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Sample records for suave ocimum kilimandscharicum

  1. Evaluation of Ocimum suave essential oil against anthropophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Ocimum suave essential oil against anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s after ten years ... The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective efficacy of freshly distilled and ten years old essential oil of Oc mum suave .... Journal of Natural products 44, 308-309. Hassanali, A., Lwande, W., ...

  2. A cold-tolerant evergreen interspecific hybrid of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum: analyzing trichomes and molecular variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Shukla, Preeti; Gupta, Pankhuri; Lal, R K

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important source of essential oils and aroma chemicals especially eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, methyl chavicol etc. An elite evergreen hybrid has been developed from Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum, which demonstrated adaptive behavior towards cold stress. A comparative molecular analysis has been done through RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR among O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum and their evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. The RAPD and AFLP analyses demonstrated similar results, i.e., the hybrid of O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum shares the same cluster with O. kilimandscharicum, while O. basilicum behaves as an outgroup, whereas in ISSR analysis, the hybrid genotype grouped in the same cluster with O. basilicum. Ocimum genotypes were analyzed and compared for their trichome density. There were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, and structure between the two kinds of trichomes, i.e., glandular and non-glandular. Glandular trichomes contain essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids, and acid polysaccharides. Hair-like trichomes, i.e., non-glandular trichomes, help in keeping the frost away from the living surface cells. O. basilicum showed less number of non-glandular trichomes on leaves compared to O. kilimandscharicum and the evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. Trichomes were analyzed in O. kilimandscharicum, O. basilicum, and their hybrid. An increased proline content at the biochemical level represents a higher potential to survive in a stress condition like cold stress. In our analysis, the proline content is quite higher in tolerant variety O. kilimandscharicum, low in susceptible variety O. basilicum, and intermediate in the hybrid. Gene expression analysis was done in O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and their hybrid for TTG1, GTL1, and STICHEL gene locus which regulates trichome development and its formation and transcription factors WRKY and MPS involved in the regulation of plant responses to freezing

  3. Longitudinal evaluation of Ocimum and other plants effects on the feeding behavioral response of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the field in Tanzania

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    Tenu Filemoni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of repellent materials from plants against nuisance insects is common with great potential to compliment existing malaria control programmes and this requires evaluation in the field. Ocimum plant species, Ocimum suave (Willd and O. kilimandscharicum (Guerke materials and their essential oils extracted by steam distillation were evaluated in the field and experimental huts for repellence, exophily and feeding inhibition effects against three mosquito species, Anopheles arabiensis (Patton, An. gambiae ss (Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. The protective effect of essential oils from Ocimum plants were compared with N, N-diethly-3- methylbenzamide (DEET, a standard synthetic repellent. Also, the protective effect of fumigation by burning of repellent plants; Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara were tested in experimental huts and selected local houses. Results In the field, protection by Ocimum plants from mosquito bites was high and there was small variation among different mosquito species. Protection efficiency was 93.4%, 91.98% and 89.75% for An. arabiensis while for Cx. quinquefaciatus it was 91.30%, 88.65% and 90.50% for DEET, Ocimum suave and O. kilimandscharicum respectively. In the experimental hut, deterrence induced by burning of Ocimum and other plants ranged from 73.1.0% to 81.9% for An. arabiensis and 56.5% to 67.8% for Cx. quinquefaciatus, while feeding inhibition was 61.1% to 100% for An. arabiensis and 50% to 100% for Cx. quinquefaciatus. Evaluations under field conditions confirmed high protective efficacy, enhanced feeding inhibition and house entry inhibition (Deterrence. Conclusion This study shows the potential of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum crude extracts and whole plants of Ocimum suave, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globules and Lantana camara for use in protecting against human biting

  4. Compositional variability and antifungal potentials of ocimum basilicum, O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum and O. kilimandscharicum essential oils against Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Saroj, Arvind; Samad, Abdul; Khaliq, Abdul

    2014-10-01

    The composition of hydrodistilled essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. (four chemovariants), O. tenuiflorum L., O. gratissimum L., and O. kilimandscharicum Guerke were analyzed and compared by using capillary gas chromatography (GC/FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Phenyl propanoids (upto 87.0%) and monoterpenoids (upto 83.3%) were prevalent constituents distributed in the studied Ocimum taxa. The major constituents of the four distinct chemovariants of O. basilicum were methyl chavicol (86.3%), methyl chavicol (61.5%)/linalool (28.6%), citral (65.9%); and linalool (36.1%)/citral (28.8%). Eugenol (66.5% and 78.0%) was the major constituent of O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum. Eugenol (34.0%), β-bisabolene (15.4%), (E)-α-bisabolene (10.9%), methyl chavicol (10.2%) and 1,8-cineole (8.2%) were the major constituents of O. kilimandscharicum. In order to explore the potential for industrial use, the extracted essential oils were assessed for their antifungal potential through poison food technique against two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum, which cause root and wet rot diseases in various crops. O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum, and O. kilimandscharicum exhibited complete growth inhibition against R. solani and C. cucurbitarum after 24 and 48 h of treatment. O. basilicum chemotypes showed variable levels of growth inhibition (63.0%-100%) against these two phytopathogens.

  5. Anti-diabetic action of the aqueous extract of Ocimum suave in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2012-04-16

    Apr 16, 2012 ... volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme leaves. (Thymus vulgaris) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chem. 91: 131-137. Simon JE, Quinn J, Murray RG (1990). Basil: a source of essential oils. Mc Graw-Hill. pp. 484-489. Stanely PMP, Menon VP, Pari L (1998). Hypoglycaemic activity ...

  6. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytoprotection, and Healing Actions of the Leaf Aqueous Extract of Ocimum suave in Rats Subjected to Chronic and Cold-Restraint Stress Ulcers

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    Paul V. Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the qualitative chemical composition and tested the antiulcer actions on cold/restraint stress ulcers, the healing effect on chronic acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers, and the in vivo and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Ocimum suave extract. Triterpenes, flavonoids, sugars, phenols, sterols, and multiple bonds were among the phytochemicals detected. The extract (250–500 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the formation of gastric ulcers induced by cold/restraint stress (52.30%–83.10%. The prophylactic actions were associated with significant increases in gastric mucus production. There was significant histological healing of chronic ulcers following 14-day treatment with O. suave extract (250–500 mg/kg. We also evaluated the efficacy of O. suave extract in cold/restraint-induced oxidative stress in rat stomach tissue. O. suave (500 mg/kg ameliorated the decreased levels of reduced glutathione from 0.85 (control group to 2.08 nmol/g tissue. The levels of SOD and catalase were also improved in rats treated with O. suave extract. The extract had a high phenol content (899.87 mg phenol/g catechin equivalent, in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity (89.29%, and FRAP (antioxidant capacity (212.64 mg/g catechin equivalent. The cytoprotective and ulcer healing effects of the extract are attributed to enhanced mucus production and the antioxidant properties which may likely be associated with the high presence of flavonoids and polyphenols.

  7. Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Abhay Kumar; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra Nath

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance. The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz., Ocimum basilicum Linn. (alt. Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurience), Ocimum campechianum Mill., Ocimum canum Sims. (Ocimum americanum), Ocimum citriodorum, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn., Ocimum mi...

  8. Evaluation of the use of Ocimum suave Willd. (Lamiaceae), Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae) as antimalarial remedies in Kenyan folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraithe, Micheni N; Nguta, Joseph M; Mbaria, James M; Kiama, Stephen G

    2016-02-03

    Crude extracts from the leaves of Ocimum suave Willd (Lamiaceae) and the root barks of Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (Lamiaceae) and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae) were studied to ascertain the ethnopharmacological standing of their antimalarial usage in Kenyan folk medicine. Aqueous and Chloroform: Methanol (1:1) extracts of the plants were used in this study. Toxicity of the extracts was investigated by using brine shrimp lethality test and acute oral toxicity in mice. The antimalarial activity at a dose of 100 mg/kg was screened in Swiss albino mice against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei (D6) using Peters 4-day suppressive test. Chloroquine, at a dosage rate of 20 mg/kg was used as a reference drug. The extracts showed some signs of acute toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality test. However, no signs of toxicity were observed in the mice at a dose of 2000 mg/kg of the crude extracts. The results revealed that all the tested crude extracts were safe. Z. chalybeum aqueous extract and P. barbatus organic extract showed chemosuppressive activities of 81.45% and 78.69%, respectively. This antimalarial activity was not significantly different from that of chloroquine (P<0.05). The findings suggest that the Kenyan folkloric medicinal application of these plants has a pharmacological basis. Bioactivity guided fractionation and isolation of bioactive molecules from the two species could lead to new hits against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemistry and bioactivities of essential oils of some Ocimum species: an overview

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    Abhay Kumar Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of different species of the genus Ocimum are natural flavouring materials of commercial importance. The data given in current literature are pertaining to the chemical composition of essential oils of different Ocimum species viz., Ocimum basilicum Linn. (alt. Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Ocimum basilicum var. purpurience, Ocimum campechianum Mill., Ocimum canum Sims. (Ocimum americanum, Ocimum citriodorum, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Ocimum kilimandscharicum Linn., Ocimum micranthum Willd., Ocimum sanctum Linn., (alt. Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn., Ocimum selloi Benth., Ocimum trichodon, Ocimum utricifolium from different geographical regions. A considerable difference in chemical composition of a particular species is found, which may be due to their occurrence in different eco-climatic zones and changes in edaphic factors. Attention is also focused on the biological properties of Ocimum oils which are related to their various interesting applications as antimicrobial, antioxidant, repellent, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal and therapeutic (anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antiulcer, analgesic, anthelmintic, anticarcinogenic, skin permeation enhancer, immunomodulatory, cardio-protective, antilipidemic agents.

  10. Antioxidative potential of two chemically characterized Ocimum (Tulsi species extracts

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    Karishma Agarwal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum kilimandscharicum are cultivated in Indian subcontinent both for the religious and medicinal properties. Traditionally, the leaves have been reported for their enormous therapeutic potentials but the roots which are otherwise considered as a waste part have not been explored for their pharmacological activity. Methods: Total phenolic content, free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant potential of various extracts from Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were assessed and compared. In vitro antioxidant activity was estimated spectrophotometrically and the most potent ethyl acetate extract was chemically characterized by developing the chemical fingerprint and quantifying the probable constituents with the help of HPLC/LC-MS techniques. Results: The ethyl acetate extract of both the species exhibited significant free radical scavenging potential and also reduced the ferric ions. It was observed that ethyl acetate extract have superior ferric reducing potential than other tested extracts, which were evidenced by high ferrous sulphate equivalent value of 77.05 ± 1.54 and 80.98 ± 0.80 at 100 µg/ml for O. sanctum and O. kilimandscharium respectively. The ferric reducing capacity of ethyl acetate extract for both the species was also evidenced by an elevated optical density of 1.64 ± 0.12 and 2.14 ± 0.08. Ocimum sanctum exhibited better antioxidant capacity (11.31 ± 0.20 AScE as compared to Ocimum kilimandscharium (9.08 ± 0.27 AScE. The total phenolic and flavonoid content were estimated by spectrophotometric method and tentatively characterized by HPLC/LC-MS profiling which revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid along with its derivatives such as caffeoyl-dihydroxyphenyllactoyl-tartaric acid. Conclusion: The ethyl acetate extract of both the species being rich in phenolic and flavonoid contents exhibited potent antioxidant activity. The presence of flavonoid in ethyl

  11. Production of anti-cancer triterpene (betulinic acid) from callus cultures of different Ocimum species and its elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Harshita; Pandey, Pallavi; Singh, Sailendra; Gupta, Ruby; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-03-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, is gaining unmatched attention owing to its unique anti-cancer activity with selective melanoma growth inhibition without damaging normal cells. It is also well-known for its multifaceted pharmacokinetics, entailing antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-HIV and antioxidant merits. Considering the escalating demand with diminishing bioresource of this molecule, the present study was undertaken that revealed the untapped potentials of Ocimum calli, contrasting to that in the in vitro derived leaves, as effective production alternative of BA in three out of four tested species (i.e. Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Ocimum sanctum excluding Ocimum grattisimum). Callus inductions were obtained in all the four species with different 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) concentrations with kinetin. Notably, 2,4-D favoured maximum callus growth in all whereas NAA proved beneficial for the highest metabolite yield in the calli of each BA-producing species. The O. basilicum calli demonstrated the maximum growth (growth index (GI) 678.7 ± 24.47) and BA yield (2.59 ± 0.55 % dry weight [DW]), whereas those in O. kilimandscharicum (GI 533.33 ± 15.87; BA 1.87 ± 0.6 % DW) and O. sanctum (GI 448 ± 16.07; BA 0.39 ± 0.12 % DW) followed a descending order. The O. gratissimum calli revealed minimum growth (GI 159 ± 13.25) with no BA accumulation. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at 200-μM concentration after 48-h exposure doubled the BA yield (5.10 ± 0.18 % DW) in NAA-grown O. basilicum calli compared to that in the untreated counterpart (2.61 ± 0.19 % DW), which further enthused its future application.

  12. Efficacy of Ocimum suave volatile oil formulation against man-biting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2003) Control of the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus in breeding sites treated with neem (Azadirachta indica) in north-east. Tanzania. Tanzania Health Research Bulletin 5,. 68-70. Mwaiko, G.L., Magayuka, S.A. & R.S. Mtoi (1989). The effect of bitter orange, and lemon peels extracts on Culex quinquefaciatus.

  13. Anti-diabetic action of the aqueous extract of Ocimum suave in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced diabetic rats was investigated. Male Wister strain albino rats (120 to 150 g) were divided into five groups of five animals each, three of which were made diabetic using alloxan. All rats in the diabetic groups had initial fasting blood glucose ...

  14. Diversity of the genus Ocimum (Lamiaceae through morpho-molecular (RAPD and chemical (GC–MS analysis

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    Tanmay Chowdhury

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, we have described the diversity of nine Ocimum genotypes naturally grown in the Dakshin Dinajpur district of West Bengal, India. Their diversity was determined on the basis of morphological, chemical and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD to determine the level of variation present in the genus Ocimum. Among nine Ocimum genotypes six (O. americanum, O. × africanum, O. basilicum, O. gratissimum, O. kilimandscharicum and O. tenuiflorum are found to be different Ocimum species and the rest are as varieties. A total of 18 qualitative and 17 quantitative morphological traits and chemical compositions were evaluated. Significant variations were observed in the morphological traits except O. × africanum and O. basilicum species. Cluster generated from the morphological data showed two different groups viz. basilicum group and sanctum group. Chemical analysis did not show much variation between morphologically similar species viz. O. × africanum and O. basilicum. However, RAPD analyses clearly showed that O. × africanum and O. basilicum are different species. Thus the combined analyses of morphological traits, chemical and molecular markers represent the best possible approach to confirm taxonomic delineation. Moreover, we are reporting O. × africanum for the first time from this region as well as from West Bengal, India.

  15. Coloración de gráficas suaves

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    Pedro Lara Velázquez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un modelo de Coloración en Gráficas Suaves donde se colorea con base en ponderaciones sobre las aristas de la gráfica. Se muestra que este modelo es muy flexible e incluye otros problemas similares, tales como los problemas de Coloración Mínima, Coloración Equitativa, Coloración de Gráficas Débiles y Coloración Robusta. Se proponen también un modelo binario lineal de solución y algunas instancias de prueba.

  16. Conversor Boost PWM Entrelaçado com Comutação Suave

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    Lúcio dos Reis Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma topologia aprimorada de um conversor Boost PWM com comutação suave. O circuito proposto, tendo duas chaves ativas entrelaçadas, opera com chaveamento suave, sob odulação PWM (pulse-width-modulation. Além disso, este conversor fornece alta rendimento sob as condições de operação, para uma larga variação de carga, e operando à altas freqüências. Para ilustrar o princípio de operação deste novo conversor apresenta-se um estudo pormenorizado, incluindo simulações e resultados. A validade deste novo conversor é confirmada por meio dos resultados obtidos.

  17. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the most popular and healthy culinary herbs in the world. Essential oil derived from basil (basil oil) through steam distillation has traditionally been used for a wide range of applications such as cooking spices, aromatherapy, perfumery, medicinal treatments, pes...

  18. Ethnobotanical study of some of mosquito repellent plants in north-eastern Tanzania

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    Tenu Filemoni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. Methodology An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through interviews, to investigate the range of species of plants used as insect repellents. Also, bioassays were used to evaluate the protective potential of selected plants extracts against mosquitoes. Results The plant species mostly used as repellent at night are: fresh or smoke of the leaves of O. suave and O. kilimandscharicum (Lamiaceae, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae, Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae. The most popular repellents were O. kilimandscharicum (OK and O. suave (OS used by 67% out of 120 households interviewed. Bioassay of essential oils of the two Ocimum plants was compared with citronella and DEET to study the repellence and feeding inhibition of untreated and treated arms of volunteers. Using filter papers impregnated with Ocimum extracts, knockdown effects and mortality was investigated on malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, including a nuisance mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. High biting protection (83% to 91% and feeding inhibition (71.2% to 92.5% was observed against three species of mosquitoes. Likewise the extracts of Ocimum plants induced KD90 of longer time in mosquitoes than citronella, a standard botanical repellent. Mortality induced by standard dosage of 30 mg/m2 on filter papers, scored after 24 hours was 47.3% for OK and 57% for OS, compared with 67.7% for citronella. Conclusion The use of whole plants and their products as insect repellents is common among village communities of north-eastern Tanzania and the results

  19. Comparison of the clinical effects of white brand toothbrushes versus Vitis Suave®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra-Vidal, Marta; Lucas-Alcahuz, Eduardo; López-Roldán, Andrés; Gil-Loscos, Francisco; Alpiste-Illueca, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the use of white label manual toothbrushes and a greater increase in inquiries for discomfort of the gingiva and mucosa. Material and Methods A randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial was made of four white brand toothbrushes versus a control brush (Vitis Suave®), with the recording of plaque index, bleeding upon probing, and gingival abrasions following utilization of the different brushes. Results All the brushes except Deliplus® were equally effective in terms of plaque removal (p<0.05). Vitis Suave® and Veckia® were the brushes associated to the greatest increase in minor abrasions (p<0.01), while Veckia®, Carrefour® and Deluxe® significantly increased the number of medium intensity abrasions (p<0.05). These brushes also increased the number of large abrasions, though statistical significance was not reached in this case. Conclusions The white brand brushes proved effective in controlling bacterial plaque, but were associated to more intense soft tissue abrasion. Key words:Gingival abrasions, manual tooth brushing, white brand, clinical effects. PMID:26535095

  20. Sistema de Navegación Reactiva Difusa para Giros Suaves de Plataformas Móviles Empleando el Kinect

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    Claudia Cruz Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available La navegación en un robot móvil es la habilidad para desplazarse de un lugar a otro dentro de un entorno evitando los obstáculos que se presenten. La autonomía de un robot móvil se basa en su sistema de navegación. La aplicación de técnicas de Inteligencia Artificial como la lógica difusa y el uso de la visión por computadora son dos herramientas empleadas para cumplir esta tarea. En algunos sistemas de navegación la seguridad y la facilidad de operación son factores muy importantes. En estos casos, la tolerancia a la incertidumbre de información, la reacción ante objetos imprevistos, y la navegación mediante giros suaves son argumentos del diseño de estos sistemas. En este artículo se presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de navegación reactiva difusa que emplea los datos de profundidad del sensor Kinect, algoritmos de visión por computadora, y lógica difusa, para generar ángulos de giro suave para la navegación de un robot móvil. En pruebas realizadas con la plataforma móvil ERA-MOBI se observaron giros suaves con un porcentaje de evasión de obstáculos del 85.7%.

  1. Antifungal potentials of Azardirachta indica and Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal potentials of Azardirachta indica and Ocimum grattissimum leaf extracts in the control of yam rot. ... Fusarium oxysporium, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicilluim notatum and Aspergillus niger were isolated from the rotted yams. Both fresh and dry extracts of the leaves had significant effects ...

  2. Hypolipidaemic And Antioxidant Properties Of Ocimum gratissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been shown that many minor components of food, such as some plant metabolites may possess hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, thus reducing the effects of oxidative stress on diabetic and other disease conditions. This study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract from Ocimum gratissimum ...

  3. Chemical composition of Hyptis suaveolens and Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four medicinal plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae were chemically screened for their chemical constituents including alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and phenols. The medicinal plants investigated were Hyptis suaveloens and three putative hybrids of Ocimum gratissimum (Hybrid A, B and C). All the plants ...

  4. Identification of the chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei and Ocimum basilicum by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatope, Majekodunmi O; Marwah, Ruchi G; Al Hadhrami, Nabil M; Onifade, Anthony K; Williams, John R

    2008-11-01

    The chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. growing wild in Oman have been established by (13)C-NMR analyses of the vegetative and floral oils of the plants. The chemotypes, estragole for O. forskolei and linalool for O. basilicum, suggested by (13)C-NMR fingerprinting were also confirmed by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oil of O. forskolei demonstrated better activities against bacteria and dermatophytes. The significance of the presence of estragole and linalool in the volatile oils of plants whose fragrances are traditionally inhaled, added to food, or rubbed on the skin are discussed.

  5. Comparative reproduction mechanisms of three species of Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae

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    Matthew Oziegbe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum species have a combination of reproductive system which varies with the locality and cultivar. We have studied here the reproductive mechanisms of five variants of three Ocimum species in Nigeria, namely: Ocimum canum Sims., O. basilicum L., and O. americanum L. Flowers from each variant were subjected to open and bagged pollination treatments of hand self-pollination, spontaneous self-pollination and emasculation. All open treatments of the five Ocimum variants produced more fruit and seed than the corresponding bagged treatments. The two O. canum variants and O. basilicum ‘b1’ produced high fruit and seed set in the open and bagged treatments of spontaneous self-pollination. Ocimum basilicum ‘b2’ and O. americanum produced higher fruit and seed set in the self-pollination open treatment but significantly lower fruit and seed set in the bagged treatment. Fewer fruit and seeds were produced in the emasculated open treatments but none in the emasculated bagged treatments of the five Ocimum variants. The floral foragers comprising of bees, wasps and butterflies visited the Ocimum species to collect pollen or nectar in the open treatments. The two O. canum variants and O. basilicum ‘b1’ variant reproduced mainly through autogamy but O. basilicum ‘b2’ and O. americanum showed mixed reproduction of autogamy and outcrosssing. Insect visitation to the flowers enhanced pollination resulting in higher fruit and seed set in all the Ocimum species studied.

  6. The Effects of Ocimum Gratissimum Leaf Extract on Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Ocimum gratissimum leaf, a local food spice and traditional herbal remedy, on cardiovascular and renal function were studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were administered with crude ethanolic extract of the leaf of Ocimum gratissimum, orally over five weeks. At the end of the period the blood pressure, ...

  7. Neurodegenerative Potential of the Aqueous Leaf Extract of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocimum gratissimum is an herbaceous perennial shrub which is widely distributed in many regions. It is consumed in food as seasoning locally in Nigeria. In the present study, the effect of the acute administration of the aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum (AeOG) on prefrontal cortical neurons was checked to ...

  8. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus...

  9. Desenvolvimento de um conversor boost quadrático com célula de comutação suave (ZCS - ZVT)

    OpenAIRE

    Mikael Nunes Franco de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta a aplicação de uma célula de comutação suave em uma topologia de conversor elevador de tensão, com alto ganho estático, que pode ser aplicado em fontes alternativas para a produção de energia elétrica. O objetivo é reduzir as perdas por comutação a fim de obter-se um melhor rendimento do conversor e uma tensão de saída real o mais próximo possível da teórica. O conversor utilizado para isso é o Boost Quadrático e a célula de comutação suave é composta por um MOSFET (ch...

  10. Potentiel antifongique de l'huile essentielle de Ocimum gratissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentiel antifongique de l'huile essentielle de Ocimum gratissimum dans la lutte biologique contre la maladie des raies noires du bananier causée par Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet (Mycosphaerellacea).

  11. Metode Cepat Identifikasi Flavonoid dari Daun Ocimum sanctum L. (Selasih)

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Dhianawaty; Ramdan Panigoro; Samsudin Surialaga; Pricilla Purushothman

    2012-01-01

    A plant’s effectiveness as a herbal drug comes from its chemical content such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are useful for human body health. Therefore flavonoids content can be used as a marker from the usefulness of a plant, and rapid identification method of flavonoid is needed. The objective of the research was to get a rapid method of flavonoid content identification from Ocimum sanctum. The extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoids from Ocimum sanctum leaves has been done at Me...

  12. PATOLOGIA DE SEMENTES DE Ocimum basilicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Franciscon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basil, Ocimum basilicum, is a shrubby plant used for medicinal and culinary purposes because of its antibiotic properties and aroma. The basil consumption has increased due to demand for healthier foods and interest in Mediterranean cuisine, in order to increase the demand and consequently the production. With its intensive cultivation, has increased the incidence and severity of disease in culture, in particular fungal diseases. One of this disease is anthracnose, caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides L., that affects the aerial part of the plant and has caused major economic damage to the crop. Aiming to assess the importance of seeds as a source of inoculum of anthracnose in the culture of basil were made test of seed pathology in four varieties of basil, through the evaluation of pathogens growth in a hundred seeds distributed in wetted filter paper, after frozen. The results indicated the absence of fungal or bacterial contamination in seeds.

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum canum Sims. and Ocimum selloi Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson C. Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the volatile oils of Ocimum canum and Ocimum selloi, both occurring in Jequié/BA, northeastern Brazil. The plants were collected in the winter/2005 andsummer/2006, the oils extracted by steam distillation and further analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 and 31 compounds was identified from the oils of O. selloi and O. canum, respectively. It was observed that the oil content of O. canum showed variation during the seasons, while the oils of O. selloi did not. Methylchavicol and linalool were the main chemical components found in the aerial parts and leaves of O. canum. This finding permitted to characterize this specimen as a new chemotype of O. canum. Regarding the aerial parts of O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineole, transcaryophyllene and linalool were identified as their major components. All extracted oils from the aerial parts showed biological activity against gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 - but only the O. canum one showed activity against gram-negative bacilli - Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.Este trabalho descreve a composição química e a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos voláteis de Ocimum canum e Ocimum selloi, que ocorrem em Jequié/BA, nordeste do Brasil. As plantas foram colhidas no inverno de 2005 e verão de 2006 e os óleos extraídos por destilação a vapor foram posteriormente analisados por GC-MS. Um total de 30 e 31 compostos foi identificado a partir dos óleos de O. selloi e O. canum, respectivamente. Foi observado que o teor de óleo de O. canum apresentou variação durante as estações do ano, enquanto o óleo de O. selloi não. Metilchavicol e linalol foram os principais componentes químicos encontrados na parte aérea e folhas de O. canum. Esta descoberta permitiu caracterizar este espécime como um novo quimiotipo de O. canum. Com relação às partes aéreas de O. selloi, eugenol, 1,8-cineol, trans-cariofileno e

  14. Evaluation of hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect ofOcimum sanctum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Jyoti; Sood, Sushma; Seth, Shashi; Talwar, Anjana

    2004-07-01

    Ocimum sanctum leaves have been traditionally used in treatment of diabetes mellitus. Dietary supplementation of fresh tulsi leaves in a dose of 2 gm/kg BW for 30 days led to significant lowering of blood glucose levels in test group. Intake ofOcimum sanctum also led to significant increase in levels of superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and total thiols, but marked reduction in peroxiodised lipid levels as compared to untreated control group. The leaves were found to possess both superoxide and hydroxyl free radical scavenging action. The present observations establish the efficacy ofOcimum sanctum leaves in lowering blood glucose levels and antioxidant property appears to be predominantly responsible for hypoglycemic effect.

  15. Effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum on sodium nitrite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum on sodium nitrite‑induced cerebellar cortex toxicity in adult Wistar rats. ... Conclusion: The result showed that O. gratissimum in a controlled manner may be useful in the management of neurodegenerative conditions that involve free radical generation and reduction in brain ...

  16. Essential oil of Ocimum grattissimum (Labiatae) as Sitophilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocimum grattissimum L. (Labiatae) leaves are widely eaten as a vegetable in Nigeria, and in the eastern parts, are traditionally used in post-harvest protection and relieving stomach aches. The effect of the essential oil of O. grattissimum leaves on Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was assessed ...

  17. Prebiotic effects of Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prebiotic potentials of crude extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were studied. The aqueous leaf extracts of both plants, taken orally, were evaluated for their effects on the composition and relative abundance of the rabbit gastrointestinal microflora as well as their ...

  18. short communication the effect of ocimum sanctum and ledum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. THE EFFECT OF OCIMUM SANCTUM AND LEDUM PALUSTRE ON SERUM URIC. ACID LEVEL IN PATIENTS ... It is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormally high levels of uric acid in the blood. The pain and swelling due to gout can be sudden and may appear and disappear over ...

  19. An efficient system for in vitro multiplication of Ocimum basilicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro micropropagation system was developed for direct shoot growth of Ocimum basilicum, an important medicinal plant, using nodal explants. The excised nodes were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing two plant growth regulators (6-benzyladenine and 2- isopentanyl adenine) with ...

  20. In vitro regeneration of a common medicinal plant, Ocimum sanctum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro regeneration of a common medicinal plant, Ocimum sanctum L. for mass propagation. Mohammad Abu Hena Mostofa Jamal, Imdadul Hoque Sharif, Md. Mostofa Shakil, A.N.M. Rubaiyath-Bin Rahman, Nilufa Akhter Banu, Md. Rezuanul Islam, Md. Nazmuzzaman ...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Ocimum basilicum l. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of chloroform, acetone and two different concentrations of methanol extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. were studied. These extracts were tested in vitro against 10 bacteria and 4 yeasts strains by the disc diffusion method. The results indicated that the methanol extracts of O. basilicum exhibited the ...

  2. Macropropagation of Ocimum gratissimum,/i> L: A multi purpose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine optimum macropropagation method for Ocimum gratissimum, a multi purpose medicinal plant. The result showed that significant differences exist as influenced by seed sowing depth and type of soil. Seed sown at 1 cm depth in humus rich topsoil had 80% germination as against ...

  3. Research Report: The analysis of the essential oil of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Report: The analysis of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. growing in Kenya. TAR Akeng'a, SC Chhabra. Abstract. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology Vol.3(1) 2001: 72-75. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. Effects of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2008-04-29

    Apr 29, 2008 ... de Agricultura. Rio de Janeiro. 63. 4. Onajobi, F. D. (1986) Smooth muscle contracting Lipidic-soluble principle in chromatographic fractions of ocimum gratissimum. J Ethnopharmacol. 18:3-11. 5. Owulade, M. O. (2004) Handbook African medicinal plants, CRC Press, Boca Raton,. Florida, USA. Page 214- ...

  5. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Ocimum gratissimum on bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test organisms were also susceptible to hot water extract with zones of inhibition ranging from 5mm - 10mm and minimum inhibitory concentration of range 25 - 70mg/ml. Due to the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum gratisssimum, it is therefore conceivable that it should be used to treat cases of diarrhea caused by the test ...

  6. Antimicrobial Activity Of Ocimum gratissimum Extract On Suya (An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matured leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were harvested and the extracts used to cure Suya (an intermediate moisture meat). O. gratissimum leaves were collected from Oyo state south west region of Nigeria, rinsed in distilled water and squeezed to extract the fluid. The meat used was Semi membranosus muscle from beef ...

  7. Utilization of Ocimum gratissimum and the calyx of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the utilization of Ocimum gratissimum and the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf meal in starter diets by broiler chicks, for a total period of 42 days between May-June 2011. Eighty (80) broiler chicks brooded together for 7 days with a mean body weight of 97gm were randomly ...

  8. In vitro multiplication of Ocimum gratissimum L. through direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to develop a rapid system for regeneration of the important medicinal plant, Ocimum gratissimum L, from nodal explant. Single node explants were inoculated on basal MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing 3% (w/v) sucrose, supplemented with different concentrations and ...

  9. Herb yield and chemical composition of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ocimum basilicum L., commonly known as sweet basil, is an important aromatic plant cultivated in many parts of the world for its essential oil. Basil does not show natural distribution in Turkey but they are cultivated as medicinal, seasoning or oil plants especially in the western and southern Anatolia.

  10. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum ...

  11. Fumigant effect of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L) leaf essential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fumigant effect of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L) leaf essential oil on the longevity and fecundity of adult cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F) and on germination. ... There was however no significant difference (P>0.05) in the mean percentage germination of treated and control seeds after 24 and 48 hours.

  12. Enhancing antidiabetic and antimicrobial performance of Ocimum basilicum, and Ocimum sanctum (L.) using silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapermal, Veshara; Botha, Izel; Krishna, Suresh Babu Naidu; Mbatha, Joyce Nonhlanhla

    2017-09-01

    The role of silver nanoparticles (AgNps) is an attractive proposition for advancing modern diabetes therapies and applied science. Stable AgNps with a size range of 3-25 nm were synthesized using aqueous leaf extracts from Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum sanctum, and in combination. The concentration of the extracts facilitated the reduction of silver nitrate that led to the rapid formation of AgNps at room temperature, indicating a higher reaction rate as opposed to harsh chemical methods, and high conversion energy usually involved in the synthesis. The size, shape and elemental analysis were carried out using UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential whilst, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) supported by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to identify the type of capping agents. Inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes retards the rate of carbohydrate digestion, thereby provides an alternative and a less evasive strategy of reducing postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients. The AgNps derived from O. sanctum and O. basilicum, respectively displayed an inhibitory effect at 89.31 ± 5.32%, and 79.74 ± 9.51%, respectively, against Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase enzyme model, indicating an enhanced biocatalytic potential compared to their respective crude extracts and the control. Furthermore, the emerging rate of infections in diabetic patients validates the need for the discovery of dual diabetes therapies. As a result, the bioderived AgNps displayed antimicrobial activity against bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella species.

  13. Floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of the Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ocimum genus (Lamiaceae presents essential oils used in the pharmaceutical, perfume, cosmetics and culinary industries. The aim of this paper was to study the fl oral biology and breeding mechanisms of Ocimum canum Sims. in relation to improved plant breeding. Ocimum canum has inflorescences with white, protandrous and hermaphoditic flowers. The osmophores are located at the anthers and stigma. Anthesis occurs between 10:30 and 11:30 a.m. The main fl oral visitors were bees of the Apis and Augochloropsis genuses. Ocimum canum presents a breeding system with a predominance of outcrossing that possibly demonstrates the wide reproductive flexibility of this species.

  14. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pessoa, L.M; Morais, S.M; Bevilaqua, C.M.L; Luciano, J.H.S

    2002-01-01

    The ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants...

  15. Gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum africanum leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Jaruwat Bunwijit; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai; Wanassanun Pannangrong; Jintana Junlatat; Kittisak Sripanidkulchai

    2017-01-01

    Ocimum africanum Lour. (hairy basil, hoary basil or lemon basil) is an aromatic herb in Asian and Thai cuisine that has been used as a carminative, a digestion enhancement and remedy for gastrointestinal disturbance in Thai traditional medicine. This study was performed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of O.africanum leaf extract in acid/alcohol-induced gastric lesion in rats. Pretreatment of the plant extract can prevent the gastric damage in a dose-dependent manner. At 125 m...

  16. Acaricidal Effect of Foam Soap Containing Essential Oil of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acaricidal effect of foam soap containing essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum leaves was tested on Rhipicephalus lunulatus in western highland of Cameroon. Five doses of essential oil (0.00; 0.04; 0.06; 0.08; 0.10 μl/g) with four replications for each dose were tested in vitro. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in Petri dish ...

  17. Ocimum Basilicum: A Review on Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    *S. Khair-ul-Bariyah; Ahmed, D; Ikram, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum is a common herb that is known for its ornamental and therapeutic importance. The chemical constituents which have been isolated from the plant include terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponin glycosides and ascorbic acid. It has been reported to be hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, antitoxic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. The present review is aimed to cover the phytochemical study and pharmacological investig...

  18. Sacred tulsi (ocimum sanctum L.) in traditional medicine and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, M K

    1995-07-01

    Scared Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum L.) of family Lamiaceae is a wonder ayurvedic herb which is known for its tremendous medicinal properties both in traditional folklore as well as pharmacological system of medicines. Every part of the plant finds its use in one form or the other. Keeping in view the importance of the plant, an attempt has been made to review the various studies carried out in traditional system of medicine as well as modern pharmacological investigations.

  19. Metode Cepat Identifikasi Flavonoid dari Daun Ocimum sanctum L. (Selasih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dhianawaty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A plant’s effectiveness as a herbal drug comes from its chemical content such as flavonoids. Flavonoids are useful for human body health. Therefore flavonoids content can be used as a marker from the usefulness of a plant, and rapid identification method of flavonoid is needed. The objective of the research was to get a rapid method of flavonoid content identification from Ocimum sanctum. The extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoids from Ocimum sanctum leaves has been done at Medical Chemistry laboratory Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran in 2005. Flavonoids were extracted continually by 95% ethanol, were isolated with paper chromatography/cellulose TLC and 2% acetic acid, then continued with elucidation reagents: n-butanol–acetic acid–water, chloroform–acetic acid–water, forestall, 5%, 15%, 35% and 50% acetic acids. Flavonoids were identified with diagnostic reagents and ultraviolet light. Isolation with 2% and 35% acetic acids respectively gave two spots of flavonoids as flavon, FOAc-1 had Rf=0.69 and FOAc-2 had Rf=0.57. The other elucidation reagents gave one spot of flavonoid. In conclusion, isolation with 2% and 35% acetic acids respectively and identification with diagnostic reagent and ultraviolet light is a rapid method for identification of flavonoids content in Ocimum sanctum

  20. Effects of Basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) on the Haematology of Broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Blood Cell (WBC) counts were not significantly (p>0.05) different across subplots. The study reveals that Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) has no major effects on the hematological parameters of broiler chicks at the different levels of inclusion studied. Keywords: Broiler, coccidiosis, sporulated oocysts, Ocimum basilicum, feed, ...

  1. Can Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. in vitro culture be a potential source of secondary metabolites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, Karuppiah; Gokulanathan, Ananda; Jayanthi, Malayandi; Govindasamy, Vaithiyanathan; Milella, Luigi; Lee, Sungyoung; Yang, Deok Chun; Girija, Shanmugam

    2016-03-01

    In this study Ocimum basilicum L. (OB) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (OT) in vitro culture standardisation for increasing eugenol distribution, in comparison to their respective field grown parts was carried out. Eugenol was quantified using an optimised HPLC method and its relation with the total phenolic content (TPC) was measured. In vitro grown leaves and somatic embryos, of both OB and OT were found to contain similar quantities of eugenol (85μg/g approximately), higher than OB and OT field-grown leaves (30.2μg/g and 25.1μg/g respectively). It was also determined that in vitro grown leaves were richer in TPC than the field-grown intact organs. Results demonstrated the prominence of in vitro cultures for eugenol extraction. This study underlines that important food flavouring metabolites (e.g. vanillin, vanillic acids) might be produced, via the eugenol pathway, in Ocimum species that may be a good potential source of eugenol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Vasorelaxant and anti-platelet aggregation effects of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Souliman; Harnafi, Hicham; Gadi, Dounia; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Aziz, Mohammed; Martin-Nizard, Françoise; Bosca, Lisardo

    2009-08-17

    In this work the endothelium-dependant vasorelaxant and anti-platelet aggregation activities of an aqueous extract from Ocimum basilicum were studied. The vasorelaxant effect was undertaken in thoracic aorta from three experimental groups of rats: one of them (NCG) fed with standard diet, the second (HCG) with hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) and the third (BTG) with hypercholesterolemic diet together with an intragastric administration of Ocimum basilicum extract at a dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight for a period of 10 weeks. The in vitro anti-platelet aggregation of Ocimum basilicum extract was studied using thrombin (0.5 U/ml) and ADP (5 microM) as agonists. The results show that the HCD statistically decreases vascular relaxation in HCG compared to NCG (pOcimum basilicum extract exerts a significant vasorelaxant effect at 10(-5) M (pOcimum basilicum as medicinal plant could be beneficial for cardiovascular system.

  3. Estudio del crecimiento y fenología de las especies de albahaca, Ocimum basilicum L., Ocimum mínimum L. y Ocimum gratissimum Hook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz F. Jaime E.

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el crecimiento y desarrollo de Ocimum basilicum propagada por semilla y estacas y Ocimum y O. gratissimum propagadas vegetativamente. Las semillas de O. basilicum tuvieron 28% de germinación y las de O. gratissimum 8.75 %; las de O. minimum no germinaron. El modelo logístico no describió de manera adecuada el crecimiento de las plantas. Se encontraron ecuaciones de regresión para predecir el área foliar con el producto largo máximo x ancho máximo de las hojas. El área foliar aumentó exponencialmente en los primeros períodos y después disminuye linealmente. Cuando O. basilicum se propagó por semilla floreció a los 137 días y su ciclo duró 257 días, cuando se propagó vegetativamente, floreció a los 91 días y su ciclo duró 205 días O. gratissimum floreció a los 136 días y su ciclo duró 259 días y O. minimum floreció a los 147 días con una duración de su ciclo de vida de 205 días.Growth and development of Ocimum basilicum -propagated by seeds and stocks - and of O. minimum and O. gratissimum - propagated by vegetative growth-were studied. Seeds of O. basilicum had a 28 percent of Germinate on; those of O. gratissimum 8.75 % and those of O. minimum none germination. The logistic model do not describe adequately the growth of the plants. Regression equations for predicting the foliar area with the product maximum lenght plus maximum width in their leaves were found. The foliar area increases exponentially during the first periods; then it decreases in a linear way. O. basilicum propagated by seeds blossms to 137 days and its cycle lasts 257 days. Vegetatively propagated it blossoms to 91 days and its cycle lasts 205 days. O. gratissimum blooms to 136 days its cycle last 259 days. O. minimum blooms to 147 days and has a life span of 205 days.

  4. Morphological and chemical variability of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of 17 sweet basil cultivars as well as essential oil content and composition were determined. The study clearly indicated great variability of Ocimum basilicumL. The content of essential oil in the dried herb was high and varied from 0.75% (O. basilicumvar. piperita to 1.89% (O. basilicumvar. cinnamon. Based of the primary components, three chemotypes were distinguished: citral (‘Lime’, ‘Lemon’ and var. citriodorum, E-methyl cinnamate/linalool (‘Licorice’, var. cinnamon and methyl chavicol (‘Tai’.

  5. Morphological and chemical variability of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-01-01

    Morphological features of 17 sweet basil cultivars as well as essential oil content and composition were determined. The study clearly indicated great variability of Ocimum basilicumL. The content of essential oil in the dried herb was high and varied from 0.75% (O. basilicumvar. piperita) to 1.89% (O. basilicumvar. cinnamon). Based of the primary components, three chemotypes were distinguished: citral (‘Lime’, ‘Lemon’ and var. citriodorum), E-methyl cinnamate/linalool (‘Licorice’, var. c...

  6. Evaluacija genotipova bosiljka (Ocimum spp.) gajenih u Srbiji

    OpenAIRE

    Beatović, Damir V.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluacija genotipova bosiljka (Ocimum spp.) obuhvatila je proučavanje agro-morfoloških, hemijskih i bioloških osobina herbe i etarskog ulja. Materijal za realizaciju istraživanja činilo je trinaest introdukovanih genotipova bosiljka. Evaluacija genotipova bosiljka izvršena je na nivou fenotipa, po obliku izraņenosti kvantitativnih i kvalitativnih osobina. Upotrebna vrednost, hemotipska pripadnost i biološka aktivnost određena je na osnovu karakteristika etarskog ulja i herbe. Analizirano ...

  7. UAV-UGV collaboration with a PackBot UGV and Raven SUAV for pursuit and tracking of a dynamic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Carol; Grocholsky, Benjamin

    2008-04-01

    Fielded military unmanned systems are currently extending the reach of the U.S. forces in surveillance and reconnaissance missions. Providing long-range eyes on enemy operations, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), such as the AeroVironment Raven, have proven themselves indispensable without risking soldiers' lives. Meanwhile, unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), such as the iRobot PackBot, are quickly joining ranks in Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) missions to identify and dispose of ordnance or to clear roads and buildings. UAV-UGV collaboration and the benefit of force multiplication is increasingly more tangible. iRobot Corporation and CMU Robotics Institute are developing the capability to simultaneously control the Raven small UAV (SUAV) and PackBot UGV from a single operator control unit (OCU) via waypoint navigation. Techniques to support autonomous collaboration for pursuing and tracking a dismounted soldier will be developed and integrated on a Raven-PackBot team. The Raven will survey an area and geolocate an operator-selected target. The Raven will share this target location with the PackBot and together they will collaboratively pursue the target intelligently to maintain track on the target. We will accomplish this goal by implementing a decentralized control and data fusion software architecture. The PackBot will be equipped with on-board waypoint navigation algorithms, a Navigator Payload containing a stereo-vision system, GPS, and a high-accuracy IMU. The Raven will have two on-board cameras, a side-looking and a forward-looking optical camera. The Supervisor OCU will act as the central mission planner, allowing the operator to monitor mission events and override vehicle tasks.

  8. Resistance Against Basil Downy Mildew in Ocimum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Cohen, Yigal

    2015-06-01

    Downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii, is a devastating disease of sweet basil. In this study, 113 accessions of Ocimum species (83 Plant Introduction entries and 30 commercial entries) were tested for resistance against downy mildew at the seedling stage in growth chambers, and during three seasons, in the field. Most entries belonging to O. basilicum were highly susceptible whereas most entries belonging to O. americanum, O. kilimanadascharicum, O. gratissimum, O. campechianum, or O. tenuiflorum were highly resistant at both the seedling stage and the field. Twenty-seven highly resistant individual plants were each crossed with the susceptible sweet basil 'Peri', and the F1 progeny plants were examined for disease resistance. The F1 plants of two crosses were highly resistant, F1 plants of 24 crosses were moderately resistant, and F1 plants of one cross were susceptible, suggesting full, partial, or no dominance of the resistance gene(s), respectively. These data confirm the feasibility of producing downy mildew-resistant cultivars of sweet basil by crossing with wild Ocimum species.

  9. Toxicity and gastric tolerance of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandohan, P; Gnonlonfin, B; Laleye, A; Gbenou, J D; Darboux, R; Moudachirou, M

    2008-07-01

    Oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum are widely used for their medicinal properties, and as food flavours and perfumes. Recently in a study in West Africa, these oils have been recommended to combat Fusarium verticillioides and subsequent fumonisin contamination in stored maize, but their toxicological profile was not investigated. The current study was undertaken to provide data on acute and subacute toxicity as well as on gastric tolerance of these oils in rat. For this purpose, the oils were given by gavage to Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days. The animals were observed daily for their general behaviour and survival, and their visceral organs such as stomach and liver were taken after sacrifice for histological analyses. A dose-dependent effect of the tested oils was observed during the study. Applied at doses generally higher than 1500 mg/kg body weight, the oils caused significant functional damages to stomach and liver of rat. Unlike the other oils, administration of O. gratissimum oil did not result in adverse effects in rat liver at the tested doses. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the tested oils has been established. The three tested oils can be considered as safe to human when applied on stored maize at recommended concentrations.

  10. IN VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL MUCOADHESIVE AGENT ISOLATED FROM OCIMUM AMERICANUM SEED

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash B. Gangurde et al

    2012-01-01

    Aim of present investigation was to isolate natural mucoadhesive agent from Ocimum americanum seeds and characterize through in vitro mucoadhesion methods, FTIR and DSC studies. Mucoadhesion force of isolated natural mucoadhesive agents and synthetic polymer Carbopol 934P was determined using in vitro mucoadhesion methods viz. Wihelmy’s method, falling sphere method and modified physical balance method. The research study reveals that the natural mucoadhesive agent isolated from Ocimum americ...

  11. Phenolic Substances from Ocimum Species Enhance Glucose- Stimulated Insulin Secretion and Modulate the Expression of Key Insulin Regulatory Genes in Mice Pancreatic Islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casanova, Livia Marques; Gu, Wenqian; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum are plants ethnopharmacologically used to treat diabetes mellitus, a life-threatening disease that affects millions of people worldwide. In order to further understand their antidiabetic potential, which has been previously demonstrated in animal...

  12. Antibacterial activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil

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    Celso Vataru Nakamura

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO of Ocimum gratissimum inhibited Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 0.75 mg/ml. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Shigella flexineri, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., and Proteus mirabilis were at concentrations ranging from 3 to 12 mg/ml. The endpoint was not reached for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (>=24 mg/ml. The MICs of the reference drugs used in this study were similar to those presented in other reports. The minimum bactericidal concentration of EO was within a twofold dilution of the MIC for this organism. The compound that showed antibacterial activity in the EO of O. gratissimum was identified as eugenol and structural findings were further supported by gas chromatography/mass spectra retention time data. The structure was supported by spectroscopic methods.

  13. The science behind sacredness of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shankar; Mirdha, Bijay R; Mahapatra, Sushil C

    2009-01-01

    Medicinal properties of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) are known for thousand years to various civilizations of the world. This medicinal herb is considered as a sacred plant by the Hindus in the Indian subcontinent. Scientific explorations of traditional belief of medicinal properties of Tulsi have got momentum mostly after the middle of the 20th century. In the present review, efforts have been made to sum up different aspects of scientific studies on this medicinal plant. Scientific evidences are available on various medicinal aspects i.e. antimicrobial, adaptogenic, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, radioprotective, immunomodulatory, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, mosquito repellent etc. to name a few. Most of these evidences are based on in-vitro, experimental and a few human studies.

  14. Comparative functional characterization of eugenol synthase from four different Ocimum species: Implications on eugenol accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Atul; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H; Beedkar, Supriya D; Singh, Priyanka A; Joshi, Rakesh S; Mulani, Fayaj A; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Punekar, Sachin A; Gade, Wasudeo N; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-11-01

    Isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids are the major secondary metabolite constituents in Ocimum genus. Though enzymes from phenylpropanoid pathway have been characterized from few plants, limited information exists on how they modulate levels of secondary metabolites. Here, we performed phenylpropanoid profiling in different tissues from five Ocimum species, which revealed significant variations in secondary metabolites including eugenol, eugenol methyl ether, estragole and methyl cinnamate levels. Expression analysis of eugenol synthase (EGS) gene showed higher transcript levels especially in young leaves and inflorescence; and were positively correlated with eugenol contents. Additionally, transcript levels of coniferyl alcohol acyl transferase, a key enzyme diverting pool of substrate to phenylpropanoids, were in accordance with their abundance in respective species. In particular, eugenol methyl transferase expression positively correlated with higher levels of eugenol methyl ether in Ocimum tenuiflorum. Further, EGSs were functionally characterized from four Ocimum species varying in their eugenol contents. Kinetic and expression analyses indicated, higher enzyme turnover and transcripts levels, in species accumulating more eugenol. Moreover, biochemical and bioinformatics studies demonstrated that coniferyl acetate was the preferred substrate over coumaryl acetate when used, individually or together, in the enzyme assay. Overall, this study revealed the preliminary evidence for varied accumulation of eugenol and its abundance over chavicol in these Ocimum species. Current findings could potentially provide novel insights for metabolic modulations in medicinal and aromatic plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil Against Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Amir; Roohi, Parnia; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Ghannadi, Ali Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in Iran. This study investigates the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on an acetic acid-induced colitis model in rats. Ocimum basilicum essential oil with 2 doses (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly ameliorated wet weight/length ratio of colonic tissue compared to the control group. Higher doses of essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly reduced ulcer severity, ulcer area, and ulcer index. On the other hand, histological examination revealed the diminution of total colitis index as a marker for inflammatory cell infiltration in the colonic segments of rats treated with Ocimum basilicum essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). The increased level of myeloperoxidase was significantly decreased after the treatment with the essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). These results suggest that Ocimum basilicum exhibits protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. EFFECT OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN. IN STRESS INDUCED GASTRIC ULCERS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Vaseem, Ghulam Subhani, Khuteja Afshan, Mazher Ali, Md. Mohiuddin A Khan, Mujtaba T Rumana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Ocimum sanctum L. popularly known as Tulsi is a medicinal plant that has been used for curing various diseases since ages. In the present study we used leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum for its anti-ulcer property by inducing stress ulcers on rats. Materials and Method: Albino rats were randomly allocated to different experimental groups and aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum was given for 7 days. Stress ulcers were induced by restraint and ethanol administered methods and results were compared with standard drug ranitidine. After that animal was sacrificed and stomach was dissected out and stomachs were observed for the ulceration with the help of magnifying lens and studied its external, internal surface and ulcer index was evaluated according to the severity of ulcers. The stomach were stored and fixed in 5% formalin and studied for histopathological changes. Results: The ulcer index was high in control group. Animal pretreated with Ocimum sanctum at the dose 100 & 200 mg/kg showed few signs of mucosal injury and the percentage of damage were less compared to control group. Conclusion: In the present study pretreatment with Ocimum sanctum at dose 100-200 mg/kg caused a significant anti-ulcer effect in rats in comparison with control group and its effect is comparable to the standard drug ranitidine, as evidenced by the reduction in the ulcer scores.

  17. Murcha do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum no Brasil: agente causal, círculo de plantas hospedeiras e transmissão via semente Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum wilt in Brazil: causal agent, host range and seed transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. é uma hortaliça da família Lamiaceae, utilizada na culinária ou como matéria prima para a indústria de fármacos e óleos essenciais. Amostras de plantas de manjericão apresentando sintomas de murcha, seca de hastes e podridão de colo foram coletadas na área rural de Brazlândia (DF durante a estação chuvosa de 2005. Outras duas amostras foram coletadas em plantas cultivadas em campo aberto e casas de vegetação na região de Ponte Alta (DF. Isolados de um fungo, identificado como Fusarium oxysporum, foram obtidos em todas as amostras. Testes de patogenicidade foram conduzidos com mudas das cultivares O. basilicum 'Dark Opal' e 'Italian Large Leaf', e de acessos das espécies O. americanum L. (manjericão de folha miúda, O. campechianum Mill. (alfavaca, Origanum manjorana L. (manjerona, Origanum vulgare L. (orégano, Mentha arvensis L. (menta, Coleus blumei Benth. (tapete, Leonorus sibiricus L. (rubim e Leonotis nepetaefolia (L. W.T. Aiton (cordão-de-frade. Todos os isolados fúngicos mostraram-se altamente virulentos sobre as duas cultivares de manjericão. Em O. campechianum e O. americanum os isolados causaram apenas suave escurecimento vascular e leve redução de crescimento, sendo avirulentos sobre acessos das espécies O. manjorana, O. vulgare, M. arvensis, C. blumei, L. sibiricus e L. nepetaefolia. Este conjunto de dados indicou que o agente causal da doença é o fungo F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici, constituindo-se no primeiro registro formal deste patógeno no Brasil. Os lotes de sementes utilizados nas áreas de ocorrência da doença foram submetidos a um teste de sanidade visando verificar a presença do patógeno. O fungo F. oxysporum f. sp. basilici foi detectado em quatro dos seis lotes e os isolados obtidos das sementes contaminadas mostraram similar sintomatologia e um idêntico perfil de virulência aos verificados em campo e casa de vegetação, sugerindo que as sementes

  18. The effects of green Ocimum basilicum hydroalcoholic extract on retention and retrieval of memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarahroodi, Shadi; Esmaeili, Somayyeh; Mikaili, Peyman; Hemmati, Zahra; Saberi, Yousof

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluation of green Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) hydroalcoholic extract on memory retention and retrieval of mice by using passive avoidance apparatus. For this purpose, after weighting, coding and classifying the mice, they were grouped (n = 8) as follow as: test groups (electric shock plus sweet basil extract by doses: 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.), control group (Only electric shock) and blank group (electric shock plus normal saline). In all mentioned groups delay time of leaving the platform for both retention and retrieval test of memory was measured. In retention test, sweet basil extract was administered immediately after receiving electric shock and in retrieval test it was administered 24 hours after receiving electric shock. The results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of green Ocimum basilicum significantly (P Ocimum basilicum is because of antioxidant activity of flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids.

