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Sample records for sub assembly osa

  1. Preparation of the magnet sub-assemblies

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: On a rotation bench, preparation of the lower half-yoke with the bus bars and the pre-curved shell. The components are put on a dummy half-yoke in view of being rotated upside down. Photo 02: On a rotation bench, preparation of the lower half-yoke with the bus bars and the pre-curved shell. The components are put on a dummy half-yoke in view of being rotated upside down. Photo 03: The half-yoke assembly is made of short packs that are assembled together and locked with 15-m long tie-rods on a dedicated bench. Photo 04: The collared-coils assembly is equipped with magnetic inserts and special shims on a rotation bench in view of its installation in the yoke, operation that is called "yoking". At that stage of the assembly, the collared-coils assembly is equipped with the end plates and the electrical connections between the poles and between dipole I and dipoe II are made.

  2. Conceptual design of ASTRID fuel sub-assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.beck@cea.fr [CEA Cadarache, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Blanc, Victor; Escleine, Jean-Michel [CEA Cadarache, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Haubensack, David [CEA Cadarache, DEN, DER, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pelletier, Michel; Phelip, Mayeul [CEA Cadarache, DEN, DEC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Perrin, Benoît [AREVA-NP, 10 rue J. Récamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Venard, Christophe [CEA Cadarache, DEN, DER, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The fuel sub-assembly design for the ASTRID CFV core is described. • Innovative design choices have been made to comply with the GEN IV objectives. • The heterogeneous and the large fuel pins contribute to a low sodium void worth. • The upper neutron shielding is removable from the S/A head before washing. - Abstract: The French 600 MWe Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID) project has reached the end of its Conceptual Design phase. The core design studies are being conducted by the CEA with support from AREVA and EDF. Innovative design choices for the core have been made to comply with the GEN IV reactor objectives, marking a break with the former Phénix and SuperPhénix Sodium Fast Reactors. The main objective to improve safety compared with current GEN II or III reactors led to a core design that demonstrates intrinsically safe behaviour. A negative sodium void worth is achieved thanks to a new fuel sub-assembly design including (U,Pu)O{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} axially heterogeneous fuel pins, a large cladding/small spacer wire bundle, a sodium plenum above the fuel pins, and upper neutron shielding with both enriched and natural boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) which also maintain a low secondary sodium activity level. As these Na-bonded B{sub 4}C pins can lead to the retention of unacceptable amounts of sodium, the whole upper neutron shielding has been made removable on-line through the sub-assembly head just before the washing operations. Finite elements calculations have been performed to increase the stiffness of the stamped spacer pads in order to analyse its effect on the core mechanical behaviour during hypothetical radial core flowering and compaction events. More generally, all design choices for ASTRID have been made with the permanent objective of minimising the sub-assembly height to decrease the overall costs of the reactor and the fuel cycle. This paper describes the fuel sub-assembly design for

  3. ISH...? ISH! / Eve Osa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Osa, Eve

    1999-01-01

    23.-27. märtsini 1999. a. Frankfurdis Maini ääres toimunud 20. ehitustehnoloogia messist ISH, seal eksponeeritud vannitoa ja tualettruumi sisustusest. Osa võttis 2243 firmat 42 riigist. 22 illustratsiooni

  4. Intermittent Hypoxemia and OSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, F. Javier; Somers, Virend K.

    2015-01-01

    OSA is a common chronic disorder that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality including cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive disease and increased cancer-related deaths. OSA is characterized by recurrent episodes of apneas and hypopneas associated with repetitive episodes of intermittent hypoxemia, intrathoracic pressure changes, and arousals. Intermittent hypoxemia (IH) is now being recognized as a potential major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of OSA-related comorbidities. OSA-related high-frequency IH is characterized by cycles of hypoxemia with reoxygenation that is distinctly different than sustained low-frequency hypoxia and contributes to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Data from both animal and human studies support mechanistic links between IH and its adverse impact at the tissue level. IH promotes oxidative stress by increased production of reactive oxygen species and angiogenesis, increased sympathetic activation with BP elevation, and systemic and vascular inflammation with endothelial dysfunction that contributes to diverse multiorgan chronic morbidity and mortality affecting cardiovascular disease, metabolic dysfunction, cognitive decline, and progression of cancer. Data from observational studies in large population groups also support the role for hypoxia in the pathogenesis of OSA comorbidity. Treatment with CPAP to reverse OSA-related symptoms and comorbidities has been shown to provide variable benefit in some but not all patient groups. Early treatment with CPAP makes intuitive sense to promote maximal functional recovery and minimize residual injury. More studies are needed to determine the interacting effects of IH and obesity, differential effects of both short-term and long-term hypoxemia, and the effect of CPAP treatment. PMID:25560865

  5. Directed assembly of conducting polymers on sub-micron templates by electrical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jia; Wei, Ming [National Science Foundation (NSF) Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Busnaina, Ahmed [National Science Foundation (NSF) Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Barry, Carol [National Science Foundation (NSF) Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Mead, Joey, E-mail: Joey_Mead@uml.edu [National Science Foundation (NSF) Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-Rate Nanomanufacturing, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscale patterns with dimensions of assembled PANi down to 100 nm were fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic assembly to deposit PANi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic assembly of PANi finished in less than 1 min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of process parameters on assembly of PANi onto nanoscale pattern was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assembled PANi can be transferred to other flexible substrates. - Abstract: Patterning of conducting polymer into sub-micron patterns over large areas at high rate and low cost is significant for commercial manufacturing of novel devices. Electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic assembly provide an easily scaled approach with high fabrication rates. In this work, electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic assembly were used to assemble polyaniline (PANi) into multiscale sub-micron size patterns in less than 1 min. The process was controlled by assembly time, amplitude, and frequency of the electric field. Dielectrophoretic assembly is preferable for manufacturing as it reduces damage to the templates used to control the assembly. Using this method, sub-micron patterns with dimensions of the assembled PANi down to 100 nm were fabricated over large areas in short times. The assembled PANi was further transferred to other flexible polymer substrates by a thermoforming process, providing a fast, easily controlled and promising approach for fabrication of nanoscale devices.

  6. Florística e estrutura da vegetação arbustivo-arbórea do sub-bosque de um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden em Viçosa, MG, Brasil Floristic and structure of tree-shrub vegetation in understory of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden stands, in Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Bezerra de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a composição florística e a estrutura da vegetação arbustivo-arbórea no sub-bosque de povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis na Reserva Florestal da Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa, MG. Foram demarcadas 40 parcelas contíguas de 5 x 5 m, dispostas em transectos de 5 x 50 m, nas quais foram medidos, identificados e classificados quanto às síndromes de dispersão de sementes e às categorias sucessionais. Foram amostrados 884 indivíduos pertencentes a 50 espécies e 22 famílias. As espécies que se destacaram em valor de importância foram Psychotria sessilis, Siparuna guianensis e Erythroxylum pelleterianum, principalmente com relação à elevada densidade. Predominaram em densidade espécies secundárias tardias com síndromes de dispersão zoocórica. A riqueza florística encontrada pode ser considerada alta, por se tratar de sub-bosque de Eucalyptus grandis, e reflete o potencial da utilização dessa espécie como catalisadora de vegetação arbustivo-arbórea nativa em áreas degradadas.The objective of the present study was to analyze the floristic composition and structure of tree-shrub vegetation in understory of Eucalyptus grandis W. former Hill Maiden, Paraíso Forest Reserve, Viçosa, MG. Forty adjacent 5 x 5 m plots were demarcated and arranged in 5 x 50 m transects, in which individuals were measured, identified and classified in relation to seed dispersal syndromes and successional categories. Eight hundred and eighty four individuals belonging to 50 species and 22 families were recorded. The species with the highest Importance Value were Psychotria sessilis, Siparuna guianensis and Erythroxylum pelleterianum, particularly with regard to high density. Late secondary species with zoochorous dispersal syndromes prevailed in density. The founded floristic richness can be considered high for a Eucalyptus grandis understory and reflects the potential for using the species as catalyst for native

  7. OSA and coronary plaque characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Adeline; Hau, William; Ho, Hee-Hwa; Ghaem Maralani, Haleh; Loo, Germaine; Khoo, See-Meng; Tai, Bee-Choo; Richards, A Mark; Ong, Paul; Lee, Chi-Hang

    2014-02-01

    Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) is an intravascular imaging technique that enables the characterization of coronary plaques. We sought to determine the association between OSA and coronary plaque characteristics in patients presenting with coronary artery disease. We prospectively recruited patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease for a VH-IVUS examination and home-based sleep study. The total atheroma volume of the entire target coronary artery and the incidence of thin cap fibroatheroma of patients with no to mild and moderate to severe OSA were compared. One hundred eighteen patients were recruited from two university-affiliated centers. Among the 93 patients who completed the study, 32 (34.4%) had newly diagnosed moderate to severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index > 15). Compared with patients with no to mild OSA, those with moderate to severe OSA had a larger total atheroma volume (461.3 ± 250.4 mm³ vs 299.2 ± 135.6 mm³, P OSA and no to mild OSA regarding the prevalence of thin cap fibroatheroma in the culprit lesion (53.1% vs 54.2%, P = .919). In patients presenting with coronary artery disease, moderate to severe OSA was independently associated with a larger total atheroma volume in the target coronary artery. Further studies on the effects of CPAP on total atheroma volume are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01306526; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  8. Relationship Between OSA and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Gerard; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Barbé, Ferran

    2015-09-01

    There is a bidirectional association between OSA and systemic hypertension. The strengths of this relationship appear to be modulated by factors such as age, sex, and somnolence. The 24-h BP circadian pattern also appears to be influenced by OSA. Patients with this syndrome exhibit a high prevalence of nondipping or riser circadian patterns, which are related to clinical and subclinical organ damage in the heart and brain. However, the influence of OSA on nocturnal hypertension development has not yet been clarified. A special area of interest is the recognized relationship between OSA and resistant hypertension. The majority of patients with resistant hypertension suffer OSA. CPAP treatment significantly reduces BP in such patients and could play a clinical role in the management of BP in these patients. Several meta-analyses have demonstrated a concordant mild effect of CPAP on systemic hypertension. This effect is related to CPAP compliance, somnolence status, and baseline BP. The effects of oral appliances on BP in patients with OSA must be evaluated in randomized controlled trials. In the absence of additional data reported by clinical studies on other antihypertensive drug treatments, diuretics, particularly antialdosteronic diuretic agents, should be considered the first-line antihypertensive drug treatment in patients with OSA. By reducing parapharyngeal edema and secondary upper airway obstruction, these drugs appear to improve OSA severity and also to reduce BP.

  9. Self-assembled NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/carbon nanotubes sponge for enhanced glucose biosensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingchun; Zhao, Minggang, E-mail: zhaomg@ouc.edu.cn; Chen, Jing; Fan, Sisi; Liang, Jingjing; Ding, Longjiang; Chen, Shougang, E-mail: sgchen@ouc.edu.cn

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Self-assembled NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CNTs sponge was prepared by ice-templating method. • The mechanism of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} modified CNTs relied on π-π interactions and static cling. • The porous structure made for GO{sub x} load, electrons transport and reactants diffusion. • Double catalysis and enhanced glucose sensing were achieved with elements Ni and Fe. - Abstract: In this work, self-assembled NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) sponge was prepared by ice-templating method. The device synergized the advantageous features of both the 3D porous nanostructure and the catalytic properties of CNTs with GOx and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The porous network construction of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CNTs sheets offered enlarged specific surface for GOx immobilization and opened channels for facilitating the electrons transport and reactants diffusion. With the help of the abnormal-valence elements Ni and Fe, double catalysis has happened and the enhanced glucose biosensing performance has been achieved. The fabricated glucose biosensor exhibited two large linear ranges (0–3.0 and 3.2–12.4 mM) and distinct sensitivities (84.1 and 24.6 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}).

  10. Self-assembled Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}/TiO{sub 2} nanofiber heterojunction film with enhanced photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hua [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhang, Tianxi [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Pan, Chao; Pu, Chenchen; Hu, Yang [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Hu, Xiaoyun [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Liu, Enzhou, E-mail: liuenzhou@nwu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Fan, Jun, E-mail: fanjun@nwu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-assembled Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}/TiO{sub 2} nanofiber film was synthesized. • TiO{sub 2} nanofiber film exhibits excellent visible light scattering property. • The scattering light from TiO{sub 2} overlaps with the absorption light of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. • Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction photocatalysts show higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanofiber film (TiO{sub 2} NFF) was successfully fabricated by an ethylene glycol-assisted hydrothermal method, and then self-assembled flake-like Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} was grown on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanofiber under alcohol thermal condition. The investigations indicate that the nanofiber structure of TiO{sub 2} films exhibits excellent visible light scattering property, the scattering light overlaps with the absorption band of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}, which can enhance the utility of incident light. The prepared Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}/TiO{sub 2} composites show obviously enhanced photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB) degradation compared with pure TiO{sub 2} nanofiber under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). The enhanced photocatalytic activity is primarily attributed to the synergistic effect of visible light absorption and effective electron-hole separation at the interfaces of the two semiconductors, which is confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) and electrochemical tests.

  11. Self-Assembly of Bi<sub>2sub>Te>3sub>-Nanoplate/Graphene-Nanosheet Hybrid by One-Pot Route and Its Improved Li-Storage Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbing Zhao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A sandwich structured Bi<sub>2sub>Te>3sub>-nanoplates/graphene-nanosheet (Bi<sub>2sub>Te>3sub>/G hybrid has been synthesized by a facile in situ solvothermal route and has been investigated as a potential anode material for Li-ion batteries. Bi<sub>2sub>Te>3sub> grows during the solvothermal process with the simultaneous reduction of graphite oxide into graphene. The in situ formation process of the hybrid has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectra. The Li-storage mechanism and performance of Bi<sub>2sub>Te>3sub>/G and bare Bi<sub>2sub>Te>3 sub>have been studied by galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry. The Bi<sub>2sub>Te>3sub>/G sandwich exhibits an obviously improved cycling stability compared to bare Bi<sub>2sub>Te>3sub>. The enhancement in electrochemical performance can be attributed to the combined conducting, confining and dispersing effects of graphene for Bi<sub>2sub>Te>3sub> nanoplates and to the self-assembled sandwich structure.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and formaldehyde gas sensitivity of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3} nanoparticles assembled nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Pengjun [School of Electronic Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); School of Educational Technology, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Wang Jing, E-mail: wangjing@dlut.edu.cn [School of Electronic Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Du Haiying [School of Electronic Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Department of Electromechanical Engineering and Information, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Qi Jinqing [School of Electronic Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High aspect ratio La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3} nanoparticles assembled nanowires were synthesized by a CTAB assisted hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formaldehyde with low concentration (0.1-100 ppm) was used for gas sensing study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The growth mechanism of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3} nanowires was reported. - Abstract: La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3} nanoparticles assembled nanowires were synthesized by a hydrothermal method assisted with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The hydrothermal temperature was 180 Degree-Sign C and the annealed temperature was 700 Degree-Sign C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the morphology, composition and structural properties of the materials. The results showed that the La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3} nanoparticles assembled nanowires had a high aspect ratio (the largest aspect ratio >100); the size of the nanoparticles was about 20 nm and the diameter of the nanowires was about 100-150 nm. The growth mechanism of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3} nanowires was discussed. Gas sensors were fabricated by using La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3} nanowires. Formaldehyde gas sensing properties were carried out in the concentration range of 0.1-100 ppm at the optimum operating temperature of 280 Degree-Sign C. The response and recovery times to 20 ppm formaldehyde of the sensor were 110 s and 50 s, respectively. The gas sensing mechanism of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3} nanowires was investigated.

  13. Irradiation-Free, Columnar Defects Comprised of Self-Assembled Nanodots and Nanorods Resulting in Strongly Enhanced Flux-Pinning in YBa<sub>2sub>Cu>3sub>0<sub>7-δsub> Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Kang, Sukill [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Martin, Patrick M [ORNL; Gapud, Albert Agcaoili [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Ijaduola, Anota O [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL

    2005-11-01

    The development of biaxially textured, second-generation, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires is expected to enable most large-scale applications of HTS materials, in particular electric-power applications. For many potential applications, high critical currents in applied magnetic fields are required. It is well known that columnar defects generated by irradiating high-temperature superconducting materials with heavy ions significantly enhance the in-field critical current density. Hence, for over a decade scientists world-wide have sought means to produce such columnar defects in HTS materials without the expense and complexity of ionizing radiation. Using a simple and practically scalable technique, we have succeeded in producing long, nearly continuous vortex pins along the c-axis in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO), in the form of self-assembled stacks of BaZrO{sub 3} (BZO) nanodots and nanorods. The nanodots and nanorods have a diameter of {approx}2-3 nm and an areal density ('matching field') of 8-10 T for 2 vol.% incorporation of BaZrO{sub 3}. In addition, four misfit dislocations around each nanodot or nanorod are aligned and act as extended columnar defects. YBCO films with such defects exhibit significantly enhanced pinning with less sensitivity to magnetic fields H. In particular, at intermediate field values, the current density, J{sub c}, varies as J{sub c} {approx}H{sup -{alpha}}, with {alpha} {approx} 0.3 rather than the usual values 0.5-0.65. Similar results were also obtained for CaZrO{sub 3} (CZO) and YSZ incorporation in the form of nanodots and nanorods within YBCO, indicating the broad applicability of the developed process. The process could also be used to incorporate self-assembled nanodots and nanorods within matrices of other materials for different applications, such as magnetic materials.

  14. Facile fabrication of flower like self-assembled mesoporous hierarchical microarchitectures of In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}: In(OH){sub 3} micro flowers with electron beam sensitive thin petals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arul Prakasam, Balasubramaniam, E-mail: arul7777@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130, Mikkeli (Finland); Lahtinen, Manu; Peuronen, Anssi [Department of Chemistry, Laboratories of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Muruganandham, Manickavachagam [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 19122 (United States); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130, Mikkeli (Finland)

    2016-12-01

    A template and capping-reagent free facile fabrication method for mesoporous hierarchical microarchitectures of flower-like In(OH){sub 3} particles under benign hydrothermal conditions is reported. Calcination of In(OH){sub 3} to In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the retention of morphology is also described. Both In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures were analyzed with SEM, EDX, TEM and powder X-ray diffraction. The crystal sizes for In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were calculated using the Scherrer equation. In In(OH){sub 3} the thin flakes at the periphery of micro flowers were electron beam sensitive. The mechanism of self-assembly process was analyzed as well. - Highlights: • Hydrothermal fabrication In(OH){sub 3} self-assembled porous hierarchical architectures. • Induced dehydration in beam sensitive In(OH){sub 3} micro flowers. • Calcination of In(OH){sub 3} to In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the retention of flower like morphology. • Phase pure synthesis of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with the average crystal size of ∼37 nm.

  15. Surfactantless synthesis and textural properties of self-assembled mesoporous SnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Celso [Departamento de QuImica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico); Ojeda, MarIa Luisa [Instituto de QuImica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Campero, Antonio [Departamento de QuImica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico); Esparza, Juan Marcos [Departamento de QuImica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico); Rojas, Fernando [Departamento de QuImica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2006-07-28

    Ordered surfactantless self-assembled, mesoporous SnO{sub 2} adsorbents, consisting of tubular voids of nanometric sizes, are prepared by the sol-gel processing of tin (IV) tetra-tert-amyloxide, Sn(OAm{sup t}){sub 4}, whose molecules have been previously chelated with acetylacetone in the absence of water, to modulate their reactivity and to promote an incipient self-assembling of -O-Sn-O oligomeric species; ultimately, the necessary amount of water to induce the hydrolysis-condensation reactions is added to this aged sol, then producing tubular pore templates within the SnO{sub 2} xerogel network. A collection of mesoporous SnO{sub 2} xerogels of assorted structural properties has been obtained after calcination in air of precursory gels proceeding from an aged mixture of Sn(OAm{sup t}){sub 4} and acetylacetone at temperatures in the range 200-1000 deg. C. N{sub 2} sorption isotherms measured on these SnO{sub 2} solids evidence mesoporous structures of diverse textural characteristics (i.e. pore widths of 3-50 nm and surface areas of 10-140 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) in which voids virtually behave as if they are independent cylindrical pores during capillary condensation and evaporation.

  16. Direct patterning of a cyclotriveratrylene derivative for directed self-assembly of C{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osner, Zachary R; Holz, Richard C; Becker, Daniel P [Department of Chemistry, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL 60626 (United States); Nyamjav, Dorjderem, E-mail: dbecke3@luc.edu [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Statistics, University of Sciences, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2011-07-08

    A novel apex-modified cyclotriveratrylene (CTV) derivative with an attached thiolane-containing lipoic acid linker was directly patterned onto gold substrates via dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The addition of a dithiolane-containing linker to the apex of CTV provides a molecule that can adhere to a gold surface with its bowl-shaped cavity directed away from the surface, thereby providing a surface-bound CTV host that can be used for the directed assembly of guest molecules. Subsequent exposure of these CTV microarrays to C{sub 60} in toluene resulted in the directed assembly of predesigned, spatially controlled, high-density microarrays of C{sub 60}. The molecular recognition capabilities of this CTV template toward C{sub 60} provides proof-of-concept that supramolecular CTV scaffolds can be directly patterned onto surfaces providing a foundation for the development of organic electronic and optoelectronic materials.

  17. Uniform Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers hierarchical structures assembled with porous nanoplates as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoliang [Institute of Electrostatic & Electromagnetic Protection, Mechanical Engineering College, Shijiazhuang 050003 (China); Liu, Yanguo [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Arandiyan, Hamidreza [Particles and Catalysis Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Yang, Hongping; Bai, Lu; Mujtaba, Jawayria [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Qingguo; Liu, Shanghe [Institute of Electrostatic & Electromagnetic Protection, Mechanical Engineering College, Shijiazhuang 050003 (China); Sun, Hongyu, E-mail: hyltsun@gmail.com [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Uniform Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers hierarchical structures were successfully prepared. • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers are assembled with porous nanoplates. • Hollow Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres exhibit better lithium storage properties than Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres. • The good lithium storage properties are attributed to the special structural nature. - Abstract: Uniform Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers assembled with porous nanoplates were successfully synthesized by a solvothermal method and subsequent annealing process. The structural and compositional analysis of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Bruauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area was calculated by the nitrogen isotherm curve and pore size distribution of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers was determined by the Barret–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) method. When evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microflowers electrodes delivered superior capacity, better cycling stability and rate capability than that of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres electrodes. The improved electrochemical performance was attributed to the microscale flowerlike architecture and the porous sheet structural nature.

  18. Desain Sistem Pendeteksi untuk Citra Base Sub-assembly dengan Algoritma Backpropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasdianto Kasdianto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Object identification technique using machine vision has been implemented in industrial of electronic manufacturers for years. This technique is commonly used for reject detection (for disqualified product based on existing standard or defect detection. This research aims to build a reject detector of sub-assembly condition which is differed by two conditions that are missing screw and wrong position screw using neural network backpropagation. The image taken using camera will be converted into grayscale before it is processed in backpropagation methods to generate a weight value. The experiment result shows that the network architecture with two layers has the most excellent accuracy level. Using learning rate of 0.5, target error 0.015%, and the number of node 1 of 100 and node 2 of 50, the successive rate for sub-assembly detection in right condition reached 99.02% while no error occurs in detecting the wrong condition of Sub-assembly (missing screw and wrong position screw.

  19. Electrostatic interactions for directed assembly of high performance nanostructured energetic materials of Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tianfu; Ma, Zhuang; Li, Guoping; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Benbo; Luo, Yunjun, E-mail: yjluo@bit.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Electrostatic self-assembly in organic solvent without intensively oxidative or corrosive environments, was adopted to prepare Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials as an energy generating material. The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles. This spontaneous assembly method without any surfactant chemistry or other chemical and biological moieties decreased the aggregation of the same nanoparticles largely, moreover, the poor interfacial contact between the Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles was improved significantly, which was the key characteristic of high performance nanostructured energetic materials. In addition, the assembly process was confirmed as Diffusion-Limited Aggregation. The assembled Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MWCNT nanostructured energetic materials showed excellent performance with heat release of 2400 J/g, peak pressure of 0.42 MPa and pressurization rate of 105.71 MPa/s, superior to that in the control group Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructured energetic materials prepared by sonication with heat release of 1326 J/g, peak pressure of 0.19 MPa and pressurization rate of 33.33 MPa/s. Therefore, the approach, which is facile, opens a promising route to the high performance nanostructured energetic materials. - Graphical abstract: The negatively charged MWCNT was used as a glue-like agent to direct the self-assembly of the well dispersed positively charged Al (fuel) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (oxide) nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A facile spontaneous electrostatic assembly strategy without surfactant was adopted. • The fuels and oxidizers assembled into densely packed nanostructured composites. • The assembled nanostructured energetic materials have excellent performance. • This high performance energetic material can be scaled up for practical application. • This

  20. Update on Oral Appliance Therapy for OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, M

    2017-01-01

    The majority of the adult population is affected by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), according to recent epidemiological research. Oral appliance (OA) therapy is increasingly recommended, particularly for patients with milder OSA. This review updates the evidence in favor of OA therapy. A high level of evidence shows that OA is effective in the treatment of OSA, but continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is more efficient. Higher adherence with OAs may compensate for this difference. Daytime sleepiness is better treated with CPAP than with OA in patients with severe OSA. In patients with milder OSA, it is unclear whether sleepiness is significantly reduced. The long-term effectiveness of OAs is uncertain because of side-effects and the risk of OSA deterioration. OAs are effective, but their efficacy is more variable than that of CPAP. More research is needed about the mechanism of action of OA, subjective effects and long-term health outcomes.

  1. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} nanorod assembly grafted rGO (rGO@TiO{sub 2}-NR) hybridized flake-like photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Kangle, E-mail: lvkangle@mail.scuec.edu.cn [Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Taipo, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Fang, Shun; Si, Lingling; Xia, Yang [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ho, Wingkei, E-mail: keithho@ied.edu.hk [Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Taipo, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Li, Mei [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanorod assembly grafted with GO hybrid was successfully fabricated. • TiO{sub 2} nanorods can reduce the aggregation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on graphene. • This unique structure facilitates the injection of electron from TiO{sub 2} to graphene. - Abstract: To efficiently separate the photo-generated electron–hole pairs of TiO{sub 2} hybrid, anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorod assembly grafted reduced graphene oxides (rGO@TiO{sub 2}-NR) hybrid was successfully fabricated using potassium titanium oxalate (PTO) and graphene oxides (GO) as starting materials and diethylene glycol (DEG) as reductant. The effect of GO content on the structure and photocatalytic activity of rGO@TiO{sub 2}-NR composite was systematically studied. Results show that, in the absence of GO, only TiO{sub 2} microsphere assembly is obtained from TiO{sub 2} nanorods. The presence of GO results in the formation of a flake-like TiO{sub 2}-nanorod-assembled grafted rGO hybrid. The photocatalytic activity of rGO@TiO{sub 2}-NR composite increases first and then decreases with increase in the amount of GO from 0 wt.% to 10 wt.%. The hybridized S4 sample prepared with 4 wt.% GO possesses the highest photocatalytic activity with a constant rate of 0.039 min{sup −1} in the photocataytic degradation of Brilliant X-3B dye (X3B); this sample was enhanced more than three times when compared with pure TiO{sub 2} sample (0.012 min{sup −1}). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the rGO@TiO{sub 2}-NR hybrid was attributed to the strong interaction between TiO{sub 2} nanorods and rGO. The unique hierarchical structure of 1D nanorod assembly TiO{sub 2}–rGO flakes facilitates the injection and transfer of photo-generated electrons from TiO{sub 2} to graphene, thus retarding the recombination of electron–hole pairs and enhancing the photocatalytic activity. The enlarged BET surface areas, not only increasing the number of active sites, but also facilitating the adsorption of

  2. Colloid electrostatic self-assembly synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yankun; Liu, Yushan; Zhang, Jianmin, E-mail: zhjm@zzu.edu.cn [Zhengzhou University, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering (China)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, a simple and fast colloid electrostatic self-assembly method was adopted to prepare the SnO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite (SGNC). The crystal structure, chemical composition, and porous property of composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption experiments. The morphology analyses showed that the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles about 5 nm were distributed homogenously on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets surface. The electrochemical performance measurements exhibited that SGNC possessed the specific capacitance of 347.3 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte solution. Furthermore, this material also showed excellent cycling stability, and the specific capacitance still retained 90 % after 3000 cycles. These results indicate that the SGNC is a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  3. Thermal–hydraulic numerical simulation of fuel sub-assembly using a dedicated meshing tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadiou, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.cadiou@cea.fr; Saxena, Aakanksha

    2015-12-15

    As the CEA is involved in the pre-conceptual design phase of a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), the thermal–hydraulics modeling of sodium flow in the reactor core is a key scientific subject, not only due to the innovations proposed for the core design but also for the cost and the difficulties encountered to carry out experiments with sodium. Taking advantage of the progress made in numerical simulation and associated computational time, the sodium flow in a fuel pin sub-assembly is characterized in this work. The fuel pin sub-assembly is composed of 217 fuel pins, each wrapped by spacer wire, and surrounded by a hexagonal tube. In order to overcome the main limitation on the required number of mesh cells for modeling such a complex geometry, an original meshing tool, developed for this purpose, was necessary and is presented in this paper. This approach reveals to be of great help for modeling the sodium flow. Indeed, the pressure drop in the rod bundle is firstly evaluated. In addition, the local effects (at the scale of fuel pin) and global effects (at the scale of fuel pin bundle) for sodium velocity and temperature gradients for the alleged homogenization made by the spacer wire on the sodium flow are examined and clarified. Taking into account these results, the optimization of the fuel bundle geometry can be considered in order to homogenize the outlet temperature distribution in nominal condition. Lastly, the definition and the analysis of experiments on sub-assembly to be carried out in future experimental CEA platform, will also take advantage of this approach.

  4. OSA and Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis: Mechanistic Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Anna M; Van Wagoner, David R; Mehra, Reena

    2017-01-01

    A surge of data has reproducibly identified strong associations of OSA with cardiac arrhythmias. As an extension of epidemiologic and clinic-based findings, experimental investigations have made strides in advancing our understanding of the putative OSA and cardiac arrhythmogenesis mechanistic underpinnings. Although most studies have focused on the links between OSA and atrial fibrillation (AF), relationships with ventricular arrhythmias have also been characterized. Key findings implicate OSA-related autonomic nervous system fluctuations typified by enhanced parasympathetic activation during respiratory events and sympathetic surges subsequent to respiratory events, which contribute to augmented arrhythmic propensity. Other more immediate pathophysiologic influences of OSA-enhancing arrhythmogenesis include intermittent hypoxia, intrathoracic pressure swings leading to atrial stretch, and hypercapnia. Intermediate pathways by which OSA may trigger arrhythmia include increased systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, enhanced prothrombotic state, and vascular dysfunction. Long-term OSA-associated sequelae such as hypertension, atrial enlargement and fibrosis, ventricular hypertrophy, and coronary artery disease also predispose to cardiac arrhythmia. These factors can lead to a reduction in atrial effective refractory period, triggered and abnormal automaticity, and promote slowed and heterogeneous conduction; all of these mechanisms increase the persistence of reentrant arrhythmias and prolong the QT interval. Cardiac electrical and structural remodeling observed in OSA animal models can progress the arrhythmogenic substrate to further enhance arrhythmia generation. Future investigations clarifying the contribution of specific OSA-related mechanistic pathways to arrhythmia generation may allow targeted preventative therapies to mitigate OSA-induced arrhythmogenicity. Furthermore, interventional studies are needed to clarify the impact of OSA pathophysiology

  5. Formation of Ge self-assembled quantum dots on a Si {sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungjun [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1595 (United States); Shin, Chansun [Nuclear Materials Technology Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Joonyeon [Nano Device Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Chongryang, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: presto@kist.re.kr

    2005-12-15

    Ge self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) grown on a relaxed Si{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} buffer layer were observed using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of buried misfit dislocations on the formation and the distribution of Ge SAQDs was extensively investigated. The Burgers vector determination of each buried dislocation using the g.b = 0 invisibility criterion with plane-view TEM micrographs shows that Ge SAQDs grow at specific positions related to the Burgers vectors of buried dislocations. The measurement of the lateral distance between a SAQD and the corresponding misfit dislocation with plane-view and cross-sectional TEM images reveals that SAQDs form at the intersections of the top surface with the slip planes of misfit dislocations. The stress field on the top surface due to misfit dislocations is computed, and it is found that the strain energy of the misfit dislocations provides the preferential formation sites for Ge SAQDs nucleation.

  6. Security Analysis of Parlay/OSA Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Di Caprio, G.; Etalle, Sandro; Gnesi, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Moiso, C.

    This paper analyzes the security of the Trust and Security Management (TSM) protocol, an authentication protocol which is part of the Parlay/OSA Application Program Interfaces (APIs). Architectures based on Parlay/OSA APIs allow third party service providers to develop new services that can access,

  7. Impact of Weight Loss Management in OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simon A; Hamilton, Garun S; Naughton, Matthew T

    2017-07-01

    The interaction between obesity and OSA is complex. Although it is often assumed that obesity is the major cause of OSA, and that treatment of the OSA might mitigate further weight gain, new evidence is emerging that suggests this may not be the case. Obesity explains about 60% of the variance of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) definition of OSA, mainly in those OSA with CPAP is associated with a small but significant weight gain. This weight gain effect may result from abolition of the increased work of breathing associated with OSA. Unfortunately, weight loss by either medical or surgical techniques, which often cures type 2 diabetes, has a beneficial effect on sleep apnea in only a minority of patients. A short jaw length may be predictive of a better outcome. The slight fall in the overall AHI with weight loss, however, may be associated with a larger drop in the nonsupine AHI, thus converting some patients from nonpositional to positional (ie, supine only) OSA. Importantly, patients undergoing surgical weight loss need close monitoring to prevent complications. Finally, in patients with moderate to severe obesity-related OSA, the combination of weight loss with CPAP appears more beneficial than either treatment in isolation. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on supercritical water reactor fuel assemblies using the sub-channel code COBRA-EN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammirabile, Luca, E-mail: luca.ammirabile@ec.europa.e [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Energy, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    In the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) program, the supercritical water reactor (SCWR) concept is among the six innovative reactor types selected for development in the near future. In principle the higher efficiency and better economics make the SCWR concept competitive with the current reactor design. Due to different technical challenges that, however exist, fuel assembly design represents a crucial aspect for the success of this concept. In particular large density variations, low moderation, heat transfer enhancement and deterioration have a strong effect on the core design parameters. Only a few computational tools are currently able to perform sub-channel thermal-hydraulic analysis under supercritical water conditions. At JRC-IE the existing sub-channel code COBRA-EN has been improved to work above the critical pressure of water. The water properties package of the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 was integrated in COBRA-EN to compute the Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam. New heat transfer and pressure drop correlations more indicated for the supercritical region of water have also been incorporated in the code. As part of the efforts to appraise the new code capabilities, a code assessment was carried out on the hexagonal fuel assembly of a fast supercritical water reactor. COBRA-EN was also applied in combination with the neutronic code MCNP to investigate on the use of hydride fuel in the HPLWR supercritical water fuel assembly. The results showed that COBRA-EN was able to reproduce the results of similar studies with acceptable accuracy. Future activities will focus on the validation of the code against experimental data and the implementation of new features (counter-current moderator channel, wall, and wire-wrap models).

  9. Self-assembly of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/reduced graphene oxide hydrogel for high Li-storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weiwei, E-mail: zhouweiwei@hit.edu.cn; Ding, Chunyan; Jia, Xingtao; Tian, Ye; Guan, Qiaotian; Wen, Guangwu, E-mail: g.wen@hit.edu.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A new composite hydrogel consisted of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes and graphene has been prepared via hydrothermal method. • In this composite hydrogel, RGO sheets self-assemble into an interconnected macroporous framework and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes encapsulate into RGO layers. • The resulting composite hydrogel exhibits high specific capacity (850 mAh/g at 200 mA/g), good rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: A novel three-dimensional (3D) Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hydrogel (FGH) is prepared by a facile hydrothermal strategy. In this composite hydrogel, RGO sheets self-assemble into an interconnected macroporous framework and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes encapsulate into RGO layers. The FGH delivers high rate capacities of 850, 780, 550, and 400 mAh/g at current densities of 200, 400, 600, and 800 mA/g, respectively. The specific capacity can still maintain at ∼600 mAh/g after 70 cycles, which greatly outperforms that of pure Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes (∼60 mAh/g after 70 cycles). The improved electrochemical performance is ascribed to the unique macroscopic structure which is beneficial for enlarging the active surface area, shortening the electron/ion pathway, accommodating the volume change of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes, and preventing the aggregation of both Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and RGO sheets.

  10. Facile assembly and electrochemical properties of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@graphene aerogel composites as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Jing-Ke; Zhao, Qing-Qing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Ye, Wen-Hao [Do-Fluoride Chemicals Co., Ltd, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Zheng, Guang-Ping [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Zheng, Xiu-Cheng, E-mail: zhxch@zzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Guan, Xin-Xin [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Liu, Yu-Shan, E-mail: liuyushan@zzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Jian-Min [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle anchored graphene aerogel (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@GA) composites were assembled by a hydrothermal method using Fe(OH){sub 3} colloids and graphene oxides as starting materials. It was found that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were uniformly embedded into the 3D networks of graphene aerogels and the resulting composites contained meso- and macro-scale pores. Remarkably, the composites possessed much higher surface area (S{sub BET} = 212.5 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and larger pore volume (V{sub p} = 0.2073 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}) than those of pure Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (S{sub BET} = 19.8 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, V{sub p} = 0.1770 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}). The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@GA composites used as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries were demonstrated to exhibit high reversible capacity at large current densities and excellent cycling stabilities. - Highlights: • 3D α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@GA composites were prepared from Fe(OH){sub 3} colloids and GO via a hydrothermal process. • The composites exhibited high surface area, abundant meso- and macro-scale pores. • The electrode for LIBs exhibited excellent electrochemical properties.

  11. Porous NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-halloysite hybrid self-assembled from nanosheets for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Hui, E-mail: huichmails@163.com; Dong, Hong; Wang, Yucheng; Xu, Jiayu; Jia, Dianzeng

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-HL nanomaterial is achieved via two-step hydrothermal approach. • The unique structures are assembled self-assembly by nanosheets. • The obtained electrode exhibits high capacitance and excellent retention. • An asymmetric supercapacitor also displays high energy density and outstanding cycling stability. • The high-performance of the device is possibly due to the introduction of HL and formation of composed nanosheets. - Abstract: The porous nanostructures have drawn considerable attention because of their abundant pore volume and unique properties that provide outstanding performance in catalysis and energy storage applications. This study proposes the growth mechanism of porous NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4} composited with halloysite (HL) via a self-assembly method using halloysite as a template and component. Electrochemical tests showed that the NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-HL exhibited an ultrahigh specific capacitance (Csp) (589C g{sup −1} at 1A g{sup −1}) and good cycle stability (Csp retention of 86% after 1000 cycles). The desirable capacitive performance of the NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-HL can be attributed to the large specific surface area and short diffusion path for electrons and ions in the hierarchical porous structure. The superior electrochemical performances with the energy density of 35.48 W h kg{sup −1} at a power density of 199.9 W kg{sup −1} were achieved in an assembled aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device using NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-HL as a positive electrode and N-doped graphene (NG) as a negative electrode. Moreover, the NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-HL//NG asymmetric supercapacitor achieved outstanding cycle stability (also retained 83.2% after 1700 cycles). The high-performance of the ASC device will undoubtedly make the porous NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}-HL as potential electrode materials attractive in energy storage systems.

  12. Coupling of MCNPX with a sub-channel code for analysis of a HPLWR fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waata, C.; Schulenberg, T.; Cheng Xu [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR) project was launched in 2000 under the 5. Framework Program of the European Commission. The main objective of this project was to study the technical and economic feasibility of light water reactors operating at supercritical pressure conditions. This study aims to achieve high thermal efficiency of the nuclear power plant with operating conditions of pressure at 25 MPa, coolant temperature of about 510?C and an efficiency of up to 45%. The utilization of supercritical water as coolant and moderator in the HPLWR core introduces some challenges in the design of the HPLWR core due to the special behavior of the thermal-physical properties of water under super-critical pressure conditions. At supercritical pressure conditions, water does not exhibit a phase change. Therefore no boiling phenomenon occurs in the reactor core. However, there exist a strong variation in the water density in the core as the temperature changes across the pseudo-critical value. The strong variation in the water density affects strongly to the neutron-physical behavior in the core. Therefore, for an accurate and detailed design analysis of a HPLWR core, coupled analysis of neutron-physics with thermal-hydraulics is mandatory. Although extensive activities have been carried worldwide on the design of super-critical pressure light water reactors, accurate design analysis with neutron-physical/thermal-hydraulic coupling is still very limited. In the present study, the Monte-Carlo code, MCNPX, is coupled with the sub-channel analysis code, STAFAS (Sub-channel Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Fuel Assembly under Supercritical conditions), which was developed specifically for fuel assemblies of supercritical water cooled reactors and is also flexible for complex fuel assembly designs. In this paper, a short description about both codes is given. The coupling methodology and procedure is presented and assessed. A

  13. Cognitive MAC designs for OSA networks

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshani, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents recent advances in the cognitive MAC designs for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) networks. It covers the basic MAC functionalities and MAC enhancements of IEEE 802.11. Later chapters discuss the existing MAC protocols for OSA and classify them based on characteristic features. The authors provide new research in adaptive carrier sensing-based MAC designs tailored for OSA, which optimize spectrum utilization and ensure a peaceful coexistence of licensed and unlicensed systems. Analytically devised via optimization and game-theoretic approaches, these adaptive M

  14. A novel porous tubular Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}: Self-assembly and excellent electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xing; Yang, Zheng; Li, Cun; Xie, Anjian, E-mail: anjx@163.com; Shen, Yuhua, E-mail: s_yuhua@163.com

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • A novel porous tubular Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was prepared by a simple, eco-friendly and turning waste into treasure method using waste napkin paper as template and organizer. • The formation and self-assembly of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles occur simultaneously. • The unique Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} tubular structure with many pores could accelerate electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion transport, as well as accommodate the volume change during the charge and discharge progress. • Significant electrochemical performance of porous tubular Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} has been observed. - Abstract: Herein, the novel porous tubular Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was successfully prepared by a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly process using waste napkin paper as template and organizer. It is very noteworthy that the formation and self-assembly of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles occur simultaneously. The as-synthesized porous tubular structure with average outer diameter of 2.2 μm is orderly self-assembled by numerous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with diameter of 50–150 nm. The specific surface area of typical product is 24.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} by the BET method, and the majority diameter of pores is about 67 nm. In addition, the effects of different Co{sup 2+} concentration on the morphology and electrochemical performance of the products were explored. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the typical sample shows a high reversible specific capacity (1053 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}), remarkable cycling performance and a good rate capability of 727 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a high specific current density of 500 mA g{sup −1}. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique porous tubular structure. With these outstanding performances, the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} may be an outstanding candidate anode material for LIBs.

  15. Preparation of FeS{sub 2} nanotube arrays based on layer-by-layer assembly and their photoelectrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mudan; Xue, Dongpeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Qin, Haiying [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhang, Lei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ling, Guoping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Jiabin, E-mail: liujiabin@zju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fang, Youtong [College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Meng, Liang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotube arrays are prepared via layer-by-layer assembly. • Pyrite FeS{sub 2} nanotube arrays are obtained by sulfurizing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotube arrays. • Various electrochemical properties are characterized. • A comparison between FeS{sub 2} nanotube and nanoparticle films is conducted. • Nanotube arrays show enhanced corrosion resistance and photoresponse. - Abstract: Well-aligned one-dimensional iron pyrite FeS{sub 2} nanotube arrays have been fabricated via layer-by-layer assembly technique on ZnO nanorod arrays in combination with subsequent sulfurization. The as-prepared products were confirmed to be pure phase pyrite FeS{sub 2} with Fe/S ratio approaching 1/2. Typical nanotube structure was observed for the FeS{sub 2} with average outer diameter of 150 ± 20 nm and wall thickness of 50 ± 5 nm. Comparisons of photoelectrochemical properties between FeS{sub 2} nanotubes and FeS{sub 2} nanoparticles were conducted. Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicate that FeS{sub 2} nanotubes possess high corrosion resistance and electrochemical stability. The J–V curves show that the photocurrent at 1.0 V for FeS{sub 2} nanotubes is more than five times larger than that of FeS{sub 2} nanoparticles, indicating enhanced photoresponse and rapid charge transfer performances of 1-D nanotube structure. The enhanced photoelectrochemical properties mainly benefit from the unique architecture features of nanotube array structure.

  16. Depression and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hara Ruth

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For over two decades clinical studies have been conducted which suggest the existence of a relationship between depression and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA. Recently, Ohayon underscored the evidence for a link between these two disorders in the general population, showing that 800 out of 100,000 individuals had both, a breathing-related sleep disorder and a major depressive disorder, with up to 20% of the subjects presenting with one of these disorders also having the other. In some populations, depending on age, gender and other demographic and health characteristics, the prevalence of both disorders may be even higher: OSA may affect more than 50% of individuals over the age of 65, and significant depressive symptoms may be present in as many as 26% of a community-dwelling population of older adults. In clinical practice, the presence of depressive symptomatology is often considered in patients with OSA, and may be accounted for and followed-up when considering treatment approaches and response to treatment. On the other hand, sleep problems and specifically OSA are rarely assessed on a regular basis in patients with a depressive disorder. However, OSA might not only be associated with a depressive syndrome, but its presence may also be responsible for failure to respond to appropriate pharmacological treatment. Furthermore, an undiagnosed OSA might be exacerbated by adjunct treatments to antidepressant medications, such as benzodiazepines. Increased awareness of the relationship between depression and OSA might significantly improve diagnostic accuracy as well as treatment outcome for both disorders. In this review, we will summarize important findings in the current literature regarding the association between depression and OSA, and the possible mechanisms by which both disorders interact. Implications for clinical practice will be discussed.

  17. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  18. Type I-type II transition of self-assembled In{sub 0.55}Al{sub 0.45}As/Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G.H.; Chen, Y.; Fung, Z.L.; Ding, K.; Han, H.X. [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Semiconductors; Zhou, W.; Wang, Z.G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China). Lab. of Semiconductor for Materials Science

    2001-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of In{sub 0.55}Al{sub 0.45}As/Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As self-assembled quantum dots has been measured at 15 and 80 K under hydrostatic pressure. The lateral size of the dots ranges from 7 to 62 nm. The emissions from the dots with 26, 52 and 62 nm size have a blue shift under pressure, indicating that these quantum dots have the normal type-I structure with lowest conduction band at the {gamma}-valley. However, the PL peak of dots with 7 nm diameter moves to lower energy with increasing pressure. It is a typical character for the X-related transition. Then these small dots have a type-II structure with the X-valley as the lowest conduction level. An envelope-function calculation confirms that the {gamma}-like exciton transition energy will rise above the X-like transition energy in the In{sub 0.55}Al{sub 0.45}As/Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As structure if the dot size is small enough. (orig.)

  19. Growth and self-assembly of BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes for resistive switching memory cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Dewei, E-mail: D.Chu@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Lin, Xi; Younis, Adnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Li, Chang Ming [Chongqing Key Lab for Advanced Materials and Clean Energies of Techonologies Dean, Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing (China); Dang, Feng [Research Center for Materials Back Casting Technology (MBT Center), Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Li, Sean [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the self-assembled BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes based resistive switching memory capacitors are fabricated with hydrothermal and drop-coating approaches. The device exhibits excellent bipolar resistance switching characteristics with ON/OFF ratio of 58–70, better reliability and stability over various polycrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} nanostructures. It is believed that the inter cube junctions is responsible for such a switching behaviour and it can be described by the filament model. The effect of film thickness on switching ratio (ON/OFF) was also investigated in details. - Graphical abstract: This work describes a novel resistive switching memory cell based on self-assembled BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes. - Highlights: • BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes were prepared by one step facile hydrothermal method. • Self-assembled BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes thin films were obtained by drop-coating approach. • The BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes show excellent resistive switching properties for memory applications.

  20. In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/carbon nanofibers/Au ternary synergetic system: Hierarchical assembly and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Changlu, E-mail: clshao@nenu.edu.cn; Li, Xinghua, E-mail: lixh781@nenu.edu.cn; Lu, Na; Wang, Kexin; Miao, Fujun; Liu, Yichun

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: We describe a route to synthesize In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au ternary synergetic system with high efficiency visible-light photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Synthesis of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au ternary synergetic system. • Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • Easy photocatalyst separation and reuse. - Abstract: In this paper, carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were successfully synthesized by electrospinning technique. Next, Au nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on the electrospun CNFs through in situ reduction method. By using the obtained Au NPs modified CNFs (CNFs/Au) as hard template, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au composites were synthesized through hydrothermal technique. The results showed that the super long one-dimensional (1D) CNFs (about 306 nm in average diameter) were well connected to form a nanofibrous network; and, the Au NPs with 18 nm in average diameter and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanosheets with 5–10 nm in thickness were uniformly grown onto the surface of CNFs. Photocatalytic studies revealed that the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au composites exhibited highest visible-light photocatalytic activities for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with pure In{sub 2}S{sub 3} and In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity might arise from the high separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs based on the positive synergetic effect between In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, CNFs and Au components in this ternary photocatalytic system. Meanwhile, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au composites with hierarchical structure possess a strong adsorption ability towards organic dyes, which also contributed to the enhancement of photocatalytic activity. Moreover, the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CNFs/Au composites could be recycled easily by sedimentation due to their nanofibrous network structure.

  1. Correlation profiling of brain sub-cellular proteomes reveals co-assembly of synaptic proteins and subcellular distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandya, N.J. (Nikhil J.); Koopmans, F. (Frank); J.A. Slotman (Johan A.); Paliukhovich, I. (Iryna); A.B. Houtsmuller (Adriaan); A.B. Smit (August); Li, K.W. (Ka Wan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractProtein correlation profiling might assist in defining co-assembled proteins and subcellular distribution. Here, we quantified the proteomes of five biochemically isolated mouse brain cellular sub-fractions, with emphasis on synaptic compartments, from three brain regions, hippocampus,

  2. Can you die from obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS)?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, G

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest an independent association between Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) and cardiovascular death. The purpose of our study is to examine doctors\\' awareness of this association and to determine whether this correlates with recording of OSAS on death certificates. We contacted the Central Statistics Office (CSO) and obtained relevant mention of OSAS on death certificates. We surveyed doctors on their view of OSAS-related deaths, CSO data from 2008-2011 reveal two deaths with OSAS documented as a direct cause and 52 deaths with OSAS as a contributory cause. Seventy-five doctors\\' surveyed (41%) believe OSAS can be a direct cause of death and 177 (96%) believe OSAS can be an indirect cause of death. Only 22 (12%) had putdown OSAS as a cause of death. OSAS is seldom recorded on death certificates. This is at odds with epidemiological forecasts and contrary to an opinion poll from a selection of doctors.

  3. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhavna P; Ns, Kodandaram

    2015-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia.

  4. The key role of U{sub 28} in the aqueous self-assembly of uranyl peroxide nanocages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falaise, Clement; Nyman, May [Energy Frontier Research Center, Materials Science of Actinides, Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-10-04

    For 11 years now, the structural diversity and aesthetic beauty of uranyl-peroxide capsules have fascinated researchers from the diverse fields of mineralogy, polyoxometalate chemistry, and nuclear fuel technologies. There is still much to be learned about the mechanisms of the self-assembly process, and the role of solution parameters including pH, alkali template, temperature, time, and others. Here we have exploited the high solubility of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/LiOH aqueous system to address the effect of the hydroxide concentration. Important techniques of this study are single-crystal X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and Raman spectroscopy. Three key phases dominate the solution speciation as a function of time and the LiOH/UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} ratio: the uranyl-triperoxide monomer [UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup 4-}and the two capsules [(UO{sub 2})(O{sub 2})(OH)]{sub 24}{sup 24-}(U{sub 24}) and [(UO{sub 2})(O{sub 2}){sub 1.5}]{sub 28}{sup 28-}(U{sub 28}). When the LiOH/U ratio is around three, U{sub 28} forms rapidly and this cluster can be isolated in high yield and purity. This result was most surprising and challenges the hypothesis that alkali templating is the most important determinant in the cluster geometry. Moreover, analogous experiments with KOH, NH{sub 4}OH, and TEAOH (TEA=tetraethylammonium) also rapidly yield U{sub 28}, which suggests that U{sub 28} is the kinetically favored species. Complete mapping of the pH-time phase space reveals only a narrow window of the U{sub 28} dominance, which is why it was previously overlooked as an important kinetic species in this chemical system, as well as others with different counterions. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Optimization of sub-cells orientation for assembly of a high-quality transmission sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei-Jei; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Yu, Zong-Ru; Huang, Chien-Yao; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2015-10-01

    The transmission sphere (TS) provides a high-quality reference wavefront which is common path with a test wavefront to generate interference fringes in a Fizeau interferometer. The optical path difference (OPD) of the reference wavefront should be controlled within peak-to-valley (PV) 5 λ (λ=0.6328 um), because too large OPD makes interference fringes distorted. Therefore, the tolerance analysis of the reference wavefront is very critical. Because the surface irregularity of lens can change the phase of a wavefront, surface deformation after mounting highly impacts on the wavefront error. For large optics, such as φ 6-inch in this study, surface deformation dominates the quality of the reference wavefront. For minimizing surface deformation after mounting, semi-kinematic mounting technology is used in sub-cells design to avoid over-constraint forces and unpredictable deformation. Then, the deformation due to gravity force of each surface can be constrained around PV 0.3 λ with Zernike trefoil in vertical setup TS; however, the superposition of the distorted wavefront may deteriorate the optical performance. A method of optimizing orientation of each lens around optical axis is presented in this paper. Sub-cells are designed to be rotational around optical axis respectively. The wavefront error of the reference beam of the worst case is improved significantly after optimization. Consequently, the method can effectively reduce the difficulty of lenses fabrication and mounting, and then the specification of the surface irregularity can be lower for cost saving. Based on the optimization in our study, a good reference wavefront can be acquired without any tight tolerance or complicated assembly.

  6. OSA and Prognosis After Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema: The OSA-CARE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchôa, Carlos Henrique G; Pedrosa, Rodrigo P; Javaheri, Shahrokh; Geovanini, Glaucylara R; Carvalho, Martinha M B; Torquatro, Ana Claudia S; Leite, Ana Paula D L; Gonzaga, Carolina C; Bertolami, Adriana; Amodeo, Celso; Petisco, Ana Claudia G P; Barbosa, José Eduardo M; Macedo, Thiago A; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Oliveira, Múcio Tavares; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Drager, Luciano F

    2017-12-01

    Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) is a life-threatening condition. OSA may be a modifiable risk factor for ACPE recurrence. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of OSA on the incidence of cardiovascular events following ACPE recovery. Consecutive patients with confirmed ACPE from 3 centers underwent a sleep study following clinical stabilization. OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/h. The mean follow-up was 1 year, and the primary outcome was ACPE recurrence. A total of 104 patients were included in the final analysis; 61% of the patients had OSA. A higher rate of ACPE recurrence (25 vs 6 episodes; P = .01) and a higher incidence of myocardial infarction (15 vs 0 episodes; P = .0004) were observed in patients with OSA than in those without OSA. All 17 deaths occurred in the OSA group (P = .0001). In a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, OSA was independently associated with ACPE recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 3.3 [95% CI, 1.2-8.8]; P = .01), incidence of myocardial infarction (HR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1-9.5]; P = .02), cardiovascular death (HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 1.4-48.4]; P = .004), and total death (HR, 6.5 [95% CI, 1.2-64.0]; P = .005). When the analysis was limited only to patients with OSA, levels of AHI and hypoxemic burden and rates of sleep-onset ACPE were significantly higher in those who presented with ACPE recurrence or who died than in those who did not experience these events. OSA is independently associated with higher rates of ACPE recurrence and both fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanostructured columnar heterostructures of TiO{sub 2} and Cu{sub 2}O enabled by a thin-film self-assembly approach: Potential for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Özgür, E-mail: ozgurpolat7@gmail.com [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Aytug, Tolga, E-mail: aytugt@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Lupini, Andrew R.; Paranthaman, Parans M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Ertugrul, Mehmet [Atatürk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Bogorin, Daniela F.; Meyer, Harry M.; Wang, Wei; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Christen, David K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Material self-assembly in phase-separated oxides is exploited. ► Three-dimensionally nanostructured epitaxial films are grown using sputtering. ► Films are composed of well-ordered oriented nanopillars of n-type TiO{sub 2} and p-type Cu{sub 2}O. ► Observed interfaces at adjacent TiO{sub 2}–Cu{sub 2}O columns are nearly atomically distinct. ► Absorption profile of the composite film captures a wide range of the solar spectrum. -- Abstract: Significant efforts are being devoted to the development of multifunctional thin-film heterostructures and nanostructured material architectures for components with novel applications of superconductivity, multiferroicity, solar photocatalysis and energy conversion. In particular, nanostructured assemblies with well-defined geometrical shapes have emerged as possible high efficiency and economically viable alternatives to planar photovoltaic thin-film architectures. By exploiting phase-separated self-assembly, here we present advances in a vertically oriented two-component system that offers potential for future development of nanostructured thin film solar cells. Through a single-step deposition by magnetron sputtering, we demonstrate growth of an epitaxial, composite film matrix formed as self-assembled, well ordered, phase segregated, and oriented nanopillars of n-type TiO{sub 2} and p-type Cu{sub 2}O. The composite films were structurally characterized to atomic resolution by a variety of analytical tools, and evaluated for preliminary optical properties using absorption measurements. We find nearly atomically distinct TiO{sub 2}–Cu{sub 2}O interfaces (i.e., needed for possible active p–n junctions), and an absorption profile that captures a wide range of the solar spectrum extending from ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. This high-quality materials system could lead to photovoltaic devices that can be optimized for both incident light absorption and carrier

  8. Self-assembled synthesis of TiO{sub 2}/TiB{sub 2} nanowall and its photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Fei, E-mail: huangfei7804@163.com [Low Carbon Energy Institute, China University of Minging and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China); Yan, Aihua, E-mail: yanaihua111@yahoo.com.cn [Low Carbon Energy Institute, China University of Minging and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China); Fu, Zhengyi [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yin, Shibin [Low Carbon Energy Institute, China University of Minging and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China); Zhang, Fan [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Qiang, Yinghuai [School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The products are dominated by a kind of core/shell samples with nanowall structure when ethylenediamine (EDA) was added to the solution. The high-density nanosheets with about 10 nm in thickness stand on the cores. After annealing at 400 °C for 3 h, the nanosheets evolve to numerous nanoparticles. One possible explanation is that EDA takes part in the reaction and induces the growth of nanowall. Photocatalytic activity experiment indicates that nanowall samples have better decolorization rate than commercial P-25 TiO{sub 2}. Highlights: •We report a simple hydrothermal approach to prepare TiO{sub 2}/TiB{sub 2} nanowall. •TiO{sub 2}/TiB{sub 2} nanowall has better decolorization rate than commercial A-TiO{sub 2}. •UV–vis spectra show that absorption peak and absorption edge for TiO{sub 2}/TiB{sub 2} nanowall shift to a lower energy. •XPS and EDX indicate that the shift of absorption peak and absorption edge may result from N-doping in A-TiO{sub 2}. -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/TiB{sub 2} nanowall has been successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach in the hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) solution with ethylenediamine (EDA). The microstructure and morphology can be easily controlled by EDA. The formation mechanism has been discussed in detailed. Photocatalytic activity experiment indicates that nanowall has better decolorization rate than commercial P-25 TiO{sub 2}. UV–vis spectra show that both broadening absorption peak and the absorption edge for such system shift to a lower energy state, which result in higher photocatalytic activity compared to commercial P-25 TiO{sub 2} catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum indicate that the shift of absorption peak and absorption edge may result from N-doping in TiO{sub 2}/TiB{sub 2} nanowall system.

  9. Visible light photocatalysts (Fe, N):TiO{sub 2} from ammonothermally processed, solvothermal self-assembly derived Fe-TiO{sub 2} mesoporous microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Mingming; Xiong, Fengqiang; Ganeshraja, Ayyakannu Sundaram [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, Liaoning, 116023 (China); Feng, Xiaohua; Wang, Chuanxi [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China); Thomas, Tiju, E-mail: tijuthomas@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036, Tamil Nadu (India); Yang, Minghui, E-mail: myang@dicp.ac.cn [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, Liaoning, 116023 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Iron (III) and nitrogen co-doped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} microspheres (Fe-N-TiO{sub 2}) are prepared using a self-assembly based solvothermal process followed by an ammonothermal method. Among all samples, 1 mol.% of Fe dopants and 500 °C nitridation (for 2 h) gives the highest visible light photoactivity. Results imply that the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} dopant trap energy level introduced within the band gap in mildly Fe (∼1 at%) doped TiO{sub 2} and the mesoporous nature of the material, both aid in the observed catalytic performance. Subjecting Fe-TiO{sub 2} samples to ammonothermal process induces oxygen vancancies, and substitutional and interstitial N. This reduces optical band gap, and introduces local states. The lower band gap and local states together aid in the absorption of visible light and separation of charge carriers. Co-dopants are distributed uniformly in the best photocatalysts. The active species generated in the photocatalytic system is shown to be singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) using selective radical quenchers. - Highlights: • Iron (III) and nitrogen co-doped mesoporous TiO{sub 2} microspheres (Fe-N-TiO{sub 2}) are prepared. • Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} dopant trap energy level introduced within the band gap in Fe (∼1 at%) doped TiO{sub 2}. • Subjecting Fe-TiO{sub 2} samples to ammonothermal process induces oxygen vancancies, and causes substitutional and interstitial N. • Co-dopants are distributed uniformly in the best photocatalysts. • Active species generated is shown to be singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}).

