, suggesting that mariner transposition does not rely on host-specific factors. This model does not account for differences of transposition efficiency in human cells between mariners. We thus wondered whether apparent similarities in transposition cycle could hide differences in the intrinsic parameters that control mariner transposition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find that Mos1 transposase concentrations in excess to the Mos1 ends prevent the paired-end complex assembly. However, we observe that Mos1 transposition is not impaired by transposase high concentration, dismissing the idea that transposase over production plays an obligatory role in the down-regulation of mariner transposition. Our main finding is that the paired-end complex is formed in a cooperative way, regardless of the transposase concentration. We also show that an element framed by two identical ITRs (Inverted Terminal Repeats is more efficient in driving transposition than an element framed by two different ITRs (i.e. the natural Mos1 copy, the latter being more sensitive to transposase concentration variations. Finally, we show that the current Mos1 ITRs correspond to the ancestral ones. CONCLUSIONS: We provide new insights on intrinsic properties supporting the self-regulation of the Mos1 element. These properties (transposase specific activity, aggregation, ITR sequences, transposase concentration/transposon copy number ratio... could have played a role in the dynamics of host-genomes invasion by Mos1, accounting (at least in part for the current low copy number of

  3. Thermochemical study of MoS2 oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, D.S.; Topor, N.D.; Kesler, Ya.A.

    1990-01-01

    Thermochemical studies of oxidation processes of metallic molybdenum, sulfur, molybdenum disulfide under different conditions in microcalorimeter are conducted. Values of thermal effects which are used to calculate standard formation enthalpy of MoS 2 and which correlate well are obtained. Δ f H 0 (MoS 2 ,298.15 K) recommended value constitutes (-223.0±16.7) kJ/mol

  4. Rapid water disinfection using vertically aligned MoS_2 nanofilms and visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chong; Kong, Desheng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Yuan, Hongtao; Lee, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Here, solar energy is readily available in most climates and can be used for water purification. However, solar disinfection of drinking water (SODIS) mostly relies on ultraviolet light, which represents only 4% of total solar energy, and this leads to slow treatment speed. The development of new materials that can harvest visible light for water disinfection, and speed up solar water purification, is therefore highly desirable. Here, we show that few-layered vertically aligned MoS_2 (FLV-MoS_2) films can be used to harvest the whole spectrum of visible light (~ 50% of solar energy) and achieve highly efficient water disinfection. The bandgap of MoS_2 was increased from 1.3 eV to 1.55 eV by decreasing the domain size, which allowed the FLV-MoS_2 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for bacterial inactivation in water. The FLV-MoS_2 showed ~15 times better log inactivation efficiency of indicator bacteria compared to bulk MoS_2, and much faster inactivation of bacteria under both visible light and sunlight illumination compared to widely used TiO_2. Moreover, by using a 5 nm copper film on top of the FLV-MoS_2 as a catalyst to facilitate electron-hole pair separation and promote the generation of ROS, the disinfection rate was further increased 6 fold. With our approach, we achieved water disinfection of >99.999% inactivation of bacteria in 20 minutes with a small amount of material (1.6 mg/L) under simulated visible light.

  5. Rapid water disinfection using vertically aligned MoS2 nanofilms and visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chong; Kong, Desheng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Yuan, Hongtao; Lee, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    In most climates, solar energy is readily available and can be used for water purification. But, solar disinfection of drinking water mostly relies on ultraviolet light, which represents only 4% of the total solar energy, and this leads to a slow treatment speed. Therefore, the development of new materials that can harvest visible light for water disinfection, and so speed up solar water purification, is highly desirable. Here we show that few-layered vertically aligned MoS_2 (FLV-MoS_2) films can be used to harvest the whole spectrum of visible light (~50% of solar energy) and achieve highly efficient water disinfection. The bandgap of MoS_2 was increased from 1.3 to 1.55 eV by decreasing the domain size, which allowed the FLV-MoS_2 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for bacterial inactivation in the water. The FLV-MoS_2 showed a ~15 times better log inactivation efficiency of the indicator bacteria compared with that of bulk MoS_2, and a much faster inactivation of bacteria under both visible light and sunlight illumination compared with the widely used TiO_2. Moreover, by using a 5 nm copper film on top of the FLV-MoS_2 as a catalyst to facilitate electron–hole pair separation and promote the generation of ROS, the disinfection rate was increased a further sixfold. Here, we achieved water disinfection of >99.999% inactivation of bacteria in 20 min with a small amount of material (1.6 mg l–1) under simulated visible light.

  6. Study of drain-extended NMOS under electrostatic discharge stress in 28 nm and 40 nm CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weihuai; Jin, Hao; Dong, Shurong; Zhong, Lei; Han, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Researches on the electrostatic discharge (ESD) performance of drain-extended NMOS (DeNMOS) under the state-of-the-art 28 nm and 40 nm bulk CMOS process are performed in this paper. Three distinguishing phases of avalanche breakdown stage, depletion region push-out stage and parasitic NPN turn on stage of the gate-grounded DeNMOS (GG-DeNMOS) fabricated under 28 nm CMOS process measured with transmission line pulsing (TLP) test are analyzed through TCAD simulations and tape-out silicon verification detailedly. Damage mechanisms and failure spots of GG-DeNMOS under both CMOS processes are thermal breakdown of drain junction. Improvements based on the basic structure adjustments can increase the GG-DeNMOS robustness from original 2.87 mA/μm to the highest 5.41 mA/μm. Under 40 nm process, parameter adjustments based on the basic structure have no significant benefits on the robustness improvements. By inserting P+ segments in the N+ implantation of drain or an entire P+ strip between the N+ implantation of drain and polysilicon gate to form the typical DeMOS-SCR (silicon-controlled rectifier) structure, the ESD robustness can be enhanced from 1.83 mA/μm to 8.79 mA/μm and 29.78 mA/μm, respectively.

  7. Cryogenic Lifetime Studies of 130 nm and 65 nm CMOS Technologies for High-Energy Physics Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, James R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Deptuch, G. W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wu, Guoying [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Gui, Ping [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-04

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility intends to use unprecedented volumes of liquid argon to fill a time projection chamber in an underground facility. Research is under way to place the electronics inside the cryostat. For reasons of efficiency and economics, the lifetimes of these circuits must be well in excess of 20 years. The principle mechanism for lifetime degradation of MOSFET devices and circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures is hot carrier degradation. Choosing a process technology that is, as much as possible, immune to such degradation and developing design techniques to avoid exposure to such damage are the goals. This, then, requires careful investigation and a basic understanding of the mechanisms that underlie hot carrier degradation and the secondary effects they cause in circuits. In this work, commercially available 130 nm and 65 nm nMOS transistors operating at cryogenic temperatures are investigated. Our results show that both technologies achieve the lifetimes required by the experiment. Minimal design changes are necessary in the case of the 130 nm process and no changes whatsoever are necessary for the 65 nm process.

  8. Enhanced Selectivity and Uptake Capacity of CO2 and Toluene Adsorption in Co0.5 M0.33 MoS4 (M= Sb or Y) Chalcogels by Impregnated Metal Salts

    KAUST Repository

    Adhiam, Fatima Abdullah Ahmed

    2017-11-17

    The synthesis of metal chalcogenide aerogels Co0.5M0.33MoS4 (M= Sb or Y) by the sol-gel method is reported. In this system, the building blocks [MoS4]2− chelated with Co2+ and (Sb3+) or (Y3+) salts in nonaqueous solvents forming amorphous networks with a gel property. The chalcogels obtained after supercritical drying have BET surface areas of 176 m2 g−1 (Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4) and 145 m2 g−1 (Co0.5Y0.33MoS4). Electron microscopy and physisorption studies reveal that the new materials are porous with wide pore size distribution and average pore width of 16 nm. These chalcogels show higher adsorption capacity of toluene vapor (Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4: 387 mg g−1) and (Co0.5Y0.33MoS4: 304 mg g−1) over cyclohexane vapor and high selectivity of CO2 over CH4 or H2, Co0.5Sb0.33MoS4 (CO2/H2: 80 and CO2/CH4: 21), Co0.5Y0.33MoS4 (CO2/H2: 27 and CO2/CH4: 15). We also demonstrated that the impregnation of various metal species like Li+, Mg2+, and Ni2+ significantly enhanced the uptake capacity and selectivity of toluene and CO2 adsorptions in the chacogels.

  9. DPFFs: C2MOS Direct Path Flip-Flops for Process-Resilient Ultradynamic Voltage Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong-Eun Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two master-slave flip-flops (FFs that utilize the clocked CMOS (C2MOS technique with an internal direct connection along the main signal propagation path between the master and slave latches and adopt an adaptive body bias technique to improve circuit robustness. C2MOS structure improves the setup margin and robustness while providing full compatibility with the standard cell characterization flow. Further, the direct path shortens the logic depth and thus speeds up signal propagation, which can be optimized for less power and smaller area. Measurements from test circuits fabricated in 130 nm technology show that the proposed FF operates down to 60 mV, consuming 24.7 pW while improving the propagation delay, dynamic power, and leakage by 22%, 9%, and 13%, respectively, compared with conventional FFs at the iso-output-load condition. The proposed FFs are integrated into an 8×8 FIR filter which successfully operates all the way down to 85 mV.

  10. Radiation effects on custom MOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.

    1999-05-01

    This Thesis consists of four chapters: The first is primarily for background information on the effects of radiation on MOS devices and the theory of wafer bonding; the second gives a full discussion of all practical work carried out for manufacture of Field Effect test Capacitors, the third discusses manufacture of vacuum insulator Field Effect Transistors (FET's) and the fourth discusses the testing of these devices. Using a thermally bonded field effect capacitor structure, a vacuum dielectric was studied for use in high radiation environments with a view to manufacturing a CMOS compatible, micro machined transistor. Results are given in the form of high frequency C-V curves before and after a 120 kGy(Si), 12 MRad(Si), dose from a Co 60 source showing a 1 Volt shift. The work is then extended to the design and manufacture of a micro machined, under-etch technique, Field Effect Transistor for use in high radiation areas. Results are shown for Threshold, Subthreshold and Transfer characteristics before and after irradiation up to a total dose of 100kGy or 10MRad. The conclusion from this work is that it should be possible to commercially manufacture practical vacuum dielectric field effect transistors which are radiation hard to at least 120 kGy(Si). (author)

  11. Protection of MOS capacitors during anodic bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjølberg-Henriksen, K.; Plaza, J. A.; Rafí, J. M.; Esteve, J.; Campabadal, F.; Santander, J.; Jensen, G. U.; Hanneborg, A.

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the electrical damage by anodic bonding on CMOS-quality gate oxide and methods to prevent this damage. n-type and p-type MOS capacitors were characterized by quasi-static and high-frequency CV-curves before and after anodic bonding. Capacitors that were bonded to a Pyrex wafer with 10 μm deep cavities enclosing the capacitors exhibited increased leakage current and interface trap density after bonding. Two different methods were successful in protecting the capacitors from such damage. Our first approach was to increase the cavity depth from 10 μm to 50 μm, thus reducing the electric field across the gate oxide during bonding from approximately 2 × 105 V cm-1 to 4 × 104 V cm-1. The second protection method was to coat the inside of a 10 μm deep Pyrex glass cavity with aluminium, forming a Faraday cage that removed the electric field across the cavity during anodic bonding. Both methods resulted in capacitors with decreased interface trap density and unchanged leakage current after bonding. No change in effective oxide charge or mobile ion contamination was observed on any of the capacitors in the study.

  12. Highly Enhanced Gas Adsorption Properties in Vertically Aligned MoS2 Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Seon Joon; Lee, Youhan; Kim, Jong-Seon; Jung, Woo-Bin; Yoo, Hae-Wook; Kim, Jihan; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-09-22

    In this work, we demonstrate that gas adsorption is significantly higher in edge sites of vertically aligned MoS2 compared to that of the conventional basal plane exposed MoS2 films. To compare the effect of the alignment of MoS2 on the gas adsorption properties, we synthesized three distinct MoS2 films with different alignment directions ((1) horizontally aligned MoS2 (basal plane exposed), (2) mixture of horizontally aligned MoS2 and vertically aligned layers (basal and edge exposed), and (3) vertically aligned MoS2 (edge exposed)) by using rapid sulfurization method of CVD process. Vertically aligned MoS2 film shows about 5-fold enhanced sensitivity to NO2 gas molecules compared to horizontally aligned MoS2 film. Vertically aligned MoS2 has superior resistance variation compared to horizontally aligned MoS2 even with same surface area exposed to identical concentration of gas molecules. We found that electrical response to target gas molecules correlates directly with the density of the exposed edge sites of MoS2 due to high adsorption of gas molecules onto edge sites of vertically aligned MoS2. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations corroborate the experimental results as stronger NO2 binding energies are computed for multiple configurations near the edge sites of MoS2, which verifies that electrical response to target gas molecules (NO2) correlates directly with the density of the exposed edge sites of MoS2 due to high adsorption of gas molecules onto edge sites of vertically aligned MoS2. We believe that this observation extends to other 2D TMD materials as well as MoS2 and can be applied to significantly enhance the gas sensor performance in these materials.

  13. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and casein as substrates for 124-v-Mos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stabel Silvia

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mos proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic serine/threonine-specific protein kinase with crucial function during meiotic cell division in vertebrates. Based on oncogenic amino acid substitutions the viral derivative, 124-v-Mos, displays constitutive protein kinase activity and functions independent of unknown upstream effectors of mos protein kinase. We have utilized this property of 124-v-Mos and screened for novel mos substrates in immunocomplex kinase assays in vitro. Results We generated recombinant 124-v-Mos using the baculovirus expression system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and demonstrated constitutive kinase activity by the ability of 124-v-Mos to auto-phosphorylate and to phosphorylate vimentin, a known substrate of c-Mos. Using this approach we analyzed a panel of acidic and basic substrates in immunocomplex protein kinase assays and identified novel in vitro substrates for 124-v-Mos, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, alpha-casein and beta-casein. We controlled mos-specific phosphorylation of PTP1B and casein in comparative assays using a synthetic kinase-inactive 124-v-Mos mutant and further, tryptic digests of mos-phosphorylated beta-casein identified a phosphopeptide specifically targeted by wild-type 124-v-Mos. Two-dimensional phosphoamino acid analyses showed that 124-v-mos targets serine and threonine residues for phosphorylation in casein at a 1:1 ratio but auto-phosphorylation occurs predominantly on serine residues. Conclusion The mos substrates identified in this study represent a basis to approach the identification of the mos-consensus phosphorylation motif, important for the development of specific inhibitors of the Mos protein kinase.

  14. Low-frequency noise in multilayer MoS2 field-effect transistors: the effect of high-k passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Junhong; Joo, Min-Kyu; Shin, Minju; Huh, Junghwan; Kim, Jae-Sung; Piao, Mingxing; Jin, Jun-Eon; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Choi, Hyung Jong; Shim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2014-01-07

    Diagnosing of the interface quality and the interactions between insulators and semiconductors is significant to achieve the high performance of nanodevices. Herein, low-frequency noise (LFN) in mechanically exfoliated multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) (~11.3 nm-thick) field-effect transistors with back-gate control was characterized with and without an Al2O3 high-k passivation layer. The carrier number fluctuation (CNF) model associated with trapping/detrapping the charge carriers at the interface nicely described the noise behavior in the strong accumulation regime both with and without the Al2O3 passivation layer. The interface trap density at the MoS2-SiO2 interface was extracted from the LFN analysis, and estimated to be Nit ~ 10(10) eV(-1) cm(-2) without and with the passivation layer. This suggested that the accumulation channel induced by the back-gate was not significantly influenced by the passivation layer. The Hooge mobility fluctuation (HMF) model implying the bulk conduction was found to describe the drain current fluctuations in the subthreshold regime, which is rarely observed in other nanodevices, attributed to those extremely thin channel sizes. In the case of the thick-MoS2 (~40 nm-thick) without the passivation, the HMF model was clearly observed all over the operation regime, ensuring the existence of the bulk conduction in multilayer MoS2. With the Al2O3 passivation layer, the change in the noise behavior was explained from the point of formation of the additional top channel in the MoS2 because of the fixed charges in the Al2O3. The interface trap density from the additional CNF model was Nit = 1.8 × 10(12) eV(-1) cm(-2) at the MoS2-Al2O3 interface.

  15. Gate-stack engineering for self-organized Ge-dot/SiO2/SiGe-shell MOS capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ting eLai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the first-of-its-kind, self-organized gate-stack heterostructure of Ge-dot/SiO2/SiGe-shell on Si fabricated in a single step through the selective oxidation of a SiGe nano-patterned pillar over a Si3N4 buffer layer on a Si substrate. Process-controlled tunability of the Ge-dot size (7.5−90 nm, the SiO2 thickness (3−4 nm, and as well the SiGe-shell thickness (2−15 nm has been demonstrated, enabling a practically-achievable core building block for Ge-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS devices. Detailed morphologies, structural, and electrical interfacial properties of the SiO2/Ge-dot and SiO2/SiGe interfaces were assessed using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and temperature-dependent high/low-frequency capacitance-voltage measurements. Notably, NiGe/SiO2/SiGe and Al/SiO2/Ge-dot/SiO2/SiGe MOS capacitors exhibit low interface trap densities of as low as 3-5x10^11 cm^-2·eV^-1 and fixed charge densities of 1-5x10^11 cm^-2, suggesting good-quality SiO2/SiGe-shell and SiO2/Ge-dot interfaces. In addition, the advantage of having single-crystalline Si1-xGex shell (x > 0.5 in a compressive stress state in our self-aligned gate-stack heterostructure has great promise for possible SiGe (or Ge MOS nanoelectronic and nanophotonic applications.

  16. Advanced CMOS device technologies for 45 nm node and below

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Veloso, T. Hoffmann, A. Lauwers, H. Yu, S. Severi, E. Augendre, S. Kubicek, P. Verheyen, N. Collaert, P. Absil, M. Jurczak and S. Biesemans

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We review and discuss the latest developments and technology options for 45 nm node and below, with scaled planar bulk MOSFETs and MuGFETs as emerging devices. One of the main metal gate (MG candidates for scaled CMOS technologies are fully silicided (FUSI gates. In this work, by means of a selective and controlled poly etch-back integration process, dual work-function Ni-based FUSI/HfSiON CMOS circuits with record ring oscillator performance (high-VT are reported (17 ps at VDD=1.1 V and 20 pA/μm Ioff, meeting the ITRS 45 nm node requirement for low-power (LP CMOS. Compatibility of FUSI and other MG with known stress boosters like stressed CESL (contact-etch-stop-layer with high intrinsic stress or embedded SiGe in the pMOS S/D regions is validated. To obtain MuGFET devices that are competitive, as compared to conventional planar bulk devices, and that meet the stringent drive and leakage current requirements for the 32 nm node and beyond, higher channel mobilities are required. Results obtained by several strain engineering methods are presented here.

  17. Two-dimensional MoS2 electromechanical actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen T.; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Saito, Riichiro

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the electromechanical properties of two-dimensional MoS2 monolayers with 1H, 1T, and 1T‧ structures as a function of charge doping by using density functional theory. We find isotropic elastic moduli in the 1H and 1T structures, while the 1T‧ structure exhibits an anisotropic elastic modulus. Moreover, the 1T structure is shown to have a negative Poisson’s ratio, while Poisson’s ratios of the 1H and 1T‧ are positive. By charge doping, the monolayer MoS2 shows a reversible strain and work density per cycle ranging from  -0.68% to 2.67% and from 4.4 to 36.9 MJ m-3, respectively, making them suitable for applications in electromechanical actuators. We also examine the stress generated in the MoS2 monolayers and we find that 1T and 1T‧ MoS2 monolayers have relatively better performance than 1H MoS2 monolayer. We argue that such excellent electromechanical performance originate from the electrical conductivity of the metallic 1T and semimetallic 1T‧ structures and also from their high Young’s modulus of about 150-200 GPa.

  18. Simulation of current-voltage characteristics of a MOS structure considering the tunnel transport of carriers in semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vexler, M I

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a tunnel charge transport in the near-surface region of silicon on the electrical characteristics of MOS structures with a 2-3 nm insulator layer is studied theoretically. An equilibrium condition for the substrate is assumed. The cases of an Al and polySi gate are considered. The possibility of a 'double' (in Si and through SiO 2 ) tunnelling expands the energy range of transported particles, which increases one of the components of the total tunnel current. The proposed model allows for the improved simulation of gate current in MOSFETs, which is especially important for highly-doped substrates

  19. The correlation between electroluminescence properties and the microstructure of Europium-implanted MOS light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebohle, L.; Lehmann, J.; Kanjilal, A.; Prucnal, S.; Nazarov, A.; Tyagulskii, I.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we investigated the correlation between the EL, the electrical properties and the microstructure of Eu-implanted MOS light emitting devices. The EL spectrum shows a red EL line centered at 618 nm which is usually assigned to Eu 3+ and a broad blue-green EL band attributed to Eu 2+ . It was found that the red EL is favored by low injection currents, low Eu concentrations, lower anneal temperatures and shorter anneal times, especially for flash lamp annealing. These properties are correlated with microstructural changes triggered by ion implantation and annealing, especially with the formation and ripening of Eu or Eu oxide clusters which strongly quench the red EL. Finally, the influence of Eu agglomerations at the injecting interface on the electrical properties of the light emitter is discussed.

  20. Modifications of Fowler-Nordheim injection characteristics in γ irradiated MOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpa, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Montera, F.; Candelori, A.; Ghidini, G.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this work the authors have investigated how gamma irradiation affects the tunneling conduction mechanism of a 20 nm thick oxide in MOS capacitors. The radiation induced positive charge is rapidly compensated by the injected electrons, and does not impact the gate current under positive injection after the first current-voltage measurement. Only a transient stress induced leakage current at low gate bias is observed. Instead, a radiation induced negative charge has been observed near the polysilicon gate, which enhances the gate voltage needed for Fowler-Nordheim conduction at negative gate bias. No time decay of this charge has been observed. Such charges slightly modify the trapping kinetics of negative charge during subsequent electrical stresses performed at constant current condition

  1. Silicon Mie resonators for highly directional light emission from monolayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Ahmet Fatih; Curto, Alberto G.; Raza, Søren; Kik, Pieter G.; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2018-05-01

    Controlling light emission from quantum emitters has important applications, ranging from solid-state lighting and displays to nanoscale single-photon sources. Optical antennas have emerged as promising tools to achieve such control right at the location of the emitter, without the need for bulky, external optics. Semiconductor nanoantennas are particularly practical for this purpose because simple geometries such as wires and spheres support multiple, degenerate optical resonances. Here, we start by modifying Mie scattering theory developed for plane wave illumination to describe scattering of dipole emission. We then use this theory and experiments to demonstrate several pathways to achieve control over the directionality, polarization state and spectral emission that rely on a coherent coupling of an emitting dipole to optical resonances of a silicon nanowire. A forward-to-backward ratio of 20 was demonstrated for the electric dipole emission at 680 nm from a monolayer MoS2 by optically coupling it to a silicon nanowire.

  2. Direct imaging of band profile in single layer MoS2 on graphite: quasiparticle energy gap, metallic edge states, and edge band bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chendong; Johnson, Amber; Hsu, Chang-Lung; Li, Lain-Jong; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2014-05-14

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we probe the electronic structures of single layer MoS2 on graphite. The apparent quasiparticle energy gap of single layer MoS2 is measured to be 2.15 ± 0.06 eV at 77 K, albeit a higher second conduction band threshold at 0.2 eV above the apparent conduction band minimum is also observed. Combining it with photoluminescence studies, we deduce an exciton binding energy of 0.22 ± 0.1 eV (or 0.42 eV if the second threshold is use), a value that is lower than current theoretical predictions. Consistent with theoretical predictions, we directly observe metallic edge states of single layer MoS2. In the bulk region of MoS2, the Fermi level is located at 1.8 eV above the valence band maximum, possibly due to the formation of a graphite/MoS2 heterojunction. At the edge, however, we observe an upward band bending of 0.6 eV within a short depletion length of about 5 nm, analogous to the phenomena of Fermi level pinning of a 3D semiconductor by metallic surface states.

  3. Improved integration of ultra-thin high-k dielectrics in few-layer MoS2 FET by remote forming gas plasma pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tian-Bao; Yang, Wen; Zhu, Hao; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, David Wei

    2017-01-01

    The effective and high-quality integration of high-k dielectrics on two-dimensional (2D) crystals is essential to the device structure engineering and performance improvement of field-effect transistor (FET) based on the 2D semiconductors. We report a 2D MoS2 transistor with ultra-thin Al2O3 top-gate dielectric (6.1 nm) and extremely low leakage current. Remote forming gas plasma pretreatment was carried out prior to the atomic layer deposition, providing nucleation sites with the physically adsorbed ions on the MoS2 surface. The top gate MoS2 FET exhibited excellent electrical performance, including high on/off current ratio over 109, subthreshold swing of 85 mV/decade and field-effect mobility of 45.03 cm2/V s. Top gate leakage current less than 0.08 pA/μm2 at 4 MV/cm has been obtained, which is the smallest compared with the reported top-gated MoS2 transistors. Such an optimized integration of high-k dielectric in 2D semiconductor FET with enhanced performance is very attractive, and it paves the way towards the realization of more advanced 2D nanoelectronic devices and integrated circuits.

  4. MoS2: a two-dimensional hole-transporting material for high-efficiency, low-cost perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnehpoushi, Saman; Nazari, Pariya; Abdollahi Nejand, Bahram; Eskandari, Mehdi

    2018-05-01

    In this work MoS2 thin film was studied as a potential two-dimensional (2D) hole-transporting material for fabrication of low-cost, durable and efficient perovskite solar cells. The thickness of MoS2 was studied as a potential factor in reaching high power conversion efficiency in perovskite solar cells. The thickness of the perovskite layer and the different metal back contacts gave distinct photovoltaic properties to the designed cells. The results show that a single sheet of MoS2 could considerably improve the power conversion efficacy of the device from 10.41% for a hole transport material (HTM)-free device to 20.43% for a device prepared with a 0.67 nm thick MoS2 layer as a HTM. On the back, Ag and Al collected the carriers more efficiently than Au due to the value of their metal contact work function with the TiO2 conduction band. The present work proposes a new architecture for the fabrication of low-cost, durable and efficient perovskite solar cells made from a low-cost and robust inorganic HTM and electron transport material.

  5. Plasmons on the edge of MoS2 nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirsten; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    Using ab initio calculations we predict the existence of one-dimensional (1D), atomically confined plasmons at the edges of a zigzag MoS2 nanoribbon. The strongest plasmon originates from a metallic edge state localized on the sulfur dimers decorating the Mo edge of the ribbon. A detailed analysis...... of the dielectric function reveals that the observed deviations from the ideal 1D plasmon behavior result from single-particle transitions between the metallic edge state and the valence and conduction bands of the MoS2 sheet. The Mo and S edges of the ribbon are clearly distinguishable in calculated spatially...... resolved electron energy loss spectrum owing to the different plasmonic properties of the two edges. The edge plasmons could potentially be utilized for tuning the photocatalytic activity of MoS2 nanoparticles....

  6. Thermal conductivity of bulk and monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala

    2016-02-26

    © Copyright EPLA, 2016. We show that the lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity of MoS2 strongly dominates the carrier contribution in a broad temperature range from 300 to 800 K. Since theoretical insight into the lattice contribution is largely missing, though it would be essential for materials design, we solve the Boltzmann transport equation for the phonons self-consistently in order to evaluate the phonon lifetimes. In addition, the length scale for transition between diffusive and ballistic transport is determined. The low out-of-plane thermal conductivity of bulk MoS2 (2.3 Wm-1K-1 at 300 K) is useful for thermoelectric applications. On the other hand, the thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS2 (131 Wm-1K-1 at 300 K) is comparable to that of Si.

  7. Ultrafast photocurrents in monolayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzinger, Eric; Wurstbauer, Ursula; Holleitner, Alexander W.

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2 have emerged as interesting materials for optoelectronic devices. In particular, the ultrafast dynamics and lifetimes of photoexcited charge carriers have attracted great interest during the last years. We investigate the photocurrent response of monolayer MoS2 on a picosecond time scale utilizing a recently developed pump-probe spectroscopy technique based on coplanar striplines. We discuss the ultrafast dynamics within MoS2 including photo-thermoelectric currents and the impact of built-in fields due to Schottky barriers as well as the Fermi level pinning at the contact region. We acknowledge support by the ERC via Project 'NanoREAL', the DFG via excellence cluster 'Nanosystems Initiative Munich' (NIM), and through the TUM International Graduate School of Science and Engineering (IGSSE) and BaCaTeC.

  8. Single-layer MoS2 electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke, Dominik; Bertolazzi, Simone; Kis, Andras

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: Atomic crystals of two-dimensional materials consisting of single sheets extracted from layered materials are gaining increasing attention. The most well-known material from this group is graphene, a single layer of graphite that can be extracted from the bulk material or grown on a suitable substrate. Its discovery has given rise to intense research effort culminating in the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov. Graphene however represents only the proverbial tip of the iceberg, and increasing attention of researchers is now turning towards the veritable zoo of so-called "other 2D materials". They have properties complementary to graphene, which in its pristine form lacks a bandgap: MoS2, for example, is a semiconductor, while NbSe2 is a superconductor. They could hold the key to important practical applications and new scientific discoveries in the two-dimensional limit. This family of materials has been studied since the 1960s, but most of the research focused on their tribological applications: MoS2 is best known today as a high-performance dry lubricant for ultrahigh-vacuum applications and in car engines. The realization that single layers of MoS2 and related materials could also be used in functional electronic devices where they could offer advantages compared with silicon or graphene created a renewed interest in these materials. MoS2 is currently gaining the most attention because the material is easily available in the form of a mineral, molybdenite, but other 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductors are expected to have qualitatively similar properties. In this Account, we describe recent progress in the area of single-layer MoS2-based devices for electronic circuits. We will start with MoS2 transistors, which showed for the first time that devices based on MoS2 and related TMDs could have electrical properties on the same level as other, more established semiconducting materials. This

  9. Rendering high charge density of states in ionic liquid-gated MoS 2 transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Park, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated high charge density of states (DOS) in the bandgap of MoS2 nanosheets with variable temperature measurements on ionic liquid-gated MoS2 transistors. The thermally activated charge transport indicates that the electrical current in the two-dimensional MoS 2 nanosheets under high

  10. Conduction quantization in monolayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the ballistic conduction of a monolayer MoS2 subject to a spatially modulated magnetic field by using the Landauer-Buttiker formalism. The band structure depends sensitively on the field strength, and its change has profound influence on the electron conduction. The conductance is found to demonstrate multi-step behavior due to the discrete number of conduction channels. The sharp peak and rectangular structures of the conductance are stretched out as temperature increases, due to the thermal broadening of the derivative of the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. Finally, quantum behavior in the conductance of MoS2 can be observed at temperatures below 10 K.

  11. Increasing sensitivity of MOS dosemeters in cascade connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vychytil, F.; Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Petr, I.

    1978-01-01

    The possibilities of increasing the sensitivity of MOS transistors in their cascade connection were studied theoretically and experimentally. The measurements confirmed the presumption that the instability of cascade-connected MOS transistors increased with the square of the number of transistors in the system. This allows systems to be formed with different sensitivity to ionizing radiation by encasing 10 to 10 4 transistors connected in cascade, which is technologically feasible. The procedure is also acceptable from the point of view of cost. (Z.M.)

  12. Online MOS Capacitor Characterization in LabVIEW Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay K Maiti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an automated evaluation procedure to characterize MOS capacitors involving high-k gate dielectrics. Suitability of LabVIEW environment for online web-based semiconductor device characterization is demonstrated. Developed algorithms have been successfully applied to automate the MOS capacitor measurements for Capacitance-Voltage, Conductance-Voltage and Current-Voltage characteristics. Implementation of the algorithm for use as a remote internet-based characterization tool where the client and server communicate with each other via web services is also shown.

  13. Solar cell array for driving MOS type FET gate. MOS gata EFT gate kudoyo taiyo denchi array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, S; Yoshida, K; Yoshiki, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Nakayama, T; Owada, Y

    1990-03-12

    There has been a semiconductor relay utilizing MOS type FET (field effect transistor). Concerning the solar cells used for a semiconductor relay, it is required to separate the cells by forming insulating oxide films first and to form semiconductor layers by using many mask patterns, since a crystal semiconductor is used. Thereby its manufacturing process becomes complicated and laminification as well as thin film formation are difficult, In view of the above, this invention proposes a solar cell array for driving a MOS type FET gate consisting of amorphous silicon semiconductor cells, which are used for a semiconductor relay with solar cells generating electromotive power by the light of a light emitting diode and a MOS type FET that the power output of the above solar cells is supplied to its gate, and which are connected in series with many steps. 9 figs.

  14. On-stack two-dimensional conversion of MoS2 into MoO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoung Ko, Taeg; Jeong, Areum; Kim, Wontaek; Lee, Jinhwan; Kim, Youngchan; Lee, Jung Eun; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Park, Kwanghee; Kim, Dogyeong; Lee, Zonghoon; Lee, Min Hyung; Lee, Changgu; Ryu, Sunmin

    2017-03-01

    Chemical transformation of existing two-dimensional (2D) materials can be crucial in further expanding the 2D crystal palette required to realize various functional heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate a 2D ‘on-stack’ chemical conversion of single-layer crystalline MoS2 into MoO3 with a precise layer control that enables truly 2D MoO3 and MoO3/MoS2 heterostructures. To minimize perturbation of the 2D morphology, a nonthermal oxidation using O2 plasma was employed. The early stage of the reaction was characterized by a defect-induced Raman peak, drastic quenching of photoluminescence (PL) signals and sub-nm protrusions in atomic force microscopy images. As the reaction proceeded from the uppermost layer to the buried layers, PL and optical second harmonic generation signals showed characteristic modulations revealing a layer-by-layer conversion. The plasma-generated 2D oxides, confirmed as MoO3 by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, were found to be amorphous but extremely flat with a surface roughness of 0.18 nm, comparable to that of 1L MoS2. The rate of oxidation quantified by Raman spectroscopy decreased very rapidly for buried sulfide layers due to protection by the surface 2D oxides, exhibiting a pseudo-self-limiting behavior. As exemplified in this work, various on-stack chemical transformations can be applied to other 2D materials in forming otherwise unobtainable materials and complex heterostructures, thus expanding the palette of 2D material building blocks.

  15. Hydrophobic Ice Confined between Graphene and MoS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bampoulis, Pantelis; Teernstra, V.J.; Lohse, Detlef; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2016-01-01

    The structure and nature of water confined between hydrophobic molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and graphene (Gr) are investigated at room temperature by means of atomic force microscopy. We find the formation of two-dimensional (2D) crystalline ice layers. In contrast to the hexagonal ice “bilayers” of

  16. Effects of radiation on MOS structures and silicon devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeunig, D.; Fahrner, W.

    1983-02-01

    A comprehensive view of radiation effects on MOS structures and silicon devices is given. In the introduction, the interaction of radiation with semiconductor material is presented. In the next section, the electrical degradation of semiconductor devices due to this interaction is discussed. The commonly used hardening techniques are shown. The last section deals with testing of radiation hardness of devices. (orig.) [de

  17. MOS BASED FORECAST OF 6-HOURLY AREA PRECIPITATION

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokol, Zbyněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2006), s. 105-120 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3042101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : precipitation forecast * regression * statistical postprocessing * MOS Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.603, year: 2006

  18. Magnetoresistance in molybdenite (MoS2) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, B.R.; Dutta, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    The principal magnetoresistance ratios of molybdenite (MoS 2 ), the naturally occurring semiconducting crystal, have been investigated at magnetic fields ranging from 4.5 KOe and within the temperature range 300 0 K to 700 0 K. Unlike some previous observations, magnetoresistance has been found to be negative. (author)

  19. Influence of halo doping profiles on MOS transistor mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andricciola, P.; Tuinhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Halo implants are used in modern CMOS technology to reduce the short channel effect. However, the lateral non-uniformity of the channel doping has been proven to degenerate the mismatch performance. With this paper we want to discuss the influence of the halo profile on MOS transistor mismatch. The

  20. Plasma-assisted synthesis of MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Philip M.; Perini, Christopher J.; Chiu, Johannes; Gupta, Atul; Ray, Hunter S.; Chen, Hang; Wenzel, Kevin; Snyder, Eric; Wagner, Brent K.; Ready, Jud; Vogel, Eric M.

    2018-03-01

    There has been significant interest in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), including MoS2, in recent years due to their potential application in novel electronic and optical devices. While synthesis methods have been developed for large-area films of MoS2, many of these techniques require synthesis temperatures of 800 °C or higher. As a result of the thermal budget, direct synthesis requiring high temperatures is incompatible with many integrated circuit processes as well as flexible substrates. This work explores several methods of plasma-assisted synthesis of MoS2 as a way to lower the synthesis temperature. The first approach used is conversion of a naturally oxidized molybdenum thin film to MoS2 using H2S plasma. Conversion is demonstrated at temperatures as low as 400 °C, and the conversion is enabled by hydrogen radicals which reduce the oxidized molybdenum films. The second method is a vapor phase reaction incorporating thermally evaporated MoO3 exposed to a direct H2S plasma, similar to chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis of MoS2. Synthesis at 400 °C results in formation of super-stoichiometric MoS2 in a beam-interrupted growth process. A final growth method relies on a cyclical process in which a small amount of Mo is sputtered onto the substrate and is subsequently sulfurized in a H2S plasma. Similar results could be realized using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to deposit the Mo film. Compared to high temperature synthesis methods, the lower temperature samples are lower quality, potentially due to poor crystallinity or higher defect density in the films. Temperature-dependent conductivity measurements are consistent with hopping conduction in the plasma-assisted synthetic MoS2, suggesting a high degree of disorder in the low-temperature films. Optimization of the plasma-assisted synthesis process for slower growth rate and better stoichiometry is expected to lead to high quality films at low growth temperature.

  1. Capacitance-voltage characterization of fully silicided gated MOS capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baomin; Ru Guoping; Jiang Yulong; Qu Xinping; Li Bingzong; Liu Ran

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement on fully silicided (FUSI) gated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors and the applicability of MOS capacitor models. When the oxide leakage current of an MOS capacitor is large, two-element parallel or series model cannot be used to obtain its real C-V characteristic. A three-element model simultaneously consisting of parallel conductance and series resistance or a four-element model with further consideration of a series inductance should be used. We employed the three-element and the four-element models with the help of two-frequency technique to measure the Ni FUSI gated MOS capacitors. The results indicate that the capacitance of the MOS capacitors extracted by the three-element model still shows some frequency dispersion, while that extracted by the four-element model is close to the real capacitance, showing little frequency dispersion. The obtained capacitance can be used to calculate the dielectric thickness with quantum effect correction by NCSU C-V program. We also investigated the influence of MOS capacitor's area on the measurement accuracy. The results indicate that the decrease of capacitor area can reduce the dissipation factor and improve the measurement accuracy. As a result, the frequency dispersion of the measured capacitance is significantly reduced, and real C-V characteristic can be obtained directly by the series model. In addition, this paper investigates the quasi-static C-V measurement and the photonic high-frequency C-V measurement on Ni FUSI metal gated MOS capacitor with a thin leaky oxide. The results indicate that the large tunneling current through the gate oxide significantly perturbs the accurate measurement of the displacement current, which is essential for the quasi-static C-V measurement. On the other hand, the photonic high-frequency C-V measurement can bypass the leakage problem, and get reliable low-frequency C-V characteristic, which can be used to

  2. Viscous behavior of (Sn{sub 61.9}Pb{sub 38.1}){sub 100-x}RE{sub x} (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 wt%) solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yuqin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (Southern Campus), 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (Southern Campus), 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfbian@sdu.edu.cn; Zhao Yan; Li Xuelian; Zhang Yanning; Tian Yongsheng; Lv Xiaoqian [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University (Southern Campus), 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2008-05-19

    The viscous behavior of (Sn{sub 61.9}Pb{sub 38.1}){sub 100-x}RE{sub x} (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 1 wt%) solder alloys has been investigated by a torsional oscillation viscometer. The structural transition temperature T{sup '} increases with increasing addition of RE elements. Above T{sup '}, the viscosities of melts increase with increasing addition of RE, and are fitted well with the Arrhenius equation. The time dependence of viscosity at the measured temperature below T{sup '} follows the exponential relaxation function and reflects the process of the structural transition in the melt, which can be considered as the thermodynamic equilibrium process. The thermodynamic equilibrium relaxation time {tau}{sub eq} increases with both the equilibrium viscosity {eta}{sub eq} and the discrepancy in viscosity ({delta}{eta}), between the initial state and the equilibrium state. However, it decreases with the measured temperature T. The size of clusters in the melts increases with increasing of viscosity and is restricted by the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions.