  19. Antisickling activity of butyl stearate isolated from Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshilanda, Dorothée Dinangayi; Mpiana, Pius Tshimankinda; Onyamboko, Damase Nguwo Vele; Mbala, Blaise Mavinga; Ngbolua, Koto-Te-Nyiwa; Tshibangu, Damien Sha Tshibey; Bokolo, Matthieu Kokengo; Taba, Kalulu Muzele; Kasonga, Teddy Kabeya

    2014-05-01

    To perform phytochemical analyses on the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum), to elucidate the structure of isolate and then perform the antisickling activity on the crude extract and on the isolate. The Emmel test performed on the acidified methanolic extract of this plant was used to evaluate the antisickling activity. The structure characterization of the active compound was performed using chromatographic techniques for the separation and the spectroscopic ones for structure elucidation (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC). The chemical screening on the crude extract revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, tannins, quinones) alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids. The obtained extract after evaporation yielded 34.50 g (11.5%) out of 300 g of powdered leaves of O. basilicum. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate showed an interesting antisickling activity. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate from O. basilicum displayed a good antisickling activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the antisickling activity of this compound in this plant. The synthesized compound presented the same spectroscopic characteristics than the natural one and the antisickling activities of its derivatives are understudying.

  20. Gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum africanum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Bunwijit

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum africanum Lour. (hairy basil, hoary basil or lemon basil is an aromatic herb in Asian and Thai cuisine that has been used as a carminative, a digestion enhancement and remedy for gastrointestinal disturbance in Thai traditional medicine. This study was performed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of O.africanum leaf extract in acid/alcohol-induced gastric lesion in rats. Pretreatment of the plant extract can prevent the gastric damage in a dose-dependent manner. At 125 mg/kg of body weight, the plant extract attenuated the inflammation with % ulcer index of 5.08±1.41, whereas at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg of body weight, the gastric lesion was completely prevented in the manner similar to what was observed in omeprazole pretreated animals (% ulcer index of 1.0±61.94, 0.1±10.45 and 0.00±0.00, respectively. The protective effect of the plant extract against acid/alcohol-induced gastric damage relates to its high antioxidative property and the ability to enhance the activities of three antioxidative enzymes, i.e. superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Preliminary phytochemical investigation demonstrated that certain phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and vanillic acid might take part in the protective effects.

  1. Chemical characterization and genetic relationships among Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Zlatko; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Politeo, Olivera; Strikić, Frane; Kolak, Ivan; Milos, Mladen; Satovic, Zlatko

    2011-11-01

    Twenty-seven Ocimum basilicum cultivars were subjected to a chemical characterization of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a genetic characterization using the amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Since the same 27 accessions had previously been classified into six morphotypes, these analyses allowed us to make detailed comparisons of chemistry, genetics, and morphology. The chemical composition and morphology of the studied cultivars appeared to have a strong genetic component. The AFLP analysis revealed a distinction between the green and purple morphotypes. The green morphotypes predominantly utilized the terpene biosynthetic pathway, while most purple morphotypes primarily utilized the phenylpropene biosynthetic pathway. The GC/MS analysis led to identification of 87 volatiles. Among the 27 cultivars, five chemotypes were identified. A detailed characterization of the essential oil constituents indicated the existence of both specific combinations of compounds and 'private' compounds with the potential to be used in many aspects of human life. The established relationship between a genetic profile, chemical composition, and morphology represents an important step in future breeding programs and in the cultivation of this species. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Variation of Ursolic Acid Content in Eight Ocimum Species from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene M. Morais

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid is a very important compound due to its biological potential as an anti-inflammatory, trypanocidal, antirheumatic, antiviral, antioxidant and antitumoral agent. This study presents the HPLC analysis of ursolic acid (UA content in eight different Ocimum species: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L, O. basilicum var purpurascens Benth, O. basilicum var. minimum L, O. gratissimum L, O. micranthum Willd, O. selloi Benth. and O. tenuiflorum L. grown in Northeastern Brazil. In these Ocimum species, UA was detected in different yields, with O. tenuiflorum showing the highest content (2.02%. This yield is very significant when compared with other sources of UA.

  3. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soran, Maria Loredana; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cobzac, Simona Codruta, E-mail: loredana.soran@itim-cj.r [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: {alpha} and {beta}-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  4. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  5. Linalool and methyl chavicol present basil (Ocimum sp. cultivated in Brazil Linalol e metil-chavicol presentes em manjericão (Ocimum sp. cultivados no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Ocimum species are commonly known as aromatic and restorative herbs. The present research aimed to study the chemical composition of the essential oils of fresh and dry basil (Ocimum sp leaves obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The obtained yield was 0.70% for dry leaves and 0.26% for fresh leaves. The major compounds were: linalool (29.50-32.26% and methyl chavicol (36.81-41.62%. Eucalyptol could also be detected (9.99-7.68%. The oil from dry leaves presented a more complex chemical composition. This study serves to contribute to the knowledge of medicinal plants occurring in Brazil.No Brasil, as espécies de Ocimum são conhecidas como ervas aromáticas e restaurativas. Nesse trabalho foi estudado a composição química dos óleos essenciais das folhas frescas e secas de manjericão (Ocimum sp obtido por hidrodestilação e analisados por CG-FID e CG-EM. Os teores encontrados foram de 0,70% para as folhas secas e 0,26% para as folhas frescas. Os componentes majoritários foram: Linalol (29,50-32,26% e metil-chavicol (36,81-41,62%. Eucaliptol também foi detectado (9,99-7,68%. O óleo das folhas secas apresentou composição química mais complexa. Esse trabalho contribui para o conhecimento das plantas medicinais de ocorrência no Brasil.

  6. Armazenamento de sementes de Alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Ocimum gratissimum L. é um subarbusto aromático, pertencente à família Lamiaceae, considerado como importante produtor de óleo essencial e largamente utilizado na medicina popular. Devido à escassez de informações sobre a conservação das sementes dessa espécie o presente estudo objetivou analisar a longevidade das sementes submetidas a diferentes condições de armazenamento, por 12 meses, através de avaliações do potencial germinativo e da capacidade de formação de plântulas normais. As sementes foram armazenadas em três tipos de embalagens: sacos de papel, sacos de papel aluminizado, e frascos de vidro, e nas seguintes condições ambientais: balcão de laboratório, geladeira, e câmara fria. Aos 6, 8, 10 e 12 meses de armazenamento foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: umidade, porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação e porcentagem de plântulas normais. Durante o período de armazenamento a manutenção da umidade nas sementes foi mantida, bem como a porcentagem de germinação e de plântulas normais em todos os tratamentos avaliados. As sementes armazenadas apresentaram maiores valores de IVG quando comparadas com as recém-colhidas.

  7. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Maurice Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi′s broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler′s health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  8. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems.

  9. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  10. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  11. ocimum can um sims- a lesser known source of volatile oil with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocimum canum Sims grown in Lome (Togo) was studied for volatile oil composition. GC and GC/MS ... major compound in the volatile oil was just an occasional characteristic of the plant or a permanent one throughout the ... are potential alternatives to theehemicalpesticide identified asipersistent organic pollutants.[8].

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of flowering and non-flowering ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained from the flowering O. graveolens plant can justify its traditional use for treatment of common disease conditions. However, further studies should be conducted to buttress these findings and isolation of active antimicrobial components. Key words: Flowering and non-flowering parts of Ocimum graveolen, ...

  13. Anti-diabetic Potential of the Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-diabetic potential of aqueous extracts of leaves of both Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina were investigated in rabbits. Ten female rabbits were grouped into five groups (1-5) of two rabbits each. Group 1 is the control. Groups (2-5) was alloxan induced diabetic. Group 3 was then treated with 200mg/kg ...

  14. MORPHO-CHEMICAL DESCRIPTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT OCIMUM SPECIES

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    KAKARAPARTHI PANDU SASTRY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Basil is a popular medicinal and culinary herb, and its essential oils have been used extensively for many years in food products, perfumery, dental and oral products. Basil essential oils and their principal constituents were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and mould. The essential oils obtained from aerial parts of three different species of Ocimum comprising twenty one germplasm lines were investigated for their essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity during 2010. Essential oils from seventeen germplasm lines in Ocimum basilicum and two each in Ocimum tenuiflorum and Ocimum gratissimum were investigated for anti-microbial activity against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sps., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The morpho-chemotypes exhibited wide variability for morphological and chemical traits. Anti-bacterial activity was found to be high for Staphylococcus aureus, moderate for Escherichia coli, low for Bacillus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant. The essential oils of Pale Green-Broad Leaves (O. basilicum and CIM Ayu (O. gratissimum exhibited significant antibacterial activity against both S. aureus and E. coli signifying them promising for anti-bacterial activity. No relationship was observed between chemotype specificity and anti-bacterial activity, indicating that apart from major components of essential oil, minor components and other factors may be responsible for anti-microbial activities.

  15. Organic versus conventional fertilization effects on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) growth in a greenhouse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an essential oil producing crop used in culinary and fragrance applications. The objective of this controlled environment study was to evaluate the effects of organic and conventional fertilization, (applied at two nitrogen rates, 150 and 250 kg N/ha), on plant g...

  16. In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of traditional medicinal plant Ocimum species against Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbaneson, Samuel Jacob; Sundaram, Ravikumar; Suganthi, Palavesam

    2012-02-01

    To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of Ocimum canum (O. canum), Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) and Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum). The O. canum, O. sanctum and O. basilicum were collected from Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 μg/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of O. canum, O. sanctum and O. basilicum were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. The leaf extract of O. sanctum showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) 35.58 μg/mL) followed by leaf extract of O. basilicum (IC(50) 43.81 μg/mL). The leaf extract of O. canum, root extracts of O. sanctum and O. basilicum, the stem and flower extracts of all the three tested Ocimum species showed IC(50) values between 50 and 100 μg/mL. Statistical analysis reveals that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P basilicum. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, resins, steroids and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. The ethanolic leaf extracts of O. sanctum possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chicoric Acid Levels in Commercial Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, we reported fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves contain chicoric acid, which is the principal phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea and purportedly an active ingredient in dietary supplements derived from E. purpurea. Here we present the results from a study evaluating chicoric acid co...

  18. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  19. pollen grain morphology of three species and a variety of ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR PRINCE

    extensively used in perfumery, flavouring and pharmaceutical products (Khosla, 1993). Many species of Ocimum have been grown by local people as medicinal plants, culinary herbs and insect controlling agents (Grayer et al., 1996). Pollen characteristics have been used consid- erably in the taxonomy of angiosperms and ...

  20. Pollen grain morphology of three species and a variety of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen grains from fresh anthers of three species and a variety of Ocimum occurring in South-western Nigeria were collected and acetolysed. This was in an attempt to use the pollen charac-teristics to delimit, classify and trace probable evolutionary relationships among the taxa. The structural morphology of the pollen ...

  1. Detection of genetic variation in Ocimum species using RAPD and ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hardik K; Fougat, Ranbir S; Kumar, Sushil; Mistry, Jigar G; Kumar, Mukesh

    2015-10-01

    There is a lack of information on the molecular characterization of Ocimum species and hence, efforts have been made under the present study to characterize 17 Ocimum genotypes belonging to 5 different species (O. basilicum, O. americanum, O. sanctum, O. gratissimum and O. Polystachyon) through random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. PCR amplification using 20 RAPD primers generated a total of 506 loci, of which 490 (96.47 %) loci were found polymorphic. The PIC value for RAPD ranged from 0.907 (OPF 14) to 0.954 (OPC 11) with an average of 0.937. The ISSR primers generated a total of 238 loci, of them 234 (98.17 %) loci were polymorphic. The PIC value ranged from 0.892 (UBC 808) to 0.943 (ISSR A12) with an average of 0.923. The average Jaccard's similarity coefficient based on RAPD and ISSR analysis was 0.58 and 0.52, respectively. Clustering pattern of dendrogram generated using the pooled RAPD and ISSR data showed all Ocimum genotypes in their respective species groups at a cutoff value of 0.49 and 0.42, respectively. Many unique species-specific alleles were amplified by RAPD and ISSR markers. In both marker systems, a maximum number of unique alleles were observed in O. sanctum. The results of the present investigation provided valid guidelines for collection, conservation and characterization of Ocimum genetic resources.

  2. Validation of traditional claim of Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum Linn. as a medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Prakash, Jai; Srivastava, Sushma

    2002-07-01

    In several ancient systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Greek, Roman, Siddha and Unani, Ocimum sanctum has vast number of therapeutic applications such as in cardiopathy, haemopathy, leucoderma, asthma, bronchitis, catarrhal fever, otalgia, hepatopathy, vomiting, lumbago, hiccups, ophthalmia, gastropathy, genitourinary disorders, ringworm, verminosis and skin diseases etc. The present review incorporates the description of O. sanctum plant, its chemical constituents, and various pharmacological activities.

  3. Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Plants Growing in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anticandida activity was determined using the bioautography agar overlay method. All oils showed larvicidal activity with two Ocimum suave oil samples being the most active with LC50 values of 169.8 and 151.3 ppm. The same Ocimum suave oils also exhibited the highest brine shrimp mortality (LC50 4.0 and 12.6 ...

  4. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Methyl cinnamate-Linalool Chemovariant of Ocimum basilicum L. from India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajendra Chandra Padalia; Ram Swaroop Verma; Amit Chauhan; Prakash Goswami; Ved Ram Singh; Sajendra Kumar Verma; Mahendra Pandurang Darokar; Alka kurmi; Nandan Singh; Dharmendra Saikia; Chandan Singh Chanotiya

    2017-01-01

      The essential oils obtained from hydrodistillation of Ocimum basilicum L. harvested at four different growth stages during spring-summer and rain-autumn cropping seasons , were characterized using GC and GC-MS...

  5. Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera,Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues de Sousa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil. All phases of the leafminer Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer are for the first time described, including the larva, puparium and adult female. Illustrations are presented for male and female terminalia, mine, larva and pupa. The species is first recorded in leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae in Brazil.

  6. Utilization of heavy metal-rich tannery sludge for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Patra, D D

    2015-05-01

    Unlike food crops, essential oil-bearing crops in which the oil is extracted through hydro-distillation can be a suitable crop to be grown in heavy metal-polluted soils as the oil does not carry any heavy metal. In a field experiment conducted at CIMAP, Lucknow, India during 2011 and 2012, influence of six doses of tannery sludge viz 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 t ha(-1) were tested, taking sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) as the test crop. Maximum herb yield was obtained with the application of sludge at 20 t ha(-1). While in root, accumulation of Cd and Pb increased significantly up to 20 t ha(-1), Cr accumulation increased with increasing the dose of tannery sludge reaching maximum at 50 t ha(-1). Essential oil yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum) was significantly affected due to sludge application. Quality of essential oil, in term of chemical constituents, however, was marginally influenced due to tannery sludge application.

  7. Hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum linn) on streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, E H; Jamil, K; Rao, M

    2001-07-01

    Effect of oral administration of 200 mg/Kg body weight of the aqueous extract ofOcimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed with diet for eight weeks to diabetic (streptozotocin induced) rats was studied. There was significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, serum lipid profile, lipid peroxidation products, (LPO) and improvement in glucose tolerance. The aqueous extract also decreased LPO formation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS) and increased antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transferase (GT) and one antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma and rat liver, lung, kidney and brain. The decrease in TBARS and increase in GSH, SOD, CAT, GPX, and GT clearly shows the antioxidant property ofOcimum sanctum.

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of

  9. The effect of Ocimum sanctum and Ledum palustre on serum uric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For analysis of uric acid in blood samples the enzymatic method was selected due to its accuracy and reproducibility. The value of reduction in serum uric acid by Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSL) in males was 2.6 ± 0.3 and reduction in serum uric acid (SUA) by Ledum palustre Linn (LPL) in males was 4.3 ± 0.3. On the other ...

  10. Evaluation du potentiel insecticide de l'huile essentielle de Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation du potentiel insecticide de l'huile essentielle de Ocimum canum Sims sur Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera : Aphididae) au Togo. ... Les tests biologiques ont été effectués en laboratoire selon la méthodologie Insecticide Resistance Action Commitee (IRAC) N° 1 Version 2. Les résultats de ces tests ont révélé ...

  11. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum with valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Dipesh; Kumar, Ritesh; Kaleekal, Thomas; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2017-10-01

    For effective control of seizures, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are administered at higher dose which is associated with several adverse effects. This study envisaged antiepileptic and neuroprotective potential of Tulsi, a commonly used herb for its immunomodulatory property. The optimal dose of Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extract (OSHE) was determined using maximal electroshock seizure (MES)- and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure models in Wistar rats (200-250g) after administering OSHE (200-1000mg/kg) orally for 14days. For interaction study, OSHE optimal dose in combination with maximum and submaximal therapeutic doses of valproate was administered for 14days. Serum levels of valproate were estimated using HPLC for pharmacokinetic study. For pharmacodynamic interaction, antiepileptic effect on above seizure models, neurobehavioral effect using Morris water maze, passive avoidance and elevated plus maze tests, and antioxidant capacity were assessed. Ocimum sanctum hydroalcoholic extract 1000mg/kg was found to be optimal providing 50% protection against both MES- and PTZ-induced seizures. Combination of OSHE with valproate did not alter antiepileptic efficacy of valproate significantly. However, the combination showed better memory retention potential in neurobehavioral tests and protection against oxidative stress compared with valproate-alone-treated groups. Pharmacokinetic parameters did not reveal any significant change in combination group compared with valproate alone. Ocimum, although having per se antiepileptic action, did not affect antiepileptic action of valproate in combination. However, combination treatment has an edge over valproate alone-better neurobehavioral function and reduced oxidative stress-predicting adjuvant potential of Ocimum in epilepsy treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ocimum sanctum Linn--a study on gastric ulceration and gastric secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S; Das, D N; De, K; Ray, K; Roy, G; Chaudhuri, S B; Sahana, C C; Chowdhuri, M K

    1993-01-01

    The antiulcerogenic property of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) was studied in pyloric ligated and pyloric ligated & aspirin treated rats. The extract of OSL reduced the ulcer index, free & total acidity on acute and chronic administration. Seven days pretreatment with the drug increased the mucous secretion also. It may be concluded that OSL extract has antiulcerogenic property against experimental ulcers, and it is due to its ability to reduce acid secretion and increase mucous secretion.

  13. Hypnotic Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Vahid Reza; Baradaran Rahimi, Vafa; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disorders are accompanied by several complications, and currently used soporific drugs can induce unwanted effects such as psychomotor impairment, tolerance, amnesia, and rebound insomnia. The present study was carried out to investigate if Ocimum basilicum has a sleep-prolonging effect. This work was an experimental study on 72 mice which were randomly divided into 9 groups: saline (control); diazepam (3 mg/kg, positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of Ocimum basilicum (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, 50 mg/kg); n-butanol fraction (NBF, 50 mg/kg); water fraction (WF, 50 mg/kg); and saline containing 10% DMSO (vehicle for EAF and NBF). All the test compounds were injected intraperitoneally (IP) 30 minutes before pentobarbital administration (30 mg/kg). Duration and latency of pentobarbital-induced sleep were recorded. Also, LD50 of HAE was determined and the cytotoxicity of HAE was tested on neural and fibroblast cells using the MTT assay. HAE increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (P Ocimum basilicum potentiates sleeping behaviors without any cytotoxicity. The main component (s) responsible for the hypnotic effects of this plant is most likely a non-polar agent (s) which is found in NBF. Isolation of the active constituents may yield a novel sedative drug.

  14. Activity of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus s.s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akono Ntonga, Patrick; Baldovini, Nicolas; Mouray, Elisabeth; Mambu, Lengo; Belong, Philippe; Grellier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of essential oils from three plants grown in Cameroon: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum, and Cymbopogon citratus were tested against Plasmodium falciparum and mature-stage larvae of Anopheles funestus. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main compounds are geranial, 1,8-cineole and linalool in C. citratus, O. canum and O. basilicum, respectively. Larvicidal tests carried out according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization showed that the essential oil of leaves of C. citratus is the most active against larvae of An. funestus (LC50 values = 35.5 ppm and 34.6 ppm, respectively, for larval stages III and IV after 6 h of exposure). Besides, the in vitro anti-plasmodial activity evaluated by the radioisotopic method showed that the C. citratus oil is the most active against P. falciparum, with an IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL compared with O. canum (20.6 ± 3.4 μg/mL) and O. basilicum (21 ± 4.6 μg/mL). These essential oils can be recommended for the development of natural biocides for fighting the larvae of malaria vectors and for the isolation of natural products with anti-malarial activity. © P. Akono Ntonga et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  15. Inhibitory effect of leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Emmanuel Anyachukwu; Agboola, Samson Olalekan; Oboh, Ganiyu; Boligon, Aline Augusti

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the phenolics composition and inhibitory effect of the leaves extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum on two key enzymes (pancreatic lipase [PL] and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme [ACE]) involved in obesity and hypertension in vitro. The phenolics (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection. PL and ACE inhibitory effects; DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities of the extracts were tested using spectrophotometric methods. O. basilicum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin (flavonoids); caffeic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids (phenolic acids); while O. gratissimum had the following major phenolics: Rutin, quercitrin, and luteolin (flavonoids); ellagic and chlorogenic acids (phenolic acids). "Extracts of both plants inhibited PL and ACE; scavenged DPPH* in a dose-dependent manner". O. gratissimum extract was more potent in inhibiting PL (IC50: 20.69 µg/mL) and ACE (IC50: 29.44 µg/mL) than O. basilicum (IC50: 52.14 µg/mL and IC50: 64.99 µg/mL, against PL and ACE, respectively). O. gratissimum also scavenged DPPH* and ABTS*+ more than O. basilicum. O. basilicum and O. gratissimum leaves could be used as functional foods for the management of obesity and obesity-related hypertension. However, O. gratissimum may be more effective than O. basilicum.

  16. Reversal of Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress in Chicken by Herbal Adaptogens Withania Somnifera and Ocimum Sanctum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharavi, K.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Rao, G. S.; Reddy, A. Rajasekhara; Rao, S. V. Rama

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum on cadmium-induced oxidative toxicity in broiler chicken. Cadmium administration at the rate of 100 ppm orally along with feed up to 28 days produced peroxidative damage, as indicated by increase in TBARS, reduction in glutathione (GSH) concentration in liver and kidney, and increase in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of erythrocytes. Herbal adaptogens Withania somnifera roots and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder administration at the rate of 0.1% through feed reversed the antioxidant enzyme of RBC, i.e., CAT and SOD, nonenzymatic antioxidants GSH and lipid peroxidation marker TBARS of liver and kidney. Liver and kidney tissue repair and normal function was assessed by alanine aminotransaminase for liver and creatinine and blood urea nitrogen for kidney. In conclusion, oral administration of Withania somnifera root and Ocimum sanctum leaf powder prevented cadmium-induced peroxidation of tissues. PMID:21170246

  17. "Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of essential oil, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum Willd leaves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamal-Herrera, Isabel O; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi M; Escalante-Réndiz, Diana Y; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Azamar-Barrios, José A

    2018-02-08

    Ocimum micranthum Willd is a plant used in traditional medicine practiced in the region of the Yucatan peninsula. In particular, it is used for the treatment of cutaneous infections and wound healing, however there are currently no existing scientific studies that support these applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and the in vitro proliferative activity (on healthy mammalian cell lines) of the essential oil and extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of this plant. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oil and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans was determined using the microdilution technique. The in vitro proliferative activity of human fibroblast (hFB) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells treated with these extracts was evaluated using the MTT test. The hFB cell line was also evaluated using Trypan Blue assay. Candida albicans was more susceptible to the ethanolic extract and the aqueous extract (MIC value of 5 μL/mL and 80 μL/mL respectively). In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the MIC of the aqueous and ethanolic extract was 125 μL/mL. The aqueous extract showed a significant (p essential oil and extracts of Ocimum micranthum leaves are sufficient to cause an antiproliferative effect on the hFB cell line but do not produce an antimicrobial effect against the microorganisms evaluated. More studies are necessary to improve understanding of the mechanism of action of the compounds implicated in the bioactivities shown by the crude extracts.

  18. Can Ocimum basilicum relieve chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression in mice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuob, Nasra Naeim; Firgany, Alaa El-Din L; El-Mansy, Ahmed A; Ali, Soad

    2017-10-01

    Depression is one of the important world-wide health problems. This study aimed to assess the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oil on the behavioral, biochemical and histopathological changes resulted from exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). It also aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism in an animal model of depression. Forty male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups (n=10): control, CUMS (exposed to CUMS for 4weeks), CUMS plus fluoxetine, and CUMS plus OB. At the end of the experiment, behavioral changes, serum corticosterone level, protein and gene expressions of brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the hippocampus was all assessed. Immunoexpression of surface makers of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67, Caspase-3, BDNF and GR in the hippocampus were estimated. Data were analyzed by using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). OB alleviated both behavioral and biochemical changes recorded in mice after exposure to CUMS. It also reduced neuronal atrophy observed in the hippocampal region III cornu ammonis (CA3) and dentate gyrus and restored back astrocyte number. OB decreased apoptosis in both neurons and glial cells and increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in a pattern comparable to that of fluoxetine. Increased BDNF and GR gene and protein expressions seems to be behind the antidepressant-like effect of OB. Ocimum basilicum ameliorates the changes induced after exposure to the chronic stress. Assessing Ocimum basilicum efficacy on human as antidepressant is recommended in further studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Ocimum basilicum: Antibacterial activity and association study with antibiotics against bacteria of clinical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo Silva, Viviane; Pereira da Sousa, Janiere; de Luna Freire Pessôa, Hilzeth; Fernanda Ramos de Freitas, Andrea; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; Beuttenmuller Nogueira Alves, Larissa; Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2016-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), popularly known as basil, is part of a group of medicinal plants widely used in cooking and known for its beneficial health properties, possessing significant antioxidant effects, antinociceptive, and others. The objective of this study is to determine the pharmacological effects produced on the bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when standard antibiotics and O. basilicum essential oil are combined. The extraction of O. basilicum (leaves) components was done by steam distillation. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated using microdilution technique, where the oil concentrations varied from 2 to 1024 μg/mL. The combinations of O. basilicum oil with ciprofloxacin or imipenem were analyzed by the checkerboard method where fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices were calculated. Ocimum basilicum essential oil, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin showed respective MIC antibacterial activities of 1024, 4, and 2 μg/mL, against S. aureus. In S. aureus, the oil with imipenem association showed synergistic effect (FIC = 0.0625), while the oil with ciprofloxacin showed antagonism (FIC value = 4.25). In P. aeruginosa, the imipenem/oil association showed additive effect for ATCC strains, and synergism for the clinical strain (FIC values = 0.75 and 0.0625). The association of O. basilicum essential oil with ciprofloxacin showed synergism for clinical strains (FIC value = 0.09). Ocimum basilicum essential oil associated with existing standard antibiotics may increase their antibacterial activity, resulting in a synergistic activity against bacterial strains of clinical importance. The antibacterial activity of O. basilicum essential oil may be associated with linalool.

  20. Anti-HIV Activity of Ocimum labiatum Extract and Isolated Pheophytin-a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrina Kapewangolo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum plants are traditionally used to manage HIV/AIDS in various African countries. The effects of Ocimum labiatum extract on HIV-1 protease (PR and reverse transcriptase (RT is presented here along with characterization of an identified bioactive compound, achieved through 1H- and 13C-NMR. The extract’s effect on HIV-1 replication was assessed by HIV-1 p24 antigen capture. Cytotoxicity of samples was evaluated using tetrazolium dyes and real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES. Ocimum labiatum inhibited HIV-1 PR with an IC50 value of 49.8 ± 0.4 μg/mL and presented weak inhibition (21% against HIV-1 RT. The extract also reduced HIV-1 replication in U1 cells at a non-cytotoxic concentration (25 μg/mL. The CC50 value of the extract in U1 cells was 42.0 ± 0.13 μg/mL. The HIV-1 PR inhibiting fraction was purified using prep-HPLC and yielded a chlorophyll derivative, pheophytin-a (phy-a. Phy-a inhibited HIV-1 PR with an IC50 value of 44.4 ± 1.5 μg/mL (51 ± 1.7 μM. The low cytotoxicity of phy-a in TZM-bl cells was detected by RT-CES and the CC50 value in U1 cells was 51.3 ± 1.0 μg/mL (58.9 ± 1.2 μM. This study provides the first in vitro evidence of anti-HIV activity of O. labiatum and isolated phy-a, supporting further investigation of O. labiatum for lead compounds against HIV-1.

  1. Purified Essential Oil from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Triggers the Apoptotic Mechanism in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaharan, Thamilvaani; Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran; Kanthimathi, M S; Ramya, Gunasekar; Ramnath, Madhusudhanan Gogul

    2016-05-01

    Essential oil of Ocimum sanctum Linn. exhibited various pharmacological activities including antifungal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, we analyzed the anticancer and apoptosis mechanisms of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO). To trigger the apoptosis mechanism in human breast cancer cells using OSEO. OSEO was extracted using hydrodistillation of the leaves. Cell proliferation was determined using different concentrations of OSEO. Apoptosis studies were carried out in human breast cancer cells using propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst staining. We found that OSEO inhibited proliferation (IC50 = 170 μg/ml) of Michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells in a dose-dependent manner. The OSEO also induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increasing number of PI-stained apoptotic nucleic of MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that treatment with OSEO (50-500 μg/ml) increased the apoptotic cells population (16-84%) dose dependently compared to the control. OSEO has the ability to up-regulate the apoptotic genes p53 and Bid and as well as elevates the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Our findings indicate that OSEO has the ability as proapoptotic inducer and it could be developed as an anticancer agent. OSEO inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 170 μg/mLOSEO at 500 μg/mL increased the population of apoptotic cells by 84%OSEO up-regulated the expression of apoptotic genes and as well increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Abbreviations used: BAX: BAX BCL2-associated X protein; BCL2: B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; BID: BH3 Interacting domain death agonist; OSEO: Ocimum sanctum essential oil; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; MCF-7: Michigan cancer foundation-7; Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

  2. Levantamento de insetos associados à alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Rando, Jael Simões Santos; Lima, Cristina Batista; Mishfeldt, Laila Herta

    2014-01-01

    Espécies originárias de diferentes continentes são cultivadas e exploradas pelo conhecimento tradicional estabelecido em diferentes regiões do Brasil. Nesse sentido, a alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L.) produz metabólitos secundários utilizados na medicina, na indústria e na agricultura. O estabelecimento de diretrizes que visem regulamentar o cultivo, o manejo sustentado, a produção, a distribuição e o uso de plantas com esse potencial vem sendo estudado. Com o propósito de determinar a ...

  3. FENOLOGÍA DE LA ALBAHACA BLANCA (Ocimum basilicum L.) CULTIVADA EN DIFERENTES FECHAS DE SIEMBRA

    OpenAIRE

    L. Barroso; E. Jerez

    2002-01-01

    El presente trabajo se desarrolló en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA), con el objetivo de estudiar la fenología de la albahaca blanca (Ocimum basilicum L.) en diferentes fechas de siembra. Para ello las semillas se sembraron en enero y abril en recipientes de seis litros, con un sustrato de suelo Ferralítico Rojo compactado y materia orgánica del tipo cachaza, en una relación 3:1 v/v. Del análisis de las observaciones se obtuvo que, entre las fechas estudiadas, se alcanzan d...

  4. CRECIMIENTO Y DESARROLLO DE VARIEDADES DE ALBAHACA (Ocimum basilicum L.) EN CONDICIONES DE SALINIDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Murillo Amador; Alejandra Nieto Garibay; Enrique Troyo Diéguez; Inés María Reynaldo Escobar; Edgar Omar Rueda Puente; Jairo Leonardo Cuervo Andrade

    2014-01-01

    El cultivo de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.) presenta amplia variabilidad en cuanto a la tolerancia al estrés salino, sin embargo es sensible durante el crecimiento inicial. El establecimiento de indicadores morfométricos que indiquen tolerancia a la salinidad por parte del cultivo es importante para recomendar a los agricultores la variedad más productiva en esas condiciones. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto del NaCl en el crecimiento y desarrollo de plantas de albahaca. Se e...

  5. Antioxidant Capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Trivic; Biljana Kaurinovic; Sanja Vlaisavljevic; Mira Popovic

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of five different extracts (Et2O, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O) of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were studied. Antioxidant activity was assessed in six different model systems. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of extracts on DPPH, NO, O2·- and OH radical, as well as on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In addition, the protective effects on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LPx) were evaluated by TBA-ass...

  6. The Effect of Mechanical Wounding on the Composition of Essential Oil from Ocimum Minimum L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    S. Grant Wyllie; Dimitrios Zabaras

    2001-01-01

    The effect of mechanical damage on the composition of the essential oil obtained from eugenol-rich Ocimum minimum leaves was determined over 48 hours. Changes in the levels of five oil-constituents were detected in the first post-wounding day but only one of those components (camphor) exhibited the same behaviour the day after. The levels of eugenol (-4.8%) and linalool (+2.5%) were affected the most by the wounding process. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed the post-wounding response...

  7. Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. and eugenol against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, L M; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Luciano, J H S

    2002-10-16

    The ovicidal activity of the essential oil of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labideae) and its main component eugenol was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus, gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants. The oil and eugenol were diluted in Tween 20 (0.5%) at five different concentrations. In the egg hatch test, H. contortus eggs were obtained from feces of goats experimentally infected. At 0.50% concentration, the essential oil and eugenol showed a maximum eclodibility inhibition. These results suggest a possible utilization of the essential oil of O. gratissimum as an aid to the control of gastrointestinal helmintosis of small ruminants.

  8. Chemical composition, antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of essential oil Ocimum sanctum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatović Damir V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae sin. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. or Tulsi basil is a plant originating from tropical and subtropical areas of India. It is used in both the traditional and official medicine in India. Tulsi is a type of basil that is insufficiently explored and studied in Europe. The goal of this paper is to determine the chemical composition, antioxidative, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil Ocimum sanctum L. grown in Serbia. The quantity of essential oil in 100 g of herb (v/w is 0.68%, with 41 components identified in the tested essential oil. The most represented chemical group are sesquiturpene hydrocarbonates with 80.47%. Other groups were much less represented. Sesquiturpene hydrocarbonate β-cariophyllene is a predominant component in the essential oil with 63.80%. The quantity of tested essential oil needed to achieve 50% of inhibition of DPPH radicals is 0.35 μg/ml, and it has high potential to neutralize free radicals. The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity to all tested strains of bacteria, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative. It affected all strains in an inhibitory way in the interval 0.34-41.50 μl/ml, and in a bactericide way within the range 22.50-124.5 μl/ml. The most sensitive strains of bacteria are Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, while Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococus faecalis showed greatest resistance. The essential oil exhibited antifugal activity on all tested fungi. It affected all tested fungi in an inhibitory way in the interval 4.42-8.83 μl/ml, and in a microbicide way within the range 10.00-50.00 μl/ml. The most sensitive fungi are: Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium ochrochloron and Penicilium funiculosum, while the most resistent one is Aspergillus niger. The tested basil essential oil Ocimum sanctum demonstrated significant antioxidative and antimicrobial effect and may be used as a raw material in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  9. Anti-acetylcholinesterase potential and metabolome classification of 4 Ocimum species as determined via UPLC/qTOF/MS and chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, M A; Ezzat, S M; Salama, M M; Tadros, M G

    2016-06-05

    Ocimum (sweet basil) is a plant of considerable commercial importance in traditional medicine worldwide as well as for the flavor and food industry. The goal of this study was to examine Ocimum extracts anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and to correlate the activity with their secondary metabolites profiles via a metabolome based ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) approach coupled to chemometrics. The metabolomic differences in phenolics from leaves derived from 4 Ocimum species: Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum africanum, Ocimum americanum and Ocimum minimum were assessed. Under optimized conditions, 81 metabolites were identified including 21 hydroxy cinnamic acids, 4 benzoic acid conjugates, 14C/O flavonoid conjugates, 2 alcohols, 5 acyl sugars, 4 triterpenes and 12 fatty acids. Several salviolanic acid derivatives including salviolanic acid A, B, C & I found in Salvia, were found in Ocimum herein for the first time. Unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were further used for comparing and classification of samples. A clear separation among the four investigated Ocimum species was revealed, with O. africanum samples found most enriched in hydroxy cinnamates conjugates (HC) and flavonoids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report for compositional differences among Ocimum leaves via a metabolomic approach revealing that among examined species O. africanum leaves present a better source of Ocimum bioactive metabolites. The anticholinesrase activity of examined species was further assessed with a potent IC50 values for O. americanum, O. africanum, O. basilicum ranging from 2.5 to 6.6mg/ml, whereas O. minimum was least active with IC50 of 31.4mg/ml. Furthermore, major HC i.e., caftaric, chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids identified in extracts via UPLC-MS analysis exhibited IC50 values of 24, 0.5 and 7.9mg/ml respectively

  10. Artificial LED lighting enhances growth characteristics and total phenolic content of Ocimum basilicum, but variably affects transplant success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantis, Filippos; Ouzounis, Theoharis; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2016-01-01

    The morphological and phytochemical characteristics of two Ocimum basilicum cultivars (Lettuce Leaf, and Red Rubin-mountain Athos hybrid) under artificial lighting were investigated. Four LED light treatments [AP673L (high red and high red:far-red), G2 (high red and low red:far-red), AP67

  11. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and purslane (Portulaca oleracea) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has been recently detected in tomato, pepper, hoya and vinca in Florida. Observations of additional crops in 2016 and 2017 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these symptomatic plants identified three new hosts of TCSV in Florida: sweet basil (Ocimum basilicu...

  12. Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

    2013-12-01

    Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, β-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum.

  13. Hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract against paracetamol-induced liver damage in Albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahon, Kingshuk; Das, Swarnamoni

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of reliable hepatoprotective drugs in modern medicine to prevent and treat drug-induced liver damage. Leaves of Sacred/Holy Basil, i.e. Green Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), belonging to family Lamiaceae are used traditionally for their hepatoprotective effect. We wanted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum and observe whether synergistic hepatoprotection exists with silymarin. Albino rats (150-200 g) were divided into five groups. Groups A and B were normal and experimental controls, respectively. Groups C, D and E received the alcoholic extract of Ocimum Sanctum leaves (OSE) 200 mg/kg BW/day, silymarin 100 mg/kg BW/day and OSE 100 mg/kg BW/day + silymarin 50 mg/kg BW/day p.o., respectively, for 10 days. Hepatotoxicity was induced in Groups B, C, D and E on the eighth day with paracetamol 2 g/kg BW/day. The hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum proteins, albumin globulin ratio, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases and liver histopathology. The assay results were presented as mean and standard error of mean (SEM) for each group. The study group was compared with the control group by one-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferoni's test. A P-value of Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract shows significant hepatoprotective activity and synergism with silymarin.

  14. Pengaruh Pemberian Minyak Atsiri Daun Kemangi (Ocimum americanum L. Terhadap Motilitas Usus Mencit Putih Jantan

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    Dewi Sriyani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kemangi (Ocimum americanum L. is a well known plant that contains essential oils with citral as a major compound. Citral is reported to have beneficial effect on intestinal motility. This reseach investigated the effect of essential oil of kemangi leaves (Ocimum americanum L. on male DDY mices intestinal motility. Thirty mices were divided into six groups and each group was pretreated with 0,2 ml of 0,5% CMC (negative control, 1 mg/kg BW of atropine sulfate (positive control, 5 mg/kg BW of citral (comparative control, and three dose variation of volatile oil of kemangi leaves (25 mg/kg BW; 50 mg/kg BW; 100 mg/kg BW orally. All mices were given charcoal meal suspension 0,2 ml orally, and the animals were sacrificed. The percentage ratio and inhibition were analysed by measure the intestinal transit of charcoal. The results showed that the essential oil of kemangi leaves dose 100 mg/kg BW significantly (p 0.05 compared with citral and atropine sulfate. This research concluded that the essential oil of kemangi leaves has potential effect as antispasmodic agent.

  15. Antibacterial activity of essential oils of edible spices, Ocimum canum and Xylopia aethiopica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyry Wouatsa, N A; Misra, Laxminarain; Venkatesh Kumar, R

    2014-05-01

    The essential oils of 2 Cameroonian spices, namely, Xylopia aethiopica and Ocimum canum, were chemically investigated and screened for their antibacterial activity. The essential oils were analyzed by means of GC, GC/MS, and NMR. X. aethiopica oil contained myrtenol (12%), a monoterpenoid in highest concentration. The essential oil of O. canum belonged to the known linalool (44%) rich chemotype. The results of the antibacterial screening against the food spoiling bacteria revealed a significant and broad spectrum of activity for these essential oils. The present material of X. aethiopica, which is having myrtenol in relatively higher concentration, has shown moderate antibacterial activity. The bioassay-guided fractionation of Ocimum canum oil through flash chromatography showed that minor compounds, namely, α-terpineol, chavicol, chavibetol, and trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-ol, significantly contributed for the overall activity observed. Hence, these results evidenced the possible potential of the essential oil of O. canum as a suitable antibacterial for controlling food-borne pathogens whereas the X. aethiopica oil has moderate possibility. There is a strong global demand for the microbe-free, safe, and healthy foods. In this study, we showed that the essential oil of O. canum (wild basil) can be used as antibacterial for food items. Also, we showed that a value addition in the antibacterial potential of O. canum oil can be done by processing the essential oil through flash chromatographic separations. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Effects of seasonal variation on the central nervous system activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Cristiana M Murbach; Marques, Márcia Ortiz M; Costa, Mirtes

    2006-04-21

    Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) and other species of the same genus are used as medicines to treat central nervous system (CNS) diseases, commonly encountered in warm regions of the world. The chemical composition of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil varies according to their chemotypes: timol, eugenol or geraniol. In this study, the essential oil type eugenol was extracted by hydrodistillation in each of the four seasons of the year. Activity upon CNS was evaluated in the open-field and rota-rod tests; sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (PBS, 40 mg/kg, intra-peritoneally, i.p.) and anticonvulsant activity against seizures induced by both pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 85 mg/kg, s.c.) and maximal electroshock (MES, 50 mA, 0.11 s) were determined. Essential oils obtained in each season were effective in increasing the sleeping duration and a preparation obtained in Spring was able to protect animals against tonic seizures induced by electroshock. In each season, eugenol and 1,8-cineole were the most abundant compounds, and in Spring the essential oil presented the greatest relative percentage of sesquiterpenes, suggesting that these compounds could explain the differences observed in the biological activity in essential oils obtained in different seasons of the year.

  17. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE. In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n=6/group/sex were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n=6/group/sex for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use.

  18. Estudio farmacognóstico de ocimum basilicum l. (albahaca blanca

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    Ester Sánchez Govín

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. (albahaca blanca es una de las plantas aromáticas que se clasifican por la composición química de su aceite. Se investigó la variedad lactucaefolium que posee propiedades antisépticas, antiinflamatorias y antiespasmódicas. Se determinaron los índices numéricos en esta especie y se estandarizó el perfil cromatográfico a partir de su aceite esencial. El estudio de conservación muestra que el tiempo óptimo de almacenamiento en frasco de vidrio y sobres de polietileno es de 10 meses.Ocimum basilicum L. (white sweet basil is one of the aromatic plants that is classified according to the chemical composition of its oil. The lactucaefolium variety that has antiseptic, antiinflammatory and antispasmodic properties was investigated. The numerical indexes were determined in this species and the chromatographic profile was standardized starting from its essential oil. The conservation study shows that the optimum time of storage in glass flasks and polyethylene bags is of l0 months.

  19. Effect of Ocimum sanctum on Oral Cancer Cell Line: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivpuje, Prachi; Ammanangi, Renuka; Bhat, Kishore; Katti, Sandeep

    2015-09-01

    Cancer till today remains the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Plants have been beacon of therapeutic sources for curing diseases from times immemorial. Hence, the present study aimed at evaluating the antiproliferative activity of extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves on oral cancer cell line. To evaluate the antiproliferative effect and to analyze dose dependent cytotoxic activity of aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves on KB mouth cell line. To compare the effectiveness among different variety of O. sanctum. KB cells (Mouth Epidermal Carcinoma Cells) were used for the present study. Aqueous and dry extract of O. sanctum with both dark (Krishna Tulsi) and light (Rama Tulsi) leaves were prepared in the institution. The antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity on KB cell line was evaluated by MTT assay. Statistical analysis with Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon matched pairs test was carried out. The aqueous extract of O. sanctum of both the leaves exhibited significant cytotoxic effect against oral cancer cell line. Aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves was effective as an antiproliferative agent which caused apoptosis in oral cancer cell line. Ocimum sanctum herb which is abundantly grown in India can be used for its anticancer properties for treating oral cancer. This will not only be cost-effective but will also have less or no side effects.

  20. A randomized controlled clinical trial of Ocimum sanctum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases are ubiquitous, affecting all dentate animals. Regular methods for controlling it have been found to be ineffective, which have paved the way for the use of herbal products as an adjunctive to mechanical therapy as they are free to untoward effects and hence can be used for a long period of time. Ocimum sanctum is a plant which has the greater medicinal value and enormous properties for curing and preventing disease. Objective: In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of Ocimum sanctum on dental plaque, gingival inflammation and comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine and normal saline (placebo. Materials and Methods: A triple blind randomized control trial was conducted among volunteered medical students. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: (1 Ocimum sanctum mouthwash (n = 36; (2 Chlorhexidine (active control (n = 36; (3 normal saline (negative control (n = 36. Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of both mouthwash. ANOVA (Analysis of variance and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS version 17. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse may prove to be an effective mouthwash owing to its ability in decreasing periodontal indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding. It has no side effect as compared to chlorhexidine.

  1. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, P; Gupta, Neelu

    2005-04-01

    The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn (known as Tulsi in Hindi), a small herb seen throughout India, have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, painful eye diseases, chronic fever, insect bite etc. The Ocimum sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic, adaptogenic and diaphoretic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituent present in Ocimum sanctum L., has been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials of Tulsi. Although because of its great therapeutic potentials and wide occurrence in India the practitioners of traditional systems of medicine have been using Ocimum sanctum L. for curing various ailments, a rational approach to this traditional medical practice with modern system of medicine is, however, not much available. In order to establish the therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum L. in modern medicine, in last few decades several Indian scientists and researchers have studied the pharmacological effects of steam distilled, petroleum ether and benzene extracts of various parts of Tulsi plant and eugenol on immune system, reproductive system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastric system, urinary system and blood biochemistry and have described the therapeutic significance of Tulsi in management of various ailments. These pharmacological studies have established a scientific basis for therapeutic uses of this plant.

  2. Ocimum sanctum extracts attenuate hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxic ultrastructural changes in human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Nabanita; Joshi, Sujata; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the major oxidant involved in cataract formation. The present study investigated the effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) against H2O2 induced cytotoxic changes in human lens epithelial cells (HLEC). Donor eyes of the age range 20-40 years were procured within 5-8 h of death. After several washings with gentamicin (50 mL/L) and betadine (10 mL/L), clear transparent lenses (n=6 in each group) were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) alone (normal) or in DMEM containing 100 microm of H2O2 (control) or in DMEM containing both H2O2 (100 microm) and 150 microg/mL of Ocimum sanctum extract (treated) for 30 min at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 and 95% air. Following incubation, the semi-hardened epithelium of each lens was carefully removed, fixed and processed for electron microscopic studies. Thin sections (60-70 mm) were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and viewed under a transmission electron microscope. Normal epithelial cells showed intact, euchromatic nucleus with few small vacuoles (diameter 0.58+/-0.6 microm) in well-demarcated cytoplasm. After treatment with H2O2, they showed pyknotic nuclei with clumping of chromatin and ill-defined edges. The cytoplasm was full of vacuoles (diameter 1.61+/-0.7 microm). The overall cellular morphology was typical of dying cells. Treatment of cells with Ocimum sanctum extract protected the epithelial cells from H2O2 insult and maintained their normal architecture. The mean diameter of the vacuoles was 0.66+/-0.2 microm. The results indicate that extracts of O. sanctum have an important protective role against H2O2 injury in HLEC by maintaining the normal cellular architecture. The protection could be due to its ability to reduce H2O2 through its antioxidant property and thus reinforcing the concept that the extracts can penetrate the HLEC membrane. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Effect of Mechanical Wounding on the Composition of Essential Oil from Ocimum Minimum L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grant Wyllie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mechanical damage on the composition of the essential oil obtained from eugenol-rich Ocimum minimum leaves was determined over 48 hours. Changes in the levels of five oil-constituents were detected in the first post-wounding day but only one of those components (camphor exhibited the same behaviour the day after. The levels of eugenol (-4.8% and linalool (+2.5% were affected the most by the wounding process. Principal component analysis (PCA showed the post-wounding response to be independent from the pre-wounding levels of the particular compounds expressing the response and from the overall leaf oil-composition.

  4. The Essential Oil Compositions of Ocimum basilicum from Three Different Regions: Nepal, Tajikistan, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh S; Satyal, Prabodh; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Pokharel, Suraj; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Kukaniev, Muhammadsho A; Setzer, William N

    2016-02-01

    The aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum L. were collected from four different geographical locations, Sindhuli and Biratnagar (Nepal), Chormaghzak village (Tajikistan), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 179 essential oil compositions revealed six major chemotypes: Linalool, eugenol, estragole, methyl eugenol, 1,8-cineole, and geraniol. All four of the basil oils in this study were of the linalool-rich variety. Some of the basil oils were screened for bioactivity including antimicrobial, cytotoxicity in human cancer cells, brine shrimp lethality, nematicidal, larvicidal, insecticidal, and antioxidant. The basil oils in this study were not notably antibacterial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, nor nematicidal, but were active in the brine shrimp lethality test, and did show larvicidal and insecticidal activities. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. The impact of hybridization on the volatile and sensorial profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids ("Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita," "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon," and "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita"). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid "Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita" exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita," such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon"; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents.

  6. Influence of the harvesting time, temperature and drying period on basil (Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil

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    José Luiz S. Carvalho Filho

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil with high concentration of linalool is valuable in international business. O. basilicum essential oil is widely used as seasoning and in cosmetic industry. To assure proper essential oil yield and quality, it is crucial to determine which environmental and processing factors are affecting its composition. The goal of our work is to evaluate the effects of harvesting time, temperature, and drying period on the yield and chemical composition of O. basilicum essential oil. Harvestings were performed 40 and 93 days after seedling transplantation. Harvesting performed at 8:00 h and 12:00 h provided higher essential oil yield. After five days drying, the concentration of linalool raised from 45.18% to 86.80%. O. basilicum should be harvested during morning and the biomass dried at 40ºC for five days to obtain linalool rich essential oil.

  7. Green synthesis and spectral characterization of silver nanoparticles from Lakshmi tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, Y; Kotakadi, Venkata S; Prasad, T N V K V; Reddy, A V; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-02-15

    A simple method for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extract of Lakshmi tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf as a reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using aqueous extract of tulasi leaf with AgNO(3) solution within 15 min. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized using physic-chemical techniques viz., UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Characterization data reveals that the particles were crystalline in nature and triangle shaped with an average size of 42 nm. The zeta potential of AgNPs were found to be -55.0 mV. This large negative zeta potential value indicates repulsion among AgNPs and their dispersion stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of biofertilizers on quantitative characterization of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Fatemeh Shirzadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is a medicinal plant belonging to the mint dark, with fresh vegetables and spices are used. Nowadays the use of chemical inputs in farming causing severe environmental problems such as water pollution, soil and soil fertility is decreasing. Sources rather than chemical, biological resources important for the preservation of fertility and biological activity, improving the quality of agricultural products and ecosystem health is. In spring and summer 2012 in order to test the research station in Karaj Azad University Mahdasht done. Factorial experiment using randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments include: intraradices Glomus Mycorrhizal fungi, bacteria Azotobacter chrocooccum and vermicompost were each at two levels, taking no actions were taken. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of triple Mycorrhizal, Azotobacter and vermicompost increased compared to control growth traits, plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of inflorescences per plant, stem diameter and Dry matter yield level (p

  9. Antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory potentials of essential oil from edible Ocimum sanctum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaharan, Thamilvaani; Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran; Ramya, Gunasekar; Ramnath, Gogul; Kanthimathi, M S

    2014-01-01

    Antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO) have been assessed in this study. OSEO at the concentration of 250 μg/mL and above showed a significant ((*) P < 0.05) decrease in the number of migrated cancer cells. In addition, OSEO at concentration of 250 μg/mL and above suppressed MMP-9 activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory cells. A dose-dependent downregulation of MMP-9 expression was observed with the treatment of OSEO compared to the control. Our findings indicate that OSEO has both antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory potentials, advocating further investigation for clinical applications in the treatment of inflammation associated cancer.

  10. Optimization of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process regarding the antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidović Senka S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of input variables (temperature and extraction solvent that optimize a particular response (total phenols content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process were determined by the response surface methodology (RSM. The influence of theextraction temperature on extraction process was investigated in the range from 33.8ºC to 76.2ºC, as well as of extraction solvent ethanol, in the range of concentrations from 21.7% to 78.3%. For the preparation of basil dry extract, characterized with minimal IC50 value, the calculated optimal values of temperature and ethanol concentration were: 75.33ºC and 73.66% (w/w. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31013

  11. Extracellular biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Krishna tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum) leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Daizy; Unni, C.

    2011-05-01

    Aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum leaf is used as reducing agent for the environmentally friendly synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. These methods allow the synthesis of hexagonal gold nanoparticles having size ∼30 nm showing two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands by changing the relative concentration of HAuCl 4 and the extract. Broadening of SPR is observed at larger quantities of the extract possibly due to biosorption of gold ions. Silver nanoparticles with size in the range 10-20 nm having symmetric SPR band centered around 409 nm are obtained for the colloid synthesized at room temperature at a pH of 8. Crystallinity of the nanoparticles is confirmed from the XRD pattern. Biomolecules responsible for capping are different in gold and silver nanoparticles as evidenced by the FTIR spectra.

  12. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent.

  13. Antinociceptive action of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) in mice: possible mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, N; Bhatia, Jagriti

    2003-10-01

    The alcoholic leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (OS, Tulsi) was tested for analgesic activity in mice. In the glacial acetic acid (GAA)-induced writhing test, OS (50, 100 mg/kg, i.p.; and 50, 100, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the number of writhes. OS (50, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) also increased the tail withdrawal latency in mice. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.), an opioid antagonist, and DSP-4 (50 mg/kg, i.p.), a central noradrenaline depletor, attenuated the analgesic effect of OS in both the experimental models, whereas, PCPA (300 mg/kg, i.p.), a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, potentiated the action of OS on tail flick response in mice. The results of our study suggest that the analgesic action of OS is exerted both centrally as well as peripherally and involves an interplay between various neurotransmitter systems.

  14. Antistressor activity of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) against experimentally induced oxidative stress in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, S; Satendra, S; Sushma, S; Anjana, T; Shashi, S

    2007-01-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) were evaluated for antistress activity against experimentally induced oxidative stress in albino rabbits. Animals of the test group received supplementation of 2 g fresh leaves of O. sanctum per rabbit for 30 days. Anemic hypoxia was induced chemically by injecting the rabbits with 15 mg sodium nitrite per 100 g body weight intraperitoneally. Results indicated that O. sanctum administration blunted the changes in cardiorespiratory (BP, HR, RR) parameters in response to stress. A significant (p sanctum leaves. Significant increase (p sanctum. Oxidative stress led to a lesser depletion of reduced glutathione (28.80%) and plasma superoxide dismutase (23.04%) in O. sanctum-treated rabbits. The results of this study suggest that the potential antistressor activity of O. sanctum is partly attributable to its antioxidant properties.