  10. Metal-Folded Single-Chain Nanoparticle: Nanoclusters and Self-Assembled Reduction-Responsive Sub-5-nm Discrete Subdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Cui, Zhigang; Gao, Pan; Ding, Yi; Zhu, Xuechao; Lu, Xinhua; Cai, Yuanli

    2017-09-01

    Easy access to discrete nanoclusters in metal-folded single-chain nanoparticles (metal-SCNPs) and independent ultrafine sudomains in the assemblies via coordination-driven self-assembly of hydrophilic copolymer containing 9% imidazole groups is reported herein. 1 H NMR, dynamic light scattering, and NMR diffusion-ordered spectroscopy results demonstrate self-assembly into metal-SCNPs (>70% imidazole-units folded) by neutralization in the presence of Cu(II) in water to pH 4.6. Further neutralization induces self-assembly of metal-SCNPs (pH 4.6-5.0) and shrinkage (pH 5.0-5.6), with concurrent restraining residual imidazole motifs and hydrophilic segment, which organized into constant nanoparticles over pH 5.6-7.5. Atomic force microscopy results evidence discrete 1.2 nm nanoclusters and sub-5-nm subdomains in metal-SCNP and assembled nanoparticle. Reduction of metal center using sodium ascorbate induces structural rearrangement to one order lower than the precursor. Enzyme mimic catalysis required media-tunable discrete ultrafine interiors in metal-SCNPs and assemblies have hence been achieved. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Targeted delivery and pH-responsive release of stereoisomeric anti-cancer drugs using β-cyclodextrin assemblied Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Congli; Huang, Lizhen; Song, Shengmei; Saif, Bassam; Zhou, Yehong; Dong, Chuan; Shuang, Shaomin, E-mail: smshuang@sxu.edu.cn

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • β-Cyclodextrin assemblied magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (β-CD-MNPs) with good stability were successfully fabricated. • Stereoisomeric doxorubicin (DOX) and epirubicin (EPI) were used to explore the loading and release performance. • The loading properties of β-CD-MNPs were investigated using the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equilibrium models. • {sup 1}H NMR and the computer simulation were used to demonstrate the inclusion position between drug molecules and β-CD. - Abstract: The β-cyclodextrin assemblied magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (β-CD-MNPs) were successfully fabricated via a layer-by-layer method. Possessing an average size 14 nm, good stability and super-paramagnetic response (Ms 64 emu/g), the resultant nanocomposites could be served as a versatile biocompatible platform for selective loading, targeted delivery and pH-responsive release of stereoisomeric doxorubicin (DOX) and epirubicin (EPI). {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) and the computer simulation further give the evidence that partial anthracene ring of drug molecule is included by β-CD. In addition, non-toxic β-CD-MNPs have excellent biocompatibility on MCF-7 cells, and cellular uptake indicate that different amounts of DOX or EPI can be transported to targeting site and released from the internalized carriers. The results demonstrate that as-prepared β-CD-MNPs could be a very promising vehicle for DOX and EPI.

  12. Self-assembly of palladium nanoparticles on functional TiO{sub 2} nanotubes for a nonenzymatic glucose sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xianlan [School of Science, Honghe University, Mengzi, Yunnan 661100 (China); College of Chemistry, Qishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Fujian Key Lab of Medical Instrument & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Gang; Zhang, Guowei [School of Science, Honghe University, Mengzi, Yunnan 661100 (China); Hou, Keyu [College of Chemistry, Qishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Fujian Key Lab of Medical Instrument & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Pan, Haibo, E-mail: hbpan@fzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Qishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Fujian Key Lab of Medical Instrument & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Du, Min [Fujian Key Lab of Medical Instrument & Pharmaceutical Technology, Yishan Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride, PDDA, was used as a stabilizer and linker for functionalized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TiO{sub 2} NTs). Self-assembled process with palladium nanoparticles (NPs) was successfully synthesized and used for the oxidation of glucose on glassy carbon electrodes. Based on the voltammetric and amperometric results, Pd NPs efficiently catalyzed the oxidation of glucose at − 0.05 V in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl and showed excellent resistance toward interference poisoning from such interfering species as ascorbic acid, uric acid and urea. To further increase sensitivity, the Pd NPs-PDDA-TiO{sub 2} NTs/GCE was electrochemically treated with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH, the glucose oxidation current was magnified 2.5 times than that before pretreatments due to greatly enhancing the electron transport property of the sensor based on the increased defect sites and surface oxide species. In view of the physiological level of glucose, the wide linear concentration range of glucose (4 × 10{sup −7}–8 × 10{sup −4} M) with a detection limit of 8 × 10{sup −8} M (S/N = 3) was obviously good enough for clinical application. - Highlights: • PDDA was used as a stabilizer and linker for functionalized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. • Self-assembled process with palladium nanoparticles was synthesized. • After treated both H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH, the glucose response was magnified to 2.5 times. • The wide linear concentration range of glucose was obtained with a limit of 8 × 10{sup −8} M.

  13. online-osa festivalil / Tiia Johannson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johannson, Tiia, 1965-2002

    1998-01-01

    Prantsusmaa, Balti ja Põhjamaade video ja uue meedia festival "offline@online" Eesti Kunstiakadeemias. Ka eesti netikunstist, festivali korralduslikust küljest, tulevikuplaanidest. Erilist äramärkimist leidis sloveenia kunstniku Vuk Cosici töö "ascii history of moving images", online-presentatsioonide osas Lev Manovichi teoreetiline loeng "Uue meedia keel". Aadress festivali netikunsti vaatamiseks

  14. Sobrevivência e crescimento inicial de plântulas de Euterpe edulis Mart. transplantadas para clareiras e sub-bosque em uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, em Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Maciel Ribeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar a sobrevivência e crescimento inicial de plântulas de Euterpe edulis Mart. transplantadas para duas condições de luz: clareira e sub-bosque, além de discutir seu comportamento ecofisiológico. Foram transplantadas 90 plântulas com altura entre 5 e 25 cm em seis parcelas: três em sub-bosque e três em clareiras, no espaçamento 2 x 2 m em três linhas de plantio, com cinco plântulas cada. A porcentagem de sobrevivência (geral no período do estudo foi de 36,7%, enquanto nas clareiras foi de 53,3% e no sub-bosque, 20%. Uma regressão não linear mostrou relação positiva entre abertura de dossel e sobrevivência de plântulas de E. edulis. A maior taxa de sobrevivência das plântulas no ambiente de clareira em relação ao sub-bosque pode ser explicada pelo excesso de sombreamento no último, causada pela baixa porcentagem de abertura do dossel (4,78%. A abertura do dossel não influenciou significativamente no crescimento das plântulas.

  15. Self-assembling organic nanotubes with precisely defined, sub-nanometer pores: formation and mass transport characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bing; Shao, Zhifeng

    2013-12-17

    The transport of molecules and ions across nanometer-scaled pores, created by natural or artificial molecules, is a phenomenon of both fundamental and practical significance. Biological channels are the most remarkable examples of mass transport across membranes and demonstrate nearly exclusive selectivity and high efficiency with a diverse collection of molecules. These channels are critical for many basic biological functions, such as membrane potential, signal transduction, and osmotic homeostasis. If such highly specific and efficient mass transport or separation could be achieved with artificial nanostructures under controlled conditions, they could create revolutionary technologies in a variety of areas. For this reason, investigators from diverse disciplines have vigorously studied small nondeformable nanopores. The most exciting studies have focused on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which have exhibited fast mass transport and high ion selectivity despite their very simple structure. However, the limitations of CNTs and the dearth of other small (≤2 nm) nanopores have severely hampered the systematic investigation of nanopore-mediated mass transport, which will be essential for designing artificial nanopores with desired functions en masse. Researchers can overcome the difficulties associated with CNT and other artificial pores by stacking macrocyclic building blocks with persistent shapes to construct tunable, self-assembling organic pores. This effort started when we discovered a highly efficient, one-pot macrocyclization process to efficiently prepare several classes of macrocycles with rigid backbones containing nondeformable cavities. Such macrocycles, if stacked atop one another, should lead to nanotubular assemblies with defined inner pores determined by their constituent macrocycles. One class of macrocycles with aromatic oligoamide backbones had a very high propensity for directional assembly, forming nanotubular structures containing nanometer and sub

  16. pH-dependent Self-Assembling Behaviour of KA<sub>6sub> Surfactant Peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurevich, Leonid; Fojan, Peter

    -assembling machinery toolbox for nanotechnology. Recently designed new classes of short (less than 10 amino acids) synthetic amphiphilic peptides represent important model systems [1]. Here various factors affecting self-assembling behavior can be singulated and studied one by one. Furthermore, their structure can...... be easily tailored on-demand. On the other hand they are fairly simple and inexpensive to produce and may find applications in purification and crystallization of membrane proteins, drug delivery and encapsulation systems or as mild surfactants in the cosmetic industry....

  17. Modeling charge transport in C{sub 60}-based self-assembled monolayers for applications in field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitherer, S., E-mail: Susanne.Leitherer@physik.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: Michael.Thoss@physik.uni-erlangen.de; Thoss, M., E-mail: Susanne.Leitherer@physik.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: Michael.Thoss@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials, University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Staudtstr. 7/B2, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Jäger, C. M.; Clark, T. [Computer-Chemie-Centrum and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials, University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nägelsbachstr. 25, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Halik, M. [Organic Materials and Devices, Institute of Polymer Materials, Department of Materials Science, University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstr. 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-05-28

    We have investigated the conductance properties of C{sub 60}-containing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), which are used in organic field-effect transistors, employing a combination of molecular-dynamics simulations, semiempirical electronic structure calculations, and Landauer transport theory. The results reveal the close relation between the transport characteristics and the structural and electronic properties of the SAM. Furthermore, both local pathways of charge transport in the SAMs and the influence of structural fluctuations are analyzed.

  18. Four degree of freedom liquid dispenser for direct write capillary self-assembly with sub-nanoliter precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beroz, Justin; Bedewy, Mostafa; Reinker, Michael; Chhajer, Vipul; Awtar, Shorya; Hart, A. John

    2012-01-01

    Capillary forces provide a ubiquitous means of organizing micro- and nanoscale structures on substrates. In order to investigate the mechanism of capillary self-assembly and to fabricate complex ordered structures, precise control of the meniscus shape is needed. We present a precision instrument that enables deposition of liquid droplets spanning from 2 nl to 300 μl, in concert with mechanical manipulation of the liquid-substrate interface with four degrees of freedom. The substrate has sub-100 nm positioning resolution in three axes of translation, and its temperature is controlled using thermoelectric modules. The capillary tip can rotate about the vertical axis while simultaneously dispensing liquid onto the substrate. Liquid is displaced using a custom bidirectional diaphragm pump, in which an elastic membrane is hydraulically actuated by a stainless steel syringe. The syringe is driven by a piezoelectric actuator, enabling nanoliter volume and rate control. A quantitative model of the liquid dispenser is verified experimentally, and suggests that compressibility in the hydraulic line deamplifies the syringe stroke, enabling sub-nanoliter resolution control of liquid displacement at the capillary tip. We use this system to contact-print water and oil droplets by mechanical manipulation of a liquid bridge between the capillary and the substrate. Finally, we study the effect of droplet volume and substrate temperature on the evaporative self-assembly of monodisperse polymer microspheres from sessile droplets, and demonstrate the formation of 3D chiral assemblies of micro-rods by rotation of the capillary tip during evaporative assembly.

  19. Four degree of freedom liquid dispenser for direct write capillary self-assembly with sub-nanoliter precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beroz, Justin; Bedewy, Mostafa; Reinker, Michael; Chhajer, Vipul; Awtar, Shorya; Hart, A John

    2012-01-01

    Capillary forces provide a ubiquitous means of organizing micro- and nanoscale structures on substrates. In order to investigate the mechanism of capillary self-assembly and to fabricate complex ordered structures, precise control of the meniscus shape is needed. We present a precision instrument that enables deposition of liquid droplets spanning from 2 nl to 300 μl, in concert with mechanical manipulation of the liquid-substrate interface with four degrees of freedom. The substrate has sub-100 nm positioning resolution in three axes of translation, and its temperature is controlled using thermoelectric modules. The capillary tip can rotate about the vertical axis while simultaneously dispensing liquid onto the substrate. Liquid is displaced using a custom bidirectional diaphragm pump, in which an elastic membrane is hydraulically actuated by a stainless steel syringe. The syringe is driven by a piezoelectric actuator, enabling nanoliter volume and rate control. A quantitative model of the liquid dispenser is verified experimentally, and suggests that compressibility in the hydraulic line deamplifies the syringe stroke, enabling sub-nanoliter resolution control of liquid displacement at the capillary tip. We use this system to contact-print water and oil droplets by mechanical manipulation of a liquid bridge between the capillary and the substrate. Finally, we study the effect of droplet volume and substrate temperature on the evaporative self-assembly of monodisperse polymer microspheres from sessile droplets, and demonstrate the formation of 3D chiral assemblies of micro-rods by rotation of the capillary tip during evaporative assembly.

  20. Heritability of OSA in a Rural Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Lilian K G; Alvim, Rafael O; Pedrosa, Rodrigo P; Horimoto, Andrea R V R; Krieger, José E; Oliveira, Camila M; Pereira, Alexandre C; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    OSA has a familial aggregation pattern indicating that it can be partially caused by a genetic component. However, the heritability of OSA has been estimated based on the study of families of obese probands of urban populations with established OSA diagnosis. The objective of this genetic-epidemiologic study is to study families ascertained from a general rural population to determine an unbiased estimate of OSA heritability. We studied a sample of families living in Baependi, a small rural southeastern Brazilian city. Participants were assessed for anthropometric measurements, physical examination, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, blood samples for glucose and cholesterol determination, and overnight home portable monitoring. We studied 587 participants (399 women) from 91 families, with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 4 (2-8) participants per family. The median age of the population was 44 years (IQR, 29-55 years) and median BMI was 25.0 kg/m(2) (IQR, 22.1-28.6 kg/m(2)). OSA, defined by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5/h, was diagnosed in 18.6% of the sample. Two polygenic models, model I (no covariate effects) and model II (with covariate effects), were fitted to the data in all analyses. Heritability estimates for AHI were 0.23 and 0.25 for model I and II, respectively. Covariates (age, sex, and BMI) showed no significant effects on the heritability estimate for AHI. The heritability of AHI in a rural population with low levels of obesity is intermediate (25%). Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluid-Mediated Stochastic Self-Assembly at Centimetric and Sub-Millimetric Scales: Design, Modeling, and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Haghighat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic self-assembly provides promising means for building micro-/nano-structures with a variety of properties and functionalities. Numerous studies have been conducted on the control and modeling of the process in engineered self-assembling systems constituted of modules with varied capabilities ranging from completely reactive nano-/micro-particles to intelligent miniaturized robots. Depending on the capabilities of the constituting modules, different approaches have been utilized for controlling and modeling these systems. In the quest of a unifying control and modeling framework and within the broader perspective of investigating how stochastic control strategies can be adapted from the centimeter-scale down to the (sub-millimeter-scale, as well as from mechatronic to MEMS-based technology, this work presents the outcomes of our research on self-assembly during the past few years. As the first step, we leverage an experimental platform to study self-assembly of water-floating passive modules at the centimeter scale. A dedicated computational framework is developed for real-time tracking, modeling and control of the formation of specific structures. Using a similar approach, we then demonstrate controlled self-assembly of microparticles into clusters of a preset dimension in a microfluidic chamber, where the control loop is closed again through real-time tracking customized for a much faster system dynamics. Finally, with the aim of distributing the intelligence and realizing programmable self-assembly, we present a novel experimental system for fluid-mediated programmable stochastic self-assembly of active modules at the centimeter scale. The system is built around the water-floating 3-cm-sized Lily robots specifically designed to be operative in large swarms and allows for exploring the whole range of fully-centralized to fully-distributed control strategies. The outcomes of our research efforts extend the state-of-the-art methodologies

  2. Preparation of Ag/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} films via photo-assisted deposition and adsorptive self-assembly for catalytic bactericidal application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Baojuan, E-mail: baojuanxi@gmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Chu, Xiaona; Hu, Jiangyong [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Bhatia, Charanjit Singh; Danner, Aaron James; Yang, Hyunsoo [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • We prepared controlledly the silver nanoparticles on TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} film by the facile photoreduction under the aid of structure-directing agents. • We studied the effect of silver loading on the antibactierial behavior of TiO{sub 2} film and optimized the content of silver. • We extended the route to fabricate other metals on substrates. - Abstract: The deterioration of water supply quality due to the waterborne bacteria is an environmental problem requiring the urgent attention. Due to the excellent and synergic antimicrobial capability, Ag-loaded TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst emerges as a feasible measure to guard the water. In our work, Ag nanoparticles have been prepared by the photoassisted reduction of AgNO{sub 3} on the TiO{sub 2} film fabricated by solution-based adsorptive self-assembly approach. The role of surfactant on the growth rate and size controlling of particles is also studied. In this connection, different kinds of surfactants, such as PVP, Tween-20, Tween-40 and so on, are applied in the system to investigate the formation of Ag nanoparticles. The surface profile and elemental analysis of Ag/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} films are examined by scanning electron microscopy and attached energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. In the anti-bacteria detection, Ag nanoparticles are found to enhance the bactericidal efficiency strongly comparing with the pure TiO{sub 2} film under the same condition. In addition, by comparison with Ag/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} film in the dark environment as the reference experiment, UV–visible light plays a vital role in the improved bactericidal behavior, demonstrating the more efficient charge separation induced by metal silver. Because of the versatility of the method, the present photoreductive route is also exploited for the synthesis of Au nanoparticles on TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} films. The corresponding photocatalytical detection results demonstrate the loading of Au nanoparticles can

  3. The association of NOV/CCN3 with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): preliminary evidence of a novel biomarker in OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Jeremy A; Bellner, Lars; Peterson, Stephen J; Zaw, Moe; Chadha, Puja; Singh, Shailendra P; Abraham, Nader G

    2017-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a strong association with cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities, although the mechanism driving this association is not well established. NOV/CCN3, a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein, may play a mechanistic and/or prognostic role in these associations. We hypothesized that patients with OSA, which primarily affects obese individuals, will have increased levels of NOV, and that NOV can serve as a biomarker in patients to predict OSA as well as metabolic and cardiac risk. Ten morbidly obese and 10 healthy lean subjects underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG) and clinical evaluation. Blood samples were analyzed for NOV levels, adiponectin and IL-6. OSA was found in nine obese subjects and three lean subjects. NOV levels were significantly higher in the OSA vs. no OSA group (2.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.3 ± 0.8, p OSA vs. no OSA group (2.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.0 ± 0.4, p OSA vs. no OSA were consistent with an inflammatory phenotype in obese subjects and OSA subjects. NOV is a novel biomarker of the presence and severity of OSA and a potential marker of future cardiovascular and metabolic disease in OSA patients.

  4. Electrochemically controlled self-assembled monolayers characterized with molecular and sub-molecular resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Welinder, Anna Christina; Chi, Qijin

    2011-01-01

    in the investigations of electronic structures and assembling dynamics of electrochemically controlled self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiol containing molecules on gold surfaces. A brief introduction is first given and particularly illustrated by a Table summarizing the molecules studied, the surface lattice...

  5. Computed tomography cephalometric and upper airway measurements in patients with OSA and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakatos, Panagis; Karkoulias, Kiriakos; Giannitsas, Konstantinos; Kalogeropoulou, Christina; Papapanagiotou, Nikos; Lykouras, Dimosthenis; Sampsonas, Fotis; Petsas, Theodoros; Perimenis, Petros; Spiropoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-05-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) has been linked to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study used computed tomography (CT) to identify cephalometric and upper airway anatomic features in patients with OSA that correlate with the presence of ED. In this prospective study, 20 CT cephalometric and upper airway measurements, most commonly associated with OSA, were analyzed in 53 age- and BMI-matched consecutive eligible subjects. Twenty-two were diagnosed with OSA and ED (OSA+/ED+), 17 with OSA without ED (OSA+/ED-), and 14 without OSA and ED (OSA-/ED-) serving as a control group. Although OSA+/ED+ did not differentiate significantly in CT measurements from OSA+/ED-, they showed more alterations when compared to OSA-/ED-, which included narrower bony oropharynx, longer soft palate and uvula (PNS-P), and narrower retropalatal and retrolingual airway diameter (p OSA (OR = 1.129, 95 % CI = 1.0005-1.268, p = 0.041). In the OSA+/ED+ group, PNS-P correlated with the percentage of total sleep time with oxygen saturation OSA. Only OSA+/ED+ showed significant narrowing in the retropalatal, retrolingual, and bony oropharynx level when compared with BMI-matched OSA-/ED-.

  6. Preparation of TiO{sub 2} films by layer-by-layer assembly and their application in solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Anhui Key Laboratory of Spin Electron and Nanomaterials (Cultivating Base), Suzhou University, Suzhou 234000 (China); Xie, A.J. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Shen, Y.H., E-mail: s_yuhua@163.co [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Li, S.K. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2010-09-03

    Polyacrylate sodium (PAAS)/titania (TiO{sub 2}) multilayers have been fabricated through the electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly technique. The composite films display an excellent photovoltaic performance after sintering and sensitization by cyanine dye (CD), which can be applied in dye-sensitized solar cells. The properties of PAAS/TiO{sub 2} multilayers are investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and photovoltaic measurements. The results indicate that the thermal stability of the PAAS has a direct influence on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. The energy conversion efficiency of approximately 1.29% was obtained for dye-sensitized solar cell with TiO{sub 2}/PAAS (40 bilayers) as precursor film. In addition, the composite films also show a good self-cleaning property for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

  7. Assembly of polypyrrole nanotube@MnO{sub 2} composites with an improved electrochemical capacitance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jiayou; Zhang, Xiaoya; Liu, Jingya; Peng, Linfeng; Chen, Changlang; Huang, Zhiliang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Li, Liang, E-mail: msell08@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Yu, Xianghua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Shang, Songmin, E-mail: shang.songmin@polyu.edu.hk [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PPy nanotube@MnO{sub 2} composites have been prepared. • The thickness of MnO{sub 2} coating can be tuned by the concentration of KMnO{sub 4}. • Synergistic effect between PPy and MnO{sub 2} generates better capacitance performance. • The composites exhibit high specific capacitance and good cycle stability. - Abstract: A facile strategy is presented to fabricate polypyrrole nanotube@manganese dioxide (PPy@MnO{sub 2}) composites. The effect of KMnO{sub 4} concentration on the morphology and property of PPy@MnO{sub 2} composites is investigated. The microstrucutres and properties of the resulting PPy@MnO{sub 2} composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrochemical measurements. The results indicate that the PPy@MnO{sub 2} composites possess high specific capacitance and good cyclic stability due to the coating of MnO{sub 2} onto PPy nanotubes. The specific capacitance of 403 F/g for the PPy@MnO{sub 2} composite is obtained from galvanostatic charge–discharge experiment at a current density of 1 A/g, exhibiting the potential application for supercapacitors.

  8. Surface cephalometric and anthropometric variables in OSA patients: statistical models for the OSA phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Rita A; Kairaitis, Kristina; Cistulli, Peter; Wheatley, John R; Amis, Terence C

    2014-03-01

    We used statistical modelling to probe the contributions of anthropometric and surface cephalometric variables to the OSA phenotype. The design is prospective cohort study. The setting is community-based and sleep disorder laboratory. Study #1-Model development study: 147 healthy asymptomatic volunteers (62.6 % Caucasian; age, 18-76 years; 81 females; median multivariable apnea prediction index=0.15) and 140 diagnosed OSA patients (84.3 % Caucasian; age, 18-83 years; 41 females; polysomnography [PSG] determined apnea-hypopnea index >10 events/h). Study #2-Model test study: 345 clinic patients (age, 18-86 years; 129 females) undergoing PSG for diagnosis of OSA. We measured 10 anthropometric and 34 surface cephalometric dimensions (calipers) and calculated mandibular enclosure volumes for study #1 and recorded age and neck circumference for study #2. Statistical modelling included principal component (PC), logistic regression, and receiver-operator curve analyses. Model development study: A regression model incorporating three identified PC predicted OSA with 88 % sensitivity and specificity. However, a simplified model based on age and NC alone was equally effective (87 % sensitivity and specificity). Model test study: The simplified model predicted OSA with high sensitivity (93 %) but poor specificity (21 %). We conclude that in our clinic-based cohort, craniofacial bony and soft tissue structures (excluding neck anatomy) do not play a substantial role in distinguishing patients with OSA from those without. This may be because craniofacial anatomy does not contribute greatly to the pathogenesis of OSA in this group or because referral bias has created a relatively homogeneous phenotypic population.

  9. A 3d-4f complex constructed by the assembly of a cationic template, [Cu(en){sub 2}]{sup 2+}, and a 3D anionic coordination polymer, [Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(C{sub 5}O{sub 5})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sup 2-}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Szu-Yu; Yeh, Chang-Tsung; Wang, Chih-Chieh [Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Gene-Hsiang [Instrumentation Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-18

    A three-dimensional (3D) 3d-4f complex, [Cu(en){sub 2}][Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 5}O{sub 5})(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].8H{sub 2}O (1) (en = ethylenediamine, C{sub 5}O{sub 5}{sup 2-} = dianion of 4,5-dihydroxycyclopent-4-ene-1,2,3-trione), were prepared via the in-situ ring-opening oxidation reaction of croconate in the presence of the template-directed complex, [Cu(en){sub 2}]{sup 2+} cation. The structural characterization determined by X-ray diffraction determination reveals that the 3D anionic coordination polymer of [Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(C{sub 5}O{sub 5})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sup 2-} in 1 can be describe in terms of in-plane 2D honeycomb-like [Sm{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}] layered frameworks bridged by oxalate with bis-chelating mode, being mutually interlinked via the bridge of μ{sub 1,2,3,4}-croconate ligands with bis-chelating coordination mode to complete the 3D open framework, which gives rise to 1D channels with pore size of 14.023 x 11.893 Aa (longest atom-atom contact distances) along the b axis. The structure-directing complex, [Cu(en){sub 2}]{sup 2+}, and solvated water molecules are resided into these honeycomb-type hexagonal channels. The thermal stability of 1 was further studied by TGA and in-situ powder X-ray diffraction measurement. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. OSA and pulmonary hypertension: time for a new look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Khalid; Roberts, Kari; Manning, Patrick; Manley, Christopher; Hill, Nicholas S

    2015-03-01

    OSA is a common yet underdiagnosed disorder encountered in everyday practice. The disease is a unique physiologic stressor that contributes to the development or progression of many other disorders, particularly cardiovascular conditions. The pulmonary circulation is specifically affected by the intermittent hypoxic apneas associated with OSA. The general consensus has been that OSA is associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH), but only in a minority of OSA patients and generally of a mild degree. Consequently, there has been no sense of urgency to screen for either condition when evaluating the other. In this review, we explore available evidence describing the interaction between OSA and PH and seek to better understand underlying pathophysiology. We describe certain groups of patients who have a particular preponderance of OSA and PH. Failure to recognize the mutual additive effects of these disorders can lead to suboptimal patient outcomes. Among patients with PH and OSA, CPAP, the mainstay treatment for OSA, may ameliorate pulmonary pressure elevations, but has not been studied adequately. Conversely, among patients with OSA, PH significantly limits functional capacity and potentially shortens survival; yet, there is no routine screening for PH in patients with OSA. We think it is time to study the interaction between OSA and PH more carefully to identify high-risk subgroups. These would be screened for the presence of combined disorders, facilitating earlier institution of therapy and improving outcomes.

  11. Self-assembly of 2D sandwich-structured MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene composites for high-performance lithium storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Songmei, E-mail: songmei_li@buaa.edu.cn; Wang, Bo; Li, Bin; Liu, Jianhua; Yu, Mei; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • MFO/GN composites were synthesized by a facile in situ solvothermal approach. • The MFO microspheres are sandwiched between the graphene layers. • Each MFO microsphere is an interstitial cluster of nanoparticles. • The MFO/GN electrode exhibits an enhanced cyclability for Li-ion batteries anodes. - Abstract: In this study, two-dimensional (2D) sandwich-structured MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene (MFO/GN) composites are synthesized by a facile in situ solvothermal approach, using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as cationic surfactant. As a consequence, the nanocomposites of MFO/GN self-assembled into a 2D sandwich structure, in which the interstitial cluster structure of microsphere-type MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is sandwiched between the graphene layers. This special structure of the MFO/GN composites used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries will be favorable for the maximum accessible surface of electroactive materials, fast diffusion of lithium ions and migration of electron, and elastomeric space to accommodate volume changes during the discharge–charge processes. The as-synthesized MFO/GN composites deliver a high specific reversible capacity of 987.95 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 200 mA g{sup −1}, a good capacity retention of 69.27% after 80 cycles and excellent rate performance for lithium storage.

  12. OSA and cardiometabolic risk: What's the bottom line?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Camilla M; Drager, Luciano F; Patel, Sanjay R

    2017-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common condition characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA promotes wide intrathoracic pressure swings, intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. Growing evidence derived from animal models mimicking the oxygen profile observed in patients with OSA as well as clinical studies support that this important sleep-disordered breathing is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Although the precise mechanisms are not fully established, it is conceivable that the metabolic deregulation promoted by the components of OSA may have an important causal role in the poor cardiovascular prognosis. In this review, we summarize the potential role of OSA and its components on cardiometabolic disease. We also summarize evidence evaluating the impact of OSA treatment (notably continuous positive airway pressure) on reversing the metabolic deregulation promoted by OSA. Finally, we discuss the research agenda and perspectives for this important research area. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  13. Performance of copper-doped V{sub 2}O{sub 5} xerogel in coin cell assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coustier, F.; Jarero, G.; Passerini, S.; Smyrl, W.H. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    1999-10-01

    Copper-doped, vanadium pentoxide xerogel is prepared through a simple sol-gel procedure, followed by heterogeneous doping and freeze-drying. Composite cathodes were formed by spray-coating a mixture of the Cu-doped material, carbon, and binder onto aluminum foils. The composite cathodes were studied in 2016 coin cells with lithium anodes and supported liquid electrolyte. The electrochemical performance of the doped material is excellent. Up to 2.2 mol of lithium per mol of doped V{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be reversibly intercalated. The composite cathodes also showed very high intercalation rate performance and an excellent cyclability with no capacity fading over a few hundred cycles (>450). (orig.)

  14. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} hierarchical architecture assembled by nanowires with anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Yong; Ouyang, Feng, E-mail: ouyangfh@hit.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • H-titanate nanowires hierarchical architectures (TNH) were prepared by a hydrothermal method. • Calcinations of TNH leads to the formation of anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions. • The hierarchical architecture offered enhanced light harvesting and large specific surface area. • The 1D nanowires and anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions both can enhance the separation of photoinduced electron-hole. • The products calcined at the optimum conditions (450 °C) exhibited a maximum hydrogenproduction rate of 7808 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} hierarchical architecture assembled by nanowires with anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions was prepared by a hydrothermal process followed by calcinations. The optimum calcination treatment (450 °C) not only led to the formation of anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions, but also kept the morphology of 1D nanowire and hierarchical architecture well. The T-450 load 0.5 wt% Pt cocatalysts showed the best photocatalytic hydrogen production activity, with a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7808 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}. The high photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the combined effects of the following three factors: (1) the hierarchical architecture exhibits better light harvesting; (2) the larger specific surface area provides more surface active sites for the photocatalytic reaction; (3) the 1D nanowires and anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions both can enhance the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and inhibit their recombination.

  15. Self-assembly of Si-containing block copolymers with high-segregation strength: toward sub-10nm features in directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, C.; Fleury, G.; Aissou, K.; Brochon, C.; Cloutet, E.; Nicolet, C.; Chevalier, X.; Navarro, C.; Tiron, R.; Cunge, G.; Hadziioannou, G.

    2014-03-01

    Ordered microstructures with nanometrically defined periodicity offer promising opportunities in microelectronic applications for the production of advanced CMOS digital logic circuits. To produce the features and arrays inherent to such technologies, the combination of the "bottom-up" block copolymer self-assembly with "top-down" guiding templates has been successfully introduced leading to new technological breakthroughs. Among the materials used in the direct self-assembly methodology, poly(styrene-b-methylmethacrylate) systems have reached an unprecedented level of maturity which will lead to their introduction into the next technological nodes. However, this system suffers from deficiencies such as a low Flory Huggins parameter (X = 0.04 at 25°C) and a low chemical contrast as regards to the etching processes which could be problematic for targeting sub-22 nm features. Consequently we have developed new systems based on Si-containing block copolymers which are characterized by high segregation strength as well as strong chemical etching contrast. In this contribution, we focus on a poly(lactic acid) / poly(dimethylsiloxane) system exhibiting a cylindrical mesostructure. By controlling the surface energy at the interface between the substrate and the block copolymer domains, we show the possibility to control the orientation of the mesostructure with a methodology comparable to the one used for poly(styrene) / poly(methyl methacrylate) system but with random copolymers having distinct monomers than the block copolymers.

  16. The efficacy of the OSA-18 as a waiting list triage tool for OSA in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lisa M; Biggs, Sarah N; Cikor, Natascha; Rowe, Kathy; Davey, Margot J; Horne, Rosemary S C; Nixon, Gillian M

    2016-05-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common in children, resulting in extensive waiting lists for specialist clinics. There is an urgent need for a valid method of triaging patients and the OSA-18, a disease-specific tool, is an attractive candidate for this role. We aimed to examine the OSA-18 as a measurement tool in detail and to determine whether the score or aspects of it could be used as a screening tool for SDB in children. Retrospective analysis of 582 children (6 months to 16.4 years)-216 underwent overnight PSG and 366 overnight oximetry. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the factors for the presence of OSA. Rasch analysis was used to assess the structure of the items (1-18) and categories of response (Likert scale). The CFA with a forced five-factor structure, revealed three factors with Eigenvalues >1, and explained 73.7 % of the variance. EFA resulted in a two-factor structure, explaining 60.3 % of the variance. Assessment of sensitivity and specificity showed a high false-positive rate, irrespective of the factor structure tested. Rasch analysis showed poor discrimination between adjacent categories on the Likert scale. This study confirmed that the predictive value of the OSA-18 for SDB severity is weak. Some questions perform better than others statistically, and the seven categories of response introduce significant statistical noise, raising the possibility that modification of the OSA-18 may improve its performance in the prediction of OSA severity.

  17. OSAS treatment with oral appliance: assessment of our experience through the use of a new device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, G; Azzuni, C; Rinaldo, F M D; Cervelli, D; Marianetti, T M; Sferrazza, A; Pelo, S

    2013-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is defined as repeated episodes of obstruction of the upper airway and oxygen desaturation of the arterial hemoglobin. OSAS is associated with loud snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, cardiovascular and neurocognitive disease, increase risk of road accidents. The aim of this study is to evaluate non-surgical therapy for OSAS using a mandibular advancement device (MAD) that provides for lower jaw protrusion and for an adequate vertical opening, that allows for greater airflow. The device was assembled using the working principles of "Herbst-like" appliances and splints of neuromuscular deprogramming of the "Federici" type used for gnathologic treatments. We selected 17 males and 4 females, with an average age of 42 years, and an average BMI of 29. Eighteen patients were treated with our oral appliance, 1 patient was treated with the orthesis proposed by Schmidt-Nowara et al and 2 patients were treated with the oral appliance proposed by Johal and Battagel. All patients used the appliance for at least 6 months. After treatment with the oral appliance, the posterior airway space increased (p = 0.0002); no statistically significant difference for the improvement degree of OSAS severity (p = 0.1085) was shown; an improvement was found in: AHI (p = 0.0028); Nadir O2 (p = 0.0035); TO2 TMJ) discomfort. Our MAD has proved effective in improving the polysomnographic and radiographic parameters and assures good TMJ compliance.

  18. Atomic force measurements of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid and its salt with CH{sub 3}, OH, and CONHCH{sub 3} functionalized self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Cruz, Angel L. [Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); Tremont, Rolando [Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); Martinez, Ramon [Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico); Roman-tilde ach, Rodolfo [Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez 00681-5000 (Puerto Rico); Cabrera, Carlos R. [Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico)]. E-mail: ccabrera@goliath.cnnet.clu.edu

    2005-03-15

    Chemical and mechanical properties of different compounds can be elucidated by measuring fundamental forces such as adhesion, attraction and repulsion, between modified surfaces by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in force mode calibration. This work presents a combination of AFM, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), and crystallization techniques to study the forces of interaction between excipients and active ingredients used in pharmaceutical formulations. SAMs of 16-mercaptohexadecanoate, which represent magnesium stereate, were used to modify the probe tip, whereas CH{sub 3}-, OH- and CONHCH{sub 3}-functional SAMs were formed on a gold-coated mica substrate, and used as examples of the surfaces of lactose and theophylline. The crystals of lactose and theophylline were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The modification of gold surfaces with 16-mercaptohexadecanoate, 10-mercapto-1-decanol (OH-functional SAM), 1-decanethiol (CH{sub 3}-functional) and N-methyl-11-mercaptoundecanamide (CONHCH{sub 3}-functional SAM) was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in specular reflectance mode. XPS and AES results of the modified surfaces showed the presence of sulfur binding, and kinetic energies that correspond to the presence of 10-mercapto-1-decanol, 1-decanethiol, N-methyl-11-mercaptoundecanamide and the salt of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid. The absorption bands in the IR spectra further confirm the modification of the gold-coated substrates with these compounds. Force versus distance measurements were performed between the modified tip and the modified gold-coated mica substrates. The mean adhesion forces between the COO{sup -}Ca{sup 2+} functionalized tip and the CH{sub 3}-, OH-, and CONHCH{sub 3}-modified substrates were determined to be 4.5, 8.9 and 6.3 nN, respectively. The magnitude of the adhesion force (ion

  19. Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of visible light responsive TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays/graphene oxide heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying; Gao, Hongyan; Wei, Danming; Dong, Xinju; Cao, Yan, E-mail: yan.cao@wku.edu

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • First to report a heterostructure of TNA with GO prepared by LB assembly. • Much better photocurrent (32 μAcm{sup −2}) of TNA-GO, contrasting to TNA (12 μAcm{sup −2}). • Schottky junction formed between TNA and GO enhanced the photocurrent. • GO on TNA improved the hydrophilicity of TNA-GO. - Abstract: The hybrid nanocomposites of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) with graphene oxide (GO) have recently garnered much attention as electronic devices, energy conversion devices, photocatalysts and other applications. In this study, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) assembly method was firstly reported to prepare a TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNA)-GO heterostructure. The as-prepared TNA-GO sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The promising characteristics of this TNA-GO material, the inexpensive, nontoxic and highly visible-light responsiveness, may raise the potential uses in many, various photocatalytic applications.

  20. Magnetic properties of self-assembled Fe nanoislands on BaTiO{sub 3}(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, R.K. [Institut für Physik, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät II, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Hari Babu, V. [Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstraße 2, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Chiang, C.-T. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Institut für Physik, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät II, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Magnano, E.; Bondino, F. [IOM-CNR, Laboratorio Nazionale TASC, Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Denecke, R. [Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstraße 2, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Schindler, K.-M., E-mail: karl-michael.schindler@physik.uni-halle.de [Institut für Physik, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät II, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, D-06099 Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    The coercivity and saturation magnetization of ultrathin films of Fe on a BaTiO{sub 3}(001) single crystal substrate have been determined using magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) as a function of annealing temperature. Films deposited at room temperature exhibit bulk-like properties, whereas with increasing annealing temperature coercivity increases and saturation magnetization decreases. Investigations with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) reveal that annealing causes a morphology transformation from a continuous flat film, which completely covers the substrate, to nanoislands via self-assembled growth. The morphology and size of the islands imply stronger pinning of domain walls or complex magnetic structures as the origin of their particular magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Effect of annealing on the magnetic properties of Fe films on BaTiO{sub 3} determined. • Highly directional Fe nanoislands are formed due to self-assembly upon annealing. • Coercivity increases with increasing annealing temperature. • Saturation magnetization and magnetic moment decrease. • Reasons for the changes in magnetic properties and morphology are discussed.

  1. Back to sleep or not: the effect of the supine position on pediatric OSA: Sleeping position in children with OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lisa M; Dassanayake, Daranagama U N; Weichard, Aidan J; Davey, Margot J; Nixon, Gillian M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2017-09-01

    In both adults and children, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has significant adverse cardiovascular consequences. In adults, sleeping position has a marked effect on the severity of OSA; however, the limited number of studies conducted in children have reported conflicting findings. We aimed to evaluate the effect of sleeping position on OSA severity and the cardiovascular consequences in preschool-aged children. This was a retrospective analysis of children (3-5 years of age) diagnosed with OSA (n = 75) and nonsnoring controls (n = 25). Sleeping position was classified as supine, semi-supine, left lateral, right lateral, prone, and semi-prone by using video recordings during one night of attended polysomnography. OSA severity and cardiovascular parameters were compared between the positions. All children spent significantly more sleep time in the supine position than in any other position. The obstructive apnea-hypopnea index was higher in the supine position than in the other sleeping positions during NREM (p OSA group when sleeping in the supine position than when sleeping in the left and right lateral positions (p OSA in the supine and lateral positions (p OSA, predominately sleep in the supine position, and OSA was more severe in the supine position. We suggest that to avoid the supine sleep position, positional therapy has the potential to ameliorate OSA severity, and the known cardiovascular consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Controllable synthesis of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoplate self-assembled hierarchical erythrocyte microspheres via a one-pot hydrothermal reaction with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhenya; Huang, Lin; Xie, Yanyu; Lin, Zheguan; Fan, Yunyan; Liu, Dan; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Zizhong, E-mail: z.zhang@fzu.edu.cn; Wang, Xuxu

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical erythrocyte structure was designed by F{sup −}-assisted one-pot reaction. • Erythrocyte structure enhanced the visible-light photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. • Superoxide radical anions and h{sup +} were the main active species for RhB degradation. - Abstract: This work provides a simple approach of the F{sup −}-assisted one-pot hydrothermal reaction to successfully synthesize Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical erythrocyte microspheres. The importance role of F{sup −} was systematically investigated by comparing different type of halogen ions, hydrothermal temperature and time. The possible growth mechanism of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} hierarchical structures was proposed. The hierarchical erythrocytes were formed through the well-ordered and oriented self-assembly of thin Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoplate primary subunits. F{sup −} ions were absorbed on Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoplate surface to suppress the nanoplate stack but to induce a self-assembly through the edge interaction of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoplates into erythrocyte-like hierarchical microspheres superstructures. This erythrocyte structure narrowed the band gap energy and enhanced the visible-light photocatalytic activity of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. Moreover, superoxide radical anions and h{sup +} were revealed as the main active species responding for the RhB degradation on Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} under visible light irradiation.

  3. Self-assembly of [UO{sub 2}X{sub 4}]{sup 2−} (X=Cl, Br) dianions with γ substituted pyridinium cations: Structural systematics and fluorescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surbella, Robert G.; Andrews, Michael B.; Cahill, Christopher L., E-mail: cahill@gwu.edu

    2016-04-15

    Room temperature self-assembly of [UO{sub 2}X{sub 4}]{sup 2−} (X=Cl, Br) with γ substituted pyridinium cations has resulted in the formation of twelve compounds that were studied via single crystal X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy. Systematic variation of electron donating groups on the pyridinium species is shown to influence the presence and/or strength of various supramolecular synthons, including hydrogen bonding and pi interactions. Combinations of such non-covalent interactions (NCIs) have given rise to a range of supramolecular assemblies, and are shown to influence uranyl emission by way of second sphere coordination to equatorial ligands. - Graphical abstract: Supramolecular assembly of the [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2−} dianion with pyridinium cations is a viable synthetic route to the growth of uranyl containing single crystals.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of unoxidized graphene/Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.7}Se{sub 0.3} composites synthesized by exfoliation/re-assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Il; Lee, Eun Sil; Kim, Jong-Young [Icheon Branch, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soon-Mok [School of Energy, Materials and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu Hyoung [Materials R and D Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Won-Seon [Energy and Environmental Division, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Nanocomposites of n-type thermoelectric Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.7}Se{sub 0.3} (BTS) and unoxidized graphene (UG) were prepared from the exfoliated BTS and UG nanoplatelets. Polycrystalline BTS ingots were exfoliated into nanoscroll-type crystals by chemical exfoliation, and were re-assembled with UG nanoplatelets. The composites were chemically reduced by hydrazine hydrate and sintered by a spark-plasma-sintering method. The thermoelectric properties of the sintered composites were evaluated and exhibited decreased carrier concentration and increased thermal conductivity due to the embedded graphene. The peak ZT values for the UG/BTS-US and UG/BTS-EX composites were ∝0.8 at the UG concentration of 0.05 wt%. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Antiinflammatory therapy outcomes for mild OSA in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Bandla, Hari P R; Gozal, David

    2014-07-01

    OSA is highly prevalent in children and usually initially treated by adenotonsillectomy. Nonsurgical alternatives for mild OSA primarily consisting of antiinflammatory approaches have emerged, but their efficacy has not been extensively assessed. A retrospective review of clinically and polysomnographically diagnosed patients with OSA treated between 2007 and 2012 was performed to identify otherwise healthy children ages 2 to 14 years who fulfilled the criteria for mild OSA and who were treated with a combination of intranasal corticosteroid and oral montelukast (OM) for 12 weeks (ICS + OM). A subset of children continued OM treatment for 6 to 12 months. A total of 3,071 children were diagnosed with OSA, of whom 836 fulfilled mild OSA criteria and 752 received ICS + OM. Overall, beneficial effects occurred in > 80% of the children, with nonadherence being documented in 61 children and adenotonsillectomy being ultimately performed in 12.3%. Follow-up polysomnography in a subset of 445 patients showed normalization of sleep findings in 62%, while 17.1% showed either no improvement or worsening of their OSA. Among the latter, older children (aged > 7 years; OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.43-4.13; P 1.65; OR: 6.3; 95% CI, 4.23-11.18; P OSA appears to provide an effective alternative to adenotonsillectomy, particularly in younger and nonobese children. These results support implementation of multicenter randomized trials to more definitively establish the role of ICS + OM treatment in pediatric OSA.

  6. Preparation and characterization of self-assembled layer by layer NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite with improved electrocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Manish; Elias Uddin, Md. [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Singh, Jay [Department of Applied Chemistry, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi 110042 (India); Kim, Nam Hoon [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Hee, E-mail: jhl@chonbuk.ac.kr [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Wind Power System Research Center, Department of Polymer and Nano Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-25

    Graphical abstract: NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} were grown on RGO by in situ synthesis process. FE-SEM investigation revealed self assembled layer by layer growth of NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite. NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite exhibited synergetic effect of NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and RGO on its electrochemical performance. -- Highlights: • NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} were grown on RGO by in-situ synthesis process. • FE-SEM image revealed self-assembled layer by layer growth of NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}-RGO nanocomposite. • NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}-RGO nanocomposite exhibited synergetic effects on its electrochemical performance. -- Abstract: NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) are prepared by simultaneously reducing graphene oxide (GO), nickel and cobalt nitrate via a hydrothermal method assisted by post annealing at low temperature. The method involves formation of hydroxides on GO using ammonia under hydrothermal conditions. Subsequent thermal treatment at 300 °C led to the conversion of hydroxides into single-phase NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} atop the RGO. The synthesized products are characterized through several techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The FE-SEM investigations reveal the growth of a layer by layer assembly of NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO (2:1) nanocomposite, where the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are tightly packed between the layers of RGO. Further, the catalytic properties of the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO nanocomposite are investigated for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) through cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. It is observed that the special structural features of the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–RGO (2:1) nanocomposite, including

  7. Synthesis of visible light emitting self assembled Ge nanocrystals embedded within a SiO{sub 2} matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Hernandez, A.; De Moure-Flores, F.; Quinones-Galvan, J. G.; Santoyo-Salazar, J.; Melendez-Lira, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, A.P. 14740, C.P. 07300, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Rangel-Kuoppa, V. T. [Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Plach, Thomas [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microscopic and Spectroscopic Material Characterization, Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Zapata-Torres, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Unidad Legaria IPN, Calzada Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Hernandez-Hernandez, L. A. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9 U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07730 (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    As-grown light emitting self-assembled Ge nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) embedded in a SiO{sub 2} matrix were produced via a sequential deposition process of SiO{sub 2}/Ge/SiO{sub 2} layers employing a reactive radio frequency sputtering technique. Obtained Ge-NCs show a crystallographic phase, the proportion, size, quality, and specific orientation of which are determined by the oxygen partial pressure. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the size distribution of Ge-NCs is reduced and centered on about 8 nm when higher oxygen partial pressure is employed; the formation of Ge-NCs is corroborated by transmission electron microscopy measurements, and their sizes are consistent with estimates from PL measurements. Resistivity measurements are explained by a near neighbors hopping process, with specific features depending on the Ge-NCs' size. The features of PL and resistivity measurements indicate that there is no appreciable dependence of the number of interfacial defects on the oxygen partial pressure.

  8. Supramolecular assemblies in [Cu(L-Arg){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]C{sub 2}O{sub 4}·6H{sub 2}O complex – Structural, spectroscopic, magnetic and thermal behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciechowska, Agnieszka, E-mail: agnieszka.wojciechowska@pwr.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370, Wrocław (Poland); Kochel, Andrzej [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383, Wrocław (Poland); Duczmal, Marek [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370, Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-10-01

    The reaction of L-arginine and oxalate ions with copper(II) salts yields a new complex with formula of [Cu(L-Arg){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]·C{sub 2}O{sub 4}·6H{sub 2}O (1) (where L-Arg = L-arginine). Single crystals of 1 were synthesized by crystallization from aqueous solution. The complex properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy (FT-IR, FT-Raman, NIR-Vis-UV and EPR) as well as thermal and magnetic methods. The square pyramidal (SP) geometry around Cu(II) ions in [Cu(L-Arg){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2+} cation complex is formed by two cis-chelated L-arginine zwitterions and a water molecule coordinated in the apex of square pyramid. The trigonality distortion of SP geometry is relatively small, τ = 0.0087. The solid state EPR spectrum showed broad hyperfine splitting with g{sub ⊥} = 2.061 at 77 K. The copper centres distanced at 7.558(5) Å are joined in a single zig-zag structure via a chain based on the combination of Cu−O(5)−H(29)⋯O(2)−C1−O1−Cu hydrogen bonds along the b axis (d (O2⋯O5) = 2.812 Å). Taking into account the structural features, the magnetic susceptibility data were best-fitted, giving the exchange parameter J = −0.16 cm{sup −1}. Complex 1 is thermally stable up to 66 °C, where it was observed to lose the crystallization water molecules with an 11.7% mass loss (calc. 11.5%). - Highlights: • Crystal and molecular structure of [Cu(L-Arg){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]C{sub 2}O{sub 4}·6H{sub 2}O crystals have been studied. • The magnetic interactions of Cu(II) centres are assisted by the formation of single zig-zag chain. • Role of oxalate ions in completed relatively small square pyramid distortion is described. • The cis-fashioned L-arginine created the stronger ligand field than trans-configuration.

  9. Hydrothermal self-assembly and supercapacitive behaviors of Co(II) ion-modified graphene aerogels in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Qi [Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Corrosion and Bio-fouling, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Hui, K.N., E-mail: bizhui@pusan.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.S., E-mail: kshui@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Corrosion and Bio-fouling, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Hong, Xiaoting [Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • 3D Co(II) ions modified graphene aerogels were prepared by one-step hydrothermal process. • The aerogel electrodes showed hybrid supercapacitor behaviors. • The aerogel electrodes exhibited high rate capability and long-term cycling stability. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) aerogels decorated with divalent cobalt ions were synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal self-assembly route. The interaction of Co(II) ions with 3D r-GO aerogels was investigated by spectroscopic techniques, including Raman, attenuated total reflectance infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The excellent electrochemical properties of the aerogels were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an acid electrolyte (1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The Co(II) ion-modified r-GO aerogels can be used as high-performance hybrid supercapacitor materials with a specific capacitance of 387.2 F g{sup –1} at 1 A g{sup –1} current density and a good cycling stability without capacity decay over 1000 cycles. The mechanical integrity enhancement of the hybrid r-GO aerogel framework and the improvement in its unique capacitive performance are attributed to the efficient interconnection produced by electro-active Co(II) ions.

  10. Spontaneous orientation-tuning driven by the strain variation in self-assembled ZnO-SrRuO{sub 3} heteroepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuanmin; Liu, Ruirui; Zhan, Qian, E-mail: qzhan@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Material Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Chang, Wei Sea [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500 (Malaysia); Yu, Rong [National Center for Electron Microscopy in Beijing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wei, Tzu-Chiao [Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); He, Jr-Hau [Electrical Engineering Program, King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (Saudi Arabia); Chu, Ying-Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 105, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-09

    Heteroepitaxial ZnO and SrRuO{sub 3} were grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (111) substrates and formed a self-assembled wurtzite-perovskite nanostructure. Spontaneous orientation-tuning of the SrRuO{sub 3} pillars was observed, with the growth direction changing from [111]{sub SRO} to [011]{sub SRO} as the film thickness increased, which is attributed to a misfit strain transition from the biaxial strain imposed by the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate to the vertical strain provided by the ZnO matrix. The [011]-SrRuO{sub 3} and [0001]-ZnO combination presents a favorable matching in the nanocomposite films, resulting in higher charge carrier mobility. This vertically integrated configuration and regulation on the crystallographic orientations are expected to be employed in designing multi-functional nanocomposite systems for applications in electronic devices.

  11. Sub-10nm lines and spaces patterning using grapho-epitaxial directed self-assembly of lamellar block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Yuriko; Sato, Hironobu; Kasahara, Yusuke; Minegishi, Shinya; Miyagi, Ken; Kubota, Hitoshi; Kanai, Hideki; Kodera, Katsuyoshi; Shiraishi, Masayuki; Kihara, Naoko; Kawamonzen, Yoshiaki; Tobana, Toshikatsu; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Yamano, Hitoshi; Azuma, Tsukasa; Nomura, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Our target at EIDEC is to study the feasibility of directed self-assembly (DSA) technology for semiconductor device manufacturing through electrical yield verification by development of such as process, material, metrology, simulation and design for DSA. We previously developed a grapho/chemo-hybrid coordinated line epitaxial process for sub-15-nm line-and-space (L/S) patterning using polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) lamellar block copolymers (BCPs)1- 3. Electrical yield verification results showed that a 30% open yield was successfully achieved with a metal wire line length of 700 μm 4. In the next stage of the evaluation, a sub-10-nm L/S DSA patterning process based on graphoepitaxial DSA of 20-nm lamellar period organic BCPs was developed based on neutral layer and guide space width optimization. At a 30-nm guide height, problems such as BCP overflow and DSA line shorts were observed after the dry development. At a 60-nm guide height, grid-like short defects were observed under dry development shallow etch conditions and sub-10-nm L/S patterns were formed under optimized etch conditions with a suitable BCP film thickness margin. The process performance was evaluated in terms of defects and critical dimension measurements using an electron beam inspection system and critical dimension-scanning electron microscope metrology. The main DSA defects were short defects, and the spatial roughness appeared to be caused by the periodic pitches of these short defects and the guide roughness. We successfully demonstrated the fabrication of sub-10-nm metal wires consists of L/S, pad, connect and cut patterns with controlled alignment and stack structure through lithography, etching and CMP process on a 300- mm wafer using the fully integrated DSA process and damascene processing.

  12. Organic-inorganic hybrid supramolecular assemblies based on isomers [H{sub x}As{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}]{sup (6-x)-} clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhi-Feng [College of Material Science and Engineering, Heilongjiang University of Science and Technology, Harbin (China); Su, Zhan-Hua; Cong, Bo-Wen; Zhao, Wen-Qi; Ma, Xiu-Juan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin (China)

    2017-08-16

    The arsenomolybdates [H{sub 2}As{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}(H{sub 2}O)].(H{sub 2}biyb){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (1) and [H{sub 3}As{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}].(H{sub 3}pt){sub 2} (2) [biyb = 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene, pt = 4'-(3{sup ''}-pyridyl)-2,3':6'3{sup ''}-terpyridine] were synthesized via hydrothermal method. The structures of the compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, and TG analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit two isomeric forms of [H{sub x}As{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}]{sup (6-x)-}. The structure of 1 is constructed from the B-type [H{sub 2}As{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 4-} polyanions and free biyb ligands via weak interactions to form 3D supramolecular framework with a {3.4.5"3.6}{3.4"3.5"2}{3.5.6}{sup 2}{3.5"2}{sup 2} topology structure. In compound 2, the A-type [H{sub 3}As{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}O{sub 26}]{sup 3-} clusters are surrounded by pt ligands through hydrogen bond interactions forming 3D supramolecular framework with a {4"3.6"3}{sup 2}{4"6.6"6.8"3} topology structure. The electrochemical behaviors, electrocatalytic and photocatalytic activities of 1 and 2 are detected. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Sub-10-nm patterning via directed self-assembly of block copolymer films with a vapour-phase deposited topcoat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyo Seon; Kim, Do Han; Moni, Priya; Xiong, Shisheng; Ocola, Leonidas E; Zaluzec, Nestor J; Gleason, Karen K; Nealey, Paul F

    2017-07-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of the domain structure in block copolymer (BCP) thin films is a promising approach for sub-10-nm surface patterning. DSA requires the control of interfacial properties on both interfaces of a BCP film to induce the formation of domains that traverse the entire film with a perpendicular orientation. Here we show a methodology to control the interfacial properties of BCP films that uses a polymer topcoat deposited by initiated chemical vapour deposition (iCVD). The iCVD topcoat forms a crosslinked network that grafts to and immobilizes BCP chains to create an interface that is equally attractive to both blocks of the underlying copolymer. The topcoat, in conjunction with a chemically patterned substrate, directs the assembly of the grating structures in BCP films with a half-pitch dimension of 9.3 nm. As the iCVD topcoat can be as thin as 7 nm, it is amenable to pattern transfer without removal. The ease of vapour-phase deposition, applicability to high-resolution BCP systems and integration with pattern-transfer schemes are attractive properties of iCVD topcoats for industrial applications.

  14. Sub-10-nm patterning via directed self-assembly of block copolymer films with a vapour-phase deposited topcoat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyo Seon; Kim, Do Han; Moni, Priya; Xiong, Shisheng; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Gleason, Karen K.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2017-07-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of the domain structure in block copolymer (BCP) thin films is a promising approach for sub-10-nm surface patterning. DSA requires the control of interfacial properties on both interfaces of a BCP film to induce the formation of domains that traverse the entire film with a perpendicular orientation. Here we show a methodology to control the interfacial properties of BCP films that uses a polymer topcoat deposited by initiated chemical vapour deposition (iCVD). The iCVD topcoat forms a crosslinked network that grafts to and immobilizes BCP chains to create an interface that is equally attractive to both blocks of the underlying copolymer. The topcoat, in conjunction with a chemically patterned substrate, directs the assembly of the grating structures in BCP films with a half-pitch dimension of 9.3 nm. As the iCVD topcoat can be as thin as 7 nm, it is amenable to pattern transfer without removal. The ease of vapour-phase deposition, applicability to high-resolution BCP systems and integration with pattern-transfer schemes are attractive properties of iCVD topcoats for industrial applications.

  15. Serum testosterone and depressive symptoms in severe OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercea, R M; Patacchioli, F R; Ghiciuc, C M; Cojocaru, E; Mihaescu, T

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), also characterised by hypoxia-related sleep- fragmentation, has been studied in relation to depression and serum testosterone deficit. In middle-aged men, it has been reported the association between depressive mood and low serum testosterone level; however, no data are available about this association in OSA patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in adult obese males, affected by severe OSA, the relationship between serum testosterone concentration and depressive symptoms, in order to identify among all measured parameters (serum testosterone morning concentration, polysomnography parameters, body mass index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale) those predictors for OSA-related depression. Forty patients diagnosed with severe OSA and forty subjects for the control-matched group were enroled in the study. The results indicated that the serum testosterone in OSA group was significantly lower than in controls. In addition, the OSA group presented a level of depression although moderate, yet significantly higher than controls. Furthermore, a statistically significant inverse correlation has been found between serum testosterone level and depressive symptoms. Among all variables, serum testosterone level was shown to be the only independent variable significantly predictor for depression in OSA patients. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Cost-effectiveness strategies in OSAS management: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraldo, D M; Passali, D; Sanna, A; De Nuccio, F; Conte, L; De Benedetto, M

    2017-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSAS) is an underdiagnosed chronic disease with a high prevalence in adults. It is becoming a significant social problem, since it is associated with a worsening in quality of life and increase in mortality. The cost-effectiveness ratio of diagnostic and therapeutic management of OSAS is a strategic issue to counteract the expected increasing demand of objective testing. OSAS patients with any clinical evidence of comorbidities must be studied using simplified and less expensive systems such as Home Sleep Testing (HST). On the other hand, Sleep Laboratory Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard to manage OSAS patients with comorbidities. It should be pointed out that the use of HST can lead to incorrect diagnosis in poorly selected OSAS subjects. This short review discusses various topics for the proper diagnosis and treatment of OSAS in view of epidemiological factors and results in terms of costs and social benefit of the disease. Whatever the strategy chosen and/or the organisational model adopted for managing OSAS, it cannot and should not take into account only cost-effectiveness. Long-term prospective studies evaluating cost-effectiveness ratios and outcomes of OSAS treatment of hospital management models versus home care models are needed. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  17. A simple route to synthesize size-controlled Ag{sub 2}S core-shell nanocrystals, and their self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Wenjing; Wang Xiaobo; Chen Miao; Liu Weimin; Hao Jincheng [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: jhao@sdu.edu.cn

    2008-06-04

    Silver sulfide (Ag{sub 2}S) nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by the thermal treatment of the single source precursors, silver dialkyldithiophosphates (Ag[S{sub 2}P(OC{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}){sub 2}]), under mild reaction conditions. The size of Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals with regular shape can be controlled in the range of tens of nanometers by adjusting critical parameters, such as the carbon number of the substitute alkyl, the solvent and the reaction temperature. Electron diffraction and x-ray powder diffraction confirmed the orthorhombic phase of the Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals. The as-prepared Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals have an inorganic-organic core-shell structure, in which Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals are the inorganic core and the organic modifiers, consisting of oleylamine and dialkyldithiophosphate, are the shell. The organic modifiers were anchored to the surface of Ag{sub 2}S nanocores by their active groups of -NH{sub 2} and -SPS- , respectively, and their direct-alkyl chains spread to the outside. So, these as-prepared Ag{sub 2}S nanocrystals can self-assemble to form orderly two-dimensional arrays easily, and they disperse in some non-polar solvents stably.

  18. Sub-10-nm patterning process using directed self-assembly with high χ block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Naoko; Seino, Yuriko; Sato, Hironobu; Kasahara, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Miyagi, Ken; Minegishi, Shinya; Yatsuda, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki; Kanai, Hideki; Kawamonzen, Yoshiaki; Kodera, Katsuyoshi; Azuma, Tsukasa; Hayakawa, Teruaki

    2015-04-01

    The perpendicularly orientated lamellar structure of the self-organized diblock copolymer is an attractive template for sub-10-nm line-and-space pattern formation. We propose a method of evaluating the neutral layer (NL) whose performance has an important bearing on the perpendicular orientation of the lamellar structure. The random copolymer of methyl methacrylate and i-butyl POSS methacrylate (MAIBPOSS) has been investigated as an NL for a polymethylmethacrylate-b-polymethacrylethylPOSS (PMMA-b-PMAIBPOSS) lamellar structure. PMMA-b-PMAIBPOSS material has the potential to form sub-10 nm line-and-space pattern, in addition to high etch selectivity due to its POSS structure. Under the free surface, PMMA-b-PMAIBPOSS film on the random copolymer layer showed horizontal orientation. However, a half-pitch of a 7-nm finger pattern structure was observed by peeling off the horizontally oriented layer. The upper portion of the PMMA-b-PMAIBPOSS film was eliminated till proximity of the random copolymer layer by CF4 gas etching. From the result, it was revealed that the PMMA-r-PMAIBPOSS works as an NL. It was confirmed that the contact angle analysis using an appropriate polymer is a suitable method for evaluation of the surface energy performance of the copolymer with the attribute of high segregation energy.