  3. Influence of silicon and atomic order on the magnetic properties of (Fe{sub 80}Al{sub 20}){sub 100}-{sub x}Si{sub x} nanostructured system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, G. Y., E-mail: gyovelca@univalle.edu.co; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Zamora, Ligia E. [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Fisica (Colombia); Romero, J. J.; Martinez, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado IMA (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Mechanically alloyed (Fe{sub 80}Al{sub 20}){sub 100-x}Si{sub x} alloys (with x = 0, 10, 15 and 20) were prepared by using a high energy planetary ball mill, with milling times of 12, 24 and 36 h. The structural and magnetic study was conducted by X-rays diffraction and Moessbauer spectrometry. The system is nanostructured and presents only the BCC disordered phase, whose lattice parameter remains constant with milling time, and decreases when the Si content increases. We found that lattice contraction is influenced 39% by the iron substitution and 61% by the aluminum substitution, by silicon atoms. The Moessbauer spectra and their respective hyperfine magnetic field distributions show that for every milling time used here, the ferromagnetism decreases when x increases. For samples with x {>=} 15 a paramagnetic component appears. From the shape of the magnetic field distributions we stated that the larger ferromagnetic phase observed in the samples alloyed during 24 and 36 h is a consequence of the structural disorder induced by mechanical alloying.

  4. SiO2/AlON stacked gate dielectrics for AlGaN/GaN MOS heterojunction field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Terashima, Daiki; Nozaki, Mikito; Yamada, Takahiro; Nakazawa, Satoshi; Ishida, Masahiro; Anda, Yoshiharu; Ueda, Tetsuzo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2018-06-01

    Stacked gate dielectrics consisting of wide bandgap SiO2 insulators and thin aluminum oxynitride (AlON) interlayers were systematically investigated in order to improve the performance and reliability of AlGaN/GaN metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) devices. A significantly reduced gate leakage current compared with that in a single AlON layer was achieved with these structures, while maintaining the superior thermal stability and electrical properties of the oxynitride/AlGaN interface. Consequently, distinct advantages in terms of the reliability of the gate dielectrics, such as an improved immunity against electron injection and an increased dielectric breakdown field, were demonstrated for AlGaN/GaN MOS capacitors with optimized stacked structures having a 3.3-nm-thick AlON interlayer.

  5. High conductivity graphene-like MoS2/polyaniline nanocomposites and its application in supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jin; Wu, Zongchao; Hu, Kunhong; Chen, Xiangying; Yin, Huabing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A facile synthesis method of MoS 2 /PANI intercalated nanocomposites is developed. • There is synergistic effect between PANI and MoS 2 layer in the MoS 2 /PANI composites. • Intercalation is benefit for electrons transportation and conductivity increase. • The well-defined MoS 2 /PANI have good specific capacitances and long cyclic life. - Abstract: High conductivity nanocomposites of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 )/polyaniline (PANI) were prepared via direct intercalation of aniline monomer and doped with dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA). The intercalated interaction between PANI and MoS 2 improves the conductivity and thermal stability of MoS 2 /PANI nanocomposites with the increasing fraction of MoS 2 . The conductivity and maximum weight loss velocity temperature of PANI/MoS 2 -38 sample are 2.38 S cm −1 and 353 °C, respectively. This architecture is also advantageous for enhancing the capacitance properties and cyclic stabilities of MoS 2 /PANI electrodes. In comparison to the specific capacitance of 131 F/g and 42% retained capacitance over 600 cycles of PANI electrode, the MoS 2 /PANI-38 electrode provides a specific capacitance up to 390 F/g and 86% retained capacitance over 1000 cycles. Thus it provides an improved capacitance method which synergistically combines pseudocapacitance and double-layer capacitance for supercapacitor electrodes

  6. Synthesis of Epitaxial Single-Layer MoS2 on Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønborg, Signe S; Ulstrup, Søren; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej; Sanders, Charlotte E; Lauritsen, Jeppe V; Hofmann, Philip; Miwa, Jill A

    2015-09-08

    We present a method for synthesizing large area epitaxial single-layer MoS2 on the Au(111) surface in ultrahigh vacuum. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction, the evolution of the growth is followed from nanoscale single-layer MoS2 islands to a continuous MoS2 layer. An exceptionally good control over the MoS2 coverage is maintained using an approach based on cycles of Mo evaporation and sulfurization to first nucleate the MoS2 nanoislands and then gradually increase their size. During this growth process the native herringbone reconstruction of Au(111) is lifted as shown by low energy electron diffraction measurements. Within the MoS2 islands, we identify domains rotated by 60° that lead to atomically sharp line defects at domain boundaries. As the MoS2 coverage approaches the limit of a complete single layer, the formation of bilayer MoS2 islands is initiated. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of both single and bilayer MoS2 samples show a dramatic change in their band structure around the center of the Brillouin zone. Brief exposure to air after removing the MoS2 layer from vacuum is not found to affect its quality.

  7. Optical fiber link for transmission of 1-nJ femtosecond laser pulses at 1550 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn; Olsson, Rasmus Kjelsmark; Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    2010-01-01

    We report on numerical and experimental characterization of the performance of a fiber link optimized for the delivery of sub-100-fs laser pulses at 1550 nm over several meters of fiber. We investigate the power handling capacity of the link, and demonstrate all-fiber delivery of 1-nJ pulses over...... a distance of 5.3 m. The fiber link consists of dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF) and standard single-mode fiber. The optical pulses at different positions in the fiber link are measured using frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG). The results are compared with numerical simulations of the pulse...... propagation based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The high input power capacity of the fiber link allows the splitting and distribution of femtosecond pulses to an array of fibers with applications in multi-channel fiber-coupled terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging systems. We...

  8. Neutron induced degradation in nitrided pyrogenic field oxide MOS capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Vaidya, S J; Shaikh, A M; Chandorkar, A N

    2002-01-01

    Neutron induced oxide charge trapping and generation of interface states in MOS capacitors with pyrogenic and nitrided pyrogenic field oxides have been studied. In order to assess the damage due to neutrons alone, it is necessary to account for the damage produced by the accompanying gamma rays from neutron radiation. This is done by measuring the intensity of gamma radiation accompanying neutrons at different neutron fluences at the irradiation position. MOS capacitor structures were subjected to neutron radiation in a swimming pool type of reactor. Other samples from the same batch were then subjected to an equivalent dose of gamma radiation from a Co sup 6 sup 0 source. The difference in the damage observed was used to characterize the damage caused by neutrons. It is observed that neutrons, though uncharged, are capable of causing ionization damage. This damage is found to be significant when the radiation is performed under biased conditions. Nitridation in different ambients is found to improve the radi...

  9. Charging effect at grain boundaries of MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chenhui; Dong, Xi; Li, Connie H.; Li, Lian

    2018-05-01

    Grain boundaries (GBs) are inherent extended defects in chemical vapor deposited (CVD) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) films. Characterization of the atomic structure and electronic properties of these GBs is crucial for understanding and controlling the properties of TMDs via defect engineering. Here, we report the atomic and electronic structure of GBs in CVD grown MoS2 on epitaxial graphene/SiC(0001). Using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, we find that GBs mostly consist of arrays of dislocation cores, where the presence of mid-gap states shifts both conduction and valence band edges by up to 1 eV. Our findings demonstrate the first charging effect near GBs in CVD grown MoS2, providing insights into the significant impact GBs can have on materials properties.

  10. Measurement of MOS current mismatch in the weak inversion region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forti, F.; Wright, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The MOS transistor matching properties in the weak inversion region have not received, in the past, the attention that the mismatch in the strong inversion region has. The importance of weak inversion biased transistors in low power CMOS analog systems calls for more extensive data on the mismatch in this region of operation. The study presented in this paper was motivated by the need of controlling the threshold matching in a low power, low noise amplifier discriminator circuit used in a silicon radiation detector read-out, where both the transistor dimensions and the currents had to be kept to a minimum. The authors have measured the current matching properties of MOS transistors operated in the weak inversion region. They measured a total of about 1,400 PMOS and NMOS transistors produced in four different processes and report here the results in terms of mismatch dependence on current density, device dimensions, and substrate voltage, without using any specific model for the transistor

  11. Micro-irradiation experiments in MOS transistors using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autran, J.L.; Masson, P.; Raynaud, C.; Freud, N.; Riekel, C.

    1999-01-01

    Spatially-resolved total-dose degradation has been performed in MOS transistors by focusing x-ray synchrotron radiation on the gate electrode with micrometer resolution. The influence of the resulting permanent degradation on device electrical properties has been analyzed using current-voltage and charge pumping measurements, in concert with optical characterization (hot-carrier luminescence) and one-dimensional device simulation. (authors)

  12. Construction of MoS2/Si nanowire array heterojunction for ultrahigh-sensitivity gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Lou, Zhenhua; Wang, Yuange; Xu, Tingting; Shi, Zhifeng; Xu, Junmin; Tian, Yongtao; Li, Xinjian

    2017-10-01

    Few-layer MoS2 thin films were synthesized by a two-step thermal decomposition process. In addition, MoS2/Si nanowire array (SiNWA) heterojunctions exhibiting excellent gas sensing properties were constructed and investigated. Further analysis reveals that such MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction devices are highly sensitive to nitric oxide (NO) gas under reverse voltages at room temperature (RT). The gas sensor demonstrated a minimum detection limit of 10 ppb, which represents the lowest value obtained for MoS2-based sensors, as well as an ultrahigh response of 3518% (50 ppm NO, ˜50% RH), with good repeatability and selectivity of the MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction. The sensing mechanisms were also discussed. The performance of the MoS2/SiNWA heterojunction gas sensors is superior to previous results, revealing that they have great potential in applications relating to highly sensitive gas sensors.

  13. Enhanced monolayer MoS2/InP heterostructure solar cells by graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Lin, Shisheng; Ding, Guqiao; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Zhiqian; Zhang, Shengjiao; Xu, Zhijuan; Xu, Sen; Lu, Yanghua; Xu, Wenli; Zheng, Zheyang

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate significantly improved photovoltaic response of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)/indium phosphide (InP) van der Waals heterostructure induced by graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Raman and photoluminescence measurements indicate that effective charge transfer takes place between GQDs and MoS2, which results in n-type doping of MoS2. The doping effect increases the barrier height at the MoS2/InP heterojunction, thus the averaged power conversion efficiency of MoS2/InP solar cells is improved from 2.1% to 4.1%. The light induced doping by GQD provides a feasible way for developing more efficient MoS2 based heterostructure solar cells.

  14. Enhanced photoresponse of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) based on microcavity structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanan; Yang, Guofeng; Wang, Fuxue; Lu, Naiyan

    2018-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in using monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) for optoelectronic devices because of its inherent direct band gap characteristics. However, the weak absorption of monolayer MoS2 restricts its applications, novel concepts need to be developed to address the weakness. In this work, monolayer MoS2 monolithically integrates with plane microcavity structure, which is formed by the top and bottom chirped distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), is demonstrated to improve the absorption of MoS2. The optical absorption is 17-fold enhanced, reaching values over 70% at work wavelength. Moreover, the monolayer MoS2-based photodetector device with microcavity presents a significantly increased photoresponse, demonstrating its promising prospects in MoS2-based optoelectronic devices.

  15. Hydrogen and Methane Response of Pd Gate MOS Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Pandey

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensor based on Pd/SiO2/Si MOS capacitor was fabricated on p type (1-6 ΩCm Si with thermal oxide layer of thickness about 33Ǻ. Sensor properties of the MOS structure were studied towards hydrogen (500- 3500 ppm in air and methane gas (1000-2500 ppm in air at room temperature and 140˚C respectively. The response of the sensor was measured as shift in C-V curve of the MOS structure. The sensitivity of the sensor towards the hydrogen (73 % at 0.03 V bias was better than methane (19.1 % at 0.68 V bias. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy and AFM image of the metal film show the porous structure which believed to be facilitating the catalytic oxidation of the insulator surface and higher gas response. High sensitivity of the sensor can be attributed to the change of interface state density on exposure of gases along with the formation of dipole layer.

  16. Highly sensitive MoS2 photodetectors with graphene contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peize; St. Marie, Luke; Wang, Qing X.; Quirk, Nicholas; El Fatimy, Abdel; Ishigami, Masahiro; Barbara, Paola

    2018-05-01

    Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are ideal candidates to create ultra-thin electronics suitable for flexible substrates. Although optoelectronic devices based on TMDs have demonstrated remarkable performance, scalability is still a significant issue. Most devices are created using techniques that are not suitable for mass production, such as mechanical exfoliation of monolayer flakes and patterning by electron-beam lithography. Here we show that large-area MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition and patterned by photolithography yields highly sensitive photodetectors, with record shot-noise-limited detectivities of 8.7 × 1014 Jones in ambient condition and even higher when sealed with a protective layer. These detectivity values are higher than the highest values reported for photodetectors based on exfoliated MoS2. We study MoS2 devices with gold electrodes and graphene electrodes. The devices with graphene electrodes have a tunable band alignment and are especially attractive for scalable ultra-thin flexible optoelectronics.

  17. Band structural properties of MoS2 (molybdenite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    Semiconductivity and superconductivity in MoS 2 (molybdenite) can be understood in terms of the band structure of MoS 2 . The band structural properties of MoS 2 are presented here. The energy dependence of nsub(eff) and epsilon(infinity)sub(eff) is investigated. Using calculated values of nsub(eff) and epsilon(infinity)sub(eff), the Penn gap has been determined. The value thus obtained is shown to be in good agreement with the reflectivity data and also with the value obtained from the band structure. The Ravindra and Srivastava formula has been shown to give values for the isobaric temperature gradient of Esub(G)[(deltaEsub(G)/deltaT)sub(P)], which are in agreement with the experimental data, and the contribution to (deltaEsub(G)/deltaT)sub(P) due to the electron lattice interaction has been evaluated. In addition, the electronic polarizability has been calculated using a modified Lorentz-Lorenz relation. (author)

  18. Study on the performance of MoS2 modified PTFE composites by molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiqiang; Hou, Genliang; Bi, Song; Li, Ping; Li, Penghui

    2017-10-01

    MoS2 filled PTFE composites were prepared by cold pressing and sintering molding. The compressive and creep properties of composite materials were analyzed by controlling the size of molded composites during molding. The results show that the composites have the best compressive and creep resistance when the molding pressure is 55 MPa in the MoS2 composites with 15% mass fraction, which is a practical reference for the preparation of MoS2-modified PTFE composites.

  19. Interfacial chemical reactions between MoS2 lubricants and bearing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabinski, J. S.; Tatarchuk, B. J.

    1989-01-01

    XPS and conversion-electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) were used to examine iron that was deposited on the basal plane of MoS2 single crystals and subjected to vacuum annealing, oxidizing, and reducing environments. Iron either intercalated into the MoS2 structure or formed oriented iron sulfides, depending on the level of excess S in the MoS2 structure. CEMS data demonstrated that iron sulfide crystal structures preferentially aligned with respect to the MoS2 basal plane, and that alignment (and potentially adhesion) could be varied by appropriate high-temperature annealing procedures.

  20. Femtosecond mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on MoS2-PVA saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.; Latiff, A. A.; Arof, H.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-08-01

    We fabricate a free-standing few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)-polymer composite by liquid phase exfoliation of chemically pristine MoS2 crystals and use this to demonstrate a soliton mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL). A stable self-started mode-locked soliton pulse is generated by fine-tuning the rotation of the polarization controller at a low threshold pump power of 25 mW. Its solitonic behavior is verified by the presence of Kelly sidebands in the output spectrum. The central wavelength, pulse width, and repetition rate of the laser are 1573.7 nm, 630 fs, and 27.1 MHz, respectively. The maximum pulse energy is 0.141 nJ with peak power of 210 W at pump power of 170 mW. This result contributes to the growing body of work studying the nonlinear optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenides that present new opportunities for ultrafast photonic applications.

  1. Van der Waals MoS2/VO2 heterostructure junction with tunable rectifier behavior and efficient photoresponse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Nicoló; Casu, Emanuele Andrea; Yan, Chen; Krammer, Anna; Rosca, Teodor; Magrez, Arnaud; Stolichnov, Igor; Schueler, Andreas; Martin, Olivier J F; Ionescu, Adrian Mihai

    2017-10-27

    Junctions between n-type semiconductors of different electron affinity show rectification if the junction is abrupt enough. With the advent of 2D materials, we are able to realize thin van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures based on a large diversity of materials. In parallel, strongly correlated functional oxides have emerged, having the ability to show reversible insulator-to-metal (IMT) phase transition by collapsing their electronic bandgap under a certain external stimulus. Here, we report for the first time the electronic and optoelectronic characterization of ultra-thin n-n heterojunctions fabricated using deterministic assembly of multilayer molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) on a phase transition material, vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ). The vdW MoS 2 /VO 2 heterojunction combines the excellent blocking capability of an n-n junction with a high conductivity in on-state, and it can be turned into a Schottky rectifier at high applied voltage or at temperatures higher than 68 °C, exploiting the metal state of VO 2 . We report tunable diode-like current rectification with a good diode ideality factor of 1.75 and excellent conductance swing of 120 mV/dec. Finally, we demonstrate unique tunable photosensitivity and excellent junction photoresponse in the 500/650 nm wavelength range.

  2. Interface Engineering with MoS2 -Pd Nanoparticles Hybrid Structure for a Low Voltage Resistive Switching Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Tian, He; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Mao, Wei-Quan; Qiao, Yan-Cong; Pang, Yu; Li, Yu-Xing; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Metal oxide-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) has attracted a lot of attention for its scalability, temperature robustness, and potential to achieve machine learning. However, a thick oxide layer results in relatively high program voltage while a thin one causes large leakage current and a small window. Owing to these fundamental limitations, by optimizing the oxide layer itself a novel interface engineering idea is proposed to reduce the programming voltage, increase the uniformity and on/off ratio. According to this idea, a molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 )-palladium nanoparticles hybrid structure is used to engineer the oxide/electrode interface of hafnium oxide (HfO x )-based RRAM. Through its interface engineering, the set voltage can be greatly lowered (from -3.5 to -0.8 V) with better uniformity under a relatively thick HfO x layer (≈15 nm), and a 30 times improvement of the memory window can be obtained. Moreover, due to the atomic thickness of MoS 2 film and high transmittance of ITO, the proposed RRAM exhibits high transparency in visible light. As the proposed interface-engineering RRAM exhibits good transparency, low SET voltage, and a large resistive switching window, it has huge potential in data storage in transparent circuits and wearable electronics with relatively low supply voltage. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Automated sub-5 nm image registration in integrated correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy using cathodoluminescence pointers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Martijn T.; Liv, Nalan; Zonnevylle, A. Christiaan; Narvaez, Angela C.; Voortman, Lenard M.; Kruit, Pieter; Hoogenboom, Jacob P.

    2017-03-01

    In the biological sciences, data from fluorescence and electron microscopy is correlated to allow fluorescence biomolecule identification within the cellular ultrastructure and/or ultrastructural analysis following live-cell imaging. High-accuracy (sub-100nm) image overlay requires the addition of fiducial markers, which makes overlay accuracy dependent on the number of fiducials present in the region of interest. Here, we report an automated method for light-electron image overlay at high accuracy, i.e. below 5 nm. Our method relies on direct visualization of the electron beam position in the fluorescence detection channel using cathodoluminescence pointers. We show that image overlay using cathodoluminescence pointers corrects for image distortions, is independent of user interpretation, and does not require fiducials, allowing image correlation with molecular precision anywhere on a sample.

  4. Selective and lithography-independent fabrication of 20 nm nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels for nanoelectrofluidics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J Y; Wang, X F; Wang, X D; Fan, Z C; Li, Y; Ji, An; Yang, F H

    2010-01-01

    A new method has been developed to selectively fabricate nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels by conventional lithography. Based on a sacrificial spacer process, we have successfully obtained sub-100-nm nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels and further reduced the dimensions to 20 nm by shrinking the sacrificial spacer size. Our method shows good selectivity between nano-gap electrodes and nano-channels due to different sacrificial spacer etch conditions. There is no length limit for the nano-gap electrode and the nano-channel. The method reported in this paper also allows for wafer scale fabrication, high throughput, low cost, and good compatibility with modern semiconductor technology.

  5. Constructing a MoS2 QDs/CdS Core/Shell Flowerlike Nanosphere Hierarchical Heterostructure for the Enhanced Stability and Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Liang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MoS2 quantum dots (QDs/CdS core/shell nanospheres with a hierarchical heterostructure have been prepared by a simple microwave hydrothermal method. The as-prepared samples are characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS and N2-sorption in detail. The photocatalytic activities of the samples are evaluated by water splitting into hydrogen. Results show that the as-prepared MoS2 QDs/CdS core/shell nanospheres with a diameter of about 300 nm are composed of the shell of CdS nanorods and the core of MoS2 QDs. For the photocatalytic reaction, the samples exhibit a high stability of the photocatalytic activity and a much higher hydrogen evolution rate than the pure CdS, the composite prepared by a physical mixture, and the Pt-loaded CdS sample. In addition, the stability of CdS has also been greatly enhanced. The effect of the reaction time on the formations of nanospheres, the photoelectric properties and the photocatalytic activities of the samples has been investigated. Finally, a possible photocatalytic reaction process has also been proposed.

  6. The Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation effects on the Al/HfSiO4/p-Si/Al MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, R.; Kaya, S.; Karacali, H.; Yilmaz, E.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the initial interface trap density (Nit) to examine device compability for microelectronics and then the Co-60 gamma irradiation responses of Al/HfSiO4/p-Si/Al (MOS) capacitors were investigated in various dose ranges up to 70 Gy. Pre-irradiation response of the devices was evaluated from high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) capacitance method and the Nit was calculated as 9.91 × 1011 cm-2 which shows that the HfSiO4/p-Si interface quality is convenient for microelectronics applications. The irradiation responses of the devices were carried out from flat-band and mid-gap voltage shifts obtained from stretch of capacitance characteristics prior to and after irradiation. The results show that the flat band voltages very slightly shifted to positive voltage values demonstrating the enhancement of negative charge trapping in device structure. The sensitivity of the Al/HfSiO4/p-Si/Al MOS capacitors was found to be 4.41 mV/Gy for 300 nm-thick HfSiO4 gate dielectrics. This value approximately 6.5 times smaller compared to the same thickness conventional SiO2 based MOS devices. Therefore, HfSiO4 exhibits crucial irradiation tolerance in gamma irradiation environment. Consequently, HfSiO4 dielectrics may have significant usage for microelectronic technology as a radiation hard material where radiation field exists such as in space applications.

  7. 2D MoS2 as an efficient protective layer for lithium metal anodes in high-performance Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunho; Patel, Mumukshu D.; Park, Juhong; Hwang, Jeongwoon; Prasad, Vish; Cho, Kyeongjae; Choi, Wonbong

    2018-04-01

    Among the candidates to replace Li-ion batteries, Li-S cells are an attractive option as their energy density is about five times higher ( 2,600 Wh kg-1). The success of Li-S cells depends in large part on the utilization of metallic Li as anode material. Metallic lithium, however, is prone to grow parasitic dendrites and is highly reactive to several electrolytes; moreover, Li-S cells with metallic Li are also susceptible to polysulfides dissolution. Here, we show that 10-nm-thick two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 can act as a protective layer for Li-metal anodes, greatly improving the performances of Li-S batteries. In particular, we observe stable Li electrodeposition and the suppression of dendrite nucleation sites. The deposition and dissolution process of a symmetric MoS2-coated Li-metal cell operates at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 with low voltage hysteresis and a threefold improvement in cycle life compared with using bare Li-metal. In a Li-S full-cell configuration, using the MoS2-coated Li as anode and a 3D carbon nanotube-sulfur cathode, we obtain a specific energy density of 589 Wh kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 98% for over 1,200 cycles at 0.5 C. Our approach could lead to the realization of high energy density and safe Li-metal-based batteries.

  8. The TDDB Characteristics of Ultra-Thin Gate Oxide MOS Capacitors under Constant Voltage Stress and Substrate Hot-Carrier Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The breakdown characteristics of ultra-thin gate oxide MOS capacitors fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology under constant voltage stress and substrate hot-carrier injection are investigated. Compared to normal thick gate oxide, the degradation mechanism of time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB of ultra-thin gate oxide is found to be different. It is found that the gate current (Ig of ultra-thin gate oxide MOS capacitor is more likely to be induced not only by Fowler-Nordheim (F-N tunneling electrons, but also by electrons surmounting barrier and penetrating electrons in the condition of constant voltage stress. Moreover it is shown that the time to breakdown (tbd under substrate hot-carrier injection is far less than that under constant voltage stress when the failure criterion is defined as a hard breakdown according to the experimental results. The TDDB mechanism of ultra-thin gate oxide will be detailed. The differences in TDDB characteristics of MOS capacitors induced by constant voltage stress and substrate hot-carrier injection will be also discussed.

  9. Laser Direct Writing Process for Making Electrodes and High-k Sol-Gel ZrO2 for Boosting Performances of MoS2 Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Jang, Jaewon; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2016-04-13

    A series of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), including molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), can be attractive materials for photonic and electronic applications due to their exceptional properties. Among these unique properties, high mobility of 2D TMDCs enables realization of high-performance nanoelectronics based on a thin film transistor (TFT) platform. In this contribution, we report highly enhanced field effect mobility (μ(eff) = 50.1 cm(2)/(V s), ∼2.5 times) of MoS2 TFTs through the sol-gel processed high-k ZrO2 (∼22.0) insulator, compared to those of typical MoS2/SiO2/Si structures (μ(eff) = 19.4 cm(2)/(V s)) because a high-k dielectric layer can suppress Coulomb electron scattering and reduce interface trap concentration. Additionally, in order to avoid costly conventional mask based photolithography and define the patterns, we employ a simple laser direct writing (LDW) process. This process allows precise and flexible control with reasonable resolution (up to ∼10 nm), depending on the system, and enables fabrication of arbitrarily patterned devices. Taking advantage of continuing developments in laser technology offers a substantial cost decrease, and LDW may emerge as a promising technology.

  10. MoS2-modified ZnO quantum dots nanocomposite: Synthesis and ultrafast humidity response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ze, Lu; Yueqiu, Gong; Xujun, Li; Yong, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • MoS 2 @ZnO QDs composite structure was synthesized by two-steps methods. • Ultrafast humidity sensing response is achieved by MoS 2 @ZnO QDs humidity sensor. • Sensor performs excellent cycle stability from 11% to 95% RH. • Humidity sensor could detect wide humidity range (11–95%). - Abstract: In this work, ZnO quantum dots (QDs), layered MoS 2 and MoS 2 -modified ZnO QDs (MoS 2 @ZnO QDs) nanocomposite were synthesized and then applied as humidity sensor. The crystal structure, morphology and element distribution of ZnO QDs, MoS 2 and MoS 2 @ZnO QDs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, respectively. The humidity sensing characteristics of the MoS 2 and MoS 2 @ZnO QDs against various relative humidity were measured at room temperature. The results show that the MoS 2 @ZnO QDs sensor exhibits high sensitivity with an impedance variation of three or four orders of magnitude to relative humidity range of 11–95% and it exhibits a short response-recovery time (1 s for adsorption and 20 s for desorption) and excellent repeatability. The mechanisms of the excellent performance for humidity sensing of MoS 2 @ZnO QDs sensor were discussed based on its impedance properties. Our work could offer guidelines to design higher performance especially ultrafast humidity response sensor utilizing the nanocomposite structure with two dimensional material and QDs.

  11. A 6.2 mW 0.024 mm2 fully-passive RF downconverter with 12 dB gain enhancement using MOS parametric amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custódio, J. R.; Bastos, I.; Oliveira, L. B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a fully-passive discrete-time switched-capacitor RF downconverter with an on-chip oscillator, that combines quadrature mixing and harmonic rejection, designed in a 130 nm digital CMOS technology. By using MOS capacitors (varactors) to perform parametric amplification, it is p......, it is possible to achieve a measured gain enhancement of about 12 dB, together with 21 dB noise figure and more than 5 dBm IIP3. Operating in the VHF-III band, the downconverter core dissipates 6.2 mW and occupies 0.024 mm2....

  12. Investigations on MgO-dielectric GaN/AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMTs by using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Sung; Liu, Han-Yin; Wu, Ting-Ting; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Sun, Wen-Ching; Wei, Sung-Yen; Yu, Sheng-Min

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates GaN/Al 0.24 Ga 0.76 N/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) grown on a Si substrate with MgO gate dielectric by using the non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) technique. The oxide layer thickness is tuned to be 30 nm with the dielectric constant of 8.8. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), C–V, low-frequency noise spectra, and pulsed I–V measurements are performed to characterize the interface and oxide quality for the MOS-gate structure. Improved device performances have been successfully achieved for the present MOS-HEMT (Schottky-gate HEMT) design, consisting of a maximum drain-source current density (I DS, max ) of 681 (500) mA/mm at V GS  = 4 (2) V, I DS at V GS  = 0 V (I DSS0 ) of 329 (289) mA/mm, gate-voltage swing (GVS) of 2.2 (1.6) V, two-terminal gate-drain breakdown voltage (BV GD ) of −123 (−104) V, turn-on voltage (V on ) of 1.7 (0.8) V, three-terminal off-state drain-source breakdown voltage (BV DS ) of 119 (96) V, and on/off current ratio (I on /I off ) of 2.5 × 10 8 (1.2 × 10 3 ) at 300 K. Improved high-frequency and power performances are also achieved in the present MOS-HEMT design. (paper)

  13. Forecasting noise and radiation hardness of CMOS front-end electronics beyond the 100 nm frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re, V.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Traversi, G.

    2010-01-01

    The progress of industrial microelectronic technologies has already overtaken the 130 nm CMOS generation that is currently the focus of IC designers for new front-end chips in LHC upgrades and other detector applications. In a broader time span, sub-100 nm CMOS processes may become appealing for the design of very compact front-end systems with advanced integrated functionalities. This is especially true in the case of pixel detectors, both for monolithic devices (MAPS) and for hybrid implementations where a high resistivity sensor is connected to a CMOS readout chip. Technologies beyond the 100 nm frontier have peculiar features, such as the evolution of the device gate material to reduce tunneling currents through the thin dielectric. These new physical device parameters may impact on functional properties such as noise and radiation hardness. On the basis of experimental data relevant to commercial devices, this work studies potential advantages and challenges associated to the design of low-noise and rad-hard analog circuits in these aggressively scaled technologies.

  14. A comparative study on top-gated and bottom-gated multilayer MoS2 transistors with gate stacked dielectric of Al2O3/HfO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao; Xu, Jingping; Huang, Hao; Zhu, Ziqang; Wang, Hongjiu; Li, Borui; Liao, Lei; Fang, Guojia

    2018-06-15

    Top-gated and bottom-gated transistors with multilayer MoS 2 channel fully encapsulated by stacked Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 (9 nm/6 nm) were fabricated and comparatively studied. Excellent electrical properties are demonstrated for the TG transistors with high on-off current ratio of 10 8 , high field-effect mobility of 10 2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , and low subthreshold swing of 93 mV dec -1 . Also, enhanced reliability has been achieved for the TG transistors with threshold voltage shift of 10 -3 -10 -2 V MV -1 cm -1 after 6 MV cm -1 gate-biased stressing. All improvement for the TG device can be ascribed to the formed device structure and dielectric environment. Degradation of the performance for the BG transistors should be attributed to reduced gate capacitance density and deteriorated interface properties related to vdW gap with a thickness about 0.4 nm. So, the TG transistor with MoS 2 channel fully encapsulated by stacked Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 is a promising way to fabricate high-performance ML MoS 2 field-effect transistors for practical electron device applications.

  15. Observing the semiconducting band-gap alignment of MoS2 layers of different atomic thicknesses using a MoS2/SiO2/Si heterojunction tunnel diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishiguchi, K.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Yamaguchi, H.; Fujiwara, A.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steele, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a tunnel diode composed of a vertical MoS2/SiO2/Si heterostructure. A MoS2 flake consisting four areas of different thicknesses functions as a gate terminal of a silicon field-effect transistor. A thin gate oxide allows tunneling current to flow between the n-type MoS2 layers and

  16. Electrical behaviour of fully solution processed HfO2 (MOS) in presence of different light illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sandip

    2018-04-01

    This experiment demonstrates the electrical behaviors of fully solution processed HfO2(MOS) in presence of different optical illumination. The capacitance voltage measurement was performed at frequency of 100 kHz with a DC gate sweep voltage of ±5V (with additional AC voltage of 100mV) in presence of deep UV (wavelength of 365nm with power of 25W) as well as white light (20W). It is found that there is a large shift in flatband voltage of 120mV due presence of white light during the CV measurement. However there is negligible change in flatband voltage (30mV) has been observed due to illumination of deep UV light.

  17. 256 fs, 2 nJ soliton pulse generation from MoS2 mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zike; Chen, Hao; Li, Jiarong; Yin, Jinde; Wang, Jinzhang; Yan, Peiguang

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate an Er-doped fiber laser (EDFL) mode-locked by a MoS2 saturable absorber (SA), delivering a 256 fs, 2 nJ soliton pulse at 1563.4 nm. The nonlinear property of the SA prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition (MSD) is measured with a modulation depth (MD) of ∼19.48% and a saturable intensity of 4.14 MW/cm2. To the best of our knowledge, the generated soliton pulse has the highest pulse energy of 2 nJ among the reported mode-locked EDFLs based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Our results indicate that MSD-grown SAs could offer an exciting platform for high pulse energy and ultrashort pulse generation.

  18. Optical Control of Mechanical Mode-Coupling within a MoS2 Resonator in the Strong-Coupling Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Hua; Kim, In Soo; Lauhon, Lincoln J

    2015-10-14

    Two-dimensional (2-D) materials including graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are an exciting platform for ultrasensitive force and displacement detection in which the strong light-matter coupling is exploited in the optical control of nanomechanical motion. Here we report the optical excitation and displacement detection of a ∼ 3 nm thick MoS2 resonator in the strong-coupling regime, which has not previously been achieved in 2-D materials. Mechanical mode frequencies can be tuned by more than 12% by optical heating, and they exhibit avoided crossings indicative of strong intermode coupling. When the membrane is optically excited at the frequency difference between vibrational modes, normal mode splitting is observed, and the intermode energy exchange rate exceeds the mode decay rate by a factor of 15. Finite element and analytical modeling quantifies the extent of mode softening necessary to control intermode energy exchange in the strong coupling regime.

  19. Ionizing radiation M.O.S. dosimeters: sensibility and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessinn, F.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the study of the ionizing radiation responsivity of P.O.M.S. dosimeters. Unlike the development of processing hardening techniques, our works goal were to increase, on the one hand, the M.O.S. dosimeters sensitivity in order to detect small radiation doses and on the other hand, the stability with time and temperature of the devices, to minimize the absorbed-dose estimation errors. With this aim in mind, an analysis of all processing parameters has been carried out: the M.O.S. dosimeter sensitivity is primarily controlled by the gate oxide thickness and the irradiation electric field. Thus, P.M.O.S. transistors with 1 and 2 μm thick silica layers have been fabricated for our experiments. The radiation response of our devices in the high-field mode satisfactorily fits a D ox 2 power law. The maximum sensitivity achieved (9,2 V/Gy for 2μm devices) is close to the ideal value obtained when considering only an unitary carrier-trapping level, and allows to measure about 10 -2 Gy radiation doses. Read-time stability has been evaluated under bias-temperature stress conditions: experiments underscore slow fading, corresponding to 10 -3 Gy/h. The temperature response has also been studied: the analytical model we have developed predicts M.O.S. transistors threshold voltage variations over the military specifications range [-50 deg. C, + 150 deg. C]. Finally, we have investigated the possibilities of irradiated dosimeters thermal annealing for reusing. It appears clearly that radiation-induced damage annealing is strongly gate bias dependent. Furthermore, dosimeters radiation sensitivity seems not to be affected by successive annealings. (author). 146 refs., 58 figs., 9 tabs

  20. Principles to Products: Toward Realizing MOS 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Duane L.; Delp, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    This is a report on the Operations Revitalization Initiative, part of the ongoing NASA-funded Advanced Multi-Mission Operations Systems (AMMOS) program. We are implementing products that significantly improve efficiency and effectiveness of Mission Operations Systems (MOS) for deep-space missions. We take a multi-mission approach, in keeping with our organization's charter to "provide multi-mission tools and services that enable mission customers to operate at a lower total cost to NASA." Focusing first on architectural fundamentals of the MOS, we review the effort's progress. In particular, we note the use of stakeholder interactions and consideration of past lessons learned to motivate a set of Principles that guide the evolution of the AMMOS. Thus guided, we have created essential patterns and connections (detailed in companion papers) that are explicitly modeled and support elaboration at multiple levels of detail (system, sub-system, element...) throughout a MOS. This architecture is realized in design and implementation products that provide lifecycle support to a Mission at the system and subsystem level. The products include adaptable multi-mission engineering documentation that describes essentials such as operational concepts and scenarios, requirements, interfaces and agreements, information models, and mission operations processes. Because we have adopted a model-based system engineering method, these documents and their contents are meaningfully related to one another and to the system model. This means they are both more rigorous and reusable (from mission to mission) than standard system engineering products. The use of models also enables detailed, early (e.g., formulation phase) insight into the impact of changes (e.g., to interfaces or to software) that is rigorous and complete, allowing better decisions on cost or technical trades. Finally, our work provides clear and rigorous specification of operations needs to software developers, further

  1. A Route to Permanent Valley Polarization in Monolayer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2016-10-24

    Realization of permanent valley polarization in Cr-doped monolayer MoS2 is found to be unfeasible because of extended moment formation. Introduction of an additional hole is suggested as a viable solution. V-doped monolayer MoS2 is demonstrated to sustain permanent valley polarization and therefore can serve as a prototype material for valleytronics.

  2. Few-layer MoS2 as nitrogen protective barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbali, B.; Yanilmaz, A.; Tomak, A.; Tongay, S.; Çelebi, C.; Sahin, H.

    2017-10-01

    We report experimental and theoretical investigations of the observed barrier behavior of few-layer MoS2 against nitrogenation. Owing to its low-strength shearing, low friction coefficient, and high lubricity, MoS2 exhibits the demeanor of a natural N-resistant coating material. Raman spectroscopy is done to determine the coating capability of MoS2 on graphene. Surface morphology of our MoS2/graphene heterostructure is characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. In addition, density functional theory-based calculations are performed to understand the energy barrier performance of MoS2 against nitrogenation. The penetration of nitrogen atoms through a defect-free MoS2 layer is prevented by a very high vertical diffusion barrier, indicating that MoS2 can serve as a protective layer for the nitrogenation of graphene. Our experimental and theoretical results show that MoS2 material can be used both as an efficient nanocoating material and as a nanoscale mask for selective nitrogenation of graphene layer.