  15. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaf extract and screening its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Garima; Bhavesh, Riju; Kasariya, Kunal; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Singh, Rajendra Pal

    2011-07-01

    Development of green nanotechnology is generating interest of researchers toward ecofriendly biosynthesis of nanoparticles. In this study, biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles was done using Tulsi ( Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract. These biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis spectrophotometer, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Stability of bioreduced silver nanoparticles was analyzed using UV-vis absorption spectra, and their antimicrobial activity was screened against both gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. It was observed that O. sanctum leaf extract can reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles within 8 min of reaction time. Thus, this method can be used for rapid and ecofriendly biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles of size range 4-30 nm possessing antimicrobial activity suggesting their possible application in medical industry.

  16. De novo assembly and analysis of the transcriptome of Ocimum americanum var. pilosum under cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiangqiang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Jian Kang; Lang, Zhaobo

    2016-03-09

    Ocimum americanum var. pilosum is a chilling-sensitive, widely distributed plant that is consumed as a vegetable in central and southern China. To increase our understanding of cold stress responses in this species, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly for O. americanum var. pilosum and compared the transcriptomes of plants grown under normal and low temperatures. A total of 115,022,842 high quality, clean reads were obtained from four libraries (two replicates of control samples and two replicates of chilling-treated samples) and were used to perform de novo transcriptome assembly. After isoforms were considered, 42,816 unigenes were generated, 30,748 of which were similar to known proteins as determined by a BLASTx search (E-value stress, respectively. Expression of the 10 most up-regulated and the five most down-regulated unigenes was validated by qRT-PCR. To increase our understanding of these differentially expressed unigenes, we performed Gene ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. The CBF-mediated transcriptional cascade, a well-known cold tolerance pathway, was reconstructed using our de novo assembled transcriptome. Our study has generated a genome-wide transcript profile of O. americanum var. pilosum and a de novo assembled transcriptome, which can be used to characterize genes related to diverse biological processes. This is the first study to assess the cold-responsive transcriptome in an Ocimum species. Our results suggest that cold temperature significantly affects genes related to protein translation and cellular metabolism in this chilling sensitive species. Although most of the CBF pathway genes have orthologs in O. americanum var. pilosum, none of the identified cold responsive (COR) gene orthologs was induced by cold, which is consistent with the lack of cold tolerance in this plant.

  17. Evaluation of the antimycobacterium activity of the constituents from Ocimum basilicum against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Bhatti, Huma A; Begum, Sabira; Perwaiz, Sobiya

    2012-10-31

    Ocimum basilicum belongs to the genus Ocimum (Lamiaceae). Many species of this genus including O. basilicum have been traditionally used for the treatment of a variety of diseases including respiratory diseases and symptoms of tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of pure constituents of O. basilicum, a plant used in traditional medicine to treat respiratory diseases including symptoms of tuberculosis, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The crude methanolic extract from the aerial parts (leaves, fruits and flowers) of the plant was separated into EtOAc and water subextracts and the EtOAc subextract was further divided into acidic and neutral fractions. Each of these was subjected to fractionation through column chromatography followed by prep. TLC. Several pure compounds were thus isolated and their activity was determined against M. tuberculosis H37Rv using MABA assay. Nine compounds were assayed for antituberculosis activity which exhibited upto 49% inhibition of M. tuberculosis H37Rv at 6.25 μg/mL. These include one new compound bacilicin, the structure of which was elucidated based on 2D-NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY and NOESY) and Ms spectral analysis. The known compounds were identified on the basis of comparison of their spectral data with those reported earlier. Inhibition of M. tuberculosis by pure compounds from O. basilicum supports the use of this plant in ethnomedicine as a remedy for symptoms of tuberculosis. The results also suggest that the activity of the plant may be due to a synergistic effect of active compounds including those investigated in the present studies, and hence this plant is a potential candidate for obtaining further new antituberculosis natural products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relaxant effects of Ocimum basilicum on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic effects of Ocimum basilicum on respiratory diseases especially dyspnea have been reported in Iranian ancient medical books. In the present study, the relaxant effects of macerated and soxhlet extracts of this plant on tracheal chains of guinea pigs were evaluated. The relaxant effects of 4 cumulative concentrations of macerated and soxhlet extracts (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 W/V in comparison with saline as negative control and 4 cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mM as positive control were examined on precontracted tracheal chains of two groups of 6 guinea pig by 60 mM KCl (group 1 and 10 µM methacholine (group 2. Decrease in contractile tone of tracheal chains was considered as relaxant effect. In group 1 experiments only the last two higher concentrations of theophylline showed significant relaxant effect compared to that of saline (p<0.001 for both concentrations, which were significantly greater than those of macerated and soxhlet extracts (p<0.001 for all cases and in group 2 experiments both macerated and soxhlet extracts showed concentrationdependent relaxant effects compared to that of saline (p<0.05 to p<0.001 for both extracts. There were significant differences between the relaxant effects of both extracts with those of theophylline in group 2 experiments (p<0.01 to p<0.001. The relaxant effects of macerated and soxhlet extracts in group 1 were significantly lower than those of groups 2. These results showed a potent relaxant effect of Ocimum basilicum on tracheal chains of guinea pigs which were lower than theophylline at concentrations used.

  19. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-25

    Sage brush), Ocimum suave (Cambodia) and Tarchonanthus camphorates .... Statistical analysis was performed with the GenStat 12.1 (PC/Windows XP) while mean wilt incidences were compared using Fisher's least significant ...

  20. FORMULASI MOUTHWASH MINYAK ATSIRI DAUN KEMANGI (Ocimum sanctum L. dan KAYU MANIS (Cinnamomum zeylanicum DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN TWEEN 80 SEBAGAI SURFAKTAN

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    Adhisty Kharisma Justicia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian mengenai “Formulasi Mouthwash Minyak Atsiri Daun Kemangi (Ocimum sanctum L. Dan Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum zeylanicum dengan menggunakan Tween 80 sebagai Surfaktan”. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh konsentrasi surfaktan yang baik dalam formulasi mouthwash minyak atsiri daun kemangi dan minyak atsiri kayu manis dan stabil secara fisik. Metode penelitian yang dilakukan meliputi dua tahap yaitu pembuatan sediaan mouthwash dan uji evaluasi sediaan mouthwash. Pada pembuatan mouthwash minyak atsiri daun kemangi (Ocimum sanctum L. dan kayu manis (Cinnamomum zeylanicum dengan menggunakan Tween 80 sebagai surfaktan menggunakan variasi konsentrasi Tween 80 yaitu 3,75%, 7,5%, dan 15%. Pada formula mouthwash dilakukan pengujian sebelum dan sesudah kondisi penyimpanan dipercepat. Parameter yang diuji meliputi pengujian organoleptis, penentuan massa jenis, penentuan viskositas dan pengukuran pH. Dari hasil penelitian Formula II menghasilkan formula yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan formula I dan III.

  1. Hypolipidaemic activity of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract in acute hyperlipidaemia induced by triton WR-1339 in rats and its antioxidant property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Souliman; Harnafi, Hicham; Bouanani, Nour El Houda; Aziz, Mohammed; Caid, Hana Serghini; Manfredini, Stefano; Besco, Elena; Napolitano, Mariarosaria; Bravo, Elena

    2006-12-01

    Hyperlipidaemia, atherosclerosis and related diseases are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Ocimum basilicum is one of the medicinal plants widely used in Morocco to reduce plasma cholesterol and to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying the reported hypolipidaemic effect of this plant have not been investigated. This study evaluates the lipid lowering effect of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Hyperlipidaemia was developed in animals by intraperitoneal injection of Triton (200 mg/kg). After injection of Triton the animals were divided into three treatment groups: hyperlipidaemic, hyperlipidaemic plus herb extract and hyperlipidaemic plus fenofibrate treated rats. At 7 h after the Triton injection, levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol in rats treated also with the Ocimum basilicum extract (0.5 g/100 g body weight) were, respectively, 50%, 83% and 79% lower than Triton-treated rats and HDL-cholesterol was 129% higher than in rats given Triton alone. At 24 h following Ocimum basilicum administration, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol levels decreased by 56%, 63% and 68%, respectively, in comparison with the Triton treated group and HDL-cholesterol was not increased significantly. The hypolipidaemic effect exerted by Ocimum basilicum extract was markedly stronger than the effect induced by fenofibrate treatments. Further it was demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum aqueous extract displayed a very high antioxidant power. These results indicate that Ocimum basilicum extract may contain hypolipidaemic and antioxidant substances and its use as a therapeutic tool in hyperlipidaemic subjects may be of benefit and encourage further investigation in this field.

  2. Etnobotánica del género Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae en las comunidades afrobrasileñas

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    de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Ocimum L. includes around 12 species round in Brazil, including some cultivated species. This paper gives details of the traditional uses of Ocimum by the Afrobrasilian people, with information on the common uses of plants by Africans. The information was derived fan specimens deposited in herbaria, ethnobotanical survey and literature review. The transpon of African species and their uses in Brazil is discussed. Two routes are presented, discussed and mapped: the European routes, transporting plants to Brazil; and the slave route from África to Brazil which also transponed traditional uses and knowledge. This study is based on four species used in Afrobrazilian ceremonies: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L., O. minimum L. and O. gratissimum L. Morphological, botanical and economic data are included, and a key to identify the species found in Brazil is also provided.El género Ocimum L. consta de 12 especies en el Brasil, algunas de ellas cultivadas. Se estudian los usos tradicionales que los afrobrasileños hacen de estas plantas y se incluye información sobre alguno de sus usos en África, basado en estudios bibliográficos, de herbario y en investigaciones etnobotánicas. Se reconocen dos vías de llegada de las plantas africanas a Brasil: a través de los colonizadores europeos, principales responsables del trasiego de plantas, y siguiendo la ruta del comercio de esclavos africanos, directamente implicados en la introducción del manejo y uso de ellas. Se han considerado sobre todo las cuatro especies que se utilizan fundamentalmente en los ritos afrobrasileños: O. americanum L., O. basilicum L.. O. minimum L. y O. gratissimum L. Se incluyen datos morfológicos, botánicos y económicos, así como una clave para la identificación de las especies de Ocimum que habitan en Brasil.

  3. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from the Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Ocimum sanctum for Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Charusheela Ramteke; Tapan Chakrabarti; Bijaya Ketan Sarangi; Ram-Avatar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    The field of nanotechnology is the most active area of research in modern materials science. Though there are many chemical as well as physical methods, green synthesis of nanomaterials is the most emerging method of synthesis. We report the synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf broth of medicinal herb, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi). The synthesized AgNPs have been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffractometry. The...

  4. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Sankhalkar; Vrunda Vernekar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenu...

  5. COMPARATIVE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE COMBINED CRUDE LEAF EXTRACT OF BIXA ORELLANA, AZADIRACHTA INDICA AND OCIMUM SCANTUM

    OpenAIRE

    B.UttamKumar; A.Bhubaneswari; M.V.VTejasri; P.Radhakrishna; K.D.; K.Amrita

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze the past, present and future of medicinal plants, both as potential antimicrobial crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents. Ethanol extracts of the leaves of Bixa orellana, Azadirachta indica & Ocimum scantum were investigated for their invitro antimicrobial properties. Fresh leaves were collected randomly from Bhimavaram region, India. Plants were compared with voucher specimens deposited by Dr. B. Sarveswara...

  6. Mosquito Repellent Activity and Phytochemical Characterization of Essential Oils From Striga hermonthica, Hyptis spicigera and Ocimum basilicum Leaf Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gabi Baba; A.O. Lawal; Hauwa B. Sharif

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to screen the phytochemicals and compare the mosquito repellent activities of essential oils from Hyptis spicigera, Striga hermonthica and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. The global threat of malaria to human race and the need to control its advances is on the focus. Mosquito is the target being the primary host in the spread of malaria. Alkaloids, saponnins, steroids, tannins and terpenoi...

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities and Phenolic Profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys

    OpenAIRE

    Vlase, Laurian; Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Damian, Grigore; Csillag, Ioan; Sevastre, Bogdan; Mot, Augustin; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometricall...

  8. Changes in the blood lipid profile after administration of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves in the normal albino rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A; Lavania, S C; Pandey, D N; Pant, M C

    1994-10-01

    Administration of fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed as 1 g and 2 g in 100 gms of diet given for four weeks, brought about significant changes in the lipid profile of normal albino rabbits. This resulted in significant lowering in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and LDL-cholesterol levels and significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol and total faecal sterol contents.

  9. The Utilization of Ocimum sanctum L. Essential Oil for Antimicrobial Edible Packaging and Its Application for Aloe Vera Dodol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramono Putro Utomo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera dodol is a traditional food of West Kalimantan that has short shelf life because of its microbial activity. Antimicrobial edible packaging could be used to maintain the quality of packaged food product actively.The purpose of this study is to prolong the shelf life of food products using antimicrobial edible packaging from durian peel and basil (Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil. The research was conducted through 4 phases,i.e. the extraction of pectin from durian peel, basil essential oil distillation, Aspergillus flavus inhibition assay, and antimicrobial edible coating production incorporated with Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil. The results showed that pectin extracted from durian peel at pH 4.5 could give yield of 5.9% with a clear coat (Colourless.The concentration of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil by 0.6% could inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus and prolong the shelf life when applied as an antimicrobial ingredient in edible coating.

  10. Caracterização e ontogenia dos tricomas glandulares de Ocimum selloi Benth. - Lamiaceae Characterization and ontogeny of the glandular trichomes of Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Almeida Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae é uma espécie nativa da América do Sul e na medicina popular tem sido usada devido suas propriedades analgésica, anti-inflamatória e antiespasmódica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os tipos de tricomas glandulares que ocorrem nos órgãos vegetativos e reprodutivos de O. selloi e determinar a ontogenia desses tricomas. Ramos laterais em início de formação, folhas totalmente expandidas, flores em diferentes estádios de diferenciação, amostras de caule e do eixo das inflorescências foram analisados em microscopias de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Tricomas glandulares do tipo peltado e capitado subséssil foram observados no caule, nas folhas, no eixo da inflorescência e na superfície adaxial das sépalas. Nas sépalas foi encontrado, além dos tricomas secretores peltados e capitados subsésseis, o tricoma glandular capitado pedunculado. A ontogenia inicia-se com a expansão de uma célula protodérmica que, de acordo com a seqüência de divisões periclinais e anticlinais (ora simétricas, ora assimétricas, dá origem aos tricomas. A diferenciação dos tricomas glandulares peltados e capitados não é sincrônica e ocorre muito cedo no desenvolvimento da folha, do caule e do eixo floral.Ocimum selloi Benth. (Lamiaceae is native to South America and in traditional medicine has been used due to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antispasmodic properties. The aim of this study was to identify the types of glandular trichomes that occur on the vegetative and reproductive organs of O. selloi and to determine trichome ontogeny. Lateral branches at the initial formation phase, fully opened leaves, flowers at different differentiation stages, and stem and inflorescence axes were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy. Glandular trichomes of the peltate and subsessile capitate types were observed on the stem, leaves, inflorescence axis and the adaxial surface of the

  11. Atividade potencialmente alelopática do óleo essencial de Ocimum americanum Potentially allelophatic activity of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais são reconhecidos pelas suas diversificadas ações biológicas. A biodiversidade amazônica é rica em espécies de plantas produtoras de óleos essenciais. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se caracterizar a atividade potencialmente alelopática do óleo essencial de Ocimum americanum (estoraque e determinar seus efeitos sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento de duas espécies de plantas daninhas. O óleo essencial foi testado em concentrações variando de 100 a 2.000 mg L-1, considerando seus efeitos sobre a germinação de sementes (25 ºC de temperatura constante e fotoperíodo de 12 horas e o desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo (25 ºC de temperatura constante e fotoperíodo de 24 horas das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Fatores relacionados a concentração, especificidade das plantas receptoras e parâmetros analisados foram decisivos para os efeitos obtidos. A tendência geral foi de relação positiva entre concentração e efeito inibitório. Malícia foi mais sensível aos efeitos do que mata-pasto. Comparativamente, a germinação, seguida do desenvolvimento da radícula, foi afetada pelo óleo essencial em maior magnitude, ficando o desenvolvimento do hipocótilo como o de menor sensibilidade. Os efeitos observados podem ser atribuídos à presença, no óleo essencial, de monoterpenos, monoterpenos oxigenados, sesquiterpenos, alifáticos e fenilpropanoides, com destaque para os constituintes com atividade alelopática já comprovada, como o limoneno, a cânfora e o linalol.Essential oils are known for their several biological activities. The biodiversity of the Amazon region is rich in essential-oil producing plants.The aim of this work was to study the potentially allelopathic activity of the essential oil of Ocimum americanum and to determine its effects on seed germination and growth of two weed species. Solutions of the essential oil were tested

  12. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Ocimum forskolei and Teucrium yemense (Lamiaceae) Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Chhetri, Bhuwan K.; Dosoky, Noura S.; Shari, Khola; Al-Fahad, Ahmed J. A.; Wessjohann, Ludger; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ocimum forskolei and Teucrium yemense (Lamiaceae) are used in traditional medicine in Yemen. Methods: The chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils isolated from the leaves of Ocimum forskolei Benth. (EOOF) and two different populations of Teucrium yemense Deflers., one collected from Dhamar province (EOTY-d), and another collected from Taiz (EOTY-t) were investigated. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were evaluated against several microorganisms with the disc diffusion test or the broth microdilution test. The essential oils were screened for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against human tumor cells. EOOF and EOTY-d were screened for free-radical-inhibitory activity using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results: Sixty-four compounds were identified in (EOOF) representing 100% of the oil content with endo-fenchol (31.1%), fenchone (12.2%), τ-cadinol (12.2%), and methyl (E)-cinnamate (5.1%) as the major compounds. In EOTY-d, 67 compounds were identified, which made up 91% of the total oil. The most abundant constituents were (E)-caryophyllene (11.2%), α-humulene (4.0.%), γ-selinene (5.5%), 7-epi-α-selinene (20.1%), and caryophyllene oxide (20.1%), while the major compounds in EOTY-t were α-pinene (6.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (19.1%) α-humulene (6.4%), δ-cadinene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (4.3%), α-cadinol (9.5%), and shyobunol (4.6%). The most sensitive microorganisms for EOOF were B. subtilis, S. aureus, and C. albicans with inhibition zones of 34, 16, and 24 mm and MIC values of, 4.3 mg/mL, 4.3 mg/mL, and 8.6 mg/mL, respectively. EOTY-t showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, A. niger, and B. cinerea with MIC values of 0.156, 0.156, 0.313 and 0.313 mg/mL, respectively. Neither essential oil showed remarkable radical inhibition (IC50 = 31.55 and 31.41 μL/mL). EOTY-d was active against HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines with IC50 = 43.7

  13. Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts attenuate human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sudhansu S; Bashyam, Leena; Manthapuram, Nalini; Bitla, Prasanth; Kollipara, Padmasree; Tetali, Sarada D

    2014-05-28

    Ocimum sanctum (OS), commonly known as Holy basil/Tulsi, has been traditionally used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and manage general cardiac health. The present study is designed to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of O. sanctum and its phenolic compound and eugenol (EUG) in human monocytic (THP-1) cells and validate its traditional use for treating cardiovascular diseases. The phytochemical analysis of alcoholic and water extracts of OS-dry leaves (OSAE and OSWE) was done using LC-QTOF-MS. A phenolic compound, EUG was quantified in both OSAE and OSWE by an LC-MS technique using a mass hunter work station software quantitative analysis system. The effect of both OSAE, OSWE, pure compound EUG and positive control imatinib (IMT) was investigated in THP-1 cells by studying the following markers: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion by ELISA, gene expression of inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1α and MCP-1) by real time PCR and translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) by confocol microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts, EUG and IMT, was studied on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced monocyte to macrophage differentiation and gene expression of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4. The LC-MS analysis of OSAE and OSWE revealed the presence of several bioactive compounds including eugenol. Quantitative analysis revealed that OSAE and OSWE had EUG of 12 ng/mgdwt and 19 ng/mgdwt respectively. OSAE, OSWE (1 mg dwt/mL) pure compound EUG (60 µg/mL) and positive control IMT (20 µg/mL) showed marked inhibition on LPS induced TNF-α secretion by THP-1 cells. At the selected concentration, the plant extracts, EUG and IMT inhibited gene expression of cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-1) and translocation of NF-κB-p65 to the nuclei. In addition, they showed significant inhibition on PMA induced monocyte to macrophage differentiation and the gene expression of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4

  14. Antifungal activity of essential oil isolated from Ocimum gratissimum L. (eugenol chemotype against phytopathogenic fungi

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    Terezinha de Jesus Faria

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of antifungal activity of the essential oil obtained by steam-distillation (1.1% w/w of the aerial parts of Ocimum gratissimum and of an ethanolic extract from the steam-distillation residue was carried out using the agar diffusion method. The results revealed that the essential oil inhibited the growth of all fungi tested, including the phytopathogens, Botryosphaeria rhodina, Rhizoctonia sp. and two strains of Alternaria sp., while the extract from the residue was inactive. The essential oil was subjected to TLC bioautography used to detect fungitoxic constituents. The compound that showed antifungal activity was isolated and identified as eugenol. GC/MS analysis showed that eugenol was the main constituent of the essential oil studied. The antifungal activity of eugenol was evaluated against a species of Alternaria isolated from tomato (A1 and Penicillium chrysogenum. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of eugenol were 0.16 and 0.31 mg/disc for Alternaria sp. (A1 and P. chrysogenum, respectively.O óleo essencial resultante da destilação por arraste a vapor das partes aéreas de Ocimum gratissimum e o extrato etanólico obtido do resíduo da destilação foram avaliados quanto à atividade antifúngica, utilizando-se o método de difusão em agar. O óleo essencial inibiu o crescimento de todos os fungos testados, incluindo os fitopatogênicos Botryosphaeria rhodina e duas espécies de Alternaria sp, enquanto que o extrato do resíduo da destilação não apresentou atividade. O óleo essencial foi, então, submetido ao método de bioautografia em TLC para detecção do composto ativo. O componente ativo foi isolado e identificado através da análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas como o eugenol, constituinte majoritário do óleo estudado. Ensaios de atividade antifúngica revelaram a atividade do eugenol contra Alternaria isolada de tomate (A1 e Penicillium chrysogenum. As concentra

  15. [Comparison of Chemical Components of Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum Extracted by Supercritical CO2 Fluid and Steam Distillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-yu; Zheng, Jia-huan; Shi, Sheng-ying; Luo, Zhi-xiong; Ni, Shun-yu; Lin, Jing-ming

    2015-11-01

    To compare the chemical components of essential oil prepared by steam distillation extraction (SD) and supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE-CO2) from Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum whole plant. The essential oil of Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum were extracted by SD and SFE-CO2. The chemical components of essential oil were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry( GC-MS). Their relative contents were determined by normalization of peak area. 40 and 42 compounds were detected in the essential oil prepared by SD and SFE-CO2 respectively. 25 compounds were common. Thereare significant differences of the chemical components between the Ocimum basilicum var. pilosum essential oil prepared by SD and thatby SFE-CO2. Different methods showed different extraction efficiency with a special compound. It might be a good idea to unite several methods in the modern traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  16. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswar, Pranati; Devaraj, C G; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-03-01

    Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control was 25mm and no zone of inhibition was observed

  17. Modulation of the norfloxacin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L. Modulación de la resistencia a norfloxacina de Staphylococcus aureus por Croton A. campestris y Ocimum gratissimum L.

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    José P. Siqueira-Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Some species of Staphylococcus are often recognized as etiological agents of many animal and human opportunistic infections. This study is the first test of change in resistance of
    antibiotic activity by Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L. against multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
    Objective: In this study, the hexane and methanol extract of Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L. was tested for antibacterial activity alone and in combination with norfloxacin against the strain SA1199B.
    Materials and methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the modulatory effect of extracts was assayed using microtitre assay.
    Results: By the fact of the MIC observed was not clinically relevant (MIC= 512 to ≥1.024 μg/ml, the antibiotic activity of norfloxacin was enhanced when this antibiotic was combined with sub-inhibitory concentrations of extracts, mainly the hexane extracts.
    Conclusions: These results indicate that the assayed extracts present compounds that can be used as a putative efflux pump inhibitor, indicating that Croton campestris A. and Ocimum gratissimum L. can be a source of plant derived products with antibiotic modifier activity.

    Introducción. Algunas especies de Staphylococcus suelen ser reconocidas como agentes etiológicos de muchas infecciones oportunistas en animales y em humanos. Este estudio es la primera prueba del
    cambio en la resistencia de la actividad antibiótica por Croton campestris A. y Ocimum gratissimum L. contra cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus aureus.
    Objetivo. Ensayar la actividad antibacteriana de los extractos hexánicos y metanólicos de Croton campestris A. y Ocimum gratissimum L. sola y en combinación con norfloxacina sobre la cepa SA1199B.
    Materiales y métodos. Se analizó la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM y el efecto modulador de los extractos usando el ensayo de microtitulaci

  18. HYDROPONIC AND AQUAPONIC PRODUCTION OF SWEET BASIL (Ocimum basilicum AND GIANT RIVER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Marisol Ronzón Ortega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote sustainable aquaculture in production units and to take care of the water resource is needed to integrate biotechnology tools to the activity, as is the aquaponics. In the present study we evaluated the production efficiency of a crop of basil (Ocimum basilicum in a hydroponic system (SH vs. acuaponic system (SA associated with the semi-intensive culture of Malaysian prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The production of basil was conducted in two geomembrane plastic rectangular tanks (4.0 m long x 0.80 m wide and 0.30 m high, divided into two sections: in the first section setting of the seedlings were done in a substrate of silica sand and volcanic rock , whereas in the second were seeded into plastic containers using the same substrate. SH plants got their nutrients from the metabolites derived from the cultivation of 800 postlarval shrimp in two circular tanks of 25 m3 (16 organisms m-2 (Pond 1: initial weight 0.13 g, Pond 2: 2.19 g; while in the SH was used a commercial nutrient solution (1.5 g L. The results indicate that SH plants initially had higher survival (90%, height and number of leaves per plant (p

  19. CRECIMIENTO Y DESARROLLO DE VARIEDADES DE ALBAHACA (Ocimum basilicum L. EN CONDICIONES DE SALINIDAD

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    Juan José Reyes Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. presenta amplia variabilidad en cuanto a la tolerancia al estrés salino, sin embargo es sensible durante el crecimiento inicial. El establecimiento de indicadores morfométricos que indiquen tolerancia a la salinidad por parte del cultivo es importante para recomendar a los agricultores la variedad más productiva en esas condiciones. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto del NaCl en el crecimiento y desarrollo de plantas de albahaca. Se evaluaron veinte variedades, en condiciones de malla sombra, con los tratamientos, 0, 50 y 100 mM de NaCl. Se estableció un experimento factorial con arreglo completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones, considerando las veinte variedades de albahaca como factor A y los tratamientos salinos como factor B. Las variables que se midieron fueron longitud de tallo (cm, longitud de raíz (cm, biomasa fresca y seca de raíz, tallo, hoja (g y área foliar (cm2. Los resultados mostraron el efecto de las sales en el crecimiento de las variedades Sweet Dani y Dolly las cuales presentaron mayor longitud de tallo y raíz, mientras que Napoletano mostró mayor biomasa fresca y seca de raíz, tallo, y hoja. La variedad Sweet Dani presentó mayor área foliar.

  20. The Effectiveness of Extracts Basil Leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) against Saprolegnia sp. by in Vitro

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    Sudarno; Luthfi Hakim, Muhammad; Kusdarwati, Rahayu

    2017-02-01

    Saprolegnia SP. is a fungi which is opportunistic and generally as a secondary pathogen on fish. Saprolegnia sp. infects epidermis tissue that begins at the head or fins and can spread over the entire surface of the body. The result of the using of chemicals to control infections of Saprolegnia spp. can cause pollution of the environment and harm the consumer. The purpose of this research was to determine the potential and the minimum concentration of extracts basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) as antifungi against the growth of Saprolegnia sp. by vitro. The research was held in Fish Quarantine Kelas I Juanda Suarabaya in January 2015. A positive result was obtained in the test of the effectiveness of basil leaves in inhibiting the growth of the fungus Saprolegnia sp. Concentration of the extract given to treatment 90% and 100% was able to inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia sp., indicated by the formation of the inhibitory zones at a concentration of treatment, and had the best results on the concentration of 100%.

  1. Antioxidant Capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. Extracts

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    Svetlana Trivic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of five different extracts (Et2O, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were studied. Antioxidant activity was assessed in six different model systems. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of extracts on DPPH, NO, O2·- and OH radical, as well as on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. In addition, the protective effects on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LPx were evaluated by TBA-assay using the Fe2+/ascorbate induction system. The amount of total phenolic compounds and content of total flavonoids was also determined. EtOAc, n-BuOH and H2O extracts of O. basilicum and O. vulgare expressed very strong scavenger activity. Furthermore, the mentioned extracts showed notable inhibition of LPx. On the other hand, Et2O and CHCl3 extracts showed much weaker effect in the neutralization of DPPH, NO and O2·- radicals and the neutralization of H2O2. When examining the production of OH radicals and inhibition of LPx, the Et2O and CHCl3 extracts showed weak prooxidative properties. The observed differences in antioxidant activity could be partially explained by the levels of phenolics and flavonoids in the investigated O. basilicum and O. vulgare extracts.

  2. Antinociceptive and antispasmodic effects of the essential oil of Ocimum micranthum: potential anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, João Paulo de; Silva, Andressa Santa; Pinheiro, Bruno Gonçalves; Sombra, Igor; Bayma, Joaquim de Carvalho; Lahlou, Saad; Sousa, Pergentino José da Cunha; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge

    2012-05-01

    The antinociceptive and antispasmodic properties of the essential oil of OCIMUM micranthum (EOOM) were characterized. In mice, EOOM (15-100 mg · kg (-1), p. o.) reduced both the writhing responses induced by acetic acid and the licking-time induced by formalin, being inert on the hot plate test. In rat trachea, EOOM relaxed sustained contractions induced by KCl or carbachol (CCh). Its constituents, ( E)- [( E)-MC] and ( Z)-methyl cinnamate [( Z)-MC], reproduced several effects of EOOM. Inhaled as aerosol, EOOM prevented tracheal hyperresponsiveness to KCl or CCh in ovalbumin-sensitized animals after antigen challenge. Thus, EOOM exerts peripheral analgesia in nociception of inflammatory origin and has antispasmodic actions on rat airways under an inflammatory environment. Its effects are mainly due to ( E)-MC, which makes this substance potentially interesting for studies involving conjunctly smooth muscle cells, nociception, and inflammation. Other EOOM constituents also appear to be involved in its pharmacological actions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Extraction of basil leaves (ocimum canum) oleoresin with ethyl acetate solvent by using soxhletation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Purba, R. R. H.; Ginting, H. K.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this research is to produce oleoresin from basil leaves (Ocimum canum) by using soxhletation method and ethyl acetate as solvent. Basil commonly used in culinary as fresh vegetables. Basil contains essential oils and oleoresin that are used as flavouring agent in food, in cosmetic and ingredient in traditional medicine. The extraction method commonly used to obtain oleoresin is maceration. The problem of this method is many solvents necessary and need time to extract the raw material. To resolve the problem and to produce more oleoresin, we use soxhletation method with a combination of extraction time and ratio from the material with a solvent. The analysis consists of yield, density, refractive index, and essential oil content. The best treatment of basil leaves oleoresin extraction is at ratio of material and solvent 1:6 (w / v) for 6 hours extraction time. In this condition, the yield of basil oleoresin is 20.152%, 0.9688 g/cm3 of density, 1.502 of refractive index, 15.77% of essential oil content, and the colour of oleoresin product is dark-green.

  4. Chemical constituents, physicochemical properties and antibacterial activity of leaves essential oil of Ocimum urticifolium

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    Ketema Alemayehu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine chemical compositions, physicochemical properties and evaluating antibacterial activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Ocimum urticifolium (O. urticifolium. Methods: Essential oil of O. urticifolium was extracted by hydrodistillation technique. A number of phytochemical screening tests were applied to identify the classes of compounds in the leaves extract of O. urticifolium. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to characterize the chemical components in the essential oil. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity as per of standard procedure. Results: Phytochemical screening of crude extract revealed that the presence of tannins, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and phenols. The obtained oil yield is (0.33 ± 0.11 % (v/w. Analysis of oil using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry showed a total of 22 components, the abundance of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes (98.99%. The percentage composition of monoterpene in the oil was α-pinene (22.105%, eugenol (21.099%, while sesquiterpenes α-cubebene (11.341%, α-bisabolene (9.945%, α-caryophyllene (7.709%, α-caryophyllene oxide (5.754%, and copaene (3.594%. The oil inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, while no activity was shown to Salmonella typhi. Conclusions: The O. urticifolium is a rich source of various classes of chemical constituents and the antibacterial activity of the oil could be attributed mainly to these compounds.

  5. Photoprotection by foliar anthocyanins mitigates effects of boron toxicity in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia; Pardossi, Alberto; Tattini, Massimiliano; Gould, Kevin S

    2014-11-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is an important agricultural problem in arid environments. Excess edaphic B compromises photosynthetic efficiency, limits growth and reduces crop yield. However, some purple-leafed cultivars of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) exhibit greater tolerance to high B concentrations than do green-leafed cultivars. We hypothesised that foliar anthocyanins protect basil leaf mesophyll from photo-oxidative stress when chloroplast function is compromised by B toxicity. Purple-leafed 'Red Rubin' and green-leafed 'Tigullio' cultivars, grown with high or negligible edaphic B, were given a photoinhibitory light treatment. Possible effects of photoabatement by anthocyanins were simulated by superimposing a purple polycarbonate filter on the green leaves. An ameliorative effect of light filtering on photosynthetic quantum yield and on photo-oxidative load was observed in B-stressed plants. In addition, when green protoplasts from both cultivars were treated with B and illuminated through a screen of anthocyanic protoplasts or a polycarbonate film which approximated cyanidin-3-O-glucoside optical properties, the degree of photoinhibition, hydrogen peroxide production, and malondialdehyde content were reduced. The data provide evidence that anthocyanins exert a photoprotective role in purple-leafed basil mesophyll cells, thereby contributing to improved tolerance to high B concentrations.

  6. The Effect Organic Fertilizer on Quantitative and Qualitative Characters of Basil (Ocimum basilicum in Sistan Region

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    Tahmineh Mir Arab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluation the effect of manure, compost and vormicompost on yield and yield components of basil (Ocimum basilicum, a pot experiment was carried out as completely randomized design with three replications in Zabol, Sistan, in 2013. Bio fertilizer treatments consisted of seven levels: F1= control (no fertilizer, F2= 20% vormicompost, F3= 40% vormicompost, F4= 20% compost, F5= 40% compost, F6= 20% manure and F7= 40% manure. Traits measured were plant high, number of branches, number of seeds per plant, dry weight, essence content and yield. The results showed that the use of bio fertilizer significantly improved the quantity and quality basil characters. Treatments had a significant effect on most of the measured traits and increased all of the traits as compared to thos of control. Thus, with the exceotion of 1000 grain weight, highest amounts were obtained for plant height, number of branches, number of seeds per plant, dry weight, essence content and essence yield by using 40% vormicompost and lowest to those of control treatment. Our results also showed that increasing vermicompost, compost and manure from 20% to 40% increased plant height, number of branches, number of seeds per plant, dry matter and essence percent. Generally, the use of organic fertilizers, as compared with not using them, produced optimum quality and quantity of basil. As a whole, it can be said that using bio fertilizers may help to achieve sustainable agriculture goals.

  7. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D.; Schwieterman, Michael L.; Abrahan, Carolina E.; Colquhoun, Thomas A.; Folta, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv “Ceasar”) grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production. PMID:27635127

  8. Safety assessment of ocimum basilicum hydroalcoholic extract in wistar rats: acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Mehri, Soghra; Kamli-Nejad, Mohammad; Aslani, Majid; Tanbakoosazan, Farahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. is widely used in folk medicine of many countries including . Both O. basilicum and its oil extract have received considerable attention for their potential medicinal properties, but there are a few reports about possible toxicity of this plant. Therefore, in the present study, acute and subchronic toxicity of O. basilicum hydroalcohlic extract have been evaluated in Wistar rats. For the acute toxicity assessment, five groups of 10 animals (5 male, 5 female) received four different single dose of extract orally, the animals were, then, kept under observation for 14 days. For subchronic toxicity, the animals were divided into four groups (5 male, 5 female) and were gavaged daily by 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg of extract. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical parameters were monitored during the study period. On the 45th day, animals were sacrificed and gross findings, weight of liver and left kidney and liver histological markers were assessed. The results of acute study indicated that LD50 of O. basilicum is higher than 5 mg/kg. In subchronic study, no adverse effects were observed on serum parameters in male and female rats. The hematological results showed a reduction in the hematocrit, platelets and RBC in both sexes. No abnormalities were observed in other parameters. Based on the results of this study, present data suggest that hematologic system could serve as a target organ in oral toxicity of this plant.

  9. Essential-Oil Variability in a Collection of Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Antonella; Roscigno, Graziana; Bruno, Maurizio; De Falco, Enrica; Senatore, Felice

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant of great tradition in the Mediterranean area. Its economic importance is growing up determining an expansion of cultivation. This paper evaluated the morphological traits, the chemical profiles, and antibacterial activity of 21 cultivars of basil belonging to 'Genovese', 'Napoletano', and 'Purple basil' types. The cultivars were characterized by different growth rate and morphological traits. The chemical composition of the oils analyzed by GC and GC/MS analysis, supported by the PCA analysis, underlined the strong influence of chemotype. It is noteworthy that estragole, never present in Genovese and purple basil types, occurred in Napoletano type. The high presence of eugenol, methyl eugenol, and linalool in the majority of cultivars, belonging both to Genovese and to Napoletano types was registered. Of great interest resulted the composition of the purple basil 'Opal'. All the samples tested exhibited similar antibiotic profiles with moderate antibacterial activity. The results enhanced the importance of determination of essential-oil profile in the selection of cultivars characterized by diverse morphological traits and are useful for different purposes. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  10. Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum basilicum L. on Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S.; Mukhopadhyay, M. K.; Ghosh, P. D.; Nath, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of methanolic leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum L. against benzene-induced hematotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. GC analysis and subacute toxicity level of the extract were tested. Mice were randomly divided into three groups among which II and III were exposed to benzene vapour at a dose 300 ppm × 6 hr/day × 5 days/week for 2 weeks and group I was control. Group III of this experiment was treated with the leaf methanolic extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, a dose in nontoxic range. Hematological parameters (Hb%, RBC and WBC counts), cell cycle regulatory proteins expression and DNA fragmentation analysis of bone marrow cells was performed. There was an upregulation of p53 and p21 and downregulation of levels of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and cyclins D1 and E in leaf extract-treated group. DNA was less fragmented in group III compared to group II (P basilicum L. methanolic leaf extract, comprising essential oil monoterpene geraniol and its oxidized form citral as major constituents, have modulatory effect in cell cycle deregulation and hematological abnormalities induced by benzene in mice. PMID:22988471

  11. In vitro evaluation of anti-diabetic activity and cytotoxicity of chemically analysed Ocimum basilicum extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, Sleman; Saad, Bashar; Sasson, Yoel; Zaid, Hilal

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in the anti-diabetic effects of methanol, hexane and dichloromethane extracts of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (OB) and to analyze their phytochemical composition. Phytochemical analysis of the three extracts by GC/MS using the silylation derivatization technique revealed 53 compounds, 17 of them were found for the first time in OB. Cytotoxic and anti-diabetic properties of the extracts were evaluated using L6-GLUT4myc muscle cells stably expressing myc epitope at the exofacial loop (GLUT4). No cytotoxic effects were observed in treated cells up to 0.25 mg/ml extract as measured with MTT and LDH-leakage assays. GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane was elevated by 3.5 and 7 folds (-/+ insulin) after treatment with OB extracts for 20 h. Our findings suggest that the observed anti-diabetic properties of OB extracts are possibly mediated in part through one or more of the 17 new identified compound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ocimum basilicum essential oil combined with deltamethrin to improve the management of Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Sérgio Macedo Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For an important and expensive crop such as corn, the resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith to various pesticides has led to research throughout the world for a potential insecticide from a natural source. For the management of pest resistance, natural compounds associated with synthetic insecticides can be a promising tool because they can reduce the application of the synthetics molecules while maintaining their effectiveness and promoting the control of the pests. Linalool is a potential insecticide that is easily obtained because it is found in high concentrations in the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of this essential oil and its combination with deltamethrin to control S. frugiperda. Through dose response assays, the acute toxicities (LD50 of the essential oil and deltamethrin were estimated. Additionally, the combination of these materials was also assessed, attaining a reduction of 80% of the LD50 of deltamethrin while obtaining the same result as when the pyrethroid was administered alone. From these results, it is expected that the combination of natural compounds and synthetic insecticides will be a promising practice, helping to manage resistance while reducing the environmental impact of toxic compounds.

  13. In-silico identification of miRNAs and their regulating target functions in Ocimum basilicum.

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    Singh, Noopur; Sharma, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    microRNA is known to play an important role in growth and development of the plants and also in environmental stress. Ocimum basilicum (Basil) is a well known herb for its medicinal properties. In this study, we used in-silico approaches to identify miRNAs and their targets regulating different functions in O. basilicum using EST approach. Additionally, functional annotation, gene ontology and pathway analysis of identified target transcripts were also done. Seven miRNA families were identified. Meaningful regulations of target transcript by identified miRNAs were computationally evaluated. Four miRNA families have been reported by us for the first time from the Lamiaceae. Our results further confirmed that uracil was the predominant base in the first positions of identified mature miRNA sequence, while adenine and uracil were predominant in pre-miRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to determine the relation between O. basilicum and other plant pre-miRNAs. Thirteen potential targets were evaluated for 4 miRNA families. Majority of the identified target transcripts regulated by miRNAs showed response to stress. miRNA 5021 was also indicated for playing an important role in the amino acid metabolism and co-factor metabolism in this plant. To the best of our knowledge this is the first in silico study describing miRNAs and their regulation in different metabolic pathways of O. basilicum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fungitoxicity of organic extracts of Ocimum basilicum on growth and morphogenesis of Bipolaris species (teleomorph Cochliobolus).

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    Elsherbiny, E A; Safwat, N A; Elaasser, M M

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the inhibitory effects of various organic extracts of Ocimum basilicum against some species of Bipolaris and Cochliobolus with GC-MS and HPLC analysis. The ethyl acetate extract consisted of methyl cinnamate as the most abundant component, while butylated hydroxytoluene was the major component in the methanol extract. Pyrogallol and chlorogenic acid were major phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Complete growth inhibition of all fungi except Cochliobolus australiensis was observed by ethyl acetate extract, and on Bipolaris hawaiensis, Bipolaris spicifera and Cochliobolus cynodontis by methanol extract. Spore germination was completely inhibited for Bipolaris hawaiensis by ethyl acetate extract. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed that the organic extracts cause considerable morphological changes of the fungal hyphae such as mycelial asymmetry, hyphal swelling, sunken, curling, distorted and broken hyphae. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of O. basilicum can result in an effective suppression of mycelial growth, spore germination and germ tube elongation of Bipolaris and Cochliobolus species. The organic extracts of O. basilicum are potential and promising natural tools for controlling Bipolaris and Cochliobolus species, economically important plant and human fungal pathogens. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Specificity of Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase modified by its expression in different heterologous systems.

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    Fischer, Marc J C; Meyer, Sophie; Claudel, Patricia; Perrin, Mireille; Ginglinger, Jean François; Gertz, Claude; Masson, Jean E; Werck-Reinhardt, Danièle; Hugueney, Philippe; Karst, Francis

    2013-01-10

    Numerous aromatic plant species produce high levels of monoterpenols, using geranyl diphosphate (GPP) as a precursor. Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) geraniol synthase (GES) was used to evaluate the monoterpenol profiles arising from heterologous expressions in various plant models. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) calli were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefasciens and the plants were regenerated. Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) was transformed using the floral dip method. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves were agro-infiltrated for transient expression. Although, as expected, geraniol was the main product detected in the leaves, different minor products were observed in these plants (V. vinifera: citronellol and nerol; N. benthamiana: linalool and nerol; A. thaliana: none). O. basilicum GES expression was also carried out with microbial system yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that the functional properties of a monoterpenol synthase depend not only on the enzyme's amino-acidic sequence, but also on the cellular background. They also suggest that some plant species or microbial expression systems could induce the simultaneous formation of several carbocations, and could thus have a natural tendency to produce a wider spectrum of monoterpenols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in leaves and glandular trichomes of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Cícero; Simon, James E

    2010-01-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil phenylpropenes are synthesized and accumulate in peltate glandular trichomes and their content and composition depend on plant developmental stage. Studies on gene expression and enzymatic activity indicate that the phenylpropene biosynthetic genes are developmentally regulated. In this study, the methylchavicol accumulation in basil leaves and the enzyme activities and gene expression of both chavicol O-methyltransferase (CVOMT) and eugenol O-methyltransferase (EOMT) were investigated in all leaves at four plant developmental stages. Methylchavicol accumulation decreased over time as leaves matured. There was a significant correlation between methylchavicol accumulation and CVOMT (r(2) = 0.88) enzyme activity, suggesting that the levels of biosynthetic enzymes control the essential oil content. CVOMT and EOMT transcript expression levels, which decreased with leaf age, followed the same pattern in both whole leaves and isolated glandular trichomes, providing evidence that CVOMT transcript levels are developmentally regulated in basil glandular trichomes themselves and that differences in CVOMT expression observed in whole leaves are not solely the result of differences in glandular trichome density.

  17. The antidepressant-like effect of Ocimum basilicum in an animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S S; Abd El Wahab, M G; Ayuob, N N; Suliaman, M

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oils for treating depression related behavioral, biochemical and histopathological changes caused by exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in mice and to explore the mechanism underlying the pathology. Male albino mice were divided into four groups: controls; CUMS; CUMS plus fluoxetine, the antidepressant administered for pharmacological validation of OB; and CUMS plus OB. Behavioral tests included the forced swim test (FST), elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the open field test (OFT); these tests were performed at the end of the experiment. We assessed serum corticosterone level, protein, gene and immunoexpression of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) as well as immunoexpression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67, caspase-3 in the hippocampus. CUMS caused depression in the mice as evidenced by prolonged immobility in the FST, prolonged time spent in the open arms during the EPM test and reduction of open field activity in the OFT. OB ameliorated the CUMS induced depressive status. OB significantly reduced the corticosterone level and up-regulated protein and gene expressions of BDNF and GR. OB reduced CUMS induced hippocampal neuron atrophy and apoptosis, and increased the number of the astrocytes and new nerve cells. OB significantly increased GFAP-positive cells as well as BDNF and GR immunoexpression in the hippocampus.

  18. Antioxidant capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurinovic, Biljana; Popovic, Mira; Vlaisavljevic, Sanja; Trivic, Svetlana

    2011-08-30

    The antioxidant properties of five different extracts (Et₂O, CHCl₃, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H₂O) of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were studied. Antioxidant activity was assessed in six different model systems. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of extracts on DPPH, NO, O₂•⁻ and OH radical, as well as on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). In addition, the protective effects on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LPx) were evaluated by TBA-assay using the Fe²⁺/ascorbate induction system. The amount of total phenolic compounds and content of total flavonoids was also determined. EtOAc, n-BuOH and H₂O extracts of O. basilicum and O. vulgare expressed very strong scavenger activity. Furthermore, the mentioned extracts showed notable inhibition of LPx. On the other hand, Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed much weaker effect in the neutralization of DPPH, NO and O₂•⁻ radicals and the neutralization of H₂O₂. When examining the production of OH radicals and inhibition of LPx, the Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed weak prooxidative properties. The observed differences in antioxidant activity could be partially explained by the levels of phenolics and flavonoids in the investigated O. basilicum and O. vulgare extracts.

  19. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts.

  20. Karakterisasi Fraksi Aktif Antioksidan dari Ekstrak Etanol Biji Kemangi (Ocimum Basilicum L.

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    Dede Sukandar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of antioxidant compounds from the seeds of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. has been done. Extraction is done by maceration method using ethanol solvent, fractionation by TLC and column chromatography, antioxidants test using DPPH method, and characterization of antioxidant compound using GCMS. Ethanol extract and results of fractionation ethanol extract of basil seeds using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol-water extracts show that n-butanol extract has the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values ​​of 41.90 ppm. Results of column chromatography n-butanol extract using n-hexane : ethyl acetate (1:9 as mobile phase yielded 5 fractions with fraction 4 (F4 isolate has dominant stain of active antioxidants after being sprayed DPPH reagent, it had IC50 values ​​of 39,70 ppm and total phenolic content of 0,003 mg/g. Isolate F4 suspected contains two active compounds as antioxidant which is terpenoid and phenolic compound group, namely squalene and 1,4-di-tert-buthyl-phenol identified by GCMS.DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3598

  1. Ameliorative potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats

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    GURPREET KAUR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Ocimumsanctum and its saponin rich fraction in chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats. The chronic constriction injury was induced by placing four loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve, proximal to its trifurcation. The mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, paw heat hyperalgesia and cold tail hyperalgesia were assessed by performing the pinprick, acetone, hot plate and cold tail immersion tests, respectively. Biochemically, the tissue thio-barbituric acid reactive species, super-oxide anion content (markers of oxidative stress and total calcium levels were measured. Chronic constriction injury was associated with the development of mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, heat and cold hyperalgesia along with an increase in oxidative stress and calcium levels. However, administration of Ocimumsanctum (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. and its saponin rich fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. for 14 days significantly attenuated chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain as well as decrease the oxidative stress and calcium levels. It may be concluded that saponin rich fraction of Ocimum sanctum has ameliorative potential in attenuating painful neuropathic state, which may be attributed to a decrease in oxidative stress and calcium levels.

  2. Rapid Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Ocimum sanctum and Their Characterization

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    M. Z. H. Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With development of nanotechnology, the biological synthesis process deals with the synthesis, characterization, and manipulation of materials and further development at nanoscale which is the most cost-effective and eco-friendly and rapid synthesis process as compared to physical and chemical process. In this research silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized from silver nitrate (AgNO3 aqueous solution through eco-friendly plant leaf broth of Ocimum sanctum as reactant as well as capping agent and stabilizer. The formation of AgNPs was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM have been used to characterize the morphology of prepared AgNPs. The peaks in XRD pattern are in good agreement with that of face-centered-cubic (FCC form of metallic silver. Thermal gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA results confirmed the weight loss and the exothermic reaction due to desorption of chemisorbed water. The average grain size of silver nanoparticles is found to be 29 nm. The FTIR results indicated that the leaf broths containing the carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amine groups are mainly involved in fabrication of silver AgNPs and proteins, which have amine groups responsible for stabilizing AgNPs in the solution.

  3. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum

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    Sofia Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv ‘Ceasar’ grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be useful tools in improving commercial production.

  4. Essential oil composition in three cultivars of Ocimum L. in Albania

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    Imeri Alma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basil is an important medicinal and aromatic plant. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative analyses of the essential oils obtained from an autochthon cultivar of Ocimum basilicum L. and two other Italian cultivars, O. basilicum L. cv. purple and O. basilicum L green basil with wide leaves .In the volatile oil of O. basilicum L. cv. with green wide leaves, twelve components were characterized, representing 90% of the total oil, of which linalool (45.3 % and eugenol (42.06 % were the major components. In the volatile oil of O. basilicum L. cv. purple, nine components were characterized representing 90% of the total oil, of which farnesene (14.94%, elemol (11.29% and carvacrol (9% were the major components. In the O. basilicum L. cv. (autochthon cultivar with green narrow leaves, twelve components were characterized representing 90% of the total oil, with. Linalool (48 % and eugenol (36.09 % as the major components. Linalool (Raguso et. al., 1999 is the dominant constituent in the two cultivars; There was no big difference between the two green cultivars with different leaf morphology in their oil content. These results suggest that further research to improve the quality of the essential oil content is necessary.

  5. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil: A memoir

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    Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  6. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil): A memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Rao, Suresh; Rai, Manoj P; D'souza, Prema

    2016-01-01

    The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  7. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2008-09-24

    Many herbs and spices have been shown to contain high levels of polyphenolic compounds with potent antioxidant properties. In the present study, we explore how nutrient availability, specifically nitrogen fertilization, affects the production of polyphenolic compounds in three cultivars (Dark Opal, Genovese, and Sweet Thai) of the culinary herb, basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Nitrogen fertilization was found to have a significant effect on total phenolic levels in Dark Opal ( p basil with statistically higher phenolic contents observed when nutrient availability was limited at the lowest (0.1 mM) applied nitrogen treatment. Similarly, basil treated at the lowest nitrogen fertilization level generally contained significantly higher rosmarinic ( p = 0.001) and caffeic ( p = 0.001) acid concentrations than basil treated at other nitrogen levels. Nitrogen fertilization also affected antioxidant activity ( p = 0.002) with basil treated at the highest applied nitrogen level, 5.0 mM, exhibiting lower antioxidant activity than all other nitrogen treatments. The anthocyanin content of Dark Opal basil was not affected by applied nitrogen level, but anthocyanin concentrations were significantly impacted by growing season ( p = 0.001). Basil cultivar was also determined to have a statistically significant effect on total phenolic levels, rosmarinic and caffeic acid concentrations, and antioxidant activities.

  8. The effects of alcoholic leaf extract Ocimum basilicum on angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane

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    Niazi Fateme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Angiogenesis is an important biological processes of new blood vessels in many pathological stages of development and embryo development occurs and a complex and dynamic phenomenon that is needed for development and other physiological processes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alcoholic Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on angiogenesis chick chorioallantoic membrane is done. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 Ross fertilized eggs were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham-exposed and experimental groups were divided. The second day of incubation the eggs window was opened. Eighth day of the alcoholic extract of basil doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg on chick chorioallantoic membrane was injected. On day 12, embryos length and weight and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM was photographed by photostereomicroscope Then the numbers and lengths of vessels in special area on CAM were measured with Image J. analyzed through by t-test and ANOVA (P<0.05. Results: The data does not show significant difference between embryos length and weight in sham compare to all experimental groups. In the study vessels number just with 150 mg/kg observed significant. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of basil is an increase in the number of vessels and in this sense the healing and growth processes associated with them as well as effective.

  9. AKTIVITAS ANTIFUNGI EKSTRAK DAUN KEMANGI (Ocimum americanum L. TERHADAP FUNGI Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht

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    Zainal Berlian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. a parasitic fungus that cause leaf wilt disease in plants. Meanwhile, basil (Ocimum americanum L. is a plant that contains of the active compound in the form of phenols which have antifungal activity. This study aimed to test whether the extract of leaves of basil have antifungal activity againts Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and determine the optimum concentration to inhibit the growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. Antifungal test is done by using paper disc diffusion method. The study design used was a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 6 replications. The treatment is K0 (0% w/v, K1 (5% w/v, K2 (10% w/v, and K3 (15% w/v. The results showed that the leaf extract of basil have antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. Inhibition zone on K0, K1, K2, and K3 are each 0,0 mm, 1,49 mm, 2,46 mm, and 2,01 mm. The optimum concentration of antifungal activity of extract of basil, namely the K2 concentration (10% w/v. Based on analysis of variance (ANOVA, the concentration of basil leaf extract provides significant differences (p > 0,05 on fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht., where Fcount > Ftable is 4,5 > 3,1.

  10. Rapid biological synthesis of platinum nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum for water electrolysis applications.