  19. Overlap syndrome of COPD and OSA in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Mee; Thomas, Robert J; Kim, Jinkwan; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoon, Dae Wui; Shin, Chol

    2017-07-01

    Overlap syndrome of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to increased morbidity and mortality. There have been no reports available on the overlap syndrome for Koreans. Our primary aim was to identify prevalence and predictors of the overlap syndrome in Koreans.This is a cross-sectional study with a community-based sample of 1298 participants (mean age, 59.7 ± 6.7) from the cohort of Korean Genomic and Epidemiologic Study during 2013 to 2014. OSA and COPD were assessed by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC syndrome. The prevalence of COPD remained the same as 10.8% regardless of the presence of OSA. The mean ratio of FEV1/FVC for those with COPD was 0.77, regardless of OSA. The OR increased for age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) and smokers (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.0-6.4), but decreased for body mass index (BMI) (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9) and overweight state (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.7). Risk factors of the overlap syndrome differed by OSA severity, that is, BMI in those with moderate-to-severe OSA, whereas sex (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1-10.6) and age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.1) in those with mild OSA.In a population study from Korea, 10.8% of OSA patients had an overlap syndrome with COPD. Although BMI is a well-known risk factor of OSA, it is likely that being overweight may be protective for moderate-to-severe OSA patients from the risk of COPD (i.e., overlap syndrome).

  20. 3D Orientational Control in Self-Assembled Thin Films with Sub-5 nm Features by Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickmans, Koen; Bögels, Gerardus M; Sánchez-Somolinos, Carlos; Murphy, Jeffrey N; Leclère, Philippe; Voets, Ilja K; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2017-09-01

    While self-assembled molecular building blocks could lead to many next-generation functional organic nanomaterials, control over the thin-film morphologies to yield monolithic sub-5 nm patterns with 3D orientational control at macroscopic length scales remains a grand challenge. A series of photoresponsive hybrid oligo(dimethylsiloxane) liquid crystals that form periodic cylindrical nanostructures with periodicities between 3.8 and 5.1 nm is studied. The liquid crystals can be aligned in-plane by exposure to actinic linearly polarized light and out-of-plane by exposure to actinic unpolarized light. The photoalignment is most efficient when performed just under the clearing point of the liquid crystal, at which the cylindrical nanostructures are reoriented within minutes. These results allow the generation of highly ordered sub-5 nm patterns in thin films at macroscopic length scales, with control over the orientation in a noncontact fashion. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) and Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Carolina; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Montano, Nicola; Losurdo, Anna; Parati, Gianfranco

    2017-08-28

    There is increasing evidence of a relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular diseases. The strong association between OSA and arterial hypertension, in particular in patients with resistant hypertension and/or a non-dipping profile, has been extensively reported. The relationship between OSA and high blood pressure (BP) has been found independent from a number of confounders, but several factors may affect this relationship, including age and sex. It is thus important to better assess pathophysiologic and clinical interactions between OSA and arterial hypertension, also aimed at optimizing treatment approaches in OSA and hypertensive patients with co-morbidities. Among possible mechanisms, cardiovascular autonomic control alterations, altered mechanics of ventilation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system should be considered with particular attention. Additionally, available studies also support the occurrence of a bidirectional association between OSA and cardiovascular alterations, in particular heart failure, stroke and cardiac arrhythmias, emphasizing that greater attention is needed to both identify and treat sleep apneas in patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, a number of aspects of such a relationship are still to be clarified, in particular with regard to gender differences, effect of sleep-related breathing disorders in childhood, and influence of OSA treatment on cardiovascular risk, and they may represent important targets for future studies.

  2. Hearing loss in mild OSAS and simple snoring patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinosi, Maria Carla; D'Amico, Francesca; Passali, Giulio; Cingi, Cemal; Rodriguez, Hugo; Passali, Desiderio

    2017-04-30

    Introduction Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by recurrent episodes of prolonged partial or complete obstruction of the upper airways. Several study groups studied the effect of snoring and OSAS on auditory function, showing an increase in the incidence of hearing loss in apneic patients, an earlier onset and/or a degree of hearing loss deeper than in peers. The aim of our study is to evaluate the audiological performance of a population of simple-snoring patients and patients suffering from mild OSAS, and the impact that such pathological condition can have on the auditory function, considering the significant levels of chronic noise. Materials and Methods Data was collected by analyzing audiometric exams on snoring patients and a control group of non-snoring patients. Our study included simple snoring patients without OSAS (AHI < 5) or with low level of OSAS (5< AHI < 15). Possible hearing loss was classified in a crescent scale (A-B-C-D-E), from greater to minor auditory performance, according to the indications of the national protocol of occupational medicine for evaluation of hearing loss in patients exposed to chronic noise. Results We have found independence between simple snorers, mild-OSAS snorers and non-snoring patients compared to the scale of hearing performance classification. Conclusions Our results show a distribution of hearing loss in the different groups that appear independent of the presence or absence of snoring, complicated or uncomplicated by mild OSAS.

  3. Influences of urea–glycerol mixtures as mixed mesopore-controlling agents on tailoring physicochemical properties and photocatalytic H{sub 2} production activity of sol–gel-derived mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreethawong, Thammanoon, E-mail: sreethawongt@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai, E-mail: wonone@hotmail.com [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Susumu [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were synthesized by modified sol–gel process. ► Urea–glycerol mixtures were applied as mixed mesopore-controlling agents. ► Urea and glycerol contents affected physicochemical properties of synthesized TiO{sub 2}. ► Photocatalytic H{sub 2} production activity also depended on urea and glycerol contents. ► 75 mol% urea and 25 mol% glycerol yielded the most photocatalytically active TiO{sub 2}. -- Abstract: In this work, the mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a sol–gel process with the aid of urea–glycerol mixtures used as mixed mesopore-controlling agents. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal photocatalysts was investigated for hydrogen production from the water splitting reaction using methanol as a hole scavenger under UV light irradiation. The synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal photocatalysts were systematically characterized by TG–DTA, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, SEM, high resolution TEM, and XRD analyses. The characterization results showed that the well-controlled contents of urea and glycerol in a urea–glycerol mixture at 75 mol% urea and 25 mol% glycerol resulted in not only the most highly porous network (i.e. the highest specific surface area and total pore volume, and the smallest mean mesopore diameter), but also the smallest crystallite size of the synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal photocatalyst. The photocatalytic reaction results, hence, revealed a much superior photocatalytic hydrogen production activity of the mesoporous-assembled TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal synthesized with 75 mol% urea and 25 mol% glycerol to the other synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals, also being much higher than those of the commercially available P-25 TiO{sub 2} and ST-01 TiO{sub 2} powders.

  4. Gender dimorphism in pediatric OSA: Is it for real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Pablo E; Koren, Dorit; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2017-11-01

    In epidemiologic studies focused on adults, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has higher prevalence in men than in women. The evidence supporting a gender-related discrepant prevalence of OSA is however much more tenuous in children. Here, we aimed to review the evidence concerning gender- based differences in the prevalence of OSA in children, and if so, to examine the evidence with the intent to identify potential factors that may account for this putative association. Gender-based perception and reporting of clinical manifestations of OSA may be modulated by several social and cultural factors in children. Among those factors, gender may crucially affect the reporting of symptoms such as snoring, and therefore markedly skew the male:female prevalence ratios of OSA. On the other hand, hormonal changes associated with puberty, may be playing a role, albeit a relatively smaller one than previously construed. Gender bias in OSA is most likely due to complex interactions between several physiological and epidemiologic factors that are clearly operational in adults. However, the evidence of clear gender-based differences in OSA prevalence or severity remains unclear in pre-pubertal children, and may be detectable in adolescents only when concurrent obesity is also present. Furthermore, no published evidence emerged supporting increased susceptibility to OSA-related in pre-pubertal boys vs. girls, except in obese adolescents or in girls with elevated testosterone levels. Future research in OSA may give clues on the role of gender-related hormonal changes as a modulating factor in childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and improved photocatalytic activity of mesoporous WS{sub 2} using combined hydrothermal-evaporation induced self-assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vattikuti, S.V. Prabhakar, E-mail: vsvprabu@gmail.com; Byon, Chan, E-mail: cbyon@ynu.ac.kr; Reddy, Ch. Venkata

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • One-step method for synthesis of mesoporous WS{sub 2} was proposed. • Role of CTAB surfactant on formation of mesoporous WS{sub 2} was elucidated. • Possible growth mechanism of the mesoporous structure is also reported. • 0.1 wt% mesoporous WS{sub 2} catalyst exhibited high photocatalytic activity under UV light. - Abstract: In this paper, we report mesoporous WS{sub 2} nanosheets with a crystalline network that were synthesized using CTAB as a structure-directing agent via self-assembly induced by hydrothermal and thermal evaporation. Powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the formation of WS{sub 2} structures. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the as-prepared mesoporous frameworks. The mesoporous WS{sub 2} nanosheets have a surface area of 197 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. A possible growth mechanism is reported for these mesoporous WS{sub 2} nanosheets. The mesoporous WS{sub 2} nanosheets demonstrate high photocatalytic activity. Among different concentrations, 0.1 wt% mesoporous WS{sub 2} shows superior catalytic activity compared to pristine WS{sub 2} nanosheets.

  6. Self-assembly of novel hierarchical flowers-like Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4} decorated on 2D graphene nanosheets hybrid as high-performance anode materials for LIBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuefang, E-mail: 1021633952@qq.com [Department of Applied Chemistry and The Key Laboratory of Space Applied Physics and Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Huang, Ying, E-mail: yingh@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry and The Key Laboratory of Space Applied Physics and Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, Tianpeng [Shijiazhuang Mechanical Engineering College, Shi Jia Zhuang 050003 (China); Wei, Chao; Yan, Jing; Feng, Xuansheng [Department of Applied Chemistry and The Key Laboratory of Space Applied Physics and Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Novel hierarchical Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4} decorated on graphene nanosheets has been synthesized. • As the anode materials, the composite has not been investigated. • An insight into the common discharging behavior of the composite. • The composite displayed high capacity and good cycling stability. - Abstract: Novel hierarchical flower-like Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4} assembled by thin Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanosheets{sub ,} as a kind of mixed-valence tin oxide, decorated on two-dimensional graphene nanosheets has been synthesized via a hydrothermal route and a step solution deoxidization technique. More importantly, as the anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the flower-like Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene composite has not been investigated in detail. Noticeably, the nanosheets stemming from flower-like Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4} and graphene have been linked together to form a specials three dimensional structure, possessing high active surface area and large enough inner spaces, which is benefit to the diffusion of liquid electrolyte into the electrode materials. In addition, the special structure could provide sufficient free volume to buffer the volume expansion appeared in the process of discharging and charging. The as-prepared flowers-like Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene displayed excellent electrochemical performance with high capacity and good cycling stability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The discharge capacity is 1727 mAh/g in the first cycle at the current density of 60 mA/g. The obtained reversible capacity is 631mAh/g with a coulomb efficiency of 97.04% after 50 cycles. With its better electrochemical properties, the as-prepared flowers-like Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphene has the potential to be the next generation materials as an environmentally benign, abundant, cheap anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  7. Structural, vibrational and optical properties of a new self assembled organic–inorganic nanowire crystal (C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N){sub 2}[BiBr{sub 5}]. A Density Functional Theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammak, Hajer, E-mail: hajerdm@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée (LPA), Université de Sfax, Faculté des Sciences, BP1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Triki, Smail [UMR CNRS 6521, Chimie, Electrochimie Moléculaires, Chimie Analytique, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, BP 809, 29285 Brest Cedex (France); Mlayah, Adnen [Centre d’Elaboration de Matériaux et d’Etudes Structurales, CNRS-Université Paul Sabatier, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Cedex 4 (France); Abid, Younes; Feki, Habib [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée (LPA), Université de Sfax, Faculté des Sciences, BP1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2015-10-15

    Single crystal and thin films of a new organic–inorganic hybrid material (C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N){sub 2}[BiBr{sub 5}] were synthesized by the slow evaporation method at room temperature and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption and photoluminescence measurements. The crystal structure was determined in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. The structure is built up from BiBr{sub 6} octahedra sharing two cis-bromine atoms and forming infinite [BiBr{sub 5}]{sub n} zig-zag chains surrounded by organic cations. Such a one-dimensional (1D) structure may be regarded as quantum wires system in which the [BiBr{sub 5}]{sub n} inorganic chains act as semiconductor wires and the (C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N) organic cations act as insulator barriers. The cohesion of the structure is achieved by an extensive network of N–H…Br hydrogen bonds. The Raman and Infrared spectra where interpreted by analogy with the homologous materials and by calculation of normal mode frequencies using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The optimized geometry and the calculated frequencies are in good agreement with the experimental data. - Highlights: • A new luminescent organic-inorganic material (C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N){sub 2}BiBr{sub 5} was synthesized. • Vibrational properties were studied by Raman and IR spectroscopy. • The UV–vis spectrum shows three absorption peaks at 3.01, 3.73 and at 4.4 eV. • This compound shows a strong blue emission at 2.71 eV.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Greek OSA-18 questionnaire in children undergoing polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousailidis, George K; Lachanas, Vasileios A; Skoulakis, Charalampos E; Sakellariou, Achilles; Exarchos, Sotirios T; Kaditis, Athanasios G; Bizakis, John G

    2014-12-01

    Translations of validated questionnaires help to compare different countries/cultures populations and establish protocols for global health. OSA-18 is a validated disease-specific questionnaire for pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Our aim was to validate OSA-18 in Greek and correlate it with polysomnography results and OSA severity. Prospective instrument validation study. OSA-18 was translated in Greek and back into English. Children undergoing polysomnography due to snoring were recruited prospectively. OSA-18 was completed by parents during the initial clinic visit (test), in the evening prior to the sleep study (retest), and 3 months postoperatively for subjects who underwent adenotonsillectomy. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Validity was assessed by exploring correlations between OSA-18 and AHI, by comparing OSA-18 of OSA and non-OSA groups, and by calculating questionnaire's sensitivity and specificity for detecting OSA. Total scores of non-OSA, mild, moderate and severe OSA subgroups were compared. In OSA children who underwent adenotonsillectomy, preoperative and postoperative total scores were compared to assess responsiveness. Test-retest questionnaires were fully completed for 141 children. OSA-18 in Greek had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.951 for test and 0.947 for retest) and test-retest reliability (Pearson's correlation coefficients between test and retest scores: 0.850-0.946; PGreek OSA-18 is an instrument with satisfactory internal consistency, reliability, and responsiveness, but it is a poor predictor of OSA severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kuninglikus õukonnateatris. I-IV osa / Jaanus Rohumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rohumaa, Jaanus, 1969-

    1999-01-01

    Jaanus Rohumaa Londonis Royal Court Theatre' poolt korraldatud residentuuris, mis on mõeldud tänapäeva näitekirjanikele ja lavastajatele. Muljeid kokkutulnud eri maade näitekirjanikest ja lavastajatest. Jaanus Rohumaa lavastab Londonis Royal Shakespeare Company teatris Jaan Tätte näidendit "Ristumine peateega"(II osa) Inglise näitekirjaniku Sarah Kane'i loomingust, Robert Lepage'i lavastusest "Imede geomeetria" (III osa)

  10. Oropharyngeal Crowding Closely Relates to Aggravation of OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Eiki; Tsuiki, Satoru; Maeda, Keiko; Okajima, Isa; Inoue, Yuichi

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is known to be an important risk factor for OSA; however, OSA can also be seen in nonobese patients with a small maxilla and/or mandible as well as in all obese patients with such features. Thus, we hypothesized that regional factors, oropharyngeal crowding associated with fat deposition, and maxillomandibular enclosure size closely related to the severity of OSA. A total of 703 male Japanese subjects were enrolled; theywere classified into obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2); n = 158) and nonobese (BMI OSA subjects, although BMI and TG/LFC were significantly associated with AHI in both groups. In particular, the contribution of TG/LFC to AHI was larger than that of BMI in the obese group. Oropharyngeal crowding is a local anatomic factor that independently relates to the severity of OSA in both obese and nonobese patients; the more crowded the upper airway, the more severe the OSA. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Digital Morphometrics: A New Upper Airway Phenotyping Paradigm in OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Richard J; Leinwand, Sarah E; Bearn, Cary B; Maislin, Greg; Rao, Ramya Bhat; Nagaraja, Adithya; Wang, Stephen; Keenan, Brendan T

    2017-08-01

    OSA is associated with changes in pharyngeal anatomy. The goal of this study was to objectively and reproducibly quantify pharyngeal anatomy by using digital morphometrics based on a laser ruler and to assess differences between subjects with OSA and control subjects and associations with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to use digital morphometrics to quantify intraoral risk factors for OSA. Digital photographs were obtained by using an intraoral laser ruler and digital camera in 318 control subjects (mean AHI, 4.2 events/hour) and 542 subjects with OSA (mean AHI, 39.2 events/hour). The digital morphometric paradigm was validated and reproducible over time and camera distances. A larger modified Mallampati score and having a nonvisible airway were associated with a higher AHI, both unadjusted (P digital morphometrics is an accurate, high-throughput, and noninvasive technique to identify anatomic OSA risk factors. Morphometrics may also provide a more reproducible and standardized measurement of the Mallampati score. Digital morphometrics represent an efficient and cost-effective method of examining intraoral crowding and tongue size when examining large populations, genetics, or screening for OSA. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A facile self-assembled film assisted preparation of CuGaS{sub 2} ultrathin films and their high sensitivity to L-noradrenaline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qin; Kang, Shi-Zhao, E-mail: kangsz@sit.edu.cn; Li, Xiangqing; Qin, Lixia; Mu, Jin, E-mail: mujin@sit.edu.cn

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A dense CuGaS{sub 2} ultrathin film was prepared in an improved layer-by-layer self-assembled process following heat treatment. And, the as-prepared CuGaS{sub 2} ultrathin film possesses high sensitivity to L-noradrenaline. - Highlights: • Tetragonal CuGaS{sub 2} film was prepared in a simple process. • CuGaS{sub 2} film exhibits a narrow emission. • High sensitivity to LNE with a detection limit of 2.83 ng cm{sup −2}. - Abstract: A dense CuGaS{sub 2} ultrathin film was prepared in an improved layer-by-layer self-assembled process followed by heat treatment and characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Meanwhile, the application of the as-prepared CuGaS{sub 2} ultrathin film in the trace detection of L-noradrenaline was explored as a photoluminescent probe. The results show that the tetragonal phase CuGaS{sub 2} film fabricated on the glass substrate is smooth and dense. And this CuGaS{sub 2} ultrathin film can exhibit a strong emission at 829 nm with full width at half maximum of approximate 12 nm. Furthermore, the as-prepared CuGaS{sub 2} ultrathin film possesses high sensitivity to L-noradrenaline with a detectable concentration of 2.83 ng cm{sup −2} when it is used as a photoluminescent probe, implying that it is a promising candidate in the field of biological and chemical sensing in future.

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnS nanoparticles loaded with MoS{sub 2} nanoflakes by self-assembly approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vattikuti, S.V. Prabhakar, E-mail: vsvprabu@gmail.com; Byon, Chan, E-mail: cbyon@ynu.ac.kr; Jeon, Sora

    2016-12-01

    A hybrid consisting of ZnS nanoparticles supported on layered MoS{sub 2}−ZnS was synthesized by a hydrothermal method based on self-assembly technique without using a template. XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, HR-TEM, TG-DTA, XPS, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, and UV–Vis spectroscopies were used to characterize the structural features, morphology, and composition of the MoS{sub 2}–ZnS hybrid. The results show that the MoS{sub 2}–ZnS hybrid is mainly ZnS nanoparticles on layered MoS{sub 2} with a thickness of ca. 5–20 nm. The combination of the MoS{sub 2} and ZnS hybrid structure is beneficial for enhancing the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. A possible photoreaction mechanism of the MoS{sub 2}–ZnS hybrid in the degradation is proposed. The photoexcited electrons from the ZnS could easily transfer to the conduction band of MoS{sub 2}, thus decreasing the recombination of photoinduced carriers and enabling the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation.

  14. Electrostatic assembly of CdTe quantum dots with different charged ligands into TiO{sub 2} porous film for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sai, Liman; Kong, Xiang Yang [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Institute of Materials for Mobile Energy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai (China)

    2014-03-15

    We have demonstrated an approach for the electrostatic assembly of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with different charged ligands as sensitizers, achieving high coverage and good dispersion in TiO{sub 2} porous films. The CdTe QD-sensitized TiO{sub 2} porous films were subjected to thermal annealing in a high vacuum chamber to remove the ligand linker, resulting in the formation of direct heterojunctions between the bare CdTe QDs and TiO{sub 2} for a favorable charge transfer. The as-received CdTe QD-sensitized TiO{sub 2} porous films were employed as photoanodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QSSCs), and the photocurrent density reached as high as 4.69 mA/cm{sup 2} under a standard illumination condition of simulated AM 1.5G (100 mW/cm{sup 2}). (orig.)

  15. Photocatalytic thin films containing TiO{sub 2}:N nanopowders obtained by the layer-by-layer self-assembling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Blanco, L., E-mail: smile_liz18@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fraccionamiento Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 76230 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Urzua, M.D. [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Ramirez-Bon, R.; Espinoza Beltran, F.J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fraccionamiento Real de Juriquilla, C.P. 76230 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2012-01-01

    In this work, TiO{sub 2}-N powders were synthesized by high-energy ball milling, using commercial titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the anatase phase and urea to introduce nitrogen into TiO{sub 2} in order to enhance their photocatalytic properties in the visible spectral region. Several samples were prepared by milling a mixture of TiO{sub 2}-urea during 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the coexistence of anatase and high-pressure srilankite TiO{sub 2} crystalline phases in the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the grain size of the powder samples decreases to 200 nm at 24 h milling time. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopic data showed a clear red-shift in the onset of light absorption from 387 to 469 nm as consequence of nitrogen doping in the samples. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO{sub 2}-N samples was evaluated by methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that TiO{sub 2}-N samples had higher photocatalytic activity than undoped TiO{sub 2} samples, which could be assigned to the effect of introducing N atoms and XPS results confirm it. Using polyethylenimine (PEI), transparent thin films of TiO{sub 2}-N nanoparticles were prepared by layer-by-layer self assembly method. UV-visible spectrophotometry was employed in a quantitative manner to monitor the adsorbed mass of TiO{sub 2} and PEI after each dip cycle. The adsorption of both TiO{sub 2} and PEI showed a saturation dip time of 15 min.

  16. Treating OSA: Current and emerging therapies beyond CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Almeida, Fernanda R; Strollo, Patrick J

    2017-11-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the standard treatment for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, adherence to CPAP is limited and non-CPAP therapies are frequently explored. Oral appliance (OA) therapy is currently widely used for the treatment of snoring, mild, moderate and severe OSA. The most commonly used and studied OA consists of a maxillary and mandibular splint which hold the lower jaw forward during sleep. The efficacy of OA is inferior to CPAP; however, the effectiveness as measured by sleepiness, quality of life, endothelial function and blood pressure is similar likely due to higher acceptance and subjective adherence. Upper airway stimulation augments neural drive by unilaterally stimulating the hypoglossal nerve. The Stimulation Therapy for Apnea Reduction (STAR) study enrolled 126 patients and demonstrated a 68% reduction in OSA severity. A high upfront cost and variable response are the main limitations. Oropharyngeal exercises consist of a set of isometric and isotonic exercises involving the tongue, soft palate and lateral pharyngeal wall. The collective reported trials (n = 120) showed that oropharyngeal exercises can ameliorate OSA and snoring (~30-40%). Nasal EPAP devices consist of disposable one-way resister valve. A systematic review (n = 345) showed that nasal EPAP reduced OSA severity by 53%. The Winx device consists of a mouthpiece placed inside the oral cavity that is connected by tubing to a console that generates negative pressure. Winx may provide successful therapy for ~30-40% of OSA patients. In conclusion, several non-CPAP therapies to treat OSA are currently available. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  17. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution in natural LiAlO{sub 2}/HDPE assembly irradiated by D-T neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakhar, Shrichand, E-mail: shrichand.s@gmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Abhangi, Mitul; Rao, C.V.S.; Basu, T.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Bhade, Sonali P.D.; Reddy, Priyanka J. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2012-02-15

    A neutronics experiment was performed to measure the tritium production rate (TPR) profile in the breeder assembly with LiAlO{sub 2} as breeder and high density polyethylene (HDPE) as neutron reflector. The breeder assembly was irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons from DT neutron generator at IPR Neutronics Laboratory. The objective of the experiment was to validate the tritium production prediction capability of the Monte-Carlo code MCNP and FENDL 2.1 data library. The tritium production rate profile in the breeding assembly was measured by irradiating Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pellets kept at various locations and then tritium counting liquid scintillation technique. Experiment was analyzed with 3D Monte-Carlo code MCNP with FENDL 2.1 cross-section data library. The calculation results were found to agree with the measured tritium production rates except one point near to the source. This experiment is a starting experiment in the series of benchmark experiments for the Indian Demo breeding blanket.

  18. The effect of CPAP treatment on EEG of OSAS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lv, Jun; Zhou, Junhong; Su, Li; Feng, Liping; Ma, Jing; Wang, Guangfa; Zhang, Jue

    2015-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is currently the most effective treatment method for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to compare the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) changes before and after the application of CPAP to OSAS patients. A retrospective study was conducted and 45 sequential patients who received both polysomnography (PSG) and CPAP titration were included. The raw data of sleep EEG were extracted and analyzed by engineers using two main factors: fractal dimension (FD) and the zero-crossing rate of detrended FD (zDFD). FD was an effective indicator reflecting the EEG complexity and zDFD was useful to reflect the variability of the EEG complexity. The FD and zDFD indexes of sleep EEG of 45 OSAS patients before and after CPAP titration were analyzed. The age of 45 OSAS patients was 52.7 ± 5.6 years old and the patients include 12 females and 33 males. After CPAP treatment, FD of EEG in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep decreased significantly (P EEG increased in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (P EEG in patients with OSAHS, which lead to a more stable EEG pattern. This may be one of the mechanisms that CPAP could improve sleep quality and brain function of OSAS patients.

  19. Does remote monitoring change OSA management and CPAP adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Jean L; Tamisier, Renaud; Hwang, Dennis; Mereddy, Suresh; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2017-11-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and its associated cardio-metabolic morbidities make OSA a burden for society. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the gold standard treatment, needs to be used for more than 4 h/night to be effective, but suffers from relatively poor adherence. Furthermore, CPAP is likely to be more effective if combined with lifestyle changes. Thus, the remote telemonitoring (TM) of OSA patients in terms of CPAP use, signalling of device problems, following disease progression, detection of acute events and monitoring of daily physical activity is an attractive option. In the present review, we aim to summarize the recent scientific data on remote TM of OSA patients, and whether it meets expectations. We also look at how patient education and follow-up via telemedicine is used to improve adherence and we discuss the influence of the profile of the healthcare provider. Then, we consider how TM might be extended to encompass the patient's cardio-metabolic health in general. Lastly, we explore how TM and the deluge of data it potentially generates could be combined with electronic health records in providing personalized care and multi-disease management to OSA patients. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Metal–organic frameworks assembled from lanthanide and 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate with cubane-like [Ln{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}] building units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelbaky, Mohammed S.M. [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, University of Oviedo—CINN, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Amghouz, Zakariae, E-mail: amghouz.uo@uniovi.es [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, University of Oviedo—CINN, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Servicios Científico-Técnicos, University of Oviedo—CINN, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Fernández-Zapico, Eva; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R. [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, University of Oviedo—CINN, Oviedo 33006 (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide–organic frameworks based on 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate (25p) ligand, formulated as [Yb{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (25pYb), [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (25pY-1) and [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}(25p){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (25pY-2), have been obtained as single phases under hydrothermal conditions. 25pYb and 25pY-1 are isostructural, and crystallize in the triclinic space group, P-1, with a=8.6075(5) Å, b=14.8478(7) Å, c=15.9164(9) Å, α=86.277(4)°, β=80.196(5)°, γ=81.785(4)°, and a=8.7166(6) Å, b=14.966(1) Å, c=15.966(1) Å, α=86.260(6)°, β=80.036(6)°, γ=81.599(6)°, respectively. 25pY-2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P2{sub 1}/c, with a=24.9117(17) Å, b=13.7340(8) Å, c=14.3385(10) Å, β=100.551(7)°. 25pYb and 25pY-2 have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 25pYb structure is based on tetranuclear cubane-like [Yb{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters, which are interconnected to eight neighbouring clusters through teen surrounding 25p ligands leading to neutral 3D framework, while the structure of 25pY-2 is based on two independent cuban-like [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters, which are joined together through Y1 cation leading to the formation of hexanuclear [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}]{sup 10+} clusters, which in turn are joined via Y2 cation resulting in infinite inorganic chain extending along c-axis, and each chain is interconnected to six adjacent chains through 25p ligands leading finally to 3D framework. The luminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} doped 25pY-1 and 25pY-2 compounds have also been investigated. All materials has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG–SDTA–MS), FTIR spectroscopy, C–H–N elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), and powder X-ray thermodiffraction. - Graphical abstract: Nowadays, lanthanide–organic frameworks (LOFs) attract

  1. Three-dimensional roselike α-Ni(OH){sub 2} assembled from nanosheet building blocks for non-enzymatic glucose detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Pan [College of Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Lei, Yuting [College of Life Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Lu, Shengjun, E-mail: shjlu71@163.com [College of Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Wang, Qing [College of Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Liu, Qibin, E-mail: qbliu2@263.net [Guizhou Key Laboratory for Microstructure and Strength of Materials, Guiyang, Guizhou 550003 (China)

    2015-06-23

    Highlights: • High-quality roselike α-Ni(OH){sub 2} can be obtained via a self-assembly process with the assistance of PEG. • The Ni(OH){sub 2}-RS have bimodal porosity in the mesoporous regime with large specific surface areas. • This work developed a highly sensitive biosensor based on Ni(OH){sub 2}-RS for the determination of glucose. • This biosensor shows a wide linear range of 0.87 μM–10.53 mM and a lower detection limit of 0.08 μM. - Abstract: Glucose detection plays very important roles in diagnostics and management of diabetes. The search for novel catalytic materials with appropriate architectures is the key step in the fabrication of highly sensitive glucose sensors. In this work, α-Ni(OH){sub 2} roselike structures (Ni(OH){sub 2}-RS) assembled from nanosheet building blocks were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method through the hydrolysis of nickel chloride in the mixed solvents of water and ethanol with the assistance of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The structure and morphology of the roselike α-Ni(OH){sub 2} were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherm measurement. TEM and FE-SEM images showed that the synthesized Ni(OH){sub 2} was roselike and the size of the leaf-shaped nanosheet was about 5 nm in thickness, which leads to larger active surface areas and faster electron transfer for the detection of glucose. Compared with the bare GCE and bulk Ni(OH){sub 2}/GCE, the Ni(OH){sub 2}-RS/GCE had higher catalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose. Under the optimal conditions, the Ni(OH){sub 2}-RS/GCE offers a variety of merits, such as a wide linear response window for glucose concentrations ranging from 0.87 μM to 10.53 mM, short response time (3 s), a lower detection limit of 0.08 μM (S/N = 3), as well as long term stability and

  2. Surgical Treatment of OSA on Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Tyler R; Oh, Melissa S; Collop, Nancy A; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Bliwise, Donald L; Dedhia, Raj C

    2017-12-01

    OSA is an increasingly prevalent clinical problem with significant effects on quality of life and cardiovascular risk. Surgical therapy represents an important treatment for those unable to use positive airway pressure. This systematic review examines the available cardiovascular risk reduction data for the surgical treatment of OSA. A comprehensive literature search was performed. Articles were included if they met the following criteria: (1) the sample population consisted of adults (age ≥ 18 years); (2) OSA was diagnosed according to a sleep study; (3) surgical intervention was performed for OSA; and (4) one or more physical or biochemical cardiovascular and/or cerebrovascular variables was measured preoperatively and at ≥ 14 days postoperatively. Thirty-three articles were included. The majority of studies were case series and cohort studies (42% and 44%, respectively), with wide-ranging follow-up periods (4 weeks-9 years) and sample sizes (range, 6-10,339; median, 34). The following classes of surgical intervention were examined: pharyngeal surgery (n = 23), tracheostomy (n = 6), maxillomandibular advancement (n = 3), and hypoglossal nerve stimulation (n = 1). In total, 19 outcome measures were assessed. Tracheostomy was most consistently associated with improvement in cardiovascular end points. Pharyngeal surgeries (eg, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty) were variably associated with improvement in cardiovascular end points. The published literature examining cardiovascular end points following surgical treatment of OSA is limited and generally of poor quality. However, available data from mainly small and observational studies suggest that surgical treatment of OSA may provide improvement in some cardiovascular end points. Larger, randomized, and prospective trials with more rigorous study designs are needed. PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systemic Reviews (PROSPERO 42016040120). Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians

  3. One-dimensional self-assembly of C{sub 60} molecules on periodically wrinkled graphene sheet: A Monte Carlo approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun-Young [Department of Computer Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ho Jung, E-mail: hjhwang@cau.ac.kr [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jeong Won, E-mail: jwkang@ut.ac.kr [Department of Computer Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Transportation System Engineering, Graduate School of Transportation, Korea National University of Transportation, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 437-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-09

    Periodically wrinkled graphene sheet is of interest as a building block to develop nanoelectronic devices. This work presents that periodically wrinkled graphene sheet can be applied to a pattern, to form one-dimensionally well-ordered C{sub 60} molecules, via Monte Carlo simulations using the data obtained from atomistic calculations. Since the valleys of a sinusoidal graphene surface provide energetic ground sites for absorbed C{sub 60} molecules, their motions seeking stable positions lead to one-dimensional self-assembly. The size of the wrinkles, the density of adsorbed C{sub 60} molecules, and the temperature are very important parameters to obtain a one-dimensional C{sub 60} molecules array. We estimate high one-dimensional diffusion coefficients of C{sub 60} molecules on the wrinkled graphene surface. Our results can provide a possible approach to make a quantum information array, based on endohedral fullerenes and a graphene quantum dot array, by transforming C{sub 60} molecules to graphene nanoflakes.

  4. The USC-OSA-EPS section activities in optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, María.; Cambronero-López, Ferran; Aragón, Ángel L.; Delgado, Tamara; Blanco, Manuel; Gómez Varela, Ana I.; Gargallo, Ana; Williamson, Sandra; Amorín, Adán.; Sánchez-García, Ángel; Bao-Varela, Carmen; Flores-Arias, M. Teresa

    2017-08-01

    The USC-OSA Student Chapter and USC-EPS Young Minds Section is a group financed by The Optical Society (OSA) and the European Physical Society (EPS). It is formed by PhD and degree students from the Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC) and one supervisor of the Faculty of Physics. Its main goal is to promote and diffuse Optics in the society. For this purpose, the group carries out several activities in the academic and non-academic community. The group is also committed to the professional development of our members and motivates the exposition of our work into the scientific community.

  5. Orthodontic and Orthognathic Surgical Treatment of a Pediatric OSA Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory W. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report is presented which demonstrates the effectiveness of comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery in the correction of malocclusion and reduction in the sequelae of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA. The patient’s severe OSA was improved to very mild as evaluated by full overnight polysomnogram. The orthodontic treatment included the expansion of both dental arches and mandibular advancement surgery. There was significant improvement in the patient’s sleep continuity and architecture with the elimination of obstructive apneas.

  6. Combined Expansion Pharyngoplasty and Anterior Palatoplasty for the Treatment of OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Kenny P; Piccin, Ottavio; Pang, Edward B; Pang, Kathleen A; Chan, Yiong Huak; Rotenberg, Brian W

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the success rates of combined Expansion Sphincter Pharyngoplasty and the Anterior Palatoplasty in the treatment of OSA. A two center prospective series of 73 patients with OSA. All patients were >18 years old, retro-palatal obstruction, concentric velo-pharyngeal collapse, BMI OSA, 33 moderate OSA and 20 severe OSA patients. Twenty-three patients had pre-operative DISE, and 61 patients had nose/palate surgery, while only 12 had palate surgery alone. The overall success rate (50 % reduction and AHI OSA patients. Level of evidence IV.

  7. Fluid-Mediated Stochastic Self-Assembly at Centimetric and Sub-Millimetric Scales: Design, Modeling, and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haghighat, Bahar; Mastrangeli, Massimo; Mermoud, Grégory; Schill, Felix; Martinoli, Alcherio

    2016-01-01

    .... Numerous studies have been conducted on the control and modeling of the process in engineered self-assembling systems constituted of modules with varied capabilities ranging from completely reactive...

  8. Synthesis of frost-like CuO combined graphene-TiO{sub 2} by self-assembly method and its high photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cung Tien [Department of Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, Hanseo University, Seosan, Chungnam, 356-706 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwang-Youn [Korea Institutes of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Soho-ro, Jinju-Si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Won-Chun, E-mail: wc_oh@hanseo.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Science & Engineering, Hanseo University, Seosan, Chungnam, 356-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • The frost-like CuO nanoparticles (3–5 nm) combined with the small TiO{sub 2} rods (50–100 nm) are expected to have a high charge transfer effect from TiO{sub 2} to CuO. • In this study, ·OH and h{sup +} play a major role in the photocatalytic reaction than O{sub 2}·{sup –} or both hydroxyl and holes are the active species responsible under visible light irradiation. • The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue trihydrate (MB), and reactive black B (RBB) in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation was observed by UV spectrophotometry after measurement of the decrease of their concentrations. CuO-graphene-TiO{sub 2} is expected to become a new potential material for photodegradation activity with excellent photodegradation. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of CuO-graphene (a and b), and CuO-graphene-TiO{sub 2} (c and d) composites. - Abstract: A novel material, frost-like CuO combined-graphene-TiO{sub 2} composite, was successfully synthesized using a self-assembly method. During the reaction, the loading of CuO and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on graphene sheets was achieved. The obtained CuO-graphene-TiO{sub 2} composite photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The frost-like CuO nanoparticles combined with the small TiO{sub 2} rods were successfully loaded on the transparent graphene sheets. The photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB), methylene blue trihydrate (MB), and reactive black B (RBB) in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation was observed by UV spectrophotometry after measurement of the decrease of their concentrations. Through the photocatalytic test and TOC results, the CuO-graphene-TiO{sub 2} is expected to

  9. WBFSH aastakoosolek Varssavis. I-II osa / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2013-01-01

    Poolas 7.-9. oktoobrini Maailma Sporthobuste Kasvatajate Föderatsiooni peaassambleel toimunust ning loengutest ja aruteludest: Hobuste "genoomilisest aretusest", Jõudluskontrolli ja terviseandmete kasutamisest Rootsi aretuses, Hobuste lineaarse kirjeldamise meetodist, tõuraamatute tulevikust. Teises osas: Hobusekasvatuse seisust Poolas, Janow Podlaski hobusekasvatusest ja üldisest eluolust

  10. Residual POSA after maxillomandibular advancement in patients with severe OSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benoist, L.B.L.; de Ruiter, M.H.T.; de Lange, J.; de Vries, N.; de Vries, N.; Ravesloot, M.; van Maanen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    In patients with severe or extreme OSA and CPAP failure, maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) can be considered. Because of its considerable morbidity, MMA is mostly reserved for severe to extreme cases, often after less aggressive surgeries have failed. The success rates of MMA are very high:

  11. Ensuring a Future for Marine Corps Operational Support Airlift (OSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    its lift capacity and efficiency to meet the new requirements in the Pacific. History of OSA: Man has looked to the sky in wonder since the... Tommy Turner. Turner was a seasoned Marine and a well respected Marine leader. He was known for his strict discipline and made sure that Marine aviation

  12. Constructing three-dimensional quasi-vertical nanosheet architectures from self-assemble two-dimensional WO<sub>3sub>·2H<sub>2sub>O for efficient electrochromic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Haizeng; Wang, Jinmin; Shi, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) quasi-vertical nanosheet (QVNS) architectures are of great importance in the application of electrochromic devices due to its 3D porous structures, large surface area and lamellar permeable space of nanosheets. In this study, we demonstrate successful preparing of WO3·2H2O...... nanosheets via a novel and facile solution route and repurposing the typical electrodeposition technique to obtain 3D QVNS electrodes. The electrode was successfully assembled into an electrochromic device which exhibits good electrochromic performance....

  13. Giant reversible magnetocaloric effect in flower-like β-Co(OH){sub 2} hierarchical superstructures self-assembled by nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianguo; Feng, Chao; Xiao, Feng; Jin, Chuangui; Xia, Ailin, E-mail: liuxianguohugh@gmail.com, E-mail: eeswor@polyu.edu.hk [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, PR (China); Or, Siu Wing [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Sun, Yuping [Center for Engineering Practice and Innovation Education, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, PR (China)

    2014-01-15

    A facile hydrothermal strategy is proposed to synthesize flower-like β- Co(OH){sub 2} hierarchical microspherical superstructures with a diameter of 0.5-1.5 µm, which are self-assembled by β - Co(OH){sub 2} nano sheets with the average thickness ranging between 20 and 40 nm. The magnetocaloric effect associated with magnetic phase transitions in Co(OH){sub 2} superstructures has been investigated. A sign change in the magnetocaloric effect is induced by a magnetic field, which is related to a filed-induced transition from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic state below the Néel temperature. The large reversible magnetic-entropy change –ΔS{sub m} (13.4 J/kg K at 15 K for a field change of 5 T) indicates that flower-like Co(OH){sub 2} superstructures is a potential candidate for application in magnetic refrigeration in the low-temperature range. (author)

  14. Assembly and luminescence properties of lanthanide-polyoxometalates/polyethyleneimine/SiO{sub 2} particles with core–shell structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun, E-mail: junwang924@yahoo.com.cn; Fan, Shaohua; Zhao, Weiqian; Zhang, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, two lanthanide-polyoxometalate (LnW{sub 10}) complexes were bonded on the surface of the polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified silica nanoparticles with different sizes, resulting in the formation of LnW{sub 10}/PEI/SiO{sub 2} particles. The hybrid core–shell particles were characterized by infrared, luminescent spectra, scanning electronic microscope, and transmission electronic microscope. The particles obtained exhibit the fine spherical core–shell structure and the excellent luminescence properties. The luminescence spectra studies revealed that the formation of LnW{sub 10}/PEI/SiO{sub 2} particles and the size of particle have an influence on the luminescence properties of lanthanide ions. - Highlights: ► SiO{sub 2}/polyethyleneimine (PEI) shows the chemisorption for Ln-polyoxometalates (LnW{sub 10}). ► The core-shell LnW{sub 10}/PEI/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with different sizes were fabricated. ► The hybrid particles exhibit the excellent luminescence properties. ► The sizes of particles affect the luminescence properties of lanthanide ions.

  15. Hierarchical flower-like carbon nanosheet assembly with embedded hollow NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for high- performance lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Ling; Qiu, Huajun; Luo, Pan; Li, Wenxiang; Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Yu, E-mail: wangy@cqu.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Flower-like NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}@carbon nanosphere is firstly synthesized for Li-ion batteries. • The nanostructure exhibits the unique feature of hollow NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles embedded inside and graphitized carbon layers coating outside. • The sample reveals stable structure, large specific surface area and good electrical conductivity. • The composite exhibits superior rate capability, cycling capacity and excellent Coulombic efficiency. - Abstract: The fabrication of closely bounded metal oxides/carbon hybrid nano-structures is significant for its use in energy-related areas especially lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this research, a flower-like carbon sphere with hollow NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles encapsulated inside the carbon thin nanopetal is fabricated by using a mixed basic carbonate nickel and cobalt sphere as the precursor and templates followed by the outer carbon membrane covering and two-step calcination process. When tested as anode material for LIBs, this flower-like carbon-based hybrid sphere demonstrates a significantly enhanced reversible capacity and cycling stability at various current densities.

  16. Recognition of upper airway and surrounding structures at MRI in pediatric PCOS and OSAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, J. K.; Odhner, D.; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2013-03-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is common in obese children with risk being 4.5 fold compared to normal control subjects. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) has recently been shown to be associated with OSAS that may further lead to significant cardiovascular and neuro-cognitive deficits. We are investigating image-based biomarkers to understand the architectural and dynamic changes in the upper airway and the surrounding hard and soft tissue structures via MRI in obese teenage children to study OSAS. At the previous SPIE conferences, we presented methods underlying Fuzzy Object Models (FOMs) for Automatic Anatomy Recognition (AAR) based on CT images of the thorax and the abdomen. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the AAR approach is applicable to a different body region and image modality combination, namely in the study of upper airway structures via MRI. FOMs were built hierarchically, the smaller sub-objects forming the offspring of larger parent objects. FOMs encode the uncertainty and variability present in the form and relationships among the objects over a study population. Totally 11 basic objects (17 including composite) were modeled. Automatic recognition for the best pose of FOMs in a given image was implemented by using four methods - a one-shot method that does not require search, another three searching methods that include Fisher Linear Discriminate (FLD), a b-scale energy optimization strategy, and optimum threshold recognition method. In all, 30 multi-fold cross validation experiments based on 15 patient MRI data sets were carried out to assess the accuracy of recognition. The results indicate that the objects can be recognized with an average location error of less than 5 mm or 2-3 voxels. Then the iterative relative fuzzy connectedness (IRFC) algorithm was adopted for delineation of the target organs based on the recognized results. The delineation results showed an overall FP and TP volume fraction of 0.02 and 0.93.

  17. Airflow Shape Is Associated With the Pharyngeal Structure Causing OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta, Pedro R; Sands, Scott A; Butler, James P; Loring, Stephen H; Katz, Eliot S; Demko, B Gail; Kezirian, Eric J; White, David P; Wellman, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    OSA results from the collapse of different pharyngeal structures (soft palate, tongue, lateral walls, and epiglottis). The structure involved in collapse has been shown to impact non-CPAP OSA treatment. Different inspiratory airflow shapes are also observed among patients with OSA. We hypothesized that inspiratory flow shape reflects the underlying pharyngeal structure involved in airway collapse. Subjects with OSA were studied with a pediatric endoscope and simultaneous nasal flow and pharyngeal pressure recordings during natural sleep. The mechanism causing collapse was classified as tongue-related, isolated palatal, lateral walls, or epiglottis. Flow shape was classified according to the degree of negative effort dependence (NED), defined as the percent reduction in inspiratory flow from peak to plateau. Thirty-one subjects with OSA (mean apnea-hypopnea index score ± SD, 54 ± 27 events/h) who were 50 ± 9 years of age were studied. NED was associated with the structure causing collapse (P < .001). Tongue-related obstruction (n = 13) was associated with a small amount of NED (median, 19; interquartile range [IQR], 14%-25%). Moderate NED was found among subjects with isolated palatal collapse (median, 45; IQR, 39%-52%; n = 8) and lateral wall collapse (median, 50; IQR, 44%-64%; n = 8). The epiglottis was associated with severe NED (median, 89; IQR, 78%-91%) and abrupt discontinuities in inspiratory flow (n = 9). Inspiratory flow shape is influenced by the pharyngeal structure causing collapse. Flow shape analysis may be used as a noninvasive tool to help determine the pharyngeal structure causing collapse. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication and assembly of two-dimensional TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O heterostructures with type II band alignment for enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052 (China); Wang, Yun, E-mail: yun.wang@griffith.edu.au [Centre for Clean Environment and Energy and Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, 4222 (Australia); Zhou, Xiaofang; Zheng, Xiaoli [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052 (China); Xu, Qun, E-mail: qunxu@zzu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052 (China); Chen, Zhimin; Ren, Yumei; Yan, Bo [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Graphical abstract: 2D heterostructures of TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O nanosheets have been successfully fabricated with assistance of supercritical CO{sub 2} (SC CO{sub 2}). The formation of heterostructures is beneficial to effective separation of the electron-hole pairs, thus resulting in enhanced photocatalytic activity toward the high photocurrent under simulated solar light irradiation. - Highlights: • In this study we have successfully exfoliated ultrathin WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O nanosheets from tunsten acid(H{sub 2}WO{sub 4}) with supercritical CO{sub 2} (SC CO{sub 2}). • A novel type II 2D ultrathin TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O heterostructures were fabricated with the assistance of SC CO{sub 2}. • The formation of TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O heterostructures is beneficial to effective separation of the electron-hole pairs. • The photocurrent response and MO degradation of TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O heterostructures exhibit significantly improvement. - Abstract: The recombination of photo-induced charges is one of the main issues to limit the large-scale applications in photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis. To improve the charge separation, we fabricate a novel type II 2D ultrathin TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O heterostructures with the assistance of supercritical CO{sub 2} (SC CO{sub 2}) in this work. The as-fabricated heterostructures possess high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange(MO) and high photocurrent response under simulated solar light (AM 1.5). For the TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O heterostructures, the MO solution could be degraded by 95.5% in 150 min, and the photocurrent density reaches to 6.5 μA cm{sup −2}, exhibiting a significant enhancement compared with pure TiO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O nanosheets.

  19. Reduced surfactant uptake in three dimensional assemblies of VO{sub x} nanotubes improves reversible Li{sup +} intercalation and charge capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Dwyer, Colm [Department of Physics, University of Limerick (Ireland); Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick Limerick (Ireland); Lavayen, Vladimir [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria Avenida Espana, Valparaiso (Chile); Area de Ciencias Naturais e Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario Franciscano 97010-032, Santa Maria - RS (Brazil); Tanner, David A. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick Limerick (Ireland); Department of Manufacturing and Operations Engineering, University of Limerick Limerick (Ireland); Newcomb, Simon B. [Glebe Scientific Limited Newport, Co., Tipperary (Ireland); Benavente, Eglantina [Department of Chemistry, Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, Guillermo [Department of Chemistry, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Torres, Clivia M.S. [Institute for Research and Advanced Studies, ICREA 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology Edifici CM7, Campus Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-06-09

    The relationship between the nanoscale structure of vanadium pentoxide nanotubes and their ability to accommodate Li{sup +} during intercalation/deintercalation is explored. The nanotubes are synthesized using two different precursors through a surfactant-assisted templating method, resulting in standalone VO{sub x} (vanadium oxide) nanotubes and also ''nano-urchin''. Under highly reducing conditions, where the interlaminar uptake of primary alkylamines is maximized, standalone nanotubes exhibit near-perfect scrolled layers and long-range structural order even at the molecular level. Under less reducing conditions, the degree of amine uptake is reduced due to a lower density of V{sup 4+} sites and less V{sub 2}O{sub 5} is functionalized with adsorbed alkylammonium cations. This is typical of the nano-urchin structure. High-resolution TEM studies revealed the unique observation of nanometer-scale nanocrystals of pristine unreacted V{sub 2}O{sub 5} throughout the length of the nanotubes in the nano-urchin. Electrochemical intercalation studies revealed that the very well ordered xerogel-based nanotubes exhibit similar specific capacities (235 mA h g{sup -1}) to Na{sup +}-exchange nanorolls of VO{sub x} (200 mA h g{sup -1}). By comparison, the theoretical maximum value is reported to be 240 mA h g{sup -1}. The VOTPP-based nanotubes of the nano-urchin 3D assemblies, however, exhibit useful charge capacities exceeding 437 mA h g{sup -1}, which is a considerable advance for VO{sub x} based nanomaterials and one of the highest known capacities for Li{sup +} intercalated laminar vanadates. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Self-assembly of hollow MoS{sub 2} microflakes by one-pot hydrothermal synthesis for efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Aishi; Cui, Renjie; He, Yanna; Wang, Qi [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing University of Posts & Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhang, Jian, E-mail: iamjzhang@njupt.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing University of Posts & Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yang, Jianping [School of Science, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210023 (China); Li, Xing’ao, E-mail: lxahbmy@126.com [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Nanjing University of Posts & Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); School of Science, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT), Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • A new hollow MoS{sub 2} microflakes are prepared by hydrothermal synthesis firstly. • SEM and TEM study show the structural nature of hollow microflakes in depth. • The unique hollow structures have large surface area owing to the cavity. • The hollow microflakes show better HER performance than their solid counterparts. - Abstract: Molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) has emerged as a promising non-precious metal catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in recent years. Some strategies including nanotechnology as well as atom doping have been employed in the preparing of electrocatalysts for high-activity and stability. To the best of our knowledge, hollow MoS{sub 2} microflakes assembled from ultrathin nanosheets have not been prepared previously. In this work, a simple, facile and environmentally friendly hydrothermal synthesis was utilized for the fabrication of hollow MoS{sub 2} microflakes for the first time. The unique hollow structures have fascinating properties, such as the large surface and low density. The morphology and structure of MoS{sub 2} microflakes were confirmed by XRD, SEM, TEM and Raman. The composition of these materials was identified by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Notably, the as-prepared hollow MoS{sub 2} microflakes showed better electrocatalytic activity than other samples. The hollow flake-like structure can not only increase the active edge sites owing to the large specific surface area, but also enhance the electron transport to improve the electrocatalytic activity. Benefiting from these factors, the hollow MoS{sub 2} microflakes exhibited electrocatalytic activity and excellent stability with a low overpotential about 85 mV and a Tafel slope of 59 mV per decade.

  1. RIE challenges for sub-15 nm line-and-space patterning using directed self-assembly lithography with coordinated line epitaxy (COOL) process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Y.; Seino, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Kanai, H.; Sato, H.; Kubota, H.; Tobana, T.; Minegishi, S.; Miyagi, K.; Kihara, N.; Kodera, K.; Shiraishi, M.; Kawamonzen, Y.; Nomura, S.; Azuma, T.

    2015-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is one of the promising candidates for next-generation lithography. We developed a novel simple sub-15 nm line-and-space (L/S) patterning process, the "coordinated line epitaxy (COOL) process," using grapho- and chemo-hybrid epitaxy. In this study we evaluate the DSA L/S pattern transfer margin. Since defect reduction is difficult in the case of the DSA pattern transfer process, there is a need to increase the pattern transfer margin. We also describe process integration for electrical yield verification.

  2. Photocatalytic degradation mechanisms of self-assembled rose-flower-like CeO{sub 2} hierarchical nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabari Arul, N. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046 (India); Mangalaraj, D. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046 (India); Whan Kim, Tae [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-03

    Hierarchical rose-flower-like CeO{sub 2} nanostructures were formed by using solvothermal and thermal annealing processes. The CeCO{sub 3}OH thin film was transformed into CeO{sub 2} roses due to thermal annealing. CeO{sub 2} nanostructured roses exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity with a degradation rate of 65% for the azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7) under ultraviolet illumination. The fitting of the absorbance maximum versus time showed that the degradation of AO7 obeyed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity for the CeO{sub 2} roses was attributed to the high adsorptivity resulting from the surface active sites and special 4f electron configuration.

  3. Self-assembly of C<sub>60sub> into highly ordered chain-like structures on HOPG observed at ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Søren Kegnæs; Egeblad, Kresten; Haahr, Lærke Thorlund

    2007-01-01

    The observation of chain-like structures of self-assembled C-60 Molecules on HOPG surfaces at room temperature in aerial atmosphere by means of scanning tunneling microscopy is reported. The ca. 2.5 nm center-to-center distance between two fullerene molecules is much larger than in the close......-packed layered or film structures Of C-60 usually found on HOPG surfaces. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling: A Novel Pathway in OSA Induced Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Porter, Kyle; Pleister, Adam; Wannemacher, Jacob; Sow, Angela; Jarjoura, David; Zweier, Jay L.; Khayat, Rami N.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and cardiovascular disease in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function directly in the microcirculatory endothelial tissue of OSA patients who have very low cardiovascular risk status. Nineteen OSA patients underwent gluteal biopsies before, and after effective treatment of OSA. We measured superoxide (O2−·) and nitric oxide (NO) in the microcir...

  5. Omal jalal maailma : 1.-5.osa / Paul Salopek ; fotografeerinud John Stanmeyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salopek, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Artikli 2. osa räägib autori rännakust läbi Saudi Araabias asuva Al-Hijāzi kõrbe, 3. osa rännakust piki Jordaania piiri ja Iisraelis, 4. osa rännakust Ida-Türgis ning kohtumistest Süüria sõjapõgenikega, 5. osa Armeeniast ja Türgist

  6. Directly Addressable Sub-3 nm Gold Nanogaps Fabricated by Nanoskiving Using Self-Assembled Monolayers as Templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourhossein, Parisa; Chiechi, Ryan C.

    This paper describes the fabrication of electrically addressable, high-aspect-ratio (>10000:1) nanowires of gold with square cross sections of 100 nm on each side that are separated by gaps of 1.7-2.2 nm which were defined using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as templates. We fabricated these

  7. Trait assembly of woody plants in communities across sub-alpine gradients: Identifying the role of limiting similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, B.; Zhang, J.; Liu, Y.; Li, Z.; Huang, X.; Yang, W.; Prinzing, A.

    2012-01-01

    Questions - Plant species can be assembled into communities through habitat filtering or species competition, but their relative roles are still debated. We do not know whether there is limited similarity between co-existing species when accounting for the parallel effect of abiotic habitat

  8. 76 FR 59663 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority: Title I, Section 112(b)(3) of the Trade and Development Act of 2000 (TDA..., 2002 (67 FR 69459). Title I of TDA 2000 provides for duty- and quota-free treatment for certain textile...)(3) of TDA 2000 provides duty- and quota-free treatment for apparel articles wholly assembled in one...

  9. 78 FR 59917 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Development Act of 2000 (TDA 2000), Public Law 106-200, as amended by Division B, Title XXI, section 3108 of... FR 69459). Title I of TDA 2000 provides for duty- and quota-free treatment for certain textile and... TDA 2000 provides duty- and quota-free treatment for apparel articles wholly assembled in one or more...

  10. A comprehensive investigation on electrophoretic self-assembled nano-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films in aqueous solution as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaogang; Li, Xueming, E-mail: lixuemingcqu@126.com [Chongqing University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Xiong, Zhongshu [Chongqing Normal University, School of Foreign Languages and Literature (China); Lai, Chuan [Sichuan University of Arts and Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Li, Yu; Huang, Xinyue; Bao, Hebin; Yin, Yanjun; Zhu, Yuhua [Chongqing University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Zhang, Daixiong [Tsinghua University, School of Science (China)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, the nano-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films (NCOFs) have been prepared by a one-step cathodic electrophoretic deposition (C-EPD) in aqueous solutions with micro-additive polyethylenimine at ambient temperature and pressure for oxide film-based supercapacitors. The phase composition and morphology of the NCOFs were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), respectively. In addition, the deposition kinetics of nano-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles using C-EPD process were investigated in detail. The electrochemical capacitance behaviors of the NCOFs electrode were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge studies, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 2 M KOH solution. The electrochemical experiments revealed that the highest capacitance of 233.6 F g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1}, 93.5 % of which still be maintained after 2000 charge–discharge cycles. These findings suggested the potential application of the NCOFs prepared by C-EPD in the electrochemical supercapacitors.

  11. Morbidity and mortality risk ratios are elevated in severe supine dominant OSA: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkas, Antti; Muraja-Murro, Anu; Tiihonen, Pekka; Mervaala, Esa; Töyräs, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common public health problem. Sleeping position dependency has been related to OSA, and around half of OSA patients suffer from positional OSA where majority of the respiratory events occur in supine position. The consequences of supine dominant OSA have not been thoroughly investigated in long-term follow-up studies. The aim of the study was to retrospectively investigate the effects of supine dominant OSA on morbidity and mortality risk ratios during long-term follow-up and compare the findings with a non-supine OSA group at different OSA severities. Ambulatory polygraphic recordings of 793 patients with median follow-up time of 194.5 months were retrospectively analysed. The risk ratios of morbidity and mortality of supine dominant OSA and non-supine OSA patients were compared. Supine dominant OSA patients, having majority of the obstruction events occurring in supine position, showed higher mortality and morbidity risk ratios in severe OSA category than the non-supine OSA patients. In severe category, the observed risk ratios were statistically significant. The increased risk ratios of mortality and morbidity found further emphasises that supine OSA might have more severe health consequences than non-positional OSA especially in severe OSA. Severe OSA occurring in supine position was shown to be more deleterious than non-supine OSA based on long-term mortality and morbidity evidence.

  12. From precursor powders to CsPbX{sub 3} perovskite nanowires. One-pot synthesis, growth mechanism, and oriented self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Yu; Bohn, Bernhard J.; Urban, Alexander S.; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Feldmann, Jochen [Chair for Photonics and Optoelectronics, Department of Physics and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Muenchen Univ. (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Munich (Germany); Bladt, Eva; Bals, Sara [EMAT, University of Antwerp (Belgium); Wang, Kun; Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter [Department of Physics, Chair for Functional Materials, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-23

    The colloidal synthesis and assembly of semiconductor nanowires continues to attract a great deal of interest. Herein, we describe the single-step ligand-mediated synthesis of single-crystalline CsPbBr{sub 3} perovskite nanowires (NWs) directly from the precursor powders. Studies of the reaction process and the morphological evolution revealed that the initially formed CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocubes are transformed into NWs through an oriented-attachment mechanism. The optical properties of the NWs can be tuned across the entire visible range by varying the halide (Cl, Br, and I) composition through subsequent halide ion exchange. Single-particle studies showed that these NWs exhibit strongly polarized emission with a polarization anisotropy of 0.36. More importantly, the NWs can self-assemble in a quasi-oriented fashion at an air/liquid interface. This process should also be easily applicable to perovskite nanocrystals of different morphologies for their integration into nanoscale optoelectronic devices. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Polymer Physics Prize Lecture: Self-assemblies of Giant Molecular Shape Amphiphiles as a New Platform for Engineering Structures with Sub-Nanometer Feature Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Stephen Z. D.

    2013-03-01

    Utilizing nano-building blocks rather than atoms to construct and engineer new structures is a fresh approach to design and develop functional materials for the purpose of transferring and amplifying microscopic functionality to macroscopic materials' property. As one of the important elements of these nano-building blocks, giant molecular shape amphiphiles (GMSAs) provide a latest platform for generating self-assembled ordered structures at nanometer scale, which are stabilized by collective physical bonds (such as collective hydrogen bonding). In this talk, two topics will be focused on. First, composed of functionalized hydrophilic molecular nanoparticles as the heads with rigid shape and fixed volume, and tethered polymer chains as the tails (such as giant molecular surfactants and lipids and other topologies), these GMSAs of various architectures can self-assemble into highly diversified, thermodynamically stable microstructures at sub-10 nm length scale in the bulk, thin film and solution states. Second, GMSAs could also be constructed solely from nanoparticles interconnected via different numbers of the rigid linkages in specific symmetry, simulating the overall shapes of small molecules but with sizes that are one-order of magnitude larger in length and three-order of magnitude larger in volume. Giant crystal structures can then be obtained from this class of ``giant molecules'' via supramolecular crystallization. These findings are not only scientifically intriguing in understanding the physical principles underlying their self-assembly, but also technologically relevant in industrial applications.