  3. Morphology-controlled synthesis of MoS2 nanostructures with different lithium storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiwen; Zhang, Zhian; Chen, Yaqiong; Qu, Yaohui; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MoS 2 nanospheres, nanoribbons and nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. • The surfactant and temperature control the shape and crystal structure of MoS 2 . • MoS 2 nanospheres exhibit the excellent lithium storage property. - Abstract: A one-step hydrothermal process was employed to prepare a series of MoS 2 nanostructures via simply altering the surfactant as soft template and hydrothermal reaction temperature. Three kinds of MoS 2 nanostructures (three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanospheres, one-dimensional (1D) nanoribbons, and large aggregated nanoparticles) were successfully achieved and investigated well by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis (BET). Electrochemical tests reveal that these MoS 2 samples could deliver high initial discharge capacities (higher than 1050.0 mA h g −1 ), but various cycling performances. The hierarchical MoS 2 nanospheres assembled by sheet-like subunits show the highest specific capacity of 1355.1 mA h g −1 , and 66.8% of which can be retained after 50 cycles. The good lithium storage property of hierarchical MoS 2 nanospheres can be attributed to the higher electrolyte/MoS 2 contact area and stable 3D layered structure

  4. The Interface between Gd and Monolayer MoS2: A First-Principles Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuejing; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the electronic structure of interfaces between two-, four- and six-layer Gd(0001) and monolayer MoS2 by first-principles calculations. Strong chemical bonds shift the Fermi energy of MoS2 upwards into the conduction band. At the surface

  5. Mos1 transposon-based transformation of fish cell lines using baculoviral vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoo, Masako; Fujita, Ryosuke; Nakajima, Yumiko; Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Kasai, Hisae; Asano, Shin-ichiro; Bando, Hisanori

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The baculovirus vector infiltrates the cells of economic important fishes. •Drosophila Mos1 transposase expressed in fish cells maintains its ability to localize to the nucleus. •The baculoviral vector carrying Mos1 is a useful tool to stably transform fish cells. -- Abstract: Drosophila Mos1 belongs to the mariner family of transposons, which are one of the most ubiquitous transposons among eukaryotes. We first determined nuclear transportation of the Drosophila Mos1-EGFP fusion protein in fish cell lines because it is required for a function of transposons. We next constructed recombinant baculoviral vectors harboring the Drosophila Mos1 transposon or marker genes located between Mos1 inverted repeats. The infectivity of the recombinant virus to fish cells was assessed by monitoring the expression of a fluorescent protein encoded in the viral genome. We detected transgene expression in CHSE-214, HINAE, and EPC cells, but not in GF or RTG-2 cells. In the co-infection assay of the Mos1-expressing virus and reporter gene-expressing virus, we successfully transformed CHSE-214 and HINAE cells. These results suggest that the combination of a baculovirus and Mos1 transposable element may be a tool for transgenesis in fish cells

  6. Atomic-scale structure of single-layer MoS2 nanoclusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helveg, S.; Lauritsen, J. V.; Lægsgaard, E.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) the atomic-scale realm of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanoclusters, which are of interest as a model system in hydrodesulfurization catalysis. The STM gives the first real space images of the shape and edge structure of single-layer MoS2...

  7. Mos1 transposon-based transformation of fish cell lines using baculoviral vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoo, Masako [Laboratory of Applied Molecular Entomology, Division of Applied Bioscience, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Fujita, Ryosuke [Laboratory of Applied Molecular Entomology, Division of Applied Bioscience, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Innate Immunity Laboratory, Graduate School of Life Science and Creative Research Institution, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0021 (Japan); Nakajima, Yumiko [Functional Genomics Group, COMB, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Kasai, Hisae [Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Hakodate 041-8611 (Japan); Asano, Shin-ichiro [Laboratory of Applied Molecular Entomology, Division of Applied Bioscience, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan); Bando, Hisanori, E-mail: hban@abs.agr.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Applied Molecular Entomology, Division of Applied Bioscience, Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •The baculovirus vector infiltrates the cells of economic important fishes. •Drosophila Mos1 transposase expressed in fish cells maintains its ability to localize to the nucleus. •The baculoviral vector carrying Mos1 is a useful tool to stably transform fish cells. -- Abstract: Drosophila Mos1 belongs to the mariner family of transposons, which are one of the most ubiquitous transposons among eukaryotes. We first determined nuclear transportation of the Drosophila Mos1-EGFP fusion protein in fish cell lines because it is required for a function of transposons. We next constructed recombinant baculoviral vectors harboring the Drosophila Mos1 transposon or marker genes located between Mos1 inverted repeats. The infectivity of the recombinant virus to fish cells was assessed by monitoring the expression of a fluorescent protein encoded in the viral genome. We detected transgene expression in CHSE-214, HINAE, and EPC cells, but not in GF or RTG-2 cells. In the co-infection assay of the Mos1-expressing virus and reporter gene-expressing virus, we successfully transformed CHSE-214 and HINAE cells. These results suggest that the combination of a baculovirus and Mos1 transposable element may be a tool for transgenesis in fish cells.

  8. Non-stoichiometry of MoS2 phase prepared by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Nakajima, K.

    1978-01-01

    The lattice parameters and S/Mo atomic ratio in sputtered MoS 2 films have been examined as a function of sputtering conditions, especially the vacuum pressure in the chamber. It was found that the deposited films had a defect MoS 2 structure ranging from 1.6 to 2 in S/Mo ratio, depending on the pressure. (author)

  9. MOS current gain cells with electronically variable gain and constant bandwidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Seevinck, Evert

    1989-01-01

    Two MOS current gain cells are proposed that provide linear amplification of currents supplied by several linear MOS V-I converters. The gain is electronically variable by a voltage or a current and can be made insensitive to temperature and IC processing. The gain cells have a constant

  10. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of an Abbreviated Social Support Instrument: The MOS-SSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesfjeld, Christopher D.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Kim, Kevin H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Confirm the factor structure of the original 18-item Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) as well as two abbreviated versions in a sample of mothers with a child in mental health treatment. Method: The factor structure, internal consistency, and concurrent validity of the MOS-SSS were assessed using a convenience sample…

  11. A new optimized self-firing mos-thyristor device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breil, M.; Sanchez, J.L.; Austin, P.; Laur, J.P.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, a new integrated self-firing and controlled turn-off MOS-thyristor structure is investigated. An analytical model describing the turn-off operation and parasitic latch-up has been developed, allowing to highlight and optimize the physical and geometrical parameters acting upon main electrical characteristics. The analytical model is validated by 2D simulations using PISCES. The technological fabrication process is optimized by 2D simulations using SUPREM IV. Electrical characterization results of fabricated test structures are presented. (authors) 6 refs.

  12. Atomic and electronic structure of MoS2 nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollinger, Mikkel; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2003-01-01

    Using density-functional theory (DFT) we present a detailed theoretical study of MoS2 nanoparticles. We focus on the edge structures, and a number of different edge terminations are investigated. Several, but not all, of these configurations have one-dimensional metallic states localized at the e...... and the composition of the gas phase. Using the Tersoff-Hamann formalism, scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) images of the edges are simulated for direct comparison with recent STM experiments. In this way we identify the experimentally observed edge structure....

  13. Strained Si/SiGe MOS transistor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Pešić-Brđanin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a new model of surfacechannel strained-Si/SiGe MOSFET based on the extension of non-quasi-static (NQS circuit model previously derived for bulk-Si devices. Basic equations of the NQS model have been modified to account for the new physical parameters of strained-Si and relaxed-SiGe layers. From the comparisons with measurements, it is shown that a modified NQS MOS including steady-state self heating can accurately predict DC characteristics of Strained Silicon MOSFETs.

  14. Large Work Function Modulation of Monolayer MoS2 by Ambient Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Young; Kim, Un Jeong; Chung, JaeGwan; Nam, Honggi; Jeong, Hye Yun; Han, Gang Hee; Kim, Hyun; Oh, Hye Min; Lee, Hyangsook; Kim, Hyochul; Roh, Young-Geun; Kim, Jineun; Hwang, Sung Woo; Park, Yeonsang; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-06-28

    Although two-dimensional monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides reveal numerous unique features that are inaccessible in bulk materials, their intrinsic properties are often obscured by environmental effects. Among them, work function, which is the energy required to extract an electron from a material to vacuum, is one critical parameter in electronic/optoelectronic devices. Here, we report a large work function modulation in MoS2 via ambient gases. The work function was measured by an in situ Kelvin probe technique and further confirmed by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. A measured work function of 4.04 eV in vacuum was converted to 4.47 eV with O2 exposure, which is comparable with a large variation in graphene. The homojunction diode by partially passivating a transistor reveals an ideal junction with an ideality factor of almost one and perfect electrical reversibility. The estimated depletion width obtained from photocurrent mapping was ∼200 nm, which is much narrower than bulk semiconductors.

  15. The effects of gate oxide thickness on radiation damage in MOS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hui; Yan Rongliang; Wang Yu; He Jinming

    1988-01-01

    The dependences of the flatband voltage shift (ΔV FB ) and the threshold voltage shift (ΔV TH ) in MOS system on the oxide thickness (T ox ) and on total irradiated dose (D) of electron-beam and 60 Co γ-ray have been studied. It has been found that ΔV FB ∝ T ox 3 , with +10V of gate bias during irradiation for n-Si substrate MOS capacitors; ΔV TH ∝ T ox 3 D 2/3 , with 'on' gate bias during irradiation for n- and P-channel MOS transistors; ΔV TP ∝ T ox 2 D 2/3 , with 'off' gate bias during irradiation for P-channel MOS transistors. These results are explained by Viswanathan model. According to ∼T ox 3 dependence, the optimization of radiation hardening process for MOS system is also simply discussed

  16. The effect of doped zinc on the structural properties of nano-crystalline (Se{sub 0.8}Te{sub 0.2}){sub 100-x}Zn{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arun, E-mail: arunkumar82@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA-160014. (India); Guru Nanak National College, Doraha, Panjab, INDIA-141421. (India); Singh, Harkawal; Gill, P. S. [Sri Guru Gobind Singh College, Sector-26, Chandigarh, INDIA-160026. (India); Goyal, Navdeep, E-mail: n.goyal@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA-160014. (India)

    2016-05-06

    The effect of metallic zinc (Zn) on the structural properties of (Se{sub 0.8}Te{sub 0.2}){sub 1-X}Zn{sub X} (x=0, 2, 6, 8, 10) samples analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The presence of sharp peaks in XRD patterns confirmed the crystalline nature of the samples and is indexed in orthorhombic crystal structure. XRD studies predicts that the average particle size of all the samples are about 46.29 nm, which is less than 100 nm and hence have strong tendency of agglomeration. Williamson-Hall plot method was used to evaluate the lattice strain. The dislocation density and no. of unit cells of the samples were calculated which show the inverse relation with each other. Morphology index derived from FWHM of XRD data explains the direct relationship with the particle size.

  17. Confocal absorption spectral imaging of MoS2: optical transitions depending on the atomic thickness of intrinsic and chemically doped MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Krishna P; Duong, Dinh Loc; Lee, Jubok; Nam, Honggi; Kim, Minsu; Kan, Min; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2014-11-07

    We performed a nanoscale confocal absorption spectral imaging to obtain the full absorption spectra (over the range 1.5-3.2 eV) within regions having different numbers of layers and studied the variation of optical transition depending on the atomic thickness of the MoS2 film. Three distinct absorption bands corresponding to A and B excitons and a high-energy background (BG) peak at 2.84 eV displayed a gradual redshift as the MoS2 film thickness increased from the monolayer, to the bilayer, to the bulk MoS2 and this shift was attributed to the reduction of the gap energy in the Brillouin zone at the K-point as the atomic thickness increased. We also performed n-type chemical doping of MoS2 films using reduced benzyl viologen (BV) and the confocal absorption spectra modified by the doping showed a strong dependence on the atomic thickness: A and B exciton peaks were greatly quenched in the monolayer MoS2 while much less effect was shown in larger thickness and the BG peak either showed very small quenching for 1 L MoS2 or remained constant for larger thicknesses. Our results indicate that confocal absorption spectral imaging can provide comprehensive information on optical transitions of microscopic size intrinsic and doped two-dimensional layered materials.

  18. Evaluating Mechanical Properties of Few Layers MoS2 Nanosheets-Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement effects of liquid exfoliated molybdenum disulphide (MoS2 nanosheets, dispersed in polystyrene (PS matrix, are evaluated here. The range of composites (0~0.002 volume fraction (Vf MoS2-PS is prepared via solution casting. Size selected MoS2 nanosheets (3~4 layers, with a lateral dimension L 0.5~1 µm, have improved Young’s modulus up to 0.8 GPa for 0.0002 Vf MoS2-PS as compared to 0.2 GPa observed for PS only. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS is improved considerably (~×3 with a minute addition of MoS2 nanosheets (0.00002 Vf. The MoS2 nanosheets lateral dimension and number of layers are approximated using atomic force microscopy (AFM. The composites formation is confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Theoretical predicted results (Halpin-Tsai model are well below the experimental findings, especially at lower concentrations. Only at maximum concentrations, the experimental and theoretical results coincide. The high aspect ratio of MoS2 nanosheets, homogeneous dispersion inside polymer, and their probable planar orientation are the possible reasons for the effective stress transfer, resulting in enhanced mechanical characteristics. Moreover, the micro-Vickers hardness (HV of the MoS2-PS is also improved from 19 (PS to 23 (0.002 Vf MoS2-PS as MoS2 nanosheets inclusion may hinder the deformation more effectively.

  19. Strain engineering in monolayer WS2, MoS2, and the WS2/MoS2 heterostructure

    KAUST Repository

    He, Xin; Li, Hai; Zhu, Zhiyong; Dai, Zhenyu; Yang, Yang; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Peng; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhang, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    Mechanically exfoliated monolayers of WS2, MoS2 and their van der Waals heterostructure were fabricated on flexible substrate so that uniaxial tensile strain can be applied to the two-dimensional samples. The modification of the band structure under strain was investigated by micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature as well as by first-principles calculations. Exciton and trion emissions were observed in both WS2 and the heterostructure at room temperature, and were redshifted by strain, indicating potential for applications in flexible electronics and optoelectronics.

  20. Strain engineering in monolayer WS2, MoS2, and the WS2/MoS2 heterostructure

    KAUST Repository

    He, Xin

    2016-10-27

    Mechanically exfoliated monolayers of WS2, MoS2 and their van der Waals heterostructure were fabricated on flexible substrate so that uniaxial tensile strain can be applied to the two-dimensional samples. The modification of the band structure under strain was investigated by micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature as well as by first-principles calculations. Exciton and trion emissions were observed in both WS2 and the heterostructure at room temperature, and were redshifted by strain, indicating potential for applications in flexible electronics and optoelectronics.

  1. Modeling of A-DLTS Spectra of MOS Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hockicko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of basic characteristic of defects has become possible through a wide class of measurement techniqueswhich probe the interface, the near interface, as well as the bulk of semiconductor. Results presented here are basedessentially on the acoustic version of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (A-DLTS measurements. This method is based onthe acoustoelectric response effect observed at the interface. The A-DLTS uses the acoustoelectric response signal (ARSproduced by MOS structure interface when a longitudal acoustic wave propagates through a structure. The ARS is extremelysensitive to external conditions of the structure and reflects any changes in the charge distribution connected with chargedtraps. The temperature dependence of ARS after bias voltage step application is investigated and the activation energies andsome other parameters of traps at the insulator – semiconductor interface are determined. The results obtained formArrhenius plots of A-DLTS spectra of selected MOS structures are compared with results obtained from modeling of ADLTS spectra using theoretical model.

  2. Neutron induced degradation in nitrided pyrogenic field oxide MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, S. J.; Sharma, D. K.; Shaikh, A. M.; Chandorkar, A. N.

    2002-09-01

    Neutron induced oxide charge trapping and generation of interface states in MOS capacitors with pyrogenic and nitrided pyrogenic field oxides have been studied. In order to assess the damage due to neutrons alone, it is necessary to account for the damage produced by the accompanying gamma rays from neutron radiation. This is done by measuring the intensity of gamma radiation accompanying neutrons at different neutron fluences at the irradiation position. MOS capacitor structures were subjected to neutron radiation in a swimming pool type of reactor. Other samples from the same batch were then subjected to an equivalent dose of gamma radiation from a Co 60 source. The difference in the damage observed was used to characterize the damage caused by neutrons. It is observed that neutrons, though uncharged, are capable of causing ionization damage. This damage is found to be significant when the radiation is performed under biased conditions. Nitridation in different ambients is found to improve the radiation performance of pyrogenic field oxides with respect to positive charge build up as well as interface state generation. Pyrogenic oxide nitrided in N 2O is found to be the best oxynitride as damage due to neutrons is the least.

  3. Analytical models for total dose ionization effects in MOS devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Bogdan, Carolyn W.

    2008-08-01

    MOS devices are susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation due to charge buildup in gate, field and SOI buried oxides. Under positive bias holes created in the gate oxide will transport to the Si / SiO{sub 2} interface creating oxide-trapped charge. As a result of hole transport and trapping, hydrogen is liberated in the oxide which can create interface-trapped charge. The trapped charge will affect the threshold voltage and degrade the channel mobility. Neutralization of oxidetrapped charge by electron tunneling from the silicon and by thermal emission can take place over long periods of time. Neutralization of interface-trapped charge is not observed at room temperature. Analytical models are developed that account for the principal effects of total dose in MOS devices under different gate bias. The intent is to obtain closed-form solutions that can be used in circuit simulation. Expressions are derived for the aging effects of very low dose rate radiation over long time periods.

  4. BATMAN: a DMD-based MOS demonstrator on Galileo Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Spanò, Paolo; Bon, William; Riva, Marco; Lanzoni, Patrick; Nicastro, Luciano; Molinari, Emilio; Cosentino, Rosario; Ghedina, Adriano; Gonzalez, Manuel; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Coretti, Igor; Cirami, Roberto; Manetta, Marco; Zerbi, Filippo; Tresoldi, Daniela; Valenziano, Luca

    2012-09-01

    Multi-Object Spectrographs (MOS) are the major instruments for studying primary galaxies and remote and faint objects. Current object selection systems are limited and/or difficult to implement in next generation MOS for space and groundbased telescopes. A promising solution is the use of MOEMS devices such as micromirror arrays which allow the remote control of the multi-slit configuration in real time. We are developing a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) - based spectrograph demonstrator called BATMAN. We want to access the largest FOV with the highest contrast. The selected component is a DMD chip from Texas Instruments in 2048 x 1080 mirrors format, with a pitch of 13.68μm. Our optical design is an all-reflective spectrograph design with F/4 on the DMD component. This demonstrator permits the study of key parameters such as throughput, contrast and ability to remove unwanted sources in the FOV (background, spoiler sources), PSF effect, new observational modes. This study will be conducted in the visible with possible extension in the IR. A breadboard on an optical bench, ROBIN, has been developed for a preliminary determination of these parameters. The demonstrator on the sky is then of prime importance for characterizing the actual performance of this new family of instruments, as well as investigating the operational procedures on astronomical objects. BATMAN will be placed on the Nasmyth focus of Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) during next year.

  5. Cobalt micro-magnet integration on silicon MOS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camirand Lemyre, Julien; Rochette, Sophie; Anderson, John; Manginell, Ronald P.; Pluym, Tammy; Ward, Dan; Carroll, Malcom S.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    Integration of cobalt micro-magnets on silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dot devices has been investigated. The micro-magnets are fabricated in a lift-off process with e-beam lithography and deposited directly on top of an etched poly-silicon gate stack. Among the five resist stacks tested, one is found to be compatible with our MOS specific materials (Si and SiO2) . Moreover, devices with and without additional Al2O3 insulating layer show no additional gate leakage after processing. Preliminary transport data indicates electrostatic stability of our devices with integrated magnets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Characterising large area silicon drift detectors with MOS injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvicini, V.; Rashevsky, A.; Vacchi, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the INFN DSI project, the first prototypes of a large-area Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) have been designed and produced on 5'' diameter wafers of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon with a resistivity of 3000 Ω·cm. The detector is a 'butterfly' bi-directional structure with a drift length of 32 mm and the drifting charge is collected by two arrays of anodes having a pitch of 200 μm. The high-voltage divider is integrated on-board and is realised with p + implantations. For test and calibration purposes, the detector has a new type of MOS injector. The paper presents results obtained to injecting charge at the maximum drift distance (32mm) from the anodes by means of the MOS injecting structure, As front-end electronics, the authors have used a 32-channels low-noise bipolar VLSI circuit (OLA, Omni-purpose Low-noise Amplifer) specifically designed for silicon drift detectors. The uniformity of the drift time in different regions of the sensitive area and its dependence on the ambient temperature are studied

  7. MEGARA, the new IFU and MOS for the GTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Sánchez Moreno, F. M.; Vílchez, J. M.; García Vargas, M. L.; Arrillaga, X.; Carrera, M. A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Cedazo, R.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Ferrusca, D.; González-Guardia, E.; Lefort, B.; Maldonado, M.; Marino, R. A.; Martínez-Delgado, I.; Morales Durán, I.; Mujica, E.; Páez, G.; Pascual, S.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Sánchez-Penim, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Tulloch, S.; Velázquez, M.; Zamorano, J.; Aguerri, A. L.; Barrado y Naváscues, D.; Bertone, E.; Cardiel, N.; Cava, A.; Cenarro, J.; Chávez, M.; García, M.; Guichard, J.; Guzmán, R.; Herrero, A.; Huélamo, N., Hughes, D.; Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Kehrig, C.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Mayya, Y. D.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Mollá, M.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Peimbert, M.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Pérez Montero, E.; Rodríguez, M.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Rodríguez-Merino, L.; Rosa-González, D.; Sánchez-Almeida, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Sánchez, S. F.; Sarajedini, A.; Silich, S.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Torres-Peimbert, S.; Trujillo, I.; Tsamis, Y.; Vega, O.; Villar, V.

    2015-05-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the future intermediate-resolution optical Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) of the 10.4m GTC telescope. The instrument can be used to observe either a contiguous (100% filling factor) field-of-view of 12.5×11.3 arcsec^{2} or 92 objects anywhere in a 3.5×3.5 arcmin^{2} field patrolled by robotic actuactors attached to optical-fiber minibundles, respectively in its IFU and MOS modes. The MEGARA Consortium is led by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM, Spain) and also includes the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, óptica y Electrónica (INAOE, Mexico), the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC, Spain) and the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM, Spain). The instrument passed its Critical Design Review (CDR) on late 2014 and is currently in construction phase with a planned date for the start of operations at GTC on early 2017. In this paper we summarize the main characteristics of the instrument and the status of the project.

  8. A Facile Strategy for the Preparation of MoS3 and its Application as a Negative Electrode for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Kong, Ling-Bin; Dai, Yan-Hua; Yan, Kun; Shi, Ming; Liu, Mao-Cheng; Luo, Yong-Chun; Kang, Long

    2016-09-06

    Owing to their graphene-like structure and available oxidation valence states, transition metal sulfides are promising candidates for supercapacitors. Herein, we report the application of MoS3 as a new negative electrode for supercapacitors. MoS3 was fabricated by the facile thermal decomposition of a (NH4 )2 MoS4 precursor. For comparison, samples of MoS3 &MoS2 and MoS2 were also synthesized by using the same method. Moreover, this is the first report of the application of MoS3 as a negative electrode for supercapacitors. MoS3 displayed a high specific capacitance of 455.6 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1) . The capacitance retention of the MoS3 electrode was 92 % after 1500 cycles, and even 71 % after 5000 cycles. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor assembly of MoS3 as the negative electrode demonstrated a high energy density at a high potential of 2.0 V in aqueous electrolyte. These notable results show that MoS3 has significant potential in energy-storage devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Wafer-scale synthesis of monolayer and few-layer MoS2 via thermal vapor sulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John; Liu, Xue; Yue, Chunlei; Escarra, Matthew; Wei, Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an atomically thin, direct bandgap semiconductor crystal potentially capable of miniaturizing optoelectronic devices to an atomic scale. However, the development of 2D MoS2-based optoelectronic devices depends upon the existence of a high optical quality and large-area monolayer MoS2 synthesis technique. To address this need, we present a thermal vapor sulfurization (TVS) technique that uses powder MoS2 as a sulfur vapor source. The technique reduces and stabilizes the flow of sulfur vapor, enabling monolayer wafer-scale MoS2 growth. MoS2 thickness is also controlled with great precision; we demonstrate the ability to synthesize MoS2 sheets between 1 and 4 layers thick, while also showing the ability to create films with average thickness intermediate between integer layer numbers. The films exhibit wafer-scale coverage and uniformity, with electrical quality varying depending on the final thickness of the grown MoS2. The direct bandgap of grown monolayer MoS2 is analyzed using internal and external photoluminescence quantum efficiency. The photoluminescence quantum efficiency is shown to be competitive with untreated exfoliated MoS2 monolayer crystals. The ability to consistently grow wafer-scale monolayer MoS2 with high optical quality makes this technique a valuable tool for the development of 2D optoelectronic devices such as photovoltaics, detectors, and light emitters.

  10. Charge-Transfer-Induced p-Type Channel in MoS2 Flake Field Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Wook; Yoon, Minho; Yang, Sung Jin; Ko, Kyeong Rok; Im, Seongil

    2018-01-31

    The two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductor MoS 2 has received extensive attention for decades because of its outstanding electrical and mechanical properties for next-generation devices. One weakness of MoS 2 , however, is that it shows only n-type conduction, revealing its limitations for homogeneous PN diodes and complementary inverters. Here, we introduce a charge-transfer method to modify the conduction property of MoS 2 from n- to p-type. We initially deposited an n-type InGaZnO (IGZO) film on top of the MoS 2 flake so that electron charges might be transferred from MoS 2 to IGZO during air ambient annealing. As a result, electron charges were depleted in MoS 2 . Such charge depletion lowered the MoS 2 Fermi level, which makes hole conduction favorable in MoS 2 when optimum source/drain electrodes with a high work function are selected. Our IGZO-supported MoS 2 flake field effect transistors (FETs) clearly display channel-type conversion from n- to p-channel in this way. Under short- and long-annealing conditions, n- and p-channel MoS 2 FETs are achieved, respectively, and a low-voltage complementary inverter is demonstrated using both channels in a single MoS 2 flake.

  11. 355-nm hypersensitization of optical fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canagasabey, A.; Canning, J.; Groothoff, N.

    2003-01-01

    A study is presented on 355-nm hypersensitization of optical fibers. It is found that the intrinsic 244-nm photosensitivity of boron-codoped germanosilicate optical fibers is enhanced by 355-nm hypersensitization. Hypersensitization through standard polymer coating is also demonstrated.

  12. Controlled synthesis of high-quality crystals of monolayer MoS2 for nanoelectronic device application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaonian; Li, Qiang; Hu, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    . Monolayer MoS2 so far can be obtained by mechanical exfoliation or chemical vapor deposition (CVD). However, controllable synthesis of large area monolayer MoS2 with high quality needs to be improved and their growth mechanism requires more studies. Here we report a systematical study on controlled...... synthesis of high-quality monolayer MoS2 single crystals using low pressure CVD. Large-size monolayer MoS2 triangles with an edge length up to 405 mu m were successfully synthesized. The Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies indicate high homogenous optical characteristic of the synthesized...... monolayer MoS2 triangles. The transmission electron microscopy results demonstrate that monolayer MoS2 triangles are single crystals. The back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the as-grown monolayer MoS2 show typical n-type semiconductor behaviors with carrier mobility up to 21.8 cm(2...

  13. Reduction of conductance mismatch in Fe/Al2O3/MoS2 system by tunneling-barrier thickness control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Naoki; Muneta, Iriya; Ohashi, Takumi; Matsuura, Kentaro; Shimizu, Jun’ichi; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Tsutsui, Kazuo; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) among two-dimensional semiconductor films is promising for spintronic devices because it has a longer spin-relaxation time with contrasting spin splitting than silicon. However, it is difficult to fabricate integrated circuits by the widely used exfoliation method. Here, we investigate the contact characteristics in the Fe/Al2O3/sputtered-MoS2 system with various thicknesses of the Al2O3 film. Current density increases with increasing thickness up to 2.5 nm because of both thermally-assisted and direct tunneling currents. On the other hand, it decreases with increasing thickness over 2.5 nm limited by direct tunneling currents. These results suggest that the Schottky barrier width can be controlled by changing thicknesses of the Al2O3 film, as supported by calculations. The reduction of conductance mismatch with this technique can lead to highly efficient spin injection from iron into the MoS2 film.

  14. Ultra-broadband nonlinear saturable absorption of high-yield MoS2 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Rongfei; Zhang, Hang; Hu, Zhongliang; Qiao, Tian; He, Xin; Guo, Qiangbing; Tian, Xiangling; Chen, Zhi; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-07-01

    High-yield MoS2 nanosheets with strong nonlinear optical (NLO) responses in a broad near-infrared range were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The observation of saturable absorption, which was excited by the light with photon energy smaller than the gap energy of MoS2, can be attributed to the enhancement of the hybridization between the Mo d-orbital and S p-orbital by the oxygen incorporation into MoS2. High-yield MoS2 nanosheets with high modulation depth and large saturable intensity generated a stable, passively Q-switched fiber laser pulse at 1.56 μm. The high output power of 1.08 mW can be attained under a very low pump power of 30.87 mW. Compared to recently reported passively Q-switched fiber lasers utilizing exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets, the efficiency of the laser for our passive Q-switching operation is larger and reaches 3.50%. This research may extend the understanding on the NLO properties of MoS2 and indicate the feasibility of the high-yield MoS2 nanosheets to passively Q-switched fiber laser effectively at low pump strengths.

  15. Enhanced photoresponse characteristics of transistors using CVD-grown MoS2/WS2 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Junjie; Li, Jinhua; Chu, Xueying; Xu, Mingze; Jin, Fangjun; Fang, Xuan; Wei, Zhipeng; Wang, Xiaohua

    2018-06-01

    Semiconductor heterostructures based on transition metal dichalcogenides provide a broad platform to research two-dimensional nanomaterials and design atomically thin devices for fundamental and applied interests. The MoS2/WS2 heterostructure was prepared on SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in our research. And the optical properties of the heterostructure was characterized by Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The similar 2 orders of magnitude decrease of PL intensity in MoS2/WS2 heterostructures was tested, which is attribute to the electrical and optical modulation effects are connected with the interfacial charge transfer between MoS2 and WS2 films. Using MoS2/WS2 heterostructure as channel material of the phototransistor, we demonstrated over 50 folds enhanced photoresponsivity of multilayer MoS2 field-effect transistor. The results indicate that the MoS2/WS2 films can be a promising heterostructure material to enhance the photoresponse characteristics of MoS2-based phototransistors.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of 2D MoS 2 nanosheets for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Muralikrishna, S.

    2015-10-20

    Nanostructured molybdenum disulfide (MoS) is a very promising catalyst for producing molecular hydrogen by electrochemical methods. Herein, we have designed and synthesized highly electocatalytically active 2D MoS nanosheets (NS) from molybdenum trioxide (MoO) by a facile hydrothermal method and have compared their electrocatalytic activities for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The electrochemical characterization was performed using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) in acidic medium. The MoS NS show a HER onset potential at about 80 mV vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) which is much lower than MoO (300 mV). The MoS NS and MoO show a current density of 25 mA cm and 0.3 mA cm, respectively at an overpotential of 280 mV vs. RHE. The MoS NS showed an 83 times higher current density when compared to MoO. The Tafel slopes of the MoS NS and MoO were about 90 mV per dec and 110 mV per dec respectively. This suggests that MoS NS are a better electrocatalyst when compared to MoO and follow the Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism for HER.

  17. Controlled p-doping of black phosphorus by integration of MoS2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sumin; Kim, Minwoo; Jia, Jingyuan; Park, Jin-Hong; Lee, Sungjoo; Song, Young Jae

    2018-05-01

    Black phosphorus (BP), a new family of two dimensional (2D) layered materials, is an attractive material for future electronic, photonic and chemical sensing devices, thanks to its high carrier density and a direct bandgap of 0.3-2.0 eV, depending on the number of layers. Controllability over the properties of BP by electrical or chemical modulations is one of the critical requirements for future various device applications. Herein, we report a new doping method of BP by integration of density-controlled monolayer MoS2 nanoparticles (NPs). MoS2 NPs with different density were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred onto a few-layer BP channel, which induced a p-doping effect. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the size and distribution of MoS2 NPs with different density. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were measured to confirm the oxidation on the edge of MoS2 NPs and a doping effect of MoS2 NPs on a BP channel. The doping mechanism was explained by a charge transfer by work function differences between BP and MoS2 NPs, which was confirmed by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and electrical measurements. The hole concentration of BP was controlled with different densities of MoS2 NPs in a range of 1012-1013 cm-2.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis of 2D MoS 2 nanosheets for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Muralikrishna, S.; Manjunath, K.; Samrat, D.; Reddy, Viswanath; Ramakrishnappa, T.; Nagaraju, Doddahalli H.

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured molybdenum disulfide (MoS) is a very promising catalyst for producing molecular hydrogen by electrochemical methods. Herein, we have designed and synthesized highly electocatalytically active 2D MoS nanosheets (NS) from molybdenum trioxide (MoO) by a facile hydrothermal method and have compared their electrocatalytic activities for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The electrochemical characterization was performed using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) in acidic medium. The MoS NS show a HER onset potential at about 80 mV vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) which is much lower than MoO (300 mV). The MoS NS and MoO show a current density of 25 mA cm and 0.3 mA cm, respectively at an overpotential of 280 mV vs. RHE. The MoS NS showed an 83 times higher current density when compared to MoO. The Tafel slopes of the MoS NS and MoO were about 90 mV per dec and 110 mV per dec respectively. This suggests that MoS NS are a better electrocatalyst when compared to MoO and follow the Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism for HER.

  19. MoS2 @HKUST-1 Flower-Like Nanohybrids for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengli; Su, Yingchun; Zhao, Xiaole; Tong, Shanshan; Han, Xiaojun

    2018-01-24

    A novel MoS 2 -based flower-like nanohybrid for hydrogen evolution was fabricated through coating the Cu-containing metal-organic framework (HKUST-1) onto MoS 2 nanosheets. It is the first time that MoS 2 @HKUST-1 nanohybrids have been reported for the enhanced electrochemical performance of HER. The morphologies and components of the MoS 2 @HKUST-1 flower-like nanohybrids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compared with pure MoS 2 , the MoS 2 @HKUST-1 hybrids exhibit enhanced performance on hydrogen evolution reaction with an onset potential of -99 mV, a smaller Tafel slope of 69 mV dec -1 , and a Faradaic efficiency of nearly 100 %. The MoS 2 @HKUST-1 flower-like nanohybrids exhibit excellent stability in acidic media. This design opens new possibilities to effectively synthesize non-noble metal catalysts with high performance for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Unravelling merging behaviors and electrostatic properties of CVD-grown monolayer MoS2 domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Song; Yang, Bingchu; Gao, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    The presence of grain boundaries is inevitable for chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown MoS 2 domains owing to various merging behaviors, which greatly limits its potential applications in novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. It is therefore of great significance to unravel the merging behaviors of the synthesized polygon shape MoS 2 domains. Here we provide systematic investigations of merging behaviors and electrostatic properties of CVD-grown polycrystalline MoS 2 crystals by multiple means. Morphological results exhibit various polygon shape features, ascribed to polycrystalline crystals merged with triangle shape MoS 2 single crystals. The thickness of triangle and polygon shape MoS 2 crystals is identical manifested by Raman intensity and peak position mappings. Three merging behaviors are proposed to illustrate the formation mechanisms of observed various polygon shaped MoS 2 crystals. The combined photoemission electron microscopy and kelvin probe force microscopy results reveal that the surface potential of perfect merged crystals is identical, which has an important implication for fabricating MoS 2 -based devices.

  1. Adsorption of DNA/RNA nucleobases onto single-layer MoS2 and Li-Doped MoS2: A dispersion-corrected DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Meisam; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Ghorbanzadeh, Morteza; Najafpour, Ghasem

    2018-03-01

    The kind of sensing platform in nano biosensor plays an important role in nucleic acid sequence detection. It has been demonstrated that graphene does not have an intrinsic band gap; therefore, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are desirable materials for electronic base detection. In the present work, a comparative study of the adsorption of the DNA/RNA nucleobases [Adenine (A), Cytosine (C) Guanine (G), Thymine (T) and Uracil (U)] onto the single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and Li-doped MoS2 (Li-MoS2) as a sensing surfaces was investigated by using Dispersion-corrected Density Functional Theory (D-DFT) calculations and different measure of equilibrium distances, charge transfers and binding energies for the various nucleobases were calculated. The results revealed that the interactions between the nucleobases and the MoS2 can be strongly enhanced by introducing metal atom, due to significant charge transfer from the Li atom to the MoS2 when Lithium is placed on top of the MoS2. Furthermore, the binding energies of the five nucleobases were in the range of -0.734 to -0.816 eV for MoS2 and -1.47 to -1.80 eV for the Li-MoS2. Also, nucleobases were adsorbed onto MoS2 sheets via the van der Waals (vdW) force. This high affinity and the renewable properties of the biosensing platform demonstrated that Li-MoS2 nanosheet is biocompatible and suitable for nucleic acid analysis.

  2. Impact and Origin of Interface States in MOS Capacitor with Monolayer MoS2 and HfO2 High-k Dielectric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Pengkun; Feng, Xuewei; Ng, Rui Jie; Wang, Shijie; Chi, Dongzhi; Li, Cequn; He, Zhubing; Liu, Xinke; Ang, Kah-Wee

    2017-01-13

    Two-dimensional layered semiconductors such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) at the quantum limit are promising material for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics applications. Understanding the interface properties between the atomically thin MoS 2 channel and gate dielectric is fundamentally important for enhancing the carrier transport properties. Here, we investigate the frequency dispersion mechanism in a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) with a monolayer MoS 2 and an ultra-thin HfO 2 high-k gate dielectric. We show that the existence of sulfur vacancies at the MoS 2 -HfO 2 interface is responsible for the generation of interface states with a density (D it ) reaching ~7.03 × 10 11  cm -2  eV -1 . This is evidenced by a deficit S:Mo ratio of ~1.96 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, which deviates from its ideal stoichiometric value. First-principles calculations within the density-functional theory framework further confirms the presence of trap states due to sulfur deficiency, which exist within the MoS 2 bandgap. This corroborates to a voltage-dependent frequency dispersion of ~11.5% at weak accumulation which decreases monotonically to ~9.0% at strong accumulation as the Fermi level moves away from the mid-gap trap states. Further reduction in D it could be achieved by thermally diffusing S atoms to the MoS 2 -HfO 2 interface to annihilate the vacancies. This work provides an insight into the interface properties for enabling the development of MoS 2 devices with carrier transport enhancement.