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    Soundarrajan, C; Sankari, A; Dhandapani, P; Maruthamuthu, S; Ravichandran, S; Sozhan, G; Palaniswamy, N

    2012-06-01

    The leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum was used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles from an aqueous chloroplatinic acid (H(2)PtCl(6)·6H(2)O). A greater conversion of platinum ions to nanoparticles was achieved by employing a tulsi leaf broth with a reaction temperature of 100 °C. Energy-dispersive absorption X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the platinum particles as major constituent in the reduction process. It is evident from scanning electron microscopy that the reduced platinum particles were found as aggregates with irregular shape. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the compounds such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, terpenoids, certain proteins and amino acids act as reducing agents for platinum ions reduction. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy suggested the associated forms of platinum with other molecules and the average particle size of platinum nanoparticle was 23 nm, calculated using Scherer equation. The reduced platinum showed similar hydrogen evolution potential and catalytic activity like pure platinum using linear scan voltammetry. This environmentally friendly method of biological platinum nanoparticles production increases the rates of synthesis faster which can potentially be used in water electrolysis applications.

  11. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi): an ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

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    Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-08-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn., commonly known as 'Tulsi' or 'Holy Basil', is considered to be the most sacred herb of India. Several anatomical parts of O. sanctum are known to have an impressive number of therapeutic properties and accordingly find use in several traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Scientific investigations have shown that O. sanctum has a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities. The presence of an impressive number of phytoconstituents in O. sanctum could explain its exceptional beneficial effects. Although several recent articles provide an overview of the various pharmacological properties of O. sanctum, the use of this herb for either prevention or therapy of oncologic diseases has not been exclusively and critically discussed in the literature. The present review critically and comprehensively examines the current knowledge on the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of O. sanctum. The review also examines, in detail, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of O. sanctum. Finally, we discuss the role of synergy, current limitations, and future directions of research toward the effective use of this ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of human cancer.

  12. Antifungal activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil and its lead molecules.

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    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Manzoor, Nikhat; Khan, Luqman A

    2010-02-01

    Aqueous extracts and oils of five Indian medicinal plants, traditionally used for their antimicrobial activities, were evaluated against two of the most prevalent Candida species causing candidiasis, C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Of these plant materials, three showed varying degrees of antifungal activity against both species. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) essential oil (TEO) was found to be the most effective, followed by Peppermint essential oil, and Aloe vera aqueous leaf extract. The product with the lowest MIC was further studied along with its lead molecules to explore the possible mechanism of action of the most active constituents. Eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, and 1, 8-cineole, along with TEO were then evaluated at the same. The pattern and extent of inhibition was studied using growth and WST1 cytotoxicity assays. Proton pumps are important for growth and metabolism of Candida species and so H+ extrusion studies were performed to explore the possible mechanism of the test compounds. Linalool was the most active constituent of TEO, whereas inhibition of H+ extrusion appeared to be a synergistic function of the lead molecules.

  13. Leishmanicidal active constituents from Nepalese medicinal plant Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum L.).

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    Suzuki, Akiko; Shirota, Osamu; Mori, Kanami; Sekita, Setsuko; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Takano, Akihito; Kuroyanagi, Masanori

    2009-03-01

    In the course of screening leishmanicidal active compounds from Asian and South American medicinal plants, a Nepalese medicinal plant, Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum L.), showed strong activity. We therefore studied the isolation and structural elucidation of the active constituents from O. sanctum L. From the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the plant, seven new novel neolignan derivatives were isolated along with 16 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds (1-7) were elucidated as 6-allyl-3',8-dimethoxy-flavan-3,4'-diol (1), 6-allyl-3-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-3',8-dimethoxyflavan-4'-ol (2), 5-allyl-3-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxymethyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (3), 1,2-bis(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-methoxypropane (4), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,2,3-tris(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)propane (5), 1-allyl-4-(5-allyl-2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenoxy)-3-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-5-methoxybenzene (6), and 3-(5-allyl-2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenoxy)-prop-1-ene (7) by means of (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectral data. Some of these compounds showed leishmanicidal activity.

  14. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.) sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

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    Julio Colivet; Glenny Marcano; Genette Belloso; Diagnora Brito; Ely Gómez

    2011-01-01

    La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.) es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae), muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obt...

  15. Anti-stress Activity of Ocimum sanctum: Possible Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothie Richard, Edwin; Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandhakumar, Senthilkumar; Bhaskar, Anirban; Chinampudur Velusami, Chandrasekaran; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated anti-stress potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm. Further, the possible mechanism of anti-stress was explored in vitro using cell and cell-free assays. Rats were administered O. sanctum followed by CVS regimen for a period of 16 days. On days 4, 8, 12, and 16, body weight and immobility time in forced swim test were measured. In addition, the possible inhibitory effect of O. sanctum and ursolic acid on cortisol release and CRHR1 receptor activity were studied in cell-based assays, while inhibitory effects on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were studied in cell-free assays. CVS group demonstrated less body weight gain and higher immobility time than O. sanctum administered groups, while oral administration of O. sanctum significantly increased body weight gain and decreased the immobility time. Further, O. sanctum and its constituents inhibited cortisol release and exhibited a significant CRHR1 receptor antagonist activity. Also, they had specific inhibitory activity towards 11β-HSD1 and COMT activity. Thus, O. sanctum was found to be effective in the management of stress effects, and anti-stress activity could be due to inhibition of cortisol release, blocking CRHR1 receptor, and inhibiting 11β-HSD1 and COMT activities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Inflorescence and leaves essential oil composition of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L

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    MOHAMMAD BAGHER HASSANPOURAGHDAM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the essential oils of leaves and inflorescences, water distilled volatile oils of hydroponically grown Ocimum basilicum L. were analyzed by GC/EI-MS. Fifty components were identified in the inflorescence and leaf essential oils of the basil plants, accounting for 98.8 and 99.9 % of the total quantified components respectively. Phenylpropanoids (37.7 % for the inflorescence vs. 58.3 % for the leaves were the predominant class of oil constituents, followed by sesquiterpenes (33.3 vs. 19.4 % and monoterpenes (27.7 vs. 22.1 %. Of the monoterpenoid compounds, oxygenated monoterpenes (25.2 vs. 18.9 % were the main subclass. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (25 vs. 15.9 % were the main subclass of sesquiterpenoidal compounds. Methyl chavicol, a phenylpropane derivative, (37.2 vs. 56.7 % was the principle component of both organ oils, with up to 38 and 57 % of the total identified components of the inflorescence and leaf essential oils, respectively. Linalool (21.1 vs. 13.1 % was the second common major component followed by α-cadinol (6.1 vs. 3 %, germacrene D (6.1 vs. 2.7 % and 1,8-cineole (2.4 vs. 3.5 %. There were significant quantitative but very small qualitative differences between the two oils. In total, considering the previous reports, it seems that essential oil composition of hydroponically grown O. basilicum L. had volatile constituents comparable with field grown counterparts, probably with potential applicability in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

  17. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

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    A. K. M. Mominul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, alfalfa (Medicago sativa, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli, and timothy (Phleum pratense at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP, germination index (GI, germination energy (GE, speed of emergence (SE, seedling vigour index (SVI, and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50 and mean germination time (MGT were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds.

  18. Effect of Light Spectral Quality on Essential Oil Components in Ocimum Basilicum and Salvia Officinalis Plants

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    A. S. IVANITSKIKH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants grown with artificial lighting, variations in light spectral composition can be used for the directed biosynthesis of the target substances including essential oils, e.g. in plant factories. We studied the effect of light spectral quality on the essential oil composition in Ocimum basilicum and Salvia officinalis plants grown in controlled environment. The variable-spectrum light modules were designed using three types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs with emission peaked in red, blue and red light, white LEDs, and high-pressure sodium lamps as reference. Qualitative and quantitative essential oil determinations were conducted using gas chromatography with mass selective detection and internal standard method.Sweet basil plant leaves contain essential oils (са. 1 % including linalool, pinene, eugenol, camphor, cineole, and other components. And within the genetic diversity of the species, several cultivar groups can be identified according to the flavor (aroma perceived by humans: eugenol, clove, camphor, vanilla basil. Essential oil components produce particular flavor of the basil leaves. In our studies, we are using two sweet basil varieties differing in the essential oil qualitative composition – “Johnsons Dwarf” (camphor as a major component of essential oils and “Johnsons Lemon Flavor” (contains large amount of citral defining its lemon flavor.In sage, essential oil composition is also very variable. As for the plant responses to the light environment, the highest amount of the essential oils was observed at the regimes with white and red + blue LED light. And it was three times less with red light LEDs alone. In the first two environments, thujone accumulation was higher in comparison with camphor, while red LED light and sodium lamp light favored camphor biosynthesis (three times more than thujone. The highest amount of eucalyptol was determined in plants grown with red LEDs.

  19. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

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    Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%, 1,8-cineol (12.2%, eugenol (6.6%, methyl cinnamate (6.2%, α-cubebene (5.7%, caryophyllene (2.5%, β-ocimene (2.1% and α-farnesene (2.0%.The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  20. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil.

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    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Deabes, Mohamed; El-Kassem, Lamia Abou; Khalil, Mona

    2015-09-15

    The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%), 1,8-cineol (12.2%), eugenol (6.6%), methyl cinnamate (6.2%), α-cubebene (5.7%), caryophyllene (2.5%), β-ocimene (2.1%) and α-farnesene (2.0%). The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm). These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  1. Effect of benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves on cauda epididymal spermatozoa of rats

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    Mukhtar Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Recent studies have shown that benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum leaves induces the ultrastructural changes in the epithelial cells of the cauda epididymis, its subsequent recovery in the seminiferous epithelium and fertility of male albino rats.Objective: Our aim was to investigate the effect of benzene extract of O.sanctum leaves on the cauda epididymal sperm parameters, morphology and their organelles at the ultrastructural level in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar male rats (n=20 were allocated into two groups of control (n=10 and test group (n=10. The test group received benzene extract of O.sanctum leaves (250mg/kg/day for 48 consequence days. Five animals from each group were used for fertility test. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, the rest of the control (n=5 and treated (n=5 animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and then the cauda epididymal plasma was used for sperm analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopic (TEM studies. Results: Sperm analysis of test group exhibited significant (p≤0.001 decrease in the sperm count, motility, speed and increase in sperm anomalies when compare to control group. SEM and TEM observation in treated animals indicated the morphological changes in plasma membrane as well as in the acrosomal membrane of spermatozoa, formation of a balloon-like cytoplasmic droplet in the mid-region of abnormal tail and disorganization or degeneration of mitochondria of sperm mitochondrial sheaths. Conclusion: The effects observed in this study may have resulted from a general alteration in the cauda epididymal milieu, probably due to androgen deficiency consequent to the anti-androgenic property of O.sanctum leaves

  2. Antioxidative responses of Ocimum basilicum to sodium chloride or sodium sulphate salinization.

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    Tarchoune, I; Sgherri, C; Izzo, R; Lachaal, M; Ouerghi, Z; Navari-Izzo, F

    2010-09-01

    Soils and ground water in nature are dominated by chloride and sulphate salts. There have been several studies concerning NaCl salinity, however, little is known about the Na(2)SO(4) one. The effects on antioxidative activities of chloride or sodium sulphate in terms of the same Na(+) equivalents (25 mM Na(2)SO(4) and 50 mM NaCl) were studied on 30 day-old plants of Ocimum basilicum L., variety Genovese subjected to 15 and 30 days of treatment. Growth, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative ion leakage ratio (RLR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ascorbate and glutathione contents as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11); glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and peroxidases (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were determined. In leaves, growth was more depressed by 25 mM Na(2)SO(4) than 50 mM NaCl. The higher sensitivity of basil to Na(2)SO(4) was associated with an enhanced accumulation of H(2)O(2), an inhibition of APX, GR and POD activities (with the exception of POD under the 30-day-treatment) and a lower regeneration of reduced ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the changes in the antioxidant metabolism were enough to limit oxidative damage, explaining the fact that RLR and TBARS levels were unchanged under both Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatment. Moreover, for both salts the 30-day-treatment reduced H(2)O(2) accumulation, unchanged RLR and TBARS levels, and enhanced the levels of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, thus achieving an adaptation mechanism against reactive oxygen species. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract of Mentha longifolia and Ocimum basilicum against human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Khalil H; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; El-Badry, Ayman A; Alkhalaf, Moussa

    2013-12-01

    Labiatae family is represented in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the present study was to go insight to investigate the anticancer activity and antioxidative potentials of methanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia L. (ML) and Ocimum basilicum L. (OB) that grown in Madina province, western region, Saudi Arabia. OB exhibited the greater phenolic contents as mg gallic acid equivalent/g weight (mg GAE/g) for a value of 105 +/- 5.5 mg GAE/g. On the other hand, ML produced 29 +/- 3.12 mg GAE/g. The standard antioxidant vitamin E used in this experiment elicited a value of total phenolic contents equal 22 +/- 2.2 mg GAE/g. The percentage scavenging activity of against diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was 850 and 160% for OB and ML extracts, respectively. Vitamin E elicited% scavenging activity of against DPPH equal to 198%. Brine shrimp cytotoxic assay clearly indicated the cytotoxic effects of either ML or OB extract. The brine shrimp survival is inversely proportional to the concentration of either ML or OB extract used with LD50 191.23 and 235.50 ppm, respectively. Toxic effects on brine shrimps indicated the anticancer potential of ML or OB extract. The ML or OB extract was unable to produce pbluescript (pBS) plasmid DNA damage, while the plasmid DNA treated with EcoRI produced a single band as a result of DNA damage. Also, both ML and OB extract exhibited marked cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells at various concentrations (20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 microg mL(-1)). The 160 and 320 microg mL(-1) showed more cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells. Based on results achieved, we can concluded that, OB and ML extracts have the potency to act as powerful antioxidants and protect against DNA damage and have cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell line.

  4. Ocimum basilicum extract exhibits antidiabetic effects via inhibition of hepatic glucose mobilization and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeani, Chinelo; Ezenyi, Ifeoma; Okoye, Theophine; Okoli, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L (Lamiaceae) is used as a traditional remedy for different ailments, including diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of an extract of aerial parts of O. basilicum. Antihyperglycemic effect of the extract was determined by its effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, while antidiabetic properties were studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats treated for 28 days with extract and compared to those treated with oral metformin (150 mg/kg). The study and analysis was conducted between 2014 and 2015. The treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced fasting blood glucose concentration and slightly increased mean body weight in treated groups. Oral glucose tolerance was also significantly (P < 0.05, 0.001) improved in 100 and 400 mg/kg extract-treated groups. The extract caused a dose-dependent increase in liver glycogen content, while it decreased alanine transferase (18.9-30.56%) and aspartate transferase (6.48-34.3%) levels in a non-dose-dependent manner. A dose of 100 mg/kg also reduced serum cholesterol and triglycerides by 19.3 and 39.54%, compared to a 2.6% reduction of cholesterol seen in the metformin-treated group. The extract was observed to produce significant (P < 0.001) concentration-dependent inhibition of α-glucosidase (35.71-100%) and also α-amylase (23.55-81.52%), with estimated inhibitory concentration values of 1.62 and 3.86 mg/mL, respectively. The antidiabetic properties of the extract may be due to its ability to suppress endogenous glucose release, inhibit glycogenolysis and/or stimulate glycogenesis.

  5. Chemical composition and some biological activities of the essential oils from basil Ocimum different cultivars.

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    Avetisyan, Arpi; Markosian, Anahit; Petrosyan, Margarit; Sahakyan, Naira; Babayan, Anush; Aloyan, Samvel; Trchounian, Armen

    2017-01-19

    The plants belonging to the Ocimum genus of the Lamiaceae family are considered to be a rich source of essential oils which have expressed biological activity and use in different area of human activity. There is a great variety of chemotypes within the same basil species. Essential oils from three different cultivars of basil, O. basilicum var. purpureum, O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora, and O. citriodorum Vis. were the subjects of our investigations. The oils were obtained by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The gas chromatography mass selective analysis was used to determine their chemical composition. The antioxidant activities of these essential oils were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays; the tyrosinase inhibition abilities of the given group of oils were also assessed spectophotometrically, and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was determined by the agar diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentrations were expressed. According to the results, the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils was quite different: O. basilicum var. purpureum essential oil contained 57.3% methyl-chavicol (estragol); O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora oil had 68.0% linalool. The main constituents of O. citriodorum oil were nerol (23.0%) and citral (20.7%). The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by O. basilicum var. thyrsiflora essential oil. This oil has also exhibited the highest tyrosinase inhibition level, whereas the oil from O. citriodorum cultivar demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity. The results obtained indicate that these essential oils have antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity and can be used as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in medicine, food industry and cosmetics.

  6. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of an antifungal PR-5 protein from Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Irshad Ahmad; Awasthi, Praveen; Mahajan, Vidushi; Bedi, Yashbir S; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2015-03-01

    Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants and are grouped into 17 families (PR-1 to PR-17). PR-5 family includes proteins related to thaumatin and osmotin, with several members possessing antimicrobial properties. In this study, a PR-5 gene showing a high degree of homology with osmotin-like protein was isolated from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). A complete open reading frame consisting of 675 nucleotides, coding for a precursor protein, was obtained by PCR amplification. Based on sequence comparisons with tobacco osmotin and other osmotin-like proteins (OLPs), this protein was named ObOLP. The predicted mature protein is 225 amino acids in length and contains 16 cysteine residues that may potentially form eight disulfide bonds, a signature common to most PR-5 proteins. Among the various abiotic stress treatments tested, including high salt, mechanical wounding and exogenous phytohormone/elicitor treatments; methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and mechanical wounding significantly induced the expression of ObOLP gene. The coding sequence of ObOLP was cloned and expressed in a bacterial host resulting in a 25kDa recombinant-HIS tagged protein, displaying antifungal activity. The ObOLP protein sequence appears to contain an N-terminal signal peptide with signatures of secretory pathway. Further, our experimental data shows that ObOLP expression is regulated transcriptionally and in silico analysis suggests that it may be post-transcriptionally and post-translationally regulated through microRNAs and post-translational protein modifications, respectively. This study appears to be the first report of isolation and characterization of osmotin-like protein gene from O. basilicum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of the total flavonoid content in Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) leaves.

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    da Silva, Layzon Antonio Lemos; Pezzini, Bianca Ramos; Soares, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The chemical characterization is essential to validate the pharmaceutical use of vegetable raw materials. Ultraviolet spectroscopy is an important technique to determine flavonoids, which are important active compounds from Ocimum basilicum. The objective of this work was to optimize a spectrophotometric method, based on flavonoid-aluminum chloride (AlCl3) complexation to determine the total flavonoid content (TFC) in leaves of O. basilicum (herbal material), using response surface methodology. The effects of (1) the herbal material: Solvent ratio (0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.08 g/mL), (2) stock solution volume (0.8, 2.3, 4.4, 6.5, and 8.0 mL) and (3) AlCl3 volume (0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 mL) on the TFC were evaluated. The analytical performance parameters precision, linearity and robustness of the method were tested. The herbal material: Solvent ratio and stock solution volume showed an important influence on the method response. After choosing the optimized conditions, the method exhibited a precision (RSD%) lower than 6% for repeatability (RSD%) and lower than 8% for intermediate precision (on the order of literature values for biotechnological methods), coefficient of correlation of 0.9984, and no important influence could be observed for variations of the time of complexation with AlCl3. However, the time and temperature of extraction were critical for TFC method and must be carefully controlled during the analysis. Thus, this study allowed the optimization of a simple, fast and precise method for the determination of the TFC in leaves of O. basilicum, which can be used to support the quality assessment of this herbal material.

  8. Thermal and oxidative stability of the Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil/β-cyclodextrin supramolecular system

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    Daniel I. Hădărugă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil and its β-cyclodextrin (β-CD complex have been investigated with respect to their stability against the degradative action of air/oxygen and temperature. This supramolecular system was obtained by a crystallization method in order to achieve the equilibrium of complexed–uncomplexed volatile compounds in an ethanol/water solution at 50 °C. Both the raw essential oil and its β-CD complex have been subjected to thermal and oxidative degradation conditions in order to evaluate the protective capacity of β-CD. The relative concentration of the O. basilicum L. essential oil compounds, as determined by GC–MS, varies accordingly with their sensitivity to the thermal and/or oxidative degradation conditions imposed. Furthermore, the relative concentration of the volatile O. basilicum L. compounds found in the β-CD complex is quite different in comparison with the raw material. An increase of the relative concentration of linalool oxide from 0.3% to 1.1%, in addition to many sesquiterpene oxides, has been observed. β-CD complexation of the O. basilicum essential oil modifies the relative concentration of the encapsulated volatile compounds. Thus, linalool was better encapsulated in β-CD, while methylchavicol (estragole was encapsulated in β-CD at a concentration close to that of the raw essential oil. Higher relative concentrations from the degradation of the oxygenated compounds such as linalool oxide and aromadendren oxide were determined in the raw O. basilicum L. essential oil in comparison with the corresponding β-CD complex. For the first time, the protective capability of natural β-CD for labile basil essential oil compounds has been demonstrated.

  9. Effect of Ocimum basilicum L. on cyclo-oxygenase isoforms and prostaglandins involved in thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Anwar; Zhou, Wenting; Abdusalam, Elzira; Tursun, Arzigul; Reyim, Nadira; Tohti, Ibadet; Moore, Nicholas

    2014-02-27

    Ocimum basilicum L. (OBL) is a plant used in traditional Uyghur medicine for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. In previous studies we had found an antihypertensive and antithrombotic effect suggestive of an effect on prostaglandins, which we attempt to document here. 6-keto-PGF1α, the metabolite of prostacyclin, and PGE2 were measured in the supernatant of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and basal or LPS-stimulated mouse coeliac macrophage cultures exposed to OBL ethanol (OBL-E) extracts and petroleum ether, chloroform, ethylacetate and butanol (PE, C, EA, B) fractions. In addition, 6-keto-PGF1α and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were measured in a rat model of thromboangiitis obliterans exposed or not to OBL. Short-term exposure to OBL-E dose-dependently increased 6-keto-PGF1α from HUVEC, and long-term (24h) exposure decreased it. OBL-C and OBL-B increased 6-keto-PGF1α, whereas the other fractions tended to decrease it after 24h exposure. The extract and all fractions decreased basal and stimulated PGE2 production, but only OBL-EA and OBL-B reduced PGE2 in stimulated cultures to concentrations below the unstimulated values (P<0.05). In vivo OBL increased 6-keto-PGF1α and decreased TXB2. OBL and its extracts increased 6-keto-PGF1α and reduced PGE2 and TXB2 production in a dose and time-related manner. This could indicate simultaneous inhibition of COX-2 and stimulation of endothelial COX-1. The butanol fraction seemed most promising in this respect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of new potent inhibitor of aldose reductase from Ocimum basilicum.

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    Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Tehseen, Yildiz; Maryam, Kiran; Uroos, Maliha; Siddiqui, Bina S; Hameed, Abdul; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2017-12-01

    Recent efforts to develop cure for chronic diabetic complications have led to the discovery of potent inhibitors against aldose reductase (AKR1B1, EC 1.1.1.21) whose role in diabetes is well-evident. In the present work, two new natural products were isolated from the ariel part of Ocimum basilicum; 7-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3-methyl-8-β-O-d-glucoside-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and E-4-(6'-hydroxyhex-3'-en-1-yl)phenyl propionate (2) and confirmed their structures with different spectroscopic techniques including NMR spectroscopy etc. The isolated compounds (1, 2) were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and aldehyde reductase (AKR1A1). The natural product (1) showed better inhibitory activity for AKR1B1 with IC50 value of 2.095±0.77µM compare to standard sorbinil (IC50=3.14±0.02µM). Moreover, the compound (1) also showed multifolds higher activity (IC50=0.783±0.07µM) against AKR1A1 as compared to standard valproic acid (IC50=57.4±0.89µM). However, the natural product (2) showed slightly lower activity for AKR1B1 (IC50=4.324±1.25µM). Moreover, the molecular docking studies of the potent inhibitors were also performed to identify the putative binding modes within the active site of aldose/aldehyde reductases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transfer of Downy Mildew Resistance from Wild Basil (Ocimum americanum) to Sweet Basil (O. basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Cohen, Yigal

    2018-01-01

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is susceptible to downy mildew caused by the oomycete foliar pathogen Peronospora belbahrii. No resistant varieties of sweet basil are commercially available. Here, we report on the transfer of resistance gene Pb1 from the highly resistant tetraploid wild basil O. americanum var. americanum (PI 500945, 2n = 4x = 48) to the tetraploid susceptible O. basilicum 'Sweet basil' (2n = 4x = 48). F1 progeny plants derived from the interspecific hybridization PI 500945 × Sweet basil were resistant, indicating that the gene controlling resistance (Pb1) is dominant, but sterile due to the genetic distance between the parents. Despite their sterility, F1 plants were pollinated with the susceptible parent and 115 first backcross generation to the susceptible parent (BCs1) embryos were rescued in vitro. The emerging BCs1 plants segregated, upon inoculation, 5:1 resistant/susceptible, suggesting that resistance in F1 was controlled by a pair of dominant genes (Pb1A and Pb1A'). Thirty-one partially fertile BCs1 plants were self-pollinated to obtain BCs1-F2 or were backcrossed to Sweet basil to obtain the second backcross generation to the susceptible parent (BCs2). In total, 1 BCs1-F2 and 22 BCs2 progenies were obtained. The BCs1-F2 progeny segregated 35:1 resistant/susceptible, as expected from a tetraploid parent with two dominant resistant genes. The 22 BCs2 progenies segregated 1:1 resistant/susceptible (for a BCs1 parent that carried one dominant gene for resistance) or 5:1 (for a BCs1 parent that carried two dominant genes for resistance) at a ratio of 4:1. The data suggest that a pair of dominant genes (Pb1A and Pb1A') residing on a two homeologous chromosomes is responsible for resistance of PI 500945 against P. belbahrii.

  12. Thermal and oxidative stability of the Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil/β-cyclodextrin supramolecular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hădărugă, Daniel I; Hădărugă, Nicoleta G; Costescu, Corina I; David, Ioan; Gruia, Alexandra T

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil and its β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) complex have been investigated with respect to their stability against the degradative action of air/oxygen and temperature. This supramolecular system was obtained by a crystallization method in order to achieve the equilibrium of complexed-uncomplexed volatile compounds in an ethanol/water solution at 50 °C. Both the raw essential oil and its β-CD complex have been subjected to thermal and oxidative degradation conditions in order to evaluate the protective capacity of β-CD. The relative concentration of the O. basilicum L. essential oil compounds, as determined by GC-MS, varies accordingly with their sensitivity to the thermal and/or oxidative degradation conditions imposed. Furthermore, the relative concentration of the volatile O. basilicum L. compounds found in the β-CD complex is quite different in comparison with the raw material. An increase of the relative concentration of linalool oxide from 0.3% to 1.1%, in addition to many sesquiterpene oxides, has been observed. β-CD complexation of the O. basilicum essential oil modifies the relative concentration of the encapsulated volatile compounds. Thus, linalool was better encapsulated in β-CD, while methylchavicol (estragole) was encapsulated in β-CD at a concentration close to that of the raw essential oil. Higher relative concentrations from the degradation of the oxygenated compounds such as linalool oxide and aromadendren oxide were determined in the raw O. basilicum L. essential oil in comparison with the corresponding β-CD complex. For the first time, the protective capability of natural β-CD for labile basil essential oil compounds has been demonstrated.

  13. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. water needs calculated from the crop coefficient

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    Martha Constanza Daza-Torres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the crop coefficient (Kc throughout the phenological stages is important for the calculation of water requirements of plants. This study determined the Kc curve for Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. in Candelaria, Valle del Cauca, and evaluated this Kc in greenhouse conditions. Three drainage lysimeters and a portable meteorological station were used to determine the reference evapotranspiration (ETo, which were set up randomly in an experimental plot. The field capacity (FC moisture content was determined, and the soil moisture and drainage depth were periodically monitored. Daily water balance calculations were conducted to determine the crop’s water needs (ETc, and the Kc was calculated based on the quotient between ETc and ETo by performing statistical regression analysis. In the second experiment, in a completely randomized bifactorial design, four treatments were established in Cali (Valle. These treatments were amount of water necessary to maintain the soil moisture at FC and amount of water calculated with the Kc (72 % FC, both treatments with and without fertilizers application. The results showed that the Kc values for basil are: growth stage, 0,45 ± 0,02 (25 days after transplant, dat; maturity stage, 0,59 ± 0,02 (26 – 50 dat; and senescence stage, 0,42 ± 0,03 (51 – 71 dat. In greenhouse conditions, dry mass percentage, plant height, soil pH and electrical conductivity were similar for both water regimens. The reduction on water with Kc increased the nitrogen foliar but the water use efficient decreased.

  14. Effects of various organic and chemical fertilizers on growth indices of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    S.M.K. Tahami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop the high intensive agriculture, more chemical fertilizers are applied to the soil that resulting in soil degradation and environment deterioration. Application of organic manure is an important approach for maintaining and improving the soil fertility and increasing fertilizer use efficiency. Therefore, in order to evaluate the effect of organic manures and chemical fertilizer on growth indices and biological yield of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., an experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2008-2009. A complete randomized block design with six treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were: cow manure, sheep manure, chicken manure, vermicompost, chemical NPK fertilizers and control (no fertilizer. The results showed that the use of organic fertilizers significantly increased seed and biological yield of basil compared with chemical fertilizer and control. The maximum and the minimum dry weights were observed at 105 days after planting, in sheep and cow manures, respectively. Gradually during the period of plant growth and development to reproduction phase percent of stem decreased and dry weight of inflorescence increased. The highest and the lowest leaf area index were observed at 90 days after planting, in cow manure and control, respectively, and then decreased in all treatments. The maximum crop growth rate in most of treatments at 90 days after planting was obtained, except the control which plant growth rate was lowest. Net assimilation rate (NAR in most treatments increased until 75 days after planting and then declined. While the highest and the lowest NAR were observed at 75 days after planting in chicken manure and chemical treatment, respectively.

  15. Growth, yield, plant quality and nutrition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. under soilless agricultural systems

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    Subhrajit Saha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agricultural systems are challenged by globally declining resources resulting from climate change and growing population. Alternative agricultural practices such as aquaponics (includes crop plant and aquatic species and hydroponics (includes crop plant only have the potential to generate high yield per unit area using limited land, water, and no soil. A soilless agricultural study was conducted at the Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA from August to November, 2015. The growth, yield, quality, and nutrition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cultivar Aroma 2, were compared between aquaponic and hydroponic systems using crayfish (Procambarus spp. as the aquatic species. Non-circulating floating raft systems were designed using 95 L polyethylene tanks. Equal amounts of start-up fertilizer dose were applied to both systems. The objective was to understand how the additional nutritional dynamics associated with crayfish influence the basil crop. Both fresh and dry basil plant weights were collected after harvest, followed by leaf nutrient analysis. Leaf chlorophyll content, water pH, nitrogen and temperature were measured periodically. Aquaponic basil (AqB showed 14%, 56%, and 65% more height, fresh weight, and dry weight, respectively, compared to hydroponic basil (HyB. It is logical to assume that crayfish waste (excreta and unconsumed feed has supplied the additional nutrients to AqB, resulting in greater growth and yield. The chlorophyll content (plant quality or leaf nutrients, however, did not differ between AqB and HyB. Further research is needed to investigate aquaponic crayfish yield, overall nutritional dynamics, cost-benefit ratio, and other plant characteristics under soilless systems.

  16. Selected terpenes from leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. induce hemoglobin accumulation in human K562 cells.

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    Giordana, Feriotto; Nicola, Marchetti; Valentina, Costa; Torricelli, Piera; Beninati, Simone; Tagliati, Federico; Mischiati, Carlo

    2018-02-13

    Re-expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) was proposed as a possible therapeutic strategy for β-haemoglobinopathies. Although several inducers of HbF were tested in clinical trials, only hydroxyurea (HU) received FDA approval. Despite it produced adequate HbF levels only in half of HU-treated SCD patients, and was ineffective at all in β-thalassemia patients, beneficial effects of this approach suggested to continue in this direction identifying further molecules capable of inducing HbF. We tested the potential of essential oil isolated from Ocimum basilicum L. leaves (ObEO) in inducing hemoglobin biosynthesis. Initially, dose-dependent effect and kinetics of hemoglobin accumulation in K562 cells after treatment with ObEO were evaluated. ObEO induced dose-dependent hemoglobin accumulation superior to hydroxyurea and rapamycin and a strongest γ-globin mRNA expression. Terpenes composition of ObEO was studied by GC-MS. Three main constituents, linalool, eugenol and eucalyptol, represented about 75% of total. A blend of these three terpenes fully replicated the ObEO's biological effect, thus indicating that one of them or all together could be the active ingredients. When terpenes were tested individually, eugenol was the only one inducing stable hemoglobin accumulation, while eucalyptol and linalool produced only a small transient response. However, eugenol potential was strongly enhanced in the presence of eucalyptol and linalool, suggesting a synergistic effect on hemoglobin accumulation. By these results, the discovery of a new inducer and the interesting activity of a blend of major terpenes from ObOE on Hb accumulation could have positive fallouts on β-thalassemia and sickle cells anemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezz Eldin, Hayam Mohamed; Badawy, Abeer Fathy

    2015-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis; a cosmopolitan sexually transmitted disease. Metronidazole is the drug of choice for T. vaginalis infections. The increase in metronidazole resistant parasites and undesirable side effects of this drug makes the search for an alternative a priority for the management of trichomoniasis. Pistacia lentiscus mastic and Ocimum basilicum oil are known for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal effects. The present study was carried out to investigate the in vitro effects of P. lentiscus mastic and O. basilicum oil on T. vaginalis trophozoites. The effects of different concentrations of P. lentiscus mastic (15, 10 and 5 mg/ml) and different concentrations of O. basilicum oil (30, 20 and 10 μg/ml) on multiplication of trophozoites at different time points (after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h) were determined, also morphological changes were reported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that both plants caused an inhibition of growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites. The minimal lethal concentration of P. lentiscus mastic was 15 mg/ml after 24 h incubation, 10 mg/ml after 48 h and 5 mg/ml after 96 h. The minimal lethal concentration of O. basilicum oil was 30 μg/ml after 24 h incubation, 20 μg/ml after 48 h and 10 μg/ml after 96 h. TEM study of trophozoites treated by P. lentiscus mastic or by O. basilicum oil showed considerable damage of the membrane system of the trophozoites, and extensive vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These results highly suggest that P. lentiscus mastic and O. basilicum oil may be promising phytotherapeutic agents for trichomoniasis treatment.

  18. Antimutagenic Properties of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. in Salmonella typhimurium TA100

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    Olivera Stajković

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary antimutagens and anticarcinogens has been seen as a promising approach to the protection of human health. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is a well-known medicinal and aromatic plant, with a range of newly discovered biological activities possibly important for chemoprevention. In the preliminary experiments, toxic and mutagenic potential of essential oil (EO from basil and pure substances: linalool, ß-myrcene and 1,8-cineole were tested using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100 and TA102, with and without S9 mix (microsomal fraction of rat liver. No mutagenic effect of basil derivatives was detected in any tested strain. Antimutagenic effects of essential oil from basil and its pure constituents were further evaluated in the Ames test using S. typhimurium TA100. UVC irradiation and three chemical mutagens, 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQO, 2-nitropropane (2-NP and benzo(apyrene (B(aP were used to induce mutagenesis. All tested basil derivatives significantly reduced UV-induced mutations. The maximum inhibition was in the range of 64–77 %. Inhibitory potential against direct acting model mutagen/carcinogen 4NQO was similar to UV (52–67 %. In the presence of S9, EO and 1,8-cineole showed moderate inhibition of 2-NP induced mutagenesis, while the remaining two substances had no effect. Linalool exhibited high co-mutagenic effect with B(aP, 1,8-cineole showed moderate inhibitory effect against B(aP-induced mutations, while EO and ß-myrcene were ineffective.

  19. The effect of soil risk element contamination level on the element contents in Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Růžičková Petra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Red basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. Red Rubin was cultivated in model pot experiment in the soil amended by arsenic, cadmium and lead solutions in stepwise concentrations representing the soil concentration levels of former mining area in the vicinity of Příbram, Czech Republic. The element levels added to the soil reached up to 40 mg Cd, 100 mg As, and 2000 mg Pb per kg of soil. Moreover, essential macro-and microelements as well as cyanidine contents were investigated to assess their potential interactions with the risk elements. The extractable element portions in soils determined at the end of vegetation period differed according to the individual elements. Whereas the plant-available (extractable with 0.11M CH3COOH content of Cd represented 70-100% of the added Cd, the mobile portion of Pb did not exceed 1%. The risk element content in plants reflected the increasing element contents in soil. The dominant element portions remained in plant roots indicating the limited translocation ability of risk elements to the aboveground biomass of this plant species. Although the risk element contents in amended plants significantly increased, no visible symptoms of phytotoxicity occurred. However, the effect of enhanced risk element contents on the essential element uptake was assessed. Considering inter-element relationships, elevated sulphur levels were seen in amended plants, indicating its possible role of phytochelatin synthesis in the plants. Moreover, the molybdenum contents in plant biomass dropped down with increasing risk element uptake by plants confirming As-Mo and Cd-Mo antagonism. The increasing content of cyanidine in the plant biomass confirmed possible role of anthocyanins in detoxification mechanism of risk element contaminated plants and suggested the importance of anthocyanin pigments for risk element tolerance of plants growing in contaminated areas.

  20. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Hussain Sherazi, Syed Tufail; Przybylski, Roman

    2008-06-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from aerial parts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) as affected by four seasonal, namely summer, autumn, winter and spring growing variation were investigated. The hydro-distilled essential oils content ranged from 0.5% to 0.8%, the maximum amounts were observed in winter while minimum in summer. The essential oils consisted of linalool as the most abundant component (56.7-60.6%), followed by epi-α-cadinol (8.6-11.4%), α-bergamotene (7.4-9.2%) and γ-cadinene (3.2-5.4%). Samples collected in winter were found to be richer in oxygenated monoterpenes (68.9%), while those of summer were higher in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (24.3%). The contents of most of the chemical constituents varied significantly (p<0.05) with different seasons. The essential oils investigated, exhibited good antioxidant activity as measurements by DPPH free radical-scavenging ability, bleaching β-carotene in linoleic acid system and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the essential oils and linalool, the most abundant component, against bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pasteurella multocida and pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Fusarium solani, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus solani was assessed by disc diffusion method and measurement of determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. The results of antimicrobial assays indicated that all the tested microorganisms were affected. Both the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the oils varied significantly (p<0.05), as seasons changed. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological activities of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Taneja, Manish; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2007-05-01

    Seeds of Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae; popularly known as 'Tulsi' in Hindi and 'Holy Basil' in English) contain a pale yellow colored fixed oil. The oil possesses antiinflammatory activity due to dual inhibition of arachidonate metabolism supplemented by antihistaminic activity. The antiinflammatory activity is not dependent on the pituitary adrenal axis. The oil possesses antipyretic activity due to prostaglandin inhibition and peripherally acting analgesic activity. The oil has been found to be effective against formaldehyde or adjuvant induced arthritis and turpentine oil induced joint edema in animals. Lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic and antisecretory activities of the oil contribute towards antiulcer activity. The oil can inhibit enhancement of vascular capillary permeability and leucocyte migration following inflammatory stimulus. The LD50 of the oil is 42.5 ml/kg and long-term use of oil at 3 ml/kg dose does not produce any untoward effects in rats. The oil contains a-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, which on metabolism produces eicosapentaenoic acid and the same appears to be responsible for the biological activity. The oil has hypotensive, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory activities. Antioxidant property of the oil renders metabolic inhibition, chemoprevention and hypolipidaemic activity. Presence of linolenic acid in the oil imparts antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The oil alone or in combination with cloxacillin, a beta-lactamase resistant penicillin, has been found to be beneficial in bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disorder resulting from staphylococcal infection. Existence of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antibacterial activities in single entity i.e. fixed oil appears to be unique.

  2. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India's Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy of 2% Ocimum sanctum gel in the treatment of experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosadurga, Rajesh Ramesh; Rao, Sudarshan Narayan; Edavanputhalath, Rejeesh; Jose, Jobin; Rompicharla, Narayana Charyulu; Shakil, Moidin; Raju, Shashidhara

    2015-01-01

    One of the options for the treatment of periodontitis is local drug delivery systems (LDD). Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), a traditional herb, has many uses in medicine. It could be a suitable agent as LDD for the treatment of periodontitis. The aim was to formulate, evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity; assess duration of the action and the efficacy of 2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel in the treatment of experimental periodontitis in Wistar Albino rat model. Thirty six Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Periodontitis was induced using ligature model. Group 1-control; Group 2-Plain gel and Group 3-2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel. 2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel were prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity and duration of action were assessed. Silk ligature 5-0 was used to induce periodontitis. Gingival index (GI) and probing pocket depth were measured. Treatment was done. The rats were sacrificed. Morphometric analysis was done using Stereomicroscope and ImageJ software. ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's test, Wilcoxon's test for intergroup comparison, Mann-Whitney test for P value computation was used. The observations are mean ± standard deviation and standard error of the mean. P tulsi (O. sanctum) gel showed 33.66% inhibition of edema and peak activity was noted at 24 h. There was statistically significant change in the GI and probing pocket depth. Morphometric analysis did not show any significant difference between groups. No toxic effects were seen on oral administration of 2000 mg/kg of Tulsi extract. 2% tulsi (O. sanctum) gel was effective in the treatment of experimental periodontitis.

  4. Antimicrobial efficacy of Tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum) extract on periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjun, Sajjanshetty; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an infection of the periodontal complex with severe forms of disease associated with specific bacteria colonizing the subgingival area. Widespread use of drugs has resulted in the emergence of side effects, uncommon infections, and resistance. Plant medicine like Tulsi has been used in many clinical conditions, and it appears to be a suitable alternative to manage conditions affecting the oral cavity. Hence, the objective was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Tulsi leaves extract (Ocimum sanctum) on periodontal pathogens with doxycycline as standard, as doxycycline has been used as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy in periodontitis patients. Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by cold extraction method. Extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain five different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10%). Doxycycline was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide, as a negative control. The extract and controls were subjected to the microbiological investigation against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Agar well diffusion method was employed to determine the concentration at which Tulsi gave an inhibition zone, similar to doxycycline. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test was used for inter- and intra-group comparisons. At 5% and 10% concentrations, Tulsi extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, similar to doxycycline with similar inhibition zones (P > 0.05). P. gingivalis and P. intermedia, however, exhibited resistance to Tulsi extract that showed significantly smaller inhibition zones (P Tulsi demonstrated effective antimicrobial property against A. actinomycetemcomitans, suggesting its possible use as an effective and affordable "adjunct" along with the standard care in the management of periodontal conditions. However, further research assessing the

  5. Modulatory effect of distillate of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract (Tulsi) on human lymphocytes against genotoxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dipanwita; Devi, S Saravana; Krishnamurthi, K; Kumar, Koel; Vyas, Priyanka; Muthal, P L; Naoghare, P; Chakrabarti, T

    2007-06-01

    To study the modulatory effect of distillate of Ocimum sanctum (traditionally known as Tulsi) leaf extract (DTLE) on genotoxicants. In the present investigation, we studied the antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effect of distillate of Tulsi leaf extract on (i) human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by evaluating the DNA strand break without metabolic activation against mitomycin C (MMC) and hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) and (ii) human peripheral lymphocytes (in vitro) with or without metabolic activation against mitomycin C (MMC), hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) and B[a]P by evaluating chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus assay (MN). Three different doses of DTLE, 50 microL/mL, 100 microL/mL, and 200 microL/mL were selected on the basis of cytotoxicity assay and used for studying DNA strand break, chromosomal aberration and micronucleus emergence. The following positive controls were used for inducing genotoxicity and clastogenicity: MMC (0.29 micromol/L) for DNA strand break, chromosomal aberration and 0.51 micromol/L for micronucleus assay; Potassium dichromate (Cr+6) 600 micromol/L for DNA strand break and 5 micromol/L for chromosomal aberration and micronucleus assay; Benzo[a]pyrene (30 micromol/L) for chromosomal aberration and 40 micromol/L for micronucleus assay. The active ingredients present in the distillate of Tulsi leaf extract were identified by HPLC and LC-MS. Mitomycin C (MMC) and hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) induced statistically significant DNA strand break of respectively 69% and 71% (PTulsi leaf extract possesses antioxidants contributed mainly by eugenol, luteolin and apigenin as identified by LC-MS. These active ingredients may have the protective effect against genotoxicants.

  6. Apoptosis Induction by Ocimum sanctum Extract in LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandayuthapani, Sivanesan; Azad, Hasan; Rathinavelu, Appu

    2015-07-01

    Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn), commonly known as "holy basil," has been used for the treatment of a wide range of ailments in many parts of the world. This study focuses on apoptosis-inducing ability of tulsi extract on prostate cancer cells. For this purpose LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of 70% ethanolic extract of tulsi (EET) and then the cytotoxicity was determined after 24 and 48 h. After treatment with EET externalization of phosphatidyl serine (PS) from the inner membrane to outer leaflet of the plasma membrane was clearly evidenced by the results obtained from both flow cytometry analysis with Annexin V-FITC and pSIVA-IANBD binding fluorescence microscopy assay. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential was also evidenced by the presence of 5,5',6,6'-tetrachlolo-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl benzimedazolyl carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) monomeric form in the EET-treated cells that emitted the green fluorescence when compared with the control cells that emitted the red fluorescence due to aggregation of JC-1. Furthermore, the level of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and Bcl-2 were determined using western blot analysis. When compared to the control cells the level of cleaved PARP was found to be higher with a concomitant decrease in the Bcl-2 level after 24 h of treatment of cells with EET. In addition, treatment with EET significantly elevated the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in LNCaP cells compared with the control. Also, after 48 h of treatment all doses used in this study showed clear fragments of DNA, which is one of the hallmarks of apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that, EET can effectively induce apoptosis in LNCaP cells via activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 that can eventually lead to DNA fragmentation and cell death.

  7. Antimicrobial efficacy of Tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum extract on periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study

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    Sajjanshetty Mallikarjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is an infection of the periodontal complex with severe forms of disease associated with specific bacteria colonizing the subgingival area. Widespread use of drugs has resulted in the emergence of side effects, uncommon infections, and resistance. Plant medicine like Tulsi has been used in many clinical conditions, and it appears to be a suitable alternative to manage conditions affecting the oral cavity. Hence, the objective was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Tulsi leaves extract (Ocimum sanctum on periodontal pathogens with doxycycline as standard, as doxycycline has been used as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy in periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by cold extraction method. Extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain five different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10%. Doxycycline was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide, as a negative control. The extract and controls were subjected to the microbiological investigation against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Agar well diffusion method was employed to determine the concentration at which Tulsi gave an inhibition zone, similar to doxycycline. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test was used for inter- and intra-group comparisons. Results: At 5% and 10% concentrations, Tulsi extracts demonstrated antimicrobial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, similar to doxycycline with similar inhibition zones (P > 0.05. P. gingivalis and P. intermedia, however, exhibited resistance to Tulsi extract that showed significantly smaller inhibition zones (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Tulsi demonstrated effective antimicrobial property against A. actinomycetemcomitans, suggesting its possible use as an effective and affordable “adjunct” along with the standard care in

  8. Incorporation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Leaf Powder in diet of broilers for quality meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Lanjewar

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum leaf powder on meat cholesterol and serum lipid profile of broiler from day old to 42nd day of age. One hundred fifty day old chicks were distributed into three experimental groups of 50 birds which were further divided into five replicates of 10 birds each. The control (T1  group was fed with standard broiler diet and T2 and T3 were fed standard broiler diet plus tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 0.5% and 1% respectively. All the birds were reared under standard managemental conditions. The observations were recorded for cholesterol content of meat and serum lipid profile of broilers. Supplementation of tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 1% for 42 days showed the significant decrease (P<0.01 in breast muscle and thigh muscle cholesterol. Group T2 showed the significant reduction in thigh muscle cholesterol but not in breast muscle cholesterol. The average serum total cholesterol was reduced significantly (P<0.01 in T3 group but not in T2. The average serum HDL cholesterol was increased significantly (P<0.01 in T2 and T3. The average serum triglycerides were significantly reduced in T2 and T3. But higher reduction obtained in birds fed with 1% tulsi leaf powder in diet. The average serum LDL cholesterol was significantly reduced (P<0.01 in T3 followed by T2   group. The study concluded that supplementation of tulsi leaf powder at the rate of 1% in broiler diet for 42 days reduced meat and blood cholesterol levels of broiler. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 340-342

  9. A comparison study on the antibacterial efficiency of essential oil and dried powder of Ocimum basilicum in ground beef during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shohreh Dadfar

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results indicated that both essential oil and dried powder of Ocimum basilicum increased the microbial stability of ground meat during storage, whereas dried powder showed more preservative capability at final days of storage. So it is possible to use this kind of natural product instead of synthetic one to reduce the disease of consumers and enhancing the organoleptic features of food

  10. Role of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract on dietary supplementation in the transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Faisal, Mohammad; Naz, Falaq; Jyoti, Smita; Rahul

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract on the dietary supplementation in the transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. The effect of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract was studied on the transgenic Drosophila model of flies expressing normal human alpha synuclein (h-αs) in the neurons. O. sanctum extract at final concentrations of 0.042 8 × 10(-4), 0.87 × 10(-4), and 1.85 × 10(-4) g·mL(-1) of diet were established and the flies were allowed to feed for 21 days. The climbing assay and lipid peroxidation were taken as parameters for the study. The supplementation of O. sanctum extract showed a dose-dependent significant delay in the loss of climbing ability and reduction in oxidative stress in the brain of PD model flies. The results of the present study showed that the O. sanctum extract is potent in reducing the PD symptoms in transgenic Drosophila model. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemotaxonomic analysis of the aroma compounds in essential oils of two different Ocimum basilicum L. varieties from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmoradi, Mohammad Reza; Moghaddam, Mohammad; Farhadi, Nasrin

    2013-07-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oils of 21 accessions of Ocimum basilicum L. belonging to two different varieties (var. purpurascens and var. dianatnejadii) from Iran were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oil yield was found to be between 0.6 and 1.1% (v/w). In total, 49 compounds, accounting for 96.6-99.7% of the oil compositions, were identified. Aromatic compounds, represented mainly by methyl chavicol (33.6-49.1%), and oxygenated monoterpenes, represented by linalool (14.4-39.3%), were the main components in all essential oils. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were present in the essential oils of all accessions of the purpurascens variety, whereas they were completely absent in those of the dianatnejadii variety, indicating that monoterpene hydrocarbons might be considered as marker constituents of the purpurascens variety. The chemotaxonomic value of the essential-oil compositions was discussed according to the results of the cluster analysis (CA). The CA showed a clear separation of the O. basilicum var. purpurascens accessions and the O. basilicum var. dianatnejadii accessions, although the data showed no major chemotype variation between the studied varieties. Indeed, the CA revealed only one principal chemotype (methyl chavicol/linalool) for both varieties. In conclusion, GC/MS analyses in combination with CA showed to be a flexible and reliable method for the characterization of the chemical profiles of different varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. A novel in vitro whole plant system for analysis of polyphenolics and their antioxidant potential in cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Cahill, David M; Conlan, Xavier A; Adholeya, Alok

    2014-10-15

    Plants are an important source for medicinal compounds. Chemical screening and selection is critical for identification of compounds of interest. Ocimum basilicum (Basil) is a rich source of polyphenolics and exhibits high diversity, therefore bioprospecting of a suitable cultivar is a necessity. This study reports on the development of a true to type novel "in vitro system" and its comparison with a conventional system for screening and selection of cultivars for high total phenolics, individual polyphenolics, and antioxidant content. We have shown for the first time using online acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence that extracts from Ocimum basilicum showed antioxidant potential. The current study identified the cultivar specific composition of polyphenolics and their antioxidant properties. Further, a distinct relationship between plant morphotype and polyphenolic content was also found. Of the 15 cultivars examined, "Holy Green", "Red Rubin", and "Basil Genovese" were identified as high polyphenolic producing cultivars while "Subja" was determined to be a low producer. The "in vitro system" enabled differentiation of the cultivars in their morphology, polyphenolic content, and antioxidant activity and is a cheap and efficient method for bioprospecting studies.

  13. Uji Aktivitas Anti-Inflamasi Minyak Atsiri Daun Kemangi (Ocimum americanum L. pada Tikus Putih Jantan yang Diinduksi Karagenan

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    Fadlina Chany Saputri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kemangi (Ocimum americanum L. is an aromatic plant that contains citral and known as anti-inflammatory agents. The aimed of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil kemangi leaves on carrageenan-induced rat. The male rats were divided into six groups, each consisting of four rats. Group I as negative control was given 0.5% CMC solution, group II as positive control was given diclofenac sodium, group III was given sitral, groups IV, V and VI were given 40 mg/200 g BW, 80 mg/200 g BW, and 160 mg/200 g BW essential oil of Ocimum americanum L., emulsified in 0.5% CMC solution. After 30 minutes of administration, left paw of rats was injected bycarragenan 0.2 mL to induce edema. Edema volume was measured using pletismometer every hour for six hours. The result showed that at dose 160 mg/200 g BW gives the best effect in inhibited the inflamation response 44,83%. There was significant difference (p<0.05 at dose 160 mg/200 g BB to negative control. From this study can be concluded that essential oil kemangi leaves has anti-inflammatory activity.

  14. Ocimum sanctum L (Holy Basil or Tulsi) and its phytochemicals in the prevention and treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Jimmy, Rosmy; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Sunitha, Venkatesh; Bhat, Neeta Raghavendra; Saldanha, Elroy; Rao, Suresh; Rao, Pratima; Arora, Rajesh; Palatty, Princy L

    2013-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum L. or Ocimum tenuiflorum L, commonly known as the Holy Basil in English or Tulsi in the various Indian languages, is a important medicinal plant in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia. Scientific studies have shown it to possess antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antistress, and immunomodulatory activities. Preclinical studies have also shown that Tulsi and some of its phytochemicals eugenol, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, myretenal, luteolin, β-sitosterol, and carnosic acid prevented chemical-induced skin, liver, oral, and lung cancers and to mediate these effects by increasing the antioxidant activity, altering the gene expressions, inducing apoptosis, and inhibiting angiogenesis and metastasis. The aqueous extract of Tulsi and its flavanoids, orintin, and vicenin are shown to protect mice against γ-radiation-induced sickness and mortality and to selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. The other important phytochemicals like eugenol, rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and carnosic acid are also shown to prevent radiation-induced DNA damage. This review summarizes the results related to the chemopreventive and radioprotective properties of Tulsi and also emphasizes aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility in cancer prevention and treatment.

  15. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum extract against Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

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    Agarwal Pooja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine if Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum extract has an antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and to determine which concentration of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum extract among the 15 concentrations investigated has the maximum antimicrobial activity. Setting and Design: Experimental design, in vitro study, Lab setting. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was then diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain 15 different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 6%, 7% 8%, 9%, 10% of the extract. 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide was used as a negative control. The extract, along with the controls, was then subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration among the 15 different concentrations of the extract gave a wider inhibition zone against Streptococcus mutans. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters using a vernier caliper. Results: At the 4% concentration of Tulsi extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 15 different concentrations of Tulsi that were investigated. Conclusion: Tulsi extract demonstrated an antimicrobial property against Streptococcus mutans.

  16. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) extract against Streptococcus mutans: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pooja; Nagesh, L

    2010-01-01

    To determine if Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) extract has an antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and to determine which concentration of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) extract among the 15 concentrations investigated has the maximum antimicrobial activity. Experimental design, in vitro study, Lab setting. Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was then diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain 15 different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 6%, 7% 8%, 9%, 10%) of the extract. 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide was used as a negative control. The extract, along with the controls, was then subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration among the 15 different concentrations of the extract gave a wider inhibition zone against Streptococcus mutans. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters using a vernier caliper. At the 4% concentration of Tulsi extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 15 different concentrations of Tulsi that were investigated. Tulsi extract demonstrated an antimicrobial property against Streptococcus mutans.