  14. Sleep board review questions: CPAP adherence in OSA

    OpenAIRE

    Budhiraja R; Luraschi-Monjagatta C

    2012-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated after first question. Which of the following has been shown to be associated with a better adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?1.Use of auto-titrating positive airway pressure (autoPAP) instead of CPAP.2.Cognitive behavioral therapy prior to initiation of PAP therapy.3.Severe sleep apnea on diagnostic polysomnography.4.Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score at initiation of PAP therapy…

  15. Sleep board review questions: CPAP adherence in OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhiraja R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first question. Which of the following has been shown to be associated with a better adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP therapy in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA?1.Use of auto-titrating positive airway pressure (autoPAP instead of CPAP.2.Cognitive behavioral therapy prior to initiation of PAP therapy.3.Severe sleep apnea on diagnostic polysomnography.4.Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS score at initiation of PAP therapy…

  16. Kindlustajad peavad suurt osa kinnisvarast alakindlustatuks / Harry Tuul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuul, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 26. juuli lk. 6. Kindlustajate arvates on suurem osa Eesti elamufondist alakindlustatud. Vt. samas: Pangad kinnisvara alakindlustust ei tunneta; Alver Kivirüüt. Ostuhind erineb taastamishinnast; Harri Kahl. Taastamishind algab 8000 krooni juures; Kalli krundi omanik alakindlustatust ei karda; Margus Mändmets. Alakindlustuse vastu aitab ülekindlustus. Lisa: Vale kindlustussumma võib tekitada suurt kahju. Diagrammid

  17. [Quality of life in adult patient (Tunisian) with severe OSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, I; Kalboussi, H; Ben Salem, H; Maoua, M; El Guedri, S; Laayouni, M; Abdelghani, A; Boughattas, W; Brahem, A; Debbabi, F; El Maalel, O; Chatti, S; Benzarti, M; Mrizak, N

    2017-09-01

    The negative impact of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on quality of life of affected individuals is a central consequence of this disease. The recognition of the quality of life as a therapeutic target is a relatively new concept. To evaluate the quality of life and its determinants in patients with OSA. We conducted a cross-sectional study during the period from 1st July 2012 to 30th June 2013. The target population was patients with OSA and in employment examined in consultations of pneumology in the teaching hospital Farhat-Hached in Sousse (Tunisia). This study was based on a generic questionnaire (SF-36) to assess the quality of life. The study population included 103 cases with a mean age of 55.15±11.4years and a sex ratio of 0.71. Our patients were obese in 95.1 % of cases with an average BMI of 39.13±7.19kg/m 2 . The majority of our patients had an impaired quality of life with an average score of 44.76 (SF36) and extremes of 22 and 70. There was a positive linear relationship between physical and mental components of the SF-36 and gender, age, BMI, and anxiety and depressive disorders. The OSA is a demanding disease whose impact on the quality of life seems important and requires special attention. The management of this disease should not be limited to controlling the disease but aspire to overall patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Osa associates with the Brahma chromatin remodeling complex and promotes the activation of some target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R T; Furukawa, T; Tanese, N; Treisman, J E

    1999-01-01

    The yeast SWI/SNF complex and its Drosophila and mammalian homologs are thought to control gene expression by altering chromatin structure, but the mechanism and specificity of this process are not fully understood. The Drosophila osa gene, like yeast SWI1, encodes an AT-rich interaction (ARID) domain protein. We present genetic and biochemical evidence that Osa is a component of the Brahma complex, the Drosophila homolog of SWI/SNF. The ARID domain of Osa binds DNA without sequence specificity in vitro, but it is sufficient to direct transcriptional regulatory domains to specific target genes in vivo. Endogenous Osa appears to promote the activation of some of these genes. We show evidence that some Brahma-containing complexes do not contain Osa and that Osa is not required to localize Brahma to chromatin. These data suggest that Osa modulates the function of the Brahma complex. PMID:10601025

  19. A novel method for evaluation of oxidative stress in children with OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Fatih; Muderris, Togay; Yalciner, Gokhan; Mise, Halil Ibrahim; Canan, Yagmur; Babademez, Mehmet Ali; Erel, Ozcan

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the role of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and the outcomes of adenotonsillectomy (AT) on oxidative stress for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children using a new method; thiol/disulfide homeostasis. The study is consisted of 45 children with OSA and 38 healthy control subjects with similar age and sex. Children 3-12 years of age with OSA, defined as having an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) of 5 or more in an overnight polysomnography, underwent adenotonsillectomy. OSA was classified as mild (1 ≤ AHIOSA compared to mild OSA; in the preoperative period compared to postoperative period (p OSA in children with adenotonsillar. Adenotonsillectomy for OSA may result in a dramatic improvement in oxidative stress as measured by thiol/disulfide homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic upper airway collapse observed from sleep MRI: BMI-matched severe and mild OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huon, Leh-Kiong; Liu, Stanley Yung-Chuan; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang; Chen, Yunn-Jy; Lo, Men-Tzung; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows real-time characterization of upper airway collapse in sleeping subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of our study was to use sleep MRI to compare differences in upper airway collapse sites between BMI-matched subjects with mild OSA and severe OSA. This is a prospective, nested case-control study using dynamic sleep MRI to compare 15 severe OSA subjects (AHI >40) and 15 mild OSA (AHI BMI. Upper airway imaging was performed on sleeping subjects in a 3.0 T MRI scanner. Sleep MRI movies were used by blinded reviewers to identify retropalatal (RP), retroglossal (RG), and lateral pharyngeal wall (LPW) airway collapse. Mean AHI in the severe OSA group was 70.3 ± 23 events/h, and in the mild group was 7.8 ± 1 events/h (p BMI-matched mild OSA patients.

  1. Integrated effect of supramolecular self-assembled sandwich-like melamine cyanurate/MoS{sub 2} hybrid sheets on reducing fire hazards of polyamide 6 composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xiaming [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: wxcmx@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Cai, Wei; Hong, Ningning [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Liew, Kim Meow [Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Department of Architectural and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2016-12-15

    A novel strategy of using supramolecular self-assembly for preparing sandwich-like melamine cyanurate/MoS{sub 2} sheets as the hybrid flame retardants for polyamide 6 (PA6) is reported for the first time. The introduction of MoS{sub 2} sheets function not only as a template to induce the formation of two-dimensional melamine cyanurate capping layers but also as a synergist to generate integrated flame-retarding effect of hybrid sheets, as well as a high-performance smoke suppressor to reduce fire hazards of PA6 materials. Once incorporating this well-designed structures (4 wt%) into PA6 matrix, there resulted in a remarkable drop (40%) in the peak heat release rate and a 25% reduction in total heat release. Moreover, the smoke production and pyrolysis gaseous products were efficiently suppressed by the addition of sandwich-like hybrid sheets. The integrated functions consisting of inherent flame retarding effect, physical barrier performance and catalytic activity are believed to the crucial guarantee for the reduced fire hazards of PA6 nanocomposites. Furthermore, this novel strategy with facile and scalable features may provide reference for developing various kinds of MoS{sub 2} based hybrid sheets for diverse applications.

  2. Reactive ion etching challenges for half-pitch sub-10-nm line-and-space pattern fabrication using directed self-assembly lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Seino, Yuriko; Sato, Hironobu; Kubota, Hitoshi; Kanai, Hideki; Kihara, Naoko; Minegishi, Shinya; Miyagi, Ken; Tobana, Toshikatsu; Shiraishi, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kodera, Katsuyoshi; Yamano, Hitoshi; Kawamonzen, Yoshiaki; Azuma, Tsukasa

    2016-03-01

    Directed self-assembly is a candidate process for sub-15-nm patterning applications. It will be necessary to develop the DSA process fully and consider process integration to adapt the DSA process for use in semiconductor manufacturing. We investigated the reactive ion etching (RIE) process for the fabrication of sub-10-nm metal wires using the DSA process and the process integration requirements for electrical yield verification. We evaluated the process using an organic high-chi block copolymer (BCP) with a lamellar structure. One critical issue during DSA pattern transfer involves the BCP bottom connection. The BCP bottom connections could be removed without BCP mask loss by using the optimum bias power and the optimum BCP film thickness. The sub-10-nm DSA line-and-space (L/S) patterns were successfully transferred to a SiO2 layer with sufficient film thickness for the fabrication of the metal wire. We also evaluated the overlay technique used in the process. The connect patterns and cut patterns were overlaid on 10-nm trenches fabricated by the DSA process.

  3. 77 FR 59913 - Limitations of Duty- and Quota-Free Imports of Apparel Articles Assembled in Beneficiary Sub...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Authority: Title I, Section 112(b)(3) of the Trade and Development Act of 2000 (TDA... TDA 2000 provides for duty- and quota-free treatment for certain textile and apparel articles imported from designated beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries. Section 112(b)(3) of TDA 2000 provides duty...

  4. Is the OSA-18 predictive of obstructive sleep apnea: comparison to polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Stacey L; Yang, Christina J; Cohen, Aliza P; Benke, James R; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen K; Anderson, Rebecca M; Madden, Marie E; Tabangin, Meredith E

    2015-06-01

    To examine the ability of the OSA-18 to predict Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in a racially diverse population when compared to overnight polysomnography (PSG). Cross-sectional retrospective. Children 2 to 12 years of age diagnosed with OSA who were treated at a tertiary care institution between 2008 and 2013 and had complete PSG and OSA-18 data were included. We performed logistic regression with OSA as the dependent variable and the OSA-18 total symptom score (TSS), age, gender, race, asthma, and body mass index (BMI) as independent variables. Seventy-nine children (32 females) were included (mean age 5.2 ± 2.4 years). The positive predictive value (PPV) was greater than 90 for an obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) ≥ 1. The PPV and specificity were higher for white than for nonwhite children; however, sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of OSA-18 TSS were low for mild, moderate, and severe OSA regardless of race. Age, race, and BMI were not significantly associated with oAHI. This study, conducted in a racially diverse cohort, examined the ability of the OSA-18 to predict OSA when compared to PSG-the gold standard-and found that sensitivity and NPV were extremely low for both white and nonwhite children. This suggests that the OSA-18 is not sufficiently sensitive to detect OSA nor sufficiently specific to determine the absence of OSA. The OSA-18 should be used as a quality-of-life indicator and is not a reliable substitute for PSG. 4. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Ultrafast, Light-Induced Electron Transfer in a Perylene Diimide Chromophore-Donor Assembly on TiO <sub>2sub>

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennaman, M. Kyle; Norris, Michael R.; Gish, Melissa K.; Grumstrup, Erik M.; Alibabaei, Leila; Ashford, Dennis L.; Lapides, Alexander M.; Papanikolas, John M.; Templeton, Joseph L.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2015-12-03

    Surface-bound, perylenediimide (PDI)-based molecular assemblies have been synthesized on nanocrystalline TiO2 by reaction of a dianhydride with a surface-bound aniline and succinimide bonding. In a second step, the Fe(II) polypyridyl complex [FeII(tpy-PhNH2)2]2+ was added to the outside of the film, also by succinimide bonding. Ultrafast transient absorption measurements in 0.1 M HClO4 reveal that electron injection into TiO2 by 1PDI* does not occur, but rather leads to the ultrafast formation of the redox-separated pair PDI•+,PDI•–, which decays with complex kinetics (τ1 = 0.8 ps, τ2 = 15 ps, and τ3 = 1500 ps). With the added Fe(II) polypyridyl complex, rapid (<25 ps) oxidation of Fe(II) by the PDI•+,PDI•– redox pair occurs to give Fe(III),PDI•– persisting for >400 μs in the film environment.

  6. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Philip; Asner, Gregory; Dahlin, Kyla; Anderson, Christopher; Knapp, David; Martin, Roberta; Mascaro, Joseph; Chazdon, Robin; Cole, Rebecca; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Malavassi, Edgar; Vilchez-Alvarado, Braulio; Townsend, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD) varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH) and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH) reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors contribute to ACD

  7. Landscape-Scale Controls on Aboveground Forest Carbon Stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Taylor

    Full Text Available Tropical forests store large amounts of carbon in tree biomass, although the environmental controls on forest carbon stocks remain poorly resolved. Emerging airborne remote sensing techniques offer a powerful approach to understand how aboveground carbon density (ACD varies across tropical landscapes. In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR system to detect top-of-canopy tree height (TCH and ACD across the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. LiDAR and field-estimated TCH and ACD were highly correlated across a wide range of forest ages and types. Top-of-canopy height (TCH reached 67 m, and ACD surpassed 225 Mg C ha-1, indicating both that airborne CAO LiDAR-based estimates of ACD are accurate in tall, high-biomass forests and that the Osa Peninsula harbors some of the most carbon-rich forests in the Neotropics. We also examined the relative influence of lithologic, topoedaphic and climatic factors on regional patterns in ACD, which are known to influence ACD by regulating forest productivity and turnover. Analyses revealed a spatially nested set of factors controlling ACD patterns, with geologic variation explaining up to 16% of the mapped ACD variation at the regional scale, while local variation in topographic slope explained an additional 18%. Lithologic and topoedaphic factors also explained more ACD variation at 30-m than at 100-m spatial resolution, suggesting that environmental filtering depends on the spatial scale of terrain variation. Our result indicate that patterns in ACD are partially controlled by spatial variation in geologic history and geomorphic processes underpinning topographic diversity across landscapes. ACD also exhibited spatial autocorrelation, which may reflect biological processes that influence ACD, such as the assembly of species or phenotypes across the landscape, but additional research is needed to resolve how abiotic and biotic factors

  8. Manipulating cluster size of polyanion-stabilized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticle clusters via electrostatic-mediated assembly for tunable magnetophoresis behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeap, Swee Pin, E-mail: sweepin0727@hotmail.com; Ahmad, Abdul Latif; Ooi, Boon Seng; Lim, JitKang, E-mail: chjitkangl@usm.my [Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Chemical Engineering (Malaysia)

    2015-10-15

    We report in this article an approach for manipulating the size of magnetic nanoparticle clusters (MNCs) via electrostatic-mediated assembly technique using an electrolyte as a clustering agent. The clusters were surface-tethered with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) through electrostatic compensation to enhance their colloidal stability. Dynamic light scattering was employed to trace the evolution of cluster size. Simultaneously, electrophoretic mobility and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses were conducted to investigate the possible schemes involved in both cluster formation and PSS grafting. Results showed that the average hydrodynamic cluster size of the PSS/MNCs and their corresponding size distributions were successfully shifted by means of manipulating the suspension pH, the ionic nature of the electrolyte, and the electrolyte concentration. More specifically, the electrokinetic behavior of the particles upon interaction with the electrolyte plays a profound role in the formation of the PSS/MNCs. Nonetheless, the solubility of the polymer in electrolyte solution and the purification of the particles from residual ions should not be omitted in determining the effectiveness of this clustering approach. The PSS adlayer makes the resultant entities highly water-dispersible and provides electrosteric stabilization to shield the PSS/MNCs from aggregation. In this study, the experimental observations were analyzed and discussed on the basis of existing fundamental colloidal theories. The strategy of cluster size manipulation proposed here is simple and convenient to implement. Furthermore, manipulating the size of the MNCs also facilitates the tuning of magnetophoresis kinetics on exposure to low magnetic field gradient, which makes this nano-entity useful for engineering applications, specifically in separation processes.

  9. Treatment of OSA reduces the risk of repeat revascularization after percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofan; Lv, Shuzheng; Yu, Xiaohong; Yao, Linyin; Mokhlesi, Babak; Wei, Yongxiang

    2015-03-01

    The impact of OSA treatment with CPAP on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outcomes remains largely unknown. Between 2002 and 2012, we identified 390 patients with OSA who had undergone PCI. OSA was diagnosed through in-laboratory sleep studies and defined by an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 events/h. The cohort was divided into three groups: (1) moderate-severe OSA successfully treated with CPAP (n = 128), (2) untreated moderate-severe OSA (n = 167), and (3) untreated mild OSA (n = 95). Main outcomes included repeat revascularization, major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) (ie, death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization), and major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCEs). The median follow-up period was 4.8 years (interquartile range, 3.0-7.1). The untreated moderate-severe OSA group had a higher incidence of repeat revascularization than the treated moderate-severe OSA group (25.1% vs 14.1%, P = .019). There were no differences in mortality (P = .64), MACE (P = .33), and MACCE (P = .76) among the groups. In multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounders, untreated moderate-severe OSA was associated with increased risk of repeat revascularization (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.19-3.81; P = .011). Untreated moderate-severe OSA was independently associated with a significant increased risk of repeat revascularization after PCI. CPAP treatment reduced this risk.

  10. Treatment of OSA Reduces the Risk of Repeat Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofan; Lv, Shuzheng; Yu, Xiaohong; Yao, Linyin; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of OSA treatment with CPAP on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outcomes remains largely unknown. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, we identified 390 patients with OSA who had undergone PCI. OSA was diagnosed through in-laboratory sleep studies and defined by an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 events/h. The cohort was divided into three groups: (1) moderate-severe OSA successfully treated with CPAP (n = 128), (2) untreated moderate-severe OSA (n = 167), and (3) untreated mild OSA (n = 95). Main outcomes included repeat revascularization, major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) (ie, death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization), and major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCEs). The median follow-up period was 4.8 years (interquartile range, 3.0-7.1). RESULTS: The untreated moderate-severe OSA group had a higher incidence of repeat revascularization than the treated moderate-severe OSA group (25.1% vs 14.1%, P = .019). There were no differences in mortality (P = .64), MACE (P = .33), and MACCE (P = .76) among the groups. In multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounders, untreated moderate-severe OSA was associated with increased risk of repeat revascularization (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.19-3.81; P = .011). CONCLUSIONS: Untreated moderate-severe OSA was independently associated with a significant increased risk of repeat revascularization after PCI. CPAP treatment reduced this risk. PMID:25412159

  11. Synthesis and self-assembly of dumbbell shaped ZnO sub-micron structures using low temperature chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borade, P. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Joshi, K.U. [Anton-Paar India Pvt. Ltd., Thane (W), 400607 (India); Gokarna, A.; Lerondel, G. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et D' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS UMR 6281, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Walke, P. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Late, D. [National Chemical Laboratory (NCL), Pune 400027 (India); Jejurikar, S.M., E-mail: jejusuhas@gmail.com [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2016-02-01

    We report well dispersed horizontal growth of ZnO sub-micron structures using simplest technique ever known i.e. chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples were prepared under two different cases A) dumbbell shaped ZnO grown in CBD bath and B) tubular ZnO structures evolved from dumbbell shaped structures by dissolution mechanism. Single phase wurtzite ZnO formation is confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique in both cases. From the morphological investigations performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), sample prepared under case A indicate formation of hex bit tool (HBT) shaped ZnO crystals, which observed to self-organize to form dumbbell structures. Further these microstructures are then converted into tubular structures as a fragment of post CBD process. The possible mechanism responsible for the self-assembly of HBT units to form dumbbell structures is discussed. Observed free excitonic peak located at 370 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra recorded at 18 K indicate that the micro/nanostructures synthesized using CBD are of high optical quality. - Highlights: • Controlled growth of Dumbbell shaped ZnO using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD). • Growth mechanism of dumbbell shaped ZnO by self-assembling was discussed. • Quick Transformation of ZnO dumbbell structures in to tubular structures by dissolution. • Sharp UV Emission at 370 nm from both dumbbell and tubular structures.

  12. Phosphorene-directed self-assembly of asymmetric PS-b-PMMA block copolymer for perpendicularly-oriented sub-10 nm PS nanopore arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziming; Zheng, Lu; Khurram, Muhammad; Yan, Qingfeng

    2017-10-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus, also known as phosphorene, is a new two-dimensional material which is of enormous interest for applications, mainly in electronics and optoelectronics. Herein, we for the first time employ phosphorene for directing the self-assembly of asymmetric polystyrene-block-polymethylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer (BCP) thin film to form the perpendicular orientation of sub-10 nm PS nanopore arrays in a hexagonal fashion normal to the interface. We experimentally demonstrate that none of the PS and PMMA blocks exhibit preferential affinity to the phosphorene-modified surface. Furthermore, the perpendicularly-oriented PS nanostructures almost stay unchanged with the variation of number of layers of few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes between 15-30 layers. Differing from the neutral polymer brushes which are widely used for chemical modification of the silicon substrate, phosphorene provides a novel physical way to control the interfacial interactions between the asymmetric PS-b-PMMA BCP thin film and the silicon substrate. Based on our results, it is possible to build a new scheme for producing sub-10 nm PS nanopore arrays oriented perpendicularly to the few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes. Furthermore, the nanostructural microdomains could serve as a promising nanolithography template for surface patterning of phosphorene nanoflakes.

  13. Buckling measurements up to 250 deg C on lattices of Agesta clusters and on D{sub 2}O alone in the pressurized exponential assembly TZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, R.; Andersson, A.J.W.; Wikdahl, C.E.

    1966-11-15

    Buckling determinations by means of flux mapping were performed in TZ up to 250 deg C on two lattices of Aagesta fuel assemblies in D{sub 2}O and on D{sub 2}O alone. Most of the flux measurements were made with fission counters in pressure thimbles. The perturbations caused by the thimbles were studied experimentally in various ways and compared with two group diffusion-theory calculations. In one of the lattices the effectiveness of a control rod (AglnCd) was also investigated. The results of the diffusion length experiments indicated some systematic error of the order of 0.15 - 0.10/m{sup 2} in the bucklings measured, though the temperature dependence should be well established. The bucklings of the two lattices studied (square pitches 24 and 27 cm) were found to be less sensitive to temperature than theoretical calculations predict, the temperature coefficient being more than 10 per cent smaller. The buckling changes from 20 to 250 deg C were about -2.4 and -1.8/m{sup 2}, respectively, for the two lattices. During part of the experimental period we had, for some unexplained reason, about 30 per cent excess absorption in the heavy water.

  14. Measurement of the angular distribution of fission fragments using a PPAC assembly at CERN n{sub T}OF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrío, D., E-mail: dtarriov@gmail.com [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Leong, L.S.; Audouin, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/IN2P3 -Université Paris-Sud - IPN, Orsay (France); Duran, I.; Paradela, C. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Tassan-Got, L.; Le Naour, C.; Bacri, C.O.; Petitbon, V.; Mottier, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/IN2P3 -Université Paris-Sud - IPN, Orsay (France); Caamaño, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Altstadt, S. [Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universität, Frankfurt (Germany); Andrzejewski, J. [Uniwersytet Łódzki, Lodz (Poland); Barbagallo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Bécares, V. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Bečvář, F. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Belloni, F. [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA) Saclay - Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Berthoumieux, E. [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA) Saclay - Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Billowes, J. [University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester (United Kingdom); Boccone, V. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); and others

    2014-04-11

    A fission reaction chamber based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs) was built for measuring angular distributions of fragments emitted in neutron-induced fission of actinides at the neutron beam available at the Neutron Time-Of-Flight (n{sub T}OF) facility at CERN. The detectors and the samples were tilted 45° with respect to the neutron beam direction to cover all the possible values of the emission angle of the fission fragments. The main features of this setup are discussed and results on the fission fragment angular distribution are provided for the {sup 232}Th(n,f) reaction around the fission threshold. The results are compared with the available data in the literature, demonstrating the good capabilities of this setup.

  15. Photonic techniques for sub-Terahertz wireless data transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2015-01-01

    Wireless data communication links with capacities beyond 100 Gbit/s will require operating at sub-Terahertz frequencies using a large bandpass bandwidth facing new engineering challenges. We review several implementation aspects by using photonic technologies. © 2015 OSA.......Wireless data communication links with capacities beyond 100 Gbit/s will require operating at sub-Terahertz frequencies using a large bandpass bandwidth facing new engineering challenges. We review several implementation aspects by using photonic technologies. © 2015 OSA....

  16. Are the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Stop-Bang model effective at predicting the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA); in particular OSA requiring treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchasara, Binita; Poots, Alan J; Davies, Gary

    2017-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a condition characterised by repetitive upper airway collapse during sleep. The condition carries a range of health sequelae that can prove fatal in cases with co-existing risk factors for the condition, such as obesity and hypertension. Utilisation of a high-performance screening tool for OSA is thus important. A retrospective audit using the ESS and Stop-Bang scores, alongside Apnoea-Hypopnea Index values, for patients who underwent polysomnography over 1 year. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare the predictive abilities of ESS, SBM, and body mass index (BMI) for the patient outcome groups, "None" (No OSA), "Notreat" (OSA not requiring treatment) and "treat" (OSA requiring treatment). The influences of age, gender and BMI on outcome group were also assessed. 126 bariatric and 66 non-bariatric patients were included. Multinomial logistic regression failed to demonstrate predictive ability of ESS. A higher Stop-Bang score significantly increases the risk being in the "treat" group. In addition, male gender, greater age and a higher BMI each individually increase the risk of OSA requiring treatment. Stop-Bang failed to demonstrate predictive significance when age and gender were controlled for. ESS is not an appropriate screening tool for OSA. Stop-Bang, however, remains a useful screening tool, with the ability to detect patient with OSA in need of treatment. Further study may benefit the development and implementation of a concise and more specific screening tool that considers high evidence-based risk factors for OSA, including male gender, greater age and raised BMI.

  17. OSA is common and independently associated with hypertension and increased arterial stiffness in consecutive perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Rodrigo P; Barros, Isly M L; Drager, Luciano F; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Medeiros, Ana Kelley L; Carvalho, Liana L; Lustosa, Thais C; Carvalho, Martinha M B; Ferreira, Moacir N L; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Costa, Laura O B F

    2014-07-01

    Perimenopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. OSA is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease, particularly among men, but the independent contribution of OSA to cardiovascular risk in climacteric women is not clear. We evaluated 277 consecutive women (age, 56 [52-61] years; BMI, 28 [25-32] kg/m2) without manifest cardiovascular disease (heart failure, coronary disease, or stroke). All women underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, arterial stiffness evaluation (pulse wave velocity), and portable sleep study. OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 events/h) and moderate to severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events/h) were diagnosed in 111 (40.1%) and 31 (11.1%) women, respectively. None of the participants had received a previous diagnosis of OSA. Women with moderate to severe OSA vs those without OSA had a higher prevalence of hypertension, were prescribed more medications for hypertension, had higher awake BP (systolic, 133 [125-142] vs 126 [119-134] mm Hg [P OSA, respectively). OSA is common, underdiagnosed, and independently associated with high BP and increased arterial stiffness in perimenopausal women.

  18. Predicting uptake of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy; McNeil, Lindsay; Olaithe, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a standard treatment. Despite its well-established efficacy, many patients choose not to initiate CPAP treatment. The present study investigated the degree to which...... decision to proceed with a trial of CPAP. Results: The participants were most likely to attribute their OSA to unchangeable and psychological factors. For those with moderate OSA (AHI, 15 to 30) IPQ-R illness consequence was predictive of decision to initiate CPAP (p = 0.002). For severe OSA (AHI >30) age...

  19. Evaluation of degree of lacunar infarction and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with different severity of OSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Du

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the degree of lacunar infarction and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with different severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Methods: A total of 198 patients with OSAS were retrospectively studied from case information and test results, and were divided into mild group 84 cases, medium group 70 cases and severe group 44 cases according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, and 176 cases of non-OSAS people who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as healthy control group. Differences in the values of serum lacunar infarction-related indexes, blood viscosity and hemocyte-related indexes, carotid structure and function parameters, serum arteriosclerosis-related indexes and so on were compared among groups. Results: t-PA value of healthy control group was higher than those of OSAS group while vWF, PAI-1 and Fg values were lower than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the increase of OSAS severity, t-PA value decreased while vWF, PAI-1 and Fg values increased (P<0.05; blood viscosity, Hct, PDW, RDW and EFR values of healthy control group were lower than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the increase of OSAS severity, blood viscosity, Hct, PDW, RDW and EFR values increased (P<0.05; FMD, NID and DC values of healthy control group were higher than those of OSAS group while Dis, CC and PWV values were lower than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the increase of OSAS severity, FMD, NID and DC values decreased while Dis, CC and PWV values increased (P<0.05; blood uric acid and EF-1 values of healthy control group were lower than those of OSAS group while CGRP and fetuin A levels were higher than those of OSAS group (P<0.05, and with the aggravation of OSAS, blood uric acid and EF-1 levels increased while CGRP and fetuin A levels decreased, and differences among groups were significant (P<0.05. Conclusions: With the aggravation of OSAS, patients’ microcirculation

  20. Assessment of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) in untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S; Skinner, Timothy C; Starkstein, Sergio; Hillman, David; James, Alan; Hunter, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The assessment of depression in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is confounded by symptom overlap. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-short form (DASS-21) is a commonly used measure of negative affect, but it not known whether the DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. This study compared the fit of Lovibond and Lovibond's (1995) correlated 3-factor structure of the DASS-21 and measurement invariance between a non-OSA and an OSA sample using confirmatory factor analysis. As measurement invariance was not found, to determine the source of non-invariance differential item functioning (DIF) was examined using dMACS. The correlated 3-factor structure (with correlated errors) of the DASS-21 was a better fit in the non-OSA sample. dMACS indicated that there was a degree of DIF for each of the subscales, especially for the Anxiety subscale, in which 2 symptoms (that are also physiological symptoms of OSA) produced lower severity scores in the OSA sample compared with the non-OSA sample. However, the degree of DIF for each of the subscales is not sufficient to cause concern when using the DASS-21; therefore, the total DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. Interestingly, the impact of symptom overlap in anxiety symptoms may be reducing anxiety scores because of DIF, which contrasts with the proposed effect of symptom overlap in depression, where it leads to the inflation of depression scores in OSA. This deserves greater consideration in relation to OSA and other clinical disorders or chronic illness conditions with different patterns of overlapping symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Impact of OSA on biological markers in morbid obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salord, Neus; Gasa, Mercè; Mayos, Mercedes; Fortuna-Gutierrez, Ana Maria; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Barceló, Antonia; Barbé, Ferran; Vilarrasa, Núria; Monasterio, Carmen

    2014-03-15

    There is compelling evidence that obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can affect metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk, but the intermediate mechanisms through which it occurs have not been well defined. We explored the impact of OSA in morbidly obese patients with MetS on adipokines, pro-inflammatory markers, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis markers. We included 52 morbidly obese patients in an observational study matched for age, gender and central obesity in 3 groups (OSA-MetS, Non-OSA-MetS, and Non OSA-non-MetS). Anthropometrical, blood pressure, and fasting blood measurements were obtained the morning after an overnight polysomnography. VEGF, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, adiponectin, and chemerin were determined in serum by ELISA. OSA was defined as apnea/ hypopnea index ≥ 15 and MetS by NCEP-ATP III. Cases and control subjects did not differ in age, BMI, waist circumference, and gender (43 ± 10 years, 46 ± 5 kg/m(2), 128 ± 10 cm, 71% females). The cases had severe OSA with 47 (32-66) events/h, time spent OSA did not determine any differences in the studied mediators when matched by central obesity. Morbidly obese NonOSA-NonMetS had a similar inflammatory, adipokine VEGF, and sCD40L profile as those with established MetS, with or without OSA. Obesity itself could overwhelm the effect of sleep apnea and MetS in the studied biomarkers. Salord N; Gasa M; Mayos M; Fortuna-Gutierrez AM; Montserrat JM; Sánchez-de-la-Torre M; Barceló A; Barbé F; Vilarrasa N; Monasterio C. Impact of OSA on biological markers in morbid obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Greater risk of hospitalization in children with Down syndrome and OSA at higher elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristin M; Sevick, Carter J; Seewald, Laura A S; Halbower, Ann C; Davis, Matthew M; McCabe, Edward R B; Kempe, Allison; Abman, Steven H

    2015-05-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for OSA. Increasing elevation is known to exacerbate underlying respiratory disorders and worsen sleep quality in people without DS, but whether altitude modulates the severity of OSA in DS is uncertain. In this study, we evaluate the impact of elevation (≤ 1,500 m vs > 1,500 m) on the proportion of hospitalizations involving OSA in children with and without DS. Merging the 2009 Kids' Inpatient Database with zip-code linked elevation data, we analyzed differences in the proportion of pediatric hospitalizations (ages 2-20 years) involving OSA, pneumonia, and congenital heart disease (CHD), with and without DS. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association of elevation with hospitalizations involving OSA and DS, adjusting for key comorbidities. Proportionately more DS encounters involved OSA, CHD, and pneumonia within each elevation category than non-DS encounters. However, the risk difference for hospitalizations involving OSA and DS increased disproportionately at higher elevations (DS: 16.2% [95% CI, 9.2%-23.2%]; non-DS: 0.1% [95% CI, -0.4% to 0.7%]). Multivariable estimates of relative risk indicate increased risk for hospitalization involving OSA at higher elevations for people with DS and in children aged 2 to 4 years or with two or more chronic conditions. At elevations > 1,500 m, children with DS and OSA have a disproportionately higher risk for hospitalization than children with OSA without DS. This finding has not been described previously. With further validation, this finding suggests the need for greater awareness and earlier screening for OSA and its complications in patients with DS living at higher elevations.

  3. Mathematical Objects through the Lens of Two Different Theoretical Perspectives: APOS and OSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Moll, Vicenç; Trigueros, María; Badillo, Edelmira; Rubio, Norma

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a networking of two theories, the APOS Theory and the ontosemiotic approach (OSA), to compare and contrast how they conceptualize the notion of a mathematical object. As context of reflection, we designed an APOS genetic decomposition for the derivative and analyzed it from the point of view of OSA. Results of this study show…

  4. Statins May Prevent Atherosclerotic Disease in OSA Patients without Co-Morbidities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraldo, Domenico Maurizio; Benedetto, Michele De; Conte, Luana; De Nuccio, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive interruptions of breathing, causing Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (CIH) that can be involved in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. There is evidence showing a close relationship between OSA and atherosclerosis, even in patients who do not show co-morbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, high levels of lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), cigarette smoking and obesity, which can activate the endothelium. This endothelium activation due to CIH and specific to OSA seems to be dependent on a different pathway. The current first line therapy for OSA is the application of the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but it alone is not enough to reduce cardiometabolic risk in patients with OSA. In contrast, statins, via their pleiotropic property, might be able to change inflammation and early atherosclerosis, lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes in OSA. The role of statins in OSA patients with or without any co-morbidities could potentially prevent coronary vascular risk and stroke and in the future, represent an additional treatment option along with CPAP therapy. Strengthening the prevention strategies against atherosclerosis in OSA should be one of the focal aims for healthcare programs of the future.

  5. Feasibility of portable sleep monitors to detect obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a vulnerable urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Jillian; Lee, Euny; Nedelman, Michael; Aurora, R Nisha; Krieger, Ana; Horowitz, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    Portable sleep monitors may offer a convenient method to expand detection of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), yet few studies have evaluated this technology in vulnerable populations. We therefore aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of portable sleep monitors for detection of OSA in a prediabetic, urban minority population. We recruited a convenience sample of participants at their 12-month follow-up for a community-partnered, peer-led lifestyle intervention aimed to prevent diabetes in prediabetic and overweight patients in this prospective mixed-methods pilot study. All participants wore portable sleep monitors overnight at home. We qualitatively explored perceptions about OSA and portable monitors in a subset of participants. We tested 72 people, predominantly non-White, female, Spanish speaking, uninsured, and of low income. Use of portable sleep monitors was feasible: 100% of the monitors were returned and all participants received results. We detected OSA in 49% (defined as an Apnea-Hypopnea Index [AHI] >5) and moderate-severe OSA in 14% (AHI >15) requiring treatment in 14%. In 21 qualitative interviews, participants supported increased use of portable sleep monitors in their community, were appropriately concerned that OSA could cause progression to diabetes, and thought weight loss could prevent or improve OSA. Portable sleep monitors may represent a feasible method for detecting OSA in high-risk urban minority populations. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  6. Serum levels of magnesium and their relationship with CRP in patients with OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanli, H; Kizilirmak, D; Akgedik, R; Bilgi, M

    2017-05-01

    Low levels of magnesium (Mg) are associated with chronic inflammatory stress. Some animal studies have reported that a moderate deficiency of Mg, similar to that which occurs in humans, may increase inflammatory or oxidative stress stimulated by other factors, such as disrupted sleep or sleep deficiency. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between serum levels of Mg and the inflammatory response in patients with a new diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This clinical, retrospective study registered 68 patients with newly diagnosed mild to severe OSA and 30 without OSA. The Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), time until blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation OSA than those in controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Patients with OSA had substantially higher plasma CRP concentrations than controls. A negative correlation was observed between the AHI and ODI and Mg levels. Significant differences in Mg and CRP levels were observed between patients with AHI scores of 5-15 and scores ≥30 based on OSA severity but independent of BMI. Furthermore, the AHI, ODI, TST OSA. Low levels were associated with a higher CRP concentration in patients with OSA.

  7. Assessment of the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) in untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of depression in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is confounded by symptom overlap. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-short form (DASS-21) is a commonly used measure of negative affect, but it not known whether the DASS-21 is suitable for use in an OSA sample. This study...

  8. Osa-containing Brahma chromatin remodeling complexes are required for the repression of Wingless target genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Russell T.; Treisman, Jessica E.

    2000-01-01

    The Wingless signaling pathway directs many developmental processes in Drosophila by regulating the expression of specific downstream target genes. We report here that the product of the trithorax group gene osa is required to repress such genes in the absence of the Wingless signal. The Wingless-regulated genes nubbin, Distal-less, and decapentaplegic and a minimal enhancer from the Ultrabithorax gene are misexpressed in osa mutants and repressed by ectopic Osa. Osa-mediated repression occurs downstream of the up-regulation of Armadillo but is sensitive both to the relative levels of activating Armadillo/Pangolin and repressing Groucho/Pangolin complexes present and to the responsiveness of the promoter to Wingless. Osa functions as a component of the Brahma chromatin-remodeling complex; other components of this complex are likewise required to repress Wingless target genes. These results suggest that altering the conformation of chromatin is an important mechanism by which Wingless signaling activates gene expression. PMID:11124806

  9. Assembly of a check-patterned CuS{sub x}–TiO{sub 2} film with an electron-rich pool and its application for the photoreduction of carbon dioxide to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Homin; Kwak, Byeong Sub [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Park, No-Kuk [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jeom-In [KEPCO Research Institute, Korea Electric Power Corporation, 105 Munji-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34056 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ho-Jung [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34129 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Misook, E-mail: mskang@ynu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • A new check-patterned CuS{sub x}–TiO{sub 2} film was prepared by the squeeze printing method. • Significantly increased amounts of CO{sub 2} were adsorbed on the CuS{sub x}–TiO{sub 2} film. • High amounts of CH{sub 4} (53.2 μmolg{sub cat}{sup −1} L{sup −1}) were produced over the CuS{sub x}–TiO{sub 2} film. • An electron-rich pool was supposedly formed at the boundary between TiO{sub 2} and CuS{sub x}. - Abstract: A new check-patterned CuS{sub x}–TiO{sub 2} film was designed to improve the photoreduction of CO{sub 2} to CH{sub 4}. The check-patterned CuS{sub x}–TiO{sub 2} film with a 3D-network microstructure was fabricated by a facile squeeze method. The as-synthesized TiO{sub 2} and CuS{sub x} powders, as well as the patterned film, were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, as well as photocurrent density and CO{sub 2} temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) measurements. Compared to pure CuS{sub x} and TiO{sub 2}, the check-patterned CuS{sub x}–TiO{sub 2} film exhibited significantly increased adsorption of CO{sub 2} on its networked microstructure, attributed to the enlarged interfaces between the microparticles. The check-patterned CuS{sub x}–TiO{sub 2} film exhibited superior photocatalytic behavior, with 53.2 μmolg{sub cat}{sup −1} L{sup −1} of CH{sub 4} produced after 8 h of reaction, whereas 18.1 and 7.3 μmolg{sub cat}{sup −1} L{sup −1} of CH{sub 4} were produced from pure TiO{sub 2} and CuS{sub x} films under the same reaction conditions, respectively. A model for enhanced photoactivity over the check-patterned CuS{sub x} − TiO{sub 2} film was proposed. Results indicated that the check-patterned CuS–TiO{sub 2} material is quite promising as a photocatalyst for the reduction of CO{sub 2} to CH{sub 4}.

  10. Influência da cobertura e do solo na composição florística do sub-bosque em uma floresta estacional semidecidual em Viçosa, MG, Brasil Cover and soil influence at understory of a Seasonal Tropical Forest, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Augusto Alves Meira-Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A relação ecológica planta-luz tem sido estudada desde o início do século XX. As análises da relação da luminosidade ao nível das comunidades florestais têm se valido de medições indiretas por meio de índices de cobertura, mas sem a aplicação da fotogrametria para estimar essa cobertura. Este trabalho foi idealizado para utilizar fotogrametria do dossel, tornando-a aplicável ao estudo da luminosidade no sub-bosque herbáceo-arbustivo. Teve como objetivos estabelecer a relação existente entre espécies do estrato herbáceo-arbustivo e a cobertura do dossel e averiguar a existência de correlações entre espécies, luminosidade e variáveis pedológicas. Para tanto, foram tiradas fotografias em preto e branco nos períodos seco e chuvoso, em 100 (1 m×1 m parcelas aplicadas para a amostragem da vegetação herbácea. Foram colhidas amostras de solo em cada parcela. A partir dos valores médios das medidas de cobertura estimada pelas fotografias dos períodos seco e chuvoso calculou-se o valor médio de cobertura para cada espécie amostrada. Por meio do teste "t" student e da Análise de Correspondência Canônica foram determinadas as relações entre as espécies, a luminosidade e as variáveis pedológicas no estrato herbáceo-arbustivo. A cobertura não foi significativamente diferente nas épocas seca e na chuvosa. Apenas três espécies, Heisteria silviani, Calathea brasiliensis e Psychotria conjugens, tiveram médias de cobertura significativamente maiores que a média amostral e outras três, Olyra micrantha, Lacistema pubescens e Pteris denticulata, tiveram médias menores. As distribuições de parcelas pelos valores de cobertura, de tamanho de clareiras e pelo número de clareiras mostraram-se similares às distribuições encontradas na literatura para outras florestas tropicais e, portanto, o método da fotogrametria revelou-se adequado para a avaliação da cobertura. Verificou-se que os teores de cálcio, magn

  11. Interpretation of the VENUS VIP-BWR program with APOLLO2.8 reference and optimized MOC schemes for 8 x 8 UO{sub 2} and MOX BWR assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise, P., E-mail: patrick.blaise@cea.f [CEA - Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de CADARACHE - DEN/CAD/DER/SPRC, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Vidal, J.-F.; Santamarina, A.; Bernard, D. [CEA - Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de CADARACHE - DEN/CAD/DER/SPRC, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2010-11-15

    The interpretation of the VIP-BWR program conducted in the CEN.SCK Mol VENUS critical facility (Belgium), has been performed with the new APOLLO2.8 product and its CEA2005V4.1 library based on the JEFF3.1.1 file. Both reference SHEM-MOC (281groups without equivalence) and Optimized BWR 26G (26 groups with equivalence) schemes are used for UO{sub 2} and MOX BWR assembly calculations. The VIP-BWR program was aimed to provide an experimental database for BWR neutronics tools in mixed Gd poisoned configurations with 8 x 8 UO{sub 2} and MOX assemblies. The experimental conditions are relatively representative of actual industrial BWR core characteristics, at least in terms of void fraction. Measured pin-by-pin power distributions enable to exact valuable information at various interfaces. For fresh (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2}-Gd) and recycled UO{sub 2} (UO{sub 2} only) cores loadings, the information is given through the 'UO{sub 2}' core. In the case of partial MOX loadings (UO{sub 2}/MOX interface), the power distributions are available through the 'T-MOX' core. All critical sizes are predicted within 1 with SHEM-MOC reference calculation scheme. For UO{sub 2} core, the (C-E) on k{sub eff} are (95 {+-} 266) pcm and (203 {+-} 266) pcm for SHEM-MOC and Optimized scheme respectively. For MOX core, the results are (87 {+-} 214) pcm and (283 {+-} 214) pcm. The uncertainties take into account both measurement uncertainties and technological uncertainties such as enrichment, clad thicknesses, grid pitch or fuel densities. Average (C-E)/E on radial fission rate distributions are in excellent agreement in the UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}-Gd assemblies. In mixed loading cores, the calculation shows an over prediction in the MOX fuel pin. This points out a systematic swing between UO{sub 2} and MOX. For average fission rates in UO{sub 2}, the C/E results are within {+-} 0.2% with SHEM-MOC and OptimizedBWR26G. For average power in MOX, the C/E results are within {+-}0

  12. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling: a novel pathway in OSA induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Porter, Kyle; Pleister, Adam; Wannemacher, Jacob; Sow, Angela; Jarjoura, David; Zweier, Jay L; Khayat, Rami N

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and cardiovascular disease in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. We performed a comprehensive evaluation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function directly in the microcirculatory endothelial tissue of OSA patients who have very low cardiovascular risk status. Nineteen OSA patients underwent gluteal biopsies before, and after effective treatment of OSA. We measured superoxide (O2(•-)) and nitric oxide (NO) in the microcirculatory endothelium using confocal microscopy. We evaluated the effect of the NOS inhibitor l-Nitroarginine-Methyl-Ester (l-NAME) and the NOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on endothelial O2(•-) and NO in patient endothelial tissue before and after treatment. We found that eNOS is dysfunctional in OSA patients pre-treatment, and is a source of endothelial O2(•-) overproduction. eNOS dysfunction was reversible with the addition of BH4. These findings provide a new mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in OSA patients and a potentially targetable pathway for treatment of cardiovascular risk in OSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of emulsifying property in Persian gum using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, S; Abbasi, S; Scanlon, M G

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, the influence of octenyle succinic anhydride (OSA),gum concentration, pH, temperature and reaction time on esterification of Persian gum (PG), and its soluble (SFPG) and insoluble (IFPG) fractions, were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM) in order to optimize the reaction conditions based on the degree of substitution (DS). The individual effect of all independent variables as well as the interactive effects of temperature-OSA concentration, and OSA-PG concentrations on DS was significant. However, the latter interactive effect (OSA-SFPG) was not significant in case of SFPG. The IFPG did not have any esterification reaction with OSA. The highest DS for PG and SFPG were 0.0285 and 0.0303 at the optimal conditions, respectively. The FTIR spectrums also confirmed the carbonyl group attachment in OSA-PG and OSA-SFPG. The enhancement of emulsifying capability was also confirmed by ECI and EAI values, microscopic images as well as rheological measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI) and Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romsaiyut, Sasithon; Chotnaiyawattrakul, Wattanachai; Boonyasirinant, Thananya

    2015-02-01

    A non-invasive test called Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index (CA VI) measures aortic stiffness, which is an early sign of atherosclerosis. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has a close association with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We sought to assess the relationship between OSA and arterial stiffness. Seventy-one patients with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index AHI ≥ 5, mean age 51.5 ± 14.1 years, 27 females) and 11 controls (AHI OSA and controls were not significantly different. Subjects with OSA demonstrated higher values ofmean ankle artery pulse pressure than the controls (73.1 ± 14.6 vs. 59.6 ± 6.1 mmHg, respectively), but arterial stiffness and CAVI had no statistically significant difference (7.47 ± 1.68 vs. 7.25 ± 1.61, respectively). There was no relationship between arterial stiffness CAVI, and the presence of OSA. However; there was a significant association between ankle artery pulse pressure and the presence of OSA.

  15. New insights on the role of the insular cortex and habenula in OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Xian; Yan, Chao-Ying; Wang, Shao

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal structure or function in the central nervous system (CNS) can also affect obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Because human afferent and motor pathways that regulate apnea are still poorly understood, it is not possible to modify the behavior of motor neurons to control airway function. The purpose of this article is to clear the central control mechanism of genioglossus (GG) and to discuss how altered activity in the limbic system and its related structures might affect OSA development, in order to provide help for the treatment of this disease. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from previous studies on OSA-related brain damage in human beings plus the data from clinical and animal experiments are summarized. These articles are overviewed to discuss the roles of the limbic system-the insular cortex (Ic), the habenula (Hb), and CNS-in the pathogenesis and mechanisms of OSA. The Ic, which relays signals through the Hb, may play a role in OSA because activating the Ic causes the Hb to suppress activity of the raphe nucleus (RN), resulting in lower levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) that decreases the muscle tone of the GG. This leads to airway collapse. The Ic may be an important region in the development of OSA. Altered activity in the limbic system and its related structures could also be associated with OSA.

  16. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matos

    Full Text Available The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable.

  17. COPD-OSA Overlap Syndrome: Evolving Evidence Regarding Epidemiology, Clinical Consequences, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2017-12-01

    COPD and OSA are both highly prevalent, which implies that both disorders occurring together (overlap syndrome) is likely to be common based on chance association alone. However, different clinical COPD phenotypes influence the likelihood of coexisting OSA in that the increased lung volumes and low BMI associated with the predominant emphysema phenotype protects against OSA, whereas the higher likelihood of peripheral edema and increased BMI associated with the predominant chronic bronchitis phenotype promotes OSA. Both COPD and OSA are associated with similar physiological and molecular consequences, such as hypoxia and systemic inflammation, that contribute to cardiovascular and other comorbidities, and pulmonary hypertension is highly prevalent in patients with the overlap syndrome. However, there have been few published reports that have evaluated systemic inflammation and other cardiovascular comorbidities in patients with overlap syndrome. The diagnosis of OSA in patients with COPD requires awareness of relevant clinical features, and screening questionnaires may help identify suitable patients for further overnight study. The recognition of coexisting OSA in patients with COPD has important clinical relevance, as the management of patients with overlap syndrome is different from the management of COPD alone, and the survival of patients with overlap syndrome that is not treated with nocturnal positive airway pressure is significantly inferior to that of patients with overlap syndrome that is appropriately treated. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Emulsifying Properties of Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA)-Modified Starch: Granular Form vs Dissolved State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, María; Marefati, Ali; Gutiérrez, Gemma; Wahlgren, Marie; Rayner, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The emulsifying ability of OSA-modified and native starch in the granular form, in the dissolved state and a combination of both was compared. This study aims to understand mixed systems of particles and dissolved starch with respect to what species dominates at droplet interfaces and how stability is affected by addition of one of the species to already formed emulsions. It was possible to create emulsions with OSA-modified starch isolated from Quinoa as sole emulsifier. Similar droplet sizes were obtained with emulsions prepared at 7% (w/w) oil content using OSA-modified starch in the granular form or molecularly dissolved but large differences were observed regarding stability. Pickering emulsions kept their droplet size constant after one month while emulsions formulated with OSA-modified starch dissolved exhibited coalescence. All emulsions stabilized combining OSA-modified starch in granular form and in solution showed larger mean droplet sizes with no significant differences with respect to the order of addition. These emulsions were unstable due to coalescence regarding presence of free oil. Similar results were obtained when emulsions were prepared by combining OSA-modified granules with native starch in solution. The degree of surface coverage of starch granules was much lower in presence of starch in solution which indicates that OSA-starch is more surface active in the dissolved state than in granular form, although it led to unstable systems compared to starch granule stabilized Pickering emulsions, which demonstrated to be extremely stable.

  19. Questionnaire OSA-18 has poor validity compared to polysomnography in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, Anna; Nerfeldt, Pia; Friberg, Danielle

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of the quality-of-life instrument OSA-18 by comparing it with objective data from polysomnography in children with sleep-disordered breathing. Cross-sectional. Full-night polysomnographic data were obtained from 225 subjects, 139 boys and 86 girls, median age 4.5 years (1-12) in our sleep laboratory. Their caregivers answered the OSA-18 quality-of-life instrument (range 18-126). The polysomnographic parameter, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was compared with the total symptom score (TSS) and with the subscale of sleep disturbance (SD) from the OSA-18 questionnaire. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created to test the predictive value of OSA-18. With the TSS of the OSA-18 at ≥60, compared with AHI levels of >1 and ≥5, the sensitivity was 55.2% and 59.3% respectively, and the specificity 40.9% and 48.4%, respectively. With the TSS>80 and AHI levels of ≥5 and ≥10, the sensitivity was 24.6% and 32.1%, respectively. For the subscale of SD, the majority of the subjects showed poor correlation with the AHI values. The ROC area under the curve for different levels of the AHI (>1, ≥5, and ≥10) was 0.49, 0.57, and 0.56, respectively. The OSA-18 questionnaire showed poor validity in detecting and predicting pediatric OSA. The majority of the children with severe OSA would not be correctly diagnosed if the OSA-18 were used as a dominant diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Turkish Anaesthesiologist's Experiences of Anaesthetic Management of Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaş, Mesut; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Şimşek, Tuncer; Şahin, Hasan; Toman, Hüseyin; Hancı, Volkan

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important health problem that is increasing with the increase in the incidence of obesity. For patients with OSA, it is reported that preoperative OSA diagnosis is made in only 10%-20% of the patients. Therefore, it gains importance that these patients are diagnosed in the preoperative period. The aim of this study is to analyze with a survey the experiences of anaesthesia experts working in Turkey about the diagnosis of patients with OSA, anaesthetic methods and postoperative care. The study was completed with an online survey form distributed via email. Survey participants were sent an email, and those experts who wished to participate clicked on the link, answered the questions and returned the survey via email. A total of 134 anaesthesia experts participated in this study. While 97% of the participating anaesthetists considered diagnosis of patients with OSA to be important, only 53% trusted themselves to recognize this patient group. Of the total number of participants. 43% did not know the STOP-BANG test used in the preoperative period to diagnose patients with OSA. The percentage who thought that patients with OSA would increase the incidence of difficult intubation was 84%. In the intraoperative period, the percentage who chose inhalation anaesthetics was 35%, whereas the rate of those who chose total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) was 48%. This study indicates that the medical knowledge of Turkish anaesthetists on the topic of OSA requires updating. In addition, we believe a practical guide to standardize the diagnosis and preoperative/perioperative management of patients with OSA should be prepared for Turkish anaesthetists.

  1. Network science meets respiratory medicine for OSAS phenotyping and severity prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mihaicuta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common clinical condition. The way that OSAS risk factors associate and converge is not a random process. As such, defining OSAS phenotypes fosters personalized patient management and population screening. In this paper, we present a network-based observational, retrospective study on a cohort of 1,371 consecutive OSAS patients and 611 non-OSAS control patients in order to explore the risk factor associations and their correlation with OSAS comorbidities. To this end, we construct the Apnea Patients Network (APN using patient compatibility relationships according to six objective parameters: age, gender, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, neck circumference (NC and the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS. By running targeted network clustering algorithms, we identify eight patient phenotypes and corroborate them with the co-morbidity types. Also, by employing machine learning on the uncovered phenotypes, we derive a classification tree and introduce a computational framework which render the Sleep Apnea Syndrome Score (SASScore; our OSAS score is implemented as an easy-to-use, web-based computer program which requires less than one minute for processing one individual. Our evaluation, performed on a distinct validation database with 231 consecutive patients, reveals that OSAS prediction with SASScore has a significant specificity improvement (an increase of 234% for only 8.2% sensitivity decrease in comparison with the state-of-the-art score STOP-BANG. The fact that SASScore has bigger specificity makes it appropriate for OSAS screening and risk prediction in big, general populations.

  2. Driving simulator performance remains impaired in patients with severe OSA after CPAP treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakulin, Andrew; Baulk, Stuart D; Catcheside, Peter G; Antic, Nick A; van den Heuvel, Cameron J; Dorrian, Jillian; McEvoy, R Doug

    2011-06-15

    To assess the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in improving 90-minute driving simulator performance in severe OSA patients compared to age/gender matched controls. Driving simulator performance was assessed at baseline and 3 months later, with OSA patients treated with CPAP during the interval. University Teaching Hospital. Patients with severe OSA (n = 11) and control subjects without OSA (n = 9). CPAP MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Simulator driving parameters of steering deviation, braking reaction time and crashes were measured at baseline and ∼3 months follow-up. At baseline, OSA subjects demonstrated significantly greater steering deviation compared to controls (mean [95% CI], OSA group, 49.9 cm [43.7 to 56.0 cm] vs control group, 34.9 cm [28.1 to 41.7 cm], p = 0.003). Following ∼3 months of CPAP treatment (mean ± SD 6.0 ± 1.4 h/night), steering deviation in OSA subjects improved by an average of 3.1 cm (CI, 1.4 to 4.9), p driving simulator performance improved after ∼3 months of CPAP treatment with high adherence in patients with severe OSA, performance remained impaired compared to control subjects. These results add to the growing body of evidence that some neurobehavioral deficits in patients with severe OSA are not fully reversed by treatment. Further studies are needed to assess causes of residual driving simulator impairment and to determine whether this is associated with persistent elevated real-life accident risk. Data presented in this manuscript was collected as part of a clinical trial "Experimental Investigations of Driving Impairment in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea" ACTRN12610000009011, http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=334979

  3. Transferrable Plasmonic Au Thin Film Containing Sub-20 nm Nanohole Array Constructed via High-Resolution Polymer Self-Assembly and Nanotransfer Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Soonmin; Jeon, Suwan; Kim, Jong Min; Baek, Kwang Min; Lee, Gun Ho; Kim, Hyowook; Shin, Jonghwa; Jung, Yeon Sik

    2018-01-10

    The fabrication and characterization of nanoscale hole arrays (NHA) have been extensively performed for a variety of unique characteristics including extraordinary optical transmission phenomenon observed for plasmonic NHAs. Although the size miniaturization and hole densification are strongly required for enhancement of high-frequency optical responses, from a practical point-of-view, it is still not straightforward to manufacture NHA using conventional lithography techniques. Herein, a facile, cost-effective, and transferrable fabrication route for high-resolution and high-density NHA with sub-50 nm periodicity is demonstrated. Solvent-assisted nanotransfer printing with ultrahigh-resolution combined with block copolymer self-assembly is used to fabricate well-defined Si nanomesh master template with 4-fold symmetry. An Au NHA film on quartz substrate is then obtained by thermal-evaporation on the Si master and subsequent transfer of the sample, resulting in NHA structure having a hole with a diameter of 18 nm and a density over 400 holes/μm2. A resonance peak at the wavelength of 650 nm, which is not present in the transmittance spectrum of a flat Au film, is observed for the Au NHA film. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results propose that the unexpected peak appears because of plasmonic surface guiding mode. The position of the resonance peak shows the sensitivity toward the change of the refractive index of surrounding medium, suggesting it as a promising label-free sensor application. In addition, other types of Au nanostructure arrays such as geometry-controlled NHA and nanoparticle arrays (NPAs) shows the outstanding versatility of our approach.

  4. Formula for predicting OSA and the Apnea-Hypopnea Index in Koreans with suspected OSA using clinical, anthropometric, and cephalometric variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Tae; Park, Kee Hyung; Shin, Seung-Heon; Kim, Ji-Eun; Pae, Chi-Un; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Hwang, Hee Young; Kang, Seung-Gul

    2017-12-01

    This study developed formulas to predict obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) in Korean patients with suspected OSA using clinical, anthropometric, and cephalometric variables. We evaluated relevant variables in 285 subjects with suspected OSA. These included demographic characteristics, sleep-related symptoms, medical history, clinical scales, anthropometric measurements including facial surface measurements, and cephalometric measurements. All participants underwent full-night laboratory polysomnography. The prediction formula for the probability of OSA was created by logistic regression analysis and confirmed by the bootstrap resampling technique. The formula for predicting the AHI was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. The probability of having OSA was as follows: p = 1 / (1 + exponential (exp)-f ), where f = -16.508 + 1.445 × loudness of snoring 4 + 0.485 × loudness of snoring 3 + 0.078 × waist circumference + 0.209 × subnasale-to-stomion distance + 0.183 × thickness of the uvula (UTH) supine + 0.041 × age. The AHI prediction formula was as follows: -112.606 + 3.516 × body mass index + 0.683 × mandibular plane-hyoid supine + 10.915 × loudness of snoring 4 + 6.933 × loudness of snoring 3 + 1.297 × UTH supine + 0.272 × age. This is the first study to establish formulas to predict OSA and the AHI in Koreans with suspected OSA using cephalometric and other variables. These results will contribute to prioritizing the order in which patients with suspected OSA are referred for polysomnography.

  5. The Effect of Montelukast on Mild Persistent OSA after Adenotonsillectomy in Children: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Liang, Jia

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to evaluate the treatment effect of montelukast in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy (T&A). Fifty-eight children with persistent OSA after T&A were included and randomly divided into 2 groups: one group was administered montelukast for 12 weeks, and the other received no treatment. Clinical information, such as the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and nadir oxyhemoglobin saturation (nadir SpO2), was recorded. Symptoms of OSA were evaluated using the validated Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ). After surgery, there was no difference in terms of AHI, nadir SpO2, and PSQ scores between 2 groups. After the 12-week course of montelukast administration, the treatment group had significant improvement in the AHI, nadir SpO2, and PSQ scores ( P .05). In summary, montelukast as a complementary therapy can improve sleep disturbances in children with OSA after T&A.

  6. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS): Pathophysiology in Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldi, Marlit; Ani, Raivo; Vaher, Heisl; Eller, Triin; Hion, Tuuliki; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the roles of age, obesity, smoking, alcohol, pathoanatomy and -physiology in Estonian's OSAS. For this 164 randomly chosen such patients were selected in different regions of Estonia. They underwent naso-oropharyngeal examination, physical examination of craniofacial abnormalities, and polysomnography. They also completed a self-reported questionnaire about smoking, alcohol use, excessive daytime sleepiness, hypertension, cardiac disorders, headaches, concentration disorders, and recurrent upper-airway diseases. The patients (129 men; 35 women) aged between 19 and 75 years (mean 47+/-12), BMI between 21 and 49 (mean 30.5+/-5.15), AHI between 5 and 105 (33+/-22). The results showed that there was a high percentage of naso-oropharyngeal disorders, such as: recurrent upper-airway diseases (54.2%), nasal breathing disorders (63.5%), and hypertrophy of tonsils (57%). There was also a high percentage of general characteristics, such as alcohol use (64%), excessive daytime sleepiness (85.5%), overweight (63%), and hypertension (51.2%). The regression summary for the dependent variable AHI if p-level=0.0042 (R=0.63347013) included age, BMI, hypertension, cardiac disorders, headaches, nasal obstruction, hypertrophy of pharyngeal muscles, tongue level, submental fat and slow-wave sleep (S3+S4%). In conclusion recurrent upper-airway diseases, nasal obstruction, and hypertrophy of tonsils in combination with smoking and alcohol caused the changes in the pharyngeal and lingual muscles. The latter gives rise to such sleep apnea-related problems as heart complaints, hypertension, headache and shortage of slow-wave sleep (SWS). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What do changes in concentrations of serum surfactant proteins A and D in OSA mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shao; Li, Nanfang; Heizhati, Mulalibieke; Yao, Xiaoguang; Abdireim, Arikin; Wang, Yingchun; Abulikemu, Zufeiya; Zhang, Delian; Chang, Guijuan; Kong, Jianqiong; Zhou, Ling; Hong, Jing; Ying, Ting; Zhang, Yongping

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that surfactant proteins are affected by oxygen concentration and mechanic stretches, although the alteration of serum surfactant proteins in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether serum concentrations of surfactant proteins A and D are altered and related to hypopnea index (HI) in OSA. This is a cross-sectional study. Consecutive 140 males, suspicious of OSA, were studied. OSA was determined by PSG and polysomnographic data examined. Subjects with HI ≥ 10.1/h were classified as higher HI group and those with HI OSA was diagnosed in 110 patients (78.5%). Mild, moderate, and severe OSA constitutes 26.4, 27.8, and 24.3%, respectively. Mean age was 44.6 ± 7.65 years. Subjects with higher HI had lower SP-A (139.54. ± 32.94 vs 158.2 ± 38.9 ng/L, p = 0.005) and SP-D (16.54 ± 3.67 vs 18.10 ± 3.48 ng/L, p = 0.014) compared to those with lower HI. Nocturnal HI was strongly correlated with serum levels of SP-A (r = 0.343, p = 0.012) and SP-D (r = 0.504, p OSA, possibly reflecting severity of hypoxia in OSA.