  3. Stamp design effect on 100 nm feature size for 8 inch NanoImprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, S; Chaix, N; Gourgon, C; Perret, C; Leveder, T

    2006-01-01

    Sub-100 nm resolution on a 200 mm silicon stamp has been hot embossed into commercial Sumitomo NEB 22 resist. A single pattern, exposed with electron beam lithography, has been considered to define the stamp and thus make it possible to point out the impact of stamp design on the printing. These results may be considered as a first attempt to define rules to solve the proximity printing effects (PPEs). Moreover, a large range of initial resist thickness, from 56 to 506 nm, has been spin coated to assess the effect of polymer flow properties for the stamp cavity filling and the printed defects. A detailed analysis of the printed resist in dense hole patterns showed that the application volume conservation is enough to calculate the residual layer thickness as the height of the printed resist feature. Good accordance has been obtained between the theoretical approach and experimental results. Moreover, the impact of the pattern symmetry breakdown on mould deformation is clearly shown in this paper in the printed areas as well as in the unprinted areas

  4. Supercapacitive properties of hydrothermally synthesized sphere like MoS2 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Radhakrishnan, Sivaprakasam; Kim, Sang Jae

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MoS 2 nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Randomly stacked MoS 2 was obtained. • FE-SEM studies show the sphere like morphology of MoS 2 . • Specific capacitance of 92.85 F/g was achieved using charge–discharge analysis. • MoS 2 electrode shows capacitance retention of about 93.8% after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: In this communication, we have investigated the supercapacitive behaviour of MoS 2 nanostructures prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal approach using ammonium heptamolybdate and thiourea as starting materials. The X-ray diffraction study revealed the formation of randomly stacked layers of MoS 2 . The field-emission scanning electron microscope studies suggested the formation of sphere like MoS 2 nanostructures and a plausible mechanism for the formation of the obtained structure is discussed. The cyclic voltammetry study shows the typical rectangular shaped curves with a specific capacitance of 106 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. Galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements suggested the maximum specific capacitance of about 92.85 F/g at discharge current density of 0.5 mA/cm 2 . Cyclic stability tests revealed the capacitance retention of about 93.8% after 1000 cycles suggesting a good cyclic capacity of the prepared MoS 2 . The electrochemical impedance spectroscopic results such as Nyquist and Bode phase angle plots suggested that the hydrothermally synthesized MoS 2 nanostructures will be a suitable candidate for electrochemical supercapacitor applications

  5. Adsorption studies of alcohol molecules on monolayer MoS_2 nanosheet—A first-principles insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, V.; Chandiramouli, R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The adsorption of methanol, ethanol & 1-propanol on MoS_2 nanosheet are studied. • The PDOS & band structure confirms adsorption of alcohol vapors on MoS_2 nanosheet. • The adsorption of 1-propanol vapor on MoS_2 nanosheet is more favorable. • The alcohol molecules adsorption on MoS_2 nanosheet is explored in atomistic level. - Abstract: The electronic and adsorption properties of three different alcohol molecules namely methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol vapors on MoS_2 nanosheet is investigated using DFT method. The structural stability of MoS_2 nanosheet is ascertained with formation energy. The adsorption properties of alcohol molecules on MoS_2 base material is discussed in terms of average energy gap variation, Mulliken charge transfer, energy band gap and adsorption energy. The prominent adsorption sites of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol vapors on MoS_2 nanosheet are studied in atomistic level. The projected density of states (PDOS) spectrum gives the clear insights on the electronic properties of MoS_2 nanosheet. The PDOS and energy band structure confirmed the adsorption of alcohol vapors on MoS_2 nanosheet. The variation in the band structure and PDOS is noticed upon adsorption of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol molecules on MoS_2 nanosheet. The PDOS spectrum also reveals the variation in peak maxima owing to transfer of electron between alcohol molecules and MoS_2 base material. The adsorption of 1-propanol vapor on MoS_2 nanosheet is observed to be more favorable than other alcohol molecules. The findings confirm that monolayer MoS_2 nanosheet can be used to detect the presence of alcohol vapors in the environment.

  6. Passive Q-switching of femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers by graphene and MoS2 saturable absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Esrom; Mateos, Xavier; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez; Ródenas, Airan; Loiko, Pavel; Zakharov, Viktor; Veniaminov, Andrey; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Chen, Yanxue; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin

    2018-02-01

    A buried depressed-index channel waveguide with a circular cladding and a core diameter of 40 μm is fabricated in a bulk monoclinic 3 at.% Tm:KLu(WO4)2 crystal by femtosecond direct laser writing. In the continuous-wave regime, the Tm waveguide laser generates 210 mW at 1849.6 nm with a slope efficiency η of 40.8%. Passively Q-switched operation is achieved by inserting transmission-type 2D saturable absorbers (SAs) based on few-layer graphene and MoS2. Using the graphene-SA, a maximum average output power of 25 mW is generated at 1844.8 nm. The pulse characteristics (duration/energy) are 88 ns/18 nJ at a repetition rate of 1.39 MHz.

  7. Investigation of the optical properties of MoS2 thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Chanyoung; O'Brien, Maria; Winters, Sinéad; McEvoy, Niall; Mirza, Inam; Lunney, James G.; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) characterization of layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) thin films grown by vapor phase sulfurization is reported. By developing an optical dispersion model, the extinction coefficient and refractive index, as well as the thickness of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) films, were extracted. In addition, the optical band gap was obtained from SE and showed a clear dependence on the MoS 2 film thickness, with thinner films having a larger band gap energy. These results are consistent with theory and observations made on MoS 2 flakes prepared by exfoliation, showing the viability of vapor phase derived TMDs for optical applications

  8. Simulación y modelado de transistores MOS de doble puerta

    OpenAIRE

    Cartujo Cassinello, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se hace un estudio del transistor MOS de doble puerta analizando las posibles ventajas de esta nueva estructura frene al transistor convencional y el transistor MOS SOI de puerta simple. Para ello se ha analizado una sección transversal de un transistor MOS de doble puerta de canal N, con el fin de examinar detalladamente las peculiaridades de la distribución de electrones con una amplia variedad de valores de todos los parámentros tecnológicos y condiciones de operación, y se...

  9. Simulaci??n y modelado de transistores MOS de doble puerta

    OpenAIRE

    Cartujo Cassinello, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    En este trabajo se hace un estudio del transistor MOS de doble puerta analizando las posibles ventajas de esta nueva estructura frene al transistor convencional y el transistor MOS SOI de puerta simple. Para ello se ha analizado una secci??n transversal de un transistor MOS de doble puerta de canal N, con el fin de examinar detalladamente las peculiaridades de la distribuci??n de electrones con una amplia variedad de valores de todos los par??mentros tecnol??gicos y condiciones de operaci??n,...

  10. Synthesis of coaxial nanotubes of MoS2 and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza, C.; Perez, M.; Santiago, P.

    2002-01-01

    The di chalcogenides WS 2 and MoS 2 by their tubular properties were combined. It was synthesized coaxial structures of MoS 2 with C with the purpose to studying the possible structural changes of the MoS 2 nano tubes at was submitted to a propylene gas flux as carbon precursor in a thermal treatment. Studies of structural characterization by Transmission Electron Microscopy (Tem) were realized. The theoretical simulation of the structure was realized using an algorithm type multilayer. The possibility of the nano tubes are applied to gas storage as can be the hydrogen arouse interest by the energy production. (Author)

  11. Model for thickness dependence of radiation charging in MOS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, C. R.; Maserjian, J.

    1976-01-01

    The model considers charge buildup in MOS structures due to hole trapping in the oxide and the creation of sheet charge at the silicon interface. The contribution of hole trapping causes the flatband voltage to increase with thickness in a manner in which square and cube dependences are limiting cases. Experimental measurements on samples covering a 200 - 1000 A range of oxide thickness are consistent with the model, using independently obtained values of hole-trapping parameters. An important finding of our experimental results is that a negative interface charge contribution due to surface states created during irradiation compensates most of the positive charge in the oxide at flatband. The tendency of the surface states to 'track' the positive charge buildup in the oxide, for all thicknesses, applies both in creation during irradiation and in annihilation during annealing. An explanation is proposed based on the common defect origin of hole traps and potential surface states.

  12. Procedure for the ion implantation of MOS elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessner, T.; Vetter, E.; Tolonics, J.

    1986-01-01

    The ion implantation procedure is applied to the doping of MOS elements. The invention guarantees a homogeneous doping in the dose range from 10 10 to 10 12 ions/cm 2 without additional installations of mechanical orifices in high-current implantation devices. The ion source parameters like cathode heating current, pressure at the ion source, extraction and acceleration voltages correspond to the dose range (10 10 to 10 12 ions/cm 2 ) for single charged ions of the doping agent. Double or triple charged ions generated at the ion source have been separated mass-analytically, accelerated and scanned. Ion densities below 100 nA/cm 2 have been obtained

  13. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 51C. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    FF-TCR1NG I RESTS 2 RESULT I RESJLTS I VETA I NS 3 it 0Up N I R~vERS-1L. I F E VtS ZNG I PEVELVIKG MOS WORDo LISTINGASCENDIIG SECUEME C.ATE 93259 t39...1 0 J CACCUPULATEG 1 J fiCID I * ?L4CoS 1 j & T.CrC$S 2 0 J tAnJUSTASLE I J rC.Ff ER 8 J E .11:-COflOITIOING 5 *J CALL 1 0 J LALLOM I J (A~LLOW~S 4 *J...ALCMj 3 *J &:.L" VS 1 0 3 12 0 j ...’Jo I *J W Git Z I ., 1 4 J fNVIL I ’ . lUV I J E C.PPEAJRS I I J E .*,PL! CATION 2 2 C. PPLY I 3 C.;PPPtovEo a 3

  14. The multi-camera optical surveillance system (MOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, P.; Wagner, H.; Richter, B.; Gaertner, K.J.; Laszlo, G.; Neumann, G.

    1991-01-01

    The transition from film camera to video surveillance systems, in particular the implementation of high capacity multi-camera video systems, results in a large increase in the amount of recorded scenes. Consequently, there is a substantial increase in the manpower requirements for review. Moreover, modern microprocessor controlled equipment facilitates the collection of additional data associated with each scene. Both the scene and the annotated information have to be evaluated by the inspector. The design of video surveillance systems for safeguards necessarily has to account for both appropriate recording and reviewing techniques. An aspect of principal importance is that the video information is stored on tape. Under the German Support Programme to the Agency a technical concept has been developed which aims at optimizing the capabilities of a multi-camera optical surveillance (MOS) system including the reviewing technique. This concept is presented in the following paper including a discussion of reviewing and reliability

  15. Interface characterization of InSb MOS structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Y.; Bregman, J.; Calahorra, Z.; Goshen, R.

    1982-03-26

    The electrical properties of MOS devices are critically dependent on the oxide-semiconductor interface. The preparation of suitable insulating layers of oxide or other material is essential for the performance of such devices and it is particularly difficult in the case of III-V compound semiconductors. We report a method of preparing an insulating layer on InSb by a plasma oxidation process. The oxidation method will be described as well as results of the analysis of the oxide-semiconductor interface by electrical and compositional techniques. Capacitance-voltage characteristics reveal the existence of interface states which are distributed near the conduction and the valence bands with a higher density near the former. Depth profiling of the oxide by Ar/sup +/ sputtering and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) shows that the oxide is composed of a mixture of indium oxide with antimony oxide.

  16. First-principles analysis of MoS2/Ti2C and MoS2/Ti2CY2 (Y=F and OH) all-2D semiconductor/metal contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Liyong

    2013-06-13

    First-principles calculations are used to explore the geometry, bonding, and electronic properties of MoS2/Ti2C and MoS2/Ti2CY2 (Y = F and OH) semiconductor/metal contacts. The structure of the interfaces is determined. Strong chemical bonds formed at the MoS2/Ti2C interface result in additional states next to the Fermi level, which extend over the three atomic layers of MoS2 and induce a metallic character. The interaction in MoS2/Ti2CY2, on the other hand, is weak and not sensitive to the specific geometry, and the semiconducting nature thus is preserved. The energy level alignment implies weak and strong n-type doping of MoS2 in MoS2/Ti2CF2 and MoS2/Ti2C(OH)2, respectively. The corresponding n-type Schottky barrier heights are 0.85 and 0.26 eV. We show that the MoS2/Ti2CF2 interface is close to the Schottky limit. At the MoS2/Ti2C(OH)2 interface, we find that a strong dipole due to charge rearrangement induces the Schottky barrier. The present interfaces are well suited for application in all-two-dimensional devices.

  17. First-principles analysis of MoS2/Ti2C and MoS2/Ti2CY2 (Y=F and OH) all-2D semiconductor/metal contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Liyong; Huang, Dan; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhao, Yu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    First-principles calculations are used to explore the geometry, bonding, and electronic properties of MoS2/Ti2C and MoS2/Ti2CY2 (Y = F and OH) semiconductor/metal contacts. The structure of the interfaces is determined. Strong chemical bonds formed at the MoS2/Ti2C interface result in additional states next to the Fermi level, which extend over the three atomic layers of MoS2 and induce a metallic character. The interaction in MoS2/Ti2CY2, on the other hand, is weak and not sensitive to the specific geometry, and the semiconducting nature thus is preserved. The energy level alignment implies weak and strong n-type doping of MoS2 in MoS2/Ti2CF2 and MoS2/Ti2C(OH)2, respectively. The corresponding n-type Schottky barrier heights are 0.85 and 0.26 eV. We show that the MoS2/Ti2CF2 interface is close to the Schottky limit. At the MoS2/Ti2C(OH)2 interface, we find that a strong dipole due to charge rearrangement induces the Schottky barrier. The present interfaces are well suited for application in all-two-dimensional devices.

  18. MoS2 Negative-Capacitance Field-Effect Transistors with Subthreshold Swing below the Physics Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Liang, Renrong; Gao, Guoyun; Pan, Caofeng; Jiang, Chunsheng; Xu, Qian; Luo, Jun; Zou, Xuming; Yang, Zhenyu; Liao, Lei; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-05-21

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons induced fundamental barrier prevents subthreshold swing (SS) from less than 60 mV dec -1 at room temperature, leading to high energy consumption of MOSFETs. Herein, it is demonstrated that an aggressive introduction of the negative capacitance (NC) effect of ferroelectrics can decisively break the fundamental limit governed by the "Boltzmann tyranny". Such MoS 2 negative-capacitance field-effect transistors (NC-FETs) with self-aligned top-gated geometry demonstrated here pull down the SS value to 42.5 mV dec -1 , and simultaneously achieve superior performance of a transconductance of 45.5 μS μm and an on/off ratio of 4 × 10 6 with channel length less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the inserted HfO 2 layer not only realizes a stable NC gate stack structure, but also prevents the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) from fatigue with robust stability. Notably, the fabricated MoS 2 NC-FETs are distinctly different from traditional MOSFETs. The on-state current increases as the temperature decreases even down to 20 K, and the SS values exhibit nonlinear dependence with temperature due to the implementation of the ferroelectric gate stack. The NC-FETs enable fundamental applications through overcoming the Boltzmann limit in nanoelectronics and open up an avenue to low-power transistors needed for many exciting long-endurance portable consumer products. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Electrical parameters of silicon on sapphire; influence on aluminium gate MOS devices performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suat, J.P.; Borel, J.

    1976-01-01

    The question is the quality level of the substrate obtained with MOS technologies on silicon on an insulating substrate. Experimental results are presented on the main electrical parameters of MOS transistors made on silicon on sapphire, e.g. mean values and spreads of: threhold voltage and surface mobilities of transistors, breakdown voltages, and leakage currents of diodes. These devices have been made in three different technologies: enhancement P. channel technology, depletion-enhancement P. channel technology, and complementary MOS technology. These technologies are all aluminium gate processes with standard design rules and 5μm channel length. Measurements show that presently available silicon on sapphire can be considered as a very suitable substrate for many MOS digital applications (but not for dynamic circuits) [fr

  20. CMOS-compatible batch processing of monolayer MoS2 MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Kuanchen; Kim, Hyun; Marstell, Roderick J.; Göritz, Alexander; Wipf, Christian; Li, Lei; Park, Ji-Hoon; Luo, Xi; Wietstruck, Matthias; Madjar, Asher; Strandwitz, Nicholas C.; Kaynak, Mehmet; Lee, Young Hee; Hwang, James C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Thousands of high-performance 2D metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated on wafer-scale chemical vapor deposited MoS2 with fully-CMOS-compatible processes such as photolithography and aluminum metallurgy. The yield was greater than 50% in terms of effective gate control with less-than-10 V threshold voltage, even for MOSFETs having deep-submicron gate length. The large number of fabricated MOSFETs allowed statistics to be gathered and the main yield limiter to be attributed to the weak adhesion between the transferred MoS2 and the substrate. With cut-off frequencies approaching the gigahertz range, the performances of the MOSFETs were comparable to that of state-of-the-art MoS2 MOSFETs, whether the MoS2 was grown by a thin-film process or exfoliated from a bulk crystal.

  1. Analysis of Quantum Effects in Non-Uniformly Doped MOS Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiegna, Claudio

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents results from the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations obtained in one-dimensional non-uniformly doped MOS structures suitable for the fabrication of very short transistors...

  2. Quantum transport through MoS2 constrictions defined by photodoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Alexander; Banszerus, Luca; Güttinger, Johannes; Krückeberg, Luisa; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Hassler, Fabian; Beschoten, Bernd; Stampfer, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    We present a device scheme to explore mesoscopic transport through molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) constrictions using photodoping. The devices are based on van-der-Waals heterostructures where few-layer MoS2 flakes are partially encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and covered by a few-layer graphene flake to fabricate electrical contacts. Since the as-fabricated devices are insulating at low temperatures, we use photo-induced remote doping in the hBN substrate to create free charge carriers in the MoS2 layer. On top of the device, we place additional metal structures, which define the shape of the constriction and act as shadow masks during photodoping of the underlying MoS2/hBN heterostructure. Low temperature two- and four-terminal transport measurements show evidence of quantum confinement effects.

  3. An ab initio study of hydrotreating of thiirene and thiirane on MoS 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catalytic site used is based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), which is considered ... Two steps characterise the desulfurization process: the adsorption and the ... catalytic site and molecules obtained in previous works in the EHT method.

  4. Role of interlayer coupling in ultra thin MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Zhu, Zhiyong; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    The effects of interlayer coupling on the vibrational and electronic properties of ultra thin MoS 2 were studied by ab initio calculations. For smaller slab thickness, the interlayer distance is significantly elongated because of reduced interlayer

  5. Study of solid lubrication with MoS2 coating in the presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) based solid lubricant mixtures con- taining zirconia and ... age during relative movement and to reduce friction and wear. ..... In this hexagonal structure the bonds between the carbon atoms in a layer are strong.

  6. Interlocking Friction Governs the Mechanical Fracture of Bilayer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gang Seob; Wang, Shanshan; Qin, Zhao; Martin-Martinez, Francisco J; Warner, Jamie H; Buehler, Markus J

    2018-04-24

    A molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) layered system is a two-dimensional (2D) material, which is expected to provide the next generation of electronic devices together with graphene and other 2D materials. Due to its significance for future electronics applications, gaining a deep insight into the fundamental mechanisms upon MoS 2 fracture is crucial to prevent mechanical failure toward reliable applications. Here, we report direct experimental observation and atomic modeling of the complex failure behaviors of bilayer MoS 2 originating from highly variable interlayer frictions, elucidated with in situ transmission electron microscopy and large-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations. Our results provide a systematic understanding of the effects that different stacking and loading conditions have on the failure mechanisms and crack-tip behaviors in the bilayer MoS 2 systems. Our findings unveil essential properties in fracture of this 2D material and provide mechanistic insight into its mechanical failure.

  7. ''Normal'' tissues from humans exposed to radium contain an alteration in the c-mos locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huberman, E.; Schlenker, R.A.; Hardwick, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of a number of human proto-oncogenes from persons with internal systemic exposure to radium were analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion and southern blotting of their DNA. Two extra c-mos Eco R1 restriction-fragment-length bands of 5.0 kb and 5.5 kb were found in tissue DNA from six of seven individuals. The extra c-mos bands were detected in DNA from many, but not all, of the tissues of the individuals exposed to radium. Our results suggest that the c-mos restriction-fragment-length alterations (RFLA) found in individuals exposed to radium were induced rather than inherited, are epigenetic in origin, and most likely result from changes in the methylation of bases surrounding the single exon of the c-mos proto-oncogene. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Performance of an area variable MOS varicap weighted programmable CCD transversal filter

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, A.B.; Shankarnarayan, L.; Kapur, N.; Wallinga, Hans

    1981-01-01

    The performance of an electrically programmable CCD transversal filter (PTF) is presented in which tap-weight multiplication is performed by a novel and compact on chip voltage controlled area variable MOS varicap.

  9. Strongly luminescent monolayered MoS2 prepared by effective ultrasound exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří

    2013-04-21

    Intense ultrasound in a pressurized batch reactor was used for preparation of monolayered MoS2 nanosheets from natural mineral molybdenite. Exfoliation of bulk MoS2 using ultrasound is an attractive route to large-scale preparation of monolayered crystals. To evaluate the quality of delamination, methods like X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and microscopic techniques (TEM and AFM) were employed. From single- or few-layered products obtained from intense sonication, MoS2 quantum dots (MoSQDs) were prepared by a one-pot reaction by refluxing exfoliated nanosheets of MoS2 in ethylene glycol under atmospheric pressure. The synthesised MoSQDs were characterised by photoluminescence spectroscopy and laser-scattering particle size analysis. Our easy preparation leads to very strongly green luminescing quantum dots.

  10. Effects of irradiation and isochronal anneal temperature on hole and electron trapping in MOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Riewe, L.C.; Flament, O.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.L.

    1998-02-01

    Capacitance-voltage and thermally-stimulated-current techniques are used to estimate trapped hole and electron densities in MOS oxides as functions of irradiation and isochronal anneal temperature. Trapped-charge annealing and compensation effects are discussed

  11. Two-dimensional Si nanosheets with local hexagonal structure on a MoS(2) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, Daniele; Scalise, Emilio; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Grazianetti, Carlo; van den Broek, Bas; Fanciulli, Marco; Houssa, Michel; Molle, Alessandro

    2014-04-02

    The structural and electronic properties of a Si nanosheet (NS) grown onto a MoS2 substrate by means of molecular beam epitaxy are assessed. Epitaxially grown Si is shown to adapt to the trigonal prismatic surface lattice of MoS2 by forming two-dimensional nanodomains. The Si layer structure is distinguished from the underlying MoS2 surface structure. The local electronic properties of the Si nanosheet are dictated by the atomistic arrangement of the layer and unlike the MoS2 hosting substrate they are qualified by a gap-less density of states. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The synthesis of hierarchical nanostructured MoS_2/Graphene composites with enhanced visible-light photo-degradation property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yongjie; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Chengzhi; Zhao, Yuzhen; Zhou, Heping; Li, Jingbo; Jin, HaiBo

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Introducing graphene layer into MoS_2 could construct the steady hierarchical structure which could efficiently separate the photo-induced electrons so as to enhance the photo- degradation behavior. - Highlights: • The MoS_2 and MoS_2/Graphene nanocomposite have been synthesized via a solvothermal process. • The scrolled nanosheets of MoS_2 combining with interconnected graphene network promoted the formation of steady hierarchical architecture. • Comparing with MoS_2, the hierarchical MoS_2/Graphene nanocomposite achieved relatively higher degradation rate. • The synergistic effect mechanism for excellent photo-degradation activity was proposed. - Abstract: Novel two-dimensional materials with a layered structure are of special interest for a variety of promising applications. Herein, MoS_2 and MoS_2/Graphene nanocomposite with hierarchical nanostructure were successfully synthesized employing a one-step hydrothermal method. Photo-degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine (RHB) were adopted to assess the photo-degradation ability of the products. Comparing with bare MoS_2, the hierarchical MoS_2/Graphene nanocomposite achieved relatively higher degradation rate of 99% in 28 min for MB as well in 50 min for RHB. These results verified that this proposed hierarchical nanocomposite is a good photo-degradation semiconductor. The excellent performance was mainly ascribed to the synergistic effect of MoS_2 and graphene layers. The MoS_2 possessing a band gap of 1.9 eV would provide abundant electron-hole pairs. The graphene layers with excellent electro-conductivity could realize the quick transport of electrons via its extended π-conjugation structure, consequently benefiting the separation of photo-generated carriers. These findings indicate that the graphene layer is a promising candidate as a co-catalyst for MoS_2 photo-catalyst, and also provide useful information for understanding the observed enhanced photocatalytic mechanism

  13. Electrical characteristics of multilayer MoS2 FET's with MoS2/graphene heterojunction contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Joon Young; Hwang, Jeonghyun; Calderon, Brian; Alsalman, Hussain; Munoz, Nini; Schutter, Brian; Spencer, Michael G

    2014-08-13

    The electrical properties of multilayer MoS2/graphene heterojunction transistors are investigated. Temperature-dependent I-V measurements indicate the concentration of unintentional donors in exfoliated MoS2 to be 3.57 × 10(11) cm(-2), while the ionized donor concentration is determined as 3.61 × 10(10) cm(-2). The temperature-dependent measurements also reveal two dominant donor levels, one at 0.27 eV below the conduction band and another located at 0.05 eV below the conduction band. The I-V characteristics are asymmetric with drain bias voltage and dependent on the junction used for the source or drain contact. I-V characteristics of the device are consistent with a long channel one-dimensional field-effect transistor model with Schottky contact. Utilizing devices, which have both graphene/MoS2 and Ti/MoS2 contacts, the Schottky barrier heights of both interfaces are measured. The charge transport mechanism in both junctions was determined to be either thermionic-field emission or field emission depending on bias voltage and temperature. On the basis of a thermionic field emission model, the barrier height at the graphene/MoS2 interface was determined to be 0.23 eV, while the barrier height at the Ti/MoS2 interface was 0.40 eV. The value of Ti/MoS2 barrier is higher than previously reported values, which did not include the effects of thermionic field emission.

  14. A design method for process design kit based on an SMIC 65 nm process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Haiyan; Chen Lan; Yin Minghui

    2010-01-01

    The frame structure of a process design kit (PDK) is described in detail, and a practical design method for PDK is presented. Based on this method, a useful SMIC 65 nm PDK has been successfully designed and realized, which is applicable to native EDA software of Zeni. The design process and difficulties of PDK are introduced by developing and analyzing these parameterized cell (Pcell) devices (MOS, resistor, etc.). A structured design method was proposed to implement Pcell, which makes thousands upon thousands of source codes of Pcell concise, readable, easy-to-upkeep and transplantable. Moreover, a Pcase library for each Pcell is designed to verify the Pcell in batches. By this approach, the Pcell can be verified efficiently and the PDK will be more reliable and steady. In addition, the component description format parameters and layouts of the Pcell are optimized by adding flexibility and improving performance, which benefits analog and custom IC designers to satisfy the demand of design. Finally, the SMIC 65 nm PDK was applied to IC design. The results indicate that the SMIC 65 nm PDK is competent to support IC design. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. Atomic-Monolayer MoS2 Band-to-Band Tunneling Field-Effect Transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann Wen

    2016-09-05

    The experimental observation of band-to-band tunneling in novel tunneling field-effect transistors utilizing a monolayer of MoS2 as the conducting channel is demonstrated. Our results indicate that the strong gate-coupling efficiency enabled by two-dimensional materials, such as monolayer MoS2, results in the direct manifestation of a band-to-band tunneling current and an ambipolar transport.

  16. Electron beam effects on VLSI MOS conditions for testing and reconfiguration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, P.; Roche, F.M.; Pistoulet, B.

    1986-01-01

    Wafer scale integrated-MOS circuits problems related to test and reconfiguration by electron beams are analyzed. First of all the alterations in characteristics of MOS circuits submitted to an electron beam testing are considered. Then the capabilities of reconfiguration by an electron beam bombardment are discussed. The various phenomena involved are reviewed. Experimental data are reported and discussed on the light of data of the literature. (Auth.)

  17. Exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets as efficient catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Shanshan; Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Zhenyan; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Phang, In Yee; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng; Liu, Tianxi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution has been developed based on exfoliation of bulk MoS 2 crystals via a direct dispersion and ultrasonication method. Drop-casting method is used to fabricate the exfoliated MoS 2 nanosheets modified glass carbon electrode (E-MoS 2 /GCE) with various loadings. The E-MoS 2 /GCE with electrode loading of 48 μg cm −1 exhibits high catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution with a low overpotential (−0.12 V) and a high current density (1.26 mA cm −2 , at η = 150 mV). -- Highlights: • Two-dimensional MoS 2 nanosheets have been obtained by exfoliation of bulk MoS 2 crystals. • Exfoliated MoS 2 nanosheets show high electrocatalytic activity for H 2 production. • This study provides a new approach for renewable and economic H 2 production. -- Abstract: An efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution has been developed based on liquid exfoliation of bulk MoS 2 via a direct dispersion and ultrasonication method. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements show that the exfoliated MoS 2 consists of two-dimensional nanosheets. The exfoliated MoS 2 nanosheets modified glass carbon electrode (E-MoS 2 /GCE) with various loadings is fabricated via a drop-casting method. The electrocatalytic activity of E-MoS 2 /GCE toward hydrogen evolution reaction is examined using linear sweep voltammetry. It is shown that the E-MoS 2 /GCE with an electrode loading of 48 μg cm −2 exhibits a high catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution with a low overpotential (−0.12 V) and a high current density (1.26 mA cm −2 , at η = 150 mV)

  18. Development of MOS-FET based Marx generator with self-proved gate power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuchi, A.; Jiang, W.; Takayama, K.; Arai, T.; Kawakubo, T.; Adachi, T.

    2012-01-01

    New MOS-FET based Marx generator is described. An electric gate power for the MOS-FET is provided from the Marx main circuit itself. Four-stage Marx generator generates -12kV of the output voltage. The Marx Generator is successfully used to drive an Einzel lens chopper to generate a short pulsed ion beam for a KEK digital accelerator. (author)

  19. Electronic and magnetic properties of MoS2 nanoribbons with sulfur line vacancy defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yang; Zhou, Jian; Dong, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed DFT calculations on Sulfur line defects embedded MoS 2 . • The defects induced bond strains are larger in the zigzag (ZZ) edge ones. • The ZZ ones are metals, having two degenerate ground states FM and AFM. • The armchair ones are nonmagnetic semiconductors. • The defects can induce some defect states in the electronic structures. - Abstract: Motivated by the recent experimental result that single sulfur vacancies in monolayer MoS 2 are mobile under the electron beam and easily agglomerate into the sulfur line vacancy defects [Physical Review B 88, 035301(2013)] , the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of one dimensional zigzag (ZZ) and armchair (AC) edge MoS 2 nanoribbons with single or double staggered sulfur line vacancy defects (hereafter, abbreviated as SV or DV, respectively), parallel to their edges, have been investigated systematically by density functional theory calculations. It is very interesting to find that the bond strains induced by the sulfur line vacancy defect can cause a much larger out-of plane distortions in the ZZ edge MoS 2 nanoribbon than in the AC edge counterpart. Besides, the defective ZZ edge MoS 2 nanoribbons with SV or DV are both metals, having their two respective degenerate ground states with the same energy, among which one is ferromagnetic (FM “ + +”) and the other is antiferromagnetic (AFM “ + −”). But the AC edge MoS 2 nanoribbons with SV or DV are both nonmagnetic semiconductors, having very different gap values. Finally, the sulfur line vacancy defects would induce some defect states in the electronic structures of the defective MoS 2 nanoribbons. All these important results could provide a new route of tuning the electronic properties of MoS 2 nanoribbons and its derivatives for their promising applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics

  20. Unexpected optical limiting properties from MoS2 nanosheets modified by a semiconductive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Chang, Meng-Jie; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Zhen-Tong; Zhai, Xin-Ping; Zirak, Mohammad; Moshfegh, Alireza Z; Song, Ying-Lin; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2015-08-07

    Direct solvent exfoliation of bulk MoS2 with the assistance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) produces a novel two-dimensional organic/inorganic semiconductor hetero-junction. The obtained P3HT-MoS2 nanohybrid exhibits unexpected optical limiting properties in contrast to the saturated absorption behavior of both P3HT and MoS2, showing potential in future photoelectric applications.

  1. Improving the Stability of High-Performance Multilayer MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Baek, Jongyeol; Kim, Seung Min; Hong, Seongin; Hong, Young Ki; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Sunkook; Park, Jozeph

    2017-12-13

    In this study, we propose a method for improving the stability of multilayer MoS 2 field-effect transistors (FETs) by O 2 plasma treatment and Al 2 O 3 passivation while sustaining the high performance of bulk MoS 2 FET. The MoS 2 FETs were exposed to O 2 plasma for 30 s before Al 2 O 3 encapsulation to achieve a relatively small hysteresis and high electrical performance. A MoO x layer formed during the plasma treatment was found between MoS 2 and the top passivation layer. The MoO x interlayer prevents the generation of excess electron carriers in the channel, owing to Al 2 O 3 passivation, thereby minimizing the shift in the threshold voltage (V th ) and increase of the off-current leakage. However, prolonged exposure of the MoS 2 surface to O 2 plasma (90 and 120 s) was found to introduce excess oxygen into the MoO x interlayer, leading to more pronounced hysteresis and a high off-current. The stable MoS 2 FETs were also subjected to gate-bias stress tests under different conditions. The MoS 2 transistors exhibited negligible decline in performance under positive bias stress, positive bias illumination stress, and negative bias stress, but large negative shifts in V th were observed under negative bias illumination stress, which is attributed to the presence of sulfur vacancies. This simple approach can be applied to other transition metal dichalcogenide materials to understand their FET properties and reliability, and the resulting high-performance hysteresis-free MoS 2 transistors are expected to open up new opportunities for the development of sophisticated electronic applications.

  2. Grain size effect of monolayer MoS2 transistors characterized by second harmonic generation mapping

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Chih-Pin

    2015-08-27

    We investigated different CVD-synthesized MoS2 films, aiming to correlate the device characteristics with the grain size. The grain size of MoS2 can be precisely characterized through nondestructive second harmonic generation mapping based on the degree of inversion symmetry. The devices with larger grains at the channel region show improved on/off current ratio, which can be explained by the less carrier scattering caused by the grain boundaries.

  3. Advances in 750 nm VECSELs (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Esa J.; Ranta, Sanna; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Saarela, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Guina, Mircea

    2017-03-01

    Lasers operating in the transmission window of tissue at wavelengths between 700 and 800 nm are needed in numerous medical and biomedical applications, including photodynamic therapy and fluorescence microscopy. However, the performance of diode lasers in this spectral range is limited by the lack of appropriate compound semiconductors. Here, we review our recent research on 750 nm VECSELs. Two approaches to reaching the 750 nm wavelength will be discussed. The first approach relies on intra-cavity frequency doubling a wafer-fused 1500 nm VECSEL. The VECSEL gain chip comprises a GaAs-based DBR and an InP-based gain section, which allows for optical pumping with low-cost commercial diodes at 980 nm. With this scheme we have achieved watt-level output powers and tuning of the laser wavelength over a 40 nm band at around 750 nm. The second approach is direct emission at 750 nm using the AlGaAs/GaAs material system. In this approach visible wavelengths are required for optical pumping. However, the consequent higher costs compared to pumping at 980 nm are mitigated by the more compact laser setup and prospects of doubling the frequency to the ultraviolet range.

  4. Hypersensitisation using 266nm Laser Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, John; Kristensen, Martin

    UV-hypersensitisation using 266nm VW-light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum fluence to be between 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with results obtained using 355nm light, indicating same end-process in both reactions.......UV-hypersensitisation using 266nm VW-light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum fluence to be between 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with results obtained using 355nm light, indicating same end-process in both reactions....

  5. Dust Explosion Characteristics of Agglomerated 35 nm and 100 nm Aluminum Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chun Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, nanoparticles of 35 nm Al and 100 nm Al powders, respectively, formed particles with average sizes of 161 nm and 167 nm in agglomeration. The characteristics of dust cloud explosions with the two powder sizes, 35 nm and 100 nm, revealed considerable differences, as shown here: (dp/dtmax-35 nm = 1254 bar/s, (dp/dtmax-100 nm = 1105 bar/s; Pmax-35 nm = 7.5 bar, Pmax-100 nm = 12.3 bar, and MEC-35 nm = 40 g/m3, MEC-100 nm = 50 g/m3. The reason of Pmax-35 nm value is smaller than Pmax-100 nm may be due to agglomeration. From an analysis of the explosive residue, the study found that nanoparticles of 35 nm Al powder became filamentous strands after an explosion, where most of 100 nm Al nanoparticles maintained a spherical structure, This may be because the initial melting temperature of 35 nm Al is 435.71°C, while that for 100 nm Al is 523.58°C, higher by 87.87°C. This study discovered that explosive property between the 35 nm Al and 100 nm Al powders after agglomeration were different.

  6. Photoelectrochemical-type sunlight photodetector based on MoS2/graphene heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zongyu; Han, Weijia; Chander, D Sathish; Qi, Xiang; Zhang, Han; Tang, Hongli; Ren, Long

    2015-01-01

    We have fabricated a novel sunlight photo-detector based on a MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure. The MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure was prepared by a facile hydrothermal method along with a subsequent annealing process followed by a substrate-induced high selective nucleation and growth mechanism. The microstructures and morphologies of the two-dimensional MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure can be experimentally confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a UV–vis absorption spectrometer. Photoresponse investigations performed by a photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurement system indicate that the synthesized MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure shows superior photoresponse activities under the illumination of sunlight in contrast with bare MoS 2 and graphene. The improved photoresponsivity can be attributed to the enhanced light absorption, strong light–matter interaction and the extremely efficient charge separation of the heterostructure. The structure and performances of the MoS 2 /graphene heterostructure suggest promising applications in the field of photonics and optoelectronics. (paper)

  7. MoS2 solid-lubricating film fabricated by atomic layer deposition on Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yazhou; Liu, Lei; Lv, Jun; Yang, Junjie; Sha, Jingjie; Chen, Yunfei

    2018-04-01

    How to reduce friction for improving efficiency in the usage of energy is a constant challenge. Layered material like MoS2 has long been recognized as an effective surface lubricant. Due to low interfacial shear strengths, MoS2 is endowed with nominal frictional coefficient. In this work, MoS2 solid-lubricating film was directly grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si substrate using MoCl5 and H2S. Various methods were used to observe the grown MoS2 film. Moreover, nanotribological properties of the film were observed by an atomic force microscope (AFM). Results show that MoS2 film can effectively reduce the friction force by about 30-45% under different loads, indicating the huge application value of the film as a solid lubricant. Besides the interlayer-interfaces-sliding, the smaller capillary is another reason why the grown MoS2 film has smaller friction force than that of Si.

  8. Two-dimensional MoS2: A promising building block for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiaorong; Zhao, Huimin; Quan, Xie

    2017-03-15

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials have trigged intensive interest due to the intriguing physicochemical properties that stem from a quantum size effect connected with their ultra-thin structure. In particular, 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ), as an emerging class of stable inorganic graphene analogs with intrinsic finite bandgap, would possibly complement or even surpass graphene in electronics and optoelectronics fields. In this review, we first discuss the historical development of ultrathin 2D nanomaterials. Then, we are concerned with 2D MoS 2 including its structure-property relationships, synthesis methods, characterization for the layer thickness, and biosensor applications over the past five years. Thereinto, we are highlighting recent advances in 2D MoS 2 -based biosensors, especially emphasize the preparation of sensing elements, roles of 2D MoS 2 , and assay strategies. Finally, on the basis of the current achievements on 2D MoS 2 and other ultrathin layered nanomaterials, perspectives on the challenges and opportunities for the exploration of 2D MoS 2 -based biosensors are put forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of Monolayer MoS2 by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withanage, Sajeevi; Lopez, Mike; Dumas, Kenneth; Jung, Yeonwoong; Khondaker, Saiful

    Finite and layer-tunable band gap of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) including molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are highlighted over the zero band gap graphene in various semiconductor applications. Weak interlayer Van der Waal bonding of bulk MoS2 allows to cleave few to single layer MoS2 using top-down methods such as mechanical and chemical exfoliation, however few micron size of these flakes limit MoS2 applications to fundamental research. Bottom-up approaches including the sulfurization of molybdenum (Mo) thin films and co-evaporation of Mo and sulfur precursors received the attention due to their potential to synthesize large area. We synthesized monolayer MoS2 on Si/SiO2 substrates by atmospheric pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) methods using sulfur and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) as precursors. Several growth conditions were tested including precursor amounts, growth temperature, growth time and flow rate. Raman, photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed monolayer islands merging to create large area were observed with grain sizes up to 70 μm without using any seeds or seeding promoters. These studies provide in-depth knowledge to synthesize high quality large area MoS2 for prospective electronics applications.