  17. Role of Ocimum basilicum L. in prevention of ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral damage, and motor dysfunctions in mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Arora, Shruti; Shri, Richa

    2011-10-11

    The genus Ocimum (Lamiaceae) has a long history of use as culinary and medicinal herbs. Many species are used for their antioxidant and neuroprotective activity in various parts of the world. Ocimum basilicum Linn. has been used traditionally for the treatment of anxiety, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, headaches, nerve pain, as anticonvulsant and anti-inflammatory, and used in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate extract of Ocimum basilicum leaves on ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral damage, and motor dysfunctions in mice. Global cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 15 min followed by reperfusion for 24h. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content was determined by colorimetric assay. Short-term memory was evaluated using elevated plus-maze. Inclined beam walking was employed to assess motor coordination. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced significant increase in cerebral infarct size and lipid peroxidation (TBARS), and reduced GSH content, and impaired short-term memory and motor coordination. Pre-treatment with standardized ethyl acetate extract of Ocimum basilicum (100 and 200mg/kg, p.o.) markedly reduced cerebral infarct size and lipid peroxidation, restored GSH content, and attenuated impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. The results of the study suggest that Ocimum basilicum could be useful clinically in the prevention of stroke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India’s Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in

  19. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta and Ocimum basilicum essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mohsen Taheri; Gholami, Hamid; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Rowshan, Vahid; Tafsiry, Asad

    2014-01-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tagetes minuta (TM) essential oil (TMO) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) essential oil (OBO) were examined. The main components for TMO were dihydrotagetone (33.9%), E-ocimene (19.9%), tagetone (16.1%), cis-β-ocimene (7.9%), Z-ocimene (5.3%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The main components for OBO were methylchavicol (46.9%), geranial (19.1%), neral (15.15%), geraniol (3.0%), nerol (3.0%), caryophyllene (2.4%). Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging were 12–17 and 200–250 μg/mL of TMO and OBO, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Salmonella typhi,Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis,Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans were 150 ± 8, 165 ± 9, 67 ± 8, 75 ± 7, 135 ± 15, and 115 ± 8 μg/mL of TMO, respectively. MIC for S. typhi,E. coli,S. aureus,B. subtilis,A. niger, and C. albicans were 145 ± 8, 160 ± 7, 45 ± 4, 40 ± 3, 80 ± 9, and 95 ± 7 μg/mL of OBO, respectively. IC50 for nasopharyngeal cancer cell line (KB) and liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) were 75 ± 5 and 70 ± 4 μg/mL of TMO, respectively. IC50 for KB and HepG2 were 45 ± 4 and 40 ± 3 μg/mL of OBO, respectively. Thus, they could be used as an effective source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial additive to protect foods from oxidative damages and foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, they could be promising candidate for antitumor drug design. PMID:24804073

  20. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Chowdhary

    Full Text Available Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India's Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011 in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907 whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846. Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in

  1. Biotransformation of finasteride by Ocimum sanctum L., and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of transformed metabolites: experimental and computational insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Nisar, Muhammad; Iriti, Marcello; Shah, Mohammad Raza; Mahmud, Maqsood; Ali, Ihsan; Khan, Inamullah

    2014-12-01

    Transformation of Finasteride (I) by cell suspension cultures of Ocimum sanctum L. was investigated. Fermentation of compound (I) with O. sanctum afforded three oxidized derivatives, 16β-hydroxyfinasteride (II), 11α-hydroxyfinasteride (III) and 15β-hydroxyfinasteride (IV). Among these metabolites, compound (II) was a new metabolite. Compound (I) and its derivatives were studied for their tyrosinase inhibition assay. All test compounds exhibited significant activity compared to standard drug kojic acid, with compound IV being the most potent member with an IC50 of 1.87μM. Molecular docking revealed significant molecular interactions behind the potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the tested compounds. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Effect of Ocimum basilicum extract on cadmium-induced testicular histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooh, Hanna Z.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (basil) extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, against testicular toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd), which is one of the most important toxic heavy metals. The intoxicated rats showed significant alterations in the testicular tissue including decreased seminiferous epithelium height and changes in the arrangement of spermatogenic layers. Hypospermatogensis with cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei were observed. Intertubular hemorrahage and absence of spermatozoa were noted. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in Ki-67 expression, whereas the increase in apoptotic rate was associated with a decrease in the Bcl/Bax ratio. Concomitant treatment with aqueous basil extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical changes induced by Cd. The beneficial effects of basil extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:23869259

  3. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of traditional green and purple "Napoletano" basil cultivars (Ocimum basilicum L.) from Campania region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Campiglia, Pietro; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Izzo, Luana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-09-01

    The present study is the first effort to a comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 'Napoletano' green and purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) varieties. The results obtained revealed that the basil sample extracts were characterised by a generally higher polyphenolic concentration than those reported elsewhere for other more conventional and geographically different basil varieties. Napoletano purple basil revealed higher radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing capacities than the green one probably due to its relevant anthocyanin content. As regards the antimicrobial properties, both basil varieties exhibited activity against a broad spectrum of food-borne and human pathogenic micro-organisms, revealing not only a moderate to high natural preserving capacity, but also potentially beneficial influence on human health. Results indicated Napoletano green and purple basils as a good source of antioxidants of potential nutraceutical interest.

  4. Acaricidal activity of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella against the ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Arachinida: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramani, V; Sakthivelkumar, S; Tamilarasan, K; Aisha, S O; Janarthanan, S

    2014-09-01

    The ectoparasitic tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected at various cattle farms in and around Chennai was subjected to treatment of different crude solvent extracts of leaves of Ocimum basilicum and Spilanthes acmella for acaricidal activity. Among various solvent extracts of leaves of O. basilicum and S. acmella used, chloroform extract of O. basilicum at concentrations between 6% and 10% exhibited 70% and 100% mortality of ticks when compared to control. The LC50 and LC90 values of the chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum treatment on the ticks after 24 h were observed as 5.46% and 7.69%. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of α- and β- carboxylesterase enzymes in the whole gut homogenate of cattle tick, R. microplus treated with chloroform extract of leaves of O. basilicum revealed higher level of activities for the enzymes. This indicated that there was an induced response in the tick, R. microplus against the toxic effects of the extract of O. basilicum.

  5. Effect of Salt Stress and Irrigation Water on Growth and Development of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliskan Omer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influence of different salinity and irrigation water treatments on the growth and development of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.. Five salinity levels (0.4, 1.00, 2.50, 4.00 and 8.00 dSm-1 and three different irrigation water regimes (80, 100, 120% of full irrigation were applied in a factorial design with three replications. Dry root weight, aerial part dry weight and aerial part/root ratio were determined and evaluated as experimental parameters at the end of growing period. Results revealed significant decreases in yields with increasing salinity levels. However, basil managed to survive high salt stress. With increasing salinity levels, decreases in growth were higher in roots than in leaves. Changes in the amount of irrigation water also significantly affected the evaluated parameters.

  6. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, J.; Dongmo, J. B. Lekagne; Dakole, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal...... activity was determined and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu). The influence of pH variation on this activity was studied. The NDR cfu varied with the essential oils and its concentration, the pH of the medium and the strain tested. The essential oils...... from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9...

  7. Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity.

  8. Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

    2012-10-07

    Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method.

  9. Densitometric Validation and Optimisation of Polyphenols in Ocimum sanctum Linn by High Performance Thin-layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U K, Ilyas; Katare, Deepshikha P; Aeri, Vidhu

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn (Sanskrit: Tulasi; family: Libiaceae), popularly known as holy basil or Ocimum teinufolium, is found throughout the semitropical and tropical parts of India. In Ayurveda, Tulasi has been well known for its therapeutic potentials. To optimise and develop a standard method to quantify seven polyphenols simultaneously by HPTLC. A three-level factor Box-Behnken statistical design was used for optimisation, where extraction time (min), temperature (°C) and methanol:water ratio (% v/v) are the independent variables with polyphenols as the dependent variable. The separation was archived on a silica-gel 60 F254 HPTLC plate using toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid:methanol (3:3:0.8:0.2 v/v) as the mobile phase. Densitometric analysis of polyphenols was carried out in the absorbance mode at 366 nm. The quantification of polyphenols was carried out based on peak area with a linear calibration curve at concentration ranges of 60-240, 20-200, 100-1600, 40-200, 200-1400, 10-160, 200-1400, 100-5000 ng/band for caffeic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, kaempferol, catechin, quercetin, eupalitin and epicatechin respectively. The method was validated for peak purity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ). Method specificity was confirmed using the retention factor value and visible spectra correlation of marker compounds. A validated HPTLC method was newly developed for simultaneous quantification of seven polyphenols in an Ayurvedic preparation of O. sanctum. The proposed method is simple, precise, specific, accurate, cost-effective, less time consuming and has the ability to separate the polyphenols from other constituents. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Improved shelf life of protein-rich tofu using Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) extracts to benefit Indian rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasu, K; Vijayalakshmi, G

    2007-10-01

    A nutrition survey carried out in India revealed that the diets of the rural population are inadequate and deficient in most of the nutrients especially protein. India being the 5th-largest producer of soybean, a protein-rich cereal, can redress protein-energy malnutrition through diversification of soybean uses by developing high-value and health-based food products. Tofu, a nonfermented soybean product rich in high-quality protein, B-vitamins, and isoflavones, could be an excellent substitute for meat in Indian recipes. Tofu being rich in protein has a very short shelf life. Hence an attempt was made to improve the shelf life using extracts of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) commonly available in rural areas. Tofu was prepared traditionally using MgCl(2):CaSO(4) as coagulating agents. Aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) was added during the preparation and storage of tofu to prolong its shelf life. Water used in this study was free from microflora, plant extract used contained mesophilic count of 2.527 x 10(4) CFU/g, and no yeasts and molds were detected. Tofu with tulsi extract had 76.4% moisture and was softer than control. Not much difference in mesophilic count was observed between control and treated samples during storage; however, treated tofu was organoleptically good until the end of the study with less lipid-peroxidation and exhibited 50% (4.7 units) less protease activity than control (9.6 units) after 7 d. By using extracts of naturally available, easily cultivable tulsi, the shelf life was successfully extended to 7 to 8 d from 3 to 4 d of normal storage without refrigeration.

  11. Effects of biological fertilizer and vermicompost on vegetative yield and essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under Mashhad climatic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rezaee Moadab; S.M. Nabavi Kalat; R. Sadrabadi Haghaghi

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the effects of vermicompost and biological fertilizers on vegetative yield and essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), an experiment was conducted based on a complete randomized block design with nine treatments and three replications at Mashhad during growing season of 2009-2010. The treatments were: 1) vermicompost, 2) Nitroxin (included: Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp.), 3) biophosphorus (Included: Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus sp), 4) Vermicompost+ Nitroxin, 5) ...

  12. Investigating of growth characteristics, yield, yield components and potential weed control in intercropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and vegetative sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Y.; A Koocheki; M. Nassiri Mahallati

    2016-01-01

    In order to study yield and yield components in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and evaluating effect of intercropping on weed control, a field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2008. Treatments: included 1- sole crop of bean 2- sole crop of sweet basil 3- strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (four rows of bean and two rows of sweet basil) 4- strip inter...

  13. The Use of NMR Metabolite Profiling and in vivo Hypoglycemic Assay for Comparison of Unfractionated Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Two Ocimum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Livia Marques; Espíndola-Netto, Jair Machado; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2016-06-01

    Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) are used to treat diabetes mellitus in Africa. In a previous work, we identified chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic substance in O. gratissimum. This study aims to compare the chemical metabolite profile and the hypoglycemic activity of unfractionated aqueous extracts from leaves of both Lamiaceae species. The metabolite composition of OB and OG decoctions (10% w/v) was analyzed using HPLC-DAD and NMR tools. Chicoric acid showed to be the major phenolic in both extracts, besides caftaric, caffeic, and rosmarinic acids; nevertheless, there is approximately three times more of this substance in OG. From 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, 19 substances were identified in OB, while 12 in OG. The in vivo acute hypoglycemic activity of the extracts was assessed intraperitoneally in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg of both extracts significantly reduced their glycemia, compared to controls (P Ocimum species by NMR. Our findings confirmed the potential of both species in DM treatment in spite of marked differences in their chemical composition. However, long-term studies are necessary in order to identify the most promising of the two species for the development of an herbal medicine. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. A Comparative Study of the Inhibitory Effect of the Extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Aegle marmelos, and Solanum trilobatum on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

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    M. Shyamala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the inhibitory effect of plant extracts, Ocimum sanctum, Aegle marmelos, and Solanum trilobatum, on the corrosion of mild steel in 1N HCl medium was investigated using weightloss method, electrochemical methods, and hydrogen permeation method. Polarization method indicates plant extracts behave as mixed-type inhibitor. The impedance method reveals that charge-transfer process mainly controls the corrosion of mild steel. On comparison, maximum inhibition efficiency was found in Ocimum sanctum with 99.6% inhibition efficiency at 6.0% v/v concentration of the extract. The plant extracts obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The SEM morphology of the adsorbed protective film on the mild steel surface has confirmed the high performance of inhibitive effect of the plant extracts. From hydrogen permeation method, all the plant extracts were able to reduce the permeation current. The reason for the reduced permeation currents in presence of the inhibitors may be attributed to the slow discharge step followed by fast electrolytic desorption step. Results obtained in all three methods were very much in good agreement in the order Ocimum sanctum > Aegle marmelos > Solanum trilobatum.

  15. Phytochemical investigation of dichloromethanic fraction on Ocimum gratissimum L. extract/ Estudo químico da fração diclorometânica do extrato de Ocimum gratissimum L.

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    José Roberto Pinto de Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that ethanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum inhibited growth of Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizoctonia sp, Aspergillus niger and Alternaria sp, isolated from tomato and carrot. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical constituents of Ocimum gratissim. Aerial parts of the plant were treated with hexane-dichloromethane-ethanol mixture (1:3:1 at room temperature. The obtained extract was chromatographed on silica gel column eluted with hexane, dichloromethane and ethanol. Fractions eluted with dichloromethane were rechromatographed on a column of silica gel to yield alyphatic hydrocarbon mixture (C31, C33, C34 e C35, eugenol, caryophyllene oxide and a mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol. The structures of the compounds were deduced by spectral data analysis and by comparison with literature values. Recent studies showed that eugenol is probably one of the responsibles for antifungal activity of O. gratissimum.Ensaios anteriores de atividade antifúngica do extrato etanólico de Ocimum gratissimum, utilizando a técnica de difusão em meio sólido, evidenciaram a inibição do crescimento de Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizoctonia sp, Aspergillus niger e de duas espécies de Alternaria sp isoladas de tomate e de cenoura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os possíveis constituintes químicos responsáveis pela atividade antifúngica da planta, por meio de estudo químico do extrato hexano-diclorometano-etanol (1:3:1 das partes aéreas de O. gratissimum. O extrato foi cromatografado em coluna de sílica gel, eluída com hexano, diclorometano e etanol. A purificação em coluna cromatográfica de sílica gel das frações eluídas com diclorometano (5,9g resultou na obtenção de quatro constituintes: uma mistura de hidrocarbonetos saturados de cadeia longa (C31, C33, C34 e C35, eugenol, óxido de cariofileno e uma mistura de estigmasterolsitosterol. Os constituintes foram identificados através das an

  16. Estudo da atividade antioxidante do extrato e do óleo essencial obtidos das folhas de alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L. Study of the antioxidant activity and essential oil from wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. leaf

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    Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O isolamento e a identificação de antioxidantes naturais, extraídos de plantas, contribuem para a descoberta de novas fontes de compostos químicos. A alfavaca (Ocimum gratissimum L. é uma planta conhecida por seus aspectos medicinais e pelo uso na culinária. A atividade antioxidante do extrato bruto e do óleo essencial das folhas de alfavaca foi comprovada através do método do tiocianato férrico. A porcentagem de inibição da oxidação lipídica foi de 96,89% para o extrato bruto e de 92,44% para o óleo essencial, ambos na concentração de 0,02%. O extrato bruto foi purificado através da cromatografia em coluna com sílica-gel e fase móvel hexano:acetato de etila em diferentes proporções. Para a identificação, foram utilizadas análises espectrais (infravermelho, ressonância magnética de hidrogênio e carbono 13. A substância isolada foi o eugenol, que apresentou 86,56% de atividade antioxidante. Alguns constituintes do óleo essencial foram caracterizados por cromatografia de fase gasosa, sendo o eugenol o principal componente (53,90%. Desta forma, a alfavaca apresenta-se como uma nova fonte de eugenol e, conseqüentemente, de antioxidante natural.The isolation and identification of natural antioxidants from plants contribute to the discovery of new sources of chemical compounds. Wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. is used as a herbal medicine and also as a culinary spice. The antioxidant activity of wild basil leaf crude extract and essential oil was confirmed by the ferric thiocyanate method. The crude extract showed 96.89% inhibition of lipid oxidation, while the essential oil showed 92.44% inhibition, both in a 0.02% concentration. The crude extract was purified by column chromatography using silica gel and different proportions of hexane:ethyl acetate as an eluant. The plant’s chemical compounds were identified by spectral analyses using NMR (hydrogen and 13C and infrared spectroscopy. The isolated substance was

  17. Codes of conduct: An extra suave instrument of EU governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    able to coordinate actors successfully (effectiveness)? and secondly, under what conditions are codes of conduct able to generate democratically legitimate political processes? The paper examines carefully a recent case study, the “Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers” (CCRR). The code...

  18. Effect of Plectranthus glandulosus and Ocimum gratissimum Essential Oils on Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin B1 Production

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    Mbofung, CMF.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Plectranthus glandulosus leaves were extracted by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS, and their effects on growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus were tested at five levels (i.e 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/l using SMKY agar medium. The main components of O. gratissimum were thymol (47.7% and -terpinene (14.3% whereas those of P. glandulosus were represented by -terpinene (30.8% and terpinolene (25.2%. After 8 days of incubation on essential oil-supplemented medium, growth of A. flavus was totally inhibited by 800 mg/l of O. gratissimum essential oil and by 1000 mg/l of P. glandulosus essential oil. The effect of essential oils on aflatoxin B1 synthesis was evaluated in SMKY broth. The medium supplemented with different essential oil concentrations, was inoculated with A. flavus mycelium and incubated at 25 °C. At 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the supernatant were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA. Results showed that aflatoxin B1 synthesis was inhibited by 1000 mg/l of both essential oils of O. gratissimum and P. glandulosus after 8 days of incubation. Results obtained in the present study indicate the possibility of exploiting O. gratissimum and P. glandulosus essential oils in the fight against strains of A. flavus responsible for biodeterioration of stored food products.

  19. Comparative effect of Ocimum sanctum, Commiphora mukul, folic acid and ramipril on lipid peroxidation in experimentally-induced hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Naresh; Arora, Deepika; Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Garg, Gobind R; Sharma, Suman B; Mahajan, Prabha

    2010-03-01

    Treatment with C. mukul and O. sanctum, showed a significant decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride levels respectively. O. sanctum also significantly increased serum HDL-cholesterol compared to control. Serum MDA levels were significantly reduced in all the treated groups compared to control suggesting that each of the drugs under study were effective in their free radical scavenging action. Erythrocyte SOD activity was increased in all the treatment groups with C. mukul showing the maximum effect followed by O. sanctum, folic acid and ramipril. The erythrocyte CAT activity was significantly increased in all the drug treated groups with maximum increase seen in O. sanctum and ramipril treated groups, whereas lesser effects were observed with C. mukul and folic acid groups. Thus, the indigenous drugs, C. mukul and O. sanctum had beneficial effect on hypercholesterolemic rabbit model, both in terms of lipid profile as well as antioxidant potential. Ocimum sanctum was found to be the most promising of all the drugs. Moreover, it could be hypothesized that these plant products along with folic acid and ramipril can be explored for synergistic effect for treatment for hypercholesterolemic conditions.

  20. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

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    Julio Colivet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae, muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación a presión reducida, temperatura de 45 ºC y empleando etanol como solvente. Posteriormente, se emplearon en medios de cultivo contentivos de S. aureus y se monitoreó el crecimiento del microorganismo en el tiempo, obteniéndose los parámetros de crecimiento a través del modelo de Baranyi y Roberts (1994. Los extractos frescos y secos produjeron efecto antimicrobiano sobre S. aureus a concentraciones de 5 y 10 %, afectando los parámetros de crecimiento de la bacteria, presentando diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05 con respecto al grupo control.

  1. Efecto antimicrobiano de extractos etanólicos de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. sobre el crecimiento de Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Colivet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. es una planta herbácea de la familia de las labiadas (Lamiaceae, muy común en Venezuela. En la presente investigación se evaluó la supervivencia de una cepa de Staphylococcus aureus por la acción antimicrobiana de extractos etanólicos de albahaca fresca y seca. Las muestras frescas fueron sometidas a homogeneización en licuadora. Para la obtención de las muestras secas se utilizó una estufa convencional a temperatura de 55 ºC x 28 horas. Los extractos se obtuvieron por destilación a presión reducida, temperatura de 45 ºC y empleando etanol como solvente. Posteriormente, se emplearon en medios de cultivo contentivos de S. aureus y se monitoreó el crecimiento del microorganismo en el tiempo, obteniéndose los parámetros de crecimiento a través del modelo de Baranyi y Roberts (1994. Los extractos frescos y secos produjeron efecto antimicrobiano sobre S. aureus a concentraciones de 5 y 10 %, afectando los parámetros de crecimiento de la bacteria, presentando diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p < 0,05 con respecto al grupo control.

  2. Trace Element Studies on Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) Using PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrishankar, Ramadurai; Kumar, Manish; Menon, Vinay; Divi, Sai Mangala; Saravanan, M; Magudapathy, P; Panigrahi, B K; Nair, K G M; Venkataramaniah, K

    2010-03-01

    Traditionally, Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. F. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) are some of the commonly used medicinal plants in India for curing ailments ranging from common cold, skin diseases, and dental infections to major disorders like diabetes, hypertension, jaundice, rheumatism, etc. To understand and correlate their medicinal use, trace element studies on the aqueous extract of these medicinal plants have been carried out using particle-induced X-ray emission technique. A 2-MeV proton beam was used to identify and characterize major and minor elements namely Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Sr in them. Results have revealed that these elements are present in varying concentrations in the selected plants. Notable results include very high concentrations of Cl, K, and Ca in all the leaf samples, appreciable levels of Mn in all plants, high Zn content in T. cordifolia, and the aqueous extract of Moringa leaves compared to others and relative higher concentrations of Cr in all the plants.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum essential oil and their major constituents against three species of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Abbas M Yamani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum teniflorum (Tulsi, to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5% and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA, P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms.

  4. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiça, Thaís F; Alves, Sydney H; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL(-1)) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL(-1)) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle.

  5. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil and monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís F. Kubiça

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV. The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay; b pre-treatment of the cells; or c post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation. The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration, IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50. Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 µgmL-1 and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 µgmL-1 showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05 in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle.

  6. Immunomodulatory Role of Ocimum gratissimum and Ascorbic Acid against Nicotine-Induced Murine Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro

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    Santanu Kar Mahapatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this present study was to evaluate the immune functions and immune responses in nicotine-induced (10 mM macrophages and concurrently establish the immunomodulatory role of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Ae-Og and ascorbic acid. In this study, nitrite generations and some phenotype functions by macrophages were studied. Beside that, release of Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12 and Th2 cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β was measured by ELISA, and the expression of these cytokines at mRNA level was analyzed by real-time PCR. Ae-Og, at a dose of 10 μg/mL, significantly reduced the nicotine-induced NO generation and iNOSII expression. Similar kinds of response were observed with supplementation of ascorbic acid (0.01 mM. The administration of Ae-Og and ascorbic acid increased the decreased adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing of bacteria in nicotine-treated macrophages. Ae-Og and ascorbic acid were found to protect the murine peritoneal macrophages through downregulation of Th1 cytokines in nicotine-treated macrophages with concurrent activation of Th2 responses. These findings strongly enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanism leading to nicotine-induced suppression of immune functions and provide additional rationale for application of anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches by O. gratissimum and ascorbic acid for different inflammatory disease prevention and treatment during nicotine toxicity.

  7. Efficiency of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum and Cymbopogum flexuosus in the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia juveniles

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    JOSÉ D. LIMMA NETTO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the sedative and anaesthetic effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum (EOOB and lemongrass (Cymbopogum flexuosus (EOCF in Nile tilapia juveniles. The fish were transferred to aquaria containing different concentrations of each essential oil: 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 μL L-1. The time of sedation ranged from 7 to 31 seconds and the recommended concentration was 10 or 25 μL L-1 for both essential oils. The best times for anaesthesia and recovery were found for the concentrations of 400 μL L-1 for EOOB (135.2 and 199.1 seconds, respectively and 600 μL L-1 for EOCF (327.1 and 374.8 seconds, respectively. In conclusion, we recommend the use of EOOB and EOCF for the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia at concentrations of 10-25 (for both, 400 and 600 μL L-1, respectively.

  8. Potential of Ocimum basilicum L. and Salvia officinalis L. essential oils against biofilms of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović-Radić, Z; Pejcić, M; Stojanović, N; Sharifi-Rad, J; Stanković, N

    2016-08-29

    Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms, responsible for more than 60% of the chronic human infections and they represent one of the leading concerns in medicine. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is human pathogenic bacteria which causes numerous diseases and is known for its ability to produce biofilm. Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) and Salvia officinalis L. (sage) are widely used plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of different conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of basil and sage essential oils against P. aeruginosa biofilm producing strains. The efficacy of two essential oils on P. aeruginosa biofilm forming ability was determined using crystal violet method. Out of 15 strains isolated from different clinical biological samples, two were strong, 11 moderate and one weak biofilm producer. Good efficacy of sage essential oil towards strong and weak biofilm producers, but not of basil essential oil, was observed. In the case of moderate biofilm producers, 81.8% showed lower biofilm production after incubation with the sage oil, while 63.6% showed the reduction of biofilm production after basil essential oil treatment. The obtained results showed high potential of both oils for the treatment of persistent infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

  9. A thaumatin-like protein of Ocimum basilicum confers tolerance to fungal pathogen and abiotic stress in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajesh Chandra; Sandeep; Kamthan, Mohan; Kumar, Santosh; Ghosh, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Plant often responds to fungal pathogens by expressing a group of proteins known as pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). The expression of PR is mediated through pathogen-induced signal-transduction pathways that are fine-tuned by phytohormones such as methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Here, we report functional characterization of an Ocimum basilicum PR5 family member (ObTLP1) that was identified from a MeJA-responsive expression sequence tag collection. ObTLP1 encodes a 226 amino acid polypeptide that showed sequence and structural similarities with a sweet-tasting protein thaumatin of Thaumatococcus danielli and also with a stress-responsive protein osmotin of Nicotiana tabacum. The expression of ObTLP1 in O. basilicum was found to be organ-preferential under unstressed condition, and responsive to biotic and abiotic stresses, and multiple phytohormone elicitations. Bacterially-expressed recombinant ObTLP1 inhibited mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi, Scleretonia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea; thereby, suggesting its antifungal activity. Ectopic expression of ObTLP1 in Arabidopsis led to enhanced tolerance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea infections, and also to dehydration and salt stress. Moreover, induced expression of the defense marker genes suggested up-regulation of the defense-response pathways in ObTLP1-expressing Arabidopsis upon fungal challenge. Thus, ObTLP1 might be useful for providing tolerance to the fungal pathogens and abiotic stresses in crops. PMID:27150014

  10. REPELLENT EFFECT OF OCIMUM BASILICUM AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA EXTRACTS AGAINST THE MOSQUITO VECTOR, CULEX PIPIENS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Hammad, Kotb M; Saeed, Saeed M

    2015-08-01

    Essential or volatile oils of plants have been variously reported to have many medicinal applications. Methanol, acetone and petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were screened for their repellency effect against Culex pipiens mosquito. The repellent action of the present plants extracts were varied depending on the solvent used and dose of extract. Methanol extract of O. basilicum exhibited the lowest repellent activity as it recorded 77.4% at 6.7mg/cm2. The petroleum ether and acetone extract of 0. basilicum showed repellency of 98.1 & 84.6% respectively, at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, while methanolic extract of G. glabra recorded 73.8 & 50.3% at dose of 6.7 &1.7mg/cm2 respectively, the petroleum ether and acetone extract of G. glabra showed repellency of 76.3 & 81.6%, respectively at dose of 6.7mg/cm2, compared with the commercial formulation, N.N. diethyl toulamide (DEET) which exhibited 100% repellent action at dose of 1.8mg/cm2, respectively. The results may contribute to design an alternative way to control mosquitoes currently based on applications of synthetic insecticides. These extracts could be developed commercially as an effective personal protection meaure against mosquito bites and thus to control diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  11. Comparative Study on the Effect of Plantago psyllium and Ocimum basilicum Seeds on Anthropometric Measures in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, Shahab-Aldin; Asgary, Sedigheh; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Due to the attribution of fatty liver with some chronic diseases such as obesity, finding a way to control obesity can be useful for the management of fatty liver. This study was performed to assess the effects of Plantago psyllium (PP) and Ocimum basilicum (OB) on anthropometric measurements in people with hepatic steatosis. All patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were enrolled in this four-arm parallel, randomized, and single blind trial. They randomly assigned into four groups receiving (1) OB 10 g/day; (2) PP 10 g/day; (3) mix of OB and PP 10 g/day; and (4) control group without placebo for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements were assessed during study baseline and after 12 weeks intervention. The data were analyzed using paired sample t-test for within group and analysis of covariance for between groups. In within group analysis, weight and body mass index show a significant reduction after 12 weeks intervention. In addition, soft lean mass and lean body mass were decreased in PP and mixed of PP and OB groups significantly; another group (OB) shows the same result for mass body fat. Although in intervention groups, we see considerable reduction, between group changes did not demonstrate the same consequences. The results of this study showed that administration of OB, PP, or mix of them for 12 weeks does not affect any of the anthropometric measures in NAFLD.

  12. Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum L. and (−-Linalool Blocks the Excitability of Rat Sciatic Nerve

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    Antonio Medeiros Venancio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The racemate linalool and its levogyrus enantiomer [(−-LIN] are present in many essential oils and possess several pharmacological activities, such as antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory. In this work, the effects of essential oil obtained from the cultivation of the Ocimum basilicum L. (EOOb derived from Germplasm Bank rich in (−-LIN content in the excitability of peripheral nervous system were studied. We used rat sciatic nerve to investigate the EOOb and (−-LIN effects on neuron excitability and the extracellular recording technique was used to register the compound action potential (CAP. EOOb and (−-LIN blocked the CAP in a concentration-dependent way and these effects were reversible after washout. EOOb blocked positive amplitude of 1st and 2nd CAP components with IC50 of 0.38±0.2 and 0.17±0.0 mg/mL, respectively. For (−-LIN, these values were 0.23±0.0 and 0.13±0.0 mg/mL. Both components reduced the conduction velocity of CAP and the 2nd component seems to be more affected than the 1st component. In conclusion EOOb and (−-LIN inhibited the excitability of peripheral nervous system in a similar way and potency, revealing that the effects of EOOb on excitability are due to the presence of (−-LIN in the essential oil.

  13. The effects of different UV-B radiation intensities on morphological and biochemical characteristics in Ocimum basilicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalauskaitė, Jurga; Viskelis, Pranas; Dambrauskienė, Edita; Sakalauskienė, Sandra; Samuolienė, Giedrė; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Urbonavičienė, Dalia

    2013-04-01

    The effects of short-term ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv. Cinnamon) plants at the 3-4 leaf pair and flowering stages were examined in controlled environment growth chambers. Plants were exposed to 0 (reference), 2 and 4 kJ UV-B m(-2) day(-1) over 7 days. Exposure of basil plants to supplementary UV-B light resulted in increased assimilating leaf area, fresh biomass and dry biomass. Stimulation of physiological functions in young basil plants under either applied UV-B dose resulted in increased total chlorophyll content but no marked variation in carotenoid content. At the flowering stage the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of basil were affected by supplementary UV-B radiation, decreasing with enhanced UV-B exposure. Both total antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay) and total phenolic compound content were increased by UV-B light supplementation. Young and mature basil plants differed in their ascorbic acid content, which was dependent on UV-B dose and plant age. UV-B radiation resulted in decreased nitrate content in young basil plants (3-4 leaf pair stage). These results indicate that the application of short-exposure UV-B radiation beneficially influenced both growth parameters and biochemical constituents in young and mature basil plants. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. α-Linalool - a marker compound of forged/synthetic sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oils.

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    Radulović, Niko S; Blagojević, Polina D; Miltojević, Ana B

    2013-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is known to occur as several chemotypes or cultivars that differ in their essential oil composition. The surprising discovery of 3,7-dimethylocta-1,7-dien-3-ol, the rare α isomer of the well-known monoterpene alcohol β-linalool (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol), in samples of Serbian basil oil provoked an investigation of the origin of α-linalool in these samples. Three scenarios were considered, namely (a) the existence of a new natural chemotype, (b) an artefactual formation during the isolation procedure and (c) the case of a synthetic/forged oil. Noteworthy amounts (15.1-16.9%) of pure α-linalool were isolated from a commercial sample of basil oil, and detailed spectral analyses (MS, IR, (1) H and (13) C NMR) unequivocally confirmed its identity. The analysis by GC and GC/MS of an additional 20 samples of different O. basilicum oils commercially available on the Serbian market or isolated from plant material cultivated in Serbia resulted in the identification of 149 compounds. The obtained compositional data were compared using multivariate statistical analysis to reveal the possible existence of a new basil chemotype. The results of the chemical and statistical analyses give more pro arguments for the synthetic/forged oil hypothesis and suggest that α-linalool could be used as a marker compound of such O. basilicum oils. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Chemical composition and antibiofilm activity of Petroselinum crispum and Ocimum basilicum essential oils against Vibrio spp. strains.

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    Snoussi, Mejdi; Dehmani, Ameni; Noumi, Emira; Flamini, Guido; Papetti, Adele

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of parsley and basilic essential oils tested against Vibrio strains and their abilities to inhibit and eradicate the mature biofilm using the XTT assay. Petroselinum crispum essential oil was characterized by 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (24.2%), β-phellandrene (22.8%), apiol (13.2%), myristicin (12.6%) and terpinolene (10.3%) as a major constituents. While, in the basilic oil, linalool (42.1%), (E)-methylcinnamate (16.9%) and 1-8 cineole (7.6%) were the main ones. These two essential oils exhibit high anti-Vibrio spp. activity with varying magnitudes. All microorganisms were strongly affected indicating an appreciable antimicrobial potential of basilic with a diameter of inhibition zones growth ranging from 8.67 to 23.33 mm and MIC and MBC values ranging from (0.023-0.047 mg/ml) and (>3->24 mg/ml), respectively. The two essential oils can inhibit and eradicate the mature biofilm formed on polystyrene surface even at low concentrations, with high magnitude for Ocimum basilicum essential oil. This study gives a better insight into the anti-Vibrio activity of parsley and basilc oils and the possibility of their use to prevent and eradicate contamination of sea products by these strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of antileishmanial, antibacterial and brine shrimp cytotoxic potential of crude methanolic extract of Herb Ocimum basilicum (Lamiacea).

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    Khan, Imran; Ahmad, Kafeel; Khalil, Ali Talha; Khan, Jangrez; Khan, Yusra Ali; Saqib, Muhammad Shahab; Umar, Muhamad Naveed; Ahmad, Hilal

    2015-06-01

    To collect and screen for ethnopharmacological properties (antileishmanial, antibacterial and brine lethality assays) of medicinal plan Ocimum basilicum from Peshawar region (34.008 latitude and 71.57 altitudes). In the present study a general antileishmanial activity against Leishmania tropica strair was carried out. The antibacterial potential of the plant was performed against 06 gram positiv and 06 gram negative bacteria. Brine shrimp cyto- toxicity assay at different concentrations were investigated. The anti-promastigotes profile of the plant showed good antileishmanial activity exhibited LC50 value 21.67 µg/mL. The result for gram positive antibacterial activity revealed that the O. basilicum leaves extract possesses significant inhibitory activity at highest two concentrations ranging from 20.66 ± 0.31 to 31.86 ± 0.80 for Clostridium perfringens type C and Bacillus subtitilis, respectively, as compared to the gentamycin (27.36 ± 0.55 and 21.80 ± 0.72, respectively). For gram negative bacteria good activity was observed. A highest zone of inhibition was recorded for Pseudomonas aeroginosa (28.83 ± 0.28) at the highest concentration (10 mg/ mL). The LC50 value obtained for brine shrimp lethality assay was 91.56 µg/mL. The herb basil possesses effective cidal activities which make this plant a good candidate for the isolation of antiprotozoal and antibacterial compounds which may lead to the development of novel drug.

  17. Islet protective and insulin secretion property of Murraya koenigii and Ocimum tenuflorum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusane, Menakshi Bhat; Joshi, Bimba N

    2012-03-01

    The present study investigates the antidiabetogenic effects of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spr. and Ocimum tenuflorum L. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Swiss mice. Treatment with extracts of M. koenigii (chloroform; MKC) and O. tenuflorum (aqueous; OTA) resulted in proper glucose utilization with an increase in liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity, and normal glycogenesis in hepatic and muscle tissues. Pancreatic and intestinal glucosidase inhibitory activity observed with MKC and OTA treatment indicated beneficial effects in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia with concomitant improvement in glucose metabolism. The glucosidase inhibition was prolonged, even after discontinuation of MKC and OTA treatment. Normalization of plasma insulin and C-peptide levels was observed in diabetic mice, indicating endogenous insulin secretion after treatment. The histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic islets suggests the role of MKC and OTA in pancreatic β-cell protection and the functional pancreatic islets that produce insulin. The study demonstrates the significance of MKC and OTA in glucosidase inhibition and islet protection in the murine diabetic model. These findings suggest the potential of the extracts in adjuvant therapy for the treatment of diabetes and the possible development of potential neutraceuticals.

  18. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  19. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

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    Mandana Behbahani

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A. The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  20. Antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves against Enterococcus faecalis dentinal biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Pushpangadan, Sivan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Vivekanandan, Paramasivam; Sukumaran, Vridhachalam Ganapathy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in the root canal makes it difficult to be eradicated by the conventional irrigants with no toxicity to the tissues. Hence, plant products with least side effects are explored for their use as irrigants in the root canal therapy. Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel (mango kernel) and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves (tulsi) extracts with conventional irrigants (5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine) against E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion and broth microdilution assay was performed with the herbal extracts and conventional irrigants (2% chlorhexidine and 5% NaOCl) against E. faecalis planktonic cells. The assay was extended onto 3 week E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Results: Significant reduction of colony forming units (CFU)/mL was observed for the herbal groups and the antibacterial activity of the herbal groups was at par with 5% NaOCl. Conclusions: The antibacterial activity of these herbal extracts is found to be comparable with that of conventional irrigants both on the biofilm and planktonic counterparts. PMID:24082577

  1. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from the Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Ocimum sanctum for Enhanced Antibacterial Activity

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    Charusheela Ramteke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of nanotechnology is the most active area of research in modern materials science. Though there are many chemical as well as physical methods, green synthesis of nanomaterials is the most emerging method of synthesis. We report the synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using leaf broth of medicinal herb, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi. The synthesized AgNPs have been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffractometry. The mean particle of synthesized NPs was found to be 18 nm, as confirmed by TEM. The qualitative assessment of reducing potential of leaf extract has also been carried out which indicated presence of significant amount of reducing entities. FTIR analysis revealed that the AgNPs were stabilized by eugenols, terpenes, and other aromatic compounds present in the extract. Such AgNPs stabilized by Tulsi leaf extract were found to have enhanced antimicrobial activity against well-known pathogenic strains, namely Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli.

  2. Comparison the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and essential oil percentage of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    S.M.K. Tahami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to have a sustainable agriculture it is necessary to use environmental friendly inputs to improve ecological aspects of environment. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is a medicinal and vegetable crop which is cultivated in different parts of the world. An experiment was conducted at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in year 2009. A complete randomized block design with six treatments, and three replications was used. The treatments were: control (no fertilizer, cow manure, sheep manure, hen manure, vermin-compost and NPK fertilizers. Results showed that all studied organic manures were high in measured characters in compare with chemical fertilizer. The highest plant height, leaf yield, fresh and dry matter were obtained at vermicompost. Treatments have no significant affect on Essential oil percentage. The highest essential oil yield was obtained in cow manure treatments. Third cut and the first cut had the maximum and the minimum of leaf yield, fresh and dry shoot yield, respectively. Essential oil percentage in the first cut was significantly more than other cuts, but essential oil yield, were the highest in third cut because this cut produced highest leaf yield. There was no significant difference between chemical fertilizers and control treatment in all characters except green area index and fresh and dry leaf weight in a plant.

  3. Anatomia e ultraestrutura foliar de Ocimum gratissimum sob diferentes níveis de radiação luminosa

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    Valéria Ferreira Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Espécies vegetais são capazes de ajustar suas características fisiológicas, anatômicas e ultraestruturais aos fatores ambientais, como, por exemplo, a disponibilidade de radiação luminosa incidente. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de radiação luminosa na anatomia e ultraestrutura foliar de Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae. As plantas foram cultivadas por 93 dias em quatro níveis de radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (20, 11, 7 e 4mol m-2 d-1. O incremento da intensidade de luz proporcionou aumento no espessamento dos parênquimas paliçádico e esponjoso e do limbo foliar, entretanto, a espessura da epiderme não foi alterada. Em relação aos aspectos ultraestruturais, verificou-se aumento no tamanho dos cloroplastos e grãos de amido e um aumento do empilhamento dos tilacoides com a redução da intensidade de luz. As variações anatômicas e ultraestruturais verificadas confirmam a plasticidade fenotípica dessa espécie em função da intensidade de radiação luminosa.

  4. Light reflected from colored mulches affects aroma and phenol content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves.

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    Loughrin, J H; Kasperbauer, M J

    2001-03-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is an herb the leaves of which are used to add a distinct aroma and flavor to food. It was hypothesized that the size and chemical composition of sun-grown basil leaves could be influenced by the color of light reflected from the soil surface and by the action of the reflected light through the natural growth regulatory system within the growing plants. Leaf morphology, aroma compounds, and soluble phenolics were compared in basil that had been grown over six colors of polyethylene row covers. Altering the ratios of blue, red, and far-red light reflected to growing plants influenced both leaf morphology and chemistry. Leaves developing over red surfaces had greater area, moisture percentage (succulence), and fresh weight than those developing over black surfaces. Basil grown over yellow and green surfaces produced significantly higher concentrations of aroma compounds than did basil grown over white and blue covers. Leaves grown over yellow and green mulches also contained significantly higher concentrations of phenolics than those grown over the other colors. Clearly, the wavelengths (color) of light reflected to growing basil plants affected leaf size, aroma, and concentrations of soluble phenolics, some of which are antioxidants.

  5. Evaluation of Ocimum basilicum L. seed mucilage as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol HCl

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    Majid Saeedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide mucilage derived from the seeds of Ocimum basilicum L. (family Lamiaceae was investigated for use in matrix formulations containing propranolol hydrochloride. Basil mucilage was extracted and several tablets were formulated. The effect of mucilage on drug release rate was evaluated in comparison with tablets containing two kinds of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M as standard polymer. The release data were fitted to several models for kinetic evaluation. The results showed that hardness decreased and friability of tablets increased as the concentration of mucilage increased. The rate of release of propranolol HCl from O. basilicm mucilage matrices was mainly controlled by the drug: mucilage ratio. Drug release was slower from the HPMC K4M and HPMCK100M containing tablets compared to the mucilage containing matrices than the drug release from matrices containing O. basilicum seed mucilage in similar ratios.  Formulations containing O. basilicm mucilage were found to exhibit suitable release pattern. The results of kinetic analysis showed that in tablets containing O. basilicm mucilage the highest correlation coefficient was achieved with the zero order model. The swelling and erosion studies revealed that, as the proportion of mucilage in tablets was increased, there was a corresponding increase in percent swelling and a decrease in percent erosion of tablets.

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlase, Laurian; Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Damian, Grigore; Csillag, Ioan; Sevastre, Bogdan; Mot, Augustin C; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-04-28

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids), flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin) and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin), in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively), and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Hanaa A.; Pang, Edwin C.; Mantri, Nitin; Deighton, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5 and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes, or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA), P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms. PMID:27242708

  8. Antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves against Enterococcus faecalis dentinal biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Pushpangadan, Sivan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Vivekanandan, Paramasivam; Sukumaran, Vridhachalam Ganapathy

    2013-09-01

    The Enterococcus faecalis biofilm in the root canal makes it difficult to be eradicated by the conventional irrigants with no toxicity to the tissues. Hence, plant products with least side effects are explored for their use as irrigants in the root canal therapy. To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of Mangifera indica L. kernel (mango kernel) and Ocimum sanctum L. leaves (tulsi) extracts with conventional irrigants (5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine) against E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Agar diffusion and broth microdilution assay was performed with the herbal extracts and conventional irrigants (2% chlorhexidine and 5% NaOCl) against E. faecalis planktonic cells. The assay was extended onto 3 week E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Significant reduction of colony forming units (CFU)/mL was observed for the herbal groups and the antibacterial activity of the herbal groups was at par with 5% NaOCl. The antibacterial activity of these herbal extracts is found to be comparable with that of conventional irrigants both on the biofilm and planktonic counterparts.

  9. Amelioration of inflammation by phenolic rich methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; John, Febi; Indira, M

    2015-10-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation play vital role in the development of MI. The Indian basil or Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.), owing to its antioxidant potential, is used in the traditional system of Indian medicine to treat various disorders. We evaluated methanolic extract of O. sanctum (Tulsi) leaves on inflammation in isoproterenol (ISP) induced MI in rats. ISP-induced MI increased the levels of cardiac markers, phospholipases and phospholipid content. However, the same were reduced on pre-treatment with methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. The activities of 5-lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase-2 and levels of leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 were also elevated in ISP-treated rats, which were significantly decreased (P sanctum leaves. The study demonstrated that methanolic extract of Tulsi leaves can decrease inflammation in the cardiac tissue of ISP-induced MI in rats and its effect may be through downregulation of oxidative stress and arachidonic acid pathway. This cardioprotective effect may be due to the high phenolic content of methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves.

  10. Effect ofOcimum sanctum (Tulsi) and vitamin E on biochemical parameters and retinopathy in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Eshrat M; Mukhopadhyay, A K

    2006-09-01

    This study was carried out to see the effect of the aqueous extract ofOcitum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with Vitamin E on biochemical parameters and retinopathy in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino male rats. Adult albino male rats weighing 150-200 gm were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in the dose 60 mg/kg in citrate buffer (pH 6.3). The diabetic animals were left for one month to develop retinopathy. Biochemical parameters like plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance and glycosylated hemoglobin HbA(1c), were measured along with lipid profile, and enzymes like glutathione peroxidase (GPX), lipid peroxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in normal, untreated diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated withOcimum sanctum L extracts and vitamin E. Fluorescein angiography test was done for assessing retinopathy. Results on biochemical parameters were analyzed statistically by using ANOVA followed by Dunnet's 't'-test. A p-value of sanctum and Vitamin E, alone and in combination for 16 weeks showed reversal of most of the parameters studied including plasma glucose levels. Angiography showed improvement in retinal changes following combined antidiabetic treatment.

  11. Double-blinded randomized controlled trial for immunomodulatory effects of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract on healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shankar; Varma, Saurabh; Bamola, Vishwa Deepak; Naik, Satya Narayan; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Padhi, Madan Mohan; Mehta, Nalin; Mahapatra, Sushil Chandra

    2011-07-14

    Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) is considered as a sacred herb and traditionally it is believed that consumption of Tulsi leaf on empty stomach increases immunity. Experimental studies have shown that alcoholic extract of Tulsi modulates immunity. The present study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of ethanolic extract of Tulsi leaves through a double-blinded randomized controlled cross-over trial on healthy volunteers. Three hundred milligrams capsules of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Tulsi or placebo were administered to 24 healthy volunteers on empty stomach and the results of 22 subjects who completed the study were analyzed. The primary objective was to study the levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-4) during both pre and post intervention period in blood culture supernatants following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and phytohaemagglutinin. Other immunological parameters such as T-helper and T-cytotoxic cells, B-cells and NK-cells also were analyzed using Flowcytometry. Statistically significant increase in the levels of IFN-γ (p=0.039), IL-4 (p=0.001) and percentages of T-helper cells (p=0.001) and NK-cells (p=0.017) were observed after 4 weeks in the Tulsi extract intervention group in contrast to the placebo group. These observations clearly ascertain the immunomodulatory role of Tulsi leaves extract on healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities and Phenolic Profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys

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    Laurian Vlase

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS. The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids, flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin, in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively, and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antiedematogenic activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil and its main compound estragole: In vivo mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lindaiane Bezerra; Oliveira Brito Pereira Bezerra Martins, Anita; Cesário, Francisco Rafael Alves Santana; Ferreira E Castro, Fyama; de Albuquerque, Thaís Rodrigues; Martins Fernandes, Maria Neyze; Fernandes da Silva, Bruno Anderson; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas; Barbosa, Roseli; Alencar de Menezes, Irwin Rose

    2016-09-25

    The genus Ocimum are used in cooking, however, their essential oils are utilized in traditional medicine as aromatherapy. The present study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition and systemic anti-inflammatory activity of the Ocimum basilicum essential oil (EOOB) and its major component estragole, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. The Ocimum basilicum essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory action was verified using acute and chronic in vivo tests as paw edema, peritonitis, and vascular permeability and granulomatous inflammation model. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of action was analyzed by the participation of histamine and arachidonic acid pathways. The chemical profile analysis identified fourteen components present in the essential oil, within them: estragole (60.96%). The in vivo test results show that treatment with EOOB (100 and 50 mg/kg) and estragole (60 and 30 mg/kg) significantly reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan and dextran. The smallest doses of EOOB (50 mg/kg) and estragole (30 mg/kg) showed efficacy in the reduction of paw edema induced by histamine and arachidonic acid, vascular permeability inhibition and leukocyte emigration in the peritoneal fluid. Theses doses were capable of reducing the chronic inflammatory process. The results observed between the EOOB and estragole demonstrate efficacy in anti-inflammatory activity, however, the essential oil is more efficacious in the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory action. This study confirms the therapeutic potential of this plant and reinforces the validity of its use in popular medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Morfología básica de 17 introducciones del género ocimum en el departamento del valle

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno B., G. Valentín; Tamayo C., Carlos H.; Estrada, Edgar Iván

    2010-01-01

    Los objetivos del trabajo fueron establecer un jardín de introducciones de albahaca y contribuir en la caracterización botánica de las cultivariedades introducidas al banco de germoplasma. La colección se realizó en el departamento del Valle en campos de cultivo, áreas de vegetación natural, huertos caseros y mercados locales. En 6 zonas se recolectaron 17 introducciones, pertenecientes a 5 especies del genero Ocimum tres cultivadas (O. basilicum L., O. americanum Jacq Host y 0. minimum L.) y...

  15. Kinetics of drying of basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L. in the infrared Cinética de secagem de folhas de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. via infravermelho

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    Renata C. dos Reis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to model the drying curves of the leaves of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. in the infrared at temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80 ºC and to evaluate the influence of drying temperature on the color of dried leaves. Drying was conducted in infrared dryer with temperature and greenhouse air circulation. Experimental data were fitted to eight mathematical models. The magnitude of the coefficient of determination (R², the mean relative error (P, the estimated mean error (SE and chisquare test (χ2 were used to verify the degree of fitness of the models. From the study it was concluded that: a the behavior of the drying curves of basil leaves was similar to most agricultural products, the drying times in the infrared were less than the drying times in an oven with air circulation, b the mathematical drying model proposed by Midilli et al. (2002 was the one which best adjusted to the experimental data, c the diffusion coefficient ranged from 9.10 x 10-12 to 2.92 x 10-11 m² s-1 and d the color of the samples was highly influenced by drying, becoming darker due to loss of chlorophyll with increasing temperature.Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar, modelar as curvas de secagem das folhas de Manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. por infravermelho nas temperaturas de 50, 60, 70 e 80 ºC e avaliar a influência das temperaturas de secagem na cor das folhas desidratadas. A secagem foi conduzida em secador infravermelho com controle de temperatura e em estufa com circulação de ar. Aos dados experimentais foram ajustados oito modelos matemáticos. As magnitudes do coeficiente de determinação (R², do erro médio relativo (P, do erro médio estimado (SE e do teste do qui-quadrado (χ² foram utilizadas para verificar o grau de ajuste dos modelos. Do estudo concluiu-se que: a o comportamento das curva s de secagem das folhas de manjericão foi semelhante ao da maioria dos produtos agrícolas; os tempos de secagem no infravermelho

  16. Potencial da otencial planta medicinal Ocimum gratissimum no controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana em sementes de trigo = Potential of Ocimum gratissimum medicinal plant on Bipolaris sorokiniana control in the wheat seeds

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    Érica dos Anjos Rodrigues

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito, in vitro, do extrato bruto (EB, autoclavado e esterilizado por filtração, da planta medicinal Ocimum gratissimum e do fungicida iprodione+thiram no crescimento micelial e na esporulação de Bipolaris sorokiniana. Além disso, sementes de trigo naturalmente infectadas com B. sorokiniana foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: 1 fumigação com óleo essencial, 2 imersão em EB autoclavado e 3 não-autoclavado em diferentes concentrações (1%,5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% e 50% m/v, 4 polvilhamento com folhas secas e com fungicida iprodione+thiram. O EB autoclavado proporcionou maior inibição, ainda que parcial, do crescimento micelial em todas as concentrações testadas (1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 50% m/v, quando comparado ao EB esterilizado por filtração. Em casa-de-vegetação, as sementes fumigadas por 7 dias apresentaram velocidade de emergência (VE estatisticamente igual à da testemunha (água. Com relação ao tratamento por imersão, não houve diferença estatística entre os parâmetros analisados (VE, porcentagem de emergência, altura, massa fresca e seca e taxa de transmissão (Tt e a testemunha. Sementes tratadas com pó de folhas secas não diferiram estatisticamente do controle químico, em relação aos parâmetros anteriores, mas apresentaram maior Tt do patógeno. Em laboratório, as sementes submetidas à fumigação apresentaram maior número de sementes sadias doque a testemunha, enquanto os tratamentos com imersão em EB e polvilhamento não diferiram em relação ao mesmo parâmetro.The in vitro effect of Ocimum gratissimum medicinal plant CE(autoclaved and sterilized by filtration as well as the iprodione+thiram fungicide on the mycelial growth and sporulation of B. sorokiniana was evaluated. Besides, wheat seeds naturally infected with B. sorokiniana were submitted to the following treatments: 1 fumigation with essential oil; 2 immersion with autoclaved CE and; 3 non autoclaved CE at different

  17. Lipid and protein oxidation in the internal part of italian type salami containing basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Alexandre José Cichoski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L. (0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75 and 6.00 mg.g-1 were evaluated in relation to their antioxidant activity using the DPPH● radical methodology. From the IC50 obtained data, the concentrations of 0.19; 0.38; 0.75; 1.87; 3.75; 6.00 and 12.00 mg.mL-1 were applied directly to the product and these were sensorially evaluated by the test of control difference. The concentrations related to the highest acceptability (0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 were tested for antioxidant activity in the internal part of Italian type salami - during the processing and after 30 days of storage, in terms of lipid and protein oxidation. The oxidation of lipids was determined using the method of TBARS. The method of carbonyl compounds was employed for proteins oxidation. Five different formulations of salami were elaborated: blank (without the use of antioxidant; control (using sodium eritorbate as antioxidant; and adding 0.19; 0.38 and 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil. The product was kept between 25 ºC and 18 ºC and UR between 95% and 70%, for 28 days. Analyses were carried out on the processing day and after 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, and also following 30 days of storage. The basil essential oil in vitro presented an antioxidant activity of IC50 12 mg.mL-1. In the internal part of the Italian type salami the commercial antioxidant (control and the formulation containing 0.75 mg.g-1 of basil essential oil presented antioxidant activity in relation to the lipids, but not to the proteins - during processing and storage.