  8. Characterization of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSA) population by means of cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacedonia, Donato; Carpagnano, Giovanna Elisiana; Sabato, Roberto; Storto, Maria Maddalena Lo; Palmiotti, Giuseppe Antonio; Capozzi, Vito; Barbaro, Maria Pia Foschino; Gallo, Crescenzio

    2016-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSA) is being identified increasingly as an important health issue. It is typified by repeated episodes of upper airway collapse during sleep leading to occasional hypoxaemia, sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality. OSA is also being considered as an independent risk factor for hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, leading to increased multi-morbidity and mortality. Cluster analysis, a powerful statistical set of techniques, may help in investigating and classifying homogeneous groups of patients with similar OSA characteristics. This study aims to investigate the (possible) different groups of patients in an OSA population, and to analyse the relationships among the main clinical variables in each group to better understand the impact of OSA on patients. Starting from a well-characterized OSA population of 198 subjects afferent to our sleep centre, we identified three different communities of OSA patients. The first has a very severe disease [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 65.91 ± 22.47] and sleep disorder has a strong impact on daily life: a low level of diurnal partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 ) (77.39 ± 11.64 mmHg) and a high prevalence of hypertension (64%); the second, with less severe disease (AHI = 28.88 ± 17.13), in which sleep disorders seem to be less important for diurnal PaO2 and have a minimum impact on comorbidity; and the last with very severe OSA (AHI = 57.26 ± 15.09) but with a low risk of nocturnal hypoxaemia (T90 = 11.58 ± 8.54) and less sleepy (Epworth Sleepiness Scale 10.00 ± 4.77). © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Amelioration of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Implications for the Neuromuscular Control of OSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jixiong; Zhang, Jihui; Lam, Siu Ping; Li, Shirley Xin; Ho, Crover Kwok Wah; Lam, Venny; Yu, Mandy Wai Man; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The relationship between REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains unclear. We aimed to (1) explore the association of REM-related EMG activity (REMREEA) with OSA in RBD patients; (2) compare the severity of OSA between RBD patients with OSA (RBD-OSA) and their age-, sex-, AHI-, and BMI- matched OSA controls. Design: a. Correlation study in consecutive RBD subjects and b. case-control study Setting: Sleep laboratory Participants: 71 RBD patients in the correlation study and 55 subjects (28 RBD-OSA cases and 27 OSA controls) in the case-control study. Intervention: N/A Methods: Polysomnographic assessment to document the sleep architecture, sleep apnea related parameters, and REMREEA. Results: (1) In the correlation study, increased REMREEA was associated with lower severity of OSA in RBD patients, including total AHI (r = −0.263), NREM AHI (r = −0.242), obstructive AHI (r = −0.265), and mean apnea duration (r = −0.353) (P sleep apnea parameters than OSA controls in terms of higher nadir SpO2 (85.7% ± 4.9% vs 80.8% ± 5.9%, P sleep exacerbation of sleep apneas was seen only in OSA controls but not in RBD subjects. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that excessive EMG activity in RBD might protect patients against severe OSA and suggests this may be a naturalistic model for understanding neuromuscular control of OSA. Citation: Huang J; Zhang J; Lam SP; Li SX; Ho CKW; Lam V; Yu MWM; Wing YK. Amelioration of obstructive sleep apnea in REM sleep behavior disorder: implications for the neuromuscular control of OSA. SLEEP 2011;34(7):909-915. PMID:21731141

  10. Pre-Operative Ability of Clinical Scores to Predict Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Severity in Susceptible Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deflandre, E; Degey, S; Brichant, J-F; Donneau, A-F; Frognier, R; Poirrier, R; Bonhomme, V

    2017-03-01

    Severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for perioperative complications. Clinical scores such as Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body Mass Index (BMI) higher than 35 kg m-2, Age older than 50 years, Neck circumference larger than 40 cm, and male gender (STOP-Bang), perioperative sleep apnea prediction (P-SAP), and OSA50 have been proposed for detecting OSA. We recently proposed a new score based on morphological metrics only, the DES-OSA score. This study compared the DES-OSA score to the three other ones with regard to their ability to detect OSA. Obese patients are particularly at risk of OSA. Following informed consent and institutional review board (IRB) approval, 1584 consecutive adults were. Should the STOP-Bang be indicative of increased risk of severe OSA, the patient was referred to complementary polysomnography (PSG). Eventual already existing recent PSG data were also collected. The abilities of the four scores to predict OSA severity were compared using sensitivity, specificity, Cohen's kappa coefficient (CKC), and area under ROC curve (AUROC) analysis. PSG was performed in 150 patients. For detecting severe OSA, OSA50 had the highest sensitivity [value (95 % CI) 0.98 (0.90-1)]. STOP-Bang was significantly less sensitive than P-SAP and OSA50. In that respect, DES-OSA was significantly more specific than the three other ones [0.75 (0.65-0.83)]. The AUROC of DES-OSA was significantly the largest [0.9 (0.84-0.95)]. The highest CKC at detecting severe OSA was 0.62 (0.49-0.74) for DES-OSA. Similar results were obtained for moderate to severe OSA prediction. DES-OSA, which is the only exclusively morphological score available, appears to surpass the three other scores in their ability to predict moderate to severe and severe OSA, at least in our setting and in our screened population. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02051829.

  11. Evaluation of the antifouling and photocatalytic properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) plasma-grafted poly(acrylic acid) membrane with self-assembled TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Sheng-Jie, E-mail: sjyou@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); Semblante, Galilee Uy [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); Lu, Shao-Chung [Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); Damodar, Rahul A. [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); Wei, Ta-Chin [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plasma and grafting parameters that maximized TiO{sub 2} binding sites were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PVDF hydrophilicity was vastly improved compared to other modification techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At least 1.5% TiO{sub 2} and 30 min UV exposure were needed to attain full flux recovery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic membranes could remove up to 42% of 50 mg/l RB5 dye. - Abstract: Immobilization of TiO{sub 2} is a promising approach that produces antifouling and photocatalytic membranes that could help advance wastewater treatment and re-use processes. In this study, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was plasma-grafted on commercial poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to introduce functional groups on the membrane surface that can support the nanoparticles. It was found that plasma treatment at 100 W for 120 s followed by liquid grafting with 70% aqueous AA at 60 Degree-Sign C for 2 h maximized the number of TiO{sub 2} binding sites. Membrane hydrophilicity was tremendously enhanced by the self-assembly of TiO{sub 2}, following a direct proportionality to TiO{sub 2} loading. The membrane with 0.5% TiO{sub 2} loading maintained the highest pure water flux and the best protein antifouling property. UV irradiation triggered the photodegradation of strongly bound foulants, but at least 1.5% TiO{sub 2} and 30 min cumulative irradiation were necessary to completely recover the membrane's original performance. The TiO{sub 2}-modified membranes removed 30-42% of 50 mg/l aqueous Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye. The fabricated membranes demonstrate huge potential for use in membrane reactors with high hydrophilicity, fouling mitigation, and photocatalytic capability.

  12. Model for prediction of pediatric OSA: Proposal for a clinical decision rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certal, Victor; Silva, Hélder; Carvalho, Carlos; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Azevedo, Inês; Winck, João; Capasso, Robson; Camacho, Macario

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a syndrome frequently diagnosed in children; however, it lacks optimal diagnostic methods. This study aimed to provide a clinical decision rule for predicting pediatric OSA using commonly available clinical information. A prospective cohort study. Children between the ages of 3 to 6 years-old, referred for an otorhinolaryngology consultation due to clinical suspicion of OSA, were recruited from January to June 2014. At baseline age, weight, height, gender, body mass index, Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) scores, tonsil size, and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were assessed. A logistic regression modeling was used with backward stepwise elimination to develop a prediction model. Sixty-seven children were included with a mean age of 4.51 years. Of the 67 children included in this study, 25 (37.3%) subjects were diagnosed with pediatric OSA. Significant predictors of pediatric OSA in the final model (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval) included PSQ score (5.12; 3.3-6.5), ODI (1.34; 1.0-1.79) and tonsil size (6.7; 3.22-9.75). The final decision rule had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 86%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.897. The proposed clinical decision rule, based on three readily available variables, is a promising discriminating instrument for prediction of OSA among children between 3 and 6 years. 2b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. The overlaps of asthma or COPD with OSA: A focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Robert L; Macrea, Madalina M; Teodorescu, Mihaela

    2017-08-01

    Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are the most common respiratory disorders worldwide. Given demographic and environmental changes, prevalence for each is likely to increase. Although exact numbers are not known, based on chance alone, many people will be affected by both lower airways obstruction and concomitant upper airway obstruction during sleep. Some recent studies suggest that there is a reciprocal interaction, with chronic lung disease predisposing to OSA, and OSA worsening control and outcomes from chronic lung disease. Thus, the combination of wake and sleep respiratory disorders can create an overlap syndrome with unique pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic concerns. Although much work needs to be done, given the above, Respirologists, Sleep Medicine and Primary Care providers must be vigilant for overlap syndromes. Accurate diagnosis of, for example, OSA as a cause of nocturnal symptoms in a patient with asthma is likely to limit further ineffective titration of medications for asthma. Moreover, prompt treatment of OSA in the overlap syndromes will not only offer symptomatic benefit of OSA, but also improve symptoms and healthcare resource utilization attributable to obstructive lung disease, and in COPD, it may reduce mortality. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. Relationship between energy expenditure, physical activity and weight loss during CPAP treatment in obese OSA subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberga, Michele; Rizzi, Maurizio; Gadaleta, Felice; Grechi, Attilio; Baiardini, Renata; Fanfulla, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Increased energy expenditure (EE) has been reported in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It has been postulated that CPAP treatment may induce weight reduction in obese patients, even if it has not been confirmed by recent studies. In the present study we investigated the effect of OSA on EE and the effect of CPAP on body weight and physical activity. One hundred and seven obese OSA patients and 25 healthy obese volunteers, as control group, matched for age, sex and BMI, were enrolled. The following evaluation was performed only in OSA patients after 6 months of CPAP treatment. Baseline total EE was similar in the two groups, but OSA patients showed higher EE during the night, while control group during daytime. In patients, EE correlates with OSA severity, degree of daytime sleepiness or obesity. At follow-up evaluation, BMI and total EE were unchanged. However, daytime EE increased (1066 ± 131.5 vs 1104 ± 133 Kcal/die, p weight and daily physical activity did not change in statistically significant way. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Asthma Control and Its Relationship with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Teodorescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. Asthma in older individuals is poorly understood. We aimed to characterize the older asthma phenotype and test its association with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Pulmonary and Asthma/Allergy clinics. Participants. 659 asthma subjects aged 18–59 years (younger and 154 aged 60–75 (older. Measurements. Sleep Apnea scale of Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SA-SDQ, asthma severity step (1–4, severe if step 3 or 4, established OSA diagnosis, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP use, and comorbidities. Results. Older versus younger had worse control, as assessed by asthma step, lung function, and inhaled corticosteroid use. Among older subjects, after controlling for known asthma aggravators, OSA diagnosis was the only factor robustly associated with severe asthma: on average, OSA was associated with nearly 7 times greater likelihood of severe asthma in an older individual (OR=6.67. This relationship was of greater magnitude than in younger subjects (OR=2.16. CPAP use attenuated the likelihood of severe asthma in older subjects by 91% (P=0.005, much more than in the younger asthmatics. Conclusion. Diagnosed OSA increases the risk for worse asthma control in older patients, while CPAP therapy may have greater impact on asthma outcomes. Unrecognized OSA may be a reason for poor asthma control, particularly among older patients.

  16. Effect of CPAP Therapy in Improving Daytime Sleepiness in Indian Patients with Moderate and Severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battan, Gulshan; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panwar, Ajay; Atam, Virendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Gangwar, Anil; Roy, Ujjawal

    2016-11-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease and a major public health issue in India. Excessive daytime sleepiness is an almost ubiquitous symptom of OSA. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score is a validated objective score to measure the degree of daytime sleepiness. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy has been established as the gold standard treatment modality for OSA patients. A few Indian studies have reported the effectiveness of CPAP therapy in improving ESS scores after 1st month of CPAP use. To observe both, short-term (one month) and long-term (three month) effects of CPAP therapy on ESS scores in moderate to severe OSA patients. The patients complaining of excessive day-time sleepiness, snoring and choking episodes during sleep, consecutively presenting to medicine OPD over a period of 2 years, were subjected to Polysomnography (PSG). Seventy-three patients with apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15 were categorised as having moderate to severe forms of OSA (moderate OSA with AHI=15-30 and severe OSA with AHI >30), and were scheduled for an initial trial of CPAP therapy. Forty-seven patients reported good tolerance to CPAP therapy after a trial period of 2 weeks and comprised the final study group. ESS scores in these patients were recorded at the baseline, and after 1st and 3rd month of CPAP therapy, and statistically analysed for significance. Mean ESS score at the baseline among moderate and severe OSA patients were 13.67±2.29 and 16.56 ±1.87, respectively. ESS score in both these subgroups improved significantly to 11.63±3.79, p=0.022, CI (0.3293-4.0106)} and 14.13 ±3.74, p OSA patients improved significantly to 9.84 ±2.97, p = 0.022, CI (0.3293-4.0106) and 12.29 ±3.97, p OSA. Benefits in daytime sleepiness were observed after short-term as well as long-term use of CPAP therapy.

  17. Development and Validation of a Morphologic Obstructive Sleep Apnea Prediction Score: The DES-OSA Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deflandre, Eric; Degey, Stephanie; Brichant, Jean-Francois; Poirrier, Robert; Bonhomme, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common and underdiagnosed entity that favors perioperative morbidity. Several anatomical characteristics predispose to OSA. We developed a new clinical score that would detect OSA based on the patient's morphologic characteristics only. Patients (n = 149) scheduled for an overnight polysomnography were included. Their morphologic metrics were compared, and combinations of them were tested for their ability to predict at least mild, moderate-to-severe, or severe OSA, as defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >5, >15, or >30 events/h. This ability was calculated using Cohen κ coefficient and prediction probability. The score with best prediction abilities (DES-OSA score) considered 5 variables: Mallampati score, distance between the thyroid and the chin, body mass index, neck circumference, and sex. Those variables were weighted by 1, 2, or 3 points. DES-OSA score >5, 6, and 7 were associated with increased probability of an AHI >5, >15, or >30 events/h, respectively, and those thresholds had the best Cohen κ coefficient, sensitivities, and specificities. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve was 0.832 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.762-0.902), 0.805 (95% CI, 0.734-0.876), and 0.834 (95% CI, 0.757-0.911) for DES-OSA at predicting an AHI >5, >15, and >30 events/h, respectively. With the aforementioned thresholds, corresponding sensitivities (95% CI) were 82.7% (74.5-88.7), 77.1% (66.9-84.9), and 75% (61.0-85.1), and specificities (95% CI) were 72.4% (54.0-85.4), 73.2% (60.3-83.1), and 76.9% (67.2-84.4). Validation of DES-OSA performance in an independent sample yielded highly similar results. DES-OSA is a simple score for detecting OSA patients. Its originality relies on its morphologic nature. Derived from a European population, it may prove useful in a preoperative setting, but it has still to be compared with other screening tools in a general surgical population and in other

  18. The effect of thermal and vapor annealing treatments on the self-assembly of TiO{sub 2} /PS-b-PMMA nanocomposites generated via the sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, J; Tercjak, A; Garcia, I; Mondragon, I [' Materials-Technologies' Group, Departamento IngenierIa Quimica y Medio Ambiente, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad PaIs Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Plaza Europa 1, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain)], E-mail: inaki.mondragon@ehu.es

    2009-06-03

    Polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (SMMA) block copolymer has been used as a structure-directing agent for generating TiO{sub 2} /SMMA nanocomposites via the sol-gel process using a hydrophobic surfactant. The aim of the work has been focused on the preparation of well-defined nanostructured composites based on the self-assembling capability of the block copolymer using two different annealing methods: thermal- and solvent-induced microphase separation. The addition of different amounts of nanoparticles caused strong variations in the self-assembled morphology of the TiO{sub 2} /SMMA nanocomposites with respect to the block copolymer, as observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To verify the confinement of the nanoparticles in the PMMA block 3D AFM images and corresponding AFM profiles have also been reported. UV light irradiation of the nanocomposite films provoked the removal of the organic matrix and consequently led to an array of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the substrate surface.

  19. Effect of the RE (RE = Eu, Er) doping on the structural and textural properties of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films obtained by evaporation induced self-assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borlaf, Mario, E-mail: mborlaf@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen, 5, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Caes, Sebastien; Dewalque, Jennifer [LCIS-GREENMAT, Institute of Chemistry, University of Liege, B6 Sart Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Colomer, María Teresa; Moreno, Rodrigo [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen, 5, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Cloots, Rudi; Boschini, Frederic [LCIS-GREENMAT, Institute of Chemistry, University of Liege, B6 Sart Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium); APTIS, Institute of Physics, University of Liege, B5 Sart Tilman, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2014-05-02

    Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO{sub 2} and RE{sub 2}O{sub 3–}TiO{sub 2} (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The influence of the relative humidity (RH) on the preparation of the film has been studied being necessary to work under 40% RH in order to obtain homogeneous and transparent thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures until 900 °C/1 h and the anatase crystallization and its crystal size evolution were followed by low angle X-ray diffraction. Neither the anatase–rutile transition nor the formation of other compounds was observed in the studied temperature range. Ellipsoporosimetry studies demonstrated that the thickness of the thin films did not change after calcination at 500 °C, the porosity was constant until 700 °C, the pore size increased and the specific surface area decreased with temperature. Moreover, the effect of the doping with Er{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} was studied and a clear inhibition of the crystal growth and the sintering process was detected (by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy) when the doped films are compared with the undoped ones. Finally, Eu{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+} f–f transitions were detected by PL measurements. - Highlights: • Eu and Er–TiO{sub 2} mesoporous films were prepared by evaporation induced self-assembly. • Influence of humidity on porosity and photoluminescent properties has been tested. • Influence of calcination on structural and textural properties has been also studied. • f–f transitions indicate that the thin films are active photoluminescent materials.

  20. Validation study of WatchPat 200 for diagnosis of OSA in an Asian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yijin Jereme; Lim, Louis; Chong, Yaw Khian

    2017-03-01

    To validate a wrist-worn portable device (WatchPat 200) to diagnose OSA in an Asian cohort. To evaluate its cost-effectiveness. Twenty patients with suspected OSA were recruited and had simultaneous polysomnography (PSG) and WatchPAT assessments concurrently within the hospital's sleep laboratory. The study population consisted of 18 male and 2 female patients, whose mean age was 39 (±16) years, mean BMI was 27.2 (±5.5) kg/m2, mean Epworth Sleepiness score was 8.55 (±4.8). The correlation between the AHI was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient and agreement was tested via the Bland Altman plot. Sensitivities and specificities were then applied to the various AHI groups. Spearman's coefficient was 0.94, which suggested that a very strong correlation between the AHI recorded by the WatchPat and the PSG. Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement with the AHI mean difference of about 4.23 with a slight tendency to overscore the AHI at the mild range of OSA and underscore the range at the severe end of OSA. The WatchPat showed 100% sensitivity when compared to PSG for mild OSA and is thus a good screening test for the undiagnosed general population. Furthermore, it also showed 100% specificity when compared to PSG for severe OSA suggesting that it is a good diagnostic test for people with a high suspicion of OSA. This facilitates a timelier diagnosis and a more economical approach with potential cost savings of up to $900 per patient.

  1. Exhaled breath profiling in patients with COPD and OSA overlap syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Quaranta, Vitaliano N; Carratu, Pierluigi; Ranieri, Teresa; Resta, Onofrio

    2016-11-03

    The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by an electronic nose (e-nose) is a groundbreaking method that provides distinct exhaled molecular patterns in several respiratory and systemic diseases. It has been shown that an e-nose can detect obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OSA and COPD are sometimes associated into the so-called overlap syndrome (OVS). In this pilot study we hypothesized that an e-nose could discriminate the exhaled breath of patients with OVS from that of subjects with OSA and COPD alone. Thirteen patients with OSA, 15 patients with COPD and 13 with OVS participated in a cross-sectional study. Exhaled breath was collected by a formerly validated method and sampled by using an electronic nose (Cyranose 320). Raw data were analyzed by canonical discriminant analysis on principal component reduction. Cross-validation accuracy (CVA) and ROC-curves were calculated. External validation in newly recruited patients (6 OSA, 6 OVS and 6 COPD) was tested using the previous training set. Breathprints of patients with OSA clustered distinctly from those with OVS (CVA  =  96.2%) as well as those with COPD (CVA  =  82.1%). Breathprints from OVS were not significantly separated from those of COPD (CVA  =  67.9%). External validation confirmed the above findings. The e-nose can distinguish with high accuracy the exhaled VOC-profile of patients with OSA from those with OVS as well as those with COPD. This warrants future studies to confirm the potential of this technique in the non-invasive detection of sleep apnea.

  2. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles by self-assembling reverse micelle cores of PS-b-PAA for functional textile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpolat, Leyla Budama; Çakır, Burçin Acar; Topel, Önder, E-mail: ondertopel@akdeniz.edu.tr; Hoda, Numan, E-mail: nhoda@akdeniz.edu.tr

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized within poly(styrene)-b-poly(acrylic acid) micelles. • The copolymer solution including nano TiO{sub 2} was coated onto textile fabrics. • UV-protective factor of nano TiO{sub 2} coated fabrics was estimated as 50+. • Nano TiO{sub 2} coated fabrics was found to exhibit a high photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (i.e., titanium(IV) oxide, TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been fabricated using a copolymer templating technique in micellar solution of poly(styrene)-block-poly(acrylic acid), PS(10912)-b-PAA(4842) synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The size and morphology of the synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been characterized via TEM and XRD measurements. The average size of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was determined as 13 ± 3 and 13 ± 4 nm for titanium:copolymer ratios of 20:1 and 33:1, respectively. The copolymer solution including nano TiO{sub 2} particles has been coated onto textile fabrics to enhance their UV-blocking and self-cleaning properties. It has been determined that nano TiO{sub 2} coated textile fabrics have very good UV-blocking properties with 50+ of the ultraviolet protecting factor (UPF) and high photocatalytic efficiency with 69.2% of the photodegradation of methylene blue.

  3. Incorporating body-type (apple vs. pear) in STOP-BANG questionnaire improves its validity to detect OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangkum, Lisa; Klair, Ikrita; Limsuwat, Chok; Bent, Sabrina; Myers, Leann; Thammasitboon, Supat

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether adding the item of "apple body type" to the STOP-BANG questionnaire enhances diagnostic performance of the questionnaire for detecting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Cross-sectional study. Sleep center setting. Two hundred and eight subjects who were referred for an evaluation of possible OSA at Tulane Comprehensive Sleep Center. The exclusion criteria were ageOSA of 2.5 (95% CI, 1.2-5.3) and odds ratio of having moderate-severe OSA of 4.7 (95% CI, 2.5-8.7). In the sleep center setting, adding the body type item to the STOP-BANG questionnaire improves not only clinical prediction for PSG confirmed OSA but also predicts moderate to severe of OSA. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The Chromatin-Remodeling Protein Osa Interacts With CyclinE in Drosophila Eye Imaginal Discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Jawaid; Chanut, Francoise; Kornberg, Thomas B.; Klebes, Ansgar

    2010-01-01

    Coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation is essential during organogenesis. In Drosophila, the photoreceptor, pigment, and support cells of the eye are specified in an orchestrated wave as the morphogenetic furrow passes across the eye imaginal disc. Cells anterior of the furrow are not yet differentiated and remain mitotically active, while most cells in the furrow arrest at G1 and adopt specific ommatidial fates. We used microarray expression analysis to monitor changes in transcription at the furrow and identified genes whose expression correlates with either proliferation or fate specification. Some of these are members of the Polycomb and Trithorax families that encode epigenetic regulators. Osa is one; it associates with components of the Drosophila SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Our studies of this Trithorax factor in eye development implicate Osa as a regulator of the cell cycle: Osa overexpression caused a small-eye phenotype, a reduced number of M- and S-phase cells in eye imaginal discs, and a delay in morphogenetic furrow progression. In addition, we present evidence that Osa interacts genetically and biochemically with CyclinE. Our results suggest a dual mechanism of Osa function in transcriptional regulation and cell cycle control. PMID:20008573

  5. Reviewing the relationship between OSA and cognition: Where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks, Romola S; Olaithe, Michelle; Rosenzweig, Ivana; Morrell, Mary J

    2017-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a disorder of breathing during sleep resulting in temporary reduction in cerebral oxygenation and sleep disruption. A growing body of research reveals a relatively consistent pattern of deficits in cognition, particularly in attention, episodic memory, and executive function, which are partially remediated by treatment. This is where the consensus ends. Despite a number of competing explanations regarding how OSA affects cognition, reliable evidence is hard to find, which may relate to the many, common conditions co-morbid with OSA or to the methodological challenges in this field. This paper reviews the evidence for cognitive impairment in OSA, the proposed models of cognitive harm, the impact of co-morbidities and the many methodological and theoretical challenges of exploring the effect of OSA on cognition. To overcome some of these challenges, we end by proposing a number of future directions for the field, including suggesting some core design elements for future studies. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. MR image analytics to characterize upper airway architecture in children with OSAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.; Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms leading to Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) in obese children are not well understood. We previously analyzed polysomnographic and demographic data to study the anatomical characteristics of the upper airway and body composition in two groups of obese children with and without OSAS, where object volume was evaluated. In this paper, in order to better understand the disease we expand the analysis considering a variety of features that include object-specific features such as size, surface area, sphericity, and image intensity properties of fourteen objects in the vicinity of the upper airway, as well as inter-object relationships such as distance between objects. Our preliminary results indicate several interesting phenomena: volumes and surface areas of adenoid and tonsils increase statistically significantly in OSAS. Standardized T2-weighted MR image intensities differ statistically significantly between the two groups, implying that perhaps intrinsic tissue composition undergoes changes in OSAS. Inter-object distances are significantly different between the two groups for object pairs (skin, oropharynx), (skin, fat pad), (skin, soft palate), (mandible, tongue), (oropharynx, soft palate), (left tonsil, oropharynx), (left tonsil, fat pad) and (left tonsil, right tonsil). We conclude that treatment methods for OSAS such as adenotonsillectomy should respect proportional object size relationships and spatial arrangement of objects as they exist in control subjects.

  7. Predictive models of objective oropharyngeal OSA surgery outcomes: Success rate and AHI reduction ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ho Choi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model of objective oropharyngeal obstructive sleep apnea (OSA surgery outcomes including success rate and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI reduction ratio in adult OSA patients.Retrospective outcome research.All subjects with OSA who underwent oropharyngeal and/or nasal surgery and were followed for at least 3 months were enrolled in this study. Demographic, anatomical [tonsil size (TS and palate-tongue position (PTP grade (Gr], and polysomnographic parameters were analyzed. The AHI reduction ratio (% was defined as [(postoperative AHI-preoperative AHI x 100 / postoperative AHI], and surgical success was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in preoperative AHI with a postoperative AHI < 20.A total of 156 consecutive OSAS adult patients (mean age ± SD = 38.9 ± 9.6, M / F = 149 / 7 were included in this study. The best predictive equation by Forward Selection likelihood ratio (LR logistic regression analysis was: [Formula: see text]The best predictive equation according to stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was: [Formula: see text] (TS/PTP Gr = 1 if TS/PTP Gr 3 or 4, TS/PTP Gr = 0 if TS/PTP Gr 1 or 2.The predictive models for oropharyngeal surgery described in this study may be useful for planning surgical treatments and improving objective outcomes in adult OSA patients.

  8. Diagnostic utility of abdominal ultrasonography for routine staging at diagnosis of skeletal OSA in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Mandy; Selmic, Laura; Withrow, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    The rate of soft tissue metastases and the importance of abdominal ultrasonography in initial staging of canine skeletal osteosarcoma (OSA) are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine whether abdominal ultrasonography should be performed routinely at initial diagnosis of skeletal OSA or if certain abnormal physical examination or diagnostic findings would provide greater indication to perform ultrasonography. Eighty dogs with OSA that had an abdominal ultrasonogram performed at diagnosis were included. Abnormal findings were present in 36 of 80 dogs. Twenty-three abnormalities were evaluated with either fine-needle aspirate or biopsy and 19 were benign. None of the ultrasonograms revealed abdominal OSA metastases; however, 4 of the 80 ultrasonograms (5%) revealed another primary neoplasia. Further, 2 of the 9 cases that received an ultrasonogram due to a palpable abdominal mass were diagnosed with another primary neoplasia compared with only 1 of the 49 cases that received an ultrasonogram for routine staging. Abdominal ultrasonography as a part of staging is unlikely to reveal metastases from OSA and may not be a useful routine staging tool; however, in certain populations of dogs, such as those with palpable abdominal masses, abdominal ultrasonography may reveal abnormalities that may influence treatment decisions.

  9. Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with tonsil colonisation by Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viciani, Elisa; Montagnani, Francesca; Tavarini, Simona; Tordini, Giacinta; Maccari, Silvia; Morandi, Matteo; Faenzi, Elisa; Biagini, Cesare; Romano, Antonio; Salerni, Lorenzo; Finco, Oretta; Lazzi, Stefano; Ruggiero, Paolo; De Luca, Andrea; Barocchi, Michèle A.; Manetti, Andrea G. O.

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of pathogenic bacteria in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has yet to be elucidated. We investigated the possible role of group A streptococcus (GAS) in OSAS pathogenesis. In 40 tonsillectomized patients affected by OSAS and 80 healthy controls, significant (p < 0.0001) association of GAS with paediatric OSAS was found. Supernatant from streptolysin O (SLO)-producing GAS induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) in tonsil mononuclear cells (TMCs). CysLTs-treated TMCs showed significant (p < 0.05) proliferation of CD4+ T, CD19+ and CD19+CD27+CD38+ B lymphocytes. We discovered a SLO-dependent activation of CysLTs production through a pathway involving TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and p38 MAP Kinase. In conclusion, we hypothesise that GAS may contribute to paediatric tonsillar hyperplasia through CysLTs production induced by SLO, and this might explain its association with OSAS. PMID:26860261

  10. Attitudes regarding perioperative care of patients with OSA: a survey study of four specialties in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auckley, Dennis; Cox, Robynn; Bolden, Norman; Thornton, J Daryl

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for significant perioperative complications. This national survey study sought to determine the attitudes of physicians involved in the perioperative care of OSA patients. We modified the perioperative survey used by Turner et al. among Canadian anesthesiologists. We mailed the survey to 3,000 US physicians practicing in the following specialties (750 of each specialty): anesthesiology (A), primary care (family practice or internal medicine) (PC), sleep (SM), and general surgery (S). The survey asked questions about attitudes and practice patterns regarding OSA in the perioperative setting. Of 2,730 eligible subjects, 783 questionnaires (28.7 %) were returned. Overall, 94 % felt OSA was a risk factor for perioperative complications (no difference by specialty) and 90 % felt it was a moderate to major risk factor (A = 91 %, PC = 81 %, SM = 94 %, S = 72 %; p OSA in the perioperative setting. Despite this, only 71 % reported regularly screening for OSA preoperatively, mostly by history and physical examination (A = 89 %, PC = 52 %, SM = 88 %, S = 49 %; p OSA, 32 % would delay surgery pending a sleep study (A = 4 %, PC = 41 %, SM = 54 %, S = 27 %; p OSA patients. The majority of physicians in this survey felt OSA was a significant risk factor for perioperative complications and most reported experience with OSA patients having an adverse outcome. Perioperative management guidelines for OSA are not available at most institutions. Further work is needed to help physicians identify and intervene on patients with OSA in the perioperative setting before adverse events develop.

  11. Alteration of osa-miR156e expression affects rice plant architecture and strigolactones (SLs) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihui; Gao, Xinqiang; Zhang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Overexpressing osa--miR156e in rice produced a bushy mutant and osa--miR156e regulation of tillering may do this through the strigolactones (SLs) pathway. Appropriate downregulation of osa--miR156 expression contributed to the improvement of plant architecture. Tillering is one of the main determinants for rice architecture and yield. In this study, a bushy mutant of rice was identified with increased tiller number, reduced plant height, prolonged heading date, low seed setting, and small panicle size due to a T-DNA insertion which essentially elevated the expression of osa-miR156e. Transgenic plants with constitutive expression of osa-miR156e also had the bushy phenotype, which showed osa-miR156 may control apical dominance and tiller outgrowth via regulating the strigolactones signaling pathway. Furthermore, the extent of impaired morphology was correlated with the expression level of osa-miR156e. In an attempt to genetically improve rice architecture, ectopic expression of osa-miR156e under the GAL4-UAS system or OsTB1 promoter was conducted. According to agronomic trait analysis, pTB1:osa-miR156e transgenic plants significantly improved the grain yield per plant compared to plants overexpressing osa-miR156e, even though the yield was still inferior to the wild type, making it a very interesting albeit negative result. Our results suggested that osa-miR156 could serve as a potential tool for modifying rice plant architecture through genetic manipulation of the osa-miR156 expression level.

  12. Predicting uptake of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA): a belief-based theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Timothy; McNeil, Lindsay; Olaithe, Michelle; Eastwood, Peter; Hillman, David; Phang, Janet; de Regt, Tamara; Bucks, Romola S

    2013-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a standard treatment. Despite its well-established efficacy, many patients choose not to initiate CPAP treatment. The present study investigated the degree to which biological measures (e.g. Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index [AHI]), symptom experiences (e.g. fatigue) and illness representations (e.g. perceived consequences) predict the decision of individuals newly diagnosed with OSA to undergo a trial of CPAP therapy. Four hundred forty-nine individuals (316 males) newly diagnosed with OSA. Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) were administered at time of sleep study. These, patient demographics and sleep study variables were used to determine factors predicting patient decision to proceed with a trial of CPAP. The participants were most likely to attribute their OSA to unchangeable and psychological factors. For those with moderate OSA (AHI, 15 to 30) IPQ-R illness consequence was predictive of decision to initiate CPAP (p = 0.002). For severe OSA (AHI >30) age, ESS and IPQ illness causal beliefs were predictive of decision to initiate CPAP (p OSA patients whether or not to undertake a trial of CPAP therapy. Concerns about illness consequences were important in those with moderate OSA. In severe OSA, sleepiness symptoms are more prominent and a more significant determinant of CPAP uptake along with age and causal beliefs.

  13. Validation of the Chinese version OSA-18 quality of life questionnaire in Taiwanese children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kun-Tai; Weng, Wen-Chin; Yeh, Te-Huei; Lee, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Chung

    2014-07-01

    The OSA-18 questionnaire is one of the most widely-used sleep quality measurements in children. We tested the applicability and cross-cultural validation of the traditional Chinese version OSA-18 questionnaire. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary medical referral center. The translation and cultural adaptation of the OSA-18 questionnaire were performed based on Brislin's revised model. A total of 109 children aged 2-18 years old with sleep problems were recruited. Overnight polysomnography and the OSA-18 questionnaire were administered. The reliability and validity of the traditional Chinese version of OSA-18 questionnaire were verified. Excellent test-retest reliability and good internal consistency were achieved, and the validity of OSA-18 with overnight polysomnography was confirmed. The domain of sleep disturbance, daytime function, caregiver concerns, and the OSA-18 total scores were significantly higher in sleep apnea patients. The domain of caregiver concern had the highest score, while those of emotional distress had the lowest scores. The optimal cut-off point of the OSA-18 total scores for detecting obstructive sleep apnea was 67. The traditional Chinese version of OSA-18 demonstrated high reliability and good validity in our study. The domain of caregiver concern is the major element in Taiwanese children with sleep-disordered breathing. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): a primer for oral and maxillofacial surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Ok; Chen, Yu-Feng; Jung, Junho; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Liu, Stanley Yung Chuan

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is estimated to be 1-5% of the adult population world-wide, and in Korea, it is reported at 4.5% of men and 3.2% of women (Age 40 to 69 years old). Active treatment of OSA is associated with decrease in insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, psychosocial problems, and mortality. Surgical treatment of OSA has evolved in the era of neuromodulation with the advent of hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HGNS). We share this review of HGNS with our maxillofacial surgical colleagues to expand the scope of surgical care for OSA.

  15. Cognition and nocturnal disturbance in OSA: the importance of accounting for age and premorbid intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaithe, Michelle; Skinner, Timothy C.; Hillman, David

    2015-01-01

    © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that is associated with impaired attention, memory and executive function. However, the mechanisms underlying such dysfunction are unclear. To determine the influence of sleep fragmentation...... and hypoxia, this study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation and hypoxia on cognition in OSA, while controlling for potentially confounding variables including sleepiness, age and premorbid intelligence. Method: Participants with and without OSA (N = 150) were recruited from the general community...... and a tertiary hospital sleep clinic. All underwent comprehensive, laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) and completed assessments of cognition including attention, short- and long-term memory and executive function. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to construct a theoretically-driven model...

  16. Operative Management of OSAS in a Complex Case of Proteus Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cantone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a common disorder in childhood with high prevalence in syndromic subjects with craniofacial malformations. Proteus Syndrome (PS is a rare hamartoneoplastic disorder associated with disproportionate and asymmetric overgrowth of body parts and hypertrophy or malformation of lymphatic tissues, such as palatine tonsils. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with Proteus Syndrome (PS and suffering from OSAS due to asymmetric palatine tonsillar hypertrophy, treated with partial resection of left tonsil. To avoid the risk of a general anesthesia and remove only the obstructive portion of the palatine tonsil bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy (RFITT under local anesthesia was performed. Recovery of the obstructive respiratory disease was obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of partial tonsillar resection performed in a patient with PS suffering from OSAS under local anesthesia.

  17. Giant Magneto-Resistance in Epitaxial (La<sub>0.7sub>Sr>0.3sub>MnO>3sub>)>0.5sub>: (ZnO)<sub>0.5sub> Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Jiang, Y. X. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ihlefeld, Jon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Ping [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Stephen R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of research has been carried out in oxide material systems. Among them, ZnO and La<sub>0.7sub>Sr>0.3sub>MnO>3sub> (LSMO) are of particular interest due to their superb optical properties and colossal magneto-resistive effect. Here, we report our recent results of magneto-transport studies in self-assembled, epitaxial (ZnO)0.5:(La<sub>0.7sub>Sr>0.3sub>MnO>3sub>)>0.5sub> nanocomposite films.

  18. Can upper airway surgery for OSA protect against cardiovascular sequelae via effects on coagulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaojun; Li, Li; Wang, Ningyu; Ge, Xiaohui; Pinto, Jayant M; Wu, Xiaofan; Wei, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Upper airway surgery is associated with salutary effects on the blood coagulation characteristics of OSA patients, a benefit that may be protective against cardiac and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. Increased blood coagulation is an important factor linking OSA and cardiovascular complications. Surgery is an important method to treat OSA, but the effect of surgery on blood coagulation in OSA patients is unknown. the authors performed a prospective clinical trial of adult OSA patients who underwent surgery from 2012-2014. Pre-operative and post-operative blood coagulation parameters and polysomnography (PSG) results were compared. There were 61 subjects. The total rate of success in curing OSA was 11.5%. The rate of response after surgery was 40.8%. Overall, the Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) improved after surgery (from 39.8 3 ± 24.49 to 25.9 7 ± 18.53, p < 0.01). After surgery, serum platelet counts (PLT) decreased (from 242.5 ± 52.6 to 230.9 ± 40.7, p=0.01), and Fibrinogen (FIB) levels declined (from 262.5 ± 52.5 to 247.3 ± 44.4, p = 0.02). Other blood coagulation parameters also improved: prothrombin time (PT) (from 10.6 2 ± 0.62 to 10.8 6 ± 0.70, p=0.01), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (from 26.9 8 ± 4.94 to 27.7 8 ± 3.02, p = 0.06), and Thrombin time (TT) (from 19.5 3 ± 0.84 to 20.1 1 ± 1.31, p < 0.01).

  19. Evidence of perceptive impairment in OSA patients investigated by means of a visual search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Enrico; Galbiati, Andrea; Marelli, Sara; Zucconi, Marco; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2017-10-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder characterized by episodes of complete or partial obstruction of respiratory airways during sleep that leads to hypoxaemia and sleep fragmentation. One relevant daytime consequence of OSA is a negative impact on neurocognitive domain, ranging from psychomotor performance to executive function. In spite of a huge amount of evidence regarding cognitive impairment, little is known about perceptual processing in these patients. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of OSA on visual mechanisms by employing a visual search paradigm. 19 OSA patients and 19 age-matched healthy controls (HC) participated in a case-control study. After a nocturnal cardiorespiratory monitoring, patients performed a visual search task in which they had to detect the presence/absence of a target (letter T) embedded in the 50% of trials into a set of distractors (letters Os, Xs, or Ls). Target's salience and distractors' numerosity were manipulated as independent variables, whereas accuracy and reaction times (RT) were recorded as dependent variables. HC, after the exclusion of any sleep disorder or sleepiness, performed the same experiments. Results generally confirmed the typical effects of visual search. OSA patients reported significantly slower RT in comparison with HC, indicating an overall perceptual deficit consisting in a harder extraction of relevant information from noise. Neither patients' age nor the objective clinical indices were associated with RT. This study indicates the presence of an impairment in OSA patients involving basic mechanisms of visual processing and likely ascribable to the disorder per se. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic analysis of candidate SNPs for metabolic syndrome in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Antonio; Ruiz-Granados, Elena S.; Moreno-Rey, Concha; Rivera, Jose M.; Ruiz, Agustin; Real, Luis M.; Sáez, Maria E.

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by the reduction or complete cessation in airflow resulting from an obstruction of the upper airway. Several studies have observed an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among OSA patients. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors characterized by the presence of insulin resistance, is often found in patients with OSA, but the complex interplay between these two syndromes is not well understood. In this study, we present the results of a genetic association analysis of 373 candidate SNPs for MetS selected in a previous genome wide association analysis (GWAS). The 384 selected SNPs were genotyped using the Illumina VeraCode Technology in 387 subjects retrospectively assessed at the Internal Medicine Unit of the “Virgen de Valme” University Hospital (Seville, Spain). In order to increase the power of this study and to validate our findings in an independent population, we used data from the Framingham Sleep study which comprises 368 individuals. Only the rs11211631 polymorphism was associated with OSA in both populations, with an estimated OR=0.57 (0.42-0.79) in the joint analysis (p=7.21 × 10-4). This SNP was selected in the previous GWAS for MetS components using a digenic approach, but was not significant in the monogenic study. We have also identified two SNPs (rs2687855 and rs4299396) with a protective effect from OSA only in the abdominal obese subpopulation. As a whole, our study does not support that OSA and MetS share major genetic determinants, although both syndromes share common epidemiological and clinical features. PMID:23524009

  1. OSA screening with the pediatric sleep questionnaire for adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery in teen-LABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Stacey; Heubi, Christine; Jenkins, Todd; Michalsky, Marc; Simakajornboon, Narong; Inge, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is reported in 70% of adolescents who present for bariatric surgery. The Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to identify children at risk for OSA but is not validated in adolescents with obesity. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess validity of the PSQ to detect OSA and (2) to determine the correlation between anthropometric and polysomnography measurements. A cross-sectional assessment of Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery participants at high risk for OSA was performed. Participants completed an overnight polysomnography, and caregivers completed the PSQ. Forty-five participants (84% female, 78% Caucasian, mean age = 16.7 ± 1.5 years) were evaluated. Mean BMI was 51.3 ± 7.7 kg/m2 and mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) was 6.1 ± 5.9 events/h. For diagnosis of OSA (oAHI ≥5), the total PSQ score sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) were 86%, 38%, and 55%, respectively. For snoring >50% of the time, PPV was 84%, sensitivity was 64%, and specificity was 43%. Sagittal abdominal diameter correlated with oAHI and oxygen saturation nadir (ρ = 0.34, P = 0.027), whereas BMI, neck, and waist circumference correlated with neither. The PSQ demonstrated low specificity, and PPV and the question regarding snoring >50% of the time did not effectively identify OSA. Sagittal abdominal diameter correlated with oAHI and oxygen saturation nadir. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. Self-assembly graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots anchored on TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays: An efficient heterojunction for pollutants degradation under solar light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jingyang [Environmental Engineering Program, School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhu, Lin [Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Geng, Ping [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, Guohua, E-mail: kechengh@ust.hk [Environmental Engineering Program, School of Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Carbon nitride quantum dots (CNQDs) were decorated onto TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTAs). • The CNQDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs exhibits much improved photoelectrochemical activity. • The heterojunction displays efficient removal efficiencies for RhB and phenol. • Pollutants degradation mechanism over CNQDs/TiO{sub 2} NTAs was clarified. - Abstract: In this study, an efficient heterojunction was constructed by anchoring graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots onto TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays through hydrothermal reaction strategy. The prepared graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots, which were prepared by solid-thermal reaction and sequential dialysis process, act as a sensitizer to enhance light absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the charge transfer and separation in the formed heterojunction were significantly improved compared with pristine TiO{sub 2}. The prepared heterojunction was used as a photoanode, exhibiting much improved photoelectrochemical capability and excellent photo-stability under solar light illumination. The photoelectrocatalytic activities of prepared heterojunction were demonstrated by degradation of RhB and phenol in aqueous solution. The kinetic constants of RhB and phenol degradation using prepared photoelectrode are 2.4 times and 4.9 times higher than those of pristine TiO{sub 2}, respectively. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals are demonstrated to be dominant active radicals during the pollutants degradation.

  3. Comparison of two home sleep testing devices with different strategies for diagnosis of OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumb, Tyler; Twumasi, Akosua; Alimokhtari, Shahnaz; Perez, Alan; Black, Kathleen; Rapoport, David M; Sunderram, Jag; Ayappa, Indu

    2017-08-19

    Home sleep testing devices are being widely used in diagnosis/screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We examined differences in OSA metrics obtained from two devices with divergent home monitoring strategies, the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES™, multiple signals plus forehead reflectance oximetry) and the Nonin WristOx2™ (single channel finger transmission pulse oximeter), compared to differences from night-night variability of OSA. One hundred fifty-two male/26 female subjects (BMI = 30.3 ± 5.6 kg/m2, age = 52.5 ± 8.9 years) were recruited without regard to OSA symptoms and simultaneously wore both ARES™ and Nonin WristOx2™ for two nights (n = 351 nights). Automated analysis of the WristOx2 yielded oxygen desaturation index (ODIOx2, ≥4% O2 dips/h), and automated analysis with manual editing of ARES™ yielded AHI4ARES (apneas + hypopneas with ≥4% O2 dips/h) and RDIARES (apneas + hypopneas with ≥4% O2 dips/h or arousal surrogates). Baseline awake oxygen saturation, percent time OSA diagnosis (77-85%) between devices were similar to those seen from night-to-night variability of OSA using a single device. Awake baseline O2 saturation was significantly higher in the ARES™ (96.2 ± 1.6%) than WristOx2™ (92.2 ± 2.1%, p OSA severity metrics predominantly dependent on change in oxygen saturation and metrics used in diagnosis of OSA (AHI4 and ODI) correlated well across devices tested. However, differences in cumulative oxygen desaturation measures (i.e., %time < 90%O2Sat) between the devices suggest that caution is needed when interpreting this metric particularly in populations likely to have significant hypoxia.

  4. Lizards and Amphisbaenians, municipality of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a survey of lizards and amphisbaenians from municipality of Viçosa, in Atlantic Forest from state ofMinas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, based on data of the herpetological collections of Museu de Zoologia João Moojen,Universidade Federal de Viçosa, and Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. One hundred and forty sixspecimens of 14 species were analyzed, belonging to the following families: Amphisbaenidae, Anguidae, Gekkonidae,Gymnophthalmidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae and Tropiduridae. We hope to supply basicinformation that helps to understand species distribution of this group in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais andsoutheastern Brazil.

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): a complication of acute infectious mononucleosis infection in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    Independently, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and infectious mononucleosis are not uncommon in the pediatric population, but acute onset of OSA, as a respiratory complication in the setting of acute EBV infection is extremely uncommon. Previous reports of this clinical entity are sparse and from nearly two decades ago. Urgent adenotonsillectomy was commonly advocated. This complication may be managed medically with systemic corticosteroids and non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and a case is presented to highlight an updated management approach to this rarely encountered clinical problem in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of adenotonsillectomy and tonsillectomy for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea by rhinomanometry and the OSA-18 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryuichi; Miyazaki, Soichiro; Karaki, Masayuki; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi; Nakata, Seiichi; Hara, Hirotaka; Kodama, Satoru; Kikuchi, Atsushi; Kitamura, Takuro; Mori, Nozomu

    2014-08-01

    Nasal resistance and the OSA-18 score were useful for evaluating surgical treatments. The sleep disturbance score may also be useful for predicting the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. We evaluated the effect of surgery on children with OSA using polysomnography (PSG) parameters, nasal resistance, and the OSA-18 questionnaire, and also investigated the cut-off OSA-18 score to screen for pediatric OSA. This was a retrospective study in which PSG parameters and nasal resistance were measured using a rhinomanometer and the OSA-18 score was obtained from the OSA-18 questionnaire before and after surgery in 45 children with OSA. The mean age of the 45 patients was 5.7 ± 2.0 years. The mean value of the obstructive apnea hypopnea index (O-AHI) improved from 16.2 ± 14.3/h before surgery to 1.1 ± 1.7/h after surgery, the mean nasal resistance improved from 0.44 ± 0.19 to 0.32 ± 0.10 Pa/cm(3)/s, and the mean OSA-18 score improved from 61.1 ± 13.7 to 30.4 ± 5.8, and all these improvements were significant. The O-AHI value was lower than 1/h after surgery in 64.4% of patients (29/45). The O-AHI value was significantly correlated with the sleep disturbance score (r = 0.352, p = 0.018). When the cut-off OSA-18 score for screening was set at 40, sensitivity was 100%.

  7. Regeneração natural em um fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual em Viçosa, Minas Gerais Natural regeneration in a fragment of a seasonal semideciduous forest in Viçosa - Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Marangon

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O levantamento da regeneração natural das espécies arbóreas em diferentes toposseqüências foi realizado em uma área de aproximadamente 40 ha, localizada no Município de Viçosa, MG, que se encontra nas coordenadas 20º 45' S e 42º 55' W e está preservada desde 1965. A altitude, na área de estudo, apresenta uma cota mínima de 730 m e uma máxima de 870 m, sendo o solo predominante o Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo álico, com vegetação de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual. Na amostragem de 1,0 ha foram locadas 40 subparcelas de 25 m² (5 x 5 m, em 40 parcelas de 10 x 25 m, utilizadas anteriormente em um levantamento fitossociológico das espécies adultas. Essas subparcelas estão distribuídas nas toposseqüências que apresentam áreas diferenciadas e o número de subparcelas foi proporcional à área. Plano (5,07 ha -5 subparcelas, encosta (13,2 ha - 15 subparcelas, ravina (17,28 ha - 17 subparcelas e topo (2,43 ha - 3 subparcelas. Os indivíduos amostrados foram incluídos em três classes: a classe 1 contemplou indivíduos com altura (H 1,0 3,0 m. O nível de inclusão foi de CAP Natural regeneration of tree species at different toposequences was assessed in an area of 40 ha in Viçosa-MG.( 20º 45'S and 42º 55' W, preserved since 1965, with minimum altitude of 730 m and maximum of 870 m. The soil was classified as Red-yellow alico Latisol and the vegetation was characterized as semideciduous forest.The 1.0 samplings consisted of 40 sub-units (samples with 5 x 5 m. These sub-units were inserted in the middle samples (10 x 25 m.previously evaluated the phyto-sociology of the tree community distributed in the toposequence's different: plan (5.07 ha - 5 sub-units, lean (13.2 ha - 15 sub-units, ravine (17.28 ha - 17 sub-units and top (2.43 ha - 3 sub-units. Was developed with heights divided in three categories (1 - individuals with minimum height 1 3 m. The inclusion level was of CAP < 15,0 cm. 957 individuals were observed, belonging

  8. Magneto-structural correlations in self-assembled spin-transition nano-architectures of the [Fe{sub 4}{sup II}L{sub 4}]{sup n+} [2x2]-grid-type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruben, M. E-mail: mario.ruben@int.fzk.de; Breuning, E.; Lehn, J.-M.; Ksenofontov, V.; Guetlich, P.; Vaughan, G

    2004-05-01

    The magnetism of a series of tetranuclear complexes of the [Fe{sup II}{sub 4}L{sub 4}](BF{sub 4}){sub 8} [2x2]-grid-type was investigated, revealing the occurrence of spin-transition (ST) behavior within this class of compounds. The phenomenon depends directly on the nature of the substituent R{sup 1} of the ligand L. All Fe{sup II} ions in compounds with R{sup 1} substituents favoring strong ligand fields (R{sup 1}=H; OH) remain completely in the diamagnetic low-spin state. Only the complex bearing R{sup 1}=Ph exhibits thermally induced ST behavior.

  9. Age, gender, neck circumference, and Epworth sleepiness scale do not predict obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): The challenge to predict OSA in advanced COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Xavier; Liao, Shu-Yi; Marin, Jose Maria; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Jen, Rachel; DeYoung, Pamela; Owens, Robert L; Ries, Andrew L; Malhotra, Atul

    2017-01-01

    The combination of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that predictors of OSA among patients with COPD may be distinct from OSA in the general population. Therefore, we investigated associations between traditional OSA risk factors (e.g. age), and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Epworth Sleepiness Scale] in 44 patients with advanced COPD. As a second aim we proposed a pilot, simplified screening test for OSA in patients with COPD. In a prospective, observational study of patients enrolled in the UCSD Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program we collected baseline characteristics, cardiovascular events (e.g. atrial fibrillation), and sleep questionnaires [e.g. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. For the pilot questionnaire, a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and the presence of cardiovascular disease were used to construct the pilot screening test. Male: 59%; OSA 66%. FEV1 (mean ± SD) = 41.0±18.2% pred., FEV1/FVC = 41.5±12.7%]. Male gender, older age, and large neck circumference were not associated with OSA. Also, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the STOP-Bang questionnaire were not associated with OSA in univariate logistic regression. In contrast, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 3.94, p = 0.04) and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (OR = 5.06, p = 0.03) were significantly associated with OSA [area under curve (AUC) = 0.74]. The pilot COPD-OSA test (OR = 5.28, p = 0.05) and STOP-Bang questionnaire (OR = 5.13, p = 0.03) were both associated with OSA in Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis. The COPD-OSA test had the best AUC (0.74), sensitivity (92%), and specificity (83%). A ten-fold cross-validation validated our results. We found that traditional OSA predictors (e.g. gender, Epworth score) did not perform well in patients with more advanced COPD. Our pilot test may be an easy to implement instrument to screen for OSA. However, a larger validation study is necessary before

  10. Effect of OSA on hypoxic and inflammatory markers during CPAP withdrawal: Further evidence from three randomized control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Chris D; Rossi, Valentina A; Santer, Peter; Schwarz, Esther I; Stradling, John R; Petousi, Nayia; Kohler, Malcolm

    2017-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular disease. Intermittent hypoxia, endothelial dysfunction and adipose tissue-mediated inflammation have all been linked to cardiovascular disease in OSA. We therefore explored the effect of OSA on relevant associated blood markers: adrenomedullin (ADM), endocan, endothelin-1 (ET-1), resistin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Patients with OSA, established on and compliant with continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) therapy for >1 year were included from three randomized controlled trials, conducted at two centres. Patients were randomized to either continued therapeutic CPAP or sham CPAP (CPAP withdrawal) for 2 weeks. Blood markers were measured at baseline and at 14 days and the treatment effect between sham CPAP and therapeutic CPAP was analysed. A total of 109 patients were studied (therapeutic CPAP n = 54, sham CPAP n = 55). Sham CPAP was associated with a return of OSA (between-group difference in oxygen desaturation index (ODI) 36.0/h, 95% CI 29.9-42.2, P OSA was not associated with changes in endocan, ET-1, resistin or VEGF. Whilst CPAP withdrawal was associated with return of OSA, it was associated with an unexpected significant reduction in the vasodilator ADM and not with expected increases in hypoxia-induced markers, markers of endothelial function or resistin. We propose that the vascular effects occurring in OSA may be brought about by other mechanisms, perhaps partly through a reduction in ADM. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. Blood pressure effects of CPAP in nonresistant and resistant hypertension associated with OSA: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a rather common chronic disorder, associated with increased prevalence of hypertension. The pathophysiological mechanisms for hypertension in OSA are at least in part linked to intermittent hypoxia developed during nightly hypopneas and apneas. Hypoxemia stimulates sympathetic overactivity, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. However, it appears that intermittent hypoxemia is not the only factor in the development of hypertension in OSA. Supplemental oxygen therapy that improved oxyhemoglobin saturation to similar levels to those achieved with CPAP treatment did not reduce BP. In this scenario, it could be proposed that hypoxemia acts as a trigger of sympathetic overdrive, which when set is the main factor in the development of hypertension in OSA. This review appraises evidence provided by randomized controlled trials on the BP-lowering effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA patients with nonresistant and resistant hypertension. It suggests that CPAP treatment is more effective in treating resistant hypertension than nonresistant hypertension. A possible explanation is that sympathetic overactivity and altered vascular reactivity in OSA could be more severe in resistant hypertension than in nonresistant hypertension. An intricate interaction among compliance, adherence, and their interaction with demographic characteristics, genetic factors, and comorbidities of the population included might explain the differences found between trials on their influence over the antihypertensive effectiveness of CPAP. Further long-term trials are needed in hypertensive OSA patients to assess whether CPAP treatment in OSA patients consistently restores physiological nocturnal BP fall and adjusts resting and circadian heart rate.

  12. The effect of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics on sleep quality and severity in patients with OSA: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu Juan; Li, Qing Yun; Wang, Yan; Xu, Hua Jun; Lin, Ying Ni

    2014-12-01

    Although there is a high co-occurrence of insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the administration of sedative hypnotics in patients with OSA is still inconsistent. The aim is to study the effect of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (non-BZDs) on sleep quality and severity in patients with OSA. We conducted a systemic search for controlled clinical trials in multiple databases and pooled analysis of the impact of non-BZDs on objective sleep quality and the severity of OSA, including the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and mean and nadir arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) in patients with OSA. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to explore the robustness of results. Eight relevant placebo-controlled clinical trials involving 448 patients were included. Objective sleep quality, including sleep latency, sleep efficiency, and wake time after sleep onset, was significantly improved in patients taking non-BZDs compared with those taking placebo (pOSA patients (p>0.05). The administration of non-BZDs at the commonly recommended dose has been shown to improve objective sleep quality in OSA patients without worsening sleep apnea. It suggests that OSA patients with a complaint of insomnia symptoms may benefit from taking non-BZDs.

  13. Predictive models of objective oropharyngeal OSA surgery outcomes: Success rate and AHI reduction ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Ho; Lee, Jae Yong; Cha, Jaehyung; Kim, Kangwoo; Hong, Seung-No; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model of objective oropharyngeal obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) surgery outcomes including success rate and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) reduction ratio in adult OSA patients. Retrospective outcome research. All subjects with OSA who underwent oropharyngeal and/or nasal surgery and were followed for at least 3 months were enrolled in this study. Demographic, anatomical [tonsil size (TS) and palate-tongue position (PTP) grade (Gr)], and polysomnographic parameters were analyzed. The AHI reduction ratio (%) was defined as [(postoperative AHI-preoperative AHI) x 100 / postoperative AHI], and surgical success was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in preoperative AHI with a postoperative AHI regression analysis was: [Formula: see text]The best predictive equation according to stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was: [Formula: see text] (TS/PTP Gr = 1 if TS/PTP Gr 3 or 4, TS/PTP Gr = 0 if TS/PTP Gr 1 or 2). The predictive models for oropharyngeal surgery described in this study may be useful for planning surgical treatments and improving objective outcomes in adult OSA patients.

  14. Evaluation of a biological wastewater treatment system combining an OSA process with ultrasound for sludge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Pareja, P M; Aragon, C A; Quiroga, J M; Coello, M D

    2017-05-01

    Sludge production is an undesirable by-product of biological wastewater treatment. The oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process constitutes one of the most promising techniques for reducing the sludge produced at the treatment plant without negative consequences for its overall performance. In the present study, the OSA process is applied in combination with ultrasound treatment, a lysis technique, in a lab-scale wastewater treatment plant to assess whether sludge reduction is enhanced as a result of mechanical treatment. Reported sludge reductions of 45.72% and 78.56% were obtained for the two regimes of combined treatment tested in this study during two respective stages: UO1 and UO2. During the UO1 stage, the general performance and nutrient removal improved, obtaining 47.28% TN removal versus 21.95% in the conventional stage. However, the performance of the system was seriously damaged during the UO2 stage. Increases in dehydrogenase and protease activities were observed during both stages. The advantages of the combined process are not necessarily economic, but operational, as US treatment acts as contributing factor in the OSA process, inducing mechanisms that lead to sludge reduction in the OSA process and improving performance parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lack of effect of sleep apnea on oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Simiakakis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate markers of systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in subjects with and without OSAS in order to investigate the most important factors that determine the oxidant-antioxidant status. METHODS: A total of 66 subjects referred to our Sleep laboratory were examined by full polysomnography. Oxidative stress and antioxidant activity were assessed by measurement of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs and the biological antioxidant capacity (BAP in blood samples taken in the morning after the sleep study. Known risk factors for oxidative stress, such as age, sex, obesity, smoking, hypelipidemia, and hypertension, were investigated as possible confounding factors. RESULTS: 42 patients with OSAS (Apnea-Hypopnea index >15 events/hour were compared with 24 controls (AHI<5. The levels of d-ROMS were significantly higher (p = 0.005 in the control group but the levels of antioxidant capacity were significantly lower (p = 0.004 in OSAS patients. The most important factors predicting the variance of oxidative stress were obesity, smoking habit, and sex. Parameters of sleep apnea severity were not associated with oxidative stress. Minimal oxygen desaturation and smoking habit were the most important predicting factors of BAP levels. CONCLUSION: Obesity, smoking, and sex are the most important determinants of oxidative stress in OSAS subjects. Sleep apnea might enhance oxidative stress by the reduction of antioxidant capacity of blood due to nocturnal hypoxia.