  10. Doping effect on monolayer MoS2 for visible light dye degradation - A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyan, Silpa; Balamurgan, D.; Sriram, S.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic and optical properties of, Nitrogen (N), Cobalt (Co), and Co-N co-doped monolayers of MoS2 has been studied by using density functional theory (DFT) for visible light photocatalytic activity. From the calculations, it has been observed that the band gap of monolayer MoS2 has been reduced while doping. However, the band gaps of pristine and N doped MoS2 monolayers only falls in the visible region while for Co and Co-N co-doped systems, the band gap shifted to IR region. The optical calculation also confirms the results. The formation energy values of the doped system reaveal that MoS2 monolayer drops its stability while doping. To evaluate the photocatalytic response, band edge potentials of pristine and N-MoS2 are calculated, and the observed results show that compared to N-doped MoS2 monolayer, pure MoS2 is highly suitable for visible light photocatalytic dye degradation.

  11. Observation of Room-Temperature Magnetoresistance in Monolayer MoS2 by Ferromagnetic Gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Wenjing; Yang, Zhibin; Zhang, Fan; Bai, Gongxun; Leung, Chi Wah; Hao, Jianhua

    2017-07-25

    Room-temperature magnetoresistance (MR) effect is observed in heterostructures of wafer-scale MoS 2 layers and ferromagnetic dielectric CoFe 2 O 4 (CFO) thin films. Through the ferromagnetic gating, an MR ratio of -12.7% is experimentally achieved in monolayer MoS 2 under 90 kOe magnetic field at room temperature (RT). The observed MR ratio is much higher than that in previously reported nonmagnetic metal coupled with ferromagnetic insulator, which generally exhibited MR ratio of less than 1%. The enhanced MR is attributed to the spin accumulation at the heterostructure interface and spin injection to the MoS 2 layers by the strong spin-orbit coupling effect. The injected spin can contribute to the spin current and give rise to the MR by changing the resistance of MoS 2 layers. Furthermore, the MR effect decreases as the thickness of MoS 2 increases, and the MR ratio becomes negligible in MoS 2 with thickness more than 10 layers. Besides, it is interesting to find a magnetic field direction dependent spin Hall magnetoresistance that stems from a combination of the spin Hall and the inverse spin Hall effects. Our research provides an insight into exploring RT MR in monolayer materials, which should be helpful for developing ultrathin magnetic storage devices in the atomically thin limit.

  12. Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of MOS capacitors by reducing the organic content of H2O-diluted Spin-On-Glass based oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Joel; Munoz, Ana; Torres, Alfonso; Landa, Mauro; Alarcon, Pablo; Escobar, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the physical, chemical and electrical properties of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with Spin-On-Glass (SOG)-based thin films as gate dielectric have been investigated. Experiments of SOG diluted with two different solvents (2-propanol and deionized water) were done in order to reduce the viscosity of the SOG solution so that thinner films (down to ∼20 nm) could be obtained and their general characteristics compared. Thin films of SOG were deposited on silicon by the sol-gel technique and they were thermally annealed using conventional oxidation furnace and Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) systems within N 2 ambient after deposition. SOG dilution using non-organic solvents like deionized water and further annealing (at relatively high temperatures ≥450 deg. C) are important processes intended to reduce the organic content of the films. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy results have shown that water-diluted SOG films have a significant reduction in their organic content after increasing annealing temperature and/or dilution percentage when compared to those of undiluted SOG films. Both current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements show better electrical characteristics for SOG-films diluted in deionized water compared to those diluted in 2-propanol (which is an organic solvent). The electrical characteristics of H 2 O-diluted SOG thin films are very similar to those obtained from high quality thermal oxides so that their application as gate dielectrics in MOS devices is promising. Finally, it has been demonstrated that by reducing the organic content of SOG-based thin films, it is possible to obtain MOS devices with better electrical properties.

  13. Laser hypersensitisation using 266nm light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, J.; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    UV hypersensitisation using CW 266 nm light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum sensitisation fluence is found to be in the range of 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with previous results obtained using 355 nm light, indicating the same end-process used in the photochemical reaction...

  14. A pressure tuned stop-flow atomic layer deposition process for MoS2 on high porous nanostructure and fabrication of TiO2/MoS2 core/shell inverse opal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Wang, Zhiwei; Kei Tan, Chiew; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Kherani, Nazir P.; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2017-11-01

    MoS2 thin films are obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the temperature range of 120-150 °C using Mo(CO)6 and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as precursors. A pressure tuned stop-flow ALD process facilitates the precursor adsorption and enables the deposition of MoS2 on high porous three dimensional (3D) nanostructures. As a demonstration, a TiO2/MoS2 core/shell inverse opal (TiO2/MoS2-IO) structure has been fabricated through ALD of TiO2 and MoS2 on a self-assembled multilayer polystyrene (PS) structure template. Due to the self-limiting surface reaction mechanism of ALD and the utilization of pressure tuned stop-flow ALD processes, the as fabricated TiO2/MoS2-IO structure has a high uniformity, reflected by FESEM and FIB-SEM characterization. A crystallized TiO2/MoS2-IO structure can be obtained through a post annealing process. As a 3D photonic crystal, the TiO2/MoS2-IO exhibits obvious stopband reflecting peaks, which can be adjusted through changing the opal diameters as well as the thickness of MoS2 layer.

  15. Capillary Condensation in 8 nm Deep Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Junjie; Riordon, Jason; Zandavi, Seyed Hadi; Xu, Yi; Persad, Aaron H; Mostowfi, Farshid; Sinton, David

    2018-02-01

    Condensation on the nanoscale is essential to understand many natural and synthetic systems relevant to water, air, and energy. Despite its importance, the underlying physics of condensation initiation and propagation remain largely unknown at sub-10 nm, mainly due to the challenges of controlling and probing such small systems. Here we study the condensation of n-propane down to 8 nm confinement in a nanofluidic system, distinct from previous studies at ∼100 nm. The condensation initiates significantly earlier in the 8 nm channels, and it initiates from the entrance, in contrast to channels just 10 times larger. The condensate propagation is observed to be governed by two liquid-vapor interfaces with an interplay between film and bridging effects. We model the experimental results using classical theories and find good agreement, demonstrating that this 8 nm nonpolar fluid system can be treated as a continuum from a thermodynamic perspective, despite having only 10-20 molecular layers.

  16. Ultrafast Transient Terahertz Conductivity of Monolayer MoS 2 and WSe 2 Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Docherty, Callum J.

    2014-11-25

    We have measured ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in monolayers and trilayers of the transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2 and WSe2 using a combination of time-resolved photoluminescence and terahertz spectroscopy. We recorded a photoconductivity and photoluminescence response time of just 350 fs from CVD-grown monolayer MoS2, and 1 ps from trilayer MoS2 and monolayer WSe2. Our results indicate the potential of these materials as high-speed optoelectronic materials.

  17. Ultrafast Transient Terahertz Conductivity of Monolayer MoS 2 and WSe 2 Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Docherty, Callum J.; Parkinson, Patrick; Joyce, Hannah J.; Chiu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Lee, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Herz, Laura M.; Johnston, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured ultrafast charge carrier dynamics in monolayers and trilayers of the transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2 and WSe2 using a combination of time-resolved photoluminescence and terahertz spectroscopy. We recorded a photoconductivity and photoluminescence response time of just 350 fs from CVD-grown monolayer MoS2, and 1 ps from trilayer MoS2 and monolayer WSe2. Our results indicate the potential of these materials as high-speed optoelectronic materials.

  18. Layer-by-Layer Hybrids of MoS2 and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Yu; Ortiz-Quiles, Edwin O.; Cabrera, Carlos R.; Chen, Zhongfang; Zhou, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Layer-by-layer MoS 2 /rGO hybrids were prepared by rGO involved lithiation-exfoliation method. • This hybrid exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances due to the existence of rGO. • The roles of rGO in different charging/discharging processes were interpreted by computations. - Abstract: Two-dimensional MoS 2 shows great potential for effective Li storage due to its good thermal and chemical stability, high theoretical capacity, and experimental accessibility. However, the poor electrical conductivity and the restacking tendency significantly restrict its applications to lithium ion batteries (LIBs). To overcome these problems, we introduced reduced graphene oxides (rGO) to the intercalation-exfoliation preparation process of few-layered MoS 2 and obtained layer-by-layer MoS 2 /rGO hybrids. With the addition of rGO, the restacking of MoS 2 layers was apparently inhibited, and MoS 2 with 1 ∼ 3 layers was obtained in the composite. Due to the positive role of rGO, MoS 2 /rGO hybrids exhibited highly enhanced cyclic stability and high-rate performances as LIB anodes in comparison with bare MoS 2 layers or bulk MoS 2 . Moreover, the experimental results were well interpreted through density functional theory computations

  19. Studies on nanosecond 532nm and 355nm and ultrafast 515nm and 532nm laser cutting super-hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, micro-processing of three kinds of super-hard materials of poly-crystal diamond (PCD)/tungsten-carbide (WC), CVD-diamond and cubic boron nitride (CNB) has been systematically studied using nanosecond laser (532nm and 355nm), and ultrafast laser (532nm and 515nm). Our purpose is to investigate a full laser micro-cutting solution to achieve a ready-to-use cutting tool insert (CTI). The results show a clean cut with little burns and recasting at edge. The cutting speed of 2-10mm/min depending on thickness was obtained. The laser ablation process was also studied by varying laser parameters (wavelength, pulse width, pulse energy, repetition rate) and tool path to improve cutting speed. Also, studies on material removal efficiency (MRE) of PCD/WC with 355nm-ns and 515nm-fs laser as a function of laser fluence show that 355nm-ns laser is able to achieve higher MRE for PCD and WC. Thus, ultrafast laser is not necessarily used for superhard material cutting. Instead, post-polishing with ultrafast laser can be used to clean cutting surface and improve smoothness.

  20. Study of interfacial strain at the α-Al2O3/monolayer MoS2 interface by first principle calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheng; Ran, Shunjie; Zhu, Hao; Eshun, Kwesi; Shi, Chen; Jiang, Kai; Gu, Kunming; Seo, Felix Jaetae; Li, Qiliang

    2018-01-01

    With the advances in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), the interface between the semiconductor channel and gate dielectrics has received considerable attention due to its significant impacts on the morphology and charge transport of the devices. In this study, first principle calculations were utilized to investigate the strain effect induced by the interface between crystalline α-Al2O3 (0001)/h-MoS2 monolayer. The results indicate that the 1.3 nm Al2O3 can induce a 0.3% tensile strain on the MoS2 monolayer. The strain monotonically increases with thicker dielectric layers, inducing more significant impact on the properties of MoS2. In addition, the study on temperature effect indicates that the increasing temperature induces monotonic lattice expansion. This study clearly indicates that the dielectric engineering can effectively tune the properties of 2D TMDCs, which is very attractive for nanoelectronics.

  1. Effect of MoS2 on hydrogenation storage properties of LiBH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Dan; Han, Shumin; Wang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Ziyang

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogen storage properties of LiBH 4 ball milled with 20 wt% MoS 2 have been investigated. It shows that the LiBH 4 doped with MoS 2 exhibits favorable hydrogenation and dehydrogenation properties in terms of decomposition temperature and hydriding/dehydriding reversibility. The sample with MoS 2 starts to release hydrogen at 230 °C and has a decrease of 80 °C in contrast with pristine LiBH 4 . Furthermore, for the second cycle, the LiBH 4 with MoS 2 maintains a reversible hydrogen storage capacity of about 8.0 wt% which is almost identical with the first cycle under 5 MPa at 550 °C. Analyzed by the XRD and the FTIR results, LiBH 4 can be regenerated after re-hydrogenation under a relatively mild condition by adding MoS 2 . The improvement of the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation properties mainly results from the formation of Li 2 S and MoB 2 during ball milling. -- Graphical abstract: Hydrogen absorption curves of LiBH 4 doped with MoS 2 for five cycles at 400 °C. Highlights: • The hydrogen absorption capacity is nearly the same for 5 cycles at 400 °C. • The sample with MoS 2 starts to release hydrogen at 230 °C. • The coexistence of MoB 2 and Li 2 S catalyzes the decomposition of LiBH 4

  2. Comparison of MOS capacitor and transistor postirradiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhorter, P.J.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Pastorek, R.A.; Zimmerman, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    The postirradiation response of MOS capacitors and transistors fabricated on the same chip has been examined as a function of dose and anneal bias. A variety of analysis techniques are used to evaluate the postirradiation response of these structures, including low and high frequency capacitance-voltage techniques, subthreshold current-voltage techniques, and charge pumping. Though there are changes in the postirradiation energy spectrum of ΔD it , no clear evidence of defect transformation is observed on transistors or capacitors under any conditions examined. Postirradiation response at 80 degrees C is found to be similar in the two structures for low levels of damage (100 krad). For both structures, interface-trap densities continue to grow following irradiation under these conditions. In contrast, the postirradiation response of capacitors and transistors can differ qualitatively at higher levels of damage (1 Mrad), with interface-traps increasing postirradiation at 80 degrees C for transistors and annealing for capacitors. These results indicate that capacitor structures may not be suitable for hardness assurance studies that involve elevated temperature irradiations or postirradiation anneals

  3. Evolution of the MOS transistor - From conception to VLSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    Historical developments of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET) during the last sixty years are reviewed, from the 1928 patent disclosures of the field-effect conductivity modulation concept and the semiconductor triodes structures proposed by Lilienfeld to the 1947 Shockley-originated efforts which led to the laboratory demonstration of the modern silicon MOSFET thirty years later in 1960. A survey is then made of the milestones of the past thirty years leading to the latest submicron silicon logic CMOS (Complementary MOS) and BICMOS (Bipolar-Junction-Transistor CMOS combined) arrays and the three-dimensional and ferroelectric extensions of Dennard's one-transistor dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell. Status of the submicron lithographic technologies (deep ultra-violet light, X-ray, electron-beam) are summarized. Future trends of memory cell density and logic gate speed are projected. Comparisons of the switching speed of the silicon MOSFET with that of silicon bipolar and GaAs field-effect transistors are reviewed. Use of high-temperature superconducting wires and GaAs-on-Si monolithic semiconductor optical clocks to break the interconnect-wiring delay barrier is discussed. Further needs in basic research and mathematical modeling on the failure mechanisms in submicron silicon transistors at high electric fields (hot electron effects) and in interconnection conductors at high current densities and low as well as high electric fields (electromigration) are indicated

  4. 640 X 480 MOS PtSi IR sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Donald J.; Shallcross, Frank V.; Hseuh, Fu-Lung; Meray, Grazyna M.; Levine, Peter A.; Gilmartin, Harvey R.; Villani, Thomas S.; Esposito, Benjamin J.; Tower, John R.

    1991-12-01

    The design of a 1st and 2nd generation 640(H) X 480(V) element PtSi Schottky-barrier infrared image sensor employing a low-noise MOS X-Y addressable readout multiplexer and on-chip low-noise output amplifier is described. Measured performance characteristics for Gen 1 devices are presented along with calculated performance for the Gen 2 design. A multiplexed horizontal/vertical input address port and on-chip decoding is used to load scan data into CMOS horizontal and vertical scanning registers. This allows random access to any sub-frame in the 640 X 480 element focal plane array. By changing the digital pattern applied to the vertical scan register, the FPA can be operated in either an interlaced or non- interlaced format, and the integration time may be varied over a wide range (60 microsecond(s) to > 30 ms, for RS170 operation) resulting in a form of 'electronic shutter,' or variable exposure control. The pixel size of 24-micrometers X 24-micrometers results in a fill factor of 38% for 1.5-micrometers process design rules. The overall die size for the IR imager is 13.7 mm X 17.2 mm. All digital inputs to the chip are TTL compatible and include ESD protection.

  5. Satellite- and ground-based observations of atmospheric water vapor absorption in the 940 nm region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, P.; Smith, K.M.; Bennartz, R.; Newnham, D.A.; Fischer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-based measurements of direct absorption of solar radiation between 9000 and 13,000 cm -1 (770-1100 nm) with a spectral resolution of 0.05 cm -1 are compared with line-by-line simulations of atmospheric absorption based on different molecular databases (HITRAN 2000, HITRAN 99, HITRAN 96 and ESA-WVR). Differences between measurements and simulations can be reduced to a great amount by scaling the individual line intensities with spectral and database dependent scaling factors. Scaling factors are calculated for the selected databases using a Marquardt non-linear least-squares fit together with a forward model for 100 cm -1 wide intervals between 10,150 and 11,250 cm -1 as well as for the water vapor absorption channels of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) onboard the European Space Agency's (ESA) ENVISAT platform and the Modular Optoelectronic Scanner (MOS) on the Indian IRSP-3 platform, developed by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). For the latter, the scaling coefficients are converted into correction factors for retrieved total columnar water vapor content and used for a comparison of MOS-based retrievals of total columnar atmospheric water vapor above cloud-free land surfaces with radio soundings. The scaling factors determined for 100 cm -1 wide intervals range from 0.85 for the ESA-WVR molecular database to 1.15 for HITRAN 96. The best agreement between measurements and simulations is achieved with HITRAN 99 and HITRAN 2000, respectively, using scaling factors between 0.9 and 1. The effects on the satellite-based retrievals of columnar atmospheric water vapor range from 2% (HITRAN 2000) to 12% (ESA-WVR)

  6. 308nm Excimer Laser in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehraban, Shadi

    2014-01-01

    308nm xenon-chloride excimer laser, a novel mode of phototherapy, is an ultraviolet B radiation system consisting of a noble gas and halide. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the literature and summarize all the experiments, clinical trials and case reports on 308-nm excimer laser in dermatological disorders. 308-nm excimer laser has currently a verified efficacy in treating skin conditions such as vitiligo, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, allergic rhinitis, folliculitis, granuloma annulare, lichen planus, mycosis fungoides, palmoplantar pustulosis, pityriasis alba, CD30+ lympho proliferative disorder, leukoderma, prurigo nodularis, localized scleroderma and genital lichen sclerosus. Although the 308-nm excimer laser appears to act as a promising treatment modality in dermatology, further large-scale studies should be undertaken in order to fully affirm its safety profile considering the potential risk, however minimal, of malignancy, it may impose. PMID:25606333

  7. PM Raman fiber laser at 1679 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth.......We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth....

  8. 130-nm tunable grating-mirror VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    configuration instead of the extended cavity configuration can bring 130-nm tuning range around 1330-nm wavelength. The air-coupled cavity is known to reduce the quantum confinement factor in VCSELs, increasing threshold. In our air-coupled cavity HCG VCSEL case, the very short power penetration length...... in the HCG minimizes this reduction of the quantum confinement factor, not as significant as in the air-coupled cavity DBR VCSEL....

  9. Management of liquid radioactive waste from non-power applications at MosNPO 'Radon'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Yu.; Barinov, A.; Volkov, A.; Dmitriev, S.; Iljin, V.; Savkin, A.; Sobolev, I.; Flit, V.

    2001-01-01

    MosNPO 'Radon', founded in 1961, is an enterprise intended for the collecting, transportation, treatment, conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste formed outside of the nuclear fuel cycle, in the central part of Russia. Besides the main activity, MosNPO 'Radon' carries out a lot of research and design efforts in the field of management with solid radioactive waste (SRW) and liquid radioactive waste (LRW). Up to 10% LRW, being formed at Zagorsk branch of MosNPO 'Radon', are directed to the cementation without any concentrating. These are mainly radioactive waters with salt content more than 20 g/l. The rest LRW are concentrated in stationary and mobile installations. Concentrates (regenerates of ion-exchange filters, brine and spent sorbents) are also directed to the cementation. The cleaned waters (according to MosNPO 'Radon' radiation safety norms) are dropped out into the sewage. The cement compound, obtained on the base of LRW, is used for filling cavities in SRW tanks and metal barrels, which are used as packing of radioactive waste. The waters of surface flow are not LRW, as the common contents of radionuclides in these waters more often are less than 1 Bk/l. The technologies for the management with these waters at MosNPO 'Radon' are described in the paper. The experience of MosNPO 'Radon' on LRW cleaning-up at other organizations is described in the paper. For the realization of such works MosNPO 'Radon' has a mobile installation 'ECO-2' and modular water-cleaning complexes 'Aqua-Express' (it is located at Zagorsk branch of MosNPO 'Radon') and 'ECO-3M' (it is located at GMP 'Zvezdochka', in Severodvinsk, for cleaning radioactive waters formed during repairs of atomic submarines). Productivity of any installations by the cleaned water is from 0,2 m 3 /h up to 1 m 3 /h, depending on the LRW composition. The concentration degree of LRW is not less than 10, but more often is from 30 up to 100. Development of perspective technologies and elaboration of new

  10. Balancing the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction, Surface Energetics, and Stability of Metallic MoS2 Nanosheets via Covalent Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Eric E; Zhang, Hanyu; Schuman, Samuel A; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; Bronstein, Noah D; Ferrere, Suzanne; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Miller, Elisa M

    2018-01-10

    We modify the fundamental electronic properties of metallic (1T phase) nanosheets of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) through covalent chemical functionalization, and thereby directly influence the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), surface energetics, and stability. Chemically exfoliated, metallic MoS 2 nanosheets are functionalized with organic phenyl rings containing electron donating or withdrawing groups. We find that MoS 2 functionalized with the most electron donating functional group (p-(CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NPh-MoS 2 ) is the most efficient catalyst for HER in this series, with initial activity that is slightly worse compared to the pristine metallic phase of MoS 2 . The p-(CH 3 CH 2 ) 2 NPh-MoS 2 is more stable than unfunctionalized metallic MoS 2 and outperforms unfunctionalized metallic MoS 2 for continuous H 2 evolution within 10 min under the same conditions. With regards to the entire studied series, the overpotential and Tafel slope for catalytic HER are both directly correlated with the electron donating strength of the functional group. The results are consistent with a mechanism involving ground-state electron donation or withdrawal to/from the MoS 2 nanosheets, which modifies the electron transfer kinetics and catalytic activity of the MoS 2 nanosheet. The functional groups preserve the metallic nature of the MoS 2 nanosheets, inhibiting conversion to the thermodynamically stable semiconducting state (2H) when mildly annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere. We propose that the electron density and, therefore, reactivity of the MoS 2 nanosheets are controlled by the attached functional groups. Functionalizing nanosheets of MoS 2 and other transition metal dichalcogenides provides a synthetic chemical route for controlling the electronic properties and stability within the traditionally thermally unstable metallic state.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of layer-controlled MoS_2/graphene composite aerogels for lithium-ion battery anode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Bing; Wang, Zhixuan; Gao, Yang; Chen, Lu; Lu, Mengna; Jiao, Zheng; Jiang, Yong; Ding, Yuanzhang; Cheng, Lingli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Layer-controlled MoS_2/GA composites are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route. • Few-layer (5–15 layers) MoS_2 nanosheets are decorated on the surface of GNS homogeneously and tightly. • The growth mechanism of the lay-controlled MoS_2/GA composites is proposed. • The composite delivers high specific capacity of 1085.0 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1 A g"−"1. - Abstract: Layer-controlled MoS_2/graphene aerogels (MoS_2/GA) composites are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route, in which few-layer (5–15 layers) MoS_2 nanosheets with high crystalline are decorated on the surface of graphene nanosheets homogeneously and tightly. The number of the MoS_2 layers can be easily controlled through adjusting the amount of molybdenum source in the reaction system. Moreover, the growth mechanism of the lay-controlled MoS_2/GA composites is proposed. The three-dimensional MoS_2/GA with macroporous micro-structure not only shortens the transportation length of electrons and ions, but also restrains the re-stacking of MoS_2 effectively, stabilizing the electrode structure during repeated charging/discharging processes. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that this few-layer MoS_2/GA composite exhibits a high reversible capacity of 1085.0 mAh g"−"1 at current density of 100 mA g"−"1, as well as extraordinarily high cycling stability and rate capability.

  12. Recent advances in MoS2 nanostructured materials for energy and environmental applications - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerthagiri, J.; Senthil, R. A.; Senthilkumar, B.; Reddy Polu, Anji; Madhavan, J.; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2017-08-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a layered transition metal dichalcogenide with an analogous structure to graphene, has attracted enormous attention worldwide owing to its use in a variety of applications such as energy storage, energy conversion, environmental remediation and sensors. MoS2 and graphene have almost similar functional properties such as high charge carrier transport, high wear resistance and good mechanical strength and friction. However, MoS2 is advantageous over graphene due to its low-cost, abundancy, tailorable morphologies and tuneable band gap with good visible light absorption properties. In this review, we have focussed mainly on recent advances in MoS2 nanostructured materials for the applications in the broad area of energy and environment. Special attention has been paid to their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells, supercapacitor, Li-ion battery, hydrogen evolution reaction, photocatalysis for the degradation of organic pollutants, chemical/bio sensors and gas sensors. Finally, the challenges to design MoS2 nanostructures suitable for energy and environmental applications are also highlighted.

  13. Oxidation of MoS2 by thermal and hyperthermal atomic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.B.; Martin, J.A.; Pope, L.E.; Koontz, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    The present study shows that, at 1.5 eV O-atom translational energy, SO 2 is generated and outgases from an anhydrous MoS 2 surface with a reactivity nearly that of kapton. The reaction of atomic oxygen with MoS 2 has little or no translational energy barrier; i.e., thermally generated atomic oxygen reacts as readily as that having 1.5 eV of translational energy. It is also shown that water present in the flowing afterglow apparatus used to study thermal O-atom reactivity formed sulfates on the MoS 2 surface and that the sulfate is most likely in the form of sulfuric acid. These results imply that water dumps or outgasing in low earth orbit have the potential of forming sulfuric acid covered surfaces on MoS 2 lubricants. Friction measurements show a high initial friction coefficient (0.2) for O-atom exposed MoS 2 surfaces which drops to the normal low value (0.05) after several cycles of operation

  14. Effect of interfaces on electron transport properties of MoS2-Au Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminpour, Maral; Hapala, Prokop; Le, Duy; Jelinek, Pavel; Rahman, Talat S.; Rahman's Group Collaboration; Nanosurf Lab Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Single layer MoS2 is a promising material for future electronic devices such as transistors since it has good transport characteristics with mobility greater than 200 cm-1V-1s-1 and on-off current ratios up to 108. However, before MoS2 can become a mainstream electronic material for the semiconductor industry, the design of low resistive metal-semiconductor junctions as contacts of the electronic devices needs to be addressed and studied systematically. We have examined the effect of Au contacts on the electronic transport properties of single layer MoS2 using density functional theory in combination with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. The Schottky barrier between Au contact and MoS2, transmission spectra, and I-V curves will be reported and discussed as a function of MoS2 and Au interfaces of varying geometry. This work is supported in part by the US Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-07ER15842.

  15. Doping of two-dimensional MoS2 by high energy ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Zhao, Yuda; Lin, Ziyuan; Long, Yan; Wang, Yi; Chan, Mansun; Chai, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been demonstrated to be promising candidates for next generation electronic circuits. Analogues to conventional Si-based semiconductors, p- and n-doping of 2D materials are essential for building complementary circuits. Controllable and effective doping strategies require large tunability of the doping level and negligible structural damage to ultrathin 2D materials. In this work, we demonstrate a doping method utilizing a conventional high-energy ion-implantation machine. Before the implantation, a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) protective layer is used to decelerate the dopant ions and minimize the structural damage to MoS2, thus aggregating the dopants inside MoS2 flakes. By optimizing the implantation energy and fluence, phosphorus dopants are incorporated into MoS2 flakes. Our Raman and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results show that only negligibly structural damage is introduced to the MoS2 lattice during the implantation. P-doping effect by the incorporation of p+ is demonstrated by Photoluminescence (PL) and electrical characterizations. Thin PMMA protection layer leads to large kinetic damage but also a more significant doping effect. Also, MoS2 with large thickness shows less kinetic damage. This doping method makes use of existing infrastructures in the semiconductor industry and can be extended to other 2D materials and dopant species as well.

  16. Enhanced Gas Separation through Nanoconfined Ionic Liquid in Laminated MoS2 Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danke; Ying, Wen; Guo, Yi; Ying, Yulong; Peng, Xinsheng

    2017-12-20

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials-based membranes show great potential for gas separation. Herein an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF 4 ]), was confined in the 2D channels of MoS 2 -laminated membranes via an infiltration process. Compared with the corresponding bulk [BMIM][BF 4 ], nanoconfined [BMIM][BF 4 ] shows an obvious incremental increase in freezing point and a shift of vibration bands. The resulting MoS 2 -supported ionic liquid membrane (MoS 2 SILM) exhibits excellent CO 2 separation performance with high CO 2 permeance (47.88 GPU) and superb selectivity for CO 2 /N 2 (131.42), CO 2 /CH 4 (43.52), and CO 2 /H 2 (14.95), which is much better than that of neat [BMIM][BF 4 ] and [BMIM][BF 4 ]-based membranes. The outstanding performance of MoS 2 SILMs is attributed to the nanoconfined [BMIM][BF 4 ], which enables fast transport of CO 2 . Long-term operation also reveals the durability and stability of the prepared MoS 2 SILMs. The method of confining ILs in the 2D nanochannels of 2D materials may pave a new way for CO 2 capture and separation.

  17. Chemisorption-induced n-doping of MoS2 by oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Long; Wang, Ying; Wu, Yihong; Shen, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Both chemisorption and physisorption affect the electronic properties of two-dimensional materials, such as MoS 2 , but it remains a challenge to probe their respective roles experimentally. Through repeated in-situ electrical measurements of few-layer MoS 2 field-effect transistors in an ultrahigh vacuum system with well-controlled oxygen partial pressure (6 × 10 −8 mbar–3 × 10 −7 mbar), we were able to study the effect of chemisorption on surface defects separately from physically adsorbed oxygen molecules. It is found that chemisorption of oxygen results in n-doping in the channel but negligible effect on mobility and on/off ratio of the MoS 2 transistors. These results are in disagreement with the previous reports on p-doping and degradation of the device's performance when both chemisorption and physisorption are present. Through the analysis of adsorption-desorption kinetics and the first-principles calculations of electronic properties, we show that the experimentally observed n-doping effect originates from dissociative adsorption of oxygen at the surface defects of MoS 2 , which lowers the conduction band edge locally and makes the MoS 2 channel more n-type-like as compared to the as-fabricated devices

  18. Preparation of nanostructured and nanosheets of MoS2 oxide using oxidation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Majed; Ramazani S A, Ahmad; Faghihi, Morteza; Fattahpour, Seyyedfaridoddin

    2017-11-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ), a two-dimensional transition metal has a 2D layered structure and has recently attracted attention due to its novel catalytic properties. In this study, MoS 2 has been successfully intercalated using chemical and physical intercalation techniques, while enhancing its surface properties. The final intercalated MoS 2 is of many interests because of its low-dimensional and potential properties in in-situ catalysis. In this research, we report different methods to intercalate the layers of MoS 2 successfully using acid-treatment, ultrasonication, oxidation and thermal shocking. The other goal of this study is to form SO bonds mainly because of expected enhanced in-situ catalytic operations. The intercalated MoS 2 is further characterized using analyses such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman, Contact Angle, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis (EDAX), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and BET. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Photoresponse properties of large area MoS2 metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Tsung-Shine; Huang, Yu-Jen; Lin, Der-Yuh; Lin, Chia-Feng; Hong, Bo-Syun; Chen, Hone-Zern

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a large-area molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin film was obtained by low pressure thermal sulfurization. Raman scattering spectrum shows that the peaks at 374 and 403 cm‑1 are from the MoS2 thin film. XRD result reveals peaks at 33 and 58.5° indicating MoS2(100) and (110) crystal planes. By using gold (Au), silver (Ag), and aluminum (Al) as contact materials on the MoS2 thin film, photoresponsivity results indicate that Ag is a suitable material for obtaining a high responsivity for a high-performance photodetector (PD). Photocurrent mapping measurements also reveal that Ag contacts have the best carrier transport characteristic with carrier diffusion length of 101 µm among these contacts. Furthermore, we investigated metal–semiconductor–metal MoS2 thin film PDs with interdigitated fingers of 300, 400, 500, and 600 µm contact widths, which showed that the large contact widths could produce a high photoresponse for PD application owing to low resistance.

  20. Preparation and tribological properties of MoS2/graphene oxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haojie; Wang, Biao; Zhou, Qiang; Xiao, Jiaxuan; Jia, Xiaohua

    2017-10-01

    A hydrothermal route is developed for the synthesis of MoS2/graphene oxide (GO) composites based on the hydrothermal reduction of Na2MoO4 and GO sheets with L-cysteine. The MoS2/GO composites in improving friction and wear of the sunshine oil on sliding steel surfaces under low or high applied load were demonstrated. In tests with sliding steel surfaces, the sunshine oil that contains small amounts of MoS2/GO composites exhibited the lowest specific friction coefficient and wear rate under all of the sliding conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer performed to analyze the wear scar surfaces after friction confirmed that the outstanding lubrication performance of MoS2/GO composites could be attributed to their good dispersion stability and extremely thin laminated structure, which allow the MoS2/GO composites to easily enter the contact area, thereby preventing the rough surfaces from coming into direct contact.

  1. Attapulgite-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiazhang; Zhang, Zuosong; Yao, Chao; Lu, Xiaowang; Zhao, Xiaobing; Ni, Chaoying

    2016-02-01

    Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO2/MoS2 composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO2 to MoS2 on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO2 particles and MoS2 nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO2/MoS2 is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  2. Negative Differential Transconductance in a MoS2 /WSe2 Heterojunction Field Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Ahmad; Nourbakhsh, Amirhasan; Dresselhaus, Mildred; de Gendt, Stefan; Palacios, Tomas

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the negative transconductance in heterojunction transistors made of two-dimensional materials for the first time. Negative transconductance plays a key role in multi-valued logic/memory and frequency multiplication circuits. The simpler fabrication method of stacked van der Waals heterostructures compared to the conventional bulk semiconductors and large area CVD growth of the layered 2D materials systems makes it a prime candidate for scalable novel applications of their heterostructures. Vertically stacked MoS2/WSe2 heterostructures are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation and an in-house dry transfer process. A two-step process of e-beam lithography and metal deposition (Au on MoS2, and Pd on WSe2) were performed to fabricate n-type MoS2 and ambipolar WSe2 FET. The transfer characteristics on the non-overlapping regions shows the expected characteristics of the n-type, MoS2 FET and ambipolar WSe2 FET. At the same time, the transfer characteristics of the overlapping region between MoS2 and WSe2 show negative differential transconductance. With proper scaling and careful optimization this negative differential transconductance will lead to novel applications.

  3. Chemical Doping Effects in Multilayer MoS2 and its Application in Complementary Inverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hocheon; Hong, Seongin; On, Sungmin; Ahn, Hyungju; Lee, Han-Koo; Hong, Young Ki; Kim, Sunkook; Kim, Jae-Joon

    2018-06-19

    Multilayer MoS2 has been gaining interests as a new semiconducting material for flexible displays, memory devices, chemical/bio sensors, and photodetectors. However, conventional multilayer MoS2 devices have exhibited limited performances due to the Schottky barrier (SB) and defects. Here, we demonstrate PDPP3T doping effects in multilayer MoS2, which results in improved electrical characteristics (~3.2X mobility compared to the baseline and a high current on/off ratio of 106). Synchrotron-based study using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction (GIWAXD) provides mechanisms that align the edge-on crystallites (97.5 %) of the PDPP3T as well as a larger interaction with MoS2 that leads to dipole and charge transfer effects (at annealing temperature of 300 °C), which support the observed enhancement of the electrical characteristics. Furthermore, we demonstrate a hybrid CMOS inverter using the PDPP3T-doped MoS2 and organic DNTT transistors as n- and p-channels, respectively. The proposed hybrid inverter offers an ultra-high voltage gain of ~205 V/V.

  4. Induction of Chirality in Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Chiral 2D MoS2 Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell-Milton, Finn; McKenna, Robert; Brennan, Lorcan J; Cullen, Conor P; Guillemeney, Lilian; Tepliakov, Nikita V; Baimuratov, Anvar S; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Perova, Tatiana S; Duesberg, Georg S; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Gun'ko, Yurii K

    2018-02-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have been intensively investigated due to their interesting properties and range of potential applications. Although most research has focused on graphene, atomic layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and particularly MoS 2 have gathered much deserved attention recently. Here, we report the induction of chirality into 2D chiral nanomaterials by carrying out liquid exfoliation of MoS 2 in the presence of chiral ligands (cysteine and penicillamine) in water. This processing resulted in exfoliated chiral 2D MoS 2 nanosheets showing strong circular dichroism signals, which were far past the onset of the original chiral ligand signals. Using theoretical modeling, we demonstrated that the chiral nature of MoS 2 nanosheets is related to the presence of chiral ligands causing preferential folding of the MoS 2 sheets. There was an excellent match between the theoretically calculated and experimental spectra. We believe that, due to their high aspect ratio planar morphology, chiral 2D nanomaterials could offer great opportunities for the development of chiroptical sensors, materials, and devices for valleytronics and other potential applications. In addition, chirality plays a key role in many chemical and biological systems, with chiral molecules and materials critical for the further development of biopharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, and this research therefore should have a strong impact on relevant areas of science and technology such as nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, and nanotoxicology.

  5. Biomining of MoS2 with Peptide-based Smart Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinel, Sibel; Shen, Wei-Zheng; Aminpour, Maral; Bhomkar, Prasanna; Wang, Feng; Borujeny, Elham Rafie; Sharma, Kumakshi; Nayebi, Niloofar; Montemagno, Carlo

    2018-02-20

    Biomining of valuable metals using a target specific approach promises increased purification yields and decreased cost. Target specificity can be implemented with proteins/peptides, the biological molecules, responsible from various structural and functional pathways in living organisms by virtue of their specific recognition abilities towards both organic and inorganic materials. Phage display libraries are used to identify peptide biomolecules capable of specifically recognizing and binding organic/inorganic materials of interest with high affinities. Using combinatorial approaches, these molecular recognition elements can be converted into smart hybrid biomaterials and harnessed for biotechnological applications. Herein, we used a commercially available phage-display library to identify peptides with specific binding affinity to molybdenite (MoS 2 ) and used them to decorate magnetic NPs. These peptide-coupled NPs could capture MoS 2 under a variety of environmental conditions. The same batch of NPs could be re-used multiple times to harvest MoS 2 , clearly suggesting that this hybrid material was robust and recyclable. The advantages of this smart hybrid biomaterial with respect to its MoS 2 -binding specificity, robust performance under environmentally challenging conditions and its recyclability suggests its potential application in harvesting MoS 2 from tailing ponds and downstream mining processes.

  6. Photon wavelength dependent valley photocurrent in multilayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hongming; Tang, Ning; Xu, Xiaolong; Shang, LiangLiang; Huang, Wei; Fu, Lei; Fang, Xianfa; Yu, Jiachen; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Dai, Lun; Chen, Yonghai; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The degree of freedom (DOF) of the K (K') valley in transition-metal dichalcogenides, especially molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), offers an opportunity for next-generation valleytronics devices. In this work, the K (K') valley DOF of multilayer MoS2 is studied by means of the photon wavelength dependent circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) at room temperature upon a strong external out-of-plane electric field induced by an ionic liquid (IL) gate, which breaks the spatial-inversion symmetry. It is demonstrated that only on resonant excitations in the K (K') valley can the valley-related CPGE signals in multilayer MoS2 with an IL gate be detected, indicating that the valley contrast is indeed regenerated between the K and K' valleys when the electric field is applied. As expected, it can also be seen that the K (K') valley DOF in multilayer MoS2 can be modulated by the external electric field. The observation of photon wavelength dependent valley photocurrent in multilayer MoS2, with the help of better Ohmic contacts, may pave a way for optoelectronic applications of valleytronics in the future.