  18. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguefack, J; Dongmo, J B Lekagne; Dakole, C D; Leth, V; Vismer, H F; Torp, J; Guemdjom, E F N; Mbeffo, M; Tamgue, O; Fotio, D; Zollo, P H Amvam; Nkengfack, A E

    2009-05-31

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal activity was determined and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu). The influence of pH variation on this activity was studied. The NDR cfu varied with the essential oils and its concentration, the pH of the medium and the strain tested. The essential oils from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9. At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu > or = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P. verrucosum. The highest activity of the three essential oils was recorded at pH 3 against A. ochraceus strains and at pH 9 against both species of Penicillium. From the fractionation, three active fractions were obtained each from C. citratus and O. gratissimum, and two active fractions from T. vulgaris. These active fractions exhibited a NDR cfu, two to seven folds higher than that of the complete essential oils.

  19. Effect of combination of Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Ocimum sanctum on spatial learning and memory in rats

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    Harshad O Malve

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a steady rise in number of patients suffering from dementia including dementia associated with Alzheimer′s disease. Effective treatment of Alzheimer′s disease dementia is an unmet medical need. Objective: To evaluate effects of formulation containing combination of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc with and without Ocimum sanctum (Os on learning and memory performance of normal and memory impaired rats in complex maze and compare with effects of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica alone. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats; either sex (100-150 g were divided in seven groups Control, Piracetam, Rivastigmine, Tc, Pe, Formulation 1 (Tc + Pe, and Formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Os.The study was divided in four parts: In part 1 memory enhancement was tested in normal rats. In part 2, 3, and 4 the effects of drugs were tested in Scopolamine-, Diazepam-, and Cyclosporine-induced amnesia. Hebb-Williams maze was used to test for learning and memory. Time required to trace food and number of errors in maze were noted. Results: In normal rats, all test drugs showed significant reduction in time required to trace the food and number of errors after 24 h compared with vehicle control. Formulations 1 and 2 reduced the time required to trace food and number of errors and the results were comparable with positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Formulations 1 and 2 reversed amnesia produced by Scopolamine, Diazepam, and Cyclosporine when compared with vehicle control and showed comparable results with those of positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Conclusion: Formulations 1 and 2 demonstrated nootropic activity and both the formulations showed comparable nootropic activity with that of Tc and Pe alone.

  20. Surface coating changes the physiological and biochemical impacts of nano-TiO2 in basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenjuan; Du, Wenchao; Barrios, Ana C; Armendariz, Raul; Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Zink, Jeffrey I; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of surface coating on the interaction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plants. In this study, basil (Ocimum basilicum) was cultivated for 65 days in soil amended with unmodified, hydrophobic (coated with aluminum oxide and dimethicone), and hydrophilic (coated with aluminum oxide and glycerol) titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) at 125, 250, 500, and 750 mg nano-TiO2 kg-1 soil. ICP-OES/MS, SPAD meter, and UV/Vis spectrometry were used to determine Ti and essential elements in tissues, relative chlorophyll content, carbohydrates, and antioxidant response, respectively. Compared with control, hydrophobic and hydrophilic nano-TiO2 significantly reduced seed germination by 41% and 59%, respectively, while unmodified and hydrophobic nano-TiO2 significantly decreased shoot biomass by 31% and 37%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). Roots exposed to hydrophobic particles at 750 mg kg-1 had 87% and 40% more Ti than the pristine and hydrophilic nano-TiO2; however, no differences were found in shoots. The three types of particles affected the homeostasis of essential elements: at 500 mg kg-1, unmodified particles increased Cu (104%) and Fe (90%); hydrophilic increased Fe (90%); while hydrophobic increased Mn (339%) but reduced Ca (71%), Cu (58%), and P (40%). However, only hydrophobic particles significantly reduced root elongation by 53%. Unmodified, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic particles significantly reduced total sugar by 39%, 38%, and 66%, respectively, compared with control. Moreover, unmodified particles significantly decreased reducing sugar (34%), while hydrophobic particles significantly reduced starch (35%). Although the three particles affected basil plants, coated particles impacted the most its nutritional quality, since they altered more essential elements, starch, and reducing sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Ocimum basilicum Linn essential oil and sodium hexametaphosphate on the shelf life of fresh chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Albano, Mariana; Castilho, Ivana Giovannetti; Rall, Vera Lucia Mores; Athayde, Natália Bortoleto; Delbem, Nara Laiane Casagrande; Roça, Roberto de Oliveira; Fernandes, Ary

    2014-06-01

    Although consumers and the food industry have an interest in reducing the use of synthetic additives, the consumption of processed meat in Brazil has been increasing because of the easy preparation and low cost. Owing to the antimicrobial and antioxidative properties of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (EO), it has potential applications in food products. Polyphosphates are already used in meat processing with the goal of improving the quality of the products. The aim of this work was to assess the effects of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) and O. basilicum EO, when added separately or together, on physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters during the shelf life of chicken sausage. We also performed sensory analysis of the product prepared in this manner. Six different treatments were produced in which the substances were tested together or separately, and the content of EO was 0.3 or 0.03%. The samples were analyzed after 1, 7, and 15 days of storage at 4°C. An increase in pH on days 7 and 15 in samples that contained SHMP was observed. In the samples that contained either 0.3 or 0.03% EO, coliforms were inhibited throughout the study period (P < 0.05), which was not observed in samples with EO plus SHMP, thus demonstrating that the stabilizer blocked the antibacterial action of EO. There was a reduction in the cook loss and increased compressive force in the samples with 0.5% SHMP, contributing to greater juiciness of the product. The EO had substantial impact on acceptability of samples, but it did not influence the activities already described of polyphosphate.

  2. The Influence of Cultivars and Phenological Phases on the Accumulation of Nevadensin and Salvigenin in Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Botond; Bernáth, Jenő; Gere, Attila; Kókai, Zoltán; Komáromi, Bonifác; Tavaszi-Sárosi, Szilvia; Varga, László; Sipos, László; Szabó, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    According to the earlier literature the optimum harvest time for basil is at the full flowering stage if accumulation of essential oil is taken into account. In this research we have investigated our gene-bank stored basil accessions to determine whether the harvest timing is variety specific or not considering their flavonoid accumulation pattern. In our work we have determined by HPLC the content of two main flavonoid compounds, salvigenin and nevadensin, of eight different gene bank accessions from 2013 of Ocimum basilicum L. Data were analysed with the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Multiple pairwise comparisons were made using the Conover-Iman procedure where the significance level was 5%. We have observed that the optimum harvest time is at the full flowering stage in the case of accessions 'Genovese' and 'Piros', but this was not verified for the others. The result of our experiment has shown that the maximum salvigenin and nevadensin content was detected both at the full- and early flowering period. Almost in all phenological phases the accession 'M. Grünes' accumulated the highest level of nevadensin, while accession 'Lengyel' produced the lowest results in all phenological phases. Generally it could be observed that compared with nevadensin more salvigenin is accumulated, and it is independent of the phenological phases. In the case of salvigenin, 'M. Grünes' accession produced the largest quantity and accession 'Dark Opal' showed the lowest values. Our analyses demonstrated that harvest at different phenological phases may result in different amounts of active agents according to the cultivar.

  3. Quantification of character-impacting compounds in Ocimum basilicum and 'Pesto alla Genovese' with selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadei, Gianluca; Ross, Brian M

    2012-02-15

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is an important flavourant plant which constitutes the major ingredient of the pasta sauce 'Pesto alla Genovese'. The characteristic smell of basil stems mainly from a handful of terpenoids (methyl cinnamate, eucalyptol, linalool and estragole), the concentration of which varies according to basil cultivars. The simple and rapid analysis of the terpenoid constituents of basil would be useful as a means to optimise harvesting times and to act as a quality control process for basil-containing foodstuffs. Classical analytical techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) are, however, slow, technically demanding and therefore less suitable for routine analysis. A new chemical ionisation technique which allows real-time quantification of traces gases, Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS), was therefore utilised to determine its usefulness for the assay of terpenoid concentrations in basil and pesto sauce headspace. Trace gas analysis was performed using the NO(+) precursor ion which minimised interference from other compounds. Character-impacting compound concentration was measured in basil headspace with good reproducibility and statistically significant differences were observed between cultivars. Quantification of linalool in pesto sauce headspace proved more difficult due to the presence of interfering compounds. This was resolved by careful selection of reaction product ions which allowed us to detect differences between various commercial brands of pesto. We conclude that SIFT-MS may be a valid tool for the fast and reproducible analysis of flavourant terpenoids in basil and basil-derived foodstuffs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Larvicidal efficacy of Ocimum basilicum extracts and its synergistic effect with neonicotinoid in the management of Anopheles stephensi

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    Prejwltta Maurya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the larvicidal activities of different combinations of synthetic nicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid with an insecticidal plant, Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi, with reference to the impact of most potent combination on some non-targets, Anisops bouvieri (A. bouvieri and cyclop. Methods: The larvicidal activity was determined against mosquito larvae in various concentrations, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4 under laboratory conditions. These experiments were conducted according to WHO standard procedure. Results: In bioassays, binary mixtures of different combinations of synthetic insecticide (imidacloprid with crude petroleum ether leave extract of O. basilicum and then with most potent 4th fraction of it, produced promising results. Therefore, ratio 1:1 of all the binary mixtures was most effective as compared to 1:2 and 1:4 against mosquito larvae and showed synergism in all cases. The combinatorial ratio 1:1 of imidacloprid and most potent 4th fraction of petroleum ether extract of O. basilicum with LC 50 value 0.010 and 0.007 ppm; LC90 value 0.033 and 0.023 ppm for anopheline larvae after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively, showed high toxicity. This effective ratio was found safe to aquatic mosquito predator, A. bouvieri and other aquatic non- target cyclops with the respective LC50 values 12.351 and 5.290 ppm after 24 h of exposure. Conclusions: It is, therefore, concluded that the tested combination is more effective than its individual constituents. Further, this formulation is cost-effective and ecofriendly to the aquatic fauna.

  5. Triterpenoids from Ocimum labiatum Activates Latent HIV-1 Expression In Vitro: Potential for Use in Adjuvant Therapy

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    Petrina Kapewangolo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Latent HIV reservoirs in infected individuals prevent current treatment from eradicating infection. Treatment strategies against latency involve adjuvants for viral reactivation which exposes viral particles to antiretroviral drugs. In this study, the effect of novel triterpenoids isolated from Ocimum labiatum on HIV-1 expression was measured through HIV-1 p24 antigen capture in the U1 latency model of HIV-1 infection and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. The mechanism of viral reactivation was determined through the compound’s effect on cytokine production, histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibition, and protein kinase C (PKC activation. Cytotoxicity of the triterpenoids was determined using a tetrazolium dye and flow cytometry. The isolated triterpene isomers, 3-hydroxy-4,6a,6b,11,12,14b-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,6,6a,6b,7,8,8a,9,10,11,12,12a,14,14a,14b-octadecahydropicene-4,8a-dicarboxylic acid (HHODC, significantly (p < 0.05 induced HIV-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in U1 cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. HHODC also induced viral expression in PBMCs of HIV-1 infected patients on cART. In addition, the compound up-regulated the production of interleukin (IL-2, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon (IFN-γ but had no effect on HDAC and PKC activity, suggesting cytokine upregulation as being involved in latency activation. The observed in vitro reactivation of HIV-1 introduces the adjuvant potential of HHODC for the first time here.

  6. Effect of Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum on myocardial apoptosis in experimentally induced myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Ipseeta; Arya, Dharamvir Singh; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Background In the present investigation, the effect of Curcuma longa (Cl) and Ocimum sanctum (Os) on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function was studied in an ischemia and reperfusion (I-R) model of myocardial injury. Methods Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups and orally fed saline once daily (sham, control IR) or Cl (100 mg/kg; Cl-IR) or Os (75 mg/kg; Os-IR) respectively for 1 month. On the 31st day, in the rats of the control IR, Cl-IR and Os-IR groups LAD occlusion was undertaken for 45 min, and reperfusion was allowed for 1 h. The hemodynamic parameters{mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular peak positive (+) LVdP/dt (rate of pressure development) and negative (-) LVdP/dt (rate of pressure decline)} were monitored at pre-set points throughout the experimental duration and subsequently, the animals were sacrificed for immunohistopathological (Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression & TUNEL positivity) and histopathological studies. Results Chronic treatment with Cl significantly reduced TUNEL positivity (p < 0.05), Bax protein (p < 0.001) and upregulated Bcl-2 (p < 0.001) expression in comparison to control IR group. In addition, Cl demonstrated mitigating effects on several myocardial injury induced hemodynamic {(+)LVdP/dt, (-) LVdP/dt & LVEDP} and histopathological perturbations. Chronic Os treatment resulted in modest modulation of the hemodynamic alterations (MAP, LVEDP) but failed to demonstrate any significant antiapoptotic effects and prevent the histopathological alterations as compared to control IR group. Conclusion In the present study, significant cardioprotection and functional recovery demonstrated by Cl may be attributed to its anti-apoptotic property. In contrast to Os, Cl may attenuate cell death due to apoptosis and prevent the impairment of cardiac performance. PMID:16504000

  7. Antagonistic activity of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil on growth and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum in maize grains

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    Naveen Kumar eKalagatur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to establish the antagonistic effects of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil (OSEO on growth and zearalenone (ZEA production of Fusarium graminearum. GC-MS chemical profiling of OSEO revealed the existence of 43 compounds and the major compound was found to be eugenol (34.7%. DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 of OSEO was determined to be 8.5µg/mL. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of OSEO on F. graminearum were recorded as 1250 µg/mL and 1800 µg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations showed significant micro morphological damage in OSEO exposed mycelia and spores compared to untreated control culture. Quantitative UHPLC studies revealed that OSEO negatively effected the production of ZEA; the concentration of toxin production was observed to be insignificant at 1500 µg/mL concentration of OSEO. On other hand ZEA concentration was quantified as 3.23 µg/mL in OSEO untreated control culture. Reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13 revealed that increase in OSEO concentration (250 µg/mL to 1500 µg/mL significantly downregulated the expression of PKS4 and PKS13. These results were in agreement with the artificially contaminated maize grains as well. In conlusion, the antifungal and antimycotoxic effects of OSEO on F. graminearum in the present study reiterated that, the essential oil of O. sanctum could be a promising herbal fungicide in food processing industries as well as grain storage centers.

  8. Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) Supplementation on Metabolic Parameters and Liver Enzymes in Young Overweight and Obese Subjects.

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    Satapathy, Swayamjeet; Das, Namrata; Bandyopadhyay, Debapriya; Mahapatra, Sushil Chandra; Sahu, Dip Sundar; Meda, Mruthyumjayarao

    2017-07-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn. (also known as Tulsi) is a sacred Indian plant, the beneficial role of which, in obesity and diabetes is described traditionally. This is a randomized, parallel group, open label pilot study to investigate the effect of O. sanctum on metabolic and biochemical parameters in thirty overweight/obese subjects, divided into two groups A and B. Group A (n = 16) received one 250 mg capsule of Tulsi (O. sanctum) extract twice daily in empty stomach for 8 weeks and group B (n = 14) received no intervention. Statistically significant improvements in the values of serum triglycerides (p = 0.019); low density lipoprotein (p = 0.001); high density lipoprotein (p = 0.001); very low density lipoprotein (p = 0.019); Body Mass Index, BMI (p = 0.005); plasma insulin (p = 0.021) and insulin resistance (p = 0.049) were observed after 8 weeks in the O. sanctum intervention group. The improvement in HDL-C in the intervention group when compared to the control group was also statistically significant (p = 0.037). There was no significant alteration of the liver enzymes SGOT and SGPT in both the intervention (p = 0.141; p = 0.074) and control arms (p = 0.102; p = 0.055) respectively. These observations clearly indicate the beneficial effects of O. sanctum on various biochemical parameters in young overweight/obese subjects.

  9. Enhancing chloramphenicol and trimethoprim in vitro activity by Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Lamiaceae) leaf extract against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha Deb; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) leaf extract, alone, and in combination with chloramphenicol (C) and trimethoprim (Tm) against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi). The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of tulsi, O. sanctum, leaf (TLE; 500 μg) for 23 S. typhi isolates was determined following agar diffusion. The C (30 μg) and Tm (5 μg) activity alone and in combination with TLE (250 μg) was determined by disk diffusion. The zone diameter of inhibition (ZDI) for the agents was recorded, and growth inhibitory indices (GIIs) were calculated. The S. typhi isolates (n=23), which were resistant to both C (ZDI 6 mm) and Tm (ZDI 6 mm), had TLE (500 μg) ZDIs 16-24 mm. The ZDIs of C and Tm were increased up to 15-21 mm and 17-23 mm, respectively, when TLE (250 μg) was added to the C and Tm discs. The GIIs ranged 0.789-1.235 and 0.894-1.352, due to combined activity against S. typhi isolates, of C and TLE and Tm and TLE, respectively. The data suggest that TLE, in combination with C and Tm, had synergistic activity for S. typhi isolates, and hence O. sanctum is potential in combating S. typhi drug resistance, as well promising in the development of non-antibiotic drug for S. typhi infection. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of basil extract ( Ocimum basilicum L. on oxidative, anti-genotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects in human leukocytes cell cultures exposed to challenging agents

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    Camila Martins Güez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ocimum is one of the most important genera of the Lamiaceae family. Several studies about basil and its popular use reveal many characteristics of the herb, including its use as antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial, and cardiovascular agents, among others. In this paper, we evaluated genotoxic, oxidative, and anti-inflammatory parameters from the extract of Ocimum basilicum in different concentrations, using human leukocytes cultures exposed to challenging agents. Our results confirm that the O. basilicum extract acts as an antioxidant and effectively reverts or subjugates the effects of high oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide. These actions are attributed to its composition, which is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids as well as compounds such as rosmarinic acid, all of which have well-known antioxidant activity. We also show that our basil extract presents anti-inflammatory properties, the mechanism of which is a composed interaction between the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediator and the stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Although pharmacodynamics studies are necessary to evaluate the activities in vivo, our results demonstrated that basil could act as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and a possible alternative for medicinal treatment.

  11. Anti-cryptococcal activity of ethanol crude extract and hexane fraction from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria bonita: mechanisms of action and synergism with amphotericin B and Ocimum basilicum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Nathalia N R; Alviano, Celuta S; Blank, Arie F; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Romanos, Maria Teresa V; Cunha, Marcel M L; da Silva, Antonio Jorge R; Alviano, Daniela S

    2017-12-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, kidney disorders, and intestinal worms. This study evaluates the anti-cryptococcal activity of ethanol crude extract and hexane fraction obtained from O. basilicum var. Maria Bonita leaves. The MIC values for Cryptococcus sp. were obtained according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in a range of 0.3-2500 μg/mL. The checkerboard assay evaluated the association of the substances tested (in a range of 0.099-2500 μg/mL) with amphotericin B and O. basilicum essential oil for 48 h. The ethanol extract, hexane fraction and associations in a range of 0.3-2500 μg/mL were tested for pigmentation inhibition after 7 days of treatment. The inhibition of ergosterol synthesis and reduction of capsule size were evaluated after the treatment with ethanol extract (312 μg/mL), hexane fraction (78 μg/mL) and the combinations of essential oil + ethanol extract (78 μg/mL + 19.5 μg/mL, respectively) and essential oil + hexane fraction (39.36 μg/mL + 10 μg/mL, respectively) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. The hexane fraction presented better results than the ethanol extract, with a low MIC (156 μg/mL against C. neoformans T444 and 312 μg/mL against C. neoformans H99 serotype A and C. gattii WM779 serotype C). The combination of the ethanol extract and hexane fraction with amphotericin B and essential oil enhanced their antifungal activity, reducing the concentration of each substance needed to kill 100% of the inoculum. The substances tested were able to reduce the pigmentation, capsule size and ergosterol synthesis, which suggest they have important mechanisms of action. These results provide further support for the use of ethanol extracts of O. basilicum as a potential source of antifungal agents.

  12. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative activity of fixed oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. leaves in diabetic rats.

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    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; Anantasomboon, Gun; Piewbang, Chutchai

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves have been shown to exert diverse potential benefits in a variety of stress conditions. The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of the fixed oil extracted from OS leaves on the blood glucose levels and serum lipid profile of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In addition, the anti-oxidative activity of OS leaves to protect various organs including the liver, kidney and heart was investigated. The fixed oil of the OS leaves was extracted using hexane, and the various fatty acid contents of the oil were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups (n=7 per group): Normal control rats, diabetic rats and diabetic rats fed daily with the fixed oil for three weeks. The results showed that α-linolenic acid was the primary fatty acid contained in the fixed oil of OS. After 3 weeks of diabetic induction, the rats exhibited increased blood glucose levels and serum lipid profile, in addition to elevated serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase MB subunit (CK-MB), creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The fixed oil significantly decreased the elevated levels of blood glucose, the serum lipid profile and the levels of serum creatinine and BUN (Pdiabetically-reduced levels of serum insulin and decreased the rat kidney weight. Fixed oil suppressed the elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level and increased the activity of various antioxidative enzymes in the rat renal tissue. By contrast, the fixed oil had no effect on the elevated TBARS level and the inhibited activity of the antioxidative enzymes in the rat liver and cardiac tissues. Histopathological results indicated that the fixed oil preserved the renal tissue against oxidative stress in diabetes. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that the fixed oil extracted from OS leaves exerted anti

  13. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

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    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 μl/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), α-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts.

  14. ACTIVIDAD ANTIOXIDANTE Y ENZIMÁTICA DE ALBAHACA ‘NUFAR’ (Ocimum basilicum L. ALMACENADA EN REFRIGERACIÓN

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    Eduardo L\\u00F3pez-Blancas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Actividad antioxidante y enzimática de albahaca “Nufar” ( Ocimum basilicum L. almacenada en refrigeración. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto del almacenamiento en refrigeración sobre la actividad antioxidante y actividad enzimática en albahaca ‘Nufar’. En la Universidad Aut ónoma Chapingo (Texcoco, México, durante el ciclo primavera-verano de 2012, albahaca preciclo primavera-verano de 2012, albahaca previamente empacada en película plástica, se almacenó en cámaras frigoríficas a 5 y 10 °C , y a temperatura ambiente (20 °C - testigo, por dieciocho días. Cada 48 horas, se evaluó el contenido de fenoles totales, capacidad antioxidante y la actividad de las enzimas catalasa, superóxido dismutasa, peroxidasa y polifenol oxidasa. En relación con el tiempo en refrigeración a 5 °C a los dos y cuatro días se presentó la mayor actividad de catalasa (14,3 U/mg/pro y superóxido dismutasa (2,9 U/mg/pro, y a los diez y dieciocho días hubo aumento de la actividad de peroxidasa (57,6 y 74,9 U/ mg/pro. A 10 °C y diez días se incrementó el contenido de fenoles totales de 3,7 a 4,2 mg/kg/PFr; así como la capacidad antioxidante de 47,5 a 79,1 mg VCEAC/g/PFr a ocho días; también aumentó la actividad de la polifenol oxidasa de 11,7 a 31,8 U/mg/pro a diez días. El almacenamiento a 5 °C afectó el contenido de fenoles totales y capacidad antioxidante, así como la actividad enzimática de peroxidasa y polifenol oxidasa, e incrementó la actividad de catalasa y superóxido dismutasa, por lo cual, se sugiere el almacenamiento de albahaca “nufar” a 10 °C para disminuir la actividad de las enzimas oxidativas.

  15. Molecular characterisation and similarity relationships among iranian basil (Ocimum basilicum L. accessions using inter simple sequence repeat markers Caracterização molecular de acessos de Ocimum basilicum L. por meio de marcadores ISSR

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    Mohammad Aghaei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of genetic relationships is a prerequisite for plant breeding activities as well as for conservation of genetic resources. In the present study, genetic diversity among 50 Iranian basil (Ocimum basilicum L. accessions was determined using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Thirty-eight alleles were generated at 12 ISSR loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 3.17. The maximum number of alleles was observed at the A7, 818, 825 and 849 loci, and their size ranged from 300 to 2500 bp. A similarity matrix based on Jaccard's coefficient for all 50 basil accessions gave values from 1.00-0.60. The maximum similarity (1.00 was observed between the "Urmia" and "Shahr-e-Rey II" accessions as well as between the "Urmia" and "Qazvin II" accessions. The lowest similarity (0.60 was observed between the "Tuyserkan I" and "Gom II" accessions. The unweighted pair- group method using arithmetique average UPGMA clustering algorithm classified the studied accessions into three distinct groups. All of the basil accessions, with the exception of "Babol III", "Ahvaz II", "Yazd II" and "Ardebil I", were placed in groups I and II. Leaf colour was a specific characteristic that influenced the clustering of Iranian basil accessions. Because of this relationship, the results of the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA approximately corresponded to those obtained through cluster analysis. Our results revealed that the geographical distribution of genotypes could not be used as a basis for crossing parents to obtain high heterosis, and therefore, it must be carried out by genetic studies.O estudo das relações genéticas é um pré-requisito para atividades em reprodução de plantas assim como para conservação de recursos genéticos. Neste trabalho a diversidade genética entre 50 acessos de Manejericão Iraniano (Ocimum basilicum L. foram determinadas usando marcadores de Seqüência Simples Repetida Interna (ISSR

  16. Inativação bacteriana e sensorialidade em bebidas formuladas a partir de extrato reconstituído de Ocimum gratissimum L. (Alfavaca - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae Bacterial inactivation and sensory analysis in drink formulations prepared with Ocimum gratissimum L. ("African basil" - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae reconstituted extract

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    Marcelo Gonzalez Passos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir da formulação de quatro bebidas, duas alcoólicas e duas não alcoólicas, com e sem açúcar, respectivamente, e do extrato reconstituído (alcoolatura/planta verde de Ocimum gratisimum L. ("alfavacão", "alfavaca", "alfavaca-cravo" - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae em diferentes concentrações (5, 15 e 30%, foi determinada, através de testes de suspensão em sistema de tubos múltiplos, a intensidade de atividade de inativação bacteriana (IINAB/bactericidia, sobre Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC 11076, bem como a aceitabilidade/preferência sensorial por escala hedônica destes quatro produtos. Todas as formulações apresentaram atividade bactericida para Salmonella Enteritidis, diretamente proporcional às concentrações do extrato e ao tempo de exposição da bactéria às bebidas, destacando-se, neste sentido, a formulação não alcoólica com açúcar. Na análise sensorial, a preferência aumentou com o decréscimo da concentração de extrato de Ocimum gratissimum na formulação. A bebida não alcoólica com açúcar, na concentração de 5% de extrato, destacou-se na preferência/aceitabilidade.The activity intensity of bacterial inactivation (IINAB/bactericidie on Salmonella Enteritidis (ATCC 11076 was determined in four drink formulations, two alcoholic and two no-alcoholic, with and without sugar, respectively, and in the reconstituted extract (alcoholature/green plant of Ocimum gratissimum L. (African basil - Labiatae - (Lamiaceae at different concentrations (5, 15, and 30% through suspension tests in multiple tube system. The acceptability/sensory preference of these four products was also determined using a hedonic scale. The bactericidal activity of all formulations against Salmonella Enteritidis was found to be directly proportional to the extract concentrations and the exposure time of the bacterium in the beverages, especially the non-alcoholic formulation with sugar. In the sensorial analysis, the preference increased

  17. Horário de colheita e tempo de secagem da alfavaca-cravo Harvest moment and drying period of Ocimum gratissimum L

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    José Magno Q Luz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o tempo adequado de secagem e o horário ideal de colheita da alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L. em Pentecoste (CE, observando sua influência nas características do óleo essencial e os principais componentes durante o processo. No primeiro experimento foram testados cinco tempos de secagem (0, 4, 8, 12 e 16 dias, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se as variáveis umidade, teor de óleo essencial e seus principais constituintes. Para o segundo experimento utilizaram-se cinco horários de colheita (7:00, 9:00, 11:00, 13:00 e 15:00 h, com quatro repetições, sendo cada bloco considerado como um dia. Foram analisados a umidade, massa fresca, massa seca, teor de óleo essencial e seus principais constituintes. Os resultados do primeiro experimento sugerem que a alfavaca-cravo não deve ser submetida ao processo de secagem, devendo ser processada rapidamente para evitar perdas do princípio ativo de interesse, o eugenol. Os diferentes horários de colheita testados não influenciaram no teor de óleo essencial, nem de seus principais constituintes (eugenol e 1,8 cineol.The appropriate drying period and the ideal harvest moment of Ocimum gratissimum L. were determined in Pentecoste, Brazil, observing the influence on the essential oil and its main components during this process. In the first experiment five drying periods were tested, represented by the number of days that the material was submitted to the process: control treatment (zero day of drying, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, with four replicates in each treatment. The percentage of humidity, essential oil content and its main components were evaluated. The second experiment consisted of five different harvest moment (7:00, 9:00, 11:00, 13:00 and 15:00 hours, with four replications, where days were considered as blocks. In this experiment humidity, fresh mass, dry mass, essential oil content and its main components were analyzed. The results of the first experiment suggest that Ocimum

  18. The Effect of Harvesting on the Composition of Essential Oils from Five Varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Cultivated in the Island of Kefalonia, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasi, Gerasimia; Mailis, Theofilos; Daskalaki, Artemis; Sakadani, Eleni; Razis, Panagis; Samaras, Yiannis; Skaltsa, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period. Each basil variety showed a unique chemical profile, but also the essential oil composition within each variety seems to be differentiated, affected by the harvests and the cultivation site. PMID:28927018

  19. The Main Chemical Composition and in vitro Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oils of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd. Benth

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    Ji-Wen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum Linn.var. pilosum (Willd. Benth., an endemic medicinal plant growing in China, was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Fifteen compounds, representing 74.19% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (29.68%, (Z-cinnamic acid methyl ester (21.49%, cyclohexene (4.41%, α- cadinol (3.99%, 2,4-diisopropenyl-1-methyl-1-vinylcyclohexane (2.27%, 3,5-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-dimethyl-diethyl ester (2.01%, β-cubebene (1.97%, guaia-1(10,11-diene (1.58%, cadinene (1.41% (E-cinnamic acid methyl ester (1.36% and β-guaiene (1.30%. The essential oils showed significant antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi.

  20. Coleus barbatus Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae, New Host Plants to Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Sinop, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Evaldo Pires

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Coleus barbatus Benth e Ocimum basilicum L. são espécies de plantas comumente utilizadas com fins medicinais e gastronômicos, respectivamente. Lagartas do gênero Spodoptera são generalistas devido à ampla variedade de plantas que utilizam como recurso alimentar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi registrar a ocorrência de Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no município de Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brasil, e ainda, relatar C. barbatus e O. basilicum como potenciais plantas hospedeiras para esta espécie de inseto. Recomenda-se ainda a inclusão de S. cosmioides em monitoramentos visando o Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP nestas plantas.

  1. Fractionated Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract inhibit prostate cancer (PC3·AR) cells growth by reducing androgen receptor and survivin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunwe, Stephen I; Hall, Sakeli M; Luo, Xuan; Wang, Hengshan; Begonia, Gregorio B

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the antiproliferative activity of the organic solvent-soluble and aqueous extracts of Ocimum gratissimum leaf against the prostate cancer cells PC3·AR were evaluated by their inhibitory effects on the Androgen Receptor (AR) and Survivin protein. Two organic solvent-soluble extracts P2 and P3-2, and a water- soluble extract, PS/PT1, were found to reduce AR and Survivin levels in a time-dependent manner. In addition, extract PS/PT1, also exhibited the inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner. This is the first time that the inhibitory eff ects of O. gratissimum extracts have been evaluated on the Androgen Receptor (AR) and Survivin protein. The results encouraged the further studies of O. gratissimum as a potential treatment of prostate cancer.

  2. The Effect of Harvesting on the Composition of Essential Oils from Five Varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Cultivated in the Island of Kefalonia, Greece

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    Gerasimia Tsasi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece. The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period. Each basil variety showed a unique chemical profile, but also the essential oil composition within each variety seems to be differentiated, affected by the harvests and the cultivation site.

  3. The Effect of Harvesting on the Composition of Essential Oils from Five Varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. Cultivated in the Island of Kefalonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsasi, Gerasimia; Mailis, Theofilos; Daskalaki, Artemis; Sakadani, Eleni; Razis, Panagis; Samaras, Yiannis; Skaltsa, Helen

    2017-09-18

    Five varieties of Ocimum basilicum L. namely lettuce, cinnamon, minimum, latifolia, and violetto were separately cultivated in field and greenhouse in the island Kefalonia (Greece). The effect of successive harvesting to the essential oil content was evaluated. In total 23 samples of essential oils (EOs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Ninety-six constituents, which accounted for almost 99% of the oils, were identified. Cluster analysis was performed for all of the varieties in greenhouse and field conditions, in order to investigate the possible differentiation on the chemical composition of the essential oils, obtained between harvests during growing period. Each basil variety showed a unique chemical profile, but also the essential oil composition within each variety seems to be differentiated, affected by the harvests and the cultivation site.

  4. Morfología básica de 17 introducciones del género Ocimum en el departamento del Valle

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    Estrada Edgar Iván

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del trabajo fueron establecer un jardín de introducciones de albahaca y contribuir en la caracterización botánica de las cultivariedades introducidas al banco de germoplasma. La colección se realizó en el departamento del Valle en campos de cultivo, áreas de vegetación natural, huertos caseros y mercados locales. En 6 zonas se recolectaron 17 introducciones, pertenecientes a 5 especies del genero Ocimum tres cultivadas (O. basilicum L., O. americanum Jacq Host y 0. minimum L. y dos ornamentales (O. gratissimum Hook y O. micranthum Willd. Se determinó visualmente alta variación para características fenotípicas tales como arquitectura de plantas, presencia de pubescencia, tipo de inflorescencia, flores, hojas y frutos.The objetives of this work were the collection and stablishment of a garden of albahaca and a contribution to the botanical characteristic of the cultivars introduced in the germoplasm bank .The collection was gathered at cultivated fields, natural vegetation areas, house gardens and local markets. Seventeen (17 species were collected, all belonging to the generous Ocimum from six different zones of Valle del Cauca. Three species are cultivated (O. basilium L., O. americanum Jack Host y O. minimum L. and two are considered ornamentals (O. gratissimum Hook y O. micranthum Willd. Phenotipicaly, high variety was observed in the plant architecture, in its pubescence presence, in the type of inflorescence and in flowers, leaves and fruits.

  5. Desenvolvimento de mudas de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.em função do recipiente e do tipo e densidade de substratos

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    M.S. Maggioni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma das etapas mais importantes na produção do manjericão é o desenvolvimento das mudas. Nesta etapa, o cuidado com o recipiente e o substrato é essencial, pois afetam diretamente o crescimento e a arquitetura do sistema radicular, bem como, o fornecimento de nutrientes. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. influenciadas pelo tipo e densidade de diferentes substratos, cultivadas em bandejas de poliestireno com diferentes números de células. O experimento foi conduzido na área de Jardinocultura da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD em Dourados - MS. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 3x3x5, sendo três tipos de bandejas de poliestireno expandido com 72, 128 e 200 células com volumes internos de 124,3; 44,8 e 17,7 mL, respectivamente. Três tipos de substratos comerciais (PlantMax Florestais®; Tropstrato Vida Verde® e PlantMax Hortaliças HA®, e cinco densidades de substratos (0,36; 0,42; 0,48; 0,54 e 0,60 kg dm-3. Decorridos 78 dias após a emergência das plantas avaliou-se alturas das plantas, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e sistema radicular, e comprimento de raízes. A produção de mudas comerciais de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. foi melhor com o uso do substrato Tropstrato Vida Verde® na bandeja de 72 células associado com a densidade de 0,47 kg dm-3.

  6. Chemical composition and antibacterial properties of Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils alone and in combination with nisin

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    T. Mehdizadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Plant essential oils are sometimes considered for use as antimicrobial agents in foods and medicines and they could be combined with other antimicrobial agents to strengthen the effect and/or reduce the required dose. This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition of the Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils and evaluate their antibacterial efficiency, alone and in combination with nisin, against Escherichia coli O 157 and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: The chemical composition of three essential oils (Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis and Trachyspermum ammi were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Further, their antibacterial properties and the synergistic effect of the combination of three essential oils and nisin were also assessed against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity was determined by evaluation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC by broth dilution method in 96-well microplates. The synergistic effects were tested by the checkerboard method and the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index was calculated. Results: The major components of O. basilicum, S. officinalis and T. ammi were linalool (35.99%, 1,8-cineole (22.91% and p-Cymene (35.5%, respectively. In general, all of the essential oils as well as nisin exerted more considerable antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative one. The essential oil of T. ammi showed the highest activity against S. aureus with MIC (≤0.078 mg/mL and MBC (≤0.156 mg/mL. The combined application showed synergistic activity against E. coli but no change in activity was observed against S. aureus. The most synergistic effect was observed for the combination of nisin and S. officinalis (FIC 0.03. Conclusion: It can be concluded that nisin could enhance the antibacterial potential of the

  7. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil) on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI). Methods The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normal control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI. Results Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36%) and flavonoids (1.86%). Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in the serum and the myocardium. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities. PMID:23351503

  8. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Cardioprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Ocimum Basilicum L. (Basil Against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

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    Hamid Soraya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI.Methods: The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normalcontrol, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI.Results: Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36% and flavonoids (1.86%.Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both inthe serum and the myocardium.Conclusion: The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities.

  9. Antibacterial Activities of Green Basil (Ocimum Violaceum Essential Oil and Derivatives By MAOS (Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis Against Staphyllococus Aureus and Escherichia Coli

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    Dwiarso Rubiyanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green basil (Ocimum violaceum , Linn. plantis part of the varieties of basil (Ocimum basilicum, Linn.. Green basil essential oil (GBEO contain chemical compounds that have an anti- bacterial activities . Methyl eugenol and methyl chavikol are in green basil oil has the potential to be used as a material which is biologically active. Conversion reaction of the compounds in GBEO with MAOS methods (microwave assisted organic synthesis aims to obtain properties of the main chemical component in a wider sweet basil oil, and are also useful in an attempt to gain more valuable compounds for commercial and higher. The results showed that the optimum reaction conditions on the conversion reaction of compounds in GBEO with MAOS method with ethylene glycol as a solvent is 10 % KF/Al2O3as catalyst and reaction time 3 minutes , while the solvent is glycerol 10 % KF/Al2O3as catalyst and reaction time 2 minutes . Comparison of anti-bacterial activity resulting from this research are : the inhibitory activity to the growth of S. aureus bacteria have the following order : GBEO > green basilEG10-3 > green basil G10-2> amoxicillin with each inhibition zone diameter amounted to 30.7 mm, 21.1 mm, 18.2 mm and 13.4 mm. While the inhibitory activity to the growth of E.coli bacteria are : GBEO> green basil G10-2 >green basil EG10-3 > amoxicillin with each inhibition zone diameter of 21.1 mm, 15.6 mm , 15.2 mm and 7.9 mm . GBEO and its derivatives have minimal inhibitory concentrations below 1.25 %. From the results of the study found that the main derivates obtained are p-methoxy anisaldehyde , caryophyllene oxide , 3-methoxy cinnamaldehyde , humulena oxide and delta cadinol

  10. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

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    Fathiazad Fatemeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI. Methods The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normal control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI. Results Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36% and flavonoids (1.86%. Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in the serum and the myocardium. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities.

  11. Sunlight-induced rapid and efficient biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with enhanced antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Sarkar, Sajal; Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mandal, Narayan C; Jash, Shyamal K; Banerjee, Bubun; Roy, Rajiv

    2014-12-01

    Nanotechnology is now regarded as a distinct field of research in modern science and technology with multifaceted areas including biomedical applications. Among the various approaches currently available for the generation of metallic nanoparticles, biogenic synthesis is of increasing demand for the purpose of green nanotechnology. Among various natural sources, plant materials are the most readily available template-directing matrix offering cost-effectiveness, eco-friendliness, and easy handling. Moreover, the inherent pharmacological potentials of these medicinal plant extracts offer added biomedical implementations of the synthesized metal nanoparticles. A robust practical method for eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) as both reducing and capping agent, under the influence of direct sunlight has been developed without applying any other chemical additives. The nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles exhibited considerable antibacterial activity. The effects were more pronounced on non-endospore-forming Gram-positive bacteria viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Listeria monocytogenes than endospore-forming species Bacillus subtilis. The nanoparticles also showed prominent activity on Gram-negative human pathogenic Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and plant pathogenic Pantoea ananatis. A bactericidal mode of action was observed for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by the nanoparticles. We have developed a very simple, efficient, and practical method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of O. sanctum under the influence of direct sunlight. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles making use of such a traditionally important medicinal plant without applying any other chemical additives

  12. Microextracción en fase sólida de compuestos volátiles en albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. Microextracción en fase sólida de compuestos volátiles en albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Isaac Andrade-González

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. were extracted with solid phase microextraction(SPME and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. TwoSPME fiber coatings, Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB, 65 μm and Carbowax/Divinylbenzene (CW/DVB, 65 μm were evaluated in order to compare the extraction ofcomponents. Among the 25 volatile compounds detected were phenylpropanoids, monoterpenes,sesquiterpenes, esters, and aldehydes. There were significant (P Los compuestos volátiles de la albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. fueron extraídos mediante la microextracción en fase sólida (SPME y analizados con cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se evaluaron dos fibras, Polidimetilsiloxano/Divinilbenceno (PDMS/DVB, 65 μm y Carbowax/Divinilbenceno (CW/DVB, 65 μm, para comparar la extracción de componentes. Entre los 25 compuestos volátiles recuperados en la albahaca, se identificaron fenilpropanoides, monoterpenos, sesquiterpenos, ésteres, y aldehídos. Hubieron diferencias significativas (P Cuantitativamente, el componente más importante fue el cinamato de metilo, seguido por el linalol.

  13. Influência da adubação verde e diferentes adubos orgânicos na produção de fitomassa aérea de atroveran (Ocimum selloi Benth. Influence of green manure and different organic manure on production of aereal phytomass of Ocimum selloi

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    L.A.S. Morais

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito de diferentes adubos orgânicos em associação ou não com adubo verde na produção de folhas de Ocimum selloi Benth., planta nativa do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental da Embrapa Meio Ambiente (CNPMA, localizado no município de Jaguariúna, em duas áreas distintas, sendo uma delas submetidas anteriormente ao plantio e incorporação de adubo verde (Crotalaria juncea. Os tratamentos utilizados foram T1 - testemunha (solo sem adubação, T2 - cama de aviário (5 kg m-2, T3 - hidrolisado de peixe (produto comercial Fishfértil - 5 mL m-2 e T4 - composto orgânico (4 kg m-2. A colheita foi realizada 180 dias após o plantio, em janeiro de 2011, sendo colhidas as plantas úteis (quatro plantas por parcela. Avaliou-se o rendimento de fitomassa fresca e seca. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o esquema fatorial 2x4, com quatro repetições (blocos. As médias obtidas foram submetidas à análise de variância seguida de teste de médias (Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que a cama de aviário apresentou resultados mais satisfatórios quanto à produção de folhas de Ocimum selloi quando comparados aos demais tratamentos orgânicos, não se observando incremento nos resultados pela associação com o adubo verde Crotalaria juncea.The aim of this work was to avail the effect of different manures in association or nor with green manure on yield of leaves of Ocimum selloi Benth. The assay was accomplished on experimental area of Embrapa Environmental (Jaguariúna district, at two different spaces (with or without green manure Crotalaria juncea. The treatments used were T1 - witness (no manure, T2 - chicken manure (5 kg m-2, T3 - commercial product Fishfértil - 5 mL m-2 and T4 - composting (4 kg m-2. The cut was realized on 180 days after the planting (january - 2011, and were collected four plants/ plot. The yield of dried and fresh Ocimum

  14. Influência do cultivo em consórcio na produção de fitomassa e óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.) Influence of intercropping on phytomass and essential oil production in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and mint (Mentha x villosa Huds.)

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    J.T.L.S. Maia; E.R. Martins; C.A. Costa; E.O.F. Ferraz; I.C.A. Alvarenga; I.T. Souza Júnior; S.V. Valadares

    2009-01-01

    As plantas medicinais produzem seus princípios ativos de acordo com os estímulos do ambiente, por isso a presença de outras plantas pode comprometer a produção dos metabólicos secundários. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do cultivo consorciado sobre a produção de fitomassa e o teor de óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.). O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias da Universida...

  15. Primeiro registro na América Latina do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L., 1753 (Lamiaceae como hospedeiro do ácaro Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, 1933 (Tenuipalpidae First report in Latin America of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., 1753 (Lamiaceae as a host plant to the mite Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, 1933 (Tenuipalpidae

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    J.C.M. Poderoso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros tenuipalpídeos representam importantes pragas para diversas culturas agrícolas por todo o mundo. Durante a prospecção em plantas de Ocimum basilicum no viveiro de plantas medicinais da Universidade Federal de Sergipe no município de São Cristóvão, Sergipe, a ocorrência destes foi observada em 80% das mudas que foram levadas ao laboratório, com o objetivo de caracterizar os danos. As mudas apresentavam sintomas de redução e encarquilhamento do limbo. Foram coletados 100 espécimes destas plantas os quais foram montados em lâminas de microscopia para a identificação taxonômica. Os ácaros foram identificados como Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, 1933 (Tenuipalpidae. Este é o primeiro relato do O. basilicum como hospedeira para B. obovatus na América Latina.The tenuipalpid mites represent important pests for several agricultural crops around the world. During prospection in Ocimum basilicum plants in a medicinal plant nursery of Federal University of Sergipe in São Cristovão District, Sergipe State, Brazil, the occurrence of spider mites was observed in 80% of the seedlings that were taken to the laboratory in order to characterize the damage. Seedlings presented leaf reduction and deformation. About 100 mite specimens were collected from the affected plants and used to mount microscopic slides for taxonomic identification. The mites were identified as Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, 1933 (Tenuipalpidae. This is the first report of O. basilicum as a host plant to B. obovatus in Latin America.

  16. The antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica, Mimusops elengi, Tinospora cardifolia, Ocimum sanctum and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate on common endodontic pathogens: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Kunjal S; Sanghvi, Zarna; Parmar, Girish; Shah, Samir

    2014-04-01

    To check the antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), Mimusops elelngi (Bakul), Tinospora cardifolia (Giloy) and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (CHX) on common endodontic pathogens like Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and staphylococcus aureus. The agar diffusion test was used to check the antimicrobial activity of the Methanolic extracts of the medicinal plants along with CHX. Six different concentrations of the tested agents were used for the study. The values of Zone of Inhibition were tabulated according to the concentration of the tested agent and data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni post- hoc tests. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) values were also recorded. All the plants extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against selected endodontic pathogens. At 3mg. concentration, O.sanctum was the most effective against S. mutans, M. elengi showed highest zone of inhibition against E.faecalis, whereas CHX was the most effective agent against S.aureus. CHX was also the most consistent of all the medicaments testes, showing inhibitory effect against all the tree pathogens at all the selected concentrations. The Methanolic extract of A.Indica, O.sanctum, M. Elengi, T.cardifolia and Chlorhexidine Gluconate has considerable antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, E. faecalis and S. aureus.

  17. Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Egyptian Basil Leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) Using Hydro-Distillation and Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenni, Mohammed; El Abed, Douniazad; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Fernandez, Xavier; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-19

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and conventional hydro-distillation (HD) were used for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Egyptian sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. The two resulting EOs were compared with regards to their chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The EO analyzed by GC and GC-MS, presented 65 compounds constituting 99.3% and 99.0% of the total oils obtained by SFME and HD, respectively. The main components of both oils were linalool (43.5% SFME; 48.4% HD), followed by methyl chavicol (13.3% SFME; 14.3% HD) and 1,8-cineole (6.8% SFME; 7.3% HD). Their antioxidant activity were studied with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging method. The heating conditions effect was evaluated by the determination of the Total Polar Materials (TPM) content. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against five microorganisms: two Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, two Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and one yeast, Candida albicans. Both EOs showed high antimicrobial, but weak antioxidant, activities. The results indicated that the SFME method may be a better alternative for the extraction of EO from O. basilicum since it could be considered as providing a richer source of natural antioxidants, as well as strong antimicrobial agents for food preservation.

  18. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (L.) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswary, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2013-05-01

    The toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil and their major chemical constituents from Ocimum basilicum were evaluated against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus. The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. basilicum contained 20 compounds. The major chemical components identified were linalool (52.42%), methyl eugenol (18.74%) and 1, 8-cineol (5.61%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against late third-stage larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. albopictus and An. subpictus with an LC(50) values of 14.01, 11.97 and 9.75 ppm and an LC(90) values of 23.44, 21.17 and 18.56 ppm, respectively. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. albopictus and An. subpictus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) by DPPH radical scavenging method

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    Warsi; Sholichah, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    Basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) contains various compounds such as flavonoid, alkaloid, phenol and essential oil, so it needs to be fractionated to find out the flavonoid compound with the greatest potential as an antioxidant. This research was aimed to know the chemical compound, antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf. The basil leaf was extracted by maceration using ethanol 70 %. The crude extract was fractionated with ethyl acetate. The ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were screened of phytochemical content including identification of flavonoids, alkaloids and polyphenolics. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction were tested qualitatively with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and phosphomolybdate. Its antioxidant activity was determined quantitatively using DPPH radical scavenging method. Phytochemical screening test showed that ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf contain flavonoids, polyphenolics, and alkaloids. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction from basil leaf showed an antioxidant activity. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction and quercetin were 1,374.00±6.20 389.00±1.00 2.10±0.01μg/mL, respectively. The research showed that antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate fraction more potential than the ethanol extract of the basil leaf, but less than quercetin.

  20. Changes in visual quality, physiological and biochemical parameters assessed during the postharvest storage at chilling or non-chilling temperatures of three sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Florinda; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; Cozzolino, Rosaria; De Giulio, Beatrice; Cozzolino, Autilia; d'Acierno, Antonio; Coppola, Raffaele; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2017-08-15

    Leaves of three different sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars (Italico a foglia larga, Cammeo, and Italiano classico) packed in macro-perforated polyethylene bags were stored at chilling (4°C) or non-chilling temperature (12°C) for 9days. During storage, visual quality, physiological (respiration rate, ethylene production, ammonium content) and chemical (antioxidant activity, total polyphenols and polyphenol profile) parameters were measured. Detached leaves stored at chilling temperature showed visual symptoms related to chilling injury, while ethylene production and ammonium content resulted associated to cultivar sensibility to damage at low temperature. Storage at 4°C caused a depletion in polyphenols content and antioxidant capability, which was preserved at 12°C. Regarding the polyphenols profile, stressful storage conditions did not enhance the phenolic metabolism. However, leaves stored at 12°C did not loss a significant amount of metabolites respect to fresh leaves, suggesting the possibility to extend the storability after the expiration date, for a possible recovery of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82-87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  2. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Nathalia N. R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Blank, Arie F.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Fonseca, Beatriz B.; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents. PMID:27274752

  3. Variation in the volatile terpenoids of two industrially important basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars during plant ontogeny in two different cropping seasons from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit

    2012-02-01

    Two Ocimum basilicum cultivars, 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Saumya', grown in the Kumaon region of western Himalaya were evaluated for their essential oil yield and composition at different stages of plant growth during two distinct cropping seasons (spring-summer and rain-autumn). The highest yield of essential oil was obtained at full bloom stage in both cultivars in both cropping seasons. The essential oils obtained from different stages in two cropping seasons were analysed by capillary gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major component of cultivar 'Vikarsudha' was methyl chavicol (84.3-94.3%), while for cultivar 'CIM-Saumya' the main components were methyl chavicol (62.5-77.6%) and linalool (14.4-34.1%). This study clearly indicated that cultivar, cropping season, plant ontogeny and plant part had significant effects on the yield and quality of the essential oil of O. basilicum. Further, the amount of methyl chavicol in the cultivars grown in this region was higher than in cultivars from other parts of India. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil obtained from Ocimum basilicum complexed with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lindaiane Bezerra; Martins, Anita Oliveira Brito Pereira Bezerra; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Cesário, Francisco Rafael Alves Santana; E Castro, Fyama Ferreira; de Albuquerque, Thaís Rodrigues; Fernandes, Maria Neyze Martins; da Silva, Bruno Anderson Fernandes; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Sousa; Menezes, Paula Dos Passos; Nunes, Paula Santos; Matos, Isabella Gonçalves; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Goncalves Wanderley, Almir; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar

    2017-11-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides can enhance the bioavailability of drugs. Ocimum basilicum is an aromatic plant found in Brazil used in culinary. The essential oil of this plant presents anti-edematogenic and anti-inflammatory activities in acute and chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil obtained from O. basilicum complexed with β - cyclodextrin (OBEO/β-CD) in mice. The complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was performed by different methods and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using mice models of paw edema induced by carrageenan, dextran, histamine and arachidonic acid (AA); vascular permeability and peritonitis induced by carrageenan and granuloma induced by cotton block introduction. The DSC, TG and SEM analysis indicated that the OBEO was successfully complexed with β-CD. The oral administration of OEOB/β-CD prevented paw edema formation by decreasing vascular permeability in vivo, inhibited leukocyte recruitment to the peritoneal cavity, and inhibited granuloma formation in mice. Our results indicate that conjugation with β-CD improves the anti-inflammatory effects of OBEO in mice models of acute and chronic inflammation, indicating that this complex can be used in anti-inflammatory drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rhizophagus irregularis as an elicitor of rosmarinic acid and antioxidant production by transformed roots of Ocimum basilicum in an in vitro co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M; Adholeya, Alok

    2016-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association formed between plant roots and soil borne fungi that alter and at times improve the production of secondary metabolites. Detailed information is available on mycorrhizal development and its influence on plants grown under various edapho-climatic conditions, however, very little is known about their influence on transformed roots that are rich reserves of secondary metabolites. This raises the question of how mycorrhizal colonization progresses in transformed roots grown in vitro and whether the mycorrhizal fungus presence influences the production of secondary metabolites. To fully understand mycorrhizal ontogenesis and its effect on root morphology, root biomass, total phenolics, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and antioxidant production under in vitro conditions, a co-culture was developed between three Agrobacterium rhizogenes-derived, elite-transformed root lines of Ocimum basilicum and Rhizophagus irregularis. We found that mycorrhizal ontogenesis in transformed roots was similar to mycorrhizal roots obtained from an in planta system. Mycorrhizal establishment was also found to be transformed root line-specific. Colonization of transformed roots increased the concentration of rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and antioxidant production while no effect was observed on root morphological traits and biomass. Enhancement of total phenolics and rosmarinic acid in the three mycorrhizal transformed root lines was found to be transformed root line-specific and age dependent. We reveal the potential of R. irregularis as a biotic elicitor in vitro and propose its incorporation into commercial in vitro secondary metabolite production via transformed roots.

  6. Ecologically Acceptable usage of Derivatives of Essential Oil of Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, as Antifeedants Against Larvae of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1–F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2nd instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

  7. Mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity of Senna occidentalis (Cassiae) and Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Maruthamalai hills against Anopheles stephensi and Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Aarthi, Narayanan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Nicoletti, Marcello; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Each year, mosquito-borne diseases infect nearly 700 million people, resulting to more than 1 million deaths. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal, pupicidal, and smoke toxicity of Senna occidentalis and Ocimum basilicum leaf extracts against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts was evaluated against chloroquine (CQ)-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments, S. occidentalis LC50 ranged from 31.05 (I instar larvae) to 75.15 ppm (pupae), and O. basilicum LC50 ranged from 29.69 (I instar larvae) to 69 ppm (pupae). Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against adults showed that S. occidentalis and O. basilicum coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the pyrethrin-based positive control (38, 52, and 42%, respectively). In antiplasmodial assays, Senna occidentalis 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) were 48.80 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 54.28 μg/ml (CQ-r), while O. basilicum IC50 were 68.14 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 67.27 μg/ml (CQ-r). Overall, these botanicals could be considered as potential sources of metabolites to build newer and safer malaria control tools.