  16. [Tracheotomy or planned prolonged intubation after surgery for patients with OSAS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, H P

    2014-10-01

    Patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and obesity have an elevated risk of postoperative complications independent of each other. Within the framework of expert opinions for courts the question arose whether postoperative prolonged intubation or tracheotomy are standard routine approaches which are to be carried out in the normal course of operations on patients with OSAS. A search of the literature was performed using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, the Cochrane database of systematic reviews and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials. Furthermore, 78 German otorhinolaryngology (ENT) departments participated in a nationwide survey. The results of the survey showed that after normal complication-free surgery planned postoperative prolonged intubation is not performed in the majority of ENT departments and no department performs a tracheotomy. In contrast, the standard approach for patients with OSAS and obesity who undergo two-level surgery is intubation and subsequent monitoring without ventilation for the first postoperative day. In the literature no evidence of a scientific basis for carrying out prolonged intubation or a tracheotomy could be found. Neither tracheotomy nor prolonged intubation are standard procedures for OSAS patients with obesity after complication-free surgery.

  17. Osa Pärnu poliitikuid saab ärimeestelt igakuist tasu / Teet Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosaar, Teet, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Kuigi Pärnu uus linnavalitsus kärpis volikogu liikmete äriühingute nõukogudest makstavat tasu poole väiksemaks, saab osa poliitikuid endiselt lisasissetulekut, teiste seas linnakassast doteeritavalt Pärnu ATP-lt

  18. Positional OSA part 1: towards a clinical classification system for position-dependent obstructive sleep apnoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, M.H.; Ravesloot, M.J.L.; van Maanen, J.P.; Verhagen, E.; de Lange, J.; de Vries, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1984, Cartwright suggested that physicians should differentiate between patients with either positional obstructive sleep apnoea (POSA) or non-positional OSA. Treatment of POSA has advanced dramatically recently with the introduction of a new generation of positional therapy (PT), a

  19. A Formal Security Analysis of an OSA/Parlay Authentication Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Di Caprio, G.; Etalle, Sandro; Gnesi, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Moiso, C.

    2005-01-01

    We report on an experience in analyzing the security of the Trust and Security Management (TSM) protocol, an authentication procedure within the OSA/Parlay Application Program Interfaces (APIs) of the Open Service Access and Parlay Group. The experience has been conducted jointly by research

  20. OSAS Surgery and Postoperative Discomfort: Phase I Surgery versus Phase II Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gasparini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aims to investigate the reasons that discourage the patients affected by OSAS to undergo orthognathic surgery and compares the postoperative discomfort of phase I (soft tissue surgery and phase II (orthognathic surgery procedures for treatment of OSAS. Material and Methods. A pool of 46 patients affected by OSAS was divided into two groups: “surgery patients” who accepted surgical treatments of their condition and “no surgery patients” who refused surgical procedures. The “surgery patients” group was further subdivided into two arms: patients who accepted phase I procedures (IP and those who accepted phase II (IIP. To better understand the motivations behind the refusal of II phase procedures, we asked the patients belonging to both the IP group and “no surgery” group to indicate the main reason that influenced their decision to avoid II phase procedures. We also monitored and compared five parameters of postoperative discomfort: pain, painkiller assumption, length of hospitalization, foreign body sensation, and diet assumption following IP and IIP procedures. Results. The main reason to avoid IIP procedures was the concern of a more severe postoperative discomfort. Comparison of the postoperative discomfort following IP versus IIP procedures showed that the former scored worse in 4 out of 5 parameters analyzed. Conclusion. IIP procedures produce less postoperative discomfort. IIP procedures, namely, orthognathic surgery, should be the first choice intervention in patients affected by OSAS and dentoskeletal malformation.

  1. Co-morbid OSA and insomnia increases depression prevalence and severity in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Carol J; Appleton, Sarah L; Vakulin, Andrew; McEvoy, R Doug; Wittert, Gary A; Martin, Sean A; Catcheside, Peter G; Antic, Nicholas A; Lack, Leon; Adams, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and insomnia coexist in clinical populations but prevalence in the community and risk factors remain largely unknown. We examined the prevalence and profile of previously undiagnosed co-morbid OSA and insomnia symptoms (COMISA) in community-dwelling men. Men (n = 700, aged 58.5 ± 11.0 (mean ± SD) years) without a prior diagnosis of OSA completed full at-home unattended polysomnography, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and 36-item short form (SF-36) survey (2007-2012). Insomnia symptoms included difficulty initiating/maintaining sleep in the presence of daytime fatigue (DIMS-F). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-1A, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) (2007-2010). Univariate (χ2 and analysis of variance (ANOVA)) and multiple linear regressions were used to compare data from four groups of individuals: neither disorder; previously undiagnosed OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥ 10) or DIMS-F alone; and COMISA. COMISA prevalence was 6.7%. Depression prevalence (COMISA, 42.6%; DIMS-F, 21.6%; OSA, 8.4%, χ2  = 71.6, P OSA: 11.4 ± 3.0, P = 0.01) were highest in men with COMISA. In COMISA, respiratory and arousal indices were similar to those observed in OSA whilst reductions in subjective sleep and day dysfunction scores were similar to DIMS-F. After adjustment, predicted mean depression scores were all higher in DIMS-F and COMISA using linear regression (e.g. PHQ-9 β (95% CI): DIMS-F: 2.3 (1.2, 3.5); COMISA: 4.1 (3.0, 5.1)). Men with COMISA have a greater prevalence, and severity, of depression than men with only one disorder. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  2. Marcadores de estrés oxidativo en placentas de gestantes añosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Suárez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Un factor de riesgo alto ginecoobstétrico que contribuye a la morbimortalidad materna perinatal es la edad materna mayor de 35 años. Es posible que el estado oxidativo en la placenta de la gestante añosa sea mayor a la de la gestante no añosa. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado oxidativo de la placenta en gestantes mayores de 35 años. Diseño: Estudio observacional y transversal. Lugar: Hospital Nacional Docente Materno Infantil San Bartolomé y Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: 28 placentas de gestantes de 35 años o más y 28 placentas de gestantes de menos de 35 años, obtenidas de partos vaginales a término. Intervenciones: La muestra de placenta se homogenizó al 10% con buffer fosfato 10 mM, pH 7,4, se centrifugó a 2000 rpm por 5’. Parte del sobrenadante se usó para analizar lipoperoxidación y glutatión (GSH; el sobrenadante restante fue centrifugado a 42 000 rpm por 1 hora, para medir actividad de superóxido dismutasa (SOD. Principales medidas de resultados: Estado oxidativo de placentas obtenidas de mujeres añosas y no añosas. Resultados: La actividad de la SOD y el contenido de GSH placentarios en añosas fue 43,52 U/g de tejido y 4,67 µmol/mL x 10-²; para el grupo control fueron 54,13 U/g de tejido y 6,02 µmol/mL x 10-², respectivamente; en ambos hubo significancia estadística (p < 0,05. La medición de TBARS (lipoperoxidación no mostró diferencias significativas. Conclusiones: Las placentas obtenidas de mujeres añosas muestran menor capacidad de defensa antioxidante frente a las placentas obtenidas de mujeres no añosas.

  3. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies...... and plays an important role in processing the information generated by these methods. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current publicly available sequence assembly programs. We describe the basic principles of computational assembly along with the main concerns, such as repetitive sequences...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  4. The USC-OSA Student Chapter: goals and benefits for the optics community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Varela, A. I.; Gargallo, Ana; González Núñez, Héctor; Delgado-García, Tamara; Almaguer-Gómez, Citlalli; Cambronero-López, F.; Flores-Arias, M. T.

    2014-07-01

    The USC-OSA Student Chapter has been constituted in March 2013 by members of the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) in Spain and sponsored by The Optical Society of America (OSA). It is formed by five graduate and one undergraduate students with the common interest in Optics and Photonics research and a professor of the USC is also involved as a faculty advisor. We decided to start this group with the aim of involving kids, precollege and undergraduate students in the world of Optics and Photonics. The activities that the USC-OSA Student Chapter members intend to realize are mainly educational tasks for the spreading of knowledge in Photonics by means of basic experiments, demonstrations and lectures by leading researchers and teachers. Most of the needed resources to accomplish these activities are provided by the OSA, such as educational posters and a portable kit for demonstrating Optics to students. At this moment the USC-OSA Student Chapter is carrying out several activities, as educational journeys at the Santiago de Compostela University Hospital Complex (CHUS), where hospitalized children can approach to Optics through some simple experiments and games. A teaching program is also being organized in collaboration with Galician secondary schools in order to show students the importance and uses of Optics and Photonics and to arouse their interest in this field, as well as encouraging them to develop their scientific thinking. Another activity will take place in November during the Science Week, which includes a program of lectures targeted to undergraduate students and an exposition of several demonstrations

  5. Altered accumulation of osa-miR171b contributes to rice stripe virus infection by regulating disease symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Aizi; Yuan, Quan; Wang, Shu; Peng, Jiejun; Lu, Yuwen; Zheng, Hongying; Lin, Lin; Chen, Hairu; Gong, Yifu; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2017-07-10

    Viral infection affects the pattern of plant miRNA expression. It has been presumed that reduction of miR171 and several other miRNAs influences viral symptoms in plants. We here experimentally demonstrate the association of osa-miR171b with rice stripe virus (RSV) symptoms in rice. Inhibition of osa-miR171b caused stunting with reduced chlorophyll content in leaves similar to viral symptoms. Overexpression of osa-miR171b by an artificial miRNA extended vegetative growth and enhanced chlorophyll accumulation in leaves. Tillers were thicker, and panicles were longer with more spikelets in plants overexpressing osa-miR171b than in controls, but there were no differences in tiller numbers. Targets of osa-miR171b, OsSCL6-IIa, OsSCL6-IIb, and OsSCL6-IIc, were respectively up- and down-regulated in plants where osa-miR171b was inhibited or overexpressed. In plants overexpressing osa-miR171b, five positive regulators for heading development, Ehd1, Ehd2, Ehd3, Ehd4, and Hd3a were up-regulated, while the negative regulator Ghd7 was down-regulated. Plants overexpressing osa-miR171b were less susceptible to RSV and virus symptoms were attenuated. Taken together, the results reveal that a reduction of osa-miR171b in RSV-infected rice contributes to RSV symptoms, and provide more insight into the roles of osa-miR171b in rice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Sub-15 nm nano-pattern generation by spacer width control for high density precisely positioned self-assembled device nanomanufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2012-08-01

    We present a conventional micro-fabrication based thin film vertical sidewall (spacer) width controlled nano-gap fabrication process to create arrays of nanopatterns for high density precisely positioned self-assembled nanoelectronics device integration. We have used conventional optical lithography to create base structures and then silicon nitride (Si 3N4) based spacer formation via reactive ion etching. Control of Si3N4 thickness provides accurate control of vertical sidewall (spacer) besides the base structures. Nano-gaps are fabricated between two adjacent spacers whereas the width of the gap depends on the gap between two adjacent base structures minus width of adjacent spacers. We demonstrate the process using a 32 nm node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) platform to show its compatibility for very large scale heterogeneous integration of top-down and bottom-up fabrication as well as conventional and selfassembled nanodevices. This process opens up clear opportunity to overcome the decade long challenge of high density integration of self-assembled devices with precise position control. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Ordering of self-assembled 5-nm-diameter poly(dimethylsiloxane) nanodots with sub-10 nm pitch using ultra-narrow electron-beam-drawn guide lines and three-dimensional control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui, E-mail: t10802275@gunma-u.ac.jp [Human Resources Cultivation Center, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Hosaka, Sumio; Yin, You [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We demonstrate the possibility of forming long-range ordered self-assembled arrays of 5-nm-diameter nanodots with pitch of 10 × 7.5 nm{sup 2} using guide line templates and low molecular weight (MW) (4700–1200 g/mol) poly(styrene)-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-PDMS) for application in ultrahigh density patterned magnetic recording media. We propose a three-dimensional control which involves control of the height of the guide lines, the thickness of the PS-PDMS films, and the gap between the guide lines in order to produce 5-nm-diameter, sub-10 nm pitched nanodots with long-range order along the guide lines. Adopting a 13-nm-thick PS-PDMS film and 14-nm-high resist guide lines, the 5-nm-diameter and 10 × 7.5 nm{sup 2}-pitched self-assembled nanodots were ordered in 4–7 dot arrays with long-range order. The experimental results demonstrate that the method is suitable for the production of patterned media with magnetic recording densities of 8.6 Tbit/in.{sup 2} using low MW PS-PDMS and slim guide lines.

  8. The effectiveness of combined tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty in the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzreil, Bakri; Wong, Eugene Hung Chih; Saraiza, Abu Bakar; Raman, Rajagopalan; Amin, Jalaludin

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasing due to a rising rate of obesity. Multiple surgical techniques used to address obstruction at the palatal level have been associated with significant morbidities. Few studies have reported good outcomes of anterior palatoplasty (AP) in mild-to-moderate OSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of combining tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty in the treatment of snoring and OSA. All patients with snoring and OSA treated with tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty were analyzed. The primary outcome was reduction of the apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) with surgical success criteria; reduction of AHI by ≥50% and AHI ≤10. The secondary outcomes measured were patients' Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and snoring visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Thirty one patients completed the study, where 19% had mild, 42% moderate, and 39% had severe OSA. The mean surgical success rate was 45% at 3 months and 32% at 1-year post-operatively. There was a significant reduction of ESS and VAS at 3 months and 1-year post-operatively (p OSA in selected groups of patients (mild-to-moderate OSA with mainly retropalatal obstruction). The surgical success was found to reduce with time, and BMI optimization should be emphasized as part of post-operative care.

  9. Identification of significant obstructive sleep apnoea in the obese patient: development of the novel DX-OSA score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoroja, Daniela D; Cioc, Dan Adrian

    2016-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in obese surgical patients. We investigated the extent to which anthropometric measurements can be used to identify the presence of significant OSA (Apnoea/Hypopnoea Index (AHI) ≥ 20) in adult patients. We prospectively studied 1357 adult patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Prior to surgery, body mass index (BMI), gender, neck circumference, STOP-Bang score, SpO2, neck and trunk fat (by dual X-ray absorptiometry) were recorded. All patients with a STOP-Bang score ≥ 5 underwent polysomnography. Auto-titrated Positive Airway Pressure (APAP) therapy was instituted when AHI ≥ 20/h. Predictors of OSA were identified and their cut-off values determined. In total, 1357 patients were screened; 345 patients underwent preoperative polysomnography; 190 had AHI ≥ 20/h and received APAP treatment. The novel Dual X-Ray-Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (DX-OSA) score was derived from the data. The score included 6 items: the STOP-Bang score, BMI, neck fat, trunk fat, baseline SpO2, and Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV), and its sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive values, negative-predictive values, likelihood ratios, and post-test probabilities determined. At a cut-off of 3, the DX-OSA score had the same sensitivity as the STOP-bang score, but better specificity. The lowest likelihood ratio was found for STOP-Bang and the highest for the DX-OSA score (OSA probability > 83%). The DX-OSA score may be useful for identifying obese patients with significant OSA who require CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) treatment, and CPAP could be commenced without the need for polysomnography, therefore, without delaying surgery.

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of echocardiographic findings in OSA children after adenotonsilectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Silke Anna Theresa; Pierri Carvalho, Raíssa; Ridley, Greta; Williams, Katrina; El Dib, Regina

    2014-10-01

    There is evidence that OSA in children can be associated with acute and chronic effects on the cardiovascular system due to repetitive episodes of apnea and hypoxemia. To assess whether there is an association between OSA and echocardiographic findings in children and whether that association persists after adenotonsillectomy. A literature search was conducted based on PUBMED, EMBASE and LILACS. Children with OSA and children who did not have OSA, who were aged ≤12 years. Two reviewers extracted data independently; the risk of bias was assessed by examining the selected sample, the recruitment method, completeness of follow up, and blinding. Seven studies met all the inclusion criteria and methodological requirements. There was a significant difference with elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure levels in OSA participants compared to those without OSA at preoperative assessment [mean difference (MD) 8.67; confidential interval (CI) 95% 6.09, 11.25]. OSA participants showed a statistically significant increased interventricular septum (IVS) thickness (mm) [MD 0.60; CI 95% 0.09, 1.11]; and right ventricular (RV) dimension (cm/m) [MD 0.19; CI 95% 0.10, 0.28]. There was also a significant increase in right ventricular (RV) dimension (cm/m) [MD 0.10; CI 95% 0.05, 0.14] in OSA children. There is moderate quality evidence regarding possible association between OSA and right heart repercussions. More prognosis studies are needed, to allow the combination of results in a meta-analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A peroxotungstate-ionic liquid brush assembly: an efficient and reusable catalyst for selectively oxidizing sulfides with aqueous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution in neat water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xianying; Ma, Wenjuan; Ou, Hui; Han, Xiaoyan; Lu, Congmin; Chen, Yan; Wei, Junfa, E-mail: shixy@snnu.edu.cn, E-mail: weijf@snnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University and Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Xian (China)

    2012-08-15

    An efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalytic assembly of peroxotungstate held in a ionic liquid (IL) brush was synthesized and an environmentally-friendly procedure was developed for selective oxidation of sulfides at room temperature using 30 wt.% hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant and water as a sole solvent. No organic co-solvent or other additive was needed. A 1.5-2.0 mol% (based on W atom) loading catalyst was found to be sufficient for a smooth and clean reaction. Both aliphatic and aromatic sulfides were efficiently and selectively transformed into their respective sulfoxides or sulfones by simply controlling of equivalents of hydrogen peroxide. In addition to the high catalytic activity, the catalyst exhibits excellent chemoselectivity. Sensitive functional groups, such as double bond and hydroxyl, remained under the oxidation conditions the reaction even with an excess hydrogen peroxide. The catalyst was easily recovered (via simple filtration) and reused at least eight times without a noticeable loss of activity. (author)

  12. Effect of CPAP Withdrawal on BP in OSA: Data from Three Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Esther I; Schlatzer, Christian; Rossi, Valentina A; Stradling, John R; Kohler, Malcolm

    2016-12-01

    Based on meta-analyses, the BP-lowering effect of CPAP therapy in patients with OSA is reported to be approximately 2 to 3 mm Hg. This figure is derived from heterogeneous trials, which are often limited by poor CPAP adherence, and thus the treatment effect may possibly be underestimated. We analyzed morning BP data from three randomized controlled CPAP withdrawal trials, which included only patients with optimal CPAP compliance. Within the three trials, 149 patients with OSA who were receiving CPAP were randomized to continue therapeutic CPAP (n = 65) or to withdraw CPAP (n = 84) for 2 weeks. Morning BP was measured at home before and after sleep studies in the hospital. CPAP withdrawal was associated with a return of OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] at a baseline of 2.8/h and at follow-up of 33.2/h). Office systolic BP (SBP) increased in the CPAP withdrawal group compared with the CPAP continuation group by +5.4 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.8-8.9 mm Hg; P = .003) and in the home SBP group by +9.0 mm Hg (95% CI, 5.7-12.3 mm Hg; P OSA severity is associated with a higher BP rise in response to CPAP withdrawal. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01332175 and NCT01797653) URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov and ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN 93153804) URL: http://www.isrctn.com/. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Marzieh Hosseini; Chen, Yen-Fu; Jagielski, Alison; Choudhury, Sopna; Banerjee, Dev; Hussain, Shakir; Thomas, G Neil; Taheri, Shahrad

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder associated with several adverse health outcomes. Given the close association between OSA and obesity, lifestyle and dietary interventions are commonly recommended to patients, but the evidence for their impact on OSA has not been systematically examined. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the impact of weight loss through diet and physical activity on measures of OSA: apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index of 4% (ODI4). A systematic search was performed to identify publications using Medline (1948-2011 week 40), EMBASE (from 1988-2011 week 40), and CINAHL (from 1982-2011 week 40). The inverse variance method was used to weight studies and the random effects model was used to analyze data. Seven randomized controlled trials (519 participants) showed that weight reduction programs were associated with a decrease in AHI (-6.04 events/h [95% confidence interval -11.18, -0.90]) with substantial heterogeneity between studies (I(2) = 86%). Nine uncontrolled before-after studies (250 participants) showed a significant decrease in AHI (-12.26 events/h [95% confidence interval -18.51, -6.02]). Four uncontrolled before-after studies (97 participants) with ODI4 as outcome also showed a significant decrease in ODI4 (-18.91 episodes/h [95% confidence interval -23.40, -14.43]). Published evidence suggests that weight loss through lifestyle and dietary interventions results in improvements in obstructive sleep apnea parameters, but is insufficient to normalize them. The changes in obstructive sleep apnea parameters could, however, be clinically relevant in some patients by reducing obstructive sleep apnea severity. These promising preliminary results need confirmation through larger randomized studies including more intensive weight loss approaches.

  14. Desipramine improves upper airway collapsibility and reduces OSA severity in patients with minimal muscle compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranto-Montemurro, Luigi; Sands, Scott A; Edwards, Bradley A; Azarbarzin, Ali; Marques, Melania; de Melo, Camila; Eckert, Danny J; White, David P; Wellman, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    We recently demonstrated that desipramine reduces the sleep-related loss of upper airway dilator muscle activity and reduces pharyngeal collapsibility in healthy humans without obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The aim of the present physiological study was to determine the effects of desipramine on upper airway collapsibility and apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) in OSA patients.A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised crossover trial in 14 OSA patients was performed. Participants received treatment or placebo in randomised order before sleep. Pharyngeal collapsibility (critical collapsing pressure of the upper airway (Pcrit)) and ventilation under both passive (V'0,passive) and active (V'0,active) upper airway muscle conditions were evaluated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) manipulation. AHI was quantified off CPAP.Desipramine reduced active Pcrit (median (interquartile range) -5.2 (4.3) cmH2O on desipramine versus -1.9 (2.7) cmH2O on placebo; p=0.049) but not passive Pcrit (-2.2 (3.4) versus -0.7 (2.1) cmH2O; p=0.135). A greater reduction in AHI occurred in those with minimal muscle compensation (defined as V'0,active-V'0,passive) on placebo (r=0.71, p=0.009). The reduction in AHI was driven by the improvement in muscle compensation (r=0.72, p=0.009).In OSA patients, noradrenergic stimulation with desipramine improves pharyngeal collapsibility and may be an effective treatment in patients with minimal upper airway muscle compensation. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  15. CPAP therapy in patients with mild OSA: implementation and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal; Gerhardstein; Lumley; Guido; Day; Syron; Roth

    2000-07-01

    Objectives: To determine continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment compliance and reversal of excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with mild OSA.Background: CPAP therapy is the most widely accepted and used intervention in patients with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). There are, however, no widely accepted protocols to help guide the rational use of CPAP therapy. Patients with mild OSA (respiratory event index (REI) >5 or CPAP implementation needs to be evaluated.Methods: This is a retrospective study of 740 consecutive patients evaluated for sleep apnea in 1996. Mild OSA was documented in 241 patients, of whom, 41 opted for CPAP therapy. Implementation of CPAP treatment included an education session and an overnight clinical polysomnography (CPSG) for titration purposes. Patients returned for follow-ups after 1 week and 1 year of CPAP use. During each appointment, compliance and response to treatment were evaluated.Results: Of the initial 41 patients nine were lost to follow-up, 16 discontinued CPAP use during the first week, and 16 were still using CPAP after 1 year. For the 16 still using CPAP after one year, hours of use the first week was correlated to hours of use the first year (r=0.81). Patients using CPAP more than 4 h/night experienced a marked improvement in daytime sleepiness after 1 year (PCPAP discontinuation. Those patients who manifested good compliance during the first week of treatment continued using CPAP for the entire first year. These patients experienced improved alertness during the day. A 1 week trial on CPAP therapy is warranted to identify patients who benefit from this form of therapy.

  16. Toidumüüdid & tegelikkus. 1.-2.osa / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Söömise, toidu ja tervise kohta liikvel olevate müütide ja legendide tõesusest raamatute "Imeliste arstide õpetused" ja "Üks õun päevas: müüdid, eksiarvamused ja tõde toidu kohta" põhjal. Artikli teises osas vastab küsimustele arst, toitumisterapeut ja psühholoog Anneli Soots, kes on ka Eesti Toitumisteraapia Assotsiatsiooni president ja omanimelise tervisekooli direktor ja õppejõud

  17. Olulist pärimisseadusest. [1.-3. osa] / Albert Paltser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paltser, Albert, 1931-2007

    1998-01-01

    Pärandamise ja pärimise liikidest, esimese, teise ja kolmanda järjekorra seadusjärgsetest pärijatest ning abikaasa õigusest eelosale. Testamendi liikidest (notariaalne testament, notari hoiule antud testament, kodune testament), pärija pärandi osa määramisest testamendis, annakust, ase- ja järelpärijast, testamendi tühistamisest ja abikaasade vastastikusest testamendist. Pärimislepingust ja pärandi sundosast

  18. Does either obesity or OSA severity influence the response of autotitrating CPAP machines in very obese subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Chris D; Manuel, Ari R; Stradling, John R

    2016-05-01

    The pressures delivered by autotitrating continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) devices not only treat obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) effectively but also give potentially interesting physiological information about the forces impinging on the pharynx. In earlier work from this unit, we used correlations between autoCPAP pressure and both OSA severity and obesity, to construct an algorithm to estimate the fixed CPAP pressure a patient required for subsequent clinical use. We wished to discover if these relationships could be reliably extended to a much more obese group. We performed a prospective cohort study in an obese population. Measurements of obesity were made, OSA severity was recorded, and the 95th centile autoCPAP pressure was recorded during 1 week of autoCPAP. Spearman's rank correlation was performed between measurements of obesity and autoCPAP pressure, and between OSA severity and autoCPAP pressure. Fifty-four obese individuals (median body mass index (BMI) 43.0 kg/m(2)), 52 % of whom had OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥ 15), had a median 95th centile autoCPAP pressure of 11.8 cmH2O. We found no significant correlation between autoCPAP pressure and neck circumference, waist circumference or BMI. There was a moderate correlation between autoCPAP pressure and OSA severity (AHI r = 0.34, p = 0.02; oxygen desaturation index (ODI) r = 0.48, p OSA generated high autoCPAP pressures, and thus, the correlation between OSA severity and autoCPAP pressure was only moderate.

  19. A 3-week dietary safety study of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch in neonatal farm piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Brinda; Thorsrud, Bjorn A; Brorby, Gregory P; Ferguson, Heather E

    2014-10-01

    Octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starch functions as both an emulsifier and emulsion stabilizer in foods, and is intended for use in infant formula, follow-on formula, and formulae for special medical purposes. These formulae predominantly include extensively hydrolyzed protein or free amino acids, rather than intact protein, which otherwise would provide emulsifying functionality. The study objectives were to evaluate (1) the safety of OSA-modified starch after three weeks of administration to neonatal farm piglets, beginning 2 days after birth and (2) the impact of OSA-modified starch on piglet growth. OSA-modified starch was added to formula at concentrations of 2, 4, and 20 g/L. The vehicle control, low-dose, and mid-dose diets were supplemented with Amioca™ Powder to balance the nutritional profiles of all formulations. There were no test article-related effects of any diet containing OSA-modified starch on piglet growth and development (clinical observations, body weight, feed consumption), or clinical pathology parameters (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, urinalysis). In addition, there were no adverse effects at terminal necropsy (macro- and microscopic pathology evaluations). Therefore, dietary exposure to OSA-modified starch at concentrations up to 20 g/L was well tolerated by neonatal farm piglets and did not result in adverse health effects or impact piglet growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS, metabolic syndrome and mental health in small enterprise workers. feasibility of an Action for Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Garbarino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, metabolic syndrome and common mental disorders in the working population of 11 small enterprises and the feasibility of a program of action for health. METHOD: The clinical risk of OSAS, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and the level of psychological disorders were assessed during routine medical examination at the workplace in 2012. The response to medical advice was assessed in 2013. RESULTS: 12.3% of the workers were suspected of being affected by OSAS. One or more components of metabolic syndrome were present in 24.5% of cases. OSAS in "healthy" workers was significantly associated with the presence of one or more components of metabolic syndrome (OR = 3.83; 95%CI 1.45-10.13 and with a psychological disorders score in the highest quartile (OR = 4.67; 95%CI = 1.72-12.64. Workers with suspected OSAS were reluctant to follow advice about undergoing further tests under the NHS. However, in some cases, confirmation of the OSAS diagnosis and subsequent treatment led to an improvement in metabolic condition. CONCLUSION: Although participation in treatment was limited, anecdotal cases support the idea that prevention of obstructive sleep apnea in the workplace might be useful for workers' health.

  1. Sensory analysis and volatile compounds of olive oil (cv. Cobrançosa from different irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies on the sensory quality of virgin olive oil (VOO from the cv. “cobrançosa” integrated into a protected denomination of origin of “Azeite de Trás-os-Montes” in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: (T2-full irrigation, which received a seasonal water equivalent of 100% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (ET<sub>c>, (T1-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ET<sub>c> and (T0- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006. Olive oil samples were analyzed for volatiles by GC-MS and the results compared with sensory evaluation data. Total volatile compounds tended to decrease with the amount of water applied. The characteristics pungent and bitter were more pronounced in olive oils from T0 and T1, which had higher polyphenolic concentrations, with a strong positive relationship with this variable and the bitter attribute. The Principal Components Analysis clearly separates the three olive oils from 2005, the driest year, and aggregates into a single group the three samples from 2006, suggesting no effect of irrigation on volatile compounds in years with a rainy spring and a marked effect in years with severe drought, suggesting that the effect of the trees’ water status on these variables occurs throughout the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. In general, olive oil from the cv. Cobrançosa is more bitter than pungent and has a typical nutty sensory attribute shown by a strong positive relationship between benzaldehyde and the sensory notes of almonds and nuts.

    Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar el efecto de distintas estrategias de riego en la composición relativa de los compuestos volátiles y en la calidad sensorial. El experimento se realizó en el Noreste de Portugal, dentro de la denominación de origen protegida “Azeites de Tr

  2. Rapid maxillary expansion in children with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A; Ranieri, R; Chiarotti, F; Villa, M P; Malagola, C

    2012-03-01

    to evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in a group of OSAS preschool children. Lateral cephalograms of 15 OSAS children (8 boys and 7 girls, age mean ± SD: 5.94 ± 1.64 years) were analysed at the start of treatment with RME (T0). All subjects were revaluated after a mean period of 1.57 ± 0.58 years (T1). At this time the sample was divided into 2 groups according to the change in the respiratory disturbance index (RDI): an improved group (I: 8 subjects) and a stationary/worsened group (SW: 7 subjects). Differences between I and SW children with respect to values of cephalometric variables at T0 and to variations between T0 and T1 were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U test. Differences between T0 and T1 values in the overall group of children and separately in I and SW groups were assessed using Wilcoxon test. At the start of treatment, the I group was characterised by more retrognathic jaws with lower values of SNA (p=0.055) and SNB (p=0.020) and higher age values (p=0.093) when compared to SW group. After treatment, the I group showed an increase in SNA and SNB angle significantly higher than SW group (p=0.004 and p=0.003, respectively). On the contrary, I and SW groups did not differ as for variation in the skeletal divergency and in the total facial height. OSAS preschool children with retrognathic jaws could benefit from RME treatment.

  3. Brain stem activity changes associated with restored sympathetic drive following CPAP treatment in OSA subjects: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Linda C; Fatouleh, Rania H; McKenzie, David K; Macefield, Vaughan G; Henderson, Luke A

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significantly elevated muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to hypertension and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Although little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the sympathoexcitation, we have recently shown that the elevated MSNA in OSA is associated with altered neural processing in various brain stem sites, including the dorsolateral pons, rostral ventrolateral medulla, medullary raphe, and midbrain. Given the risk associated with elevated MSNA, we aimed to determine if treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would reduce the elevated MSNA and reverse the brain stem functional changes associated with the elevated MSNA. We performed concurrent recordings of MSNA and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity of the brain stem, using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, in 15 controls and 13 subjects with OSA, before and after 6 mo CPAP treatment. As expected, 6 mo of CPAP treatment significantly reduced MSNA in subjects with OSA, from 54 ± 4 to 23 ± 3 bursts/min and from 77 ± 7 to 36 ± 3 bursts/100 heart beats. Importantly, we found that MSNA-coupled changes in BOLD signal intensity within the dorsolateral pons, medullary raphe, and rostral ventrolateral medulla returned to control levels. That is, CPAP treatment completely reversed brain stem functional changes associated with elevated MSNA in untreated OSA subjects. These data highlight the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in reducing one of the most significant health issues associated with OSA, that is, elevated MSNA and its associated elevated morbidity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Improvement and prediction of OSA system performance in sludge reduction through integration with thermal and mechanical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif, Sara; Mehrdadi, Naser; Zare, Sajad; Mosavari, Sarvenaz

    2016-11-01

    The oxic-settling-anoxic (OSA) process is one of the sludge production reduction methods in the activated sludge process. In this method, sludge is stored in an anaerobic tank within the sludge return line before entrance into an aeration tank. Due to this method's flexibility in application to operating treatment plants and not being energy-consuming, its application is developing. In this research, the improvement of the OSA process is investigated via thermal and mechanical treatment in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A pilot-scale reactor and domestic wastewater are used. Sludge was subjected to high temperature in an anaerobic tank using a heat transformer and it was subjected to mechanical shear through mechanical mixing in the anaerobic tank. Different temperatures and voltages were tested. The OSA process reduced sludge production by 24% while the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate decreased from 90% to 86%. Thermal treatment combined with the OSA process caused a maximum of 46% sludge production reduction. However temperatures above 90 °C are not recommended due to a high level of decrease in COD removal. Mechanical mixing in combination with the OSA process led to 34% sludge production reduction. The effluent quality is not affected by the OSA process itself but is slightly reduced by thermal treatment and mechanical mixing. Therefore, for reaching the maximum sludge reduction in OSA plus thermal and mechanical treatment it would be necessary to evaluate the effect of different sets of parameters on effluent quality beside the sludge reduction. For this purpose multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network models are developed to predict the effluent total suspended solids and COD removal efficiency as well as sludge production rate. The models perform well and would be useful tools in determining the optimal set of system operation parameters.

  5. Kvartsimaasälpäjauheen käyttö betonin osa-aineksena

    OpenAIRE

    Kynsilehto, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin Keliber Oy:n toimittaman kvartsimaasälpäjauheen soveltuvuutta betonin osa-ainekseksi. Kvartsimaasälpäjauheen soveltuvuutta ei ollut aiemmin testattu. Työssä tehtiin kiviaineksen alkututkimukset ja selvitettiin, onko kvartsimaasälpäjauheen käyttö mahdollista lujuusominaisuuksiensa vuoksi, sekä mikä on kvartsimaasälpäjauheen vaikutus tuoreen betonin työstettävyysominaisuuksiin. Kvartsimaasälpäjauheen soveltuvuus testattiin luomalla yhdeksän eri normaalin, täryt...

  6. Nanocrystal assembly for tandem catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor; Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-10-14

    The present invention provides a nanocrystal tandem catalyst comprising at least two metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. One embodiment utilizes a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling sub-10 nm platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO.sub.2--Pt and Pt--SiO.sub.2, can be used to catalyze two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO.sub.2--Pt interface catalyzed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H.sub.2, which were then subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalyzed by the nearby Pt--SiO.sub.2 interface. Consequently, propanal was selectively produced on this nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst.

  7. The correlation of ECHO findings of right cardiac pathologies with BNP, uric acid, and CRP in OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araz, Ömer; Yilmazel Uçar, Elif; Değırmencı, Hüsnü; Pulur, Didem; Acemoğlu, Hamit; Bayram, Ednan; Gündoğdu, Fuat; Akgün, Metin

    2014-01-01

    Right cardiac pathologies develop in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and in most patients there are no symptoms in the early stages of right cardiac disorders. We aimed to evaluate a possible relationship between B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), blood uric acid, C-reactive protein (CRP), and the right cardiac pathologies in patients with OSAS, and the role of these parameters in the management of patients with OSAS. A total of 98 subjects, 31 (31.6%) controls and 67 (68.4%) with OSAS, were included in the study. All the subjects underwent polysomnography, and standard and tissue Doppler echocardiography (ECHO) examinations. BNP, CRP, and blood uric acid levels were measured in all patients. Upon evaluating the relationship between BNP and ECHO parameters, BNP levels were found to positively correlate with such ECHO parameters as pulmonary artery pressure. As for the association between CRP and ECHO findings, RV diameter exhibited a statistically significant positive correlation with them. Moreover, uric acid was found to statistically correlate positively with right atrium dimensions. BNP, CRP, and blood uric acid levels can be used as adjunctive parameters in the early diagnosis and follow-up of right heart pathologies in patients with OSAS.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) does not affect ventilatory and perceptual responses to exercise in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti Bruni, Giulia; Gigliotti, Francesco; Scano, Giorgio

    2012-09-30

    We have tested the hypothesis that high mass loading effects and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) constrain the ventilatory response to exercise in morbidly obese subjects as compared to their counterparts without OSA. Fifteen obese patients with (8) and without OSA and 12 lean healthy subjects performed incremental cycle exercise. The functional evaluation included ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, end-expiratory-lung-volumes (EELV), inspiratory capacity, heart rate, dyspnea and leg effort (by a modified Borg scale). Changes in ventilation and dyspnea per unit changes in work rate and metabolic variables were similar in the three groups. Breathing pattern and heart rate increased from rest to peak exercise similarly in the three groups. Leg effort was the prevailing symptom for stopping exercise in most subjects. In conclusion, OSA does not limit exercise capacity in morbidly obese subjects. Ventilation contributes to exertional dyspnea similarly as in lean subjects and in obese patients regardless of OSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): partial reversibility after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, L; Baietto, C; Di Gioia, M R; Castaldi, P; Castronovo, C; Zucconi, M; Cappa, S F

    2003-06-30

    The aims of this study were to assess cognitive function in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and to evaluate the effect of short- and long-term treatment with continuous positive airway pressure treatment (CPAP). A battery of neuropsychological tests, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Beck Inventory Scale were administered to 23 patients with severe OSA (age: 56.5+/-6.13; AHI: 54.9+/-13.37) and to 23 age- and education-matched controls. The OSA patients were evaluated in a baseline condition and in two follow-up treatment sessions (after 15 days and 4 months of CPAP, respectively). At baseline, OSA patients had a significant impairment, compared to controls, in tests of sustained attention, visuospatial learning, executive function, motor performance, and constructional abilities. The longitudinal evaluation showed that after a 15-days CPAP treatment attentive, visuospatial learning, and motor performances returned to normal levels. A 4-months CPAP treatment did not result in any further improvement in cognitive tests. Performance on tests evaluating executive functions and constructional abilities was not affected by short- and long-term treatment with CPAP. The findings of this study confirm the hypothesis of partial reversibility of cognitive dysfunction in OSA patients after CPAP.

  10. Oryza sativa H+-ATPase (OSA) is Involved in the Regulation of Dumbbell-Shaped Guard Cells of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Yosuke; Wang, Yin; Takahashi, Akira; Kawai, Yuya; Tada, Yasuomi; Yamaji, Naoki; Feng Ma, Jian; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-06-01

    The stomatal apparatus consists of a pair of guard cells and regulates gas exchange between the leaf and atmosphere. In guard cells, blue light (BL) activates H(+)-ATPase in the plasma membrane through the phosphorylation of its penultimate threonine, mediating stomatal opening. Although this regulation is thought to be widely adopted among kidney-shaped guard cells in dicots, the molecular basis underlying that of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocots remains unclear. Here, we show that H(+)-ATPases are involved in the regulation of dumbbell-shaped guard cells. Stomatal opening of rice was promoted by the H(+)-ATPase activator fusicoccin and by BL, and the latter was suppressed by the H(+)-ATPase inhibitor vanadate. Using H(+)-ATPase antibodies, we showed the presence of phosphoregulation of the penultimate threonine in Oryza sativa H(+)-ATPases (OSAs) and localization of OSAs in the plasma membrane of guard cells. Interestingly, we identified one H(+)-ATPase isoform, OSA7, that is preferentially expressed among the OSA genes in guard cells, and found that loss of function of OSA7 resulted in partial insensitivity to BL. We conclude that H(+)-ATPase is involved in BL-induced stomatal opening of dumbbell-shaped guard cells in monocotyledon species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  11. Characterization of Antibiotic-Loaded Alginate-Osa Starch Microbeads Produced by Ionotropic Pregelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Gizele Cardoso; Calado, Verônica Maria Araújo; Rossi, Alexandre Malta; da Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena Miguez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the penicillin-loaded microbeads composed of alginate and octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch prepared by ionotropic pregelation with calcium chloride and to evaluate their in vitro drug delivery profile. The beads were characterized by size, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential, swelling behavior, and degree of erosion. Also, the possible interaction between penicillin and biopolymers was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The SEM micrograph results indicated a homogeneous drug distribution in the matrix. Also, based on thermal analyses (TGA/DSC), interactions were detected between microbead components. Although FTIR spectra of penicillin-loaded microbeads did not reveal the formation of new chemical entities, they confirmed the chemical drug stability. XRD patterns showed that the incorporated crystalline structure of penicillin did not significantly alter the primarily amorphous polymeric network. In addition, the results confirmed a prolonged penicillin delivery system profile. These results imply that alginate and OSA starch beads can be used as a suitable controlled-release carrier for penicillin. PMID:23862146

  12. AMINO ACID-BASED FERTILIZER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO CALDA VIÇOSA IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fontebasso Pelizari Pinto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to propose a mixture of micronutrients with amino acid-based foliar fertilizer as an alternative to calda viçosa for application in organic agriculture. The study was conducted in two simultaneous trials in an experimental field in Ipeúna, SP, Brazil. The test plant was carioca type dry edible bean cv. Pérola. The treatments in trial 1 were: Control 1 = water; FA = JK® amino acid-based foliar fertilizer; and FA+Mi = FA + CuSO4 + ZnSO4 + MnSO4 + H3BO3. In trial 2, the FA treatment was substituted by calda viçosa (CVi. The treatments were through spray application three times. Dry edible bean leaves were sampled for determination of macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations. Platings of the application rates used in the treatments were performed in the laboratory in a mixture with Bacillus thuringiensis and with Beauveria bassiana to compare the degree of compatibility by means of colony forming units (CFU. The FA+Mi and CVi treatments raised the concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn in the leaves. The FA+Mi was compatible, the FA was a stimulant, and the CVi was noxious to B. bassiana and to B. thuringiensis when integrated in the spray mixture.

  13. Low socioeconomic status is a risk factor for CPAP acceptance among adult OSAS patients requiring treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Reuveni, Haim; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Oksenberg, Arie; Tal, Asher; Tarasiuk, Ariel

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate whether socioeconomic status (SES) has a role in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients' decision to accept continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. Cross-sectional study; patients were recruited between March 2007 and December 2007. University-affiliated sleep laboratory. 162 consecutive newly diagnosed (polysomnographically) adult OSAS patients who required CPAP underwent attendant titration and a 2-week adaptation period. 40% (n = 65) of patients who required CPAP therapy accepted this treatment. Patients accepting CPAP were older, had higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and higher income level, and were more likely to sleep in a separate room than patients declining CPAP treatment. More patients who accepted treatment also reported receiving positive information about CPAP treatment from family or friends. Multiple logistic regression (after adjusting for age, body mass index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and AHI) revealed that CPAP purchase is determined by: each increased income level category (OR, 95% CI) (2.4; 1.2-4.6), age + 1 year (1.07; 1.01-1.1), AHI ( > or = 35 vs. CPAP (2.9, 1.1-7.5), and partner sleeps separately (4.3, 1.4-13.3). In addition to the already known determinants of CPAP acceptance, patients with low SES are less receptive to CPAP treatment than groups with higher SES. CPAP support and patient education programs should be better tailored for low SES people in order to increase patient treatment initiation and adherence.

  14. The SomnuSeal Oral Mask Is Reasonably Tolerated by Otherwise CPAP Noncompliant Patients with OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Katz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compliance with CPAP is the major limiting factor in treating patients with OSA. The novel SomnuSeal mask is an oral self-adaptable mask located between the teeth and the lips ensuring that there are no air leaks or skin abrasions. Fifty patients with AHI>20, who failed previous CPAP trials, were asked to sleep with the mask for one month. In all patients, the mask was connected to an AutoPAP machine with a heated humidifier. Efficacy, convenience, and compliance (average usage for 4 or more hours per night were monitored. Fifty patients (41 m and 9 f, mean age 57±12 years, BMI 33.6±4.9 kg/m2, and AHI 47±23/h participated. Eleven were classified as compliant (average mask usage of 26 nights, 4.7 hours per night, five were only partially compliant (average usage of 13 nights, 2.9 hours per night, and 34 could not comply with it. In all patients who slept with it, the efficacy (assessed by residual AHI derived from the CPAP device was good with an AHI of less than 8/hour. Interestingly, the required optimal pressure decreased from an average of 9.3 cmH2O to 4.6 cmH2O. The SomnuSeal oral interface is effective and may result in converting noncompliant untreated patients with OSA into well-treated ones.

  15. The SomnuSeal Oral Mask Is Reasonably Tolerated by Otherwise CPAP Noncompliant Patients with OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, N; Adir, Y; Etzioni, T; Kurtz, E; Pillar, G

    2013-01-01

    Compliance with CPAP is the major limiting factor in treating patients with OSA. The novel SomnuSeal mask is an oral self-adaptable mask located between the teeth and the lips ensuring that there are no air leaks or skin abrasions. Fifty patients with AHI > 20, who failed previous CPAP trials, were asked to sleep with the mask for one month. In all patients, the mask was connected to an AutoPAP machine with a heated humidifier. Efficacy, convenience, and compliance (average usage for 4 or more hours per night) were monitored. Fifty patients (41 m and 9 f, mean age 57 ± 12 years, BMI 33.6 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), and AHI 47 ± 23/h) participated. Eleven were classified as compliant (average mask usage of 26 nights, 4.7 hours per night), five were only partially compliant (average usage of 13 nights, 2.9 hours per night), and 34 could not comply with it. In all patients who slept with it, the efficacy (assessed by residual AHI derived from the CPAP device) was good with an AHI of less than 8/hour. Interestingly, the required optimal pressure decreased from an average of 9.3 cmH2O to 4.6 cmH2O. The SomnuSeal oral interface is effective and may result in converting noncompliant untreated patients with OSA into well-treated ones.

  16. Assessment of relationship among sleepiness with polysomnographic parameters in patients with OSA

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    abolfazl Mozafari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleepiness that occurs at inappropriate or undesirable times or that interferes with daytime activities is generally considered excessive daytime sleepiness. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is one of the most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness. The aim of this study is to finds out the most important nocturnal polysomnographic parameters influencing daytime sleepiness in patients with OSA. Materials and Methods: Considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 112 patients referred to Baqiyatallah subspeciality sleep clinic in Qom city were selected. Patients, demographic and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS data were gathered and then comparison among ESS with polysomnography and anthropometric parameter was performed. Chi-square was used for analysis of qualitative parameters. Data analysis was done by SPSS v.18. P value was significant (˂0.05. Results: The mean age of the cases was 55.07 with male frequency 58.9% and female 41.1%. Body mass index was 34.34, apnea hypopnea index 43.62, mean Arousal Index 30.64 and mean ESS was 12.83. There was significant relationship among ESS>10 with arousal index (p=0.009 and mean O2 saturation (p=0.029, But we didn’t detected correlation between ESS>10 with other polysomnographic parameters. Conclusion: According to the data, the most important parameters of sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea patients were sleep fragmentation and mean O2 saturation.

  17. Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for Marine Protected Areas

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    L Oviedo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006. Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP. Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA, where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (Las ballenas jorobadas viajan a aguas tropicales para reproducirse y criar a sus ballenatos. Es importante entender las características oceanográficas que influencian su distribución para lograr una planificación efectiva de áreas marinas protegidas con hábitats críticos para estos cetáceos. Este estudio examina la relación entre la profundidad, la pendiente del suelo oceánico y la distribución de estas ballenas, usando avistamientos del 2005 y 2006 en la costa Pacífica de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica (temporada de reproducción del sur y norte en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Usamos Análisis de Factores de Nicho Ecológico (ENFA por sus siglas en inglés, donde los índices de Marginalidad y Tolerancia ilustran las restricciones en uso de hábitat. En una escala local

  18. The rheological properties of blood and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Pierzchała

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an important public health concern, which affects around 2–4% of the population. Left untreated, it causes a decrease not only in quality of life, but also of life expectancy. Despite the fact that knowledge about the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA is still incomplete, observations confirm a relationship between sleep disordered breathing and the rheological properties of blood. One possible consequence of an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease may be a rise in mortality in OSA patients. Continuously improved research methods are allowing for an increasingly more accurate understanding of the significance of observed changes. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011, Vol. 49, No. 2, 206–210

  19. Enhancer–promoter communication mediated by Chip during Pannier-driven proneural patterning is regulated by Osa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Pascal; Vanolst, Luc; Biryukova, Inna; Ramain, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    The GATA factor Pannier activates proneural achaete/scute (ac/sc) expression during development of the sensory organs of Drosophila through enhancer binding. Chip bridges Pannier with the (Ac/Sc)–Daughterless heterodimers bound to the promoter and facilitates the enhancer–promoter communication required for proneural development. We show here that this communication is regulated by Osa, which is recruited by Pannier and Chip. Osa belongs to Brahma chromatin remodeling complexes and we show that Osa negatively regulates ac/sc. Consequently, Pannier and Chip also play an essential role during repression of proneural gene expression. Our study suggests that altering chromatin structure is essential for regulation of enhancer–promoter communication. PMID:12629041

  20. The Osa-containing SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex regulates stem cell commitment in the adult Drosophila intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiankun; Lin, Xinhua; Hou, Steven X.

    2013-01-01

    The proportion of stem cells versus differentiated progeny is well balanced to maintain tissue homeostasis, which in turn depends on the balance of the different signaling pathways involved in stem cell self-renewal versus lineage-specific differentiation. In a screen for genes that regulate cell lineage determination in the posterior midgut, we identified that the Osa-containing SWI/SNF (Brahma) chromatin-remodeling complex regulates Drosophila midgut homeostasis. Mutations in subunits of the Osa-containing complex result in intestinal stem cell (ISC) expansion as well as enteroendocrine (EE) cell reduction. We further demonstrated that Osa regulates ISC self-renewal and differentiation into enterocytes by elaborating Notch signaling, and ISC commitment to differentiation into EE cells by regulating the expression of Asense, an EE cell fate determinant. Our data uncover a unique mechanism whereby the commitment of stem cells to discrete lineages is coordinately regulated by chromatin-remodeling factors. PMID:23942514

  1. Amsterdam positional OSA classification: the AASM 2012 recommended hypopnoea criteria increases the number of positional therapy candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duce, Brett; Kulkas, Antti; Langton, Christian; Töyräs, Juha; Hukins, Craig

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the effect of hypopnoea criteria on the prevalence of positional obstructive sleep apnoea (pOSA) identified under the Amsterdam Positional OSA Classification (APOC) system. Three hundred three consecutive patients undertaking polysomnography (PSG) for the suspicion of OSA were included in this retrospective investigation. PSGs were scored using both the 2007 American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recommended hypopnoea criteria (AASM2007Rec) and the 2012 AASM recommended hypopnoea criteria (AASM2012Rec). For each hypopnoea criteria, OSA patients were grouped according to the APOC categories (I, II or II) or else deemed non-APOC if they did not meet the APOC criteria. Outcome measures, such as Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) and psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), were also compared between the groups. The AASM2012Rec increased the prevalence of OSA compared to AASM2007Rec. The AASM2012Rec trebled the number of APOC I patients compared to AASM2007Rec (297% increase) as well as increased the proportion of females in the APOC I group. AASM2012Rec did not change the number of APOC II and APOC III patients. In fact, the same patients were present in these categories irrespective of hypopnoea criteria. The proportion of non-APOC patients proportionally decreased with the AASM2012Rec criteria. There were no differences in outcome measures between the AASM2012Rec and AASM2007Rec groups. This study demonstrates that, compared to AASM2007Rec, AASM2012Rec increases the prevalence of who could be successfully treated with positional therapy. The proportion of females with pOSA also increases as a consequence of AASM2012Rec.

  2. Depression, physical activity, energy consumption, and quality of life in OSA patients before and after CPAP treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti, C; Manali, E; Ginieri-Coccossis, M; Vougas, K; Cholidou, K; Markozannes, E; Bakakos, P; Liappas, I; Alchanatis, M

    2013-12-01

    A variety of studies have demonstrated improvement in quality of life and depressive symptoms in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. However, very little is known about the effect of OSA treatment on physical activity and energy consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in depression, physical activity, energy expenditure, and quality of life (QoL) in OSA patients before and after CPAP therapy. Forty-one patients with OSA as revealed by polysomnography, were included to the study. They responded to the generic World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL) questionnaire, to the specific-disease Quebec Sleep Questionnaire, and to Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in order to evaluate QoL and the incidence of depression. In addition, all patients wore an accelerometer which measured physical activity and energy expenditure during a week. At least 6 months after initiation of CPAP treatment (mean time, 9 months) we re-examined 24 patients who met the compliance with the treatment criteria. Patients after CPAP therapy had significantly higher scores in all domains of the Quebec Sleep Questionnaire and in the domains of physical health/level of independence and psychological health/spirituality of the WHOQoL. Depression scores were also better in CES-D after treatment. However, despite the improvement in QoL and psychological status, CPAP therapy had no impact on physical activity and energy expenditure. CPAP therapy improves QoL and lessens depressive symptoms in our group of well-treated OSA patients. However, physical activity and energy expenditure did not present statistically significant improvement in the same group of OSA patients.

  3. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  4. Reliability and validity of Thai version Quality of Life Questionnaire (OSA-18) for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptanon, Teeradej; Chukumnerd, Jaruwan; Leejakpai, Anchalee; Preutthipan, Aroonwan

    2015-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a chronic illness affecting either cardiopulmonary or neuropsychiatric function. Besides the functional health, the quality of life of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is of interest in literature. In children, the quality of life questionnaire, which consists of 18 items (OSA-18), has been widely accepted as a reliable, valid, and simple to administer. This questionnaire may also be useful in Thai children with OSA. To assess the reliability and validity of the Thai version of OSA-18 in Thai children. This was a cross-sectional study. The original English version of the 18-item pediatric obstructive sleep apnea quality of life questionnaire was translated into Thai following the guidelines of cross-cultural adaptation with permission from Rosenfeld RM, Department of Otolaryngology, SUNY Health Science Center at Brooklyn, USA. The questionnaire was divided into five domains, sleep disturbance, physical suffering, emotional distress, daytime problems, and caregiver concerns. The suspected obstructive sleep apnea children, aged less than 15 years, who did not have cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, or neuromuscular diseases, and who underwent standardfull night polysomnography were included. The child's caregiver was asked to complete the questionnaire without assistance to determine its reliability and validity. Forty-three children (30 boys, and 13 girls) were enrolled in the present study. The median age was five years (range 2 to 14 years). The median apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was six events/hour and median OSA-18 total score was 66.7 (range 25 to 107). There were excellent test-retest reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77) between each domain. Correlation between the Thai OSA-18 total scores and AHI was r = 0.48, p = 0.001, which was similar to the original English version (r = 0.43, p OSA-18 has been found to be satisfactory. Therefore, this

  5. The effect of sex and age on the comorbidity burden of OSA: an observational analysis from a large nationwide US health claims database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhlesi, Babak; Ham, Sandra A; Gozal, David

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition but studies exploring the burden of OSA-associated comorbidities have been limited by small sample sizes with underrepresentation of women.We queried the Truven Health MarketScan Research Databases 2003-2012, which is a collection of health insurance claims for working adults and retirees with employer-sponsored health insurance. Adults with a diagnostic code for OSA with at least 12 months of follow-up from the index date of OSA diagnosis were compared to a matched random sample. Comorbidities were assessed using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, codes. A logistic regression model was constructed to test the independent association between OSA and comorbidities.Our cohort included 1,704,905 patients with OSA and 1,704,417 matched controls. All comorbidities were significantly more prevalent in OSA patients. Type 2 diabetes and ischaemic heart disease were more prevalent in men but hypertension and depression were more prevalent in women with OSA. In contrast, the sex differences in the prevalence of congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and stroke were less pronounced. The prevalence of comorbidities increased with age but the effect of age varied based on the specific comorbidity. The divergence between OSA and controls was more pronounced after the sixth decade of life for most cardiovascular diseases (i.e.heart failure, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and arrhythmias), while depression exhibited an opposite trend. In a fully adjusted model, the odds of all comorbidities were significantly increased in OSA patients.In a large, nationally representative sample of working and retired people, OSA is strongly associated with significant comorbidities in both men and women with unique sex differences emerging. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  6. Análise da atividade florestal no município de Viçosa-MG Analysis of forest activity in Viçosa-MG

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    Alessandro Albino Fontes

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a atividade florestal no município de Viçosa-MG, a partir de questionário aplicado aos agricultores cujas propriedades rurais possuíam florestas plantadas. Foi amostrado um total de 63 propriedades rurais, abrangendo uma área de 2.096,95 ha. As áreas de floresta nativa e plantada, na amostra, foram de 372,00 e 260,17 ha, o que corresponde, respectivamente, a 17,74 e 12,41% da área amostrada. O tipo de floresta nativa predominante foi a capoeira (67,55%, e a espécie preferida para o reflorestamento foi o eucalipto (92,68%. O uso médio da mão-de-obra nas fases de implantação, manutenção e colheita dos plantios florestais foi estimado em 30,21, 13,64 e 61,25 dias-homem/ha, respectivamente, totalizando 105,10 dias-homem/ha, sendo a participação da mão-de-obra familiar de 25,24%. Os custos inerentes à atividade florestal foram estimados em R$419,30/ha para implantação; R$146,49/ha e R$80,34/ha para manutenção no primeiro e segundo ano, respectivamente; e R$2,11/m³ para colheita da madeira. Os plantios florestais concentram-se nas áreas de encostas, e o número médio de empregos gerados pelo reflorestamento (eucalipto foi 0,042 emprego/ha. Concluiu-se, de modo geral, que o reflorestamento é considerado atividade pouco atrativa, não identificando propriedades tipicamente florestais, sendo recomendada a elaboração de políticas públicas de incentivo ao reflorestamento.Forest activity was studied in Viçosa-MG, through a questionnaire applied to farmers who planted forests. A total of 63 farms were sampled, comprising an area of 2,096.95 ha. The natural and planted forest areas sampled were of 372.00 ha and 260.17 ha, corresponding to 17.74% and 12.41%, respectively. The predominant natural forest was the secondary forest (capoeira (67.55%, and the species chosen for reforestation was eucalypt (92.68%. Average labor use in the phases of implementation, maintenance and harvest of the forest plantations was

  7. Epidemiological analysis of structural alterations of the nasal cavity associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhitarian Neto, Levon; Fava, Antonio Sérgio; Lopes, Hugo Canhete; Stamm, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that structural alterations of the nasal cavity, e.g. septal deviation and conchal hypertrophy have high incidence in patients with sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome and must be addressed with associated specific procedures of the syndrome. Clinical retrospective. A retrospective study of 200 patients was performed, with 196 male and 4 female, attended at the otorhinolaryngology ambulatory of Hospital Prof. Edmundo Vasconcelos and Unidade Paulista de Otorrinolaringologia, all of them subjected to polysomnography, otorhinolaryngological physical exam, endoscopy exam, and surgical treatment with nasal and pharyngeal procedures. All of them were subjected to pharyngeal procedure: uvulopalatopharyngoplasty or uvulopalatoplasty and nose procedure: 176 septoplasty with partial turbinectomy (88%) and 24 isolated turbinectomy, with satisfactory results. We can see that structural alterations of the nasal cavity have high incidence in patients with OSA.

  8. PifC and Osa, Plasmid Weapons against Rival Conjugative Coupling Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getino, María; Palencia-Gándara, Carolina; Garcillán-Barcia, M. Pilar; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria display a variety of mechanisms to control plasmid conjugation. Among them, fertility inhibition (FI) systems prevent conjugation of co-resident plasmids within donor cells. Analysis of the mechanisms of inhibition between conjugative plasmids could provide new alternatives to fight antibiotic resistance dissemination. In this work, inhibition of conjugation of broad host range IncW plasmids was analyzed in the presence of a set of co-resident plasmids. Strong FI systems against plasmid R388 conjugation were found in IncF/MOBF12 as well as in IncI/MOBP12 plasmids, represented by plasmids F and R64, respectively. In both cases, the responsible gene was pifC, known also to be involved in FI of IncP plasmids and Agrobacterium T-DNA transfer to plant cells. It was also discovered that the R388 gene osa, which affects T-DNA transfer, also prevented conjugation of IncP-1/MOBP11 plasmids represented by plasmids RP4 and R751. Conjugation experiments of different mobilizable plasmids, helped by either FI-susceptible or FI-resistant transfer systems, demonstrated that the conjugative component affected by both PifC and Osa was the type IV conjugative coupling protein. In addition, in silico analysis of FI proteins suggests that they represent recent acquisitions of conjugative plasmids, i.e., are not shared by members of the same plasmid species. This implies that FI are rapidly-moving accessory genes, possibly acting on evolutionary fights between plasmids for the colonization of specific hosts. PMID:29201021

  9. Functional MRI of the pharynx in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with rapid 2-D flash sequences; Funktionelle MRT des Pharynx bei obstruktiver Schlafapnoe (OSA) mit schnellen 2D-FLASH-Sequenzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, L. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Guenther, E. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Gauger, J. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Nitz, W. [Siemens Medizintechnik, Erlangen (Germany); Kastenbauer, E. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenkranke, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Reiser, M. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    Functional imaging of the pharynx used to be the domain of cineradiography, CT and ultrafast CT. The development of modern MRI techniques led to new access to functional disorders of the pharynx. The aim of this study was to implement a new MRI technique to examine oropharyngeal obstructive mechanisms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sixteen patients suffering from OSA and 6 healthy volunteers were examined on a 1.5 T whole-body imager (`Vision`, Siemens, Erlangen Medical Engineering, Germany) using a circular polarized head coil. Imaging was performed with 2D flash sequences in midsagittal and axial planes. Patients and volunteers were asked to breathe normally through the nose and to simulate snoring and the Mueller maneuver during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to MRI, all patients underwent an ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, functional fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy and polysomnography. A temporal resolution of 6 images/s and an in-plane resolution of 2.67x1.8 mm were achieved. The mobility of the tongue, soft palate and pharyngeal surface could be clearly delineated. The MRI findings correlated well with the clinical examinations. We propose ultrafast MRI as a reliable and non-invasive method of evaluating pharyngeal obstruction and their levels. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die funktionelle Bildgebung des Pharynx war bisher eine Domaene der Hochfrequenzroentgenkinematographie, der Computertomographie (CT) und der ultraschnellen Computertomographie. Die Entwicklung moderner Techniken in der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) fuehrte zu neuen Ansaetzen in der Diagnostik pharyngealer Dysfunktionen. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Implementierung neuer schneller MR-Sequenzen, um Verschlussmechanismen entlang des Pharnyxschlauches bei Patienten mit obstruktiver Schlafapnoe (OSA) zu untersuchen. 16 Patienten mit OSA und 6 gesunde Probanden wurden an einem 1,5-T-Ganzkoerpermagnetresonanztomographen (`Vision`, Siemens Medizintechnik, Erlangen

  10. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  11. Detection of Secondary Causes and Coexisting Diseases in Hypertensive Patients: OSA and PA Are the Common Causes Associated with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the control rate of blood pressure is lower in mainland China, the aim of this study is to investigate the proportion of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension in hypertensive patients. Methods. Data on consecutive patients with hypertension who visited the Hypertension Center. Diseases were detected using an established strict screening protocol. Results. Detection rate of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension was 39.5% among 3003 hypertensive patients. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA was the most common, accounting for 24.7% of patients, followed by primary aldosteronism (PA (5.8% and PA + OSA (4.9%. Endocrine hypertension accounted for 12.1% of patients, including 10.7% of patients with PA, 1.1% with hypothyroidism, 0.1% with pheochromocytoma, 0.1% with Cushing’s syndrome, and 0.1% with hyperthyroidism, respectively. Those who smoke, those who are obese, and those who have diabetes accounted for 31.3%, 27.5%, and 16.6% of total patients, respectively. There were overlapping conditions in secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension. OSA was the most common in each age- and BMI-stratified group. Conclusion. Findings from the current study suggest an increasing frequency of secondary forms of hypertension, highlighting the burden of OSA and PA in hypertensive patients.