  7. Probing the biocompatibility of MoS2 nanosheets by cytotoxicity assay and electrical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratikkumar; Narayanan, Tharangattu N.; Li, Chen-Zhong; Alwarappan, Subbiah

    2015-08-01

    Transition metal dichalgogenides such as MoS2 have recently emerged as hot two-dimensional (2D) materials due to their superior electronic and catalytic properties. Recently, we have reported the usefulness of MoS2 nanosheets toward the electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters and glucose (Narayanan et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 335702). Furthermore, there are reports available in the literature that demonstrate the usefulness of MoS2 nanosheets for biosensing and energy storage applications (Zhu et al 2013 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135 5998-6001 Pumera and Loo 2014 Trends Anal. Chem. 61 49-53 Lee et al 2014 Sci. Rep. 4 7352; Stephenson et al 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 209-31). Understanding the cytotoxic effect of any material is very important prior to employing them for any in vivo biological applications such as implantable sensors, chips, or carriers for drug delivery and cell imaging purposes. Herein, we report the cytotoxicity of the MoS2 nanosheets based on the cytotoxic assay results and electrical impedance analysis using rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) and rat adrenal medulla endothelial cells (RAMEC). Our results indicated that the MoS2 nanosheets synthesized in our work are safe 2D nanosheets for futuristic biomedical applications.

  8. Type-I band alignment at MoS2/In0.15Al0.85N lattice matched heterojunction and realization of MoS2 quantum well

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Mishra, Pawan; Li, Ming-Yang; Shakfa, Mohammad Khaled; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Ng, Tien Khee; Li, Lain-Jong; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    matching with that of MoS2. We confirm that the grown MoS2 is a single layer from optical and structural analyses using micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The band offset parameters VBO and CBO at the In0.15Al0.85N/MoS2

  9. Gamma-ray irradiation and post-irradiation at room and elevated temperature response of pMOS dosimeters with thick gate oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Momčilo M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray irradiation and post-irradiation response at room and elevated temperature have been studied for radiation sensitive pMOS transistors with gate oxide thickness of 100 and 400 nm, respectively. Their response was followed based on the changes in the threshold voltage shift which was estimated on the basis of transfer characteristics in saturation. The presence of radiation-induced fixed oxide traps and switching traps - which lead to a change in the threshold voltage - was estimated from the sub-threshold I-V curves, using the midgap technique. It was shown that fixed oxide traps have a dominant influence on the change in the threshold voltage shift during gamma-ray irradiation and annealing.

  10. Development of mos thyristor technological processes for functional integration of new power devices; Developpement de filieres technologiques mos-thyristor adaptees a l`integration fonctionnelle de nouveaux dispositifs de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berriane, R.

    1997-05-05

    The development of MOS thyristor technological processes for integration of the switching function for high voltage power applications in industrial supply networks, is studied. A MOS-gated optically triggered thyristor is presented, which includes a MOS gated thyristor constituting the power element and a photodiode for optical control detection; protection and control are obtained respectively by a Zener diode and a depletion MOSFET transistor. In order to verify the switching function, a model is proposed and a high voltage planar aluminium gate process technology, compatible with various bipolar and MOSFET devices associations have been developed and optimized. In the framework of industrial supply networks, the integration of a thermal protection element has been investigated. The dual thyristor function application has been also studied, composed of a spontaneously fired, controlled turn off MOS-thyristor association. The early developments of a MOS thyristor polysilicon gate process technology is then presented

  11. Van der Waals epitaxial growth of MoS2 on SiO2/Si by chemical vapor deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Yao, Kexin; Yang, Yang; LI, LIANG; Yao, Yingbang; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Yu; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Recently, single layer MoS2 with a direct band gap of 1.9 eV has been proposed as a candidate for two dimensional nanoelectronic devices. However, the synthetic approach to obtain high-quality MoS2 atomic thin layers is still problematic

  12. Improving the tribological and corrosive properties of MoS2-based coatings by dual-doping and multilayer construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Kedong; Zheng, Shaoxian; Ren, Siming; Pu, Jibin; He, Dongqing; Liu, Shuan

    2018-04-01

    The pure MoS2 coating always performs high friction coefficient and short service life when used in high humidity or after long-time storage in humid atmospheric environment. In this study, the MoS2/Pb-Ti composite and MoS2/Pb-Ti multilayer coatings are deposited to improve the corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution and tribological performance in high humidity condition. The electrochemical impedance spectra and salt spray test shown that the MoS2/Pb-Ti composite and multilayer coatings can inhibit the permeation of oxygen and other corrosive elements, thus resulting a high corrosion resistance. Furthermore, compared with pure MoS2 coating, the tribological performance of the MoS2/Pb-Ti composite and multilayer coatings is also improved significantly owing to the high mechanical properties and compact structure. Moreover, the heterogenous interfaces in MoS2/Pb-Ti multilayer coating play an important role to improve the corrosion resistance and tribological performance of coatings. Overall, the dual-doping and multilayer construction are promising approaches to design the MoS2 coatings as the environmentally adaptive lubricants.

  13. Robust Denaturation of Villin Headpiece by MoS2 Nanosheet: Potential Molecular Origin of the Nanotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Kang, Seung-Gu; Yang, Jerry R.; Luo, Judong; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-06-01

    MoS2 nanosheet, a new two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides nanomaterial, has attracted significant attentions lately due to many potential promising biomedical applications. Meanwhile, there is also a growing concern on its biocompatibility, with little known on its interactions with various biomolecules such as proteins. In this study, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interaction of a MoS2 nanosheet with Villin Headpiece (HP35), a model protein widely used in protein folding studies. We find that MoS2 exhibits robust denaturing capability to HP35, with its secondary structures severely destroyed within hundreds of nanosecond simulations. Both aromatic and basic residues are critical for the protein anchoring onto MoS2 surface, which then triggers the successive protein unfolding process. The main driving force behind the adsorption process is the dispersion interaction between protein and MoS2 monolayer. Moreover, water molecules at the interface between some key hydrophobic residues (e.g. Trp-64) and MoS2 surface also help to accelerate the process driven by nanoscale drying, which provides a strong hydrophobic force. These findings might have shed new light on the potential nanotoxicity of MoS2 to proteins with atomic details, which should be helpful in guiding future biomedical applications of MoS2 with its nanotoxicity mitigated.

  14. High pressure effect on MoS2 and MoSe2 single crystals grown by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tetrahedral anvil apparatus up to 5 GPa. In this paper we report room temperature resistance mea- surements as a function of pressure on MoS2 and MoSe2 single crystals. In each case the resistance decreases un- der pressure due to an increase in the carrier concentration. 2. Experimental. Single crystals of MoS2 and ...

  15. Enhanced performance of lithium-sulfur batteries with an ultrathin and lightweight MoS2/carbon nanotube interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lingjia; Luo, Nannan; Kong, Weibang; Luo, Shu; Wu, Hengcai; Jiang, Kaili; Li, Qunqing; Fan, Shoushan; Duan, Wenhui; Wang, Jiaping

    2018-06-01

    Ultrathin and lightweight MoS2/carbon nanotube (CNT) interlayers are developed to effectively trap polysulfides in high-performance lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The MoS2/CNT interlayer is constructed by loading MoS2 nanosheets onto a cross-stacked CNT film. The CNT film with excellent conductivity and superior mechanical properties provides the Li-S batteries with a uniform conductive network, a supporting skeleton for the MoS2 nanosheets, as well as a physical barrier for the polysulfides. Moreover, chemical interactions and bonding between the MoS2 nanosheets and the polysulfides are evident. The electrode with the MoS2/CNT interlayer delivers an attractive specific capacity of 784 mA h g-1 at a high capacity rate of 10 C. In addition, the electrode demonstrates a high initial capacity of 1237 mA h g-1 and a capacity fade as low as -0.061% per cycle over 500 charge/discharge cycles at 0.2 C. The problem of self-discharge can also be suppressed with the introduction of the MoS2/CNT interlayer. The simple fabrication procedure, which is suitable for commercialization, and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the cells with the MoS2/CNT interlayer demonstrate a great potential for the development of high-performance Li-S batteries.

  16. Moiré-related in-gap states in a twisted MoS2/graphite heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chun-I; Butler, Christopher J.; Huang, Jing-Kai; Chu, Yu-Hsun; Yang, Hung-Hsiang; Wei, Ching-Ming; Li, Lain-Jong; Lin, Minn-Tsong

    2017-01-01

    the band gap range of MoS2, and by comparing the tunneling spectra from MoS2 grains of varying rotation with respect to the substrate, show that these features have small but non-negligible dependence on the moiré superstructure. Furthermore, within a

  17. Activating basal-plane catalytic activity of two-dimensional MoS2 monolayer with remote hydrogen plasma

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Chia-Chin; Lu, Ang-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Chih; Yang, Xiulin; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Chen, Min-Cheng; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-01-01

    that account for a small percentage of the surface area, rather than the basal planes, of MoS2 monolayer have been confirmed as their active catalytic sites. As a result, extensive efforts have been developing in activating the basal planes of MoS2

  18. High-Sensitivity, Highly Transparent, Gel-Gated MoS2 Phototransistor on Biodegradable Nanopaper

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qing

    2016-06-21

    Transition metal dichalcogenides hold great promise for a variety of novel electrical, optical and mechanical devices and applications. Among them, molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) is gaining increasing attention as the gate dielectric and semiconductive channel for high-perfomance field effect transistors. Here we report on the first MoS2 phototransistor built on flexible, transparent and biodegradable substrate with electrolyte gate dielectric. We have carried out systematic studies on its electrical and optoelectronic properties. The MoS2 phototransistor exhibited excellent photo responsivity of ~1.5 kA/W, about two times higher compared to typical back-gated devices reported in previous studies. The device is highly transparent at the same time with an average optical transmittance of 82%. Successful fabrication of phototransistors on flexible cellulose nanopaper with excellent performance and transparency suggests that it is feasible to achieve an ecofriendly, biodegradable phototransistor with great photoresponsivity, broad spectral range and durable flexibility.

  19. Edge structures and properties of triangular antidots in single-layer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Li Yong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Yao, Yingbang; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Xixiang; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory and experiments are employed to shed light on the edge structures of antidots in O etched single-layer MoS2. The equilibrium morphology is found to be the zigzag Mo edge with each Mo atom bonded to two O atoms, in a wide range of O chemical potentials. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the orientation of the created triangular antidots is opposite to the triangular shape of the single-layer MoS2 samples, in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, edges induced by O etching turn out to be p-doped, suggesting an effective strategy to realize p-type MoS2 devices. Published by AIP Publishing.

  20. Probing the interlayer coupling of twisted bilayer MoS2 using photoluminescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengxi; Ling, Xi; Liang, Liangbo; Kong, Jing; Terrones, Humberto; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2014-10-08

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a promising material for optoelectronic devices due to its strong photoluminescence emission. In this work, the photoluminescence of twisted bilayer MoS2 is investigated, revealing a tunability of the interlayer coupling of bilayer MoS2. It is found that the photoluminescence intensity ratio of the trion and exciton reaches its maximum value for the twisted angle 0° or 60°, while for the twisted angle 30° or 90° the situation is the opposite. This is mainly attributed to the change of the trion binding energy. The first-principles density functional theory analysis further confirms the change of the interlayer coupling with the twisted angle, which interprets our experimental results.

  1. Edge structures and properties of triangular antidots in single-layer MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Li Yong

    2016-08-30

    Density functional theory and experiments are employed to shed light on the edge structures of antidots in O etched single-layer MoS2. The equilibrium morphology is found to be the zigzag Mo edge with each Mo atom bonded to two O atoms, in a wide range of O chemical potentials. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the orientation of the created triangular antidots is opposite to the triangular shape of the single-layer MoS2 samples, in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, edges induced by O etching turn out to be p-doped, suggesting an effective strategy to realize p-type MoS2 devices. Published by AIP Publishing.

  2. Multipolar mitosis of tetraploid cells: inhibition by p53 and dependency on Mos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Ilio; Senovilla, Laura; Jemaà, Mohamed; Michaud, Mickaël; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Nanty, Lisa; Criollo, Alfredo; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Manic, Gwenola; Métivier, Didier; Vivet, Sonia; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Joza, Nicholas; Valent, Alexander; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2010-04-07

    Tetraploidy can constitute a metastable intermediate between normal diploidy and oncogenic aneuploidy. Here, we show that the absence of p53 is not only permissive for the survival but also for multipolar asymmetric divisions of tetraploid cells, which lead to the generation of aneuploid cells with a near-to-diploid chromosome content. Multipolar mitoses (which reduce the tetraploid genome to a sub-tetraploid state) are more frequent when p53 is downregulated and the product of the Mos oncogene is upregulated. Mos inhibits the coalescence of supernumerary centrosomes that allow for normal bipolar mitoses of tetraploid cells. In the absence of p53, Mos knockdown prevents multipolar mitoses and exerts genome-stabilizing effects. These results elucidate the mechanisms through which asymmetric cell division drives chromosomal instability in tetraploid cells.

  3. Electrical characterization of thin SOI wafers using lateral MOS transient capacitance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Ueda, A.; Takada, H.; Nakashima, H.

    2006-01-01

    A novel electrical evaluation method was proposed for crystal quality characterization of thin Si on insulator (SOI) wafers, which was done by measurement of minority carrier generation lifetime (τ g ) using transient capacitance method for lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. The lateral MOS capacitors were fabricated on three kinds of thin SOI wafers. The crystal quality difference among these three wafers was clearly shown by the τ g measurement results and discussed from a viewpoint of SOI fabrication. The series resistance influence on the capacitance measurement for this lateral MOS capacitor was discussed in detail. The validity of this method was confirmed by comparing the intensities of photoluminescence signals due to electron-hole droplet in the band-edge emission

  4. High-Sensitivity, Highly Transparent, Gel-Gated MoS2 Phototransistor on Biodegradable Nanopaper

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qing; Bao, Wenzhong; Gong, Amy; Gong, Tao; Ma, Dakang; Wan, Jiayu; Dai, Jiaqi; Munday, J; He, Jr-Hau; Hu, Liangbing; Zhang, Daihua

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides hold great promise for a variety of novel electrical, optical and mechanical devices and applications. Among them, molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) is gaining increasing attention as the gate dielectric and semiconductive channel for high-perfomance field effect transistors. Here we report on the first MoS2 phototransistor built on flexible, transparent and biodegradable substrate with electrolyte gate dielectric. We have carried out systematic studies on its electrical and optoelectronic properties. The MoS2 phototransistor exhibited excellent photo responsivity of ~1.5 kA/W, about two times higher compared to typical back-gated devices reported in previous studies. The device is highly transparent at the same time with an average optical transmittance of 82%. Successful fabrication of phototransistors on flexible cellulose nanopaper with excellent performance and transparency suggests that it is feasible to achieve an ecofriendly, biodegradable phototransistor with great photoresponsivity, broad spectral range and durable flexibility.

  5. Metallization and superconductivity in Ca-intercalated bilayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczȱśniak, R.; Durajski, A. P.; Jarosik, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    A two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted significant interest recently due to its outstanding physical, chemical and optoelectronic properties. In this paper, using the first-principles calculations, the dynamical stability, electronic structure and superconducting properties of Ca-intercalated bilayer MoS2 are investigated. The calculated electron-phonon coupling constant implies that the stable form of investigated system is a strong-coupling superconductor (λ = 1.05) with a low value of critical temperature (TC = 13.3 K). Moreover, results obtained within the framework of the isotropic Migdal-Eliashberg formalism proved that Ca-intercalated bilayer MoS2 exhibits behavior that goes beyond the scope of the conventional BCS theory.

  6. Magnetic field dependence of electronic properties of MoS2 quantum dots with different edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiao; Li, L. L.; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-02-01

    Using the tight-binding approach, we investigate the energy spectrum of square, triangular, and hexagonal MoS2 quantum dots (QDs) in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. Novel edge states emerge in MoS2 QDs, which are distributed over the whole edge which we call ring states. The ring states are robust in the presence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The corresponding energy levels of the ring states oscillate as a function of the perpendicular magnetic field which are related to Aharonov-Bohm oscillations. Oscillations in the magnetic field dependence of the energy levels and the peaks in the magneto-optical spectrum emerge (disappear) as the ring states are formed (collapsed). The period and the amplitude of the oscillation decrease with the size of the MoS2 QDs.

  7. Methyl Butanoate Adsorption on MoS2 Surface: A Density Functional Theory Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabowo Wahyu Aji Eko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Methyl butanoate is one of the compound which is obtained from triglyceride molecule. It has hydrocarbon components and hence may produce hydrocarbon through hydrodeoxygenation (HDO or decarbonylation (DCO processes. The first step to uncover the underlying mechanism of HDO or DCO is to find the active site of methyl butanoate adsorption over the catalyst. This study attempts to investigate the active site of methyl butanoate adsorption on MoS2 surface. Stable bonding configuration for methyl butanoate adsorption on MoS2 is investigated by using density functional theory (DFT. This investigation consists of geometry optimisation and adsorption energy calculations. The stable configuration of methyl butanoate adsorption on MoS2 surface is found to be on top of Mo atom in Mo-edge surface.

  8. High performance and transparent multilayer MoS2 transistors: Tuning Schottky barrier characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ki Hong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Various strategies and mechanisms have been suggested for investigating a Schottky contact behavior in molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 thin-film transistor (TFT, which are still in much debate and controversy. As one of promising breakthrough for transparent electronics with a high device performance, we have realized MoS2 TFTs with source/drain electrodes consisting of transparent bi-layers of a conducting oxide over a thin film of low work function metal. Intercalation of a low work function metal layer, such as aluminum, between MoS2 and transparent source/drain electrodes makes it possible to optimize the Schottky contact characteristics, resulting in about 24-fold and 3 orders of magnitude enhancement of the field-effect mobility and on-off current ratio, respectively, as well as transmittance of 87.4 % in the visible wavelength range.

  9. The Interface between Gd and Monolayer MoS2: A First-Principles Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuejing

    2014-12-08

    We analyze the electronic structure of interfaces between two-, four- and six-layer Gd(0001) and monolayer MoS2 by first-principles calculations. Strong chemical bonds shift the Fermi energy of MoS2 upwards into the conduction band. At the surface and interface the Gd f states shift to lower energy and new surface/interface Gd d states appear at the Fermi energy, which are strongly hybridized with the Mo 4d states and thus lead to a high spin-polarization (ferromagnetically ordered Mo magnetic moments of 0.15 μB). Gd therefore is an interesting candidate for spin injection into monolayer MoS2.

  10. Edge structures and properties of triangular antidots in single-layer MoS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Li-Yong; Cheng, Yingchun; Huang, Wei; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Yao, Yingbang; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Xi-xiang

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory and experiments are employed to shed light on the edge structures of antidots in O etched single-layer MoS 2 . The equilibrium morphology is found to be the zigzag Mo edge with each Mo atom bonded to two O atoms, in a wide range of O chemical potentials. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the orientation of the created triangular antidots is opposite to the triangular shape of the single-layer MoS 2 samples, in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, edges induced by O etching turn out to be p-doped, suggesting an effective strategy to realize p-type MoS 2 devices.

  11. Stretching and breaking of monolayer MoS2—an atomistic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Tommy; Joswig, Jan-Ole; Seifert, Gotthard

    2014-01-01

    We report on the simulation of the nanoindentation process of monolayer MoS 2 using molecular-dynamics simulations and a density-functional based tight-binding method. A circular sheet of MoS 2 with clamped boundaries was indented by a slowly moved tip, which deformed and finally pierced the layer. We found the Young’s modulus of monolayer MoS 2 to be 262 GPa, which is in good agreement with experimental observations. Furthermore, the energetic and structural behavior during the indentation process was analyzed. Elasticity theory supplies the necessary equations to explain the experiment. Thereby, the nature of the linear term in the force-deflection relation is discussed. (letter)

  12. Is MoS2 a robust material for 2D electronics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Tommy; Joswig, Jan-Ole; Seifert, Gotthard; Ghorbani-Asl, Mahdi; Heine, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A nanoindentation computer experiment has been carried out by means of Born–Oppenheimer molecular-dynamics simulations employing the density-functional based tight-binding method. A free-standing MoS 2 sheet, fixed at a circular support, was indented by a stiff, sharp tip. During this process, the strain on the nanolayer is locally different, with maximum values in the vicinity of the tip. All studied electronic properties—the band gap, the projected density of states, the atomic charges and the quantum conductance through the layer—vary only slightly before they change significantly when the MoS 2 sheet finally is pierced. After strong local deformation due to the indentation process, the electronic conductance in our model still is 80% of its original value. Thus, the electronic structure of single-layer MoS 2 is rather robust upon local deformation. (paper)

  13. Total dose effects on the matching properties of deep submicron MOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxin; Hu Rongbin; Li Ruzhang; Chen Guangbing; Fu Dongbing; Lu Wu

    2014-01-01

    Based on 0.18 μm MOS transistors, for the first time, the total dose effects on the matching properties of deep submicron MOS transistors are studied. The experimental results show that the total dose radiation magnifies the mismatch among identically designed MOS transistors. In our experiments, as the radiation total dose rises to 200 krad, the threshold voltage and drain current mismatch percentages of NMOS transistors increase from 0.55% and 1.4% before radiation to 17.4% and 13.5% after radiation, respectively. PMOS transistors seem to be resistant to radiation damage. For all the range of radiation total dose, the threshold voltage and drain current mismatch percentages of PMOS transistors keep under 0.5% and 2.72%, respectively. (semiconductor devices)

  14. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic performance of chemically exfoliated MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar Vattikuti, S. V.; Shim, Jaesool

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered structure transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has gained huge attention and importance for photocatalytic energy conversion because of their unique properties. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets were synthesized via one-pot method and exfoliated in (dimethylformamide) DMF solution. Subsequent exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets (e-MoS2) were used as photocatalysts for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) pollutant under solar light irradiation. The e-MoS2 nanosheets exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity than that of pristine MoS2, owing to high specific surface area with enormous active sites and light absorption capacity. In addition, e-MoS2 demonstrated remarkable photocatalytic stability.

  15. Radiation Failures in Intel 14nm Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossev, Dobrin P.; Duncan, Adam R.; Gadlage, Matthew J.; Roach, Austin H.; Kay, Matthew J.; Szabo, Carl; Berger, Tammy J.; York, Darin A.; Williams, Aaron; LaBel, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In this study the 14 nm Intel Broadwell 5th generation core series 5005U-i3 and 5200U-i5 was mounted on Dell Inspiron laptops, MSI Cubi and Gigabyte Brix barebones and tested with Windows 8 and CentOS7 at idle. Heavy-ion-induced hard- and catastrophic failures do not appear to be related to the Intel 14nm Tri-Gate FinFET process. They originate from a small (9 m 140 m) area on the 32nm planar PCH die (not the CPU) as initially speculated. The hard failures seem to be due to a SEE but the exact physical mechanism has yet to be identified. Some possibilities include latch-ups, charge ion trapping or implantation, ion channels, or a combination of those (in biased conditions). The mechanism of the catastrophic failures seems related to the presence of electric power (1.05V core voltage). The 1064 nm laser mimics ionization radiation and induces soft- and hard failures as a direct result of electron-hole pair production, not heat. The 14nm FinFET processes continue to look promising for space radiation environments.

  16. Three-dimensional nanoporous MoS2 framework decorated with Au nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yingqiang; Jiang, Shouzhen; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Mei; Liu, Aihua; Zhang, Chao; Li, Zhen; Huo, Yanyan; Wang, Minghong; Man, Baoyuan

    2017-08-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) MoS2 decorated with Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) hybrids (3D MoS2-Au NPs) for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing was demonstrated in this paper. SEM, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, SAED, EDX and XRD were performed to characterize 3D MoS2-Au NPs hybrids. Rhodamine 6G (R6G), fluorescein and gallic acid molecules were used as the probe for the SERS detection of the 3D MoS2-Au NPs hybrids. In addition, we modeled the enhancement of the electric field of MoS2-Au NPs hybrids using Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis, which can further give assistance to the mechanism understanding of the SERS activity.

  17. One step hydrothermal synthesis of 3D CoS2@MoS2-NG for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Chen, Yizhi; Zhu, Wenkun; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiaoyong; Duan, Tao

    2018-05-03

    A three-dimensional (3D) MoS 2 coated CoS 2 -nitrogen doped graphene (NG) (CoS 2 @MoS 2 -NG) hybrid has been synthesized by a one step hydrothermal method as supercapacitor (SC) electrode material for the first time. Such a composite consists of NG embedded with stacked CoS 2 @MoS 2 sheets. With a 3D skeleton, it prevents the agglomeration of CoS 2 @MoS 2 nanoparticles, resulting in sound conductivity, rich porous structures and a large surface area. The results indicate that CoS 2 @MoS 2 -NG has higher specific capacitance (198 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 ), better rate performance (with about 56.57% from 1 to 16 A g -1 ) and an improved cycle stability (with about 96.97% after 1000 cycles). It is an ideal candidate for SC electrode materials.

  18. Anti-site defected MoS2 sheet-based single electron transistor as a gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Archana; Husain, Mushahid; Srivastava, Anurag; Khan, Mohd. Shahid

    2018-05-01

    To prevent harmful and poisonous CO gas molecules, catalysts are needed for converting them into benign substances. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to study the adsorption of CO and CO2 gas molecules on the surface of MoS2 monolayer with Mo atom embedded at S-vacancy site (MoS). The strong interaction between Mo metal with pristine MoS2 sheet suggests its strong binding nature. Doping Mo into MoS2 sheet enhances CO and CO2 adsorption strength. The sensing response of MoS-doped MoS2 system to CO and CO2 gas molecules is obtained in the single electron transistor (SET) environment by varying bias voltage. Doping reduces charging energy of the device which results in fast switching of the device from OFF to ON state.

  19. Diode laser (980nm) cartilage reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kharbotly, A.; El Tayeb, T.; Mostafa, Y.; Hesham, I.

    2011-03-01

    Loss of facial or ear cartilage due to trauma or surgery is a major challenge to the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons as the complicated geometric contours are difficult to be animated. Diode laser (980 nm) has been proven effective in reshaping and maintaining the new geometric shape achieved by laser. This study focused on determining the optimum laser parameters needed for cartilage reshaping with a controlled water cooling system. Harvested animal cartilages were angulated with different degrees and irradiated with different diode laser powers (980nm, 4x8mm spot size). The cartilage specimens were maintained in a deformation angle for two hours after irradiation then released for another two hours. They were serially measured and photographed. High-power Diode laser irradiation with water cooling is a cheep and effective method for reshaping the cartilage needed for reconstruction of difficult situations in otorhinolaryngologic surgery. Key words: cartilage,diode laser (980nm), reshaping.

  20. MOS 2010 Study Guide for Microsoft® OneNote®

    CERN Document Server

    Pierce, John

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrate your expertise with Microsoft OneNote 2010 by earning a MOS certification. This official Study Guide is designed to help you practice and prepare for MOS Exam 77-853: OneNote 2010, and features: Full objective-by-objective coverageProcedures and hands-on practice tasksReady-made, downloadable practice filesExam-discount offer from Certiport Use the in-depth exam prep, practice, and review to help advance your proficiency with OneNote 2010-and earn the credential that proves it!

  1. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the surface states of MOS tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T. P.; Barker, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Gamma-ray irradiation with doses up to 8 megarad produces no significant change on either the C(V) or the G(V) characteristics of MOS tunnel junctions with intermediate oxide thicknesses (40-60 A), whereas the expected flat-band shift toward negative electrode voltages occurs in control thick oxide capacitors. A simple tunneling model would explain the results if the radiation-generated hole traps are assumed to lie below the valence band of the silicon. The experiments also suggest that the observed radiation-generated interface states in conventional MOS devices are not due to the radiation damage of the silicon surface.

  2. Memory characteristics of an MOS capacitor structure with double-layer semiconductor and metal heterogeneous nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Henan; Wu Liangcai; Song Zhitang; Hui Chun

    2009-01-01

    An MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) capacitor structure with double-layer heterogeneous nanocrystals consisting of semiconductor and metal embedded in a gate oxide for nonvolatile memory applications has been fabricated and characterized. By combining vacuum electron-beam co-evaporated Si nanocrystals and self-assembled Ni nanocrystals in a SiO 2 matrix, an MOS capacitor with double-layer heterogeneous nanocrystals can have larger charge storage capacity and improved retention characteristics compared to one with single-layer nanocrystals. The upper metal nanocrystals as an additional charge trap layer enable the direct tunneling mechanism to enhance the flat voltage shift and prolong the retention time. (semiconductor devices)

  3. Spectroscopic Signatures for Interlayer Coupling in MoS2-WSe2 van der Waals Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-07

    K. Direct Imaging of Band Profile in Single Layer MoS2 on Graphite: Quasiparticle Energy Gap, Metallic Edge States, and Edge Band Bending. Nano Lett...1403.6455v1. 51. Shi, H.; Pan, H.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Yakobson, B. I. Quasiparticle Band Structures and Optical Properties of Strained Mono- layer MoS2 and WS2...Phys. Rev. B 2013, 87, 155304. 52. Liang, Y.; Huang, S.; Soklaski, R.; Yang, L. Quasiparticle Band-edge Energy and Band Offsets of Monolayer of

  4. Prebiotic (Mannanoligosaccharide- MOS in fish nutrition: effects on nile-tilapia Oreochromis niloticus performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Endrigo Cechim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available World fish production are growing about 10% a year and Brazil presents potential to be the first one in fish production until 2030. However, intensification of aquaculture production systems expose fish to numerous stressors such as poor water quality, crowding, handling and transport which may negatively affect their growth and and limit profitability of aquaculture systems. This current setup favors the use of dietary prebiotics for management of farmed fish as environmentally friendly practice. This study was set out to determine de effects of increasing levels of mannanoligosccharides (MOS on growth of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (12.62 ± 0.38 were randomly distributed into 16 cages (0.25m3 polyvinyl chloride; 20 fish per cage, inside four 5m3 net-cage at Salto Caxias Hydroeletric water reservoir (Boa Vista da Aparecida, PR. Fish were fed during 60 days with a commercial diet (32%CP supplemented with 0.0 (control; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8% dietary MOS (n=4. Water quality parameters (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored during trial. After 60 days feeding trial, fish were fasted for 24 hours and sedated for biometrical parameters to evaluate growth parameters. It was observed no influence (p>0.05 of MOS supplementation on Nile tilapia growth parameters (weight gain, feed conversion rate, specific growth rate as well as for hepatosomatic index. Fish fed 0.4% dietary MOS showed increased (p<0.05 feed consumption (76.74 ± 3.98 when compared to fish fed control (unsupplemented diet (69.31 ± 1.11. MOS are indigestible glucomannoproteins, which provide mannose substrate upon which pathogenic gut bacteria selectively attach and prevents formation of mixed colonies leading to better gut health by increasing regularity, height and integrity of the gut villi and consequent better utilization and absorption of nutrients. Several authors found positive effects of MOS supplementation on fish growth and at same time, others

  5. Achieving Ohmic Contact for High-quality MoS2 Devices on Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xu

    MoS2, among many other transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), holds great promise for future applications in nano-electronics, opto-electronics and mechanical devices due to its ultra-thin nature, flexibility, sizable band-gap, and unique spin-valley coupled physics. However, there are two main challenges that hinder careful study of this material. Firstly, it is hard to achieve Ohmic contacts to mono-layer MoS2, particularly at low temperatures (T) and low carrier densities. Secondly, materials' low quality and impurities introduced during the fabrication significantly limit the electron mobility of mono- and few-layer MoS2 to be substantially below theoretically predicted limits, which has hampered efforts to observe its novel quantum transport behaviours. Traditional low work function metals doesn't necessary provide good electron injection to thin MoS2 due to metal oxidation, Fermi level pinning, etc. To address the first challenge, we tried multiple contact schemes and found that mono-layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and cobalt (Co) provide robust Ohmic contact. The mono-layer spacer serves two advantageous purposes: it strongly interacts with the transition metal, reducing its work function by over 1 eV; and breaks the metal-TMDCs interaction to eliminate the interfacial states that cause Fermi level pinning. We measure a flat-band Schottky barrier of 16 meV, which makes thin tunnel barriers upon doping the channels, and thus achieve low-T contact resistance of 3 kohm.um at a carrier density of 5.3x10. 12/cm. 2. Similar to graphene, eliminating all potential sources of disorder and scattering is the key to achieving high performance in MoS2 devices. We developed a van der Waals heterostructure device platform where MoS2 layers are fully encapsulated within h-BN and electrically contacted in a multi-terminal geometry using gate-tunable graphene electrodes. The h-BN-encapsulation provides excellent protection from environmental factors, resulting in

  6. Irradiation of: MOS field effect structures effect of the radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The radiation effects on the structure and the operation of a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) are studied. The phenomenology of the radiation damage is analyzed as a function of the accumulated radiation dose and the time. The chronology of the phenomena which takes place in the oxide and the radiation transient phases in MOS structures are discussed. The equivalence of different radiations on SiO2 and other semiconductors is analyzed. The models applied to the study of the radiation permanent effects are reviewed [fr

  7. Rotationally Commensurate Growth of MoS2 on Epitaxial Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-13

    October 11, 2015 Accepted: November 13, 2015 A rtic le www.acsnano.org © XXXX American Chemical Society A DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b06398 ACS Nano XXXX ...interface between EG and MoS2 is highlighted in red. ACS Nano Article DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b06398 ACS Nano XXXX , XXX, XXX−XXX B The as-grown MoS2/EG...orientations. ACS Nano Article DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b06398 ACS Nano XXXX , XXX, XXX−XXX C nature of EG give rise to the inversion of the relative DOS at

  8. Role of interlayer coupling in ultra thin MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2012-01-01

    The effects of interlayer coupling on the vibrational and electronic properties of ultra thin MoS 2 were studied by ab initio calculations. For smaller slab thickness, the interlayer distance is significantly elongated because of reduced interlayer coupling. This explains the anomalous thickness dependence of the lattice vibrations observed by Lee et al. (ACS Nano, 2010, 4, 2695). The absence of interlayer coupling in mono-layer MoS 2 induces a transition from direct to indirect band gap behaviour. Our results demonstrate a strong interplay between the intralayer chemical bonding and the interlayer van-der-Waals interaction. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of MoS2 monolayer in presence of ethanol gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Iraji zad, Azam; Berahman, Masoud; Aghakhani Mahyari, Farzaneh; Shokouh, Seyed Hossein Hosseini

    2018-04-01

    Due to high surface to volume ratio and tunable band gap, two dimensional (2D) layered materials such as MoS2, is good candidate for gas sensing applications. This research mainly focuses on variation of Density of States (DOS) of MoS2 monolayes caused by ethanol adsorption. The nanosheets are synthesized by liquid exfoliation, and then using Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT), local electronic characteristic such as DOS and band gap in non-vacuum condition are analyzed. The results show that ethanol adsorption enhances DOS and deform orbitals near the valence and conduction bands that increase transport of carriers on the sheet.

  10. Thiol-modified MoS2 nanosheets as a functional layer for electrical bistable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guan; Tan, Fenxue; Lv, Bokun; Wu, Mengying; Wang, Ruiqi; Lu, Yue; Li, Xu; Li, Zhiqiang; Teng, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide nanosheets have been synthesized by one-pot method using 1-ODT as sulfur source and surfactant. The structure, morphology and optical properties of samples were investigated by XRD, FTIR, Abs spectrum and TEM patterns. The XRD pattern indicated that the as-obtained MoS2 belong to hexagonal system. The as-obtained MoS2 nanosheets blending with PVK could be used to fabricate an electrically bistable devices through a simple spin-coating method and the device exhibited an obvious electrical bistability properties. The charge transport mechanism of the device was discussed based on the filamentary switching models.

  11. Perspectives and advantages of the use of excimer laser annealing for MOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privitera, V.; Alippi, P.; Camalleri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The integration of excimer laser annealing (ELA) into the MOS device technology has been studied and evaluated within the frame of the IST project FLASH (Fundamentals and applications of laser processing for highly innovative MOS technology), funded by the European Commission. The final aim of the project was to demonstrate that ELA can be applied as a reliable, effective and advantageous process in the context of semiconductor device fabrication. Some of the results of this activity are summarised, relative to the experimental characterization and theoretical modelling. The electrical characterization of the transistor fabricated by ELA is also presented, showing a device yield of 90% on wafer

  12. Influence of the silica growth on the radiation damages in MOS components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrabayrouse, G.; Buxo, J.

    1974-01-01

    The dependence of the radiation sensitivity of M.O.S. components on some of the technological parameters involved in M.O.S. fabrication was studied. The parameters considered are the nature of the metallic electrode and water content of the oxide film. Effects of thermal post-oxidation treatments are also considered. Results obtained show that in the case of wet oxides without post-oxidation treatments the extent of the degradation effect is controlled by the conditions of humidity under which the oxide is obtained and the chemical reactivity of the metallic electrode. The role of ionic phenomena in these experiments is discussed [fr

  13. Liquid Carbon Reflectivity at 19 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Mincigrucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby report on a pump-probe reflectivity experiment conducted on amorphous carbon, using a 780 nm laser as a pump and a 19 nm FEL emission as probe. Measurements were performed at 50 degrees with respect to the surface normal to have an un-pumped reflectivity higher than 0.5%. A sub-10 fs time synchronization error could be obtained exploiting the nearly jitter-free capabilities of FERMI. EUV FEL-based experiments open the way to study the behaviour of a liquid carbon phase being unaffected by plasma screening.

  14. Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...... in transmission loss, but also the reduction in the Raman gain coefficient as the amplifier wavelength is increased. Both polarization components of the Raman gain is characterized, initially for linearly co-polarized signal and pump, subsequently linearly polarized orthogonal signal and pump. The noise...

  15. Super ACO FEL oscillation at 300 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Nutarelli, D; Renault, E; Nahon, L; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle

    2000-01-01

    Some recent improvements, involving both the optical cavity mirrors and the positron beam dynamics in the storage ring, have allowed us to achieve a laser oscillation at 300 nm on the Super ACO Storage Ring FEL. The Super ACO storage ring is operated at 800 MeV which is the nominal energy for the usual synchrotron radiation users, and the highest energy for a storage ring FEL. The lasing at 300 nm could be kept during 2 h per injection, with a stored current ranging between 30 and 60 mA. The FEL characteristics are presented here. The longitudinal stability and the FEL optics behaviour are also discussed.

  16. Edge-rich MoS_2 Naonosheets Rooting into Polyaniline Nanofibers as Effective Catalyst for Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Ma, Weiguang; Wu, Tongshun; Wang, Haoyu; Han, Dongxue; Niu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: For the first time polyaniline (PANI) was employed as an admirable substrate to construct the hierarchical integrative hybrid with MoS_2 (MoS_2/PANI) for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), which achieved great active edges exposure and excellent HER performance. - Highlights: • PANI is first applied as the support of MoS_2 for enhanced HER performance. • Great active edges exposure of the hybrid significantly benefits the HER activity. • Superior HER activity and excellent stability of MoS_2/PANI have been achieved. - Abstract: Conductive polymer polyaniline (PANI) with abundant protonated sites which are beneficial to hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), was applied as the support of MoS_2 for enhanced HER performance for the first time. The novel three dimensional (3D) HER catalyst (MoS_2/PANI) was constructed with two dimensional (2D) MoS_2 building blocks rooting into the integrative nanowires. PANI nanofibers acted as excellent substrates for the uniform, dense and approximate vertical growth of MoS_2 nanosheets exposing abundant active edges. Consequently, excellent HER performance has been achieved with a low onset overpotential of 100 mV and a small Tafel slope of 45 mV dec"−"1. Most importantly, it only needed 200 and 247 mV overpotential to reach the current density of 30 and 100 mA/cm"2 respectively. Additionally, MoS_2/PANI has achieved superior stability over other MoS_2-polymer-based HER electrocatalyst. In general, for the first time, employing PANI for the construction of the edge-rich integrative hybrid has successfully achieved an outstanding HER performance.