  8. Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally.

  9. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Fitsiou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Pimpinella anisum (anise and Fortunella margarita (kumquat. GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4% in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9% in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1% in anise, and limonene (93.8% in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  10. The analysis of hippocampus neuronal density (CA1 and CA3 after Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract treatment on the young adulthood and middle age rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Liliek Kusindarta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to assess the changes in neuronal density in CA1 and CA3 regions in the hippocampus of young adulthood and middle age rat model after feeding by Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract. Materials and Methods: In this research, 30 male Wistar rats consist of young to middle-aged rats were divided into three groups (3, 6, and 9 months old and treated with a different dosage of O. sanctum ethanolic extract (0, 50, and 100 mg/kg b.w. for 45 days. Furthermore, cresyl violet staining was performed to analyze hippocampus formation mainly in CA1 and CA3 area. The concentrations of acetylcholine (Ach in brain tissues were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In our in vivo models using rat model, we found that the administration of O. sanctum ethanolic extract with a dosage of 100 mg/kg b.w. for 45 days induced the density of pyramidal cells significantly in CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. These results were supported by an increase of Ach concentrations on the brain tissue. Conclusion: The administration of O. sanctum ethanolic extract may promote the density of the pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA3 mediated by the up-regulated concentration of Ach.

  11. Application of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil as Vapor on Postharvest Storage of Plum Fruit cv. ‘Golden Drop’

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    Zahra FAKHAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in theuse of natural compounds instead of chemicals is due to concerns about the effect of synthetic ingredients on humans’ health and over environment. Therefore, in this study essential oil from Ocimum basilicum as a natural and safe compound, was applied at three levels (100, 200 and 300 μl/l as vapor and its effects on postharvest quality and storage life of ‘Golden Drop’ plums was evaluated. After application of treatments, the fruits were stored at +1 °C and 80-85% relative humidity for 42 days. During the storage period, samplings were carried out every week and to simulate market condition, they were kept at room temperate for 24 h. Then some of the qualitative and quantitative traits, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, weight loss, firmness, ascorbic acid, total antioxidants, as well as color (L*,  hue angle were measured. Results showed that the basil essential oil contributed to a better maintenance of

  12. Influence of Npk inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, G G E; Edeoga, H O

    2013-04-15

    The influence of NPK inorganic fertilizer treatment on the proximate composition of the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) and Gongronema latifolium (Benth) was investigated. Cultivated O. gratissimum and G. latifolium were treated with NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg h(-1) treatment levels in planting buckets derived using the furrow slice method two months after seedling emergence. No fertilizer treatment served as control. The leaves of the plants were harvested for analysis one month after treatment. The leaf was used for the analysis because it the most eaten part. Fertilizer treatment significantly (p leaves of both plants. On the other hand, fertilizer treatment significantly, (p leaves of the plants. The increase in the concentrations of these substances as a result of fertilizer of fertilizer treatment might be due to the role of fertilizer in chlorophyll content of plant's leaves, which in turn enhanced the process of photosynthesis leading to increased synthesis of these substances. The decrease in the carbohydrate content might be due to its conversion to other materials in the plants. The results obtained were discussed in line with current literatures.

  13. Response of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. to Type and Amount of Organic Fertilizer Applications in Intercropping with Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaleh Mottaghian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of organic fertilizer applications on yield and competition indices of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. in different combinations of intercropping with sesame (Sesamum indicum L., an experiment was carried out in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replicates in 2011. The main plots were six fertilizer treatments consisted of 20 and 40 Mg ha-1 of vermicompost and sewage sludge plus 50% recommended chemical fertilizer, chemical fertilizer alone (100 kg ha-1 of urea, triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate and control (no fertilizer application. Subplots were different planting ratios (sole cropping of basil and sesame, 75% + 25%, 50% + 50 %, 25% + 75% of basil+sesame. In this experiment, the 25% basil+75% sesame and 50% basil + 50%sesame under40 Mg. ha-1 of enriched sewage sludge application had the highest economical yield (up to 3097.47 kg ha-1 with a land equivalent ratio (up to 1.24. According to the aggressivity coefficient estimates of two plant species basil incombination of 25% basil + 75% sesame and sesame in 50% basil + 50% sesame and 75% basil + 25% sesame under organic fertilizer application would be dominant species competitave in ranges of 0.12 to 0.30 and 0.11 to 0.57, respectively.

  14. Structural analysis and biological toxicity of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 degradation products following detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula aqueous extracts

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    Wajiha Iram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves & branch aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 µg L-1 and AFB2; 50 µg L-1 by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05 in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e. 90.4% and 88.6% respectively. However O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., pH 8, temperature 30˚C and incubation period of 72h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates i.e., 82 – 87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  15. Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Lippia multiflora Moldenke, Mentha x piperita L. and Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oils and Their Major Monoterpene Alcohols Alone and in Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Hama Dicko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from leaves of Lippia multiflora, Mentha x piperita and Ocimum basilicum from Burkina Faso were analysed by GC–FID and GC–MS. Major components were p-cymene, thymol, b-caryophyllene, carvacrol and carvone for L. multiflora, menthol and iso-menthone for M. x piperita and, linalool and eugenol for O. basilicum. The essential oils and their major monoterpene alcohols were tested against nine bacterial strains using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The essential oils with high phenolic contents were the most effective antimicrobials. The checkerboard method was used to quantify the efficacy of paired combinations of essential oils and their major components. The best synergetic effects among essential oils and major components were obtained with combinations involving O. basilicum essential oil and eugenol, respectively. As phenolic components are characterized by a strong spicy aroma, this study suggests that the selection of certain combinations of EOs could help to reduce the amount of essential oils and consequently reduce any adverse sensory impact in food.

  16. Phytochemical Profile and Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Essential Oils Derived from the Greek Aromatic Plant Species Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Pimpinella anisum and Fortunella margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitsiou, Eleni; Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Vamvakias, Manolis; Bardouki, Haido; Panayiotidis, Mihalis Ι; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Chlichlia, Katerina; Pappa, Aglaia

    2016-08-16

    Natural products, known for their medicinal properties since antiquity, are continuously being studied for their biological properties. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of the volatile preparations of essential oils of the Greek plants Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil), Mentha spicata (spearmint), Pimpinella anisum (anise) and Fortunella margarita (kumquat). GC/MS analyses revealed that the major components in the essential oil fractions, were carvone (85.4%) in spearmint, methyl chavicol (74.9%) in sweet basil, trans-anethole (88.1%) in anise, and limonene (93.8%) in kumquat. We further explored their biological potential by studying their antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Only the essential oils from spearmint and sweet basil demonstrated cytotoxicity against common foodborne bacteria, while all preparations were active against the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Antioxidant evaluation by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays revealed a variable degree of antioxidant potency. Finally, their antiproliferative potential was tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines and evaluated by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. All essential oil preparations exhibited a variable degree of antiproliferative activity, depending on the cancer model used, with the most potent one being sweet basil against an in vitro model of human colon carcinoma.

  17. Studies on the performance of TiO{sub 2} thin films as protective layer to chlorophyll in Ocimum tenuiflorum L from UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malliga, P. [Department of Physics, V.V.Vanniaperumal College for Women, Virudhunagar – 626001 (India); Selvi, B. Karunai [Department of Botany, V.V.Vanniaperumal College for Women, Virudhunagar – 626001 (India); Pandiarajan, J.; Prithivikumaran, N. [Nanoscience Lab, Department of Physics, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar – 626001 (India); Neyvasagam, K., E-mail: srineyvas@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai - 625011 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2} were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. The films with 10 coatings were prepared and annealed at temperatures 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 1 hour in muffle furnace. The annealed films were characterized by X – Ray diffraction (XRD), UV – Visible, AFM, Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and EDAX studies. Chlorophyll has many health benefits due to its structural similarity to human blood and its good chelating ability. It has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. UV light impairs photosynthesis and reduces size, productivity, and quality in many of the crop plant species. Increased exposure of UV light reduces chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in plants. Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is a wide band gap semiconductor and efficient light harvester. TiO{sub 2} has strong UltraViolet (UV) light absorbing capability. Here, we have studied the performance of TiO{sub 2} thin films as a protective layer to the chlorophyll contents present in medicinal plant, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L) from UV radiation. The study reveals that crystallite size increases, transmittance decreases and chlorophyll contents increases with increase in annealing temperature. This study showed that TiO{sub 2} thin films are good absorber of UV light and protect the chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in medicinal plants.

  18. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia N. R. Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains. The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.. The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents.

  19. Effects of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf., Lippia sidoides Cham., and Ocimum gratissimum L. on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Valéria C S; Moura, Daniela M S; Lopes, José A D; de Andrade, Paulo P; da Silva, Nicácio H; Figueiredo, Regina C B Q

    2009-04-01

    The current therapy for leishmaniasis, which affects annually about 2 million people, is far from satisfactory. All available drugs require parenteral administration and are potentially toxic. Plant essential oils have been traditionally used in folk medicine and appear as valuable alternative source for chemotherapeutic compounds. In this study, we demonstrated the effect of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia sidoides, and Ocimum gratissimum on growth and ultrastructure of Leishmania chagasi promastigote forms. Steam distillation was used to isolate the essential oils, and their constituents were characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. All essential oils showed in vitro inhibitory action on L. chagasi promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent way, with IC(50)/72 h of 45, 89, and 75 microg/mL for C. citratus, L. sidoides, and O. gratissimum, respectively. Drastic morphological alterations were observed in all essential oil-treated parasites, including cell swelling, accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm, and increase of acidocalcisome volume. Furthermore, aberrant-shaped cells with multi-septate body were observed by scanning electron microscopy, suggesting an additional effect on cytokinesis. Taken together, our data show that these essential oils affect the parasite viability being the C. citratus essential oil the most effective against L. chagasi.

  20. Essential oil composition of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in symbiotic relationship with Piriformospora indica and paclobutrazol application under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, Sara; Pirdashti, Hemmatollah; Babaeizad, Valliollah; Dehestani, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Essential oil content and oil composition of paclobutrazol treated sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plant inoculated with Piriformospora indica under salt stress were investigated by GC-MS. The results show a slight increase in essential oil content when basil plants subjected to moderate salinity stress (3 dS m-1 of NaCl). It decreased signifiicantly with increasing salinity level to 9 dS m-1. The findings revealed that leaf area, above ground and leaf dry weights, essential oil content and yield were significantly affected by P. indica inoculation, however paclobutrazol application significantly influenced essential oil yield but not content. Fungal symbiosis as well as paclobutrazol application ameliorated the negative effects of salinity on dry matter and essential oil yield. The main constituents found in the volatile oil of O. basilicum in control treatment were Geranial (26.03%), Neral (24.88%) and Estragole (24.78%). The compounds concentrations showed some differences in P. indica and paclobutrazol treatments. The results demonstrate that micorrhiza-like fungi concomitantly increase essential oil production and biomass in sweet basil, a medicinal herb rich in commercially valuable essential oils.

  1. Induction of resistance to respiratory tract infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice fed on a diet supplemented with tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and clove (Syzgium aromaticum) oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Archana; Sharma, Saroj; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2009-04-01

    The impact of diet and specific food groups on respiratory tract infections has been widely recognized in recent years. This study was conducted to study the effect of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) oil and clove (Syzgium aromaticum) oil on the susceptibility of experimental mice to respiratory tract infection. The effect of 2 different regimens of short-term (15 days) and long-term (30 days) feeding with tulsi oil and clove oil on the course of Klebsiella pneumoniae American Type Culture Collection 43816 infection in the lungs of mice was analyzed. The operative mechanisms of lipid peroxidation/nitrite production were studied by estimating their levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Bacterial colonization, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite production in BALF, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha level in serum were assessed. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in bacterial colonization after short-term feeding with clove oil compared with the controls (p tulsi oil-fed mice, the decrease in bacterial load was significant with long-term feeding (p tulsi and clove oils protects against bacterial colonization of the lungs.

  2. Acaricidal effect and chemical composition of essential oils extracted from Cuminum cyminum, Pimenta dioica and Ocimum basilicum against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Castillo-Herrera, Gustavo Adolfo; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Lopez-Ramirez, Julisa; Hernandez-Gutierrez, Rodolfo; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia del Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Acaricidal activity of essential oils extracted from cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum), allspice berries (Pimenta dioica) and basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum) were tested on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick larvae using the LPT. Two-fold dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting dilution of 20% down to 1.25%. Results showed a high toxicological effect for cumin, producing 100% mortality in all tested concentrations on R. microplus larvae. Similarly, allspice essential oil produced 100% mortality at all concentrations with the exception of a dramatic decrease at 1.25% concentration. Conversely, basil essential oil was not shown to be toxic against R. microplus larvae. The most common compounds detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were as follows: cumin: cuminaldehyde (22.03%), γ-terpinene (15.69%) and 2-caren-10-al (12.89%); allspice: methyl eugenol (62.7%) and eugenol (8.3%); basil: linalool (30.61%) and estragole (20.04%). Results clearly indicate that C. cyminum and P. dioica essential oils can be used as an effective alternative for R. microplus tick control, and there is a high probability they can be used for other ticks affecting cattle in Mexico and throughout the world, thereby reducing the necessity for traditional and unfriendly synthetic acaricides.

  3. Potencial antialérgico do Ocimum gratissimum Linn. e do seu constituinte químico, o ácido rosmarínico, em modelo de alergia respiratória ao ácaro Blomia tropicalis

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ryan dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    A asma tem emergido como um importante problema de saúde pública da população urbana tanto de países desenvolvidos quanto dos países latino americanos. Para o tratamento desta doença há uma alta prevalência do uso de plantas medicinais devido a perda de eficácia e importantes efeitos colaterais relacionados às drogas classicamente utilizadas. A aplicação de plantas como medicamentos é tão velha quanto a humanidade e tem se tornado mais constante na ultima década. Neste contexto, Ocimum gratis...

  4. Induction of stress volatiles and changes in essential oil content and composition upon microwave exposure in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, Ildikó [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Soran, Maria-Loredana, E-mail: loredana.soran@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Opriş, Ocsana; Truşcă, Mihail Radu Cătălin [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Niinemets, Ülo [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 1 Kreutzwaldi Street, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Copolovici, Lucian [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 1 Kreutzwaldi Street, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Institute of Technical and Natural Sciences Research-Development of “Aurel Vlaicu” University, 2 Elena Drăgoi Street, Arad 310330 (Romania)

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to sustained low intensity microwaves can constitute a stress for the plants, but its effects on plant secondary chemistry are poorly known. We studied the influence of GSM and WLAN-frequency microwaves on emissions of volatile organic compounds and content of essential oil in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum L. hypothesizing that microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles and overall greater investment in secondary compounds. Compared to the control plants, microwave irradiation led to decreased emissions of β-pinene, α-phellandrene, bornyl acetate, β-myrcene, α-caryophyllene and benzaldehyde, but increased emissions of eucalyptol, estragole, caryophyllene oxide, and α-bergamotene. The highest increase in emission, 21 times greater compared to control, was observed for caryophyllene oxide. The irradiation resulted in increases in the essential oil content, except for the content of phytol which decreased by 41% in the case of GSM-frequency, and 82% in the case of WLAN-frequency microwave irradiation. The strongest increase in response to WLAN irradiation, > 17 times greater, was observed for hexadecane and octane contents. Comparisons of volatile compositions by multivariate analyses demonstrated a clear separation of different irradiance treatments, and according to the changes in the volatile emissions, the WLAN-frequency irradiation represented a more severe stress than the GSM-frequency irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrating important modifications in the emission rates, essential oil content and composition indicate that microwave irradiation influences the quality of herbage of this economically important spice plant. - Highlights: • Microwave irradiation represents a stress for the plants. • Microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles. • O. basilicum irradiation with microwaves increases the essential oil content. • Microwave pollution can constitute a threat to the

  5. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum, Ocimum sanctum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Duhan, J; Tewari, S; Sangwan, P; Yadav, A; Singh, G; Juneja, R; Saini, H

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Syzygium aromaticum and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococcus faecalis in planktonic suspension and biofilm phenotypes. The antibacterial efficacy of different concentrations of aqueous ethanolic extracts of O. sanctum, C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum against E. faecalis at various time intervals was assessed using the agar well diffusion test, microdilution test and biofilm susceptibility assay (BSA) on cellulose nitrate membrane as well as in a tooth model. NaOCl was used as the positive control. Distilled water was used as negative control for agar diffusion and microdilution tests and phosphate-buffered saline for the BSA. The results of the agar diffusion test were analysed statistically using anova and Tukey's tests. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, S. aromaticum and O. sanctum exhibited minimum bactericidal concentration at 10%, 10% and 40%, respectively. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, S. aromaticum, O. sanctum and NaOCl showed complete bacterial inhibition in planktonic form after exposure of 30, 15, 35 and 1 min, respectively. In BSA on cellulose nitrate membrane, NaOCl was associated with complete bacterial inhibition after contact of 2 min, whilst 10% C. zeylanicum, 10% S. aromaticum and 40% O. sanctum showed cessation of growth after 12, 12 and 24 h, respectively. The results of BSA on tooth model were similar except for O. sanctum, which was not included in the model. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, S. aromaticum and O. sanctum demonstrated antimicrobial activity against planktonic and biofilm forms of E. faecalis with C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum having better antimicrobial efficacy than O. sanctum. NaOCl had superior antimicrobial efficacy amongst all the groups. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Investigating of growth characteristics, yield, yield components and potential weed control in intercropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and vegetative sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Alizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study yield and yield components in intercropping bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and evaluating effect of intercropping on weed control, a field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season of 2008. Treatments: included 1- sole crop of bean 2- sole crop of sweet basil 3- strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (four rows of bean and two rows of sweet basil 4- strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (two rows of sweet basil and four rows of bean 5- row intercropping of bean and sweet basil were with and without weed control. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with three replications was used. Results showed that dry weight of vegetative organs and stem percent of sweet basil, in sole crop with weed control treatment were significantly higher than in other treatments. And highest leaf percentage was in four rows bean and two rows sweet basil intercropping. There was no significant difference in plant height in the first harvest of sweet basil but in second harvest row intercropping had highest height. Maximum leaf area index (LAI was absorbed in four rows of sweet basil two rows of bean. Effect of different treatments on essential oil percentage was not significant. Highest essential oil yield was in sole crop sweet basil and four rows of sweet basil two rows of bean intercropping. For bean economic and biological yield, number of pods, number of seeds per plant and height were affected by different treatments and but there was no significant difference in number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and harvest index in bean. The highest leaf area index in bean was in row intercropping. Lowest dry mater of weed was in row intercropping and the highest in sole crop. The highest land equivalent ratio (LER was obtained in row intercropping with weed control.

  7. COMPOSITION OF HERB AND SEED OIL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF TWO VARIETIES OF OCIMUM BASILICUM HARVESTED AT SHORT TIME INTERVALS

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    Pandu Sastry KAKARAPARTHI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the changes in the chemical composition of the essential oil of two varieties of Ocimum basilicum over a period of six months at short harvest intervals for two crop seasons. In variety Vikarsudha, GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of eighteen essential oil constituents. Linalool (23.5­40.1% and 22.8­33.7% and methyl chavicol (25.4­51.9% and 40.0­52.7% were the major constituents in main and ratoon crops. Similarly, in variety Kuhmohak GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of linalool (19.2­25.4 % and 16.1­31.3% and methyl chavicol (34.7­53.4% and 39.4­59.2% in large quantities in main and ratoon crops, respectively. β myrcene, limonene, 1,8 cineole, ocimene, camphor, terpinen-4-ol, bornyl acetate, eugenol, methyl eugenol, β elemene, β caryophyllene, α humulene, γ Cadinene and cadinol were present in small quantities. Results pertaining to the zone of inhibition in the antimicrobial activity of essential oil indicated that Chromobacterium violaceum is more sensitive compared to Staphylococcus aureus. Among the fungal strains Aspergillus niger was found to be more sensitive. GC-MS analysis of the fixed oils obtained from the seeds in the ratoon crop revealed the presence of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. The unsaturated fatty acids averaged 89% consisting of α-linolenic (49.3%­52.4%, linoleic (23.4%­26.0%, and oleic (10.3%­12.3% acids. The most abundant saturated fatty acids were palmitic and stearic acids.

  8. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effect of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. and chemical composition of its essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Vaezi, Arefeh

    2015-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum belongs to Lamiaceae family and has been used for the treatment of wide range of diseases in traditional medicine in Iranian folk medicine. Due to the progressive need to anti-anxiety medications and because of the similarity between O. basilicum and Salvia officinalis, which has anti-anxiety effects, we decided to investigate the anxiolytic and sedative activity of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum in mice by utilizing an elevated plus maze and locomotor activity meter. The chemical composition of the plant essential oil was also determined. The essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of this plant were administered intraperitoneally to male Syrian mice at various doses (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extract and 200 mg/kg of essential oil) 30 min before starting the experiment. The amount of hydroalcoholic extract was 18.6% w/w and the essential oil was 0.34% v/w. The major components of the essential oil were methyl chavicol (42.8%), geranial (13.0%), neral (12.2%) and β-caryophyllene (7.2%). HE at 150 and 200 mg/kg and EO at 200 mg/kg significantly increased the time passed in open arms in comparison to control group. This finding was not significant for the dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract. None of the dosages had significant effect on the number of entrance to the open arms. Moreover, both the hydroalcoholic extract and the essential oil decreased the locomotion of mice in comparison to the control group. This study shows the anxiolytic and sedative effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of O. basilicum. The anti-anxiety and sedative effect of essential oil was higher than the hydroalcoholic extract with the same doses. These effects could be due to the phenol components of O. basilicum.

  9. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties.

  10. Evaluation of anti-amnesic effect of extracts of selected Ocimum species using in-vitro and in-vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varinder; Kahol, Aditi; Singh, Inder Pal; Saraf, Isha; Shri, Richa

    2016-12-04

    Ocimum species are traditionally used for the treatment of anxiety, nerve pain, convulsions and a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-amnesic effect of O. basilicum L., O. sanctum L. and O. gratissimum L. extracts using in-vitro and in-vivo models. In-vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydro-methanol extracts of plants were evaluated using Ellman and DPPH and FRAP assays, respectively. The most active extract i.e. O. basilicum extract (OBE) was further explored for the possible anti-amnesic activity in mouse model of scopolamine induced amnesia using behavioral models (elevated plus maze and passive shock avoidance task). Brain AChE activity, oxidative profile and histopathological studies were assessed to outline the anti-amnesic mechanism of the extract. Significant antioxidant and AChE inhibition activity was observed with all prepared extracts and however, OBE showed most marked free radical scavenging, reducing power and AChE inhibition (IC50 0.65±0.15mg/ml) activity. Basil leaves were standardized with respect to content of 7 phenolic acids using a HPLC-PDA method. A TLC densitometric method was employed to determine the quercetin content in the leaves. The in-vivo studies showed that OBE pre-treatment (200 and 400mg/kg, p.o.) reversed the memory deficit induced by scopolamine in mice, evident by significant (pbasilicum which may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. This can be developed as an effective anti-amnesic drug. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A first linkage map and downy mildew resistance QTL discovery for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) facilitated by double digestion restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Robert; Honig, Josh; Vaiciunas, Jennifer; Koroch, Adolfina; Wyenandt, Christian; Bonos, Stacy; Simon, James

    2017-01-01

    Limited understanding of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) genetics and genome structure has reduced efficiency of breeding strategies. This is evidenced by the rapid, worldwide dissemination of basil downy mildew (Peronospora belbahrii) in the absence of resistant cultivars. In an effort to improve available genetic resources, expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and used to genotype the MRI x SB22 F2 mapping population, which segregates for response to downy mildew. SNP markers were generated from genomic sequences derived from double digestion restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq). Disomic segregation was observed in both SNP and EST-SSR markers providing evidence of an O. basilicum allotetraploid genome structure and allowing for subsequent analysis of the mapping population as a diploid intercross. A dense linkage map was constructed using 42 EST-SSR and 1,847 SNP markers spanning 3,030.9 cM. Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) model (MQM) analysis identified three QTL that explained 37-55% of phenotypic variance associated with downy mildew response across three environments. A single major QTL, dm11.1 explained 21-28% of phenotypic variance and demonstrated dominant gene action. Two minor QTL dm9.1 and dm14.1 explained 5-16% and 4-18% of phenotypic variance, respectively. Evidence is provided for an additive effect between the two minor QTL and the major QTL dm11.1 increasing downy mildew susceptibility. Results indicate that ddRADseq-facilitated SNP and SSR marker genotyping is an effective approach for mapping the sweet basil genome.

  12. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, and antinociceptive activity of the essential oil of a plant breeding cultivar of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Antônio Medeiros; Onofre, Alexandre Sherlley; Lira, Amintas Figueiredo; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Antoniolli, Angelo Roberto; Marchioro, Murilo; Estevam, Charles dos Santos; de Araujo, Brancilene Santos

    2011-05-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. is an aromatic herb used in Brazil to treat illnesses such as respiratory and rheumatic problems, vomiting, and pain. In the present study, the chemical composition, acute toxicity, and antinociceptive effects of the essential oil (EO) of the cultivar "Maria Bonita" obtained from O. basilicum L. PI 197442 genotype were evaluated in Swiss mice (20-35 g each). Lethal dose to cause 50 % death (LD50) was calculated from a dose-response curve (100-5000 mg/kg body wt.; n = 6) as 532 mg/kg body wt. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test (0.6 % i. p.), EO (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body wt., n = 8, s. c.) was effective in reducing the abdominal contractions at all doses (48-78 %). In the hot-plate test, EO significantly increased the latency at 50 mg/kg body wt. at all times (37-52 %, n = 8, s. c.). However, the effects of morphine and EO at 50 mg/kg were reverted in the presence of naloxone, an opioid antagonist. In the formalin test, EO significantly reduced paw licking time in the first and second phases of pain at 200 mg/kg body wt. (38 and 75 %, respectively, n = 8, s. c.). The results suggested that the peripheral and central antinociceptive effects of EO are related to the inhibition of the biosynthesis of pain mediators, such as prostaglandins and prostacyclins, and its ability to interact with opioid receptors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Antioxidant Activity and Lipid-Lowering Effect of Essential Oils Extracted from Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves in Rats Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; Devakul Na Ayutthaya, Watcharaporn; Songsak, Thanapat; Thirawarapan, Suwan; Poungshompoo, Somlak

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that Ocimum sanctum L. (OS) leaves decrease serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic animals. No experimental evidences support the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidative actions against hypercholesterolemia. Moreover the identity of the specific chemical ingredients in OS leaves responsible for these pharmacological effects are unknown. Since OS leaves are rich in essential oil (EO). Therefore the present study was conducted to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidative activities of EO extracted from OS leaves in rats fed with high cholesterol (HC) diet. EO was extracted by the hydrodistillation method and the chemical constituents were then identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The experiment was performed in Male Wistar rats fed with 2.5 g%(w/w) of cholesterol diet for seven weeks. During the last 3 weeks, rats were daily fed with EO. The results showed that phenyl propanoid compounds including eugenol and methyl eugenol were the major constituents of EO. EO suppressed the high serum lipid profile and atherogenic index as well as serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase MB subunit without significant effect on high serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in rats fed with HC diet. In addition, EO was found to decrease the high levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) without impacting catalase (CAT) in the cardiac tissue while in the liver, it decreased high level of TBARS without significantly effecting GPx, SOD and CAT. Histopathological results confirmed that EO preserved the myocardial tissue. It can be concluded that EO extracted from OS leaves has lipid-lowering and antioxidative effects that protect the heart against hypercholesterolemia. Eugenol that is contained in EO likely contribute to these pharmacological effects. PMID:20104265

  14. Partial defoliation and hydraulic integration in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae): testing a model for sectored xylem flow using ¹⁵N labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Alexandra M; Orians, Colin M

    2011-11-01

    Xylem sectoriality limits nutrient translocation throughout the plant, which may constrain growth following partial defoliation by herbivores. To date, the implications for nutrient allocation have not been assessed, and sectoriality studies lack a modeling framework for relating intersector transport to the hydraulic properties of the stem. We present an Ohm's law model for sectoriality of xylem transport in basil (Ocimum basilicum), which we parameterized and tested using hydroponically grown split-root basil, pruned to two branches. To evaluate xylem resistance, we forced KCl solution through excised stems along either direct or indirect pathways. To examine the effect of partial defoliation on nutrient allocation, we applied (15)N-NO₃ to one half of the root system after one of three defoliation treatments: uniform, orthostichous to label, or opposite the label. In support of our model, we found a tight correlation between total water uptake and total leaf area and between the actual and predicted proportions of water taken up from the labeled container. Significantly more ¹⁵N accumulated in orthostichous than in opposite sector leaves for the uniform and opposite defoliation treatments, but not for the orthostichous defoliation treatment. Across individuals, ¹⁵N distribution varied as predicted by the model, but there was generally 10% more ¹⁵N crossover than predicted. These results support our model and suggest high potential integration for O. basilicum. The fact that our model consistently underestimated the rate of crossover suggests that other mechanisms are also in play. Future research should evaluate possible mechanisms for this mixing, including the role of transporters in specialized transfer cells.

  15. Creams formulated with Ocimum gratissimum L. and Lantana camara L. crude extracts and fractions as mosquito repellents against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keziah, Ezeike Amarachi; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Younoussa, Lame; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most deadly vectors of parasites that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and filariasis. In view of the recent increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, the objective of this study was to determine the repellent activity of creams formulated with methanol crude extract (MCE), hexane fraction (HF), and ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of Ocimum gratissimum and Lantana camara leaves in single and combined actions against female Aedes aegypti. Evaluation was carried out in the net cages (30 by 30 by 30 cm) containing 60 blood-starved female mosquitoes each and were assayed in the laboratory condition following World Health Organization 2009 protocol. All formulations (single and mixture) were applied at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/cm(2) in the exposed area of human hands. Only acetone + white soft paraffin served as negative control and odomos (12% DEET) as positive control. All the formulations presented good protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction by the human volunteers. The repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the extracts and fractions. Among the tested formulations, the maximum protection time was observed in MCE (120 min) and EAF (150 min) of O. gratissimum; MCE:MCE (150 min) and HF:HF (120 min) mixtures of both plants. In addition, MCE:MCE and HF:HF mixtures from both plants showed possible synergistic effect. From the results, the combination of O. gratissimum and L. camara to formulate natural mosquito repellent using small amount of extracts can be encouraging to be an alternative to conventional DEET. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. Potential cancer-fighting Ocimum gratissimum (OG) leaf extracts: increased anti-proliferation activity of partially purified fractions and their spectral fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunwe, Stephen I N; Thomas, Melvanique S; Luo, Xuan; Wang, Hengshan; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Xiaopu; Begonia, Gregorio B

    2010-01-01

    Cancer causes about 13% of all deaths. According to the American Cancer Society, world-wide cancer deaths were 7.6 million in 2007. African Americans and other minorities are disproportionately affected. Effective cancer chemotherapy is scarce. This study is part of an ongoing search for potential cancer-fighting agents in medicinal herbs. In previous in-vitro studies, we have shown that the aqueous extracts of the medicinal herb Ocimum gratissimum (Og) inhibit the proliferation of several cancer cell lines, especially prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) cells. Therefore, Og leaf extracts may harbor novel cancer-fighting compounds that need to be isolated, purified and characterized. Partially purified Og fractions were obtained from sequential extraction of Og powder with organic solvents of different polarities. The hypothesis that the anti-proliferation activity of the fractions will be significantly greater than that of either aqueous or ethanol extracts was tested by treating PC-3 cells with 1.61 mg/mL of each fraction. Spectral analysis of the fractions was also conducted. Activity of the fractions was P2>P(3-2)>P(4-2)>P(3-1)>P(4-1). Fractions P2, P(3-2) and P(4-2) were 725, 75 and 2.3 times more active than the aqueous extract, respectively. Spectral analysis revealed peaks for: P(3-2) and aqueous extract at 208 nm, P2 and P(4-2) at 210 nm, and P(3-1) at 220 nm. These findings suggest that fractions P2, P(3-2) and P(4-2) could be potential sources of Og's bioactive component(s) that warrant further purification and characterization.

  17. Effects of biological fertilizer and vermicompost on vegetative yield and essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. under Mashhad climatic conditions

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    A. Rezaee Moadab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of vermicompost and biological fertilizers on vegetative yield and essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., an experiment was conducted based on a complete randomized block design with nine treatments and three replications at Mashhad during growing season of 2009-2010. The treatments were: 1 vermicompost, 2 Nitroxin (included: Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp., 3 biophosphorus (Included: Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus sp, 4 Vermicompost+ Nitroxin, 5 vermicompost+ biophosphorus, 6 Nitroxin+ biophosphorus, 7 vermicompost+ Nitroxin+ biophosphorus, 8 chemical fertilizer (N.P.K, 9 control (no fertilizer. Two harvests were cut at similar phonological stage during growing season. The results showed that at both cutting of basil, biological fertilizer combined with vermicompost were better compared to chemical fertilizer and control. In the first harvest, the highest fresh (11377.8 kg.ha-1 and dry yields (1895.6 kg.ha-1 obtained in vermicompost+ Nitroxin+ Biophosphorus treatment. Also, vermicompost+ Nitroxin and vermicompost+ biophosphorus produced the highest leaf dry yield (1164.7 and 1166.8 kg.ha-1 respectively. In second cutting, the highest fresh yield (11333.3 kg.ha-1 obtained in vermicompost+ Nitroxin+ biophosphorus and the highest dry yield (2017.8 kg.ha-1 and leaf dry weight (1103.4 kg.ha-1 obtained in vermicompost+ Nitroxin treatments. In both cuttings, the highest essential oil percentage obtained in control. The results of this study showed that vermicompost and bio fertilizers alone or in combination had no effect on essential oil but increased vegetative yield.

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Results: Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties. PMID:25538349

  19. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Brain Cells Exposed to Oxidative Damage by Electromagnetic Field in Rat: Ultrastructural Study by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaki Arash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Basil herb (Ocimum basilicum has long been used in human nutrition. Nowadays antioxidant role of this herb is known more. The aim of this study was to study the anti-oxidative property of sweet basil to protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of electromagnetic field (EMF and its affective sequences. Materials and Methods: Forty Albino male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups, 10 rats per each. Group 1 received normal diet (control group, group 2 was exposed to 50 Hz EMF for 8 weeks (EMF group. Group 3 was exposed to 50 Hz EMF and fed with basil extract (0.5 g/kg body weight for 8 weeks (treatment group and group 4 was fed with basil extract (0.5 g/kg body weight for 8 weeks and named as herbal group. At the end of eighth week 5 mL blood was taken from all rats for biochemical analysis and for ultra structural study of brain neuron samples was taken. Results: The results showed level of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH peroxidase and catalase activity (CAT were significantly increased in herbal and treatment groups as compared to EMF group (P < 0.05. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA was significantly decreased in treatment group as compare to EMF group (P < 0.05. Ultra structural evaluation of EMF group showed brain nucleus has a lot of heterochromatic changes and mitochondria have been ovulated and have swelling figure this changes were less in treatment group. Conclusion: Antioxidant capacity of basil extract can cause to decrease oxidative effects of EMF on brain tissue and in rats.

  20. Assessment of potency of PC-complexed Ocimum sanctum methanol extract in embryonated eggs against Influenza virus (H1N1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Priyanka; Lal, Hingorani; Kshirsagar, Nilima

    2014-01-01

    Despite of new vaccines, the threat of influenza infection persists. In addition, availability, cost, duration of protection rendered and effectiveness of vaccines additional to the need of effective drug therapy makes influenza a challenge, which the globe faces. Traditionally used herbs and their decoctions are used for ages to cure symptoms similar to influenza. Tulsi or Ocimum sanctum is one of these major herbs used for influenza-like disease treatment. We attempted to explore a new methodology for assessing phosphatidyl choline (PC)-complexed O. sanctum methanol extract in embryonated vaccine quality eggs model. The PC-complexed O. sanctum methanol extract was prepared and standardized using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). (Data not provided here) Nine to 11 days embryonated eggs were inoculated with the virus and drug mixture and then harvested to perform a hemagglutination (HA) test on the allantoic fluid. The experiments were performed at three different concentrations of ursolic acid with various virus concentration and dose levels of drugs. The HA titer was calculated from all experiments and observed for any inhibition of virus. In initial experiments, matrix method for drug and virus concentration was employed. It was observed that the drug exhibited some response for 3log EID50 (egg infective dose) in few samples at 1:2 HA titer, but no response was observed at 4log EID50. In subsequent experiment, all the virus titers from 7log EID50 to 2log EID50 demonstrated positive HA titer of 1:64. However, the drug failed to exhibit any significant inhibition at any level of demonstrable virus titer. At all the concentrations, O. sanctum extracts were found to be safe. The embryonated egg model may be utilized further to screen other drugs, which possess direct inhibitory properties like neuraminidase inhibition, and O. sanctum does not inhibit the influenza virus in this model at the given concentration.

  1. Evaluation of replacement intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. under weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bagheri Shirvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. JK with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. with weed interference, an experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications at a field located 10 km of Shirvan during year of 2011. The treatments were included 75% soybean: 25%sweet basil, 50%soybean: 50% sweet basil, 25% soybean: 75% sweet basil, 75% soybean: 25% borage, 50% soybean: 50% borage and 25% soybean: 75% borage under weed infestation, in addition sole cropping of plants under weed control and weed interference. Intercropped plants had more success in reduction of weed density and biomass compared to monoculture. Soybean50: sweet basil50, reduced the weed density by 47.95% and 52.9%, and reduced the weed biomass by 68.91% and 61.87% more than sweet basil and soybean pure stand, respectively. Investigation of dry matter accumulation showed that increasing of plant proportion in intercropping caused increasing of plant dry matter. The height of soybean and borage was increased in intercropping and weed interference, while the highest height of sweet basil was observed in monoculture at second harvest. Biological and economical yield of soybean in intercropping with sweet basil was higher than intercropping with borage. The highest harvest index was related to 50:50 soybean: sweet basil ratio. In this ratio, the harvest index increased 4.9% compared to soybean monoculture. Yield of sweet basil and borage decreased with increasing of soybean rows in intercropping. Based on area-time equivalent ratio, soybean 75% with sweet basil and borage 25% (based on borage seed yield had 3% and 4% advantage compared to monoculture.

  2. Composition chimique et propriétés physico-chimiques des huiles essentielles d’Ocimum basilicum et d’Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. récoltés dans la région de Dakar au Sénégal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jean Michel Kornprobst; Abdoulaye Samb; Fatou Dieng Faye; Moussoukhoye Diop; Saliou Ngom

    2013-01-01

    Les huiles essentielles des feuilles et des fleurs d’Ocimum basilicum et d’Hyptis suaveolens (deux espèces de Lamiacées), récoltées dans la région de Dakar au Sénégal ont été extraites...

  3. Composição química, atividade antibacteriana in vitro e toxicidade em Artemia salina do óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae Chemical composition, antibacterial activity in vitro and brine-shrimp toxicity of the essential oil from inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae.

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    Lenise L. Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial das inflorescências de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lamiaceae foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG/EM. Os constituintes majoritários identificados foram eugenol (81,94% e γ-muuroleno (12,58%. O óleo essencial das inflorescências demonstrou atividade antibacteriana frente a todas as cepas bacterianas testadas pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. Merece destaque a atividade verificada frente às cepas resistentes de Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Os valores obtidos de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM variaram, respectivamente, entre 0,5-2 mg/mL e 1-4 mg/mL. Valores de CL50 de 233,8 (200,7-272,0 µg/mL para o óleo essencial e 186,1 (144,1-228,5 µg/mL para o eugenol, utilizado como controle positivo, foram observados frente à Artemia salina L.The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the inflorescences of Ocimum gratissimum L. was analyzed by GC/MS. The main constituents were eugenol (81.94% and γ-muurolene (12.58%. Antibacterial activity was shown against all assayed strains by the broth microdilution method. It's worth noting the activity against resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values ranged between 0.5-2 mg/mL and 1-4 mg/mL, respectively. Preliminary toxicity assayed by the brine-shrimp (Artemia salina L. test showed LC50 values of 233.8 (200.7 - 272.0 µg/mL and 186.1 (144.1 - 228.5 µg/mL, respectively for the essential oil and eugenol (positive control.

  4. Estudo da biologia floral e mecanismos reprodutivos do alfavacão (Ocimum officinalis L. visando o melhoramento - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1598 Study of the floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of Alfavacão (Ocimum officinalis L. aiming at genetic improvement - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1598

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    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O Gênero Ocimum, da Família Lamiaceae, compreende plantas ricas em óleos essenciais destinados às industrias para produção de fármacos, perfumes e cosméticos. O conhecimento do sistema reprodutivo é extremamente relevante, pois permite definir estratégias de seleção com base em cruzamentos intra e interpopulacionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia floral e os mecanismos reprodutivos do alfavacão com vistas ao melhoramento genético. A atividade floral compreendeu três estádios florais: primeiro, pré-antese, quando ocorreu a polinização; segundo, antese, quando aconteceu a abertura assincrônica de estames e, terceiro, pós-antese, quando houve a fecundação dos óvulos. O processo de antese está intimamente relacionado com as condições climáticas. Os acessos de O. officinalis do Banco de Germoplasma de Plantas Medicinais da UESB, apesar de se reproduzirem, predominantemente, por autofecundação, podem apresentar fecundação cruzada, o que evidencia a ampla versatilidade reprodutiva dessa espécie, acentuando a variabilidade genética, a qual é essencial para sua evoluçãoSome of the plants from Ocimum genus in Lamiaceae family are source of essential oils used in pharmacy, perfume and cosmetics industry. The knowledge of mate systems is extremely important because it allows to define selection strategies based on intra and interpopulation crossbreeding. The aim of this work was to study floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of alfavacão aiming at genetic improvement. The floral activity included three floral stages: first, pre-anthesis, when the pollination happened; second, anthesis, when the asynchronous opening of stamens happened; and third, pos-anthesis, when there was the fecundation of the ova. The anthesis process is intimately related to climatic conditions. The accesses of O. officinalis from Banco de Germoplasma de Plantas Medicinais da UESB (Medicinal Plants Germplasm Bank from UESB

  5. [Investigation of the in vitro effects of Melissa officinalis L., Mentha x piperita L. and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oils on the cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellani].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergüden, Ceren; Özkoç, Soykan; Öztürk, Bintuğ; Bayram Delibaş, Songül

    2016-10-01

    Acanthamoeba species are free living amoeba found widely all over the world. They are responsible for Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), an infection which is especially seen in contact lens users and after minor corneal traumas, that may lead blindness. At present, antifungals and antiseptics are used for the treatment of AK cases, however, some problems such as long treatment periods and the occurrence of side effects, resistance of cyst forms against drugs, emphasize the need for new drugs. There are some published studies that pointed out the effectiveness of plant extracts and essential oils on Acanthamoeba spp. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of essential oils of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint), Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) and Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) belonging to Lamiaceae family, on the cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii. The strain used in our study, namely A. castellanii T4 genotype, is the most frequently isolated amoeba from environment and also the causative agent of AK and granulomatous amebic encephalitis. For the determination of amebicidal activity, essential oils obtained from Mentha x priperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Ocimum basilicum L. by Neo-Clevenger type of distillation apparatus have been used. In vitro experiments were performed by using 96-well microplates. Cyst and trophozoite solutions were added on the essential oil dilutions to obtain the last concentrations of 40, 20, 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 µg/ml for the cysts, and 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.313 µg/ml for the trophozoites. After the incubation of microplates at 30oC for 1, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours, the viability of parasitic forms were evaluated under the light microscope followed by staining trypan blue. It was found that, each essential oil showed amebicidal effect on A.castellani cysts and trophozoites dependent on dosage and time, when compared with the control group, The maximum lethal effect occured with Melissa

  6. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation

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    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m2 and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC and total phenolic content (TPC were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m2 increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold, catechin (0.85-fold, kaempferol (0.65-fold rutin (0.68-fold and luteolin (1.00-fold content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid was observed in the 3.60 W/m2 of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m2 of UV-B irradiation. UV

  7. The effect of drought stress on the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids and essential oil components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Babak; Eyvazpour, Elham; Ghadimzadeh, Morteza

    2017-07-01

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), a medicinal plant of the Lamiaceae family, is used in traditional medicine; its essential oil is a rich source of phenylpropanoids. Methylchavicol and methyleugenol are the most important constituents of basil essential oil. Drought stress is proposed to enhance the essential oil composition and expression levels of the genes involved in its biosynthesis. In the current investigation, an experiment based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications was conducted in the greenhouse to study the effect of drought stress on the expression level of four genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in O. basilicum c.v. Keshkeni luvelou. The genes studied were chavicol O-methyl transferase (CVOMT), eugenol O-methyl transferase (EOMT), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate coA ligase (4CL), and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). The effect of drought stress on the essential oil compounds and their relationship with the expression levels of the studied genes were also investigated. Plants were subjected to levels of 100%, 75%, and 50% of field capacity (FC) at the 6-8 leaf stage. Essential oil compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) at flowering stage and the levels of gene expression were determind by real time PCR in plant leaves at the same stage. Results showed that drought stress increased the amount of methylchavicol, methyleugenol, β-Myrcene and α-bergamotene. The maximum amount of these compounds was observed at 50% FC. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that severe drought stress (50% FC) increased the expression level of CVOMT and EOMT by about 6.46 and 46.33 times, respectively, whereas those of CAD relatively remained unchanged. The expression level of 4CL and C4H reduced under drought stress conditions. Our results also demonstrated that changes in the expression levels of CVOMT and EOMT are significantly correlated with methylchavicol (r = 0.94, P ≤ 0

  8. Uso del FitoMas-E® como atenuante del estrés salino (NaCl durante la emergencia y crecimiento inicial de Ocimum basilicum L.

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    D. Batista-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de bioestimulantes vegetales estimula la emergencia y el crecimiento vegetal debido a que están compuestos por sustancias naturales como carbohidratos, péptidos de bajo peso molecular y aminoácidos, activadores de las funciones fisiológicas de las plantas, por lo que su aplicación permite un mejor aprovechamiento de los nutrientes y representa una opción para enfrentar problemas de estrés abiótico por salinidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del bioestimulante FitoMas-E® derivado de la caña de azúcar como atenuante de la salinidad en la emergencia y el crecimiento de plántulas de variedades de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. con respuesta diferencial al estrés por salinidad. Tres variedades de albahaca: Napoletano, Emily y Nufar se sometieron a cuatro concentraciones de NaCl (0, 50, 100 y 150 mM y cuatro dosis de FitoMas-E® (0, 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5 mL L-1 en un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial con cuatro repeticiones. El trabajo se desarrolló en una estructura de malla sombra y las variables que se midieron fueron: porcentaje y tasa de emergencia, longitud de radícula, altura de la plántula, biomasa fresca y seca de radícula y de parte aérea. Los resultados evidenciaron que en condiciones de estrés salino (NaCl de moderado a severo, las variables disminuyeron significativamente. Largo de raíz, altura de planta y biomasa seca de raíz en 150 mM de NaCl fueron las más afectadas. Se observó que cuando se aplicó FitoMas-E® las plantas incrementaron significativamente sus valores en las variables, largo de raíz 32% y altura de planta 41%, lo que revela el efecto estimulante del FitoMas-E®, siendo 0.5 mL L-1 la dosis estimulante para la variedad Napoletano y 1.0 mL L-1 para la variedad Emily, aún y cuando se encontraban en condiciones de estrés salino hasta 100 mM de NaCl. Para la concentración de 150 mM se evidenció una afectación extrema para las variedades Emily y Nufar.

  9. Mitigación de NaCl por efecto de un bioestimulante en la germinación de Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Daulemys Batista Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Los bioestimulantes vegetales activan el proceso de germinación de las semillas; accionan funciones fisiológicas en las plantas, contienen sustancias propias del metabolismo vegetal, que mejoran el uso de nutrientes y son una opción para mitigar estrés por salinidad. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de un bioestimulante de origen natural (FitoMas-E®, como atenuante de la salinidad en la germinación de las variedades de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. Emily, Napoletano y Nufar. Las semillas se sometieron a concentraciones de NaCl (0, 50, 100 y 150 mM y dosis de FitoMas-E® (0, 0.5, 1 y 1.5 mL L-1, en un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial con cuatro repeticiones, en condiciones controladas. Se evaluó porcentaje y tasa de germinación, altura de la plántula, longitud de radícula, biomasa fresca y seca de la radícula, biomasa fresca y seca de la parte aérea. Los resultados mostraron que la altura de la planta, longitud de la radícula, biomasa fresca de parte aérea y biomasa seca de la radícula con 150 mM de NaCl fueron las más dañadas. Napoletano y Nufar mostraron longitud de radícula mayor en 0 mM y conforme la concentración de NaCl incrementó, la longitud de radícula disminuyó significativamente para las tres variedades. Las plántulas de semillas tratadas con FitoMas-E®, incrementaron longitud de radícula, destacando Napoletano en 1 mL L‑1 y Nufar con 0.5 mL L 1. Napoletano mostró biomasa fresca de parte aérea mayor en 0 mM con 0.5 mL L-1 de FitoMas-E®. Las plántulas de Napoletano de semillas tratadas con 0.5 mL L‑1 de FitoMas-E® incrementaron la biomasa seca de radícula en 0 y 50 mM de NaCl. Se concluye que el FitoMas-E® con dosis de 0.5 y 1 mL L-1 mitiga el efecto del estrés salino de moderado a severo en semillas de albahaca.