  12. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  13. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  14. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  15. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 avril 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2016. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2016. Programme de travail 2017. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2017 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2018. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposées. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. Élections des vérifica...

  16. Moderate sleep restriction in treated older male OSA participants: greater impairment during monotonous driving compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filtness, Ashleigh J; Reyner, Louise A; Horne, James A

    2011-10-01

    To examine the effects on monotonous driving of normal sleep versus one night of sleep restriction in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treated obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients compared with age matched healthy controls. Nineteen CPAP treated compliant male OSA patients (OSA-treated patients (OPs)), aged 50-75 years, and 20 healthy age-matched controls underwent both a normal night's sleep and sleep restriction to 5h (OPs remained on CPAP) in a counterbalanced design. All participants completed a 2h afternoon monotonous drive in a realistic car simulator. Driving was monitored for sleepiness-related minor and major lane deviations, with 'safe' driving time being total time driven prior to first major lane deviation. EEGs were recorded continuously, and subjective sleepiness ratings were taken at regular intervals throughout the drive. After a normal night's sleep, OPs and controls did not differ in terms of driving performance or in their ability to assess the levels of their own sleepiness, with both groups driving 'safely' for approximately 90 min. However, after sleep restriction, OPs had a significantly shorter (65 min) safe driving time and had to apply more compensatory effort to maintain their alertness compared with controls. They also underestimated the enhanced sleepiness. Nevertheless, apart from this caveat, there were generally close associations between subjective sleepiness, likelihood of a major lane deviation and EEG changes indicative of sleepiness. With a normal night's sleep, effectively treated older men with OSA drive as safely as healthy men of the same age. However, after restricted sleep, driving impairment is worse than that of controls. This suggests that, although successful CPAP treatment can alleviate potential detrimental effects of OSA on monotonous driving following normal sleep, these patients remain more vulnerable to sleep restriction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and depression and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sherbini AM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Amr Makram El-Sherbini1, Adel Salah Bediwy2, Ashraf El-Mitwalli31Department of Psychiatry, Elminia University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Elminia, 2Chest Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, 3Department of Neurology, Mansoura School of Medicine, University of Mansoura, Mansoura, EgyptBackground: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a relatively common disorder which has a negative impact on the psychological well-being of affected individuals.Objective: To assess the association between OSA and depression as well as the effect of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP.Methods: A total of 37 newly diagnosed individuals with OSA underwent an overnight polysomnography and were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS, and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Patients were assessed before and after 2 months of CPAP use.Results: Of the 37 patients included in the study, 21 (56.7% had clinically relevant depression as indicated by a score >10 on the HDRS and eleven patients (29.7% met the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode using the Structured Clinical Interview. Scores on the HDRS were correlated with the Apnea Hypoxia Index, ESS scores, and oxygen saturation. Patients showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and improvement in ESS scores after CPAP treatment.Conclusion: Patients with OSA should be screened carefully for depressive disorders. CPAP should be tried first before starting other treatment modalities for depression.Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, depression in OSA, CPAP and depression

  18. 6A3-5/Osa2 is an Early Activated Gene Implicated in the Control of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenaele Garin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC growth plays a key role in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling gene transcription in VSMC remain poorly understood. We previously identified, by differential display, a new gene (6A3-5 overexpressed in proliferating rat VSMC. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA by screening a rat foetal brain cDNA library and investigated its functions. The 6A3-5 protein shows 4 putative conserved functional motifs: a DNA binding domain called ARID (AT-rich interaction domain, two recently described motifs (Osa Homology Domain, and a nuclear localization signal. The deduced protein sequence was observed to be 85% identical to the recently described human Osa2 gene. Immunolabelling, using an anti-6A3-5/Osa2 monoclonal antibody, showed a nuclear localization of the 6A3-5/Osa2 protein. In addition, PDGF upregulated 6A3-5/Osa2 expression at both the transcript and protein levels in a dose and time-dependent fashion. The pattern of upregulation by PDGF was reminiscent of the early responsive gene c-fos. The PDGF-induced upregulation of 6A3-5/Osa2 and proliferation of VSMC were significantly inhibited in a dose and sequence-dependent fashion by an antisense, but not by sense, scrambled or mismatched oligonucleotides directed against 6A3-5/Osa2. In VSMC of aortas derived from hypertensive (LH rats, 6A3-5/Osa2 is overexpressed as compared to that in normotensive (LL rats. The 6A3-5/Osa2-gene expression is downregulated by an ACE inhibitor and upregulated by exogenous AngiotensinII in LH rats. In summary, these results indicate that 6A3-5/Osa2 is an early activated gene that belongs to a new family of proteins involved in the control of VSMC growth.

  19. Effect of anisotropic scattering in neutronics analysis of BWR assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0571 (Japan)]. E-mail: takeda@nucl.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Okamoto, Toshiki [Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0571 (Japan); Inoue, Akira [Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0571 (Japan); Kosaka, Shinya [TEPCO Systems Corporation, 2-37-28 Eitai, Koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-0034 (Japan); Ikeda, Hideaki [TEPCO Systems Corporation, 2-37-28 Eitai, Koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-0034 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    The anisotropic scattering effect to keff is studied for UO{sub 2} and MOX fueled BWR assemblies. The anisotropic scattering effect increases the assembly k {sub {infinity}} by 0.44% {delta}k for the UO{sub 2} assembly with 0% void fraction, and by 0.21% {delta}k for the MOX assembly with 0% void fraction. This is because the anisotropic scattering effect flattens the intra-assembly thermal flux, and the absorption rate in the surrounding water gap is decreased, but the absorption rates in the MOX fuel rods are increased compared to the UO{sub 2} rods. Therefore, the total decrease in absorption rates in the UO{sub 2} assembly is relatively large, and the k {sub {infinity}} is increased in the UO{sub 2} assembly. The dependence of the anisotropic scattering effect on the void fraction is investigated, and the significant difference of 0.62% {delta}k/k is found for the 0% and the 80% void fractions. The BWR assemblies with Gd rods are also considered. Furthermore, the usefulness of the transport cross section is investigated, and it is found that the transport cross section gives reasonable anisotropic scattering effect, though not satisfactory.

  20. Classification of assembly techniques for micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido; Gegeckaite, Asta

    2005-01-01

    Industrial production of micro products to be introduced in the market has to be reliable, fast, carried out at a reasonable price and in an acceptable quantity. One of the crucial steps in the process chain related to micro product manufacture is the assembly phase. Here components are handled...... and assembled into sub-assemblies or final products. Because of the small size these processes are complex and often difficult to automate. It is therefore important to take into account the possible challenges of assembly already in the product development stage, because here the decisions regarding number...... of components and level of integration are made. This paper describes a systematic characterization of micro assembly methods. This methodology offers the opportunity of a cross comparison among different techniques to gain a choosing principle of the favourable micro assembly technology in a specific case...

  1. Desenvolvimento dos frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense LAM, em Viçosa-MG Lulo (Solanum quitoense LAM fruits development in Viçosa - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Monteiro Matarazzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O lulo é um fruto tropical e exótico, originário dos Andes, tem cor laranja quando maduro, e é uma baga globosa, assemelha- se a um tomate, o epicarpo é grosso e coriáceo, sua polpa é verde-clara, pegajosa, ácida e suculenta, contendo muitas sementes. Objetivou-se acompanhar as características físicas, químicas e fisiológicas ocorridas durante o desenvolvimento do fruto de lulo, da antese ao amadurecimento completo, em Viçosa-MG. Os frutos apresentaram um padrão de crescimento sigmoidal simples em resposta à variação do tempo. O desenvolvimento do fruto foi dividido em três fases. A primeira foi até os 7,39 dias após a antese (DAA, sendo caracterizada pela alta taxa respiratória, provavelmente devido à intensa multiplicação celular, e o pericarpo apresentava coloração verde-clara. A segunda fase estendeu-se a partir dos 7,39 até os 57,63 DAA, sendo caracterizada pelas taxas máximas das características estudadas. A taxa respiratória cresceu até 45 DAA, mantendo-se estável até os 52 DAA. A última fase estendeu-se a partir dos 57,63 DAA até os 95,00 DAA. Essa fase foi caracterizada pela estabilização nas dimensões e no acúmulo de massa fresca. Nesse período, ocorreu a ascensão climatérica (dos 52 aos 59 DAA. O climatério respiratório ocorreu aos 66 DAA, com pico de produção de CO2 de 110,99 mg de CO2 kg-1h-1. O pós-climatério ocorreu dos 73 aos 95 DAA, quando houve aumento no teor de sólidos solúveis e queda da acidez titulável e vitamina C da polpa. Nessa fase, o pericarpo dos frutos apresentava-se com coloração alaranjada.The lulo is a tropical and exotic fruit, originating in the Andes is orange when ripe, and is a globose berry, resembling a tomato, the epicarp is thick and leathery, its pulp is light green, sticky, sour and juicy, containing many seeds. The objective of this study was to monitor the physical, chemical and physiological characteristic changes occurring during lulo fruit

  2. Impact of CPAP on activity patterns and diet in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Goodwin, James L; Drescher, Amy A; Baldwin, Carol M; Simon, Richard D; Smith, Terry W; Quan, Stuart F

    2014-05-15

    Patients with severe OSA consume greater amounts of cholesterol, protein, and fat as well as have greater caloric expenditure. However, it is not known whether their activity levels or diet change after treatment with CPAP. To investigate this issue, serial assessments of activity and dietary intake were performed in the Apnea Positive Pressure Long-term Efficacy Study (APPLES); a 6-month randomized controlled study of CPAP vs. sham CPAP on neurocognitive outcomes. Subjects were recruited into APPLES at 5 sites through clinic encounters or public advertisement. After undergoing a diagnostic polysomnogram, subjects were randomized to CPAP or sham if their AHI was ≥ 10. Adherence was assessed using data cards from the devices. At the Tucson and Walla Walla sites, subjects were asked to complete validated activity and food frequency questionnaires at baseline and their 4-month visit. Activity and diet data were available at baseline and after 4 months treatment with CPAP or sham in up to 231 subjects (117 CPAP, 114 Sham). Mean age, AHI, BMI, and Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS) for this cohort were 55 ± 13 [SD] years, 44 ± 27 /h, 33 ± 7.8 kg/m(2), and 10 ± 4, respectively. The participants lacking activity and diet data were younger, had lower AHI and arousal index, and had better sleep efficiency (p < 0.05). The BMI was higher among women in both CPAP and Sham groups. However, compared to women, men had higher AHI only in the CPAP group (50 vs. 34). Similarly, the arousal index was higher among men in CPAP group. Level of adherence defined as hours of device usage per night at 4 months was significantly higher among men in CPAP group (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.6 ± 2.6). No changes in consumption of total calories, protein, carbohydrate or fat were noted after 4 months. Except for a modest increase in recreational activity in women (268 ± 85 vs. 170 ± 47 calories, p < 0.05), there also were no changes in activity patterns. Except for a modest increase in recreational

  3. Effect of Telemedicine Education and Telemonitoring on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence. The Tele-OSA Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dennis; Chang, Jeremiah W; Benjafield, Adam V; Crocker, Maureen E; Kelly, Colleen; Becker, Kendra A; Kim, Joseph B; Woodrum, Rosa R; Liang, Joanne; Derose, Stephen F

    2018-01-01

    Automated telemedicine interventions could potentially improve adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Examining the effects of telemedicine-delivered obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) education and CPAP telemonitoring with automated patient feedback messaging on CPAP adherence. This four-arm, randomized, factorial design clinical trial enrolled 1,455 patients (51.0% women; age, 49.1 ± 12.5 yr [mean ± SD]) referred for suspected OSA. Nine hundred and fifty-six underwent home sleep apnea testing, and 556 were prescribed CPAP. Two telemedicine interventions were implemented: 1) web-based OSA education (Tel-Ed) and 2) CPAP telemonitoring with automated patient feedback (Tel-TM). Patients were randomized to 1) usual care, 2) Tel-Ed added, 3) Tel-TM added, or 4) Tel-Ed and Tel-TM added (Tel-both). The primary endpoint was 90-day CPAP usage. Secondary endpoints included attendance to OSA evaluation, and change in Epworth Sleepiness Scale score. CPAP average daily use at 90 days was 3.8 ± 2.5, 4.0 ± 2.4, 4.4 ± 2.2, and 4.8 ± 2.3 hours in usual care, Tel-Ed, Tel-TM, and Tel-both groups. Usage was significantly higher in the Tel-TM and Tel-both groups versus usual care (P = 0.0002 for both) but not for Tel-Ed (P = 0.10). Medicare adherence rates were 53.5, 61.0, 65.6, and 73.2% in usual care, Tel-Ed, Tel-TM, and Tel-both groups (Tel-both vs. usual care, P = 0.001; Tel-TM vs. usual care, P = 0.003; Tel-Ed vs. usual care, P = 0.07), respectively. Telemedicine education improved clinic attendance compared with no telemedicine education (show rate, 68.5 vs. 62.7%; P = 0.02). The use of CPAP telemonitoring with automated feedback messaging improved 90-day adherence in patients with OSA. Telemedicine-based education did not significantly improve CPAP adherence but did increase clinic attendance for OSA evaluation. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02279901).

  4. Heart rate recovery post 6-minute walking test in obstructive sleep apnea: cycle ergometry versus 6-minute walking test in OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholidou, Kyriaki G; Manali, Effrosyni D; Kapsimalis, Fotis; Kostakis, Ioannis D; Vougas, Konstantinos; Simoes, Davina; Markozannes, Evaggelos; Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Bakakos, Petros; Koulouris, Nikolaos; Alchanatis, Manos

    2014-10-01

    To examine the clinical usefulness of heart rate recovery (HRR) post 6-minute walking test (6MWT) as a simple marker of cardiovascular risk in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients in comparison to HRR post cycle ergometry, the validated and more sophisticated protocol. Seventy-four participants underwent full overnight polysomnography, cycle ergometry and 6MWT. The HRR at 1, 2 and 3 min (HRR-1, HRR-2 and HRR-3) 6MWT was compared to HRR at 1, 2, and 3 min post cycle ergometry in normal subjects and in moderate and severe OSA patients before and after 6-month CPAP treatment. The HRR-1, HRR-2 and HRR-3 in 6MWT were significantly different between normal, moderate and severe OSA patients with higher rates achieved in normal. The higher the severity of OSA the lower the HRR was. There were also no differences found between work rate and distance walked during cycle ergometry or 6MWT, respectively, concerning normal, moderate and severe OSA patients. Heart rate recovery was further associated with minimum saturation of oxygen during sleep independently of the duration of apnea episodes of BMI and ESS. The treatment with CPAP had a beneficial effect on HRR both post-6MWT and post cycle ergometry. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in OSA can be found even with submaximal exertion. Heart rate recovery post-6MWT, such as HRR post cycle ergometry, was significantly impaired in OSA patients in comparison to normals and was favorably influenced from CPAP treatment. Furthermore, it was found to be more sensitive compared with distance walked in 6MWT in discriminating severity of OSA. The HRR post-6MWT was found to be an easily measured and reliable marker of OSA severity both before and after CPAP treatment.

  5. Quantifying the dynamic of OSA brain using multifractal formalism: A novel measure for sleep fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiesdana, Somayeh

    2017-01-01

    It is thought that the critical brain dynamics in sleep is modulated during frequent periods of wakefulness. This paper utilizes the capacity of EEG based scaling analysis to quantify sleep fragmentation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The scale-free (fractal) behavior refers to a state where no characteristic scale dominates the dynamics of the underlying process which is evident as long range correlations in a time series. Here, Multiscaling (multifractal) spectrum is utilized to quantify the disturbed dynamic of an OSA brain with fragmented sleep. The whole night multichannel sleep EEG recordings of 18 subjects were employed to compute and quantify variable power-law long-range correlations and singularity spectra. Based on this characteristic, a new marker for sleep fragmentation named ``scaling based sleep fragmentation'' was introduced. This measure takes into account the sleep run length and stage transition quality within a fuzzy inference system to improve decisions made on sleep fragmentation. The proposed index was implemented, validated with sleepiness parameters and compared to some common indexes including sleep fragmentation index, arousal index, sleep diversity index, and sleep efficiency index. Correlations were almost significant suggesting that the sleep characterizing measure, based on singularity spectra range, could properly detect fragmentations and quantify their rate. This method can be an alternative for quantifying the sleep fragmentation in clinical practice after being approved experimentally. Control of sleep fragmentation and, subsequently, suppression of excessive daytime sleepiness will be a promising outlook of this kind of researches.

  6. The predictive value of drug-induced sleep endoscopy for CPAP titration in OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ming-Chin; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Lan, Ming-Ying; Huang, Yun-Chen; Kao, Ming-Chang; Huang, Tung-Tsun; Chiu, Tsan-Jen; Yang, Mei-Chen

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to identify possible upper airway obstructions causing a higher continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration level, utilizing drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). A total of 76 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) underwent CPAP titration and DISE. DISE findings were recorded using the VOTE classification system. Polysomnographic (PSG) data, anthropometric variables, and patterns of airway collapse during DISE were analyzed with CPAP titration levels. A significant association was found between the CPAP titration level and BMI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and neck circumference (NC) (P titration level (P titration level and any other collapse at the tongue base or epiglottis. By analyzing PSG data, anthropometric variables, and DISE results with CPAP titration levels, we can better understand possible mechanisms resulting in a higher CPAP titration level. We believe that the role of DISE can be expanded as a tool to identify the possible anatomical structures that may be corrected by oral appliance therapy or surgical intervention to improve CPAP compliance.

  7. Good and poor sleepers among OSA patients: sleep quality and overnight polysomnography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusic Kalcina, Linda; Valic, Maja; Pecotic, Renata; Pavlinac Dodig, Ivana; Dogas, Zoran

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies aimed to determine if Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) is a valid screening instrument for obstructive sleep apnea, indicating its disadvantages. However, the rationale of PSQI use in sleep clinics is not the screening, but the assessment of sleep quality itself. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the sleep quality in obstructive sleep apnea patients and to identify the cutoff point for differentiation of "good" and "poor" sleepers among them. We constructed the Croatian version of PSQI and assessed its psychometric properties. The protocol of the study included the assessment of sleep quality in 130 obstructive sleep apnea patients and 75 healthy control subjects. All subjects completed the Croatian version of the PSQI, and the patients underwent overnight polysomnography screening. Obstructive sleep apnea patients had higher values of the global PSQI component score, indicating lower sleep quality, compared to a healthy control group (p good and poor sleepers significantly in total sleep time, REM duration, time spent awake during sleep, and WASO time. Current findings enhance the interpretability of PSQI results in a population of OSA patients.

  8. Improved photovoltaic efficiency on TiO{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3} double layered electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A-Young; Senthil, T.S.; Kwak, Byeong Sub; Kang, Misook, E-mail: mskang@ynu.ac.kr

    2015-01-15

    To enhance the photovoltaic efficiency of TiO{sub 2} multilayer, a scattering layer of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} particle is designed in dye-sensitized solar cell system. The SEM image of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} powder shows micro-sized 3D chrysanthemum-like shapes are formed by aggregation of wedge like nanosheets. The efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells assembled with In{sub 2}S{sub 3} scattering layer is higher than the DSSC assembled with double layered TiO{sub 2} electrode. The short-circuit current density increases approximately 21.65% over TiO{sub 2}/1.0 wt.% In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSC and the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency in the maximum peak also enhances about 17% compared to the DSSC assembled with double layered TiO{sub 2} electrode. Eventually, the maximum conversion efficiency obtained for TiO{sub 2}/1.0 wt.% In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSC is 5.80%. This result indicates that the double layered TiO{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3} electrode acts as a scattering layer of incident light path and that an increasing array of current density is obtained with more photons, which thus improves the quantum efficiency. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} powder showed micro-sized 3D chrysanthemum-like shape. • In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSCs exhibited the higher efficiencies than on the double layered TiO{sub 2}-DSSC. • The efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/1.0 wt.% In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSC was approximately 5.80%. • TiO{sub 2}/1.0 wt.% In{sub 2}S{sub 3}-DSSC showed the slower recombination time than TiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}-DSSC. • Electrons donated from dye-LUMO easily transferred to the conduction band of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}.

  9. [Guidelines for the fitness to drive assessment in people with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and narcolepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, S; Bonanni, E; Ingravallo, F; Mondini, S; Plazzi, G; Sanna, A

    2011-01-01

    Given the prevalence of sleep disorders and sleep deprivation in modern societies, and the correlation between sleepiness and work and driving accidents, the excessive daytime sleepiness is an important issue. Although many studies showed that patients with untreated Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and narcolepsy have an higher risk for driving accidents, neither the European Community regulation nor the Italian law of the driving licence mention restrictions for these disorders. In 2010 the scientific association COMLAS (Association of legal medicine professionals of the Italian National Health Service) published the Guidelines for the examination by the Local Medical Commissions. The author presented the guidelines to assess the fitness to drive of people with OSAS or narcolepsy. The proposed criteria, set up in collaboration with the Commission "Sleepiness, Safety and Transportation" of the Italian Association of Sleep Medicine (AIMS), can be considered among the most advanced internationally.

  10. Mechanism of superconductivity in Yb sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 8 Sr sub O sub . sub 2) sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 6 sub + subdelta

    CERN Document Server

    Anvekar, T S; Sarode, P R; Kamat-Dalal, V N; Narlikar, Anant V

    2002-01-01

    EXAFS, X-ray Rietveld refinement and infra-red absorption measurements have been made on Yb sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x (Ba sub 0 sub . sub 8 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 2) sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 6 sub + subdelta in order to understand the effect of Ca doping on the local structure of planar Cu ion. The study indicates that restoration of superconductivity is due to oxidation of copper ions in the CuO sub 2 planes. (author)

  11. The efficacy of a brief motivational enhancement education program on CPAP adherence in OSA: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Agnes Y K; Fong, Daniel Y T; Lam, Jamie C M; Weaver, Terri E; Ip, Mary S M

    2014-09-01

    Poor adherence to CPAP treatment in OSA adversely affects the effectiveness of this therapy. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the efficacy of a brief motivational enhancement education program in improving adherence to CPAP treatment in subjects with OSA. Subjects with newly diagnosed OSA were recruited into this RCT. The control group received usual advice on the importance of CPAP therapy and its care. The intervention group received usual care plus a brief motivational enhancement education program directed at enhancing the subjects' knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy to use CPAP through the use of a 25-min video, a 20-min patient-centered interview, and a 10-min telephone follow-up. Self-reported daytime sleepiness adherence-related cognitions and quality of life were assessed at 1 month and 3 months. CPAP usage data were downloaded at the completion of this 3-month study. One hundred subjects with OSA (mean ± SD, age 52 ± 10 years; Epworth Sleepiness Scales [ESS], 9 ± 5; median [interquartile range] apnea-hypopnea index, 29 [20, 53] events/h) prescribed CPAP treatment were recruited. The intervention group had better CPAP use (higher daily CPAP usage by 2 h/d [Cohen d = 1.33, P CPAP for ≥ 70% of days with ≥ 4 h/d [P motivational enhancement education in addition to usual care were more likely to show better adherence to CPAP treatment, with greater improvements in treatment self-efficacy and daytime sleepiness. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01173406; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  12. The effectiveness of different mandibular advancement amounts in OSA patients: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Maria Lavinia; Bortolotti, Francesco; Raffaelli, Eugenia; D'Antò, Vincenzo; Michelotti, Ambra; Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    The therapy with mandibular advancement devices (MADs) represents a treatment option for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The literature does not provide evidence regarding the most effective mandibular advancement; therefore, the aim of this systematic review with meta-regression was to investigate the effectiveness of different mandibular advancement amounts in reducing apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in OSA patients. An electronic search was performed in MEDLINE, Cochrane Database, Google Scholar Beta, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and LILACS to select randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of MADs in reducing AHI in adult OSA patients. Inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of OSA and success evaluation performed with a polysomnography, follow-up of maximum 12 months, and protrusion amount reported as a percentage of the maximum mandibular advancement. The quality of evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. The success rate of each study was computed: [(mean AHI at baseline-mean AHI after treatment)/mean AHI at baseline]. Thirteen RCTs performing advancements from 50 to 89 % of maximum mandibular protrusion were included. The meta-regression analysis showed that advancement amounts higher than 50 % do not significantly influence the success rate (Q = 0.373, p = 0.541). According to the GRADE score system, the quality of evidence resulted to be moderate. The AHI improvement resulted to be not proportional to the mandibular advancement increase. It is plausible that the success of the therapy is influenced by a combination of variables that need closer study.

  13. Elevated upper body position improves pregnancy-related OSA without impairing sleep quality or sleep architecture early after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Sebastian; Mueller, Noomi; Heisig, Anne M; Shin, Christina H; Jung, Stefanie; Leffert, Lisa R; Bateman, Brian T; Pugsley, Lori J; Nagasaka, Yasuko; Duarte, Ingrid Moreno; Ecker, Jeffrey L; Eikermann, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    During pregnancy, upper airway resistance is increased, predisposing vulnerable women to pregnancy-related OSA. Elevation of the upper body increases upper airway cross-sectional area (CSA) and improves severity of OSA in a subgroup of nonpregnant patients (positional-dependent sleep apnea). We tested the hypothesis that elevated position of the upper body improves OSA early after delivery. Following institutional review board approval, we conducted a randomized, crossover study on two postpartum units of Massachusetts General Hospital. Women during the first 48 h after delivery were included. Polysomnography was performed in nonelevated and 45° elevated upper body position. Upper airway CSA was measured by acoustic pharyngometry in nonelevated, 45° elevated, and sitting body position. Fifty-five patients were enrolled, and measurements of airway CSA obtained. Thirty patients completed polysomnography in both body positions. Elevation of the upper body significantly reduced apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) from 7.7 ± 2.2/h in nonelevated to 4.5 ± 1.4/h in 45° elevated upper body position (P = .031) during sleep. Moderate to severe OSA (AHI > 15/h) was diagnosed in 20% of postpartum patients and successfully treated by elevated body position in one-half of them. Total sleep time and sleep architecture were not affected by upper body elevation. Change from nonelevated to sitting position increased inspiratory upper airway CSA from 1.35 ± 0.1 cm2 to 1.54 ± 0.1 cm2 during wakefulness. Position-dependent increase in CSA and decrease in AHI were correlated (r = 0.42, P = .022). Among early postpartum women, 45° upper body elevation increased upper airway CSA and mitigated sleep apnea. Elevated body position might improve respiratory safety in women early after delivery. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01719224; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  14. Characterization of a tooth microphone coupled to an oral appliance device: A new system for monitoring OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Yolanda; Blanco-Almazan, Dolores; Whitney, James; Mersky, Barry; Jane, Raimon

    2017-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent chronic disease, especially in elderly and obese populations. Despite constituting a serious health, social and economic problem, most patients remain undiagnosed and untreated due to limitations in current equipment. In this work, we propose a novel method to diagnose OSA and monitor therapy adherence and effectiveness at home in a non-invasive and inexpensive way: combining acoustic analysis of breathing and snoring sounds with oral appliance therapy (OA). Audiodontics has introduced a new sensor, a tooth microphone coupled to an OA device, which is the main pillar of this system. The objective of this work is to characterize the response of this sensor, comparing it with a commercial tracheal microphone (Biopac transducer). Signals containing OSA-related sounds were acquired simultaneously with the two microphones for that purpose. They were processed and analyzed in time, frequency and time-frequency domains, in a custom MATLAB interface. We carried out a single-event approach focused on breaths, snores and apnea episodes. We found that the quality of the signals obtained by both microphones was quite similar, although the tooth microphone spectrum concentrated more energy at the high-frequency band. This opens a new field of study about high-frequency components of snores and breathing sounds. These characteristics, together with its intraoral position, wireless option and combination with customizable OAs, give the tooth microphone a great potential to reduce the impact of sleep disorders, by enabling prompt detection and continuous monitoring of patients at home.

  15. Volumetric analysis of the pharynx in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treated with maxillomandibular advancement (MMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Ana Célia; da Silva-Junior, Savio Nogueira; Garcia, Luis Vicente; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Fernandes, Maria Regina França; de Mello-Filho, Francisco Veríssimo

    2013-03-01

    Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) has been reported to be the most effective surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Most reports about MMA aim to confirm the efficiency of this treatment modality, but few describe the anatomical changes produced in the pharynx by the surgery. Thus, the objective of the present investigation was to quantify the anatomical changes of the pharynx that occur in patients with OSA after MMA surgery using magnetic resonance (MR). Twenty patients with a polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA participated in the study. All patients were submitted to image acquisition by MR performed during wakefulness. Polysomnography and MR were performed preoperatively and 6 months after MMA. Volume analysis (in cubic millimeters) was performed as the sum of the areas multiplied by their thickness, with no intervals between sections. The pharyngeal air space of the region between the hard palate and the base of the epiglottis was divided into a retropalatal (RP) region and a retrolingual (RL) region. Postoperative MR showed a mean volumetric increase of 26.72 % in the RP region and of 27.2 % in the RL region. MMA increases the air space of the pharynx by expanding the facial skeletal structure to which the soft tissues of the pharynx and tongue are fixed, with a consequent reduction of collapsibility in the presence of negative pressure during inspiration. This reduced possibility of pharyngeal collapse may contribute to the reduction of obstructive events.

  16. SEA LEVEL RISE AND ITS POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON COASTAL URBAN AREA: A CASE OF ETI-OSA, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Michael AGBOOLA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial extent of coastal urban development and its potential sensitivity to sea-level rise. The main aim of the study is to critically examine the extent of growth in Eti-Osa over time, and the potential impacts of sea leve rise. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ imageries of years 2000 and 2015 were used to evaluate the different land use type identified. Post-classification change detection method was used to evaluate the output of the maximum likelihood supervised classification analysis done. This was also used to estimate the changes induces through urban development on the environment which accounts for the biodiversity loss. ASTER GDEM 2 imagery of 2011 was used to generate the elevation data used for the inundation analysis. Thus, both Land use map of Eti-Osa in 2015 and the down scaled Sea-level rise scenarios (at 0.5 to 15 meters were used for the inundation mapping. Results obtained from this research affirms that indeed EtiOsa has been subjected to gross urban expansion giving room for diverse forms of environmental degradation among which are huge replacement of natural land cover with built-up, reclamation of wetlands and sand filling of water bodies. This basically illustrates growth but also the risk that accompanies the advent of excessive alteration of natural ecosystem as Sea-level rise projections imply in this research.

  17. Microencapsulation of white champaca (Michelia alba D.C.) extract using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch for controlled release aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samakradhamrongthai, Rajnibhas; Thakeow, Prodpran; Kopermsub, Phikunthong; Utama-Ang, Niramon

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the study was to optimise the encapsulation of Michelia alba D.C. (MAD) extract using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch. The MAD extract (5-10 g/100 g of dry starch) and the OSA starch (25-100 g/100 ml of water) was used in microcapsule preparation and analysed for the physicochemical and encapsulation properties. The optimised formula using the MAD extract and the OSA starch were 15.00 g/100 g of dry starch and 96.32 g/100 g water, which provided the highest in yield recovery (40.65% ± 0.99) and encapsulation efficiency (68.91% ± 1.50), with the lowest moisture content (3.19% ± 0.06) and water activity (0.236 ± 0.004). The aroma release from the optimum encapsulated powder in simulated artificial saliva fluid (SSF) suggested that linalool retention in microcapsules was higher than verbenone and 2-methyl butanoic acid. This study shows that the optimised formulation of MAD encapsulated flavour powder was found to be effective for controlling the aroma release.

  18. Bos taurus genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Qin, Xiang; Song, Xing-Zhi Henry; Jiang, Huaiyang; Shen, Yufeng; Durbin, K James; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew Peter; Sodeland, Marte; Ren, Yanru; Zhang, Lan; Sodergren, Erica; Havlak, Paul; Worley, Kim C; Weinstock, George M; Gibbs, Richard A

    2009-04-24

    We present here the assembly of the bovine genome. The assembly method combines the BAC plus WGS local assembly used for the rat and sea urchin with the whole genome shotgun (WGS) only assembly used for many other animal genomes including the rhesus macaque. The assembly process consisted of multiple phases: First, BACs were assembled with BAC generated sequence, then subsequently in combination with the individual overlapping WGS reads. Different assembly parameters were tested to separately optimize the performance for each BAC assembly of the BAC and WGS reads. In parallel, a second assembly was produced using only the WGS sequences and a global whole genome assembly method. The two assemblies were combined to create a more complete genome representation that retained the high quality BAC-based local assembly information, but with gaps between BACs filled in with the WGS-only assembly. Finally, the entire assembly was placed on chromosomes using the available map information.Over 90% of the assembly is now placed on chromosomes. The estimated genome size is 2.87 Gb which represents a high degree of completeness, with 95% of the available EST sequences found in assembled contigs. The quality of the assembly was evaluated by comparison to 73 finished BACs, where the draft assembly covers between 92.5 and 100% (average 98.5%) of the finished BACs. The assembly contigs and scaffolds align linearly to the finished BACs, suggesting that misassemblies are rare. Genotyping and genetic mapping of 17,482 SNPs revealed that more than 99.2% were correctly positioned within the Btau_4.0 assembly, confirming the accuracy of the assembly. The biological analysis of this bovine genome assembly is being published, and the sequence data is available to support future bovine research.

  19. Bos taurus genome assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodergren Erica

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present here the assembly of the bovine genome. The assembly method combines the BAC plus WGS local assembly used for the rat and sea urchin with the whole genome shotgun (WGS only assembly used for many other animal genomes including the rhesus macaque. Results The assembly process consisted of multiple phases: First, BACs were assembled with BAC generated sequence, then subsequently in combination with the individual overlapping WGS reads. Different assembly parameters were tested to separately optimize the performance for each BAC assembly of the BAC and WGS reads. In parallel, a second assembly was produced using only the WGS sequences and a global whole genome assembly method. The two assemblies were combined to create a more complete genome representation that retained the high quality BAC-based local assembly information, but with gaps between BACs filled in with the WGS-only assembly. Finally, the entire assembly was placed on chromosomes using the available map information. Over 90% of the assembly is now placed on chromosomes. The estimated genome size is 2.87 Gb which represents a high degree of completeness, with 95% of the available EST sequences found in assembled contigs. The quality of the assembly was evaluated by comparison to 73 finished BACs, where the draft assembly covers between 92.5 and 100% (average 98.5% of the finished BACs. The assembly contigs and scaffolds align linearly to the finished BACs, suggesting that misassemblies are rare. Genotyping and genetic mapping of 17,482 SNPs revealed that more than 99.2% were correctly positioned within the Btau_4.0 assembly, confirming the accuracy of the assembly. Conclusion The biological analysis of this bovine genome assembly is being published, and the sequence data is available to support future bovine research.

  20. Lugejad küsivad - autorid vastavad : [teemad: osaühingu raamatupidamine...] / Maire Otsus-Carpenter, Olesja Timofejeva, Häli Jürimäe ...[jt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Teemad: osaühingu raamatupidamine, sõiduauto liikluskindlustus rendiperioodil, OÜ käibemaksukohustuslasena registreerimine, arvel nõutavad andmed, deklaratsiooni parandamine, päevaraha maksmine lähetuse korral, allkirjastamise õiguse delegeerimine

  1. Sleep-disordered breathing in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a genetic model of OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminault, Christian; Primeau, Michelle; Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Yuen, Kin Min; Leger, Damien; Metlaine, Arnaud

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by cartilaginous defects, including nasal-maxillary cartilages. A retrospective series of 34 patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and complaints of fatigue and poor sleep were evaluated by clinical history, physical examination, polysomnography (PSG), and, in some cases, anterior rhinomanometry. Additionally, a prospective clinical investigation of nine patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was performed in a specialized Ehlers-Danlos syndrome clinic. All patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome evaluated had SDB on PSG. In addition to apneas and hypopneas, SDB included flow limitation. With increasing age, flow limitation decreased in favor of apnea and hypopnea events, but clinical complaints were similar independent of the type of PSG finding. In the subgroup of patients who underwent nasal rhinomanometry, increased nasal resistance was increased relative to normative values. Nasal CPAP improved symptoms. Patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome presenting to the medical clinic had symptoms and clinical signs of SDB, but they were never referred for evaluation of SDB. In patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, abnormal breathing during sleep is commonly unrecognized and is responsible for daytime fatigue and poor sleep. These patients are at particular risk for SDB because of genetically related cartilage defects that lead to the development of facial structures known to cause SDB. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may be a genetic model for OSA because of abnormalities in oral-facial growth. Early recognition of SDB may allow treatment with orthodontics and myofacial reeducation.

  2. Long-term results in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS after laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder Göktas

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is a serious disease. The etiology of and optimum therapy options for this disorder have been much discussed and have been the subject of many publications. One much discussed therapy option is laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP. Despite conflicting opinions and guidelines which recommend that it should not be used, it remains in use. Patients who had previously undergone this procedure were invited for follow-up appointments, at which they were asked to complete a questionnaire, underwent an ENT examination and underwent sleep laboratory analysis using a portable sleep lab device. The average time since LAUP treatment was 11 years. The cohort comprised 25 patients. The average preoperative apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI score was 25.25/h; the average postoperative AHI score 23.62/h. Closer examination of our data enabled us to identify 10 responders (40% and 15 non-responders (60%. 12% (3/25 of non-responders experienced either no reduction in their AHI score or an increase compared to their preoperative AHI score of less than 5/h. In the remaining 48% (12/25, AHI increased by more than 5/h compared to the preoperative figure. Our questionnaire showed that 40% (10/25 of patients suffered from dry mouth and 20% (5/25 from foreign body sensation. The data led us to conclude that laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty can indeed result in a reduction in AHI score comparable to other mucosal resection methods. Also in common with these methods, the efficacy of the therapy reduces with time and the procedure carries a high risk of bringing about an increase in the patient's AHI score.

  3. Nasal Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure Devices (Provent for OSA: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the effectiveness of nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (nasal EPAP devices or Provent as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Methods. PubMed and six other databases were searched through November 15, 2015, without language limitations. Results. Eighteen studies (920 patients were included. Pre- and post-nasal EPAP means ± standard deviations (M ± SD for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI in 345 patients decreased from 27.32±22.24 to 12.78±16.89 events/hr (relative reduction = 53.2%. Random effects modeling mean difference (MD was −14.78 events/hr [95% CI −19.12, −10.45], p value < 0.00001. Oxygen desaturation index (ODI in 247 patients decreased from 21.2±19.3 to 12.4±14.1 events/hr (relative reduction = 41.5%, p value < 0.00001. Lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT M ± SD improved in 146 patients from 83.2±6.8% to 86.2±11.1%, MD 3 oxygen saturation points [95% CI 0.57, 5.63]. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS M ± SD improved (359 patients from 9.9±5.3 to 7.4±5.0, MD −2.5 [95% CI −3.2, −1.8], p value < 0.0001. Conclusion. Nasal EPAP (Provent reduced AHI by 53.2%, ODI by 41.5% and improved LSAT by 3 oxygen saturation points. Generally, there were no clear characteristics (demographic factors, medical history, and/or physical exam finding that predicted favorable response to these devices. However, limited evidence suggests that high nasal resistance could be associated with treatment failure. Additional studies are needed to identify demographic and polysomnographic characteristics that would predict therapeutic success with nasal EPAP (Provent.

  4. Density of localized states in (Pb sub 0 sub . sub 7 sub 8 Sn sub 0 sub . sub 2 sub 2) sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 5 In sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 5 Te solid solution

    CERN Document Server

    Nemov, S A; Potapova, D A

    2001-01-01

    Hopping electric conductivity and thermoelectromotive force have been measured in Pb sub 0 sub . sub 7 sub 8 Sn sub 0 sub . sub 2 sub 2 Te with 5 at.% In and the supplementary doping with donor impurity Cl. Experimental data have been compared with results of the supplementary doping by the acceptor impurity Tl. At temperatures 150 K and higher, the positive thermoelectromotive force coefficient changes its sign becoming negative at a sufficient content of both donors and acceptors. An analysis of the dependence of thermoelectromotive force on the content of supplementary donors and acceptors gives the energy dependence of the density of localized states of indium. This function is essentially unmonotonous

  5. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  6. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  7. Structure and magnetostriction of Nd sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 7 Tb sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 (Co sub 1 sub - sub x Fe sub x) sub 2 compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Z W; Yang, H F; Liu, W F; Liu, G Y; Feng, X M; Liang, J K

    2003-01-01

    The crystal structure, Curie temperature and magnetostriction of compounds with the formula Nd sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 7 Tb sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 (Co sub 1 sub - sub x Fe sub x) sub 2 were investigated by x-ray powder diffraction and magnetic measurements. It is revealed that the substitution of Fe for Co destabilizes the cubic Laves phase Nd sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 7 Tb sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 (Co,Fe) sub 2. The maximum substitution of Fe for Co is about 0.57. The lattice constant of the Nd sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 7 Tb sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 (Co,Fe) sub 2 phase increases with x increasing from x = 0.0 to 0.6, then remains almost unchanged from x = 0.6 to 0.9. The Curie temperature exhibits a variation similar to that of the lattice constant with the Fe concentration. A spin reorientation is observed, which can be understood on the basis of the two-sublattice model. The spontaneous magnetostriction constant lambda sub 1 sub 1 sub 1 shows a maximum value of 1.7 x 10 sup - sup 3 at x = 0.4. The temperature depende...

  8. Desenvolvimento dos frutos de lulo (Solanum quitoense LAM, em Viçosa-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Monteiro Matarazzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O lulo é um fruto tropical e exótico, originário dos Andes, tem cor laranja quando maduro, e é uma baga globosa, assemelha- se a um tomate, o epicarpo é grosso e coriáceo, sua polpa é verde-clara, pegajosa, ácida e suculenta, contendo muitas sementes. Objetivou-se acompanhar as características físicas, químicas e fisiológicas ocorridas durante o desenvolvimento do fruto de lulo, da antese ao amadurecimento completo, em Viçosa-MG. Os frutos apresentaram um padrão de crescimento sigmoidal simples em resposta à variação do tempo. O desenvolvimento do fruto foi dividido em três fases. A primeira foi até os 7,39 dias após a antese (DAA, sendo caracterizada pela alta taxa respiratória, provavelmente devido à intensa multiplicação celular, e o pericarpo apresentava coloração verde-clara. A segunda fase estendeu-se a partir dos 7,39 até os 57,63 DAA, sendo caracterizada pelas taxas máximas das características estudadas. A taxa respiratória cresceu até 45 DAA, mantendo-se estável até os 52 DAA. A última fase estendeu-se a partir dos 57,63 DAA até os 95,00 DAA. Essa fase foi caracterizada pela estabilização nas dimensões e no acúmulo de massa fresca. Nesse período, ocorreu a ascensão climatérica (dos 52 aos 59 DAA. O climatério respiratório ocorreu aos 66 DAA, com pico de produção de CO2 de 110,99 mg de CO2 kg-1h-1. O pós-climatério ocorreu dos 73 aos 95 DAA, quando houve aumento no teor de sólidos solúveis e queda da acidez titulável e vitamina C da polpa. Nessa fase, o pericarpo dos frutos apresentava-se com coloração alaranjada.

  9. STUDY OF THE SITUATION OF MASS MOVEMENTS IN THE URBAN AREA OF VIÇOSA (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lucci Resende de Souza

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the relief goes by something larger than the observation at the way, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetable covering. However, the forms of the relief interfere as one of the main components of the atmosphere,being necessary its knowledge for the understanding of the dynamics of the area research object.The agreement of the relief passes for something more important that the comment of its form, understanding several other factors as climate, soil types and vegetal covering. However, the forms of the relief are inserting as the one of the main components of theenvironment, being necessary its knowledge for the agreement of the dynamic of the area research object.This knowledge is indispensable, because it is impossible to repress the occupation expansion of the spaces and much less to restraint environmental impacts caused by the men and the nature is not capable to regenerate all of the damaged spaces in a short space of time.Many of the inhabited spaces are fruits of segregation, which would be consequence of the exclusion that the effective economical system imposes to the people and spaces. On the other hand, the environmental problems are not correlated only with outlying neighborhoods, but they come very visible in places where constructions of high purchasing power prevail. But, one thing we can do is to prevent, the areas that are not busy, because it is viable naturally,environmentally and less expensive economically speaking. It is in this context, which the study of the mass movements can be of vital importance. The present work seeks to characterize the mass movements that happen in the urban area of Viçosa, with the objective to relate and to compare the rising done in the urban area of the municipal district at the scale 1: 5000 for Vieira in the year of 2000, in order to verify the evolution of the areas studied by the referred author, being analyzed these progressed or some

  10. Phase relations, crystal structure, and phase transformation of In{sub 1−x}Nb{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2x}O{sub 4} (0 ≤ x < 0.45) in In{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–TiO{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Liumei; Fan, Xing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, Hunan (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, Hunan (China); Cai, Gemei, E-mail: caigemei@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, Hunan (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, Hunan (China); Liu, Huashan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, Hunan (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, Hunan (China); Jin, Zhanpeng, E-mail: jin@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, Hunan (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, Hunan (China)

    2015-12-05

    Phase relations, crystal structures, and phase transformation of In{sub 1−x}Nb{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2x}O{sub 4} (0 ≤ x < 0.45) in In{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–TiO{sub 2} ternary system were investigated for the first time. A number of samples with different compositions were prepared by a solid-state reaction method, and phase assembles were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Five three-phase regions, ten two-phase regions, and six single-phase solid solutions were determined in this system. The solid solution of In{sub 1−x}Nb{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2x}O{sub 4} (0 ≤ x < 0.45) is composed of both ordered monoclinic wolframite-type structure (0 ≤ x < 0.35) and disordered orthorhombic α-PbO{sub 2} type structure (0.35 < x < 0.45). Driving force for composition-driven phase transformation in In{sub 1−x}Nb{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2x}O{sub 4} (0 ≤ x < 0.45) stems from the ordering of cations. The ever reported compound InNbTiO{sub 6} with an orthorhombic α-PbO{sub 2} type structure was amended to be a monoclinic wolframite-type structure. Present investigations will be useful for the whole ceramic community working with In{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–TiO{sub 2} ternary system as well as for the development of functional materials. - Highlights: • Phase relations of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–TiO{sub 2} ternary system were constructed. • Crystal structures of a novel solid solution In{sub 1−x}Nb{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2x}O{sub 4} were determined. • Crystal structure of InNbTiO{sub 6} was amended to be a wolframite-type structure. • Composition-driven phase transformation of In{sub 1−x}Nb{sub 1−x}Ti{sub 2x}O{sub 4} was investigated.

  11. C60 and U ion irradiation of Gd<sub>2sub>TixZr>2-xsub>O>7sub> pyrochlore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaming; Toulemonde, Marcel; Lang, Maik; Costantini, Jean Marc; Della-Negra, Serge; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2015-08-01

    Gd<sub>2sub>TixZr>2-xsub>O>7sub> (x = 0 to 2) pyrochlore was irradiated by 30 MeV C<sub>60sub> clusters, which provide an extremely high ionizing energy density. Here, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed a complex ion-track structure in Gd<sub>2sub>Ti>2sub>O>7sub> and Gd<sub>2sub>TiZrO>7sub>, consisting of an amorphous core and a shell of a disordered, defect-fluorite structure.

  12. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  13. Firearm trigger assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  14. The transport properties in strongly correlated BaCo sub 0 sub . sub 9 Ni sub 0 sub . sub 1 S sub 1 sub . sub 8 sub 7

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, J S; Goodenough, J B

    2002-01-01

    Layered tetragonal BaCo sub 0 sub . sub 9 Ni sub 0 sub . sub 1 S sub 2 contains high-spin Co(II) in octahedral sites and is an insulator. Hole doping by introducing sulfur vacancies results in a polaronic conductivity and produces a transition to a monoclinic metallic phase with a nearly isotropic conductivity. Pressure P >=1.5 kbar suppresses the monoclinic phase and at P >=10 kbar the high temperature tetragonal phase is transferred to an isostructural metallic phase containing low-spin Co(II). The single-crystal resistivity along the c-axis and in the a-b plane of high-pressure, tetragonal BaCo sub 0 sub . sub 9 Ni sub 0 sub . sub 1 S sub 1 sub . sub 8 sub 7 is shown to be highly anisotropic and to resemble that of the overdoped superconductive system La sub 2 sub sub - sub x Sr sub x CuO sub 4.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties and superconductivity in Ba(Fe<sub>1-xsub>TMx)>2sub>As>2sub>

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Alexander [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects on structural and magnetic phase transitions and the emergence of superconductivity in transition metal substituted BaFe<sub>2sub>As>2sub>. We grew four series of Ba(Fe<sub>1-xsub>TM>2sub>)>2sub>As>2sub> (TM=Ru, Mn, Co+Cr and Co+Mn) and characterized them by crystallographic, magnetic and transport measurements. We also subjected Ba(Fe<sub>1-xsub>Crx)>2sub>As>2sub> and Ba(Fe<sub>1-xsub>Cox)>2sub>As>2sub> to heat treatment to explore what changes might be induced.

  16. Atributos vitales de especies leñosas en bordes de bosque altoandino de la Reserva Forestal de Cogua (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Lucía Montenegro; Orlando Vargas

    2008-01-01

    En la Reserva Forestal de Cogua (Colombia), estudiamos mediante transectos la vegetación leñosa en dos parches de bosque altoandino para tres tipos de borde: chusque, paramizado y antiguo (este último denominado así por presentar un estado sucesional más avanzado). Seleccionamos como especies típicas de borde las que tenían mayor abundancia en esta zona, presentes en ambos parches del borde y capaces de colonizar la matriz adyacente. Se obtuvo un conjunto de nueve especies a las cuales se les...

  17. Treatment of obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS): effect of weight loss and interference of otorhinolaryngoiatric pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, R; Colella, P; Cirignotta, F; Mondini, S; Gerardi, R; Buratti, P; Rinaldi Ceroni, A; Tartari, F; Schiavina, M; Melchionda, N

    1990-03-01

    The role of weight loss in the therapy of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) was investigated in 23 affected patients with various degrees of obesity (body mass index range 26.6-61.0) free of cranio-facial malformations. Weight loss resulted 18.5 +/- 14.7 (s.d.) kg and was significantly correlated with baseline BMI value (r = 0.94; P less than 0.0001). Weight loss significantly reduced the number of apneas + hypopneas per hour of sleep ((A + H)I) from 66.5 +/- 23.0 to 33.0 +/- 26.2 (P less than 0.0001) and improved the mean of oxygen desaturation peaks during apneas (mSaO2) from 81.9 +/- 6.9 to 87.6 +/- 3.9; P less than 0.001). A significant correlation was found between weight loss and changes in the (A + H)I (r = -0.55; P less than 0.01) and the mSaO2 (r = 0.46; P less than 0.05). The (A + H)I significantly improved in both patients who lost more than 10 kg (basal BMI: 42.3 +/- 10.0) and in those who lost less than 10 kg (basal BMI: 30.2 +/- 2.3), whereas the mSaO2 improved only in the former. Obese patients with moderate to heavy ORL pathological findings had worse pretreatment and final OSAS parameters than those with absent or mild ORL lesions. However, both groups showed a significant, although quantitatively different, improvement of the (A + H)I and mSaO2 after weight loss. Compared to those who were cured or improved after the treatment, patients who failed to obtain significant effects on OSAS clinical presentation also had a significantly higher prevalence of ORL pathology. It is concluded that: (1) weight loss improves parameters and clinical presentation of OSAS in the majority of affected obese patients; (2) a relationship exists between the entity of weight loss and that of improvement of the syndrome; (3) weight loss must be encouraged even in patients with mild to moderate overweight; (4) the presence of ORL pathology may represent a confusing factor in the interpretation of the results obtained after weight loss.

  18. Aproximación al estudio de la historia del cantón de Osa (1914-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Arias Mora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El artículo realiza una periodización de la historia del cantón de Osa utilizando como ejes temáticos la cuestión ambiental, al impacto de la llegada y retiro de la Compañía Bananera, el problema de la tierra y el agro, y las relaciones entre el municipio, el Estado y la bananera. Para esto se acude principalmente a la documentación resguardada en el Archivo Nacional de Costa Rica.

  19. Structural Consequences of Anionic Host-Cationic Guest Interactions in a Supramolecular Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluth, Michael D.; Johnson, Darren W.; Szigethy, Geza; Davis, Anna V.; Teat, Simon J.; Oliver, Allen G.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-07-09

    The molecular structure of the self-assembled supramolecular assembly [M{sub 4}L{sub 6}]{sup 12-} has been explored with different metals (M = Ga{sup III}, Fe{sup III}, Ti{sup IV}) and different encapsulated guests (NEt{sub 4}{sup +}, BnNMe{sub 3}{sup +}, Cp{sub 2}Co{sup +}, Cp*{sub 2}Co{sup +}) by X-ray crystallography. While the identity of the metal ions at the vertices of the M{sub 4}L{sub 6} structure is found to have little effect on the assembly structure, encapsulated guests significantly distort the size and shape of the interior cavity of the assembly. Cations on the exterior of the assembly are found to interact with the assembly through either {pi}-{pi}, cation-{pi}, or CH-{pi} interactions. In some cases, the exterior guests interact with only one assembly, but cations with the ability to form multiple {pi}-{pi} interactions are able to interact with adjacent assemblies in the crystal lattice. The solvent accessible cavity of the assembly is modeled using the rolling probe method and found to range from 253-434 {angstrom}{sup 3}, depending on the encapsulated guest. Based on the volume of the guest and the volume of the cavity, the packing coefficient for each host-guest complex is found to range from 0.47-0.67.

  20. Preparation and property of magnetic photocatalyst BiOCl/Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shan; Xu, Longjun, E-mail: xulj@cqu.edu.cn; Liu, Chenglun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control (China); Du, Haigang [Liupanshui Normal University, Department of Mining Engineering (China); Xie, Taiping [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control (China); Zhu, Qianqian [Chongqing University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    The magnetic photocatalyst BiOCl/Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by impregnation-calcination method. The structure and properties of the prepared photocatalyst were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, UV–vis DRS, and VSM. Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} inhibited the growth along (001) crystal face and promoted (110) crystal surface exposure of BiOCl. The as-prepared magnetic composite appeared flower-like microspheres assembled with nanosheets. The average crystallite size and the nanosheet thickness range of BiOCl/Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were 57.6 and 75.7–112.2 nm, respectively. The band gap energy (E{sub g}) of BiOCl/Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was 2.48 eV, which was lower than that of BiOCl. The saturation magnetization (Ms), coercive force (Hc), and remanent magnetization (Mr) of BiOCl/Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were respectively 4.64 emu g{sup −1}, 50.12 G and 0.09 emu g{sup −1}, indicating a good resistance to demagnetization and paramagnetism. The optimum synthesis condition of BiOCl/Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was obtained by orthogonal experiments, and the degradation ratio of RhB with the photocatalyst was 99.6% at 30 min. After four cycles, the degradation ratio of RhB with the recovered photocatalyst was still above 83%.

  1. The utility of home sleep apnea tests in patients with low versus high pre-test probability for moderate to severe OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Cathy A; Karnib, Hala; Williams, Katherine; Virk, Zunaira; Shamim-Uzzaman, Afifa

    2017-11-22

    Home sleep apnea tests (HSATs) are an alternative to attended polysomnograms (PSGs) when the pre-test probability for moderate to severe OSA is high. However, insurers often mandate use anytime OSA is suspected regardless of the pre-test probability. Our objective was to determine the ability of HSATs to rule in OSA when the pre-test probability of an apnea hypopnea index (AHI) in the moderate to severe range is low. Patients who underwent HSATs were characterized as low or high pre-test probability based on the presence of two symptoms of the STOP instrument plus either BMI > 35 or male gender. The odds of HSAT diagnostic for OSA dependent on pre-test probability was calculated. Stepwise selection determined predictors of non-diagnostic HSAT. As PSG is performed after HSATs that do not confirm OSA, false negative results were assessed. Among 196 individuals, pre-test probability was low in 74 (38%) and high in 122 (62%). A lower percentage of individuals with a low versus high pre-test probability for moderate to severe OSA had HSAT results that confirmed OSA (61 versus 84%, p = 0.0002) resulting in an odds ratio (OR) of 0.29 for confirmatory HSAT in the low pre-test probability group (95% CI [0.146, 0.563]). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that age ≤ 50 (OR 3.10 [1.24-7.73]), female gender (OR 3.58[1.50-8.66]), non-enlarged neck circumference (OR 11.50 [2.50-52.93]), and the absence of loud snoring (OR 3.47 [1.30-9.25]) best predicted non-diagnostic HSAT. OSA was diagnosed by PSG in 54% of individuals with negative HSAT which was similar in both pre-test probability groups. HSATs should be reserved for individuals with high pre-test probability for moderate to severe disease as opposed to any individual with suspected OSA.

  2. CAD Parts-Based Assembly Modeling by Probabilistic Reasoning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Kai-Ke

    2016-04-11

    Nowadays, increasing amount of parts and sub-assemblies are publicly available, which can be used directly for product development instead of creating from scratch. In this paper, we propose an interactive design framework for efficient and smart assembly modeling, in order to improve the design efficiency. Our approach is based on a probabilistic reasoning. Given a collection of industrial assemblies, we learn a probabilistic graphical model from the relationships between the parts of assemblies. Then in the modeling stage, this probabilistic model is used to suggest the most likely used parts compatible with the current assembly. Finally, the parts are assembled under certain geometric constraints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework through a variety of assembly models produced by our prototype system. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  4. Nasal Dilators (Breathe Right Strips and NoZovent for Snoring and OSA: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macario Camacho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To systematically review the international literature for studies evaluating internal (NoZovent and external (Breathe Right Strips nasal dilators as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Study Design. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Methods. Four databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, were searched through September 29, 2016. Results. One-hundred twelve studies were screened, fifty-eight studies were reviewed, and fourteen studies met criteria. In 147 patients, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was reported, and there was an improvement from a mean ± standard deviation (M ± SD of 28.7±24.0 to 27.4±23.3 events/hr, p value 0.64. There was no significant change in AHI, lowest oxygen saturation, or snoring index in OSA patients when using nasal dilators. However, a subanalysis demonstrated a slight reduction in apnea index (AI with internal nasal dilators (decrease by 4.87 events/hr versus minimal change for external nasal dilators (increase by 0.64 events/hr. Conclusion. Although nasal dilators have demonstrated improved nasal breathing, they have not shown improvement in obstructive sleep apnea outcomes, with the exception of mild improvement in apnea index when internal nasal dilators were used.

  5. [The knowledge of the population of Viçosa, MG, about the ways of AIDS transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marcela Miranda; Carlos, Jaqueline; Areal, Rômulo Braga; Souza, Rodrigo José Silva; Lima, Swiany Silveira; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira; Eisenlohr, Pedro Vasconcellos; Filardi, Michelle Picinin

    2008-01-01

    AIDS is a major public health problem reaching all social strata. Knowing about the ways of transmission is a way of preventing the disease. For evaluating the level of knowledge of the population of the city of Viçosa about AIDS transmission, a questionnaire about the ways of transmission of the disease based on studies made in Europe was applied to 376 individuals. The questionnaire consisted of eleven multiple-choice questions about the ways of AIDS transmission, sex, age and educational level of the interviewees. The results showed that the ways of transmission emphasized in health campaigns are well assimilated, while the questions about everyday situations that offer no risk received a high number of incorrect answers. The differences were not significant when data were stratified by sex. The same data stratified by age or educational level showed significant differences for some questions; people aged over 55 and with a lower educational level had a significantly higher number of incorrect answers. It can be concluded that the population of Viçosa knows the main ways of AIDS transmission, but a part of the population does not know that some everyday situations do not pose risk of transmission. These data can be useful for the preparation of elucidative campaigns for reducing prejudice.