  17. Switched-capacitor realization of presynaptic short-term-plasticity and stop-learning synapses in 28 nm CMOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Marko; Partzsch, Johannes; Mayr, Christian G; Hänzsche, Stefan; Scholze, Stefan; Höppner, Sebastian; Ellguth, Georg; Schüffny, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic dynamics, such as long- and short-term plasticity, play an important role in the complexity and biological realism achievable when running neural networks on a neuromorphic IC. For example, they endow the IC with an ability to adapt and learn from its environment. In order to achieve the millisecond to second time constants required for these synaptic dynamics, analog subthreshold circuits are usually employed. However, due to process variation and leakage problems, it is almost impossible to port these types of circuits to modern sub-100nm technologies. In contrast, we present a neuromorphic system in a 28 nm CMOS process that employs switched capacitor (SC) circuits to implement 128 short term plasticity presynapses as well as 8192 stop-learning synapses. The neuromorphic system consumes an area of 0.36 mm(2) and runs at a power consumption of 1.9 mW. The circuit makes use of a technique for minimizing leakage effects allowing for real-time operation with time constants up to several seconds. Since we rely on SC techniques for all calculations, the system is composed of only generic mixed-signal building blocks. These generic building blocks make the system easy to port between technologies and the large digital circuit part inherent in an SC system benefits fully from technology scaling.

  18. Switched-Capacitor Realization of Presynaptic Short-Term Plasticity and Stop-Learning Synapses in 28 nm CMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko eNoack

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic dynamics, such as long- and short-term plasticity, play an important role in the complexity and biological realism achievable when running neural networks on a neuromorphic IC. For example, they endow the IC with an ability to adapt and learn from its environment. In order to achieve the millisecond to second time constants required for these synaptic dynamics, analog subthreshold circuits are usually employed. However, due to process variation and leakage problems, it is almost impossible to port these types of circuits to modern sub-100nm technologies. In contrast, we present a neuromorphic system in a 28 nm CMOS process that employs switched capacitor (SC circuits to implement 128 short-term plasticity presynapses as well as 8192 stop-learning synapses. The neuromorphic system consumes an area of 0.36 mm² and runs at a power consumption of 1.9 mW. The circuit makes use of a technique for minimizing leakage effects allowing for real-time operation with time constants up to several seconds. Since we rely on SC techniques for all calculations, the system is composed of only generic mixed-signal building blocks. These generic building blocks make the system easy to port between technologies and the large digital circuit part inherent in an SC system benefits fully from technology scaling.

  19. Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Pengfei; Lu Peixiang; Cao Wei; Li Yuhua; Wang Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    A method to coherently control electron dynamics is proposed using a few-cycle laser pulse in combination with a controlling field. It is shown that this method not only broadens the attosecond pulse bandwidth, but also reduces the chirp; thus an isolated 80-as pulse is straightforwardly obtained, and even shorter pulses are achievable by increasing the intensity of the controlling field. Such ultrashort pulses allow one to investigate ultrafast electronic processes. In addition, the few-cycle synthesized pulse is expected to be useful for manipulating a wide range of laser-atom interactions

  20. Isolated sub-100-attosecond pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang; Cao, Wei; Li, Yuhua; Wang, Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    A new method to coherently control the electron dynamics is proposed using a few-cycle laser pulse in combination with a controlling field. It is shown that this method not only broadens the attosecond pulse bandwidth, but also reduces the chirp, then an isolated 80-as pulse is straightforwardly obtained and even shorter pulse is achievable by increasing the intensity of the controlling field. Such ultrashort pulses allow one to investigate ultrafast electronic processes which have never be a...

  1. High image quality sub 100 picosecond gated framing camera development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    A major challenge for laser fusion is the study of the symmetry and hydrodynamic stability of imploding fuel capsules. Framed x-radiographs of 10-100 ps duration, excellent image quality, minimum geometrical distortion (< 1%), dynamic range greater than 1000, and more than 200 x 200 pixels are required for this application. Recent progress on a gated proximity focused intensifier which meets these requirements is presented

  2. Organic antireflective coatings for 193-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefonas, Peter, III; Blacksmith, Robert F.; Szmanda, Charles R.; Kavanagh, Robert J.; Adams, Timothy G.; Taylor, Gary N.; Coley, Suzanne; Pohlers, Gerd

    1999-06-01

    Organic anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) continue to play an important role in semiconductor manufacturing. These materials provide a convenient means of greatly reducing the resist photospeed swing and reflective notching. In this paper, we describe a novel class of ARC materials optimized for lithographic applications using 193 nm exposure tools. These ARCs are based upon polymers containing hydroxyl-alkyl methacrylate monomers for crosslinkable sites, styrene for a chromophore at 193 nm, and additional alkyl-methacrylate monomers as property modifiers. A glycouril crosslinker and a thermally-activated acidic catalyst provide a route to forming an impervious crosslinked film activate data high bake temperatures. ARC compositions can be adjusted to optimize the film's real and imaginary refractive indices. Selection of optimal target indices for 193 nm lithographic processing through simulations is described. Potential chromophores for 193 nm were explored using ZNDO modeling. We show how these theoretical studies were combined with material selection criteria to yield a versatile organic anti-reflectant film, Shipley 193 G0 ARC. Lithographic process data indicates the materials is capable of supporting high resolution patterning, with the line features displaying a sharp resist/ARC interface with low line edge roughness. The resist Eo swing is successfully reduced from 43 percent to 6 percent.

  3. 65 nm LP/GP mix low cost platform for multi-media wireless and consumer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavel, B.; Duriez, B.; Gwoziecki, R.; Basso, M. T.; Julien, C.; Ortolland, C.; Laplanche, Y.; Fox, R.; Sabouret, E.; Detcheverry, C.; Boeuf, F.; Morin, P.; Barge, D.; Bidaud, M.; Biénacel, J.; Garnier, P.; Cooper, K.; Chapon, J. D.; Trouiller, Y.; Belledent, J.; Broekaart, M.; Gouraud, P.; Denais, M.; Huard, V.; Rochereau, K.; Difrenza, R.; Planes, N.; Marin, M.; Boret, S.; Gloria, D.; Vanbergue, S.; Abramowitz, P.; Vishnubhotla, L.; Reber, D.; Stolk, P.; Woo, M.; Arnaud, F.

    2006-04-01

    A complete 65 nm CMOS platform, called LP/GP Mix, has been developed employing thick oxide transistor (IO), Low Power (LP) and General Purpose (GP) devices on the same chip. Dedicated to wireless multi-media and consumer applications, this new triple gate oxide platform is low cost (+1mask only) and saves over 35% of dynamic power with the use of the low operating voltage GP. The LP/GP mix shows competitive digital performance with a ring oscillator (FO = 1) speed equal to 7 ps per stage (GP) and 6T-SRAM static power lower than 10 pA/cell (LP). Compatible with mixed-signal design requirements, transistors show high voltage gain, low mismatch factor and low flicker noise. Moreover, to address mobile phone demands, excellent RF performance has been achieved with FT = 160 GHz for LP and 280 GHz for GP nMOS transistors.

  4. Alveolar macrophage accumulation rates, for 28 nm and 250 nm PSL, are mediated by separate mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, O R; Wong, V A, E-mail: moss@thehamner.or [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27509-2137 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    When macrophages accumulate 28 nm and 250 nm diameter polystyrene latex (PSL) beads, the accumulation rates should reflect differences in molecular and cellular function. We used a confocal microscope to measure the accumulation rates of nanoparticles by F344-rat-alveolar macrophages (approx25,000 cells adhered to a 0.7 cm{sup 2} surface). Over the cells were layered 0.1 ml of media, and 0.1 ml of media-with-beads. Fresh cells were introduced for each exposure scenario. The maximum possible individual macrophage exposures were as follows: 8x10{sup 6}, 8x10{sup 5}, and 8x10{sup 4} 28 nm beads per macrophage; and 8x10{sup 4} and 1.12x10{sup 4} 250 nm beads per macrophage. Accumulation rates were estimated over 23 minutes. The increase in bead accumulation-rate matched changes in bead-availability: 7x increase for 250 nm beads; 100x increase for 28 nm beads; and 700x increase for all bead availabilities. The maximum sustained 28 nm bead accumulation rate was > 30,000 /min (for 5 min). Increases in bead accumulation could be explained by two mechanisms: bead-diffusion; and, for the macrophage, macropinocytosis. Also for the highest concentrations of 28 nm beads, we saw a colligative threshold - possibly due to beads masking the cell surface or obstructing cellular mechanisms.

  5. Repair of near-UV (365nm or 313 nm) induced DNA strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    The action of near-UV (365 nm or 313 nm) radiation in cellular inactivaton (biological measurements) and induction and repair of breaks (physical measurements) is studied in repair proficient strain and in pol A, rec A and uvr A deficient strains of Escherichia coli K-12. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. Enhancement of photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2 induced by plasma doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Sungjin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Chen, Mikai; Nam, Hongsuk; Guo, L Jay; Meyhofer, Edgar; Liang, Xiaogan

    2014-05-27

    Layered transition-metal dichalcogenides hold promise for making ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices with a combination of excellent photovoltaic performance, superior flexibility, long lifetime, and low manufacturing cost. Engineering the proper band structures of such layered materials is essential to realize such potential. Here, we present a plasma-assisted doping approach for significantly improving the photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2. In this work, we fabricated and characterized photovoltaic devices with a vertically stacked indium tin oxide electrode/multilayer MoS2/metal electrode structure. Utilizing a plasma-induced p-doping approach, we are able to form p-n junctions in MoS2 layers that facilitate the collection of photogenerated carriers, enhance the photovoltages, and decrease reverse dark currents. Using plasma-assisted doping processes, we have demonstrated MoS2-based photovoltaic devices exhibiting very high short-circuit photocurrent density values up to 20.9 mA/cm(2) and reasonably good power-conversion efficiencies up to 2.8% under AM1.5G illumination, as well as high external quantum efficiencies. We believe that this work provides important scientific insights for leveraging the optoelectronic properties of emerging atomically layered two-dimensional materials for photovoltaic and other optoelectronic applications.

  7. Piezoelectricity enhancement and bandstructure modification of atomic defect-mediated MoS2 monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheng; Rice, Quinton; Neupane, Tikaram; Tabibi, Bagher; Li, Qiliang; Seo, Felix Jaetae

    2017-09-13

    Piezoelectricity appears in the inversion asymmetric crystal that converts mechanical deformation to electricity. Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcolgenide (TMDC) monolayers exhibit the piezoelectric effect due to inversion asymmetry. The intrinsic piezoelectric coefficient (e 11 ) of MoS 2 is ∼298 pC m -1 . For the single atomic shift of Mo of 20% along the armchair direction, the piezoelectric coefficient (e 11 ) of MoS 2 with 5 × 5 unit cells was enhanced up to 18%, and significantly modified the band structure. The single atomic shift in the MoS 2 monolayer also induced new energy levels inside the forbidden bandgap. The defect-induced energy levels for a Mo atom shift along the armchair direction are relatively deeper than that for a S atom shift along the same direction. This indicates that the piezoelectricity and band structure of MoS 2 can be engineered by a single atomic shift in the monolayer with multi unit cells for piezo- and opto-electric applications.

  8. Evolution of electronic structure in highly charge doped MoS2 compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Subhan, Mohammed; Watson, Matthew; Liu, Zhongkai; Walters, Andrew; Hoesch, Moritz; Howard, Chris; Diamond I05 beamline Collaboration

    Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are a group of layered materials that exhibit a rich array of electronic ground states including semiconductivity, metallicity, superconductivity and charge density waves. In recent years, 2D TMDCs have attracted considerable attention due to their unique properties and potential applications in optoelectronics. It has been shown that the charge carrier density in few layer MoS2 can be tunably increased via electrostatic gating. At high levels of doping, MoS2 exhibits superconductivity with a dome-like dependence of Tc on doping analogous to that found in the cuprate superconductors. High doping can also be achieved via intercalation of alkali metals in bulk MoS2. The origin of this superconductivity is not yet fully understood with predictions ranging from exotic pairing mechanisms in bulk systems to Ising superconductivity in single layers. Despite these interesting properties, there has been limited research to date on the electronic structure of these doped compounds. Here we present our work on alkali metal intercalated MoS2 using the low temperature metal ammonia solution method. Using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and ARPES measurements we will discuss the physical and electronic structure of these materials. EPSRC, Diamond Light Source.

  9. One-dimensional metallic edge states in MoS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollinger, Mikkel; Lauritsen, J.V.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2001-01-01

    By the use of density functional calculations it is shown that the edges of a two-dimensional slab of insulating MoS2 exhibit several metallic states. These edge states can be viewed as one-dimensional conducting wires, and we show that they can be observed directly using scanning tunneling...

  10. Defect Functionalization of MoS2 nanostructures as toxic gas sensors: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Toxic gas sensing plays an important role in many parts of our life from environmental protection, human health, agriculture to biomedicine. The importance of detecting toxic gases in the environment cannot be minimised in today’s highly polluted world and the reality of global warming. Carbon monoxide and NO gas are highly toxic air pollutants and can cause serious health problems. Therefore, materials able to detect these toxic gases are urgently needed. Doping and defect substitution is a versatile and new tool for changing the chemical and electronic properties of 2D layered materials and boosting the applications of these materials. Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) as a 2D layered material has unique properties and applications due its semiconducting nature, bandgap and layered structure. In the past decade, although, extensive research of Graphene as a gas sensor was conducted, the zero bandgap limited its potential and applicability. This is overcome in MoS2 nanostructures (MSNs) and the current focus is defect engineering of MSNs. The large surface to volume ratio, bandgap and cheapness makes MSNs very attractive for gas sensor applications. The idea is fuelled by the recent finding of Ding et al [16] of successful doping strategies on monolayer MoS2 for enhanced NO detection. Moreover, the work of Luo et al [17] shows that substitutional doping is the new way of boosting and engineering the properties of ML MoS2. A short and focused report in this exciting field is presented in this review.

  11. Synthesis of MoS Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    B. Gao and X. Zhang,. 6. S. Afr. J. Chem., 2014, 67, 6–11, .... shape to that synthesized at 800 °C, the diameters of the nanoparticles are larger ... Figure 3 XRD patterns of the as-synthesized MoS2 products at different reaction temperatures.

  12. Edge termination of MoS2 and CoMoS catalyst particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Line Sjolte; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Clausen, B. S.

    2000-01-01

    The edge termination of MoS2 and CoMoS catalyst particles is studied by density functional calculations. We show that for structures without vacancies Mo-terminated edges have the lowest edge energies. Creation of vacancies, which are believed to be active sites in these catalyst systems, leads...

  13. High performance MoS2 TFT using graphene contact first process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Shiang Chang Chien

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An ohmic contact of graphene/MoS2 heterostructure is determined by using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS. Since graphene shows a great potential to replace metal contact, a direct comparison of Cr/Au contact and graphene contact on the MoS2 thin film transistor (TFT is made. Different from metal contacts, the work function of graphene can be modulated. As a result, the subthreshold swing can be improved. And when VgMoS2 TFT, a new method using graphene contact first and MoS2 layer last process that can avoid PMMA residue and high processing temperature is applied. MoS2 TFT using this method shows on/off current ratio up to 6×106 order of magnitude, high mobility of 116 cm2/V-sec, and subthreshold swing of only 0.515 V/dec.

  14. Synthesis of MoS 2 Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MoS2 nanoparticles with fullerene-like structure (IF-MoS2) were successfully obtained at heating temperature higher than 840 °C by a chemical vapour deposition method usingMoO3 and sulfur powders as raw materials. The synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and Raman spectrometry, ...

  15. Magnetic MoS2 on multiwalled carbon nanotubes for sulfide sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiang; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Jiankang; Hu, Pingan; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2017-07-04

    A novel hybrid metallic cobalt insided in multiwalled carbon nanotubles/molybdenum disulfide (Co@CNT/MoS 2 ) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated with a adhesive of Nafion suspension and used as chemical sensors for sulfide detection. Single-layered MoS 2 was coated on CNTs through magnetic traction force between paramagnetic monolayer MoS 2 and Co particles in CNTs. Co particles faciliated the collection of paramagnetic monolayer MoS 2 exfoliated from bulk MoS 2 in solution. Amperometric analysis, cycle voltammetry, cathodic stripping analysis and linear sweep voltammetry results showed the Co@CNT/MoS 2 modified GCE exhibited excellent electrochemical activity to sulfide in buffer solutions, but amperometric analysis was found to be more sensitive than the other methods. The amperometric response result indicated the Co@CNT/MoS 2 -modified GCE electrode was an excellent electrochemical sensor for detecting S 2- with a detection limit of 7.6 nM and sensitivity of 0.23 mA/μM. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of sulfide levels in hydrogen sulfide-pretreated fruits, and the method was also verified with recovery studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Silicene on MoS2: role of the van der Waals interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate for silicene on MoS2 substrate the limitations of the predictive power of first principles calculations based on van der Waals density functional theory. Only the optB86b-vdW functional is found to give reasonable agreement

  17. Prediction of two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors: Doped monolayer MoS2 systems

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Guo, Z. B.; Mi, W. B.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhu, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we propose a two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductor: monolayer MoS2 doped by transition metals. Doping of transition metal atoms from the IIIB to VIB groups results in nonmagnetic states, since the number

  18. Large-area MoS2 grown using H2S as the sulphur source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumcenco, Dumitru; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Lopez Sanchez, Oriol; Kis, Andras; Gillet, Philippe; Alexander, Duncan T L; Lazar, Sorin; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    We report on the growth of molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) using H 2 S as a gas-phase sulfur precursor that allows controlling the domain growth direction of domains in both vertical (perpendicular to the substrate plane) and horizontal (within the substrate plane), depending on the H 2 S:H 2 ratio in the reaction gas mixture and temperature at which they are introduced during growth. Optical and atomic force microscopy measurements on horizontal MoS 2 demonstrate the formation of monolayer triangular-shape domains that merge into a continuous film. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of monolayer MoS 2 shows a regular atomic structure with a hexagonal symmetry. Raman and photoluminescence spectra confirm the monolayer thickness of the material. Field-effect transistors fabricated on MoS 2 domains that are transferred onto Si/SiO 2 substrates show a mobility similar to previously reported exfoliated and chemical vapor deposition-grown materials. (paper)

  19. Percolation scaling in composites of exfoliated MoS2 filled with nanotubes and graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, G.; Lotya, M.; McEvoy, N.; Duesberg, G.S.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.; Coleman, J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Applications of films of exfoliated layered compounds in many areas will be limited by their relatively low electrical conductivity. To address this, we have prepared and characterised composites of a nano-conductor (nanotubes or graphene) embedded in a matrix of exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets. Solvent

  20. Scalable Patterning of MoS2Nanoribbons by Micromolding in Capillaries

    KAUST Repository

    Hung, Yu-Han; Lu, Ang-Yu; Chang, Yung-Huang; Huang, Jing-Kai; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Li, Lain-Jong; Su, Ching-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    , such as SiO2/Si, sapphire, Au film, FTO/glass, and graphene-coated glass. The degree of crystallinity of the as-prepared MoS2 was discovered to be adjustable by varying the temperature through postannealing. The high-temperature thermolysis (1000 °C) results

  1. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS2 films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS 2 film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS 2 covering an area as large as a few cm 2 on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO 2 coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS 2 films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS 2 . In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ∼1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces

  2. Strong dopant dependence of electric transport in ion-gated MoS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piatti, Erik; Chen, Qihong; Ye, Jianting

    2017-01-01

    We report modifications of the temperature-dependent transport properties of MoS2 thin flakes via field-driven ion intercalation in an electric double layer transistor. We find that intercalation with Li+ ions induces the onset of an inhomogeneous superconducting state. Intercalation with K+ leads

  3. Electron transfer kinetics on natural crystals of MoS2 and graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velický, Matěj; Bissett, Mark A; Toth, Peter S; Patten, Hollie V; Worrall, Stephen D; Rodgers, Andrew N J; Hill, Ernie W; Kinloch, Ian A; Novoselov, Konstantin S; Georgiou, Thanasis; Britnell, Liam; Dryfe, Robert A W

    2015-07-21

    Here, we evaluate the electrochemical performance of sparsely studied natural crystals of molybdenite and graphite, which have increasingly been used for fabrication of next generation monolayer molybdenum disulphide and graphene energy storage devices. Heterogeneous electron transfer kinetics of several redox mediators, including Fe(CN)6(3-/4-), Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) and IrCl6(2-/3-) are determined using voltammetry in a micro-droplet cell. The kinetics on both materials are studied as a function of surface defectiveness, surface ageing, applied potential and illumination. We find that the basal planes of both natural MoS2 and graphite show significant electroactivity, but a large decrease in electron transfer kinetics is observed on atmosphere-aged surfaces in comparison to in situ freshly cleaved surfaces of both materials. This is attributed to surface oxidation and adsorption of airborne contaminants at the surface exposed to an ambient environment. In contrast to semimetallic graphite, the electrode kinetics on semiconducting MoS2 are strongly dependent on the surface illumination and applied potential. Furthermore, while visibly present defects/cracks do not significantly affect the response of graphite, the kinetics on MoS2 systematically accelerate with small increase in disorder. These findings have direct implications for use of MoS2 and graphene/graphite as electrode materials in electrochemistry-related applications.

  4. Structure and tribological properties of MoS2 low friction thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradecka Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the studies was the deposition of the AlCrN film, covered by molybdenum disulphide (MoS2 – based lubricant, on the austenitic steel substrate. The AlCrN and MoS2 layers were deposited by PVD lateral rotating ARC-cathodes (LARC and magnetron sputtering technology on the X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 respectively. Structural characterizations of the MoS2 thin films have been carried out using SEM (scanning electron microscopy and AFM (atomic force microscopy to determine the surface topography as well as HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy for structural investigations. The tribological wear relationships using ball-on-disc test were specified for surface layers, determining the friction co-efficient and mass loss of the investigated surfaces. Tests of the coatings’ adhesion to the substrate material were made using the scratch test. HRTEM investigation shows an amorphous character of the MoS2 layer. In sliding dry friction conditions, the friction co-efficient for the investigated elements is set in the range between 0.4-0.5. The investigated coating reveals high wear resistance. The coating demonstrated a dense cross-sectional morphology as well as good adhesion to the substrate. The good properties of the PVD AlCrN+MoS2 coatings make them suitable in various engineering and industrial applications.

  5. Effect of Dielectric Interface on the Performance of MoS2 Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuefei; Xiong, Xiong; Li, Tiaoyang; Li, Sichao; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Wu, Yanqing

    2017-12-27

    Because of their wide bandgap and ultrathin body properties, two-dimensional materials are currently being pursued for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic applications. Although there have been increasing numbers of studies on improving the performance of MoS 2 field-effect transistors (FETs) using various methods, the dielectric interface, which plays a decisive role in determining the mobility, interface traps, and thermal transport of MoS 2 FETs, has not been well explored and understood. In this article, we present a comprehensive experimental study on the effect of high-k dielectrics on the performance of few-layer MoS 2 FETs from 300 to 4.3 K. Results show that Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 could boost the mobility and drain current. Meanwhile, MoS 2 transistors with Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 demonstrate a 2× reduction in oxide trap density compared to that of the devices with the conventional SiO 2 substrate. Also, we observe a negative differential resistance effect on the device with 1 μm-channel length when using conventional SiO 2 as the gate dielectric due to self-heating, and this is effectively eliminated by using the Al 2 O 3 /HfO 2 gate dielectric. This dielectric engineering provides a highly viable route to realizing high-performance transition metal dichalcogenide-based FETs.

  6. Low Noise Bias Current/Voltage References Based on Floating-Gate MOS Transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Igor, Mucha

    1997-01-01

    The exploitation of floating-gate MOS transistors as reference current and voltage sources is investigated. Test structures of common source and common drain floating-gate devices have been implemented in a commercially available 0.8 micron double-poly CMOS process. The measurements performed...

  7. Atomic layer MoS2-graphene van der Waals heterostructure nanomechanical resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; Lee, Jaesung; Feng, Philip X-L

    2017-11-30

    Heterostructures play significant roles in modern semiconductor devices and micro/nanosystems in a plethora of applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and transducers. While state-of-the-art heterostructures often involve stacks of crystalline epi-layers each down to a few nanometers thick, the intriguing limit would be hetero-atomic-layer structures. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of freestanding van der Waals heterostructures and their functional nanomechanical devices. By stacking single-layer (1L) MoS 2 on top of suspended single-, bi-, tri- and four-layer (1L to 4L) graphene sheets, we realize an array of MoS 2 -graphene heterostructures with varying thickness and size. These heterostructures all exhibit robust nanomechanical resonances in the very high frequency (VHF) band (up to ∼100 MHz). We observe that fundamental-mode resonance frequencies of the heterostructure devices fall between the values of graphene and MoS 2 devices. Quality (Q) factors of heterostructure resonators are lower than those of graphene but comparable to those of MoS 2 devices, suggesting interface damping related to interlayer interactions in the van der Waals heterostructures. This study validates suspended atomic layer heterostructures as an effective device platform and provides opportunities for exploiting mechanically coupled effects and interlayer interactions in such devices.

  8. Optical properties and band structure of atomically thin MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jie; Mak, Kin Fai; Lee, Changgu; Hone, James; Heinz, Tony

    2010-03-01

    Atomically thin layers of materials can be expected to exhibit distinct electronic structure and novel properties compared to their bulk counterparts. Layered compounds, for which stable atomically thin samples can be produced, are ideal candidates for such studies. Graphene, a monolayer slice of the graphite crystal, is an illustrative example of both the stability and of the interest and importance of such materials. Here we report a study of thin layers of MoS2, a hexagonal layered bulk semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 1.3 eV. MoS2 samples with layer thickness N down to a monolayer were obtained by mechanical exfoliation. We observed an enhancement of the luminescence quantum yield by more than a factor of 100 in monolayer MoS2 compared to the bulk material. The combination of absorption, photoluminescence, and photoconductivity measurements indicates that a transition to a direct-gap material occurs in the limit of the single MoS2 layer. This result is supported by an earlier first-principles calculation [J. Phys. Chem. C 2007, 111, 16192]. Further, by varying the thickness of the samples, we were able to probe the evolution of the electronic structure for N = 1 -- 6 layers.

  9. Design of chaotic analog noise generators with logistic map and MOS QT circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Medina, R.; Diaz-Mendez, A.; Rio-Correa, J.L. del; Lopez-Hernandez, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method to design chaotic analog noise generators using MOS transistors is presented. Two aspects are considered, the determination of operation regime of the MOS circuit and the statistical distribution of its output signal. The operation regime is related with the transconductance linear (TL: translinear) principle. For MOS transistors this principle was originally formulated in weak inversion regime; but, strong inversion regimen is used because in 1991, Seevinck and Wiegerink made the generalization for this principle. The statistical distribution of the output signal on the circuit, which should be a uniform distribution, is related with the parameter value that rules the transfer function of the circuit, the initial condition (seed) in the circuit and its operation as chaotic generator. To show these concepts, the MOS Quadratic Translinear circuit proposed by Wiegerink in 1993 was selected and it is related with the logistic map and its properties. This circuit will operate as noise generator if it works in strong inversion regime using current-mode approach when the parameter that rules the transfer function is higher than the onset chaos value (3.5699456...) for the logistic map.

  10. Stacking stability of MoS2 bilayer: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Peng; Guo Huai-Hong; Yang Teng; Zhang Zhi-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The study of the stacking stability of bilayer MoS 2 is essential since a bilayer has exhibited advantages over single layer MoS 2 in many aspects for nanoelectronic applications. We explored the relative stability, optimal sliding path between different stacking orders of bilayer MoS 2 , and (especially) the effect of inter-layer stress, by combining first-principles density functional total energy calculations and the climbing-image nudge-elastic-band (CI-NEB) method. Among five typical stacking orders, which can be categorized into two kinds (I: AA, AB and II: AA', AB', A'B), we found that stacking orders with Mo and S superposing from both layers, such as AA' and AB, is more stable than the others. With smaller computational efforts than potential energy profile searching, we can study the effect of inter-layer stress on the stacking stability. Under isobaric condition, the sliding barrier increases by a few eV/(ucGPa) from AA' to AB', compared to 0.1 eV/(ucGPa) from AB to [AB]. Moreover, we found that interlayer compressive stress can help enhance the transport properties of AA'. This study can help understand why inter-layer stress by dielectric gating materials can be an effective means to improving MoS 2 on nanoelectronic applications. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  11. Anisotropic MoS2 Nanosheets Grown on Self-Organized Nanopatterned Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Christian; Mennucci, Carlo; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Lamperti, Alessio; Cappelluti, Emmanuele; Buatier de Mongeot, Francesco; Molle, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    Manipulating the anisotropy in 2D nanosheets is a promising way to tune or trigger functional properties at the nanoscale. Here, a novel approach is presented to introduce a one-directional anisotropy in MoS 2 nanosheets via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto rippled patterns prepared on ion-sputtered SiO 2 /Si substrates. The optoelectronic properties of MoS 2 are dramatically affected by the rippled MoS 2 morphology both at the macro- and the nanoscale. In particular, strongly anisotropic phonon modes are observed depending on the polarization orientation with respect to the ripple axis. Moreover, the rippled morphology induces localization of strain and charge doping at the nanoscale, thus causing substantial redshifts of the phonon mode frequencies and a topography-dependent modulation of the MoS 2 workfunction, respectively. This study paves the way to a controllable tuning of the anisotropy via substrate pattern engineering in CVD-grown 2D nanosheets. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Novel SPM Probe with MOS Transistor and Nano Tip for Surface Electric Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang H; Lim, Geunbae; Moon, Wonkyu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the novel SPM (Scanning Probe Microscope) probe with the planar MOS (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) transistor and the FIB (Focused Ion Beam) nano tip is fabricated for the surface electric properties. Since the MOS transistor has high working frequency, the device can overcome the speed limitation of EFM (Electrostatic Force Microscope) system. The sensitivity is also high, and no bulky device such as lock-in-amplifier is required. Moreover, the nano tip with nanometer scale tip radius is fabricated with FIB system, and the resolution can be improved. Therefore, the probe can rapidly detect small localized electric properties with high sensitivity and high resolution. The MOS transistor is fabricated with the common semiconductor process, and the nano tip is grown by the FIB system. The planar structure of the MOS transistor makes the fabrication process easier, which is the advantage on the commercial production. Various electric signals are applied using the function generator, and the measured data represent the well-established electric properties of the device. It shows the promising aspect of the local surface electric property detection with high sensitivity and high resolution

  13. New fundamental insights into capacitance modeling of laterally nonuniform MOS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, A.C.T.; Hout, van der R.; Paasschens, J.C.J.; Scholten, A.J.; Willemsen, M.B.; Klaassen, D.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    In compact transistor modeling for circuit simulation, the capacitances of conventional MOS devices are commonly determined as the derivatives of terminal charges, which in their turn are obtained from the so-called Ward-Dutton charge partitioning scheme. For devices with a laterally nonuniform

  14. Facile Fabrication of MoS2-Modified SnO2 Hybrid Nanocomposite for Ultrasensitive Humidity Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongzhi; Sun, Yan'e; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yong

    2016-06-08

    An ultrasensitive humidity sensor based on molybdenum-disulfide- (MoS2)-modified tin oxide (SnO2) nanocomposite has been demonstrated in this work. The nanostructural, morphological, and compositional properties of an as-prepared MoS2/SnO2 nanocomposite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), nitrogen sorption analysis, and Raman spectroscopy, which confirmed its successful preparation and rationality. The sensing characteristics of the MoS2/SnO2 hybrid film device against relative humidity (RH) were investigated at room temperature. The RH sensing results revealed an unprecedented response, ultrafast response/recovery behaviors, and outstanding repeatability. To our knowledge, the sensor response yielded in this work was tens of times higher than that of the existing humidity sensors. Moreover, the MoS2/SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite film sensor exhibited great enhancement in humidity sensing performances as compared to the pure MoS2, SnO2, and graphene counterparts. Furthermore, complex impedance spectroscopy and bode plots were employed to understand the underlying sensing mechanisms of the MoS2/SnO2 nanocomposite toward humidity. The synthesized MoS2/SnO2 hybrid composite was proved to be an excellent candidate for constructing ultrahigh-performance humidity sensor toward various applications.

  15. Transfer matrix approach to electron transport in monolayer MoS2/MoO x heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen

    2018-05-01

    Oxygen plasma treatment can introduce oxidation into monolayer MoS2 to transfer MoS2 into MoO x , causing the formation of MoS2/MoO x heterostructures. We find the MoS2/MoO x heterostructures have the similar geometry compared with GaAs/Ga1‑x Al x As semiconductor superlattice. Thus, We employ the established transfer matrix method to analyse the electron transport in the MoS2/MoO x heterostructures with double-well and step-well geometries. We also considere the coupling between transverse and longitudinal kinetic energy because the electron effective mass changes spatially in the MoS2/MoO x heterostructures. We find the resonant peaks show red shift with the increasing of transverse momentum, which is similar to the previous work studying the transverse-momentum-dependent transmission in GaAs/Ga1‑x Al x As double-barrier structure. We find electric field can enhance the magnitude of peaks and intensify the coupling between longitudinal and transverse momentums. Moreover, higher bias is applied to optimize resonant tunnelling condition to show negative differential effect can be observed in the MoS2/MoO x system.

  16. Electrical performance of multilayer MoS2 transistors on high-κ Al2O3 coated Si substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical performance of MoS2 can be engineered by introducing high-κ dielectrics, while the interactions between high-κ dielectrics and MoS2 need to be studied. In this study, multilayer MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs with a back-gated configuration were fabricated on high-κ Al2O3 coated Si substrates. Compared with MoS2 FETs on SiO2, the field-effect mobility (μFE and subthreshold swing (SS were remarkably improved in MoS2/Al2O3/Si. The improved μFE was thought to result from the dielectric screening effect from high-κ Al2O3. When a HfO2 passivation layer was introduced on the top of MoS2/Al2O3/Si, the field-effect mobility was further enhanced, which was thought to be concerned with the decreased contact resistance between the metal and MoS2. Meanwhile, the interface trap density increased from 2.4×1012 eV−1cm−2 to 6.3×1012 eV−1cm−2. The increase of the off-state current and the negative shift of the threshold voltage may be related to the increase of interface traps.

  17. Cold cathode emission studies on topographically modified few layer and single layer MoS2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Anand P. S.; Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Mendoza, Frank; Rivera, Adriana M.; Kumar, Mohit; Dash, Saroj P.; Morell, Gerardo; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured materials, such as carbon nanotubes, are excellent cold cathode emitters. Here, we report comparative field emission (FE) studies on topographically tailored few layer MoS2 films consisting of ⟨0001⟩ plane perpendicular (⊥) to c-axis (i.e., edge terminated vertically aligned) along with planar few layer and monolayer (1L) MoS2 films. FE measurements exhibited lower turn-on field Eto (defined as required applied electric field to emit current density of 10 μA/cm2) ˜4.5 V/μm and higher current density ˜1 mA/cm2, for edge terminated vertically aligned (ETVA) MoS2 films. However, Eto magnitude for planar few layer and 1L MoS2 films increased further to 5.7 and 11 V/μm, respectively, with one order decrease in emission current density. The observed differences in emission behavior, particularly for ETVA MoS2 is attributed to the high value of geometrical field enhancement factor (β), found to be ˜1064, resulting from the large confinement of localized electric field at edge exposed nanograins. Emission behavior of planar few layers and 1L MoS2 films are explained under a two step emission mechanism. Our studies suggest that with further tailoring the microstructure of ultra thin ETVA MoS2 films would result in elegant FE properties.

  18. Large Area Deposition of MoS2 by Pulsed Laser Deposition with In-Situ Thickness Control

    KAUST Repository

    Serna, Martha I.

    2016-05-24

    A scalable and catalyst-free method to deposit stoichiometric Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) films over large areas is reported with the maximum area limited by the size of the substrate holder. The method allows deposition of MoS2 layers on a wide range of substrates without any additional surface preparation including single crystals (sapphire and quartz), polycrystalline (HfO2), and amorphous (SiO2). The films are deposited using carefully designed MoS2 targets fabricated with excess of sulfur (S) and variable MoS2 and S particle size. Uniform and layered MoS2 films as thin as two monolayers, with an electrical resistivity of 1.54 × 104 Ω cm-1 were achieved. The MoS2 stoichiometry was as confirmed by High Resolution Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (HRRBS). With the method reported here, in situ graded MoS2 films ranging from ~1 to 10 monolayers can also be deposited.

  19. Solution processable mixed-solvent exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets for efficient and robust organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Wei; Wang, Chia; Liao, Chia-Wei; Golder, Jan; Tsai, Ming-Chih; Young, Hong-Tsu; Chen, Chin-Ti; Wu, Chih-I.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the use of solution-processed molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) nanoparticle-decorated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets (MoS2/MoO3) as hole injection layer (HIL) in organic lighting diodes (OLEDs). The device performance is shown to be significantly improved by the introduction of such MoS2/MoO3 HIL without any post-ultraviolet-ozone treatment, and is shown to better the performance of devices fabricated using conventional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and MoO3 nanoparticle HILs. The MoS2/MoO3 nanosheets form a compact film, as smooth as PEDOT:PSS films and smoother than MoO3 nanoparticle films, when simply spin-coated on indium tin oxide substrates. The improvement in device efficiency can be attributed to the smooth surface of the nanostructured MoS2/MoO3 HIL and the excellent conductivity characteristics of the two-dimensional (2D) layered material (MoS2), which facilitate carrier transport in the device and reduce the sheet resistance. Moreover, the long-term stability of OLED devices that use such MoS2/MoO3 layers is shown to be improved dramatically compared with hygroscopic and acidic PEDOT:PSS-based devices.

  20. Solution processable mixed-solvent exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets for efficient and robust organic light-emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the use of solution-processed molybdenum trioxide (MoO3 nanoparticle-decorated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 nanosheets (MoS2/MoO3 as hole injection layer (HIL in organic lighting diodes (OLEDs. The device performance is shown to be significantly improved by the introduction of such MoS2/MoO3 HIL without any post-ultraviolet-ozone treatment, and is shown to better the performance of devices fabricated using conventional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS and MoO3 nanoparticle HILs. The MoS2/MoO3 nanosheets form a compact film, as smooth as PEDOT:PSS films and smoother than MoO3 nanoparticle films, when simply spin-coated on indium tin oxide substrates. The improvement in device efficiency can be attributed to the smooth surface of the nanostructured MoS2/MoO3 HIL and the excellent conductivity characteristics of the two-dimensional (2D layered material (MoS2, which facilitate carrier transport in the device and reduce the sheet resistance. Moreover, the long-term stability of OLED devices that use such MoS2/MoO3 layers is shown to be improved dramatically compared with hygroscopic and acidic PEDOT:PSS-based devices.

  1. Activating basal-plane catalytic activity of two-dimensional MoS2 monolayer with remote hydrogen plasma

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Chia-Chin

    2016-09-10

    Two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials such as Molybdenum disufide (MoS2) have been recognized as one of the low-cost and efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The crystal edges that account for a small percentage of the surface area, rather than the basal planes, of MoS2 monolayer have been confirmed as their active catalytic sites. As a result, extensive efforts have been developing in activating the basal planes of MoS2 for enhancing their HER activity. Here, we report a simple and efficient approach-using a remote hydrogen-plasma process-to creating S-vacancies on the basal plane of monolayer crystalline MoS2; this process can generate high density of S-vacancies while mainly maintaining the morphology and structure of MoS2 monolayer. The density of S-vacancies (defects) on MoS2 monolayers resulted from the remote hydrogen-plasma process can be tuned and play a critical role in HER, as evidenced in the results of our spectroscopic and electrical measurements. The H2-plasma treated MoS2 also provides an excellent platform for systematic and fundamental study of defect-property relationships in TMDs, which provides insights for future applications including electrical, optical and magnetic devices. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Large Area Deposition of MoS2 by Pulsed Laser Deposition with In-Situ Thickness Control

    KAUST Repository

    Serna, Martha I.; Yoo, Seong H.; Moreno, Salvador; Xi, Yang; Oviedo, Juan Pablo; Choi, Hyunjoo; Alshareef, Husam N.; Kim, Moon J.; Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A.