  10. Improvement in Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids Production and Pharmaceutical Quality of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by Ultraviolet-B Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Ashkani, Sadegh; Baghdadi, Ali; Pazoki, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-09-09

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linnaeus) is aromatic herb that has been utilized in traditional medicine. To improve the phytochemical constituents and pharmaceutical quality of sweet basil leaves, ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation at different intensities (2.30, 3.60, and 4.80 W/m²) and durations (4, 6, 8, and 10-h) was applied at the post-harvest stage. Total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC) were measured using spectrophotometric method, and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. As a key enzyme for the metabolism of flavonoids, chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, was measured using a CHS assay. Antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of extracts against a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, respectively. UV-B irradiation at an intensity of 3.60 W/m² increased TFC approximately 0.85-fold and also increased quercetin (0.41-fold), catechin (0.85-fold), kaempferol (0.65-fold) rutin (0.68-fold) and luteolin (1.00-fold) content. The highest TPC and individual phenolic acid (gallic acid, cinnamic acid and ferulic acid) was observed in the 3.60 W/m² of UV-B treatment. Cinnamic acid and luteolin were not detected in the control plants, production being induced by UV-B irradiation. Production of these secondary metabolites was also significantly influenced by the duration of UV-B irradiation. Irradiation for 8-h led to higher TFC, TPC and individual flavonoids and phenolic acids than for the other durations (4, 8, and 10-h) except for cinnamic acid, which was detected at higher concentration when irradiated for 6-h. Irradiation for 10-h significantly decreased the secondary metabolite production in sweet basil leaves. CHS activity was induced by UV-B irradiation and highest activity was observed at 3.60 W/m² of UV-B irradiation. UV

  11. Acondicionamiento térmico de semillas en la germinación, emergencia, vigor y etapa vegetativa de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Mirella Romero-Bastidas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia económica de la albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L. a nivel mundial, ha impulsado la búsqueda de estrategias como el acondicionamiento previo a la semilla para mejorar los índices de vigor en la planta, relacionados con un rendimiento mayor, calidad y tolerancia a algún tipo de estrés. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el umbral óptimo de acondicionamiento de la semilla con diferentes gradientes de escarificación sobre las características de vigor relacionadas a variables morfométricas y fisiológicas en plántulas de albahaca durante las etapas de germinación, emergencia y desarrollo vegetativo inicial. Semillas de albahaca variedad Nuffar se sometieron a tratamientos de acondicionamiento térmico mediante la exposición de calor seco, en cuatro gradientes de temperatura (40, 50, 60 y 70°C y diferentes intervalos de tiempo (30, 60 y 90 min y un tratamiento control (25°C, mediante un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial con cuatro y/o cinco repeticiones. Los resultados mostraron que la temperatura y los tiempos de exposición afectaron significativamente (p≤0.05 las variables de tasa y porcentaje de germinación y emergencia, así como las variables morfométricas y fisiológicas de la planta. En la etapa de germinación, el tratamiento de 70ºC afectó negativamente la respuesta de la planta en todas las variables evaluadas, independientemente de los tiempos de exposición, mientras que los tratamientos de 40, 50 y 60ºC fueron iguales al control. En la etapa de emergencia, se observó una tendencia determinada hacia el tratamiento de 60ºC por un tiempo de exposición de 60 min, el cual mejoró significativamente las características de vigor. Sin embargo, no fue así para el tratamiento de 70ºC, el cual provocó disminución en las variables evaluadas. Asímismo, durante la etapa vegetativa inicial, la exposición a 60ºC por 30 y 60 min mejoró significativamente las variables morfo fisiol

  12. Evaluation of Some Morphological Characteristics, Water Use Efficiency and Essential Oil of Basil (Ocimum basilicum var. keshkeni luvelou under Application of Malva Leaves and Superabsorbent Polymer

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    S. Beigi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plants are rich in active substances and primarily have been used in the manufacture of many drugs. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is one of the important medicinal plants whichbelongs to the Lamiaceae family. Basil essential oil content (between 0.5 to 1.5 percent varies according to climatic conditions of habitat location. Basilneeds a lot of water during growth period and it is very sensitive to water stress and shows wilting symptoms very soon after water shortage. Iran is located in an arid and semi-arid region which has little precipitation that is not enough for crop water requirements. Nowadays, the use of superabsorbent polymers is one of the ways to create sustainable agriculture and increase irrigation efficiency. They can store high water or aqueous solutions in root zone of plants and to reduce negative effects of drought stress. So, improvement of plant growth, increasing of irrigation intervals, reducing water loss and costs of irrigation is due to the application of superabsorbent polymers. Mucilages are also the herbal polysaccharides, soluble in water, and commonly include carbohydrates and can be used as hydrophilic polymers. The aims of this investigation were to study the effects of hydrophilic polymers on water use efficiency, morphological characteristics (dry matter, leaf area, and leaf number, essential oil quantity and yield of basil to harden plant to drought stress and to evaluate its potential to cultivate in arid regions. In addition, taking steps forward towards sustainable agriculture, by reducing the cost of agricultural production, helps protecting the environment. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted as a pot experiment at the department of Horticultural Science‚ college of Agricultural‚ Ferdowsi University of Mashhad‚ Iran, during 2012-2013.The research was set out in a factorial experiment on the basis of completely randomized block design with three replications

  13. Potencial antioxidante dos extratos de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum Lamiaceae e orégano (Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae em óleo de soja Potential of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and oregano (Origanum vulgare L. extracts as antioxidant to soybean oil

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    S.P. Pitaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o potencial antioxidante dos extratos de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. e orégano (Origanum vulgare L., e medir a estabilidade oxidativa do óleo de soja adicionado de ambos os extratos. Foram obtidos extratos de manjericão e orégano nas formas in natura e seco, a partir das folhas das especiarias submetidas às extrações aquosas, etanólicas e sequenciais por 30 min, na proporção de 1:3 (m/m, especiaria:solvente, sob agitação contínua e temperatura ambiente. Nos extratos foram determinados o valor de concentração eficiente (CE50, a atividade antioxidante máxima (AA e a quantidade de compostos fenólicos totais (CFT. Os extratos de orégano e manjericão com maior atividade antioxidante foram aplicados no óleo de soja em concentrações que variaram de 250 a 2.000 mg kg-1, para avaliação da estabilidade oxidativa. Os resultados indicaram que os extratos etanólicos de manjericão in natura com CE50 = 863,97 µg mL-1, AA = 35,63% e CFT = 56,55 mg g-1 e orégano seco com CE50 = 415,82 µg mL-1, AA = 48,42% e CFT = 147,96 mg g-1 foram os mais eficientes para serem aplicados ao óleo de soja na concentração de 2.000 mg kg-1, na qual apresentaram a maior estabilidade oxidativa, 21,8 e 15,1 horas, respectivamente. Com base na metodologia empregada e dentro das condições estudadas, concluiu-se que os extratos etanólicos de manjericão in natura e orégano seco revelaram potencial antioxidante quando aplicados em óleo de soja.This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and oregano (Origanum vulgare L. extracts and to measure the oxidative stability of soybean oil added to both extracts. Basil and oregano extracts were obtained in fresh and dry forms from the leaves of spices subjected to aqueous, ethanol and sequential extraction for 30 min at a ratio of 1:3 (m/m, spice:solvent and continuously shaken at room temperature. For the extracts

  14. Influência da temperatura e velocidade do ar na secagem de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. com relação aos teores de óleos essenciais e de linalol Influence of drying temperature and air velocity related to essential oil and linalol contents of the basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

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    Rilvaynia Dantas Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a influência de quatro temperaturas de ar de secagem (40, 50, 60 e 70 ºC, em camada fina, e duas velocidades do ar (0,9 e 1,9 m/s sobre o teor de linalol do manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. Utilizou-se um secador de bandejas especialmente desenvolvido, no laboratório de Secagem da UESB, Campus de Itapetinga-BA. Foram feitas quatro repetições, com 100 g de folhas frescas em cada uma das cinco bandejas da câmara de secagem. Na extração do óleo essencial, utilizou-se um sistema de destilação por arraste a vapor e a análise do óleo essencial foi realizada em um cromatógrafo conectado a um e espectrômetro de massa (CG-MS. Os maiores rendimentos de óleos essenciais de manjericão foram obtidos no processo de secagem com temperatura do ar igual a 40 ºC e 1,9 m/s de velocidade do ar. Os maiores rendimentos de linalol foram obtidos com temperatura do ar de secagem na faixa de 50 a 60 ºC e 1,9 m/s de velocidade do ar (2,23 e 2,47 ppm, respectivamente. Por análise de regressão, estimou-se que a temperatura de 54,4 ºC e a velocidade de 1,9 m/s forneceriam o maior rendimento de linalol. Concluiu-se que a composição química do óleo essencial do manjericão é afetada tanto pela temperatura como pela velocidade do ar de secagem.This work aimed to study the influence of four thin layer drying temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 ºC and two air velocities (0.9 and 1.9 m/s in the content of linalol of the Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.. It was used a tray dryer specially built for this experiment in the drying laboratory of the UESB at the "Campus de Itapetinga-Ba". There were made four repetitions with 100 g of fresh leaves in each one of the five trays in the dry chamber In the extraction of the essential oil, a vapor hauling system was used and the oil analysis was made in a gas chromatographer that was connected to a mass spectrometer (CG-MS. The greatest extracted profits of basil's essential oil were

  15. Avaliação das estruturas secretoras de Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum Briq. (Lamiaceae após extração dos constituintes voláteis Evaluation of secretory structures of Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum Briq. (Lamiaceae after extraction of volatile compounds

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    A.S. Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O impacto provocado nas estruturas secretoras de folhas adultas de Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum após extração dos componentes voláteis utilizando-se diferentes métodos de extração foi investigado através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Secções transversais do ápice, da nervura central, e da margem mostraram superfície com cutícula estriada, estômatos diacíticos, tricomas tectores simples, filiformes, e glandulares peltados. Os peltados, com estrutura envolta por uma cutícula contendo o exsudado celular, variaram de 60 a 80µm de diâmetro sendo formados por uma porção apical multicelular com disposição radial formada por dois círculos concêntricos com 9 a 16 células. Na região central do ápice do tricoma peltado se identificou a presença de 4 células em forma de vértice dispostas sobre o pedúnculo, sendo esta a região mais externa formada por número variável de células. Os componentes voláteis das folhas adultas foram extraídos por hidrodestilação (HD, destilação-extração simultânea (DES, e solvente (SO. Os dados obtidos evidenciaram que o maior impacto nas estruturas secretoras ocorreu após extração por hidrodestilação quando comparado aos outros métodos utilizados. A porcentagem dos principais constituintes químicos, timol e γ-terpineno variaram de acordo com o método de extração: timol (HD = 25,4%, SO = 18,2%, DES = 54,8% e γ-terpineno (HD = 38,2%, SO = ausente, DES = 13,7%.The impact on the secretory structures of mature leaves of Ocimum gratissimum var. macrophyllum, after extraction of the volatile compounds using different extraction methods, was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Cross-sections of the apex, the midrib and the margin showed surface with striated cuticle, diacitic stomata, single tector, filiform and glandular peltate trichomes. The peltate trichomes with a structure surrounded by cuticle containing the celllular exudate ranged from

  16. Variação no rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial de folhas de atroveran (Ocimum selloi Benth. inteiras e moídas sob condições de armazenamento Variation in essential oil yield and chemical composition of whole and powdered "atroveran" (Ocimum selloi Benth. leaves under storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.B. Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Além das características genéticas e ambientais, o sistema de cultivo e processamento das plantas medicinais também são fatores importantes para a determinação da qualidade final do produto. Entre estes está o armazenamento, sobre o qual há poucas informações a respeito da conservação de plantas medicinais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito do tempo de armazenamento sobre o rendimento e a composição química do óleo essencial na biomassa seca de folhas inteiras e moídas de Ocimum selloi. O experimento constou de dois tratamentos de fragmentação (folha inteira e moída e cinco tempos de armazenamento (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 meses. A biomassa seca foi embalada em saquinhos de polipropileno lacrados e armazenada em local seco e escuro. O óleo essencial foi extraído pelo processo de hidrodestilação em aparelho tipo Clevenger modificado e sua composição química foi analisada por cromatografia gasosa com detector de ionização de chama (FID acoplada à espectrometria de massa (CG-EM. Ocorreu uma redução acentuada no rendimento de óleo essencial da biomassa seca armazenada de folhas inteiras e moídas ao longo de um ano de armazenamento, mas o rendimento obtido a partir de folhas inteiras foi significativamente superior ao das folhas moídas. De uma forma geral, durante todo o período avaliado, o metil-chavicol, composto majoritário, esteve presente com uma maior concentração relativa nas folhas inteiras do que nas folhas moídas, apresentando um comportamento de decréscimo ao longo do tempo de armazenamento. O tipo de fragmentação e o tempo de armazenamento interferem decisivamente no rendimento e na composição do óleo essencial de O. selloi.Besides genetic and environmental characteristics, the cultivation and processing systems of medicinal plants are important factors in the product final quality. Among such factors, storage has been scarcely studied regarding medicinal plant conservation. The aim of

  17. Influência do cultivo em consórcio na produção de fitomassa e óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, J.T.L.S.; Martins, E.R.; Costa, C.A.; Ferraz, E.O.F.; Alvarenga, I.C.A.; Souza Júnior, I.T.; Valadares, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    As plantas medicinais produzem seus princípios ativos de acordo com os estímulos do ambiente, por isso a presença de outras plantas pode comprometer a produção dos metabólicos secundários. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do cultivo consorciado sobre a produção de fitomassa e o teor de óleo essencial de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L.) e hortelã (Mentha x villosa Huds.). O experimento foi conduzido na área experimental do Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias da Universida...

  18. Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. and Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. in Different Intercropping Patterns with Bean (Phaseolusvulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esmaeil rezaei-chiyaneh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cultivation of medicinal plants in agricultural ecosystems plays an important role in the diversification and sustainability of these systems (Rezaei-Chiyaneh & Dabbagh Mohammadi Nassab, 2014. Therefore, the application of ecological principles such as multi-ship system seems essential in the production of these plants. Zarifpour et al. (2014 in intercropping arrangements of cumin and chickpea showed that different cropping patterns had a significant effect on chickpea and cumin yield and the highest essential oil and land equivalent ratio achieved by planting ratio 50% cumin + 50% chickpea. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to examine the effect of different intercropping patterns of black cumin and basil with bean on their yield and qualitative traits. Materials and methods In order to evaluate some quantitative and qualitative traits of black cumin (Nigella sativa L. and basil (Ocimum basilicum L. in different intercropping patterns with bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and land use efficiency, a field experiment was conductedbased on a randomized complete block design with eight treatments and three replications at the farm located in West Azerbaijan province in Nagadeh, Iran during growing reason about 2013-2014. Cropping patterns included row intercropping (one row of black cumin+ one row of bean+ one row of basil and strip intercropping (one row of black cumin+ two rows of bean+ one row of basil, two rows of black cumin+ four rows of bean+ two rows of basil, three rows of black cumin+ six rows of bean+ three rows of basil, four rows of black cumin+ eight rows of bean+ four rows of basil and their solecropping. Black cumin was harvested when they turned brown, dried and shelled, and bean was harvested when the first pod of the plants fully matured and dried. Basil was harvested in the first and the second harvest at 50% of flowering. Land Equivalent Ratio (LER Land equivalent ratio of basil, black cumin and bean

  19. In-vivo study for anti-hyperglycemic potential of aqueous extract of Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum Linn) and its influence on biochemical parameters, serum electrolytes and haematological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sachin; Semwal, Amit; Kumar, Hitesh; Verma, Harish Chandra; Kumar, Amit

    2016-12-01

    The study introduced anti-hyperglycemic influence of aqueous extract of Ocimum basilicum seeds (AEOBS) in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats and estimating its potential to ameliorate altered level of biochemical parameters, serum electrolytes level and haematological indices along with its effect on body weight of treated rats. The albino rats were selected to observe oral glucose tolerance test by oral intake of aq. glucose solution (4g/kg, body weight) in normal rats and estimation of blood glucose level after administration of AEOBS at 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and standard drug glibenclamide at 0.6mg/kg, body weight. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated in chronic study models by STZ induced diabetes in rats followed by blood glucose estimation. Chronic study model was selected to carry out further studies to evaluate the effect of AEOBS at 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and standard drug on body weight, alterations in biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin and total protein, alterations in serum electrolytes like Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3- along with estimation of haematological indices like red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils. AEOBS significantly reduced the blood glucose level of diabetic rats at both doses. Body weight was also improved significantly. Similarly, the levels of biochemical parameters, serum electrolytes, and haematological indices were significantly ameliorated at both doses of AEOBS. The histopathological results revealed reconstitution of pancreatic islets towards normal cellular architecture in rats treated with AEOBS. The results illustrated that AEOBS have eminent antidiabetic potential in STZ effectuated diabetes in rats and can be extensively used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus-II and its associated complications including anaemia, diabetic nephropathy, liver dysfunction, and immunosuppression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson

  20. Evaluation of Some Agroecological Characteristics of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. as Affected by Simultaneous Application of Water-Saving Superabsorbent Hydrogel in Soil and Foliar Application of Humic Acid under Different Irrigation Intervals in a Low Inp

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    M. Jahan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basil (Ocimum basilicum L. is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to lamiaceae family. This plant is native of India country and other countries in south of Asia. Nowadays, the use of water superabsorbent polymers is increased in agriculture and their role in reducing the drought stress and increasing the crops production has been demonstrated in many researches. Superabsorbent polymers can absorb lots of water and keep it in their structure and give it to plant under drought stress conditions (9. Humic substances are a group of heterogeneous molecules that are bonded together by weak forces, therefore they have high chemical stability. Humic acid comprise 65 to 80 percent of total soil organic matter (6. According to medicinal importance of Basil and its roles in the food and pharmaceutical industries, beside the limited water resources and need to increase water use efficiency through using ecological inputs, this study designed and conducted aimed to evaluate agroecological characteristics of Basil as affected by application of water-saving superabsorbent and humic acid under irrigation intervals. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effects of different amounts of water-saving superabsorbent and foliar application of humic acid and irrigation intervals on some quantitative characteristics of basil (Ocimum basilicum L., a split strip plot experiment was conducted based on RCBD design with three replications at The Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2012-13. Experimental factors included three levels of water-saving superabsorbent (0, 40 and 80 kg ha-1 as the main plot factor, two levels of humic acid (0 and 3 kg ha-1 as the sub plot factor and two levels of irrigation interval (5 and 10 days as the strip plot factor. Studied traits were seed number and weight per plant, plant height, number of lateral branches per plant, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index

  1. Métodos de labranza e incorporación de fríjol dolichos ( Lablab purpúreos, Sweet.) como abono verde en la producción de semillas de albahaca ( Ocimum basilicum L.) en un Yermosol Háplico

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Higinio Ruiz Espinoza; Pablo Marrero Labrador; Orestes Cruz La Paz; Alfredo Beltrán Morales; Luisa Díaz Viruliche

    2007-01-01

    El experimento se estableció en el campo agrícola de la Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, en el Estado de Baja California Sur, México (24º 10 LN y 110 19 LW) en el año 2003, planteándose como objetivo evaluar el efecto de tres diferentes métodos de labranza e incorporación de abono verde en la producción de semilla de albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.), El clima b w (h) h w (e), es decir seco desértico cálido, con una temperatura media anual mayor a 29,6 oC y una precipitación...

  2. Mobilidade suave em zonas de dispersão urbana. Aplicação ao Algarve

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, André Emanuel Teodósio

    2015-01-01

    Mestrado em Arquitectura Paisagista - Instituto Superior de Agronomia Landscape, Territory, Economy and Life Quality are currently facing several problems, some of them related with the mobility’s issue. The solution is to change the way we travel. The present work explores various transport modes and energy sources that we can use in the future, in which are included the soft modes such as bicycle and walking. From the users’ standpoint were studied solutions to allow greater ...

  3. Potential Dual Role of Eugenol in Inhibiting Advanced Glycation End Products in Diabetes: Proteomic and Mechanistic Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H; Agawane, Sachin B; Vannuruswamy, Garikapati; Korwar, Arvind M; Anand, Atul; Dhaygude, Vitthal S; Shaikh, Mahemud L; Joshi, Rakesh S; Boppana, Ramanamurthy; Kulkarni, Mahesh J; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-01-07

    Medicinally important genus Ocimum harbors a vast pool of chemically diverse metabolites. Current study aims at identifying anti-diabetic candidate compounds from Ocimum species. Major metabolites in O. kilimandscharicum, O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum were purified, characterized and evaluated for anti-glycation activity. In vitro inhibition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by eugenol was found to be highest. Preliminary biophysical analysis and blind docking studies to understand eugenol-albumin interaction indicated eugenol to possess strong binding affinity for surface exposed lysines. However, binding of eugenol to bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not result in significant change in secondary structure of protein. In vivo diabetic mice model studies with eugenol showed reduction in blood glucose levels by 38% likely due to inhibition of α-glucosidase while insulin and glycated hemoglobin levels remain unchanged. Western blotting using anti-AGE antibody and mass spectrometry detected notably fewer AGE modified peptides upon eugenol treatment both in vivo and in vitro. Histopathological examination revealed comparatively lesser lesions in eugenol-treated mice. Thus, we propose eugenol has dual mode of action in combating diabetes; it lowers blood glucose by inhibiting α-glucosidase and prevents AGE formation by binding to ε-amine group on lysine, protecting it from glycation, offering potential use in diabetic management.

  4. Fresh, dried or smoked? Repellent properties of volatiles emitted from ethnomedicinal plant leaves against malaria and yellow fever vectors in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Fitsum Fikru; Tadesse, Kassahun; Birgersson, Göran; Seyoum, Emiru; Tekie, Habte; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon R

    2011-12-19

    In the search for plant-based mosquito repellents, volatile emanations were investigated from five plant species, Corymbia citriodora, Ocimum suave, Ocimum lamiifolium, Olea europaea and Ostostegia integrifolia, traditionally used in Ethiopia as protection against mosquitoes. The behaviour of two mosquitoes, the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis and the arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti, was assessed towards volatiles collected from the headspace of fresh and dried leaves, and the smoke from burning the dried leaves in a two-choice landing bioassay and in the background of human odour. Volatile extracts from the smoke of burning dried leaves were found to be more repellent than those from fresh leaves, which in turn were more repellent to mosquitoes than volatiles from dried leaves. Of all smoke and fresh volatile extracts, those from Co. citriodora (52-76%) and Oc. suave (58-68%) were found to be the most repellent, Os. integrifolia (29-56%) to be intermediate while Ol. europaea (23-40%) and Os. integrifolia (19-37%) were the least repellent. One volatile present in each of the fresh leaf extracts of Co. citriodora, Oc. suave and Os. integrifolia was ß-ocimene. The levels of ß-ocimene reflected the mosquito repellent activity of these three fresh leaf extracts. Female host-seeking mosquitoes responded dose-dependently to ß-ocimene, both physiologically and behaviourally, with a maximal behavioural repulsion at 14% ß-ocimene. ß-ocimene (14%) repels mosquitoes in our 6-minute landing assays comparable to the synthetic insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (10% DEET). Volatiles in the smoke of burning as well as fresh leaves of Co. citriodora and Oc. suave have significant repellent properties against host seeking An. arabiensis and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. ß-ocimene, present in the fresh leaf headspace of Co. citriodora, Oc. suave and Os. integrifolia, is a significantly effective volatile mosquito repellent in the laboratory. In addition to its repellent

  5. Fresh, dried or smoked? repellent properties of volatiles emitted from ethnomedicinal plant leaves against malaria and yellow fever vectors in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dube Fitsum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the search for plant-based mosquito repellents, volatile emanations were investigated from five plant species, Corymbia citriodora, Ocimum suave, Ocimum lamiifolium, Olea europaea and Ostostegia integrifolia, traditionally used in Ethiopia as protection against mosquitoes. Methods The behaviour of two mosquitoes, the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis and the arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti, was assessed towards volatiles collected from the headspace of fresh and dried leaves, and the smoke from burning the dried leaves in a two-choice landing bioassay and in the background of human odour. Results Volatile extracts from the smoke of burning dried leaves were found to be more repellent than those from fresh leaves, which in turn were more repellent to mosquitoes than volatiles from dried leaves. Of all smoke and fresh volatile extracts, those from Co. citriodora (52-76% and Oc. suave (58-68% were found to be the most repellent, Os. integrifolia (29-56% to be intermediate while Ol. europaea (23-40% and Os. integrifolia (19-37% were the least repellent. One volatile present in each of the fresh leaf extracts of Co. citriodora, Oc. suave and Os. integrifolia was ß-ocimene. The levels of ß-ocimene reflected the mosquito repellent activity of these three fresh leaf extracts. Female host-seeking mosquitoes responded dose-dependently to ß-ocimene, both physiologically and behaviourally, with a maximal behavioural repulsion at 14% ß-ocimene. ß-ocimene (14% repels mosquitoes in our 6-minute landing assays comparable to the synthetic insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (10% DEET. Conclusions Volatiles in the smoke of burning as well as fresh leaves of Co. citriodora and Oc. suave have significant repellent properties against host seeking An. arabiensis and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. ß-ocimene, present in the fresh leaf headspace of Co. citriodora, Oc. suave and Os. integrifolia, is a significantly effective volatile mosquito

  6. Tipos e doses de adubação orgânica no crescimento, no rendimento e na composição química do óleo essencial de elixir paregórico Sources and doses of organic fertilization in Ocimum selloi growth, essential oil yield and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Corrêa do Bomfim Costa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A prática da adubação orgânica, além de fornecer nutrientes para as plantas, proporciona a melhoria da estrutura física do solo, aumenta a retenção de água, diminui as perdas por erosão e favorece o controle biológico. O elixir paregórico (Ocimum selloi Benth. é uma espécie medicinal nativa das regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil onde é utilizada popularmente como antidiarréico, antiespasmódico e antiinflamatório. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito de diferentes doses de dois adubos orgânicos no crescimento, no rendimento e na composição do óleo essencial de elixir paregórico. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em Lavras, MG, em estufa plástica com os seguintes tratamentos de adubação: ensaio A - esterco bovino: 1 sem adubação (controle; 2 solo + 3kg m-2 de esterco; 3 solo+ 6kg m-2 de esterco; 4 solo+ 9kg m-2 de esterco; 5 solo + 12kg m-2 de esterco; ensaio B - Esterco avícola: 1 sem adubação (controle; 2 solo + 1,5kg m-2 de esterco; 3 solo + 3kg m-2 de esterco; 4 solo + 4,5kg m-2 de esterco e 5 solo + 6kg m-2 de esterco. Foi verificada a influência das doses de adubação com esterco bovino e galinha sobre o crescimento da planta em altura e diâmetro do caule, acúmulo de biomassa seca, AF, AFE, RPF, teor de clorofilas, espessura do limbo foliar, rendimento e composição química do óleo essencial.The organic fertilization provides nutrients for the plants, improves the soil physical structure, increases the water retention, reduces the erosion losses and favors the biological control. Ocimum selloi is a native medicinal plant of south and southeast of Brazil where is used popularly as antidiarrhetic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory. This research aimed to verify the effect of different doses of two organic fertilizers souces in O. selloi growth, essential oil yield and chemical composition. The experiments were carried out in Lavras, MG, with pots in polyethylene greenhouse with two manuring

  7. Modelo Integral para la construcción de repositorios Institucionales que alojen recursos educativos abiertos bajo la metodología de sistemas suaves

    OpenAIRE

    López Bravo, Esteban Cuitlahuac

    2016-01-01

    La educación y el conocimiento no se limita su adquisición en las aulas de manera presencial, ahora gracias a las Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (TIC), las universidades, colegios, instituciones, organizaciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales, pueden expandir la experiencia de enseñanza-aprendizaje, haciendo uso de materiales digitales tanto abiertos como de licenciamiento, con el fin de fomentar, completar y acrecentar las herramientas al discente para la adquisición del c...

  8. Pacifismo y elegía. La suave persuasión tibuliana en El. 1,1 y 1,10

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    María Cristina Salatino

    2016-09-01

    A generic feature of Roman erotic Elegy is persuasive willingness, its high degree of rhetorical organization. Genre uses the arsenal of rhetoric of his time procedures to build his image non-canonical love and lovers, the status of women, elegiac writing or young generation of Roman’s the pacifist idiosyncrasies. The poet must be persuaded by both his belovedas the reader or any listener of the elegiac poem through knowledge acquired in the schools of the best rhetoricians and, despite augustean Principate times, through several ciceronians treaties no doubt circulating in Rome. Join so poetic subjectivity and use of argumentative topics which, in the case of Albio Tibulo (El. 1.1 and 1.10, operate a gentle persuasion about the validity of new mores. Keywords: rhetoric argumentation; Latine elegy; pacifism

  9. Uma "morte suave": valores religiosos e laicos nos discursos sobre ortotanásia A "gentle death", religious and lay values in the discourses about orthothanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Aisengart Menezes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a controvérsia em torno da gestão do término da vida, a partir da análise da ação civil pública provocada pelo Ministério Público Federal, com o intuito de revogar a Resolução 1805/2006 do Conselho Federal de Medicina sobre a ortotanásia. Consideram-se aqui os argumentos médico e jurídico, em suas articulações com valores religiosos. A reflexão acerca dos discursos no processo judicial, em defesa de cada posicionamento (favorável e contrário à autorização legal da ortotanásia possibilita uma compreensão das tramas e dos atores sociais envolvidos nos debates contemporâneos sobre os limites da vida, sobre as possibilidades de intervenção médica e acerca dos direitos de autonomia individual, diante da faculdade de tomada de decisões no último período de vida, no caso de pessoa com doença crônico-degenerativa, em fase terminal.This article addresses the controversy surrounding end-of-life management, based on an analysis of the Public Civil Suit, brought by the Federal Prosecutor's Office, which aimed to revoke the Federal Medical Council's Resolution 1805/2006 about orthothanasia. The reflection about the discourses in the judicial proceedings, in defense of each position (for and against the legal authorization of orthothanasia, makes it possible to understand the threads and social actors involved in contemporary debates about the limits of life, the possibilities for medical intervention and the rights to individual autonomy, in face of the decision making process during the last stage of life, in the case of a person suffering the terminal phase of a chronic degenerative disease.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HWE) and steam distillation extract (SDE). Only SDE has inhibitory effects on the selected bacteria and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 0.1% for S. aureus to 0.01% for E. coli and S. typhimurium, and 0.001% for S. typhi.

  11. Phytochemical and nutrient compositions of the leaves of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluko Bukola

    2012-08-07

    Aug 7, 2012 ... study reveals high concentration of calcium (50.72 g/kg) with appreciable levels of potassium, sodium, phosphorous and magnesium. In addition, the ... Ammonium hydroxide, amyl alcohol, ethanol, butanol, sodium chloride, acetic acid, methanol, .... 1% starch as an indicator. Ascorbic acid was used as the ...

  12. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum l. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) of 13 populations of different silvicultural zones were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aereus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Samonella typhi, ...

  13. Treatment with methanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... proteinuria.[5]. For an apparently healthy individual or one with stable kidney injury, creatinine excretion is constant. Hence, UPC (a quantitative test), allows for effective monitoring of the progression of ... condition as it trends the level of proteinuria.[5,6] ... months and 2 weeks old (weighing 120-150g).

  14. Treatment with methanolic extract of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological examination showed glomerular atrophy, formation of densely eosinophilic/ colloid cast within the tubules and severe loss of cellular constituents in the medullary interstitium. When compared with the control, these conditions were significantly normalized after 2 week MOGL treatment (p <0.05) with a ...

  15. Antifungal activities of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basil extract composition was determined by the GC-MS method and 38 different components were identified. The major ... The antifungal potential of the basil extract was tested against Fusarium oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, and F. verticillioides isolated from cakes, using the agar plate method. Extract ...

  16. Evaluation of nootropic potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-02-01

    Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Certain drugs like diazepam, barbiturates and alcohol disrupt learning and memory in animals and man. However, a new class of drugs known as nootropic agents is now used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of O. sanctum extract as a nootropic and anti-amnesic agent in mice. Aqueous extract of dried whole plant of O. sanctum ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg), diazepam (1 mg/kg) and aging induced memory deficits in mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral models. O. sanctum extract decreased transfer latency and increased step down latency, when compared to control (piracetam treated), scopolamine and aged groups of mice significantly. O. sanctum preparations could of beneficial in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  17. The Effect Of Ocimum Gratissimum (Ram Tulsi) On Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at ...

  18. Studies on the antibacterial activities of Ocimum basilicum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activities of crude extracts of two local plants used in Nigeria for traditional medicine were tested against Escheriachia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Staphylococcus aureus. Extraction of active ingredients from the plants was done using water. Determination of the antibacterial ...

  19. INFLUENCE OF POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ON OCIMUM BASILICUM L. DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Talmaciu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The activities and role of phenolic compounds in the plant kingdom are well known. They are especially recognized for their function as plant growth regulators, but also for the important role in the biosynthesis process. Based on that, the aim of this work is to establish the influence of polyphenolic compounds, on the main physiological processes involved in basil cultivation under controlled conditions. Studies were carried out on sweet basil seeds (Ocimumbasilicum L. treated with different spruce bark polyphenolic extracts (aqueous extract and ultrasound assisted aqueous extract on several concentrations. The germination energy and germination capacity, plants vegetative organelles development and photoassimilatory pigments content were investigated. The results show that the Picea abies extracts, rich in phenolic compounds, have an influence on the global development of plantlets. An increased value for the growth parameters and pigments concentration was observed, compare with a control sample. Also it was shown that the effect of phenolic compounds on plants development significantly depends on their concentration.

  20. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  1. Chicoric Acid Levels in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, we reported the presence of chicoric acid in basil leaves (confirmed by co-chromatography with purchased standard). Chicoric acid being the chief phenolic of the Echinacea purpurea plant which is popularly consumed as a dietary supplement. For this study, basil products commonly purchased ...

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) on CCl 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rats were allocated into five groups: Group I (control group); Group II [CCl4 group; rats were injected subcutaneously with CCl4 (1 ml/kg b.w.) twice weekly for 4 weeks (phenobarbital, 350 mg/L, was added to the drinking water throughout the experiment)]; Group III received daily oral doses of basil extract of 200 mg/kg b.w. ...

  3. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activities of aqueous extracts of ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiarrhoeal activities of Aqueous extract of Occimum. Gratissimum leaves in rats were evaluated. These studies were carried out to determine the folkoric medicinal values of the plant leaves. Extraction of crude extract was done using standard method. LD50 was determined using the Locke Dietrich Method.

  4. Phytochemical and nutrient compositions of the leaves of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    western Nigeria. The leaf is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems and also for the preparation of local soups. The phytochemical and nutrient compositions of its leaves were investigated using established analytical procedures.

  5. Effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum and Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in cholesterol from 3.40 ± 0.32 to 2.63 ± 0.13. for groups 6, 9, 10 and 11. There was significant increase (P<0.05) in HDL from 0.38 ± 0.10 to 0.53 ± 0.05 for groups 6, 8, 9 and 10. at P <0.05. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in all the ...

  6. In vitro regeneration of a common medicinal plant, Ocimum sanctum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aristo_team

    for further research and germplasm preservation. In this paper, our point is to portray a straightforward and solid convention to increase this pharmaceutically important plant through high-recurrence axillary shoot multiplication. MATERIALS AND METHODS. O. sanctum plants, gathered from an habitation of Hindu religious.

  7. Modeling drying kinetics of fever leaves ( Ocimum viride ) in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drying behavior of fever leaves was investigated in a convective hot air dryer with forced convection at a fixed air velocity of 1.5m/s and drying air temperatures of 35, 45, 55 and 650C. The constant rate period was absent and the drying curve took place in the falling rate period. Experimental data was fitted to six ...

  8. Antioxidant Activity of the Aqueous Crude Extract of Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the crude extract, which on its own had little effect on basal serum phosphatase levels, followed by i.p administration of Cd, caused a reversal of the Cd-induced dose-response curves on the various phosphatase levels to negative values. These results may be due to the oxidative and the antioxidative biochemical ...

  9. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Cancer Research and Molecular Biology Laboratories,. Department of Biochemistry .... Hepatic GST activities were determined according ... absorbance at 340 nm at 1 minute intervals for 5 minutes. The specific activities were expressed as nmole of CDNB-GSH conjugate formed per mg of protein. Protein determination of ...

  10. A comparative study of therestorative effects of Ocimum gratissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Again, the groups, treated with extracts only, did not show any negative effect, which clearly indicated that the extract had no toxic effects. The use of antioxidant is an important preventive and curative method to minimize the pathological and toxic effects of oxidative stress induced by ethanol toxicity. Thus from the result ...

  11. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Ocimum gratissimum on bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum as grain protectants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant extracts showed efficiency against the test insect with respect to adult mortality, larval and progeny emergence and percentage grain damage. Adult mortality was highest (88.9%) in maize grains treated with 3% (v/w) of the leaf extracts 3 days post treatment. It was observed that leaf extracts of V. amygdalina and ...

  13. chemical constituents of essential oils of ocimum gratissimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    2003-01-17

    Université René Descartes, 45 rue des Saints-Pères, 75270 Paris Cedex 06, France. (Received January 17, 2003; revised June 13, 2003). ABSTRACT. The following studies report the inhibitory effect produced by chemical constituents of essential oils of three plants used in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory and ...

  14. The antimicrobial properties of Ocimum gratissimum extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-11-16

    Nov 16, 2006 ... principles of the plant may be more polar in nature. Key words: Antimicrobial .... for 3 days, while the second portion was blended fresh using ..... body. Chinese Science. Exploration of an Ancient Tradition, Shigeru. Makayoma and Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. P. 278. Correa MP (1932).

  15. Environ: E00633 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00633 Ocimum herb Crude drug Methylchavicol, Eugenol [CPD:C10453], Betel phenol Ocimum... sanctum [TAX:204149], Ocimum basilicum [TAX:39350] ... Lamiaceae (mint family) Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum basilicum herb (dried) ...

  16. Sistema electrónico de arranque suave y de optimización de la transferencia de energía para lámparas de descarga

    OpenAIRE

    Azcondo Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Bracho del Pino, Salvador; Brañas Reyes, Christian

    1999-01-01

    La presente invención consiste en un sistema electrónico de conversión de potencia para conseguir el encendido y control de las lámparas de descarga. Cuenta con los siguientes elementos: Un convertidor electrónico de potencia que transforma corriente alterna de la red en continua. Un convertidor electrónico de potencia de corriente continua a alterna de alta frecuencia (cc/ca). Un circuito resonante de autoinductancias y condensadores. Los elementos constituyen el inversor resonante. La lámpa...

  17. Evaluación de la organización académico administrativa con base en la metodología de los sistemas suaves: El caso de la licenciatura en turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Oliver Cardoso-Espinosa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 20 de octubre de 2010 • Aceptado 09 de marzo de 2011 • Corregido 2 de abril de 2011   El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar, con un enfoque sistémico, la organización académico administrativa de tres programas de licenciatura en turismo, con la finalidad de identificar las características que estos presentaban respecto a los criterios del Consejo para la Acreditación de la Educación Turística (CONAET y TedQual (Tourism Education Quality, para acceder a la certificación nacional e internacional. El cuestionario y la guía de observación fueron los instrumentos para recopilar la información necesaria, la cual fue organizada con un enfoque cualitativo (mediante el Atlas Ti y cuantitativo (a través de la estadística descriptiva. La principal conclusión fue que la Licenciatura en Turismo, ofrecida por la Escuela Superior de Turismo (EST, cumple con los criterios de certificación. Se considera, por tanto, que sus instalaciones y el programa ofertado se encuentran de acuerdo con los lineamientos de certificación, en tanto que la Universidad el Valle de México (UVM y la Escuela Bancaria y Comercial (EBC presentan serias deficiencias respecto a los criterios establecidos por estos organismos.

  18. Environ: E00633 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00633 Ocimum herb Crude drug Methylchavicol, Eugenol [CPD:C10453], Betel phenol Ocimu...m sanctum [TAX:204149], Ocimum basilicum [TAX:39350] Lamiaceae (mint family) Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum basil...icum herb (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) E00633 Ocimum herb ...

  19. Superação de dormência em sementes de manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. Overcoming dormancy in seeds of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T.R. Amaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de tratamentos pré-germinativos na superação da dormência de sementes de manjericão, produzidas no Horto de Plantas Medicinais da Unimontes, em fevereiro de 2011. Foram realizadas as seguintes determinações para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes: teor de água, germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, emergência de plântulas e índice de velocidade de emergência. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 50 sementes por tratamento, sendo T1- testemunha; T2 - pré esfriamento das sementes em câmara tipo BOD sob temperatura de 10ºC por 4 dias; T3 - embebição das sementes em água destilada por 24 horas; T4 - embebição das sementes em solução contendo KNO3 a 0,2 % por 5 minutos e T5 - sementes submetidas em água destilada a temperatura de 70ºC por 5 minutos. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste Scott - Knott a 5% de probabilidade. O tratamento pré esfriamento em câmara tipo BOD a 10ºC por 4 dias reduz a dormência e promove incrementos na qualidade fisiológica das sementes do manjericão.Aiming in order to assess the effectiveness of treatments to overcome dormancy in seeds of basil, an experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis of Unimontes. Following determinations were performed to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds, water content, germination, first count germination, seedling emergence and emergence speed index. The experimental design was completely randomized design with four replications of 50 seeds per treatment, which consisted of: T1 - control, T2 - pre-cooling of the seed chamber BOD at a temperature of 10ºC for 4 days, T3 - soaking the seeds in water distilled for 24 hours, T4 - soaking the seeds in a solution containing 0,2% for 5 minutes and T5 - submitted seeds in distilled water at 70ºC for 5 minutes. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the averages compared by Scott-Knott 5% probability. The pre-cooling treatment in BOD chamber at 10ºC for 4 days reduced dormancy and promotes increases in the physiological quality of seeds of basil.

  20. Evaluation du potentiel insecticide de l'huile essentielle de Ocimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /10.4314/ijbcs.v5i4.15 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · FAQ's ...

  1. Volatile Compounds of Pluchea indica Less and Ocimum basillicum Linn Essential Oiland Potency as Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONDIN SAJUTHI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to identify volatile compounds of pluchea and basil essential oils and their antioxidant capacity to scavenge a DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl free radical and inhibit lipid peroxidation. Essential oil of pluchea and basil leaves was prepared by hydrodistillation method and then their volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS. The volatile compounds in the essential oil of pluchea leaves consist of 66 components with (10S,11S-Himachala-3-(12-4-diene (17.13% made up the highest proportion of volatile compounds. Basil leaves had 70 volatile components in which the major components were (E-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (23.98% and (Z- 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (17.35%. Total phenol levels in pluchea and basil essential oils were 275 and 209 ppm, respectively. DPPH scavenging activity of the essential oil of pluchea leaves was lower than that of basil leaves, conversely inhibition activity of lipid peroxidation in palm oil of pluchea essential oil was higher than that of basil leaves.

  2. Formulation and Evaluation of Edible Film from Basil Leaves Extract (Ocimum americanum L. as Mouth Freshener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifi Harmely

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A research on formulation of edible film from basil leaves extract as mouth freshener has been done. The extract of basil leaves were used in various concentrations which are 2.5%, 5% and 7.5%. The products were evaluated for some parameters such as organoleptic, friability, drying shrinkage, pH, thickness, flavonoid contents and respondents preference. The results of evaluation showed that edible filmsfrom basil leaves extract meet requirements as required by Standard Nasional Indonesia (SNI and have such quality as product in the market. Statistical analysis using Kruskal Wallis test showed that respondents preferred for the F0 formulation in term of their appearance and taste while as mouth freshener, respondents preferred the F3 formulation.

  3. A comparative study on phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of Platycladus orientalis and Ocimum canum

    OpenAIRE

    Jhansee Mishra; Alok Kumar Dash

    2016-01-01

    In ayurveda, plants have been used for the treatment of so many diseases. Herbal drugs are easily available and have fewer side effects. So, many people are attracted towards the herbal drugs. Platycladus orientalis is one of the useful plant in Indian & Chinese medicine. It is used in treatment of so many diseases like diuretic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, stomachic, antipyretic, analgesic and anthelmintic etc. In Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa Platycladus orientalis is grown as a...

  4. Leaf sodium accumulation facilitates salt stress adaptation and preserves photosystem functionality in salt stressed Ocimum basilicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancarella, S.; Orsini, F.; Oosten, van M.J.; Sanoubar, R.; Stanghellini, C.; Kondo, S.; Gianquinto, G.; Maggio, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, plant growth, water relations, ABA levels, ion accumulation patterns and chlorophyll fluorescence were functionally linked to salt stress tolerance of two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with different stress sensitivity levels. Plants were treated with salty water at 0,

  5. Chemical composition of the essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelačić Slavica Ć.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia basil has been grown traditionally as a decorative, medicinal, seasoning and ritual herb, and there is a variety of different populations of basil. Basil is considered to have been brought to Serbia in the 12th century by monks returning from their pilgrimages. Essential oils isolated from herb of ten basil populations traditionally grown on the territory of the Republic of Serbia have been analyzed. The selected populations have been designated under codes from T-1 to T-10 and deposited in the Plant Genes Bank at Serbia and at the Institute for Crop Sciences of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade. Essential oils of all tested basil populations were light yellow and had a specific aromatic scent. The composition of essential oil in the dry herb of the tested populations ranged from 0.87 to 1.84%. The results of gas chromatographic analysis of essential oils in tested basil populations pointed to their complex chemical composition and to the fact that they belong to the most appreciated European chemotype. In total thirty three components have been identified in the essential oils. The most common fraction of components in all tested oils was terpenoides. The predominant component in all essential oils is monoterpen linalol, ranging from 51.52 to 74.73%. Phenylpropranoid methylchavicol ranged from 2.49 to 18.97%. Essential oils of populations T-6, T-7, T-8 and T-10 were characterized by elevated 1.8-cineol (4.44, 3.70, 4.01 and 3.43%, respectively. Populations T-3 and T-4 in essential oil contained higher percent of geraniol (4.27 and 3.31%, respectively. In all ten essential oils sesquiterpen fraction consisted of greater number of components, with germacrene having special significance as it was found in high percentage in all populations. The highest content of germacrene was registered in population T-9 (4.30%, T-10 (4.18%, while in others it ranged from 2.17 to 3.69%. Basil populations traditionally grown in Serbia have exceptional quality. They represent an excellent raw material for the production of basil essential oils, for the needs of pharmaceutical, food and chemical industry.

  6. Sorghum bicolor; Cinnamomum zeylanicum; Ocimum gratissimum; Alternative control; Germination and seed pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Duarte Cardoso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of seeds of B. brizantha has increased, however, the physiological quality of seeds available to the producer is still a limiting factor for a good performance culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by chemical scarification, different periods of aging and priming on physiological quality and overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha cv. MG-5 Victory. The seeds were subjected to chemical scarification – H2SO4 (presence and absence, artificial aging periods (zero, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours at 41 ° C and priming using the 0,2 KNO3 % (presence and absence for two hours at 25 º C, creating a completely randomized design in factorial 2x8x2, with four repetitions. The seeds were evaluated by testing germination and vigor. Chemical scarification is an effective method for breaking dormancy, but decreases the physiological seed. Overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha occurs with the use of artificial aging for non-scarified and scarified seeds. Priming generally has no effect on the physiological quality and overcoming seed dormancy B. brizantha, however, it provides less loss of cellular constituents.

  7. Supercritical CO2 generation of nanometric structure from Ocimum basilicum mucilage prepared for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Iman; Ghoreishi, Seyyed M; Habibi, Neda

    2015-04-01

    Plant-derived polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry due to their emollient, lack of toxicity, and irritating nature and low cost. In this work, basil seed mucilage was dried using supercritical carbon dioxide phase inversion technique to form a nanometric structure. The obtained polymeric structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and compared with the oven-derived sample group. It was demonstrated that the product morphology could be controlled by altering the composition of methanol which functioned as the co-solvent in the nonsolvent stream. The most homogeneous product (60-nm mean pore size diameter, 78 m(2)/g BET surface area with no agglomeration) was obtained with 2.5% methanol. The FTIR data showed that the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups suggested the bioadhesive property of basil seed mucilage was good and many active pharmaceutical compounds might be loaded to the resultant nanometric structure to enhance drug release. Furthermore, the FTIR analyses indicated that the nature of the final product did not change during the supercritical drying procedure.

  8. The response of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. to the application of growth stimulators and forecrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing sweet basil was carried out in the period 2008-2010 in Fajsławice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. The study evaluated the biometric traits of the plants, yield, the qualitative parameters of herbal raw material and weed infestation of the crop in dependence on growth simulators (Asahi SL, Bio-algeen, Titanit and the forecrop (winter wheat or spring barley + white mustard cover crop. Plots without foliar application of the growth stimulators were the control treatment. Tillage, mineral NPK fertilization as well as mechanical and chemical weed control were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for herbal plant protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of growth stimulators would have a positive effect on basil productivity, raw material quality and weed infestation of the basil crop. It was also assumed that the phytosanitary and fertilizing effects of the cover crop would result in higher and qualitatively better yield compared to the cereal forecrop alone (winter wheat. The best quantitative parameters of sweet basil raw material and the highest reduction in air-dry weight of weeds in the crop were observed after the application of the growth stimulators. The forecrop - spring barley + a white mustard cover crop that is ploughed in - also had a beneficial effect on yield and weed infestation of the plant in question. The traditional crop protection method used in the basil crop, without the application of the growth stimulators, resulted in a lower plant height and a smaller number of shoots per plant. This caused higher weed infestation of the crop and a decrease in yield. The positive side of the non-application of growth stimulators was a better chemical composition of basil raw material. Asahi SL and Tytanit yielded the best growth and productivity of the basil plants.

  9. Bio-inspired ZnO nanoparticles from Ocimum tenuiflorum and their in vitro antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, N. John; Mahitha, B.; Mallikarjuna, K.; Raju, B. Deva Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Nanobiotechnology is emerging as a rapid growing field with its applications in nanoscience and technology for the purpose of built-up new materials at the nanoregime. Nanoparticles produced by plant extracts are more stable, and the rate of synthesis is faster than that in the case of other organisms. In this paper we report the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Structural, morphological, particle size, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic-force microscopy, zeta potential, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence intensity. The UV-Vis spectrum showed an absorption peak at 380 nm that reflects surface plasmon resonance. The optical measurements were attributed to the band gap 3.19 eV at pH 12. The zeta potential value of -36.4 eV revealed the surface charge of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The antioxidant activity was estimated by both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assay. Green synthesized ZnO NPs showed maximum inhibition (65.23 %) and absorbance (0.6 a.u). This approach offers environmentally beneficial alternative by eliminating hazardous chemicals and promotes pollution prevention by the production of nanoparticles in their natural environment.

  10. CARACTERIZACIÓN ANATÓMICA DE LAS HOJAS DE LA ALBAHACA BLANCA (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ofelia Sam; Matilde de la Luz; L. Barroso

    2002-01-01

    La albahaca tiene amplios y variados usos medicinales, debido a sus múltiples propiedades, motivo por el cual se decidió realizar el presente trabajo, con el objetivo de estudiar la anatomía foliar de plantas de albahaca blanca. El experimento se realizó en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA) con plantas cultivadas en macetas. Las muestras de tejido foliar fueron cortadas a mano alzada y de la epidermis se tomaron impresiones de ambas superficies foliares. Se pudo apreciar que ...

  11. Bioactivity of basil ( Ocimum basicilum L.) on control of the spider ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential plant oils contain biopesticides that could be used to control many crop pests. Tetranychus spp. are mites that cause damage to several crops and are primarily controlled by synthetic pesticides. Literature showed that mites can be controlled with essential oils of plants containing eugenol. In this work, we ...

  12. Growth, yield, plant quality and nutrition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under soilless agricultural systems

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Subhrajit; Monroe, Amber; Martin R. Day

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agricultural systems are challenged by globally declining resources resulting from climate change and growing population. Alternative agricultural practices such as aquaponics (includes crop plant and aquatic species) and hydroponics (includes crop plant only) have the potential to generate high yield per unit area using limited land, water, and no soil. A soilless agricultural study was conducted at the Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA from August to November, 201...

  13. Effect of silica Nanoparticles on Basil (Ocimum basilicum Under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Kalteh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of nanofertilizers is one of the promising methods for increasing resources use efficiency and reducing environmental pollutions. Uncontrolled application of chemical fertilizer and pesticides has caused many problems to human health and domestic animals. Nanofertilizers application could be a suitable way to reduce these problems. Accordingly, in order to assess the silicon nanoparticles effect on some vegetative features of basil under salinity stress, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse condition. Treatments included different levels of silicon fertilizer (without silicon, normal silicon fertilizer and silicon nanoparticles and salinity stress (1, 3 and 6 ds/m. Physiological traits (chlorophyll and proline content of leaves and morphological traits (shoot fresh weight and dry weight were investigated in this study. Results showed a significant reduction in growth and development indices due to the salinity stress.  Leaf dry and fresh weight reduced by increment in NaCl concentration while significantly (P≤0.01 increased with silicon nanoparticles application. The chlorophyll content reduced in salinity stress, but increased by silicon nanoparticles treatment. Proline content increased under salinity stress which was a response to stress. Moreover, proline increased by silicon nanoparticles which was due to tolerance induction in plant. Silicon nanoparticles application reduced the pollution effects originated from salinity in Basil.

  14. Effect of silica Nanoparticles on Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Under Salinity Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Manizheh Kalteh; Zarrin Taj Alipour; Shahram Ashraf; Maryam Marashi Aliabadi; Alireza Falah Nosratabadi

    2014-01-01

    Application of nanofertilizers is one of the promising methods for increasing resources use efficiency and reducing environmental pollutions. Uncontrolled application of chemical fertilizer and pesticides has caused many problems to human health and domestic animals. Nanofertilizers application could be a suitable way to reduce these problems. Accordingly, in order to assess the silicon nanoparticles effect on some vegetative features of basil under salinity stress, a factorial experiment bas...

  15. Improvement in bioavailability of transdermally applied flurbiprofen using tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and turpentine oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoo, Naseem Ahmad; Shamsher, Areeg Anwer Ali; Kohli, Kanchan; Pillai, Krishna; Rahman, Ziyaur

    2008-09-01

    Penetration enhancing potential of tulsi and turpentine oil on transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen, a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, was investigated. The transdermal permeation rate of flurbiprofen across the rat abdominal skin from binary solvent mixture composition of propylene glycol (PG):isopropyl alcohol (IPA) (30:70%, v/v) was 98.88 microg/cm(2)/h, significantly higher than other binary solvent mixtures. The corresponding steady state plasma concentration, 0.71 microg/ml, was much lower than required steady state plasma concentration of 3-5 microg/ml. Hence influence of tulsi and turpentine oil in the optimized binary solvent mixture along with the increased drug load on the flurbiprofen permeation was evaluated. The magnitude of the flux enhancement factor with turpentine oil and tulsi oil was 2.4 and 2.0 respectively at 5% (v/v) concentration beyond which there was no significant increase in the flux. Addition of 2% (w/v) hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), as a thickening agent, resulted in desired consistency for the fabrication of patch with insignificant effect on permeation rate of flurbiprofen. The reservoir type of transdermal patch formulation, fabricated by encapsulating the flurbiprofen reservoir solution within a shallow compartment moulded from polyester backing film and microporous ethyl vinyl acetate membrane, did not modulate the skin permeation of flurbiprofen through rat skin in case of turpentine formulations whereas flux of formulations with tulsi oil was significantly altered. The influence of penetration enhancer and solvents on the anatomical structure of the rat skin was studied. Enhancement properties exhibited by turpentine oil and tulsi oil in optimized binary solvent mixture were superior as compared to solvent treated and normal control groups with negligible skin irritation. The fabricated transdermal patches were found to be stable. The bioavailability of flurbiprofen with reference to orally administered flurbiprofen in albino rats was found to increase by 2.97, 3.80 and 5.56 times with transdermal patch formulation without enhancer, tulsi and turpentine oil formulations, respectively. The results were confirmed by pharmacodynamic studies in rat edema inflammation model.

  16. Ethnodiagnostic skills of the Digo community for malaria: a lead to traditional bioprospecting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mwanzia Nguta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of sixty (60 respondents (34 men and 26 women provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses sixty (60 medicinal plants distributed in fifty two (52 genera and twenty seven(27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.

  17. Ethnodiagnostic skills of the digo community for malaria: a lead to traditional bioprospecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Mbaria, James M; Gathumbi, Peter K; Gakuya, Daniel; Kabasa, John David; Kiama, Stephen Gitahi

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.

  18. Germination and vigor of clove basil seeds (Ocimum gratissimum L. submitted to accelerated aging/ Germinação e vigor de sementes de alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L. submetidas ao envelhecimento acelerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Mieko Takaki Bellettini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to verify the effect of treatment with fungicide on the germination and vigor of four lots of clove basil seeds, submitted to the traditional aging and with saturated salt solution, for periods of 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours, at 42ºC. After these periods, the seeds were evaluated by the germination test, using the first count of the number of normal seedlings as vigor indicative. The vigor and the germination of the seeds decreased as increased the time of aging. In the use of saturated salt solution, the seeds water content was lower and more uniform. The fungicide treatment increased the percentage average of germination, without provoking significant modifications in the contrasts among the lots. The periods of 36 and 48 hours were efficient in evaluating of the physiologic quality of the clove basil seeds.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito do período de exposição, tipos de solução e tratamento com fungicida sobre a germinação e o vigor de quatro lotes de sementes de alfavaca-cravo, submetidas ao teste de envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e com uso de solução saturada de NaCl, por períodos de 36, 48, 60 e 72 horas na temperatura de 42ºC. Após estes períodos, as sementes foram avaliadas pelo teste de germinação, utilizando-se a primeira contagem do teste de germinação como indicativo de vigor. Tanto o vigor quanto a germinação das sementes analisadas, diminuíram conforme se aumentou o tempo de envelhecimento. Na utilização de solução salina, o teor e a variabilidade de água das sementes foram menores. O tratamento fungicida aumentou a média percentual de germinação, mas não provocou modificações acentuadas nos contrastes entre os lotes. Os períodos de 36 e 48 horas foram eficientes na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes de alfavaca-cravo.

  19. Effects of salicylic acid foliar application on germination, growth and antioxidant potential of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Karalija, Erna; Parić, Adisa

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid is one of endogenous plant growth regulators that plays a key role in many physiological processes. The present study analysed the effect of different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, ad 1.0 mM) of salicylic acid on morphological parameters, photosynthetic pigments, protein, proline, total carbohydrates, and secondary metabolites content as well as peroxidase activity. One month after sowing seedlings were replanted in new pots, and salicylic acid was applied in form of a foliar s...

  20. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrico, P. F.; Šimek, Milan; Morano, M.; De Miccolis Angelini, R.M.; Minafra, A.; Trotti, P.; Ambrico, M.; Prukner, Václav; Faretra, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 30 (2017), č. článku 305401. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) * bio-decontamination * etching * polymers * biomolecules * spores * surface treatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aa77c8

  1. Reduction of microbial contamination and improvement of germination of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds via surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrico, Paolo F.; Šimek, Milan; Morano, Massimo; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M.; Minafra, Angelantonio; Trotti, Pasquale; Ambrico, Marianna; Prukner, Václav; Faretra, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Naturally contaminated basil seeds were treated by a surface dielectric barrier discharge driven in the humid air by an amplitude modulated AC high voltage to avoid heat shock. In order to avoid direct contact of seeds with microdischarge filaments, the seeds to be treated were placed at sufficient distance from the surface discharge. After treatment, the seeds were analyzed in comparison with control samples for their microbial contamination as well as for the capability of germination and seedling growth. Moreover, chemical modification of seed surface was observed through the elemental energy dispersive x-ray analysis and wettability tests. We found that treatment applied at 20% duty cycle (effective discharge duration up to 20 s) significantly decreases microbial load without reducing the viability of the seeds. On the other side, seedling growth was considerably accelerated after the treatment, and biometric growth parameters of seedlings (total length, weight, leaf extension) considerably increased compared to the controls. Interestingly, scanning electron microscopy images taken for the different duration of treatment revealed that seed radicle micropylar regions underwent significant morphological changes while the coat was substantially undamaged. Inside the seed, the embryo seemed to be well preserved while the endosperm body was detached from the epithelial tegument. A total of 9 different genera of fungi were recovered from the analyzed seeds. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that conidia were localized especially in the micropylar region, and after plasma treatment, most of them showed substantial damages. Therefore, the overall effect of the treatment of naturally contaminated seeds by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by plasma and the consequent changes in surface chemistry and microbial load can significantly improve seed vigor.

  2. The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in mitigating salt-induced adverse effects in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Elhindi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the serious abiotic stresses adversely affecting the majority of arable lands worldwide, limiting the crop productivity of most of the economically important crops. Sweet basil (Osmium basilicum plants were grown in a non-saline soil (EC = 0.64 dS m−1, in low saline soil (EC = 5 dS m−1, and in a high saline soil (EC = 10 dS m−1. There were differences between arbuscular mycorrhizal (Glomus deserticola colonized plants (+AMF and non-colonized plants (−AMF. Mycorrhiza mitigated the reduction of K, P and Ca uptake due to salinity. The balance between K/Na and between Ca/Na was improved in +AMF plants. Growth enhancement by mycorrhiza was independent from plant phosphorus content under high salinity levels. Different growth parameters, salt stress tolerance and accumulation of proline content were investigated, these results showed that the use of mycorrhizal inoculum (AMF was able to enhance the productivity of sweet basil plants under salinity conditions. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased chlorophyll content and water use efficiency under salinity stress. The sweet basil plants appeared to have high dependency on AMF which improved plant growth, photosynthetic efficiency, gas exchange and water use efficiency under salinity stress. In this study, there was evidence that colonization with AMF can alleviate the detrimental salinity stress influence on the growth and productivity of sweet basil plants.

  3. Evaluation of antileishmanial,antibacterial and brine shrimp cytotoxic potential of crude methanolic extract of Herb Ocimum basilicum(Lamiacea)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imran Khan Kafeel Ahmad Ali Talha Khalil Jangrez