  6. Improving PTSD Symptoms and Preventing Progression of Subclinical PTSD to an Overt Disorder by Treating Comorbid OSA With CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M I; Campbell, Douglas G; Bhagat, Rajesh; Lyons, Judith A; Tamanna, Sadeka

    2017-10-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common in United States veterans. These conditions often coexist and symptoms overlap. Previous studies reported improvement in PTSD symptoms with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for comorbid OSA but its effect has not been assessed in a non-PTSD cohort. We have prospectively assessed the effect of CPAP therapy on clinical symptom improvement as a function of CPAP compliance levels among PTSD and non-PTSD veterans. Veterans in whom OSA was newly diagnosed were enrolled in our study (n = 192). Assignment to PTSD and non-PTSD cohorts was determined by chart review. Each patient completed the military version of the PTSD Checklist (PCL), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and reported nightmare frequency (NMF) at baseline and 6 months after CPAP therapy. CPAP adherence was objectively documented from machine compliance data. We had complete data for 177 veterans (PTSD n = 59, non-PTSD n = 118) for analysis. The mean ages were 51.24 years in the PTSD cohort and 52.36 years in the non-PTSD cohort (P = .30). In the PTSD cohort, the mean total PCL score (baseline = 66.06, post-CPAP = 61.27, P = .004, d = -0.34) and NMF (baseline = 4.61, post-CPAP = 1.49, P = .0001, d = -0.51) decreased after 6 months of CPAP treatment. Linear regression analysis showed that the CPAP compliance was the only significant predictor for these changes among veterans with PTSD (PCL score: P = .033, R2 = .65; NMF; P = .03, R2 = .61). Further analysis by CPAP compliance quartiles in this cohort (Q1 = 0% to 25%, Q2 = 26% to 50%, Q3 = 51% to 75%, Q4 > 75%) revealed that mean total PCL score declined in Q2 (change = -3.91, P = .045, d = 0.43), Q3 (change = -6.6, P = .002, d = 0.59), and Q4 (change = -7.94, P = .037, d = 0.49). In the non-PTSD cohort, the PCL score increased despite CPAP therapy in lower CPAP compliance quartiles Q1 (change = 8.71, P = .0001, d = 0.46) and Q2 (change = 4.51, P = .046, d = 0

  7. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  8. Assembly of three organic–inorganic hybrid supramolecular materials based on reduced molybdenum(V) phosphates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Yu, Kai, E-mail: hlyukai188@163.com [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Lv, Jing-Hua; Wang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Chun-Xiao [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Zhou, Bai-Bin, E-mail: zhou_bai_bin@163.com [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthesis of Functional Materials and Green Catalysis, Colleges of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Three supramolecular materials based on (P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}) polyoxoanions, (Hbbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}bbi)[Cu{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O (1), (Hbbi){sub 2}(H{sub 2}bbi)[Ni{sub 3}Mo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]·9H{sub 2}O (2), (Hbpy)(bpy){sub 3}[Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}Na(PCA){sub 2}][NiMo{sub 12}{sup V}O{sub 24}(OH){sub 6}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O (3) (bbi=1,1′-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole), bpy=4,4′-bipyridine, PCA=pyridine-4-carboxylic acid), have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by the elemental analysis, TG, IR, UV–vis, PXRD and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit covalent 1-D chains constructed from M[P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}]{sub 2} dimeric cluster and (M(H{sub 2}O){sub n}) (M=Cu, n=3 for 1 and M=Ni, n=1 for 2) linker. Compound 3 possesses an unusual POMMOF supramolecular layers based on [Ni(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6})]{sub 2} dimeric units and 1-D metal–organic strings [Ni(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}Na(PCA)]{sub n}, in which an in situ ligand of PCA from 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) precursor was observed. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of 1–3-CPE and magnetic properties of 1–3 have been investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: As new linking unit, Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}, Ni(H{sub 2}O), and (Ni{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}Na(PCA){sub 2}) are introduced into (TM(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}){sub 2}) reaction systems to assemble three supramolecular materials under hydrothermal conditions via changing organic ligand and transition metal. - Highlights: • Tree new supramolecular hybrids based on (P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}) cluster are reported. • Cu(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} and Ni(H{sub 2}O) as linker are introduced into the (TM(P{sub 4}Mo{sub 6}){sub 2}) systems. • 3 shows unusual layers based on

  9. Mauve assembly metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Aaron E; Tritt, Andrew; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T

    2011-10-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have spurred the development of numerous novel methods for genome assembly. With few exceptions, these algorithms are heuristic and require one or more parameters to be manually set by the user. One approach to parameter tuning involves assembling data from an organism with an available high-quality reference genome, and measuring assembly accuracy using some metrics. We developed a system to measure assembly quality under several scoring metrics, and to compare assembly quality across a variety of assemblers, sequence data types, and parameter choices. When used in conjunction with training data such as a high-quality reference genome and sequence reads from the same organism, our program can be used to manually identify an optimal sequencing and assembly strategy for de novo sequencing of related organisms. GPL source code and a usage tutorial is at http://ngopt.googlecode.com aarondarling@ucdavis.edu Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Molecular assemblies as protective barriers and adhesion promotion interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D.E.; Czanderna, A.W.; Kennedy, C.E.

    1996-01-30

    A protective diffusion barrier having adhesive qualities for metalized surfaces is provided by a passivating agent having the formula HS--(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}--COOH which forms a very dense, transparent organized molecular assembly or layer that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack metal surfaces. 8 figs.

  11. Magnetic signature of charge ordering in Li[Mn sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Li sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4]O sub 4 and Li sub 0 sub . sub 2 [Mn sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Li sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4]O sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Verhoeven, V W J; Mulder, F M

    2002-01-01

    The stoichiometric compound LiMn sub 2 O sub 4 is known to show charge ordering with well-defined Mn sup 3 sup + and Mn sup 4 sup + sites just below room temperature (RT). Above RT the electrons are hopping rapidly between sites. For lithium-ion batteries the material Li[Mn sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Li sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4]O sub 4 is technologically relevant. Due to the small amount of Li on the Mn site, the low-T regular ordering of the Mn charge appears to be destroyed completely, as is evidenced by neutron diffraction in the magnetically ordered state. However, the charges are still fixed in an irregular fashion, as can also be deduced from sup 7 Li nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. In the lithium-extracted compound Li sub 0 sub . sub 2 [Mn sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Li sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4]O sub 4 , predominantly Mn sup 4 sup + is present. Neutron diffraction in the magnetically ordered state shows a well-defined antiferromagnetic ordering, with doubling of the unit cell in three directions. Clear...

  12. Study of the Nafion quantity effect in membrane and electrodes assemblies (MEAs) of 50 cm{sup 2} used in type proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell operating with H{sub 2}/Air; Estudo do efeito da quantidade de Nafion em MEAs de 50 cm{sup 2} utilizadas em celula a combustivel tipo PEM operando com H{sub 2}/ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profeti, Demetrius; Colmati, Flavio; Carlindo, Adao A.J.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Gonzalez, Ernesto R.; Ticianelli, Edson A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dprofeti@iqsc.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    The performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was investigated with the aim at characterizing the effects of the Nafion. content on the scale-up of the electrodes from 5 to 50 cm{sup 2}. It is observed that a diminution of the single cell performance occurred when the electrode area is increased from 5 to 50 cm{sup 2}. The tests carried out with different Nafion. contents, and fuel cell and humidifiers at the same temperature (T{sub cell}=T{sub H2}=T{sub air}=70 deg C) showed a slightly decrease of the fuel cell performance compared to the tests performed at different temperatures (T{sub cell}=70 deg C, T{sub H2}=85 deg C, T{sub air}=75 deg C). In the study of the variation on the Nafion. contents, the higher performance up to a current density of 0.8 A cm-2 is obtained with the 35.5 wt.% Nafion.. On the other hand, at higher current densities values, the performance of the fuel cells is very similar for the 31.0, 35.5 and 39.4 wt.% Nafion contents. (author)

  13. First record of genus Toxorhynchites Theobald (Diptera, Culicidae) in Mata Atlântica, Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Simões Albeny; Cassiano Sousa Rosa; Lívia Maria Silva Ataíde; Evaldo Ferreira Vilela

    2010-01-01

    Durante os meses de março e abril de 2007 foi verificada a presença do gênero Toxorhynchites (Diptera, Culicidae) em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. No experimento foram utilizadas 500 armadilhas de oviposição. Registrando-se, pela primeira vez na região de Viçosa o gênero Toxorhynchites, sendo as espécies T. pusillus (Costa Lima, 193 1) e T. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab, 1906) encontradas pela primeira vez no Estado de Minas Gerais. As espécies relatadas ...

  14. Two anhydrous zeolite X crystal structures, Pd sub 1 sub 8 Tl sub 5 sub 6 Si sub 1 sub 0 sub 0 Al sub 9 sub 2 O sub 3 sub 8 sub 4 and Pd sub 2 sub 1 Tl sub 5 sub 0 Si sub 1 sub 0 sub 0 Al sub 9 sub 2 O sub 3 sub 8 sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, B Y; Lee, S H; Kim, Y

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structures of fully dehydrated Pd sup 2 sup + - and Tl sup + -exchanged zeolite X, Pd sub 1 sub 8 Tl sub 5 sub 6 Si sub 1 sub 0 sub 0 Al sub 9 sub 2 O sub 3 sub 8 sub 4 (Pd sub 1 sub 8 Tl sub 5 sub 6 X, a = 24.935(4) A) and Pd sub 2 sub 1 Tl sub 5 sub 0 Si sub 1 sub 0 sub 0 Al sub 9 sub 2 O sub 3 sub 8 sub 4 (Pd sub 2 sub 1 Tl sub 5 sub 0 -X, a = 24.914(4) A), have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods in the cubic space group Fd3 at 21(1) .deg. C. The crystals were prepared using an exchange solution that had a Pd(NH sub 3) sub 4 Cl sub 2 : TINO sub 3 mole ratio of 50 : 1 and 200 : 1, respectively, with a total concentration of 0.05 M for 4 days. After dehydration at 360 .deg. C and 2 x 10 sup - sup 6 Torr in flowing oxygen for 2 days, the crystals were evacuated at 21(1) .deg. C for 2 hours. They were refined to the final error indices R sub 1 = 0.045 and R sub 2 = 0.038 with 344 reflections for Pd sub 1 sub 8 Tl sub 5 sub 6 -X, and R sub 1 = 0.043 and R sub 2 = 0.045 with ...

  15. Selection of Nuclear Fuel for TREAT: UO<sub>2sub> vs U<sub>3sub>O>8sub>

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazoff, Michael Vasily [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Van Rooyen, Isabella Johanna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Coryell, Benjamin David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Parga, Clemente Jose [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) that resides at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), first achieved criticality in 1959, and successfully performed many transient tests on nuclear fuel until 1994 when its operations were suspended. Resumption of operations at TREAT was approved in February 2014 to meet the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy’s objectives in transient testing of nuclear fuels. The National Nuclear Security Administration’s is converting TREAT from its existing highly enriched uranium (HEU) core to a new core containing low enriched uranium (LEU) (i.e., U-235< 20% by weight). The TREAT Conversion project is currently progressing with conceptual design phase activities. Dimensional stability of the fuel element assemblies, predictable fuel can oxidation and sufficient heat conductivity by the fuel blocks are some of the critical performance requirements of the new LEU fuel. Furthermore, to enable the design team to design fuel block and can specifications, it is amongst the objectives to evaluate TREAT LEU fuel and cladding material’s chemical interaction. This information is important to understand the viability of Zr-based alloys and fuel characteristics for the fabrication of the TREAT LEU fuel and cladding. Also, it is very important to make the right decision on what type of nuclear fuel will be used at TREAT. In particular, one has to consider different oxides of uranium, and most importantly, UO<sub>2sub> vs U<sub>3sub>O>8sub>. In this report, the results are documented pertaining to the choice mentioned above (UO<sub>2sub> vs U<sub>3sub>O>8sub>). The conclusion in favor of using UO<sub>2sub> was made based on the analysis of historical data, up-to-date literature, and self-consistent calculations of phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties in the U-O and U-O-C systems. The report is organized as follows. First, the criteria that were used to make the

  16. Hydrides of CeNi/sub 5/, MmNi/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/(Ce/sub 0/ /sub 65/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 35/)/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ce/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, and mixed CeNi/sub 5//MmNi/sub 5/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakner, J.F.; Chow, T.S.

    1982-09-01

    Six intermetallic alloys (CeNi/sub 5/, MmNi/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/(Ce/sub 0/ /sub 65/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 35/)/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ce/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, and a mixed alloy, CeNi/sub 5//MmNi/sub 5/) were investigated with respect to their suitability to provide high hydrogen capacity and their potential for use in providing substantial hydrogen pressure at both low and high temperatures. A second phase of our investigation dealt with ball-milling and hydriding and dehydriding cycles to produce fine particles for use in hydride powder transfer studies. A summary of several Van't Hoff plots is also included for hydride-forming alloys.

  17. Synthesis and characterisation of La sub 4 BaCu sub 5 O sub 1 sub 3 sub + subdelta, La sub 8 sub - sub x Sr sub x Cu sub 8 O sub 2 sub 0 sub - subdelta, REBaCo sub 2 O sub 6 sub - subdelta and related phases

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, P S

    2001-01-01

    BaCu sub 5 sub - sub x Zn sub x O sub 1 sub 3 sub + subdelta a solid solution range of 0 <= x <= 0 centre dot 47(1) was determined from quantitative EPMA. Attempts to prepare La sub 4 BaCu sub 5 sub - sub x M sub x O sub 1 sub 3 sub + subdelta (M Mg, Al, Cr, Mn) were unsuccessful. The La-rich end of the compositional series La sub 8 sub - sub x Sr sub x Cu sub 8 O sub 2 sub 0 sub - subdelta was investigated, a tetragonal solid solution: 1 centre dot 38(2) <= x <= 2 centre dot 4(1) was prepared. This range is wider than previously reported, possibly due to longer reaction times used. An orthorhombic stoichiometric phase with composition La sub 6 subcentre dot sub 9 sub 0 Sr sub 1 subcentre dot sub 1 sub 0 Cu sub 8 O sub 2 sub 0 sub - subdelta was prepared in air at 1000 deg C. In the literature, it was claimed that it could be synthesised only in O sub 2 above 1020 deg C. La sub 6 subcentre dot sub 4 Sr sub 1 subcentre dot sub 6 Cu sub 8 sub - sub y M sub y O sub 2 sub 0 sub - subdelta (M = Ni, Co,...

  18. Análise hidrológica e socioambiental da bacia hidrográfica do córrego Romão dos Reis, Viçosa-MG The hydrographic watershed of Romão dos Reis stream, Viçosa-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genice Vieira Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os aspectos hidrológico e socioeconômico da bacia hidrográfica do córrego Romão dos Reis, que se localiza no Município de Viçosa, na região da Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais. O estudo enfatizou o uso e ocupação da terra como fatores determinantes na análise da qualidade da água, além dos fatores físicos da bacia. Esta foi dividida em sub-bacias, o que possibilitou a escolha de locais representativos para coleta e análise de dados. Coletaram-se os dados referentes a vazão, qualidade da água, elevações, precipitação, uso do solo, tipo de solo e aspectos sociais e econômicos. Para a elaboração dos mapas, utilizou-se o modelo digitalizado, construído a partir de mosaicos e fotos aéreas da região, na escala de 1:30.000. As informações sobre o número de moradores e proprietários, assim como os seus respectivos sistemas de cultivos e ocupação na bacia, foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, visando melhor compreender a organização social e o manejo de uso da terra das propriedades. Foram apontados indicadores de degradação, assim como estratégias de manejo adequadas à melhoria ambiental, que venham contribuir e garantir a sustentabilidade da bacia.This study was carried out to analyze the hydrological and socioeconomic aspects in the hydrographic watershed of Romão dos Reis stream in Viçosa county, Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais State. In this study, the land use and occupation are emphasized as determinant factors for analyzing water quality, besides physical factors. The watershed was divided into sub-watersheds enabling to choose the representative sites for data collection and analysis. Data on flow rate, water quality, relief, precipitation, landscape (top, hillside and terrace, soil type, social and economic aspects were collected. A digitalized model built from mosaics and aerial photos of the area at 1:30.000 scale was used to draw up

  19. Lithium ion conductivity in Li <sub>2sub> S–P <sub>2sub> S <sub>5sub> glasses – building units and local structure evolution during the crystallization of superionic conductors Li <sub>3sub> PS <sub>4sub> , Li <sub>7sub> P <sub>3sub> S <sub>11sub> and Li <sub>4sub> P <sub>2sub> S <sub>7sub>

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Christian [Institute of Physical Chemistry; Justus-Liebig-University Giessen; D-35392 Giessen; Germany; Weber, Dominik A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry; Justus-Liebig-University Giessen; D-35392 Giessen; Germany; Sedlmaier, Stefan J. [BELLA – Batteries and Electrochemistry Laboratory; Institute of Nanotechnology; Karlsruhe Institute of Technology; D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen; Germany; Indris, Sylvio [Institute for Applied Materials; Karlsruhe Institute of Technology; D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen; Germany; Culver, Sean P. [Institute of Physical Chemistry; Justus-Liebig-University Giessen; D-35392 Giessen; Germany; Walter, Dirk [Institute of Occupational Medicine; Laboratories of Chemistry and Physics; Justus-Liebig-University Giessen/University Hospital Giessen/Marburg; D-35392 Giessen; Germany; Janek, Jürgen [Institute of Physical Chemistry; Justus-Liebig-University Giessen; D-35392 Giessen; Germany; BELLA – Batteries and Electrochemistry Laboratory; Zeier, Wolfgang G. [Institute of Physical Chemistry; Justus-Liebig-University Giessen; D-35392 Giessen; Germany

    2017-01-01

    The local structure phase diagram of (Li<sub>2sub>S)x(P>2sub>S>5sub>)>100-xsub>thiophosphates derived from pair distribution function crystallization experiments.

  20. Genetics of Euglossini bees (Hymenoptera in fragments of the Atlantic Forest in the region of Viçosa, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Waldschmidt

    Full Text Available With uncontrolled deforestation, forest fragments remain, which in most cases are in different stages of regeneration and present isolated populations. In the present study we analyzed the genetic patterns of Eulaema nigrita populations in seven Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes and successional stages in the region of Viçosa, MG. This was done by RAPD molecular markers. We observed that the area of the fragments had no effect on the genetic variability of E. nigrita in the direction predicted by meta-population models. Medium-sized well-preserved woods presented the lowest variability, whereas large and small woods were statistically identical. The evidence supports the notion that rural areas present greater dispersal among fragments, implying greater similarity between the populations of fragments located in rural areas when compared to fragments in urban areas.

  1. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea (Caesalpinaceae) in the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Oscar J; Vílchez, Braulio; Anchetta, Ana L Araya

    2006-12-01

    The existence of mast fruiting has not been well documented in the Neotropics. The occurrence of a mast fruiting episode in the population of the tree Peltogyne purpurea in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica is described. In February and March of 2000 most of the trees of this species produced a large fruit crop, compared with 1995-1999, when the number of fruit producing trees was very low or zero and those that did bear fruit, did so at a low intensity. In contrast, the fruit crop of 2000 was massive, all trees examined produced fruits and the intensity of fruiting was maximal. There is not enough information on the event for a hypothesis to be formed because the climatic or biological cues that triggered this sporadic flowering are unknown and there is no meteorological data available for this area. Populations with this mode of reproduction may experience local extinction bacause of logging operations.

  2. ex vivo DNA assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods.

  3. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  4. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  5. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea(Caesalpinaceaein the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuentaThe existence of mast fruiting has not been well documented in the Neotropics. The occurrence of a mast fruiting episode in the population of the tree Peltogyne purpurea in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica is described. In February and March of 2000 most of the trees of this species produced a large fruit crop, compared with 1995-1999, when the number of fruit producing trees was very low or zero and those that did bear fruit, did so at a low intensity. In contrast, the fruit crop of 2000 was massive, all trees examined produced fruits and the intensity of fruiting was maximal. There is not enough information on the event for a hypothesis to be formed because the climatic or biological cues that triggered this sporadic flowering are unknown and there is no meteorological data available for this area. Populations with this mode of reproduction may experience local extinction bacause of logging operations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1151-1155. Epub 2006 Dec. 15

  6. Hierarchical Inorganic Assemblies for Artificial Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wooyul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Edri, Eran [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Frei, Heinz [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Artificial photosynthesis is an attractive approach for renewable fuel generation because it offers the prospect of a technology suitable for deployment on highly abundant, non-arable land. Recent leaps forward in the development of efficient and durable light absorbers and catalysts for oxygen evolution and the growing attention to catalysts for carbon dioxide activation brings into focus the tasks of hierarchically integrating the components into assemblies for closing of the photosynthetic cycle. A particular challenge is the efficient coupling of the multi-electron processes of CO<sub>2sub> reduction and H<sub>2sub>O oxidation. Among the most important requirements for a complete integrated system are catalytic rates that match the solar flux, efficient charge transport between the various components, and scalability of the photosynthetic assembly on the unprecedented scale of terawatts in order to have impact on fuel consumption. To address these challenges, we have developed in this paper a heterogeneous inorganic materials approach with molecularly precise control of light absorption and charge transport pathways. Oxo-bridged heterobinuclear units with metal-to-metal charge-transfer transitions absorbing deep in the visible act as single photon, single charge transfer pumps for driving multi-electron catalysts. A photodeposition method has been introduced for the spatially directed assembly of nanoparticle catalysts for selective coupling to the donor or acceptor metal of the light absorber. For CO<sub>2sub> reduction, a Cu oxide cluster is coupled to the Zr center of a ZrOCo light absorber, while coupling of an Ir nanoparticle catalyst for water oxidation to the Co donor affords closing of the photosynthetic cycle of CO<sub>2sub> conversion by H<sub>2sub>O to CO and O<sub>2sub>. Optical, vibrational, and X-ray spectroscopy provide detailed structural knowledge of the polynuclear assemblies. Time resolved visible and rapid-scan FT-IR studies

  7. Translation of Berlin Questionnaire to Portuguese language and its application in OSA identification in a sleep disordered breathing clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Vaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Berlin Questionnaire (BQ, an English language screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in primary care, has been applied in tertiary settings, with variable results. Aims: Development of BQ Portuguese version and evaluation of its utility in a sleep disordered breathing clinic (SDBC. Material and methods: BQ was translated using back translation methodology and prospectively applied, previously to cardiorespiratory sleep study, to 95 consecutive subjects, referred to a SDBC, with OSA suspicion. OSA risk assessment was based on responses in 10 items, organized in 3 categories: snoring and witnessed apneas (category 1, daytime sleepiness (category 2, high blood pressure (HBP/obesity (category 3. Results: In the studied sample, 67.4% were males, with a mean age of 51 ± 13 years. Categories 1, 2 and 3 were positive in 91.6, 24.2 and 66.3%, respectively. BQ identified 68.4% of the patients as being in the high risk group for OSA and the remaining 31.6% in the low risk. BQ sensitivity and specificity were 72.1 and 50%, respectively, for an apnea-hipopnea index (AHI > 5, 82.6 and 44.8% for AHI > 15, 88.4 and 39.1% for AHI > 30. Being in the high risk group for OSA did not infl uence significantly the probability of having the disease (positive likelihood ratio [LR] between 1.44-1.49. Only the items related to snoring loudness, witnessed apneas and HBP/obesity presented a statistically positive association with AHI, with the model constituted by their association presenting a greater discrimination capability, especially for an AHI > 5 (sensitivity 65.2%, specificity 80%, positive LR 3.26. Conclusions: The BQ is not an appropriate screening tool for OSA in a SDBC, although snoring loudness, witnessed apneas, HBP/obesity have demonstrated being significant questionnaire elements in this population. Resumo: Introdução: O Questionário de Berlim (QB, originalmente desenvolvido em língua inglesa como um instrumento de

  8. Magnetic, Caloric and Crystallographic Properties of Dy<sub>5sub>(SixGe>1-xsub>)>4 sub> Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivchenko, Vitaliy Vladislavovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Polycrystals of the intermetallic compound of the Dy<sub>5sub>(SixGe>1-xsub>)>4 sub> system, where x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.625, 0.675, 0.725, 0.75, 0.775, 0.825, 0.875, and 1, have been prepared by electric-arc-melting on water-cooled copper hearth in an argon atmosphere. A study of phase relationships and crystallography in the pseudobinary system Dy<sub>5sub>(SixGe>1-xsub>)>4 sub> using X-ray powder diffraction data and optical metallography was completed. It revealed that silicides in the composition range from 0.825 to 1 crystallize in the Gd<sub>5sub>Si>4sub>-type crystal structure: germanides in the composition range from 0 to 0.625 crystallize in the Sm<sub>5sub>Ge>4sub>-type structure, and alloys with intermediate composition range from 0.675 to 0.775 crystallize in the monoclinic Gd<sub>5sub>Si>2sub>Ge>2sub>-type structure. The -ΔS<sub>m> values were determined from magnetization measurements for 7 alloys. The alloys with a monoclinic crystal structure which belong to an intermediate phase region have large MCE value, which exceeds those observed in the other two phase regions by 300 to 500%. The nature of the observed magnetic and structural transformations in the Dy<sub>5sub>(SixGe>1-xsub>)>4 sub> system seems to be similar with those reported for the Gd<sub>5sub>(SixGe>1-xsub>)>4 sub> system. However, the interval and concentration range of three different phase regions in the Dy<sub>5sub>(SixGe>1-xsub>)>4 sub> system are different from that observed in Gd-based alloys. A non-collinear ordering of magnetic moments at low temperature was observed for the alloys with monoclinic crystal structure. The Dy<sub>5sub>Si>3sub>Ge alloy exhibited FM phase transition below Curie temperature. A series of magnetic transitions were observed at low temperature in the Dy<sub>5sub>(SixGe>1-xsub>)

  9. Osa Protein Constitutes a Strong Oncogenic Suppression System That Can Block vir-Dependent Transfer of IncQ Plasmids between Agrobacterium Cells and the Establishment of IncQ Plasmids in Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lan-Ying; Gelvin, Stanton B.

    2004-01-01

    The osa (oncogenic suppressive activity) gene of the IncW group plasmid pSa is sufficient to suppress tumorigenesis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. osa confers oncogenic suppression by inhibiting VirE2 protein export. This result is similar, but not identical, to that of oncogenic suppression by the IncQ plasmid RSF1010. We conducted a series of experiments to compare oncogenic suppression by these two systems. Agrobacterium strains harboring plasmids containing osa are more able to effect oncogenic suppression than are similar strains containing various RSF1010 derivatives. When osa is present within a donor Agrobacterium strain that also carries a derivative of RSF1010, the transfer of RSF1010 derivatives to recipient bacteria and their establishment in plants are blocked. Oncogenic suppression is still effected when the osa gene is integrated into the Agrobacterium chromosome, suggesting that it is the osa gene product that is active in suppression and that suppression does not require a protein-nucleic acid intermediate like that described for IncQ plasmids. Extracellular complementation experiments with tobacco leaf disks indicated that Osa blocks stable transfer of RSF1010 to plant cells by inhibiting transfer of VirE2, which is essential for the transfer of RSF1010 into plant cells, and not by inhibiting the actual transfer of RSF1010 itself. Our results suggest that Osa and RSF1010 cause oncogenic suppression by using different mechanisms. PMID:15489437

  10. Self-assembly of designed precursors: A route to crystallographically aligned new materials with controlled nanoarchitecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westover, Richard, E-mail: rwestove@uoregon.edu; Atkins, Ryan A.; Falmbigl, Matthias; Ditto, Jeffrey J.; Johnson, David C.

    2016-04-15

    Modulated elemental reactants is a method by which new and complex intergrowth compounds can be synthesized by the self-assembly of designed precursors prepared by physical vapor deposition. Careful calibration of the composition and thickness of the precursors ensures the formation of the desired product by precise control of local composition and diffusion lengths. Superstructures of increasing complexity can be realized using binary and ternary systems as starting points. The synthesis of systems based on three different binary compounds, either alloyed together or separated into distinct layers, expands the number of possible superstructures that can be formed using this technique, but provides analytical challenges. The synthesis of [(SnSe){sub 1.15}]{sub 1}([Ta{sub x}V{sub 1−x}]Se{sub 2}){sub 1}[(SnSe){sub 1.15}]{sub 1}([V{sub y}Ta{sub 1−y}]Se{sub 2}){sub 1} compound is used to illustrate the preparation of precursors and the challenges in both measuring and limiting the interdiffusion of layers during self-assembly. Systematic changes in the electrical properties of (SnSe){sub 1+δ}(Ta{sub x}V{sub 1−x})Se{sub 2} alloys are observed as x is varied. The electrical resistivity of [(SnSe){sub 1.15}]{sub 1}([Ta{sub x}V{sub 1−x}]Se{sub 2}){sub 1}[(SnSe){sub 1.15}]{sub 1}([V{sub y}Ta{sub 1−y}]Se{sub 2}){sub 1} can be modeled as the two constituent layers in parallel.

  11. Fuel assembly design for APR1400 with low CBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hah, Chang Joo, E-mail: changhah@kings.ac.kr [Department of NPP Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-29

    APR 1400 is a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) with rated power of 3983 MWth and 241 assemblies. Recently, demand for extremely longer cycle up to 24 months is increasing with challenge of higher critical boron concentration (CBC). In this paper, assembly design method of selecting Gd-rods is introduced to reduce CBC. The purpose of the method is to lower the critical boron concentration of the preliminary core loading pattern (PLP), and consequently to achieve more negative or less positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). In this method, both the ratio of the number of low-Gd rod to the number of high-Gd rod (r) and assembly average Gd wt% (w) are the decision variables. The target function is the amount of soluble boron concentration reduction, which can be converted to Δk{sub TARGET}. A set of new designed fuel assembly satisfies an objective function, min [f=∑{sub i}(Δk{sub FA}−Δk{sub i})], and enables a final loading pattern to reach a target CBC. The constraints required to determine a set of Δk are physically realizable pair, (r,w), and the sum of Δk of new designed assemblies as close to Δk{sub TARGET} as possible. New Gd-bearing assemblies selected based on valid pairs of (r,w) are replaced with existing assemblies in a PLP. This design methodology is applied to Shin-Kori Unit 3 Cycle 1 used as a reference model. CASMO-3/MASTER code is used for depletion calculation. CASMO-3/MASTER calculations with new designed assemblies produce lower CBC than the expected CBC, proving that the proposed method works successful.

  12. Capability of Paraguaçu estuary (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil) to form oil-SPM aggregates (OSA) and their ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Mariana C; Moreira, Ícaro T A; Oliveira, Olívia M C; Pereira, Taís S; de Almeida, Marcos; Trindade, Maria Clara L F; Menezes, Leonardo; Caldas, Alex S

    2017-01-15

    For experiments concerning the formation of oil-suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA), oil and sediment samples were collected from Campos Basin and six stations of Paraguaçu estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, respectively. The sediments samples were analyzed for organic matter determined by the EMBRAPA method, nitrogen determined by the Kjeldahl method, and phosphorus determined by the method described by Aspila. The oil trapped in OSA was extracted following the method described by Moreira. The experiment showed a relationship between the amount of organic matter and OSA formation and consequently the dispersion of the studied oil. On the basis of the buoyancy of OSA and the ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic community, the priority areas for application of remediation techniques are Cachoeira, Maragogipe, and Salinas da Margarida because of the large amount of oil that accumulated at the bottom of the experiment flask (5.85%, 27.95%, and 38,98%; 4.2%, 17.66%, and 32.64%; and 11.82%, 8.07%, and 10.91% respectively). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teatritükk, mille järgmist osa näeb 2040. aastal / Mari Hiiemäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiiemäe, Mari

    2010-01-01

    VAT Teatri lavastusest "... viimane lint / Saare esimene lint", kus põimuvad Tanel Saare esitus ja Jüri Järvet vana Krappina ("Krappi viimane lint") ekraanil. Tanel Saar lindistab S. Becketti "Krappi viimase lindi" salvestatud osa, mille kuulamine taaslavastatakse 30 aasta pärast, kui T. Saar ise on juba vana Krappi eas

  14. A Comparison of WISC and OSA in Assessing the Intelligence of Immigrant Children of Non-English Speaking Background. A Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario). Research Dept.

    Twenty-five English speaking and twenty-five non-English speaking Canadian children equated on sex and chronological age were given the Ontario School Ability (OSA) test and the performance section of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). The pilot study was conducted to compare the ability of the two tests to assess the…

  15. OSA Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Held in Monterey, California on 10-12 April 1991. Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-22

    diameter) field of view. *Visiting Scientist from Department of Physics, Brigham Young Univesity , Salt Lake City, Utah. OSA Proceedings on soft-X-Ray...01651002 from the Ministry of Education , 10. E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Science and Culture, Japan and by the U.S.Department

  16. Magnetic, Caloric and Crystallographic Properties of Dy<sub>5sub>(SixGe>1-xsub>)>4sub> Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivchenko, Vitaliy Vladislavovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A study of a series of Dy<sub>5sub>(SixGe>1-xsub>)>4sub> alloys using dc and ac magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, heat capacity, and x-ray powder diffraction techniques revealed that the variation of the magnetic properties and crystal structures with composition is similar to that observed in the Gd<sub>5sub>(SixGe>1-xsub>)>4sub> system, except that the magnetic ordering temperatures are lower. The magnetic phase transition temperatures vary from ~ 46K (Dy<sub>5sub>Ge>4sub>) to ~ 137K (Dy<sub>5sub>Si>4sub>). The intermediate ternary phase Dy<sub>5sub>Si>3sub>Ge undergoes a first order magnetic phase transition at ~ 65K. The value of magnetic entropy change for this composition is quite large (-34J/kgK for magnetic field change from 0 to 50kOe), compared to the values for the two end members (-7 J/kgK for Dy<sub>5sub>Ge>4sub> and -12.5J/kgK for Dy<sub>5sub>Si>4sub>). The magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements showed that alloys with monoclinic crystal structure have a non-collinear ordering of the magnetic moments at low temperatures. The alloy Dy<sub>5sub>Si>3sub>Ge appears to exhibit a FM phase transition below the Curie temperature at 65K. Also a series of critical fields are observed at low temperature during magnetization vs magnetic field measurements in all of the Dy<sub>5sub>(SixGe>1-xsub>)>4sub> alloys regardless type of crystal structure. The Dy<sub>5sub>(SixGe>1-xsub>)>4sub> alloys, where 0.67≤x≤1, may be useful magnetic refrigerant materials in the ~50 to ~160K temperature range.

  17. Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Cyclohexane on Cobalt Oxide (Co<sub>3sub>O>4sub>) Nanoparticles: The Effect of Particle Size on Activity and Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyo, Eric C.; Yin, Chunrong; Di Vece, Marcel; Qian, Qiang; Kwon, Gihan; Lee, Sungsik; Lee, Byeongdu; DeBartolo, Janae E.; Seifert, Sönke; Winans, Randall E.; Si, Rui; Ricks, Brian; Goergen, Simone; Rutter, Matthew; Zugic, Branko; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Wang, Zhi Wei; Palmer, Richard E.; Neurock, Matthew; Vajda, Stefan

    2012-10-02

    The oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane by cobalt oxide nanoparticles was studied via temperature programmed reaction combined with in situ grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and theoretical calculations on model Co<sub>3sub>O>4sub> substrates. Both 6 and 12 nm Co<sub>3sub>O>4sub> nanoparticles were made through a surfactant-free preparation and dispersed on an Al<sub>2sub>O>3sub> surface formed by atomic layer deposition. Under reaction conditions the nanoparticles retained their oxidation state and did not sinter. They instead underwent an assembly/disassembly process and could reorganize within their assemblies. The selectivity of the catalyst was found to be size- and temperature-dependent, with larger particles preferentially producing cyclohexene at lower temperatures and smaller particles predominantly resulting in benzene at higher temperatures. The mechanistic features thought to control the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane and other light alkanes on cobalt oxide were established by carrying out density functional theory calculations on the activation of propane, a surrogate model alkane, over model Co<sub>3sub>O>4sub> surfaces. The initial activation of the alkane (propane) proceeds via hydrogen abstraction over surface oxygen sites. The subsequent activation of the resulting alkoxide intermediate occurs at a second surface oxygen site to form the alkene (propene) which then desorbs from the surface. Hydroxyl recombination results in the formation of water which desorbs from the surface. Finally, oxygen is necessary to regenerate the surface oxygen sites, catalyze C–H activation steps, and minimize catalyst degradation.

  18. The effects of annealing temperature on the magnetic properties of Fe sub 7 sub 5 sub . sub 5 Zr sub 8 sub . sub 3 N sub 1 sub 6 sub . sub 2 /SiO sub 2 multilayer thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, T S; Kim, C O; Chung, H S; Hwang, Y

    1999-01-01

    [Fe sub 7 sub 5 sub . sub 5 Zr sub 8 sub . sub 3 N sub 1 sub 6 sub . sub 2 (800 A)/SiO sub 2 (250 A)] sub 1 sub 0 multilayer thin films were fabricated by using an rf magnetron reactive sputtering method. The saturation magnetic flux density and the coercive force were measured as functions of the annealing temperature. The effective permeability at high frequencies and the thermal stability were also examined. The magnetic properties of the [Fe sub 7 sub 5 sub . sub 5 Zr sub 8 sub . sub 3 N sub 1 sub 6 sub . sub 2 (800 A)/SiO sub 2 (250 A)] sub 1 sub 0 multilayer thin films showed a saturation flux density of 1.08 T, a coercive force of 0.41 Oe, and an effective permeability of about 4000 at 1 MHz. The observed good magnetic softness is attributed to the prohibition of the growth of alpha-Fe grains due to the precipitation of nanocrystalline ZrN particles. The sizes of the alpha-Fe grains and the nanocrystalline ZrN particles were 40 approx 50 A and 10 approx 15 A, respectively. The effective permeability of...

  19. Cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with insomnia (sleep apnea plus) versus obstructive sleep apnea without insomnia: a case-control study from a Nationally Representative US sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Knapp, Katie

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity in patient visits with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with insomnia (OSA+Insomnia) versus OSA without insomnia (OSA-Insomnia) in a nationally representative US sample. A retrospective case-control study of epidemiologic databases (National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) representing an estimated ± standard error (SE) 62,253,910 ± 5,274,747 (unweighted count=7234) patient visits with diagnosis of OSA from 1995-2010, was conducted. An estimated 3,994,104 ± 791,386 (unweighted count=658) were classified as OSA+Insomnia and an estimated 58,259,806 ± 4,849,800 (unweighted count=6576) as OSA-Insomnia. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using OSA+Insomnia versus OSA-Insomnia as the dependent variable, and age (>50 years versus ≤ 50 years), sex, race ('White' versus 'non-White'), essential hypertension, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cardiac dysrhythmia, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, depressive, anxiety, and adjustment disorders (includes PTSD), hypersomnia and all medications used as independent variables. All comorbidities were physician diagnosed using the ICD9-CM. Among patient visits with OSA, an estimated 6.4%± 0.9% also had insomnia. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the OSA+Insomnia group was significantly more likely to have essential hypertension (all ICD9-CM codes 401) (OR=1.83, 95% CI 1.27-2.65) and provisionally more likely to have cerebrovascular disease (ICD9-CM codes 430-438) (OR=6.58, 95% CI 1.66-26.08). The significant OR for cerebrovascular disease was considered provisional because the unweighted count was OSA+Insomnia was associated significantly more frequently with essential hypertension than OSA-Insomnia, a finding that has not been previously reported. In contrast to studies that have considered patient self-reports of psychological morbidity, the absence of a significant

  20. Cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA with insomnia (sleep apnea plus versus obstructive sleep apnea without insomnia: a case-control study from a Nationally Representative US sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika A Gupta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity in patient visits with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA with insomnia (OSA+Insomnia versus OSA without insomnia (OSA-Insomnia in a nationally representative US sample. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of epidemiologic databases (National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey representing an estimated ± standard error (SE 62,253,910 ± 5,274,747 (unweighted count=7234 patient visits with diagnosis of OSA from 1995-2010, was conducted. An estimated 3,994,104 ± 791,386 (unweighted count=658 were classified as OSA+Insomnia and an estimated 58,259,806 ± 4,849,800 (unweighted count=6576 as OSA-Insomnia. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using OSA+Insomnia versus OSA-Insomnia as the dependent variable, and age (>50 years versus ≤ 50 years, sex, race ('White' versus 'non-White', essential hypertension, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cardiac dysrhythmia, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, depressive, anxiety, and adjustment disorders (includes PTSD, hypersomnia and all medications used as independent variables. All comorbidities were physician diagnosed using the ICD9-CM. RESULTS: Among patient visits with OSA, an estimated 6.4%± 0.9% also had insomnia. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the OSA+Insomnia group was significantly more likely to have essential hypertension (all ICD9-CM codes 401 (OR=1.83, 95% CI 1.27-2.65 and provisionally more likely to have cerebrovascular disease (ICD9-CM codes 430-438 (OR=6.58, 95% CI 1.66-26.08. The significant OR for cerebrovascular disease was considered provisional because the unweighted count was <30. CONCLUSIONS: In a nationally representative sample, OSA+Insomnia was associated significantly more frequently with essential hypertension than OSA-Insomnia, a finding that has not been previously reported. In contrast to studies that have

  1. Indicadores de campo para solos hidromórficos na região de Viçosa (MG Field indicators for the identification of hydromorphic soils in the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. B. Campos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicadores locais são úteis para a identificação de ambientes. Na região de Viçosa, embora os solos encharcados ocorram sob vegetação de taboa (Thypha dominguensis, Gleissolos, de coloração típica acinzentada, são incomuns. A maioria dos solos com lençol freático alto é coberta pela taboa e as características gleizadas do solo são pouco pronunciadas, especialmente nos solos com mais altos teores de ferro. Não há clara conexão entre altura do lençol freático e deficiência de oxigênio. Como as relações entre altura do lençol freático, deficiência de oxigênio e cor do solo não são claras o bastante, hipotetizou-se que outros indicadores para as condições de redução poderiam ser encontrados nesses ambientes. Neste propósito, caracterizou-se o solo e trabalhou-se na sua relação com a vegetação. Estudaram-se os solos com várias intensidades de condições de drenagem em três áreas: Cajuri (Área 1, Viçosa (Área 2 e Coimbra (Área 3, todas pertencentes ao Planalto de Viçosa. Na avaliação das condições de redox dos solos (pH e pE a campo, utilizou-se um medidor digital adaptado a uma sonda de aço. Conquanto importante na identificação de indicadores de ambientes, a caracterização morfológica não se mostrou precisa o bastante para evidenciar o que os solos encharcados têm mais em comum: a deficiência de oxigênio por longos períodos. A cor, embora seja um bom e útil indicador para muitas das condições de drenagem do solo, não se mostrou também eficiente nessas áreas. De modo geral, os Gleissolos estudados apresentaram cromas maiores do que dois, o que supera o limite do critério para identificar horizonte glei no Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, embora o teste indicador da presença de Fe2+ com alfa,alfa'-dipiridil tenha sido positivo. Por outro lado, a presença da taboa foi um bom indicador das condições de má drenagem. Nos locais dos povoamentos puros de taboa, os

  2. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...... and updated data reporting formats are also required....

  3. Ferromagnetic resonance of Co sub 1 sub 0 sub 0 sub - sub x Hf sub x thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, J S; Lee, S H; Lim, W Y

    1999-01-01

    In order to examine the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties in Co sub 1 sub 0 sub 0 sub - sub x Hf sub x (x=16, 24, 32 at.%) thin films, such as the effective magnetization M sub e sub f sub f , the spectroscopic splitting factor g, the exchange stiffness constant A, and the surface magnetic anisotropy constant K sub s , we carried out ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) experiments in the temperature range of 113 approx 293 K. Spin wave modes, as well as the surface modes, appeared in the Co sub 8 sub 4 Hf sub 1 sub 6 and the Co sub 7 sub 6 Hf sub 2 sub 4 thin films. In the Co sub 6 sub 8 Hf sub 3 sub 2 thin films, however, the spin wave modes appeared only below 233 K. The M sub e sub f sub f and the A increased slightly with decreasing temperature down to 113 K for all samples, but the g were almost constant, regardless of the temperature. The surface magnetic anisotropy constant K sub s sub 1 of the film-air interface and the surface magnetic anisotropy constant K sub s sub 2 of the film-substrate...

  4. Growth and characterization of Ni sub x Cu sub 1 sub - sub x alloy films, Ni sub x Cu sub 1 sub - sub x /Ni sub y Cu sub 1 sub - sub y multilayers, and nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Kazeminezhad, I

    2001-01-01

    few nm and the full width of the wire. The actual length and diameter of the wires were measured to be approx 5 mu m and (80+-5)nm respectively. The chemical compositions of the nanowires were obtained by EDX analysis. sub 4 sub 8 and Ni sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 2 CU sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 8 films showed that they become much more strongly ferromagnetic at low temperatures. Evidence for blocked -superparamagnetic behaviour above a blocking temperature (T sub B) of the films was obtained from zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetic susceptibility measurements. Ni sub x Cu sub 1 sub - sub x /Ni sub y Cu sub 1 sub - sub y alloy/alloy multilayer films with short repeat distance were successfully fabricated using this method. Up to third order satellite peaks observed in HAXRD showed that the interface is sharp. Room temperature longitudinal magnetoresistance measurements showed that Ni sub x Cu sub 1 sub - sub x /Ni sub y Cu sub 1 sub - sub y multilayers with certain layer thicknesses and compositions ...

  5. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  6. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future. PMID:25532951

  7. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  8. Fabrication of Au{sub nanoparticle}@mSiO{sub 2}@Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanocomposites with enhanced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huiqin [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an, 710069 (China); College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Baoji University of Arts & Sciences, Baoji, 721013 (China); Kang, Jianmiao [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an, 710069 (China); Yang, Jianhui, E-mail: jianhui@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an, 710069 (China); Wu, Biao, E-mail: wubiao@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi' an, 710069 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Herein, Au{sub nanoparticle}@mSiO{sub 2}@Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanocomposites are synthesized through layer-by-layer assembly technology. Au{sub nanoparticle}@mSiO{sub 2} core–shell nanospheres were prepared at first in the presence of CTAB in aqueous solution system by the modified one-pot method. A chemical precipitation method and a succeeding calcination process were adopted to the growth of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu shells on the surfaces of Au{sub nanoparticle}@mSiO{sub 2} core–shell nanospheres. The structure, morphology and composition of the nanocomposites were confirmed by XRD, TEM and UV–vis absorption spectrum. The prepared Au{sub nanoparticle}@mSiO{sub 2}@Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanocomposites have showed the emission intensity enhances to 6.23 times at 30 nm thickness of the silica spacer between the core of Au nanoparticle and the shell of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu. According to the observations of fluorescent lifetime and the modeling of local electric field, the metal-enhanced and quenched fluorescence is closely related with the enhancement of excitation and radiative decay rate and the quenching by NRET comes as a result of competition between the distance-dependent mechanisms. This kind of multifunctional inorganic material will be widely used in electronics, biology and medical drug loading, etc. - Highlights: • Fabrication of Au{sub nanoparticle}@mSiO{sub 2}@Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanocomposites with core-spacer-shell structure. • The controllable fluorescence is achieved by adjusting the spacer thickness of silica. • The fluorescence enhancement is 6.23-fold at an optimal spacer thickness about 30 nm. • The metal-enhanced fluorescence mechanism is proposed.

  9. CO Oxidation and Subsequent CO<sub>2sub> Chemisorption on Alkaline Zirconates: Li<sub>2sub> ZrO<sub>3sub> and Na<sub>2sub> ZrO<sub>3sub>

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcántar-Vázquez, Brenda; Duan, Yuhua; Pfeiffer, Heriberto

    2016-09-21

    Here, two different alkaline zirconates (Li<sub>2sub>ZrO>3sub> and Na<sub>2sub>ZrO>3sub>) were studied as possible bifunctional catalytic-captor materials for CO oxidation and the subsequent CO<sub>2sub> chemisorption process. Initially, CO oxidation reactions were analyzed in a catalytic reactor coupled to a gas chromatograph, using Li<sub>2sub>ZrO>3sub> and Na<sub>2sub>ZrO>3sub>, under different O<sub>2sub> partial flows. We found results clearly showed that Na<sub>2sub>ZrO>3sub> possesses much better catalytic properties than Li<sub>2sub>ZrO>3sub>. After the CO-O<sub>2sub> oxidation catalytic analysis, CO2 chemisorption process was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis, only for the Na<sub>2sub>ZrO>3sub> ceramic. The results confirmed that Na<sub>2sub>ZrO>3sub> is able to work as a bifunctional material (CO oxidation and subsequent CO<sub>2sub> chemisorption), although the kinetic CO<sub>2sub> capture process was not the best one under the physicochemical condition used in this case. For Na<sub>2sub>ZrO>3sub>, the best CO conversions were found between 445 and 580 °C (100%), while Li<sub>2sub>ZrO>3sub> only showed a 35% of efficiency between 460 and 503 °C. However, in the Na<sub>2sub>ZrO>3sub> case, at temperatures higher than 580 °C its catalytic activity gradually decreases as a result of CO<sub>2sub> capture process. Finally, all these experiments were compared and supported with theoretical thermodynamic data.

  10. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Paul A.; Church, Deanna M.; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D.; Pruitt, Kim D.; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site. PMID:26578580

  11. Raman spectra of the solid-solution between Rb sub 2 La sub 2 Ti sub 3 O sub 1 sub 0 and RbCa sub 2 Nb sub 3 O sub 1 sub 0

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H J; Yun, H S

    2001-01-01

    A site preference of niobium atom in Rb sub 2 sub - sub x La sub 2 Ti sub 3 sub - sub x Nb sub x O sub 1 sub 0 (0.0<=x<=1.0) and RbLa sub 2 sub - sub x Ca sub x Ti sub 2 sub - sub x Nb sub 1 sub + sub x O sub 1 sub 0 (0.0<=x<= 2.0), which are the solid-solutions between Rb sub 2 La sub 2 Ti sub 3 O sub 1 sub 0 are RbCa sub 2 Nb sub 3 O sub 1 sub 0 , has been investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of Rb sub 2 sub - sub x La sub 2 Ti sub 3 sub - sub x Nb sub x O sub 1 sub 0 (0.0<=x<=1.0) gave an evidence that niobium atoms substituted for titanium atoms preferably occupy the highly distorted outer octahedral sites rather than the central ones in triple-octahedral perovskite layers. In contrast, the Raman spectra of RbLa sub 2 sub - sub x Ca sub x Ti sub 2 sub - sub x Nb sub 1 sub + sub x O sub 1 sub 0 (0.0<=x<= 2.0) showed no clear information for the cationic arrangement in perovskite slabs. This difference indicated that a site preference of niobium atoms is observed onl...

  12. Levantamento de moscas-das-frutas e seus parasitoides em citros, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Survey of fruit-flies and their parasitoids in citrus in Viçosa, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lucas Magalhães Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As moscas-das-frutas são responsáveis por grandes perdas em fruteiras comerciais no Brasil, por isso é fundamental conhecer as espécies predominantes na região. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae e seus parasitoides em laranjas doces (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, tangerina Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco e mexerica Rio (Citrus deliciosa Ten, no município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Os frutos foram coletados em abril de 2008. No laboratório eles foram acondicionados em caixas plásticas contendo areia umedecida e em ambiente controlado para obtenção dos pupários, que foram contados, acondicionados em frascos de vidro com areia fina e mantidos em estufa até a emergência dos adultos. Somente uma espécie de mosca-das-frutas (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 e uma de parasitoide (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti foram identificadas. Dentre as variedades, a laranja doce Baianinha apresentou o maior índice de infestação, e os menores foram atribuídos à mexerica Rio e à tangerina Poncã.Fruit flies are responsible for large losses in commercial orchards in Brazil, thus, it is important to know the predominant species in the region. The objective of this study was to study the occurrence of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidae and of their parasitoids in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck, 'Poncã' mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco and 'Rio' tangerine (Citrus deliciosa Ten, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. The fruits were collected in April 2008. In the laboratory, the fruits were stored in plastic boxes containing moist sand in a controlled environment, to obtain pupae. Then, the pupae were counted, placed in glass bottles with fine sand and kept in an oven until adult emergence. Only one species of fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and one species of parasitoid (Doryctobracon brasiliensis Szépligeti were identified. Among the varieties, the sweet

  13. Estado nutricional e fatores associados em idosos do Município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil Nutritional status and associated factors among the elderly in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa de Matos Nascimento

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigaram-se as prevalências de baixo peso e excesso de peso, bem como os fatores associados em idosos. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, com 621 idosos residentes no Município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil, realizado em 2009. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas domiciliares e se referiam à avaliação do estado nutricional, condições sociodemográficas e de saúde. Do total de pessoas estudadas, 53,3% eram do gênero feminino. A mediana do IMC foi de 26,40kg/m² (mínima 15,20 e máxima 46,82 e foi menor para os homens do que para as mulheres. A prevalência de excesso de peso foi elevada (45%; IC95%: 40%-49%, diminuiu com a idade, associou-se positivamente ao gênero feminino e história de artrite/artrose, e negativamente à faixa etária de 80 anos ou mais e ao tabagismo. A prevalência de baixo peso foi maior no gênero masculino (18,2%, aumentou com o avanço da idade e associou-se positivamente à pior percepção de saúde. O conjunto dos resultados salientam a importância de estratégias em saúde que favoreçam mudanças no estilo de vida e hábitos alimentares saudáveis.This cross-sectional study in 2009 focused on the prevalence of underweight and overweight and associated factors in a sample of 621 elderly individuals in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Data were obtained through home interviews on nutritional status and socio-demographic and health conditions. Of the total sample, 53.3% were females. Median BMI was 26.40kg/m² (range = 15.20-46.82 and was lower for men than for women. Prevalence of overweight was high (45%; 95%CI: 40%-49%, decreased with age, was positively associated with female gender and history of arthritis/arthrosis, and was negatively associated with age 80 years or older and smoking. Prevalence of underweight was high in men (18.2%, increased with age, and was positively associated with worse self-rated health. The findings highlight the importance of health strategies

  14. Self-assembled nanostructured metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsinet, Virginie; Baron, Alexandre; Pouget, Emilie; Okazaki, Yutaka; Oda, Reiko; Barois, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    The concept of metamaterials emerged in the years 2000 with the achievement of artificial structures enabling nonconventional propagation of electromagnetic waves, such as negative phase velocity or negative refraction. The electromagnetic response of metamaterials is generally based on the presence of optically resonant elements —or meta-atoms— of sub-wavelength size and well-designed morphology so as to provide the desired electric and magnetic optical properties. Top-down technologies based on lithography techniques have been intensively used to fabricate a variety of efficient electric and magnetic resonators operating from microwave to visible light frequencies. However, the technological limits of the top-down approach are reached in visible light where a huge number of nanometre-sized elements is required. We show here that the bottom-up fabrication route based on the combination of nanochemistry and the self-assembly methods of colloidal physics provide an excellent alternative for the large-scale synthesis of complex meta-atoms, as well as for the fabrication of 2D and 3D samples exhibiting meta-properties in visible light. Contribution to the Focus Issue Self-assemblies of Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials edited by Marie-Paule Pileni.

  15. Dynamic Nanoparticles Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, LIBING; XU, LIGUANG; KUANG, HUA; XU, CHUANLAI; KOTOV, NICHOLAS A.

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Importance Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple sizes of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously formed superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the ‘bottom-up’ fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Classification Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces) are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable superstructures with a nearly constant number same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation and/or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of a molecule from atoms. Finer classification of NP assemblies in accord with established conventions

  16. Dynamic nanoparticle assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libing; Xu, Liguang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2012-11-20

    Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic, and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple levels of hierarchy of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously form superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display the ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the "bottom-up" fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces)are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable super structures with a nearly constant number of NPs or Class 2 where the total number of NPs changes, while the organizational motif in the final superstructure remains the same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of

  17. Comparison of Semiconducting and Metallic Carbon Nanotubes Incorporating In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} Photoelectrochemical Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heesoo; Lee, Jongtaek; Park, Taehee; Lee, Junyoung; Yang, Jonghee; Yi, Whikun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang Jung [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We fabricate photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) using In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/In{sub 2}O3{sub d}ouble-layer composite as a working electrode in the presence of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Simple solution methods, such as spray-coating and chemical bath deposition, were used to assemble each layer in the PECs. We apply pristine SWCNTs, semiconducting SWCNTs (s-SWCNTs), and metallic SWCNTs (m-SWCNTs) to the PECs, and measure their solar performances, incident photon to charge carrier efficiency, and electroimpedance spectra. Field emission is also measured to explain the enhanced electric field of each cell.

  18. Self assembly of rectangular shapes on concentration programming and probabilistic tile assembly models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundeti, Vamsi; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2012-06-01

    Efficient tile sets for self assembling rectilinear shapes is of critical importance in algorithmic self assembly. A lower bound on the tile complexity of any deterministic self assembly system for an n × n square is [Formula: see text] (inferred from the Kolmogrov complexity). Deterministic self assembly systems with an optimal tile complexity have been designed for squares and related shapes in the past. However designing [Formula: see text] unique tiles specific to a shape is still an intensive task in the laboratory. On the other hand copies of a tile can be made rapidly using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) experiments. This led to the study of self assembly on tile concentration programming models. We present two major results in this paper on the concentration programming model. First we show how to self assemble rectangles with a fixed aspect ratio (α:β), with high probability, using Θ(α + β) tiles. This result is much stronger than the existing results by Kao et al. (Randomized self-assembly for approximate shapes, LNCS, vol 5125. Springer, Heidelberg, 2008) and Doty (Randomized self-assembly for exact shapes. In: proceedings of the 50th annual IEEE symposium on foundations of computer science (FOCS), IEEE, Atlanta. pp 85-94, 2009)-which can only self assembly squares and rely on tiles which perform binary arithmetic. On the other hand, our result is based on a technique called staircase sampling. This technique eliminates the need for sub-tiles which perform binary arithmetic, reduces the constant in the asymptotic bound, and eliminates the need for approximate frames (Kao et al. Randomized self-assembly for approximate shapes, LNCS, vol 5125. Springer, Heidelberg, 2008). Our second result applies staircase sampling on the equimolar concentration programming model (The tile complexity of linear assemblies. In: proceedings of the 36th international colloquium automata, languages and programming: Part I on ICALP '09, Springer-Verlag, pp 235-253, 2009

  19. Estrato de regeneração natural de um trecho de floresta estacional semidecidual, Viçosa, MG

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    Brena Karina Siqueira Franco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na Mata da Praça de Esportes, situada no Campus da UFV, em Viçosa, MG, com 10,65 ha em regeneração há 75 anos. Foram estabelecidos quatro transectos paralelos de 3 x 50 m, espaçados por 3 m e subdivididos em 10 parcelas de 3 x 5 m cada. A amostragem do estrato de regeneração natural incluiu todos os indivíduos com altura ≥ 0,3 m e com DAP < 5 cm. Calcularam-se os parâmetros fitossociológicos, e realizou-se a classificação quanto à classe sucessional e à síndrome de dispersão. Comparou-se a composição florística entre a área estudada e diversos levantamentos florísticos de regeneração na região de Viçosa, MG, por meio de análise de agrupamento. Foram obtidas 30 famílias e 84 espécies. As espécies mais importantes foram Coffea arabica, Siparuna guianensis, Psychotria sessilis e Erythroxylum pelleterianum. Houve predomínio da classe sucessional secundária tardia (49,3% dos indivíduos e da síndrome de dispersão zoocórica (91,6% dos indivíduos. Não houve similaridade florística entre o trecho de floresta estudada e os demais fragmentos florestais da região. A predominância da síndrome de dispersão zoocórica no estrato de regeneração natural é fator importante para a continuidade da manutenção de animais frugívoros na área. A riqueza florística e a abundância de espécies secundárias tardias são fortes indicativos de que o ambiente estudado está oferecendo condições ecológicas adequadas ao desenvolvimento dessas espécies, permitindo, assim, o avanço da sucessão secundária.

  20. The "DOC" screen: Feasible and valid screening for depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA and cognitive impairment in stroke prevention clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Swartz

    Full Text Available Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and Cognitive impairment ("DOC" are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment.All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines.1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes, less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index, had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens.Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may facilitate improved identification and

  1. Carotene and provitamin A content of vegetables sold in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, during spring and winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Costa Cardoso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the α- and β-carotene content and provitamin A value of four leafy vegetables sold at local and street markets in Viçosa, MG, Brazil, in the spring and winter of 2002. Carotenoids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. α-Carotene was detected in all samples sold during spring, but was only present in a few samples of smooth and curly lettuce and kale in winter. β-Carotene was found in marked quantities in all leafy vegetables analyzed. Duncan's test (α = 5% showed significantly higher α-carotene content in curly lettuce and vitamin A value in large-leaved watercress in the spring. Mean β-carotene content and vitamin A value were 7544, 8751, 2584, 2792, 8193, and 5338 μg/100 g and 666, 760, 227, 238, 698, and 460 μg RAE/100 g in large-leaved and hydroponic watercress, smooth and curly lettuce, kale and spinach, respectively. All leafy vegetables analyzed represent important sources of provitamin A and supply an important part of the daily requirements of children and adults.Investigou-se o conteúdo de α e β-caroteno e avaliou-se o valor pro-vitamínico A de quatro hortaliças folhosas comercializadas em mercados locais e feira- livre de Viçosa, MG durante a primavera e o inverno de 2002. Os carotenóides foram analisados por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. O α-caroteno foi detectado em todas as amostras analisadas na primavera, porém no inverno, somente algumas amostras de alface crespa e lisa, e couve apresentaram tal carotenóide. O β-caroteno foi encontrado, em quantidades apreciáveis, em todas as hortaliças folhosas analisadas. O teste de Duncan (α=5% detectou que o conteúdo de α-caroteno em alface crespa e o valor de vitamina A em agrião de folha larga foram estatisticamente superiores na primavera. Os teores médios de β-caroteno e de valor de vitamina A para agrião de folha larga e hidropônico, alface crespa e lisa, couve e espinafre foram: 7544; 8751

  2. Assembly of catalytic subunits of aspartate transcarbamoylase from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.L.; Schachman, H.K.

    1980-10-01

    Although extensive studies have been conducted on the assembly of the allosteric enzyme, aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) from isolate, intact catalytic (C) and regulatory (R) subunits, there has been little research on the formation of these subunits from individual catalytic (c) and regulatory (r) polypeptide chains. Such studies would be useful for evaluating the strengths of the interchain bonding domains within the subunits just as earlier experiments provided valuable data regarding interactions between the subunits in ATCase. The intact enzyme comprising two C trimers and three R dimers is designated as C/sub 2/R/sub 3/ or c/sub 6/r/sub 6/.

  3. Contaminación fecal en varios ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana y la Península de Osa Fecal contamination in several rivers of the Greater Metropolitan Area and the Osa Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Calvo Brenes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación en los ríos de Costa Rica es un problema que merece especial atención. El concepto “contaminación del agua” implica la incorporación de materias extrañas a esta, tales como microorganis- mos (coliformes totales y fecales, productos quími- cos (jabones, fer tilizantes, pesticidas, metales pesados (cromo, plomo, mercurio, etc. o materia orgánica proveniente de los suelos a través de la escorrentía superficial y de las aguas residuales domésticas. Estas materias deterioran la calidad del agua y reducen los diferentes usos que podría tener un río. El recurso hídrico es importante tanto para la preservación de la vida humana como para la conservación de la flora y fauna. Costa Rica se ha caracterizado por ser un país poseedor de una rica biodiversidad. Sin embargo, muchos de los ríos de la Gran Área Metropolitana ya presentan una contaminación severa, según el Índice holandés de clasificación de la calidad del agua. En este estudio se analizó el contenido de colifor- mes fecales en 10 ríos de las provincias de San José, Alajuela, Heredia y Car tago, así como de la Península de Osa. Para correlacionar el contenido de colifor- mes fecales con la densidad poblacional, además, se muestrearon tres puntos en cada río: la zona alta cercana a la naciente, la zona media y la zona baja cercana a su desembocadura. Se encontró que los puntos de muestreo con densi- dades poblacionales medias o altas están altamente contaminados con coliformes fecales.Varios de ellos superan el límite máximo permisible en el contenido de coliformes fecales establecido por los reglamen- tos nacionales para el uso de los ríos en actividades de recreación de contacto primario. También se determinó que las zonas con menor pobla- ción, tales como los ríos Tigre y Rincón en la Península de Osa, el río Poás en Alajuela en todo su recorrido y los ríos Purires y Birrís en Cartago, en sus zonas medias y altas, están menos

  4. Nanocrystalline oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, NiO) coatings on BaTiO{sub 3} submicron particles by precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassano, Alessio [University of Genoa, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering (Italy); Buscaglia, Vincenzo, E-mail: v.buscaglia@ge.ieni.cnr.i [National Research Council, Institute for Energetics and Interphases (Italy); Sennour, Mohamed [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre des Materiaux (France); Buscaglia, Maria Teresa; Viviani, Massimo [National Research Council, Institute for Energetics and Interphases (Italy); Nanni, Paolo [University of Genoa, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Nanocoatings (5-20 nm) of different compounds on fine BaTiO{sub 3}