    2016-01-01

    A scalable and catalyst-free method to deposit stoichiometric Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) films over large areas is reported with the maximum area limited by the size of the substrate holder. The method allows deposition of MoS2 layers on a wide range of substrates without any additional surface preparation including single crystals (sapphire and quartz), polycrystalline (HfO2), and amorphous (SiO2). The films are deposited using carefully designed MoS2 targets fabricated with excess of sulfur (S) and variable MoS2 and S particle size. Uniform and layered MoS2 films as thin as two monolayers, with an electrical resistivity of 1.54 × 104 Ω cm-1 were achieved. The MoS2 stoichiometry was as confirmed by High Resolution Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (HRRBS). With the method reported here, in situ graded MoS2 films ranging from ~1 to 10 monolayers can also be deposited.

  3. Dietary levels of Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS for nile-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus: Intestinal Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Endrigo Cechim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of aquaculture production systems exposes fish to numerous stressors, which may negatively affect their growth and limit profitability of aquaculture systems. In addition, fish farmers are now obliged to conform to Best Management Practices (BPMs regulations. This current setup favors the use of dietary prebiotics for management of farmed fish as environmentally friendly practice. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS are complex carbohydrates derived from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls. This study was set out to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dietary MOS on intestinal morphology of Nile-tilapia. Fish (12.62 ± 0.38 were randomly distributed into 16 cages (0.25m3 polyvinyl chloride; 20 fish per cage, inside four 5m3 net-cage at Salto Caxias Hydroeletric water reservoir (Boa Vista da Aparecida, PR and fed diets containing increasing levels of MOS (0.0; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.8% during 30 days (n=4. The proximal intestine fragment of two specimens from each replicate was taken for histological observations. The histological sections (5 μm were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H & E and documented photographically with a digital camera (DCM 130E digital camera for microscope 1.3 pixels, CMOS chip Software Scopephoto connected to a light microscope (EDUTEC 502 AC. The images were analyzed by using (BEL Eurisko software for intestinal villi measures. Water quality parameters (temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored during trial. It was observed influence (p<0.05 of MOS supplementation on Nile tilapia intestinal morphology. Fish fed diet containing 0.4% MOS supplementation showed increased (p<0.05 villi height (436.98±66.81 μm when compared to fish fed unsupplemented control diet (401.01±70.73 μm, 0.2% (364.59±61.68 μm and 0.8% (404.08±61.62 μm. Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS are complex carbohydrates derived from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls and present mannose as primary carbohydrate

  4. Photochemistry of acrylates at 222 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knolle, Wolfgang; Naumov, Sergej; Madani, Mohamed; Sonntag, Clemens von

    2005-01-01

    Excimer lamps as monochromatic UV sources with an intense short-wavelength emission (especially KrCl * , 222 nm) allow a photoinitiator-free initiation of the acrylate polymerisation. Laser photolysis (KrCl * excimer laser, pulse width 20 ns, up to 5 mJ per pulse) gives rise to similar transient spectra (λ max ∼ 280 nm) for all acrylates studied. As the rather unspecific spectra do not allow conclusions as to the main reaction channel, a product study has been performed by GC-MS following steady-state photolysis of acrylate solutions in acetonitrile, methanol and n-hexane. Somewhat unexpected, α-cleavage seems to be a main reaction channel, and quantum chemical calculations show that such a reaction can occur from either the excited singlet state or the unrelaxed triplet state, but not from the relaxed triplet state that is observed spectroscopically. A reaction scheme accounting for the observed products is presented

  5. Enhanced hydrogen generation by hydrolysis of Mg doped with flower-like MoS2 for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minghong; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Liu, Jiangwen; Wang, Hui; Shao, Huaiyu; Zhu, Min

    2017-10-01

    In this work, flower-like MoS2 spheres are synthesized via a hydrothermal method and the catalytic activity of the as-prepared and bulk MoS2 on hydrolysis of Mg is systematically investigated for the first time. The Mg-MoS2 composites are prepared by ball milling and the hydrogen generation performances of the composites are investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution. The experimental results suggest that the as-prepared MoS2 exhibits better catalytic effect on hydrolysis of Mg compared to bulk MoS2. In particular, Mg-10 wt% MoS2 (as-prepared) composite milled for 1 h shows the best hydrogen generation properties and releases 90.4% of theoretical hydrogen generation capacity within 1 min at room temperature. The excellent catalytic effect of as-prepared MoS2 may be attributed to the following aspects: three-dimensional flower-like MoS2 architectures improve its dispersibility on Mg particles; make the composite more reactive; hamper the generated Mg(OH)2 from adhering to the surface of Mg; and increase the galvanic corrosion of Mg. In addition, a hydrogen generator based on the hydrolysis reaction of Mg-0.2 wt% MoS2 composite is manufactured and it can supply a maximum hydrogen flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The findings here demonstrate the as-prepared flower-like MoS2 can be a promising catalyst for hydrogen generation from Mg.

  6. Piezoelectricity of single-atomic-layer MoS2 for energy conversion and piezotronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Lei; Li, Yilei; Zhang, Fan; Lin, Long; Niu, Simiao; Chenet, Daniel; Zhang, Xian; Hao, Yufeng; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-23

    The piezoelectric characteristics of nanowires, thin films and bulk crystals have been closely studied for potential applications in sensors, transducers, energy conversion and electronics. With their high crystallinity and ability to withstand enormous strain, two-dimensional materials are of great interest as high-performance piezoelectric materials. Monolayer MoS2 is predicted to be strongly piezoelectric, an effect that disappears in the bulk owing to the opposite orientations of adjacent atomic layers. Here we report the first experimental study of the piezoelectric properties of two-dimensional MoS2 and show that cyclic stretching and releasing of thin MoS2 flakes with an odd number of atomic layers produces oscillating piezoelectric voltage and current outputs, whereas no output is observed for flakes with an even number of layers. A single monolayer flake strained by 0.53% generates a peak output of 15 mV and 20 pA, corresponding to a power density of 2 mW m(-2) and a 5.08% mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency. In agreement with theoretical predictions, the output increases with decreasing thickness and reverses sign when the strain direction is rotated by 90°. Transport measurements show a strong piezotronic effect in single-layer MoS2, but not in bilayer and bulk MoS2. The coupling between piezoelectricity and semiconducting properties in two-dimensional nanomaterials may enable the development of applications in powering nanodevices, adaptive bioprobes and tunable/stretchable electronics/optoelectronics.

  7. Anomalous photoluminescence thermal quenching of sandwiched single layer MoS_2

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Shakfa, Mohammad Khaled; Mishra, Pawan; Li, Ming-Yang; Chiu, Ming-Hui; Ng, Tien Khee; Li, Lain-Jong; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We report an unusual thermal quenching of the micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) intensity for a sandwiched single-layer (SL) MoS2. For this study, MoS2 layers were chemical vapor deposited on molecular beam epitaxial grown In0.15Al0.85N lattice matched templates. Later, to accomplish air-stable sandwiched SL-MoS2, a thin In0.15Al0.85N cap layer was deposited on the MoS2/In0.15Al0.85N heterostructure. We confirm that the sandwiched MoS2 is a single layer from optical and structural analyses using µ-Raman spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy, respectively. By using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, no structural phase transition of MoS2 is noticed. The recombination processes of bound and free excitons were analyzed by the power-dependent µ-PL studies at 77 K and room temperature (RT). The temperature-dependent micro photoluminescence (TDPL) measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 77 – 400 K. As temperature increases, a significant red-shift is observed for the free-exciton PL peak, revealing the delocalization of carriers. Further, we observe unconventional negative thermal quenching behavior, the enhancement of the µ-PL intensity with increasing temperatures up to 300K, which is explained by carrier hopping transitions that take place between shallow localized states to the band-edges. Thus, this study renders a fundamental insight into understanding the anomalous thermal quenching of µ-PL intensity of sandwiched SL-MoS2.

  8. Anomalous photoluminescence thermal quenching of sandwiched single layer MoS_2

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao

    2017-09-22

    We report an unusual thermal quenching of the micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) intensity for a sandwiched single-layer (SL) MoS2. For this study, MoS2 layers were chemical vapor deposited on molecular beam epitaxial grown In0.15Al0.85N lattice matched templates. Later, to accomplish air-stable sandwiched SL-MoS2, a thin In0.15Al0.85N cap layer was deposited on the MoS2/In0.15Al0.85N heterostructure. We confirm that the sandwiched MoS2 is a single layer from optical and structural analyses using µ-Raman spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy, respectively. By using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, no structural phase transition of MoS2 is noticed. The recombination processes of bound and free excitons were analyzed by the power-dependent µ-PL studies at 77 K and room temperature (RT). The temperature-dependent micro photoluminescence (TDPL) measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 77 – 400 K. As temperature increases, a significant red-shift is observed for the free-exciton PL peak, revealing the delocalization of carriers. Further, we observe unconventional negative thermal quenching behavior, the enhancement of the µ-PL intensity with increasing temperatures up to 300K, which is explained by carrier hopping transitions that take place between shallow localized states to the band-edges. Thus, this study renders a fundamental insight into understanding the anomalous thermal quenching of µ-PL intensity of sandwiched SL-MoS2.

  9. EFFECT OF THE USE OF MOS AND ORGANIC ACIDS IN PERFORMANCE PIGLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vargas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The production chain of swine has been developed to meet the consumer market , seeking a more lean meat and produced cleanly. Faced with this demand , key areas of swine as genetics, nutrition , health , ambience , animal welfare, management of costs and environmental management are increasingly studied and debated to the organs concerned . Have advances in the field of nutrition has also contributed to a cleaner animal production through the use of enhancers efficiency as prebiotics and organic acids in the diets of pigs as potential substitutes for conventional growth promoters . The mannan oligosaccharides ( MOS along with organic acids , are able to maintain the integrity of the digestive tract , by benefiting the multiplication of beneficial bacteria and also in the specific case of MOS , act as adsorbents of pathogenic bacteria , preventing their adhesion in the intestinal epithelium and causing their elimination . Since these effects improve the absorption of nutrients with gains in production rates . Given the above , the objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of MOS and organic acid in the performance parameters of piglets during 15-30 Kg The experiment will be conducted in the UEP on Swine Campuses Two Neighbors - UTFPR . Crusaders 18 pigs with an initial average weight of 15kg with 50 days of age , distributed in a completely randomized design with two treatments will be used : T1 - basal ration T2 - ration + 0.2% MOS + organic acid , with 3 replications and 3 animals per experimental unit . The parameters evaluated were weight gain , feed intake , feed conversion , stool consistency and feed cost per kg of produced pig . There was no difference ( P > 0.05 on growth performance and fecal consistency between treatments . However , the cost per kg pig was highest in treatment 2 (with additives compared to Treatment 1 (control. In the conditions of the present study was conducted , it can be concluded that the use of MOS and

  10. Pristine Basal- and Edge-Plane-Oriented Molybdenite MoS2 Exhibiting Highly Anisotropic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu Min; Ambrosi, Adriano; Sofer, Zdenĕk; Huber, Štěpán; Sedmidubský, David; Pumera, Martin

    2015-05-04

    The layered structure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) is structurally similar to that of graphite, with individual sheets strongly covalently bonded within but held together through weak van der Waals interactions. This results in two distinct surfaces of MoS2 : basal and edge planes. The edge plane was theoretically predicted to be more electroactive than the basal plane, but evidence from direct experimental comparison is elusive. Herein, the first study comparing the two surfaces of MoS2 by using macroscopic crystals is presented. A careful investigation of the electrochemical properties of macroscopic MoS2 pristine crystals with precise control over the exposure of one plane surface, that is, basal plane or edge plane, was performed. These crystals were characterized thoroughly by AFM, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, voltammetry, digital simulation, and DFT calculations. In the Raman spectra, the basal and edge planes show anisotropy in the preferred excitation of E2g and A1g phonon modes, respectively. The edge plane exhibits a much larger heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant k(0) of 4.96×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3)  cm s(-1) for [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) and [Ru(NH3 )6 ](3+/2+) redox probes, respectively, compared to the basal plane, which yielded k(0) tending towards zero for [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) and about 9.3×10(-4)  cm s(-1) for [Ru(NH3 )6 ](3+/2+) . The industrially important hydrogen evolution reaction follows the trend observed for [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) in that the basal plane is basically inactive. The experimental comparison of the edge and basal planes of MoS2 crystals is supported by DFT calculations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Resonant enhancement of band-to-band tunneling in in-plane MoS2/WS2 heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tatsuya; Mori, Nobuya

    2018-04-01

    The band-to-band (BTB) tunneling current J through in-plane MoS2/WS2 heterojunctions is calculated by the nonequilibrium Green function method combined with tight-binding approximation. Types A and B of band configurations are considered. For type-A (type-B) heterojunctions, a potential notch exists (or is absent) at the heterointerface. Both type-A and type-B MoS2/WS2 heterojunctions can support a higher BTB current than MoS2 and WS2 homojunctions. For type-A heterojunctions, the resonant enhancement of J occurs resulting in a significantly higher BTB tunneling current.

  12. Phonon-limited mobility in n-type single-layer MoS2 from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2012-01-01

    We study the phonon-limited mobility in intrinsic n-type single-layer MoS2 for temperatures T > 100 K. The materials properties including the electron-phonon interaction are calculated from first principles and the deformation potentials and Frohlich interaction in single-layer MoS2 are established...... to recent experimental findings for the mobility in single-layer MoS2 (similar to 200 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1)), our results indicate that mobilities close to the intrinsic phonon-limited mobility can be achieved in two-dimensional materials via dielectric engineering that effectively screens static Coulomb...

  13. Design of Polymer Wavelength Splitter 1310 nm/1550 nm Based on Multimode Interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prajzler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report about design of 1x2 1310/1550 nm optical wavelength division multiplexer based on polymer waveguides. The polymer splitter was designed by using RSoft software based on beam propagation method. Epoxy novolak resin polymer was used as core waveguides layer, silicon substrate with silica layer was used as buffer layer and polymethylmethacrylate was used as protection cover layer. The simulation shows that the output energy for the fundamental mode is 67.1 % for 1310 nm and 67.8 % for 1550 nm wavelength.

  14. Passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1073 nm and 1085 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waritanant, Tanant; Major, Arkady

    2018-02-01

    A passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1073 nm and 1085 nm was demonstrated with an intracavity birefringent filter as the wavelength selecting element. The average output powers achieved were 2.17 W and 2.18 W with optical-to-optical efficiency of 19.6% and 19.7%, respectively. The slope efficiencies were more than 31% at both output wavelengths. The pulse durations at the highest average output power were 10.3 ps and 8.4 ps, respectively. We believe that this is the first report of mode locking of a Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1073 nm or 1085 nm lines.

  15. Harmonic Inverse FEL Interaction at 800nm

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, C M S; Siemann, R; Spencer, J E

    2005-01-01

    The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and demonstrated as a premodulator for High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) experiments. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.25 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. The harmonic IFEL can add flexibility to HGHG FEL design.

  16. Laser–fibre vibrometry at 1550 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waz, A T; Kaczmarek, P R; Abramski, K M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents new solutions for laser vibrometry, which are based on fibre vibrometry in the third telecommunication window. The scattered laser beam from a vibrating object is guided by a fibre collimator and coherently detected through heterodyning it with an acousto-optical frequency-shifted reference beam. The concept of measuring vibration parameters from many points of the vibrating object has been inspired by wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in fibre telecommunications. The N-independent WDM separated 15XX nm fibre-coupled laser diodes (used for optical fibre telecommunications) form a system of sources for multipoint vibration measurement according to the rule 'one wavelength–one point'

  17. Direct Growth of High Mobility and Low-Noise Lateral MoS2 -Graphene Heterostructure Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behranginia, Amirhossein; Yasaei, Poya; Majee, Arnab K; Sangwan, Vinod K; Long, Fei; Foss, Cameron J; Foroozan, Tara; Fuladi, Shadi; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Hersam, Mark C; Aksamija, Zlatan; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2017-08-01

    Reliable fabrication of lateral interfaces between conducting and semiconducting 2D materials is considered a major technological advancement for the next generation of highly packed all-2D electronic circuitry. This study employs seed-free consecutive chemical vapor deposition processes to synthesize high-quality lateral MoS 2 -graphene heterostructures and comprehensively investigated their electronic properties through a combination of various experimental techniques and theoretical modeling. These results show that the MoS 2 -graphene devices exhibit an order of magnitude higher mobility and lower noise metrics compared to conventional MoS 2 -metal devices as a result of energy band rearrangement and smaller Schottky barrier height at the contacts. These findings suggest that MoS 2 -graphene in-plane heterostructures are promising materials for the scale-up of all-2D circuitry with superlative electrical performance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Half-metallic ferromagnetism prediction in MoS2-based two-dimensional superlattice from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan-Ni; Gao, Peng-Fei; Xia, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Sheng-Li

    2018-03-01

    Half-metallic ferromagnetism (HMFM) has great potential application in spin filter. However, it is extremely rare, especially in two-dimensional (2D) materials. At present, 2D materials have drawn international interest in spintronic devices. Here, we use ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the structural stability and electrical and magnetic properties of the MoS2-based 2D superlattice formed by inserting graphene hexagonal ring in 6 × 6 × 1 MoS2 supercell. Two kinds of structures with hexagonal carbon ring were predicted with structural stability and were shown HMFM. The two structures combine the spin transport capacity of graphene with the magnetism of the defective 2D MoS2. And they have strong covalent bonding between the C and S or Mo atoms near the interface. This work is very useful to help us to design reasonable MoS2-based spin filter.

  19. Spectroscopic Signatures for Interlayer Coupling in MoS 2 –WSe 2 van der Waals Stacking

    KAUST Repository

    Chiu, Ming-Hui

    2014-09-23

    Stacking of MoS2 and WSe2 monolayers is conducted by transferring triangular MoS2 monolayers on top of WSe2 monolayers, all grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal that these mechanically stacked monolayers are not closely coupled, but after a thermal treatment at 300 degrees C, it is possible to produce van der Waals solids consisting of two interacting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers. The layer-number sensitive Raman out-of-plane mode A(1g)(2) for WSe2 (309 cm(-1)) is found sensitive to the coupling between two TMD monolayers. The presence of interlayer excitonic emissions and the changes in other intrinsic Raman modes such as E \\'\\' for MoS2 at 286 cm(-1) and A(1g)(2) for MoS2 at around 463 cm(-1) confirm the enhancement of the interlayer coupling.

  20. 2D nanosheet molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Sawtell, David A. G.; Kelly, Peter J.; Banks, Craig E.

    2015-10-01

    We explore the use of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets as an electrocatalyst for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). Using four commonly employed commercially available carbon based electrode support materials, namely edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPPG), glassy carbon (GC), boron-doped diamond (BDD) and screen-printed graphite electrodes (SPE), we critically evaluate the reported electrocatalytic performance of unmodified and MoS2 modified electrodes towards the HER. Surprisingly, current literature focuses almost exclusively on the use of GC as an underlying support electrode upon which HER materials are immobilised. 2D MoS2 nanosheet modified electrodes are found to exhibit a coverage dependant electrocatalytic effect towards the HER. Modification of the supporting electrode surface with an optimal mass of 2D MoS2 nanosheets results in a lowering of the HER onset potential by ca. 0.33, 0.57, 0.29 and 0.31 V at EPPG, GC, SPE and BDD electrodes compared to their unmodified counterparts respectively. The lowering of the HER onset potential is associated with each supporting electrode's individual electron transfer kinetics/properties and is thus distinct. The effect of MoS2 coverage is also explored. We reveal that its ability to catalyse the HER is dependent on the mass deposited until a critical mass of 2D MoS2 nanosheets is achieved, after which its electrocatalytic benefits and/or surface stability curtail. The active surface site density and turn over frequency for the 2D MoS2 nanosheets is determined, characterised and found to be dependent on both the coverage of 2D MoS2 nanosheets and the underlying/supporting substrate. This work is essential for those designing, fabricating and consequently electrochemically testing 2D nanosheet materials for the HER.We explore the use of two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheets as an electrocatalyst for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). Using four commonly employed commercially available carbon based electrode

  1. Spectroscopic Signatures for Interlayer Coupling in MoS 2 –WSe 2 van der Waals Stacking

    KAUST Repository

    Chiu, Ming-Hui; Li, Ming-Yang; Zhang, Wengjing; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Wen-Hao; Terrones, Mauricio; Terrones, Humberto; Li, Lain-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Stacking of MoS2 and WSe2 monolayers is conducted by transferring triangular MoS2 monolayers on top of WSe2 monolayers, all grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal that these mechanically stacked monolayers are not closely coupled, but after a thermal treatment at 300 degrees C, it is possible to produce van der Waals solids consisting of two interacting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers. The layer-number sensitive Raman out-of-plane mode A(1g)(2) for WSe2 (309 cm(-1)) is found sensitive to the coupling between two TMD monolayers. The presence of interlayer excitonic emissions and the changes in other intrinsic Raman modes such as E '' for MoS2 at 286 cm(-1) and A(1g)(2) for MoS2 at around 463 cm(-1) confirm the enhancement of the interlayer coupling.

  2. Self-assembled MoS2–carbon nanostructures: influence of nanostructuring and carbon on lithium battery performance

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Shyamal K.; Mallavajula, Rajesh; Jayaprakash, Navaneedhakrishnan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    Composites of MoS 2 and amorphous carbon are grown and self-assembled into hierarchical nanostructures via a hydrothermal method. Application of the composites as high-energy electrodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries is investigated

  3. An Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Based Model Output Statistics (MOS) During the 2002 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hart, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The skill of a mesoscale model based Model Output Statistics (MOS) system that provided hourly forecasts for 18 sites over northern Utah during the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games is evaluated...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of solvent-free ionic molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Shu-Ying; Gao, Xie-Feng; Zhang, Yi-Han

    2015-01-01

    A development of the novel and stable solvent-free ionic MoS 2 nanofluids by a facile and scalable hydrothermal method is presented. The nanofluids were synthesized by surface functionalizing nanoscale MoS 2 from hydrothermal synthesis with a charged corona, and ionically tethering with oligomeric chains as a canopy. The structures and properties of the nanofluids were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, 1 H), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ARES rheometer. The obtained solvent-free nanofluids are homogeneous, stable amber-like fluids with no evidence of phase separation. The nanofluids could be easily dispersed in both aqueous and organic solvents to form transparent and stable liquids due to the ionic nature and the presence of oligomeric polymer chains. It was found that the solvent-free nanofluids with up to 32 wt% inorganic content show Newtonian rheological behaviors due to the high graft density and uniform dispersion of inorganic cores, indicating that the nanofluids would have a stable lubricating performance. As reported in our previous communication, the nanofluids showing lower, more stable friction coefficients of less than 0.1 with self-healing lubricating behaviors. For deeper understanding of the nanofluids, the details of synthesis, chemical structures, rheological behaviors and molecular dynamics of the nanofluids were investigated in details. The rheological behaviors can be tailored by varying the grafting density of the canopy. Dynamic results of the canopy of the MoS 2 nanofluids show that inorganic MoS 2 cores have hindrance effect on the canopy segmental motions above 253 K due to their effect to the mobility of anions and the departing-recombining motions between the paired cations and anions. - Highlights: • A development of the novel synthesis of solvent-free MoS 2 nanofluids is presented. • The rheological behaviors can be tailored by

  5. Ionizing radiation M.O.S. dosimeters: sensibility and stability; Dosimetres M.O.S. de rayonnements ionisants: sensibilite et stabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessinn, F

    1993-12-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the study of the ionizing radiation responsivity of P.O.M.S. dosimeters. Unlike the development of processing hardening techniques, our works goal were to increase, on the one hand, the M.O.S. dosimeters sensitivity in order to detect small radiation doses and on the other hand, the stability with time and temperature of the devices, to minimize the absorbed-dose estimation errors. With this aim in mind, an analysis of all processing parameters has been carried out: the M.O.S. dosimeter sensitivity is primarily controlled by the gate oxide thickness and the irradiation electric field. Thus, P.M.O.S. transistors with 1 and 2 {mu}m thick silica layers have been fabricated for our experiments. The radiation response of our devices in the high-field mode satisfactorily fits a D{sub ox}{sup 2} power law. The maximum sensitivity achieved (9,2 V/Gy for 2{mu}m devices) is close to the ideal value obtained when considering only an unitary carrier-trapping level, and allows to measure about 10{sup -2} Gy radiation doses. Read-time stability has been evaluated under bias-temperature stress conditions: experiments underscore slow fading, corresponding to 10{sup -3} Gy/h. The temperature response has also been studied: the analytical model we have developed predicts M.O.S. transistors threshold voltage variations over the military specifications range [-50 deg. C, + 150 deg. C]. Finally, we have investigated the possibilities of irradiated dosimeters thermal annealing for reusing. It appears clearly that radiation-induced damage annealing is strongly gate bias dependent. Furthermore, dosimeters radiation sensitivity seems not to be affected by successive annealings. (author). 146 refs., 58 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Single-fabrication-step Ge nanosphere/SiO2/SiGe heterostructures: a key enabler for realizing Ge MOS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, P. H.; Peng, K. P.; Lin, H. C.; George, T.; Li, P. W.

    2018-05-01

    We report channel and strain engineering of self-organized, gate-stacking heterostructures comprising Ge-nanosphere gate/SiO2/SiGe-channels. An exquisitely-controlled dynamic balance between the concentrations of oxygen, Si, and Ge interstitials was effectively exploited to simultaneously create these heterostructures in a single oxidation step. Process-controlled tunability of the channel length (5–95 nm diameters for the Ge-nanospheres), gate oxide thickness (2.5–4.8 nm), as well as crystal orientation, chemical composition and strain engineering of the SiGe-channel was achieved. Single-crystalline (100) Si1‑x Ge x shells with Ge content as high as x = 0.85 and with a compressive strain of 3%, as well as (110) Si1‑x Ge x shells with Ge content of x = 0.35 and corresponding compressive strain of 1.5% were achieved. For each crystal orientation, our high Ge-content, highly-stressed SiGe shells feature a high degree of crystallinity and thus, provide a core ‘building block’ required for the fabrication of Ge-based MOS devices.

  7. Layer Dependence and Light Tuning Surface Potential of 2D MoS2 on Various Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Qi, Junjie; Xu, Minxuan; Xiao, Jiankun; Xu, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiankun; Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Yue

    2017-04-01

    Here surface potential of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown 2D MoS 2 with various layers is reported, and the effect of adherent substrate and light illumination on surface potential of monolayer MoS 2 are investigated. The surface potential of MoS 2 on Si/SiO 2 substrate decreases from 4.93 to 4.84 eV with the increase in the number of layer from 1 to 4 or more. Especially, the surface potentials of monolayer MoS 2 are strongly dependent on its adherent substrate, which are determined to be 4.55, 4.88, 4.93, 5.10, and 5.50 eV on Ag, graphene, Si/SiO 2 , Au, and Pt substrates, respectively. Light irradiation is introduced to tuning the surface potential of monolayer MoS 2 , with the increase in light intensity, the surface potential of MoS 2 on Si/SiO 2 substrate decreases from 4.93 to 4.74 eV, while increases from 5.50 to 5.56 eV on Pt substrate. The I-V curves on vertical of monolayer MoS 2 /Pt heterojunction show the decrease in current with the increase of light intensity, and Schottky barrier height at MoS 2 /Pt junctions increases from 0.302 to 0.342 eV. The changed surface potential can be explained by trapped charges on surface, photoinduced carriers, charge transfer, and local electric field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Prospects of zero Schottky barrier height in a graphene-inserted MoS2-metal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, Anuja; Mahapatra, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    A low Schottky barrier height (SBH) at source/drain contact is essential for achieving high drive current in atomic layer MoS2-channel-based field effect transistors. Approaches such as choosing metals with appropriate work functions and chemical doping are employed previously to improve the carrier injection from the contact electrodes to the channel and to mitigate the SBH between the MoS2 and metal. Recent experiments demonstrate significant SBH reduction when graphene layer is inserted between metal slab (Ti and Ni) and MoS2. However, the physical or chemical origin of this phenomenon is not yet clearly understood. In this work, density functional theory simulations are performed, employing pseudopotentials with very high basis sets to get insights of the charge transfer between metal and monolayer MoS2 through the inserted graphene layer. Our atomistic simulations on 16 different interfaces involving five different metals (Ti, Ag, Ru, Au, and Pt) reveal that (i) such a decrease in SBH is not consistent among various metals, rather an increase in SBH is observed in case of Au and Pt; (ii) unlike MoS2-metal interface, the projected dispersion of MoS2 remains preserved in any MoS2-graphene-metal system with shift in the bands on the energy axis. (iii) A proper choice of metal (e.g., Ru) may exhibit ohmic nature in a graphene-inserted MoS2-metal contact. These understandings would provide a direction in developing high-performance transistors involving heteroatomic layers as contact electrodes.

  9. Multifunctional Architectures Constructing of PANI Nanoneedle Arrays on MoS2 Thin Nanosheets for High-Energy Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jixin; Sun, Wenping; Yang, Dan; Zhang, Yu; Hoon, Hng Huey; Zhang, Hua; Yan, Qingyu

    2015-09-02

    Multifunctional MoS2 @PANI (polyaniline) pseudo-supercapacitor electrodes consisting of MoS2 thin nanosheets and PANI nanoarrays are fabricated via a large-scale approach. The superior capacitance retention is retained up to 91% after 4000 cycles and a high energy density of 106 Wh kg(-1) is delivered at a power density of 106 kW kg(-1) . © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Extensión del Algoritmo Evolutivo MOS con técnicas de Evolución Diferencial

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Martín, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Integración de un nuevo algoritmo de Evolución Diferencial en una librería de Algoritmos Evolutivos y su adaptación en forma de técnica para el algoritmo de hibridación MOS (Multiple Offspring Sampling). MOS es capaz de adaptarse a los problemas, premiando a las técnicas que mejores resutlados vayan obteniendo. Pruebas y estudios sobre los resultados obtenidos con esta nueva técnica.

  11. Few-Layer MoS2-Organic Thin-Film Hybrid Complementary Inverter Pixel Fabricated on a Glass Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sung; Shin, Jae Min; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Lee, Junyeong; Kim, Jin Sung; Hwang, Hyun Chul; Park, Eunyoung; Yoon, Woojin; Ju, Sang-Yong; Im, Seongil

    2015-05-13

    Few-layer MoS2-organic thin-film hybrid complementary inverters demonstrate a great deal of device performance with a decent voltage gain of ≈12, a few hundred pW power consumption, and 480 Hz switching speed. As fabricated on glass, this hybrid CMOS inverter operates as a light-detecting pixel as well, using a thin MoS2 channel. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Self-assembled MoS2–carbon nanostructures: influence of nanostructuring and carbon on lithium battery performance

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Shyamal K.

    2012-01-01

    Composites of MoS 2 and amorphous carbon are grown and self-assembled into hierarchical nanostructures via a hydrothermal method. Application of the composites as high-energy electrodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries is investigated. The critical roles of nanostructuring of MoS 2 and carbon composition on lithium-ion battery performance are highlighted. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Indented Cu2MoS4 nanosheets with enhanced electrocatalytic and photocatalytic activities realized through edge engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bang-Bao; Ma, De-Kun; Ke, Qing-Ping; Chen, Wei; Huang, Shao-Ming

    2016-03-07

    Edges often play a role as active centers for catalytic reactions in some nanomaterials. Therefore it is highly desirable to enhance catalytic activity of a material through modulating the microstructure of the edges. However, the study associated with edge engineering is less investigated and still at its preliminary stage. Here we report that Cu2MoS4 nanosheets with indented edges can be fabricated through a simple chemical etching route at room temperature, using Cu2MoS4 nanosheets with flat ones as sacrifice templates. Taking the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and conversion of benzyl alcohol as examples, the catalytic activity of Cu2MoS4 indented nanosheets (INSs) obtained through edge engineering was comparatively studied with those of Cu2MoS4 flat nanosheets (FNSs) without any modification. The photocatalytic tests revealed that the catalytic active sites of Cu2MoS4 nanosheets were associated with their edges rather than basal planes. Cu2MoS4 INSs were endowed with larger electrochemically active surface area (ECSA), more active edges and better hydrophilicity through the edge engineering. As a result, the as-fabricated Cu2MoS4 INSs exhibited an excellent HER activity with a small Tafel slope of 77 mV dec(-1), which is among the best records for Cu2MoS4 catalysts. The present work demonstrated the validity of adjusting catalytic activity of the material through edge engineering and provided a new strategy for designing and developing highly efficient catalysts.

  14. Controlling magnetism of MoS2 sheets by embedding transition-metal atoms and applying strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yungang; Su, Qiulei; Wang, Zhiguo; Deng, Huiqiu; Zu, Xiaotao

    2013-11-14

    Prompted by recent experimental achievement of transition metal (TM) atoms substituted in MoS2 nanostructures during growth or saturating existing vacancies (Sun et al., ACS Nano, 2013, 7, 3506; Deepak et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 12549), we explored, via density functional theory, the magnetic properties of a series of 3d TM atoms substituted in a MoS2 sheet, and found that Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn substitutions can induce magnetism in the MoS2 sheet. The localizing unpaired 3d electrons of TM atoms respond to the introduction of a magnetic moment. Depending on the species of TM atoms, the substituted MoS2 sheet can be a metal, semiconductor or half-metal. Remarkably, the applied elastic strain can be used to control the strength of the spin-splitting of TM-3d orbitals, leading to an effective manipulation of the magnetism of the TM-substituted MoS2 sheet. We found that the magnetic moment of the Mn- and Fe-substituted MoS2 sheets can monotonously increase with the increase of tensile strain, while the magnetic moment of Co-, Ni-, Cu- and Zn-substituted MoS2 sheets initially increases and then decreases with the increase of tensile strain. An instructive mechanism was proposed to qualitatively explain the variation of magnetism with elastic strain. The finding of the magnetoelastic effect here is technologically important for the fabrication of strain-driven spin devices on MoS2 nanostructures, which allows us to go beyond the current scope limited to the spin devices within graphene and BN-based nanostructures.

  15. Atomic Scale Simulation on the Anti-Pressure and Friction Reduction Mechanisms of MoS2 Monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available MoS2 nanosheets can be used as solid lubricants or additives of lubricating oils to reduce friction and resist wear. However, the atomic scale mechanism still needs to be illustrated. Herein, molecular simulations on the indentation and scratching process of MoS2 monolayer supported by Pt(111 surface were conducted to study the anti-pressure and friction reduction mechanisms of the MoS2 monolayer. Three deformation stages of Pt-supported MoS2 monolayer were found during the indentation process: elastic deformation, plastic deformation and finally, complete rupture. The MoS2 monolayer showed an excellent friction reduction effect at the first two stages, as a result of enhanced load bearing capacity and reduced deformation degree of the substrate. Unlike graphene, rupture of the Pt-supported MoS2 monolayer was related primarily to out-of-plane compression of the monolayer. These results provide a new insight into the relationship between the mechanical properties and lubrication properties of 2D materials.

  16. Mechanically delaminated few layered MoS2 nanosheets based high performance wire type solid-state symmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Pazhamalai, Parthiban; Veerasubramani, Ganesh Kumar; Kim, Sang Jae

    2016-07-01

    Two dimensional nanostructures are increasingly used as electrode materials in flexible supercapacitors for portable electronic applications. Herein, we demonstrated a ball milling approach for achieving few layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) via exfoliation from their bulk. Physico-chemical characterizations such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, and laser Raman analyses confirmed the occurrence of exfoliated MoS2 sheets with few layers from their bulk via ball milling process. MoS2 based wire type solid state supercapacitors (WSCs) are fabricated and examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge discharge (CD) measurements. The presence of rectangular shaped CV curves and symmetric triangular shaped CD profiles suggested the mechanism of charge storage in MoS2 WSC is due to the formation of electrochemical double layer capacitance. The MoS2 WSC device delivered a specific capacitance of 119 μF cm-1, and energy density of 8.1 nW h cm-1 with better capacitance retention of about 89.36% over 2500 cycles, which ensures the use of the ball milled MoS2 for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  17. Enhanced Performance of MoS2 Photodetectors by Inserting an ALD-Processed TiO2 Interlayer

    KAUST Repository

    Pak, Yusin; Park, Woojin; Mitra, Somak; Devi, Assa Aravindh Sasikala; Loganathan, Kalaivanan; Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Kim, Yonghun; Cho, Byungjin; Jung, Gun-Young; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Roqan, Iman S.

    2017-01-01

    2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) possesses excellent optoelectronic properties that make it a promising candidate for use in high-performance photodetectors. Yet, to meet the growing demand for practical and reliable MoS2 photodetectors, the critical issue of defect introduction to the interface between the exfoliated MoS2 and the electrode metal during fabrication must be addressed, because defects deteriorate the device performance. To achieve this objective, the use of an atomic layer-deposited TiO2 interlayer (between exfoliated MoS2 and electrode) is reported in this work, for the first time, to enhance the performance of MoS2 photodetectors. The TiO2 interlayer is inserted through 20 atomic layer deposition cycles before depositing the electrode metal on MoS2/SiO2 substrate, leading to significantly enhanced photoresponsivity and response speed. These results pave the way for practical applications and provide a novel direction for optimizing the interlayer material.

  18. Low-frequency 1/f noise in MoS2 transistors: Relative contributions of the channel and contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria, J.; Jiang, C.; Samnakay, R.; Rumyantsev, S. L.; Goli, P.; Balandin, A. A.; Shur, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the results of the low-frequency (1/f, where f is frequency) noise measurements in MoS 2 field-effect transistors revealing the relative contributions of the MoS 2 channel and Ti/Au contacts to the overall noise level. The investigation of the 1/f noise was performed for both as fabricated and aged transistors. It was established that the McWhorter model of the carrier number fluctuations describes well the 1/f noise in MoS 2 transistors, in contrast to what is observed in graphene devices. The trap densities extracted from the 1/f noise data for MoS 2 transistors, are 2 × 10 19  eV −1 cm −3 and 2.5 × 10 20  eV −1 cm −3 for the as fabricated and aged devices, respectively. It was found that the increase in the noise level of the aged MoS 2 transistors is due to the channel rather than the contact degradation. The obtained results are important for the proposed electronic applications of MoS 2 and other van der Waals materials

  19. Low-frequency 1/f noise in MoS2 transistors: Relative contributions of the channel and contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, J.; Samnakay, R.; Rumyantsev, S. L.; Jiang, C.; Goli, P.; Shur, M. S.; Balandin, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    We report on the results of the low-frequency (1/f, where f is frequency) noise measurements in MoS2 field-effect transistors revealing the relative contributions of the MoS2 channel and Ti/Au contacts to the overall noise level. The investigation of the 1/f noise was performed for both as fabricated and aged transistors. It was established that the McWhorter model of the carrier number fluctuations describes well the 1/f noise in MoS2 transistors, in contrast to what is observed in graphene devices. The trap densities extracted from the 1/f noise data for MoS2 transistors, are 2 × 1019 eV-1cm-3 and 2.5 × 1020 eV-1cm-3 for the as fabricated and aged devices, respectively. It was found that the increase in the noise level of the aged MoS2 transistors is due to the channel rather than the contact degradation. The obtained results are important for the proposed electronic applications of MoS2 and other van der Waals materials.

  20. Role of oxygen adsorption in modification of optical and surface electronic properties of MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Jyoti; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mohanty, Tanuja

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the effect of surface oxidation of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the work function and bandgap of MoS2 has been investigated for tuning its optical and electronic properties. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the existence of varying morphologies of few layers of MoS2 as well as quantum dots due to the different absorbing effects of two mixed solvents on MoS2. The X-ray diffraction, electron paramagnetic resonance, and Raman studies indicate the presence of physical as well as chemical adsorption of oxygen atoms in MoS2. The photoluminescence spectra show the tuning of bandgap arising from the passivation of trapping centers leading to radiative recombination of excitons. The value of work function obtained from scanning Kelvin probe microscopy of MoS2 in mixed solvents of H2O2 and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone increases with an increase in the concentration of H2O2. A linear relationship could be established between H2O2 content in mixed solvent and measured values of work function. This work gives the alternative route towards the commercial use of defect engineered transition metal dichalcogenide materials in diverse fields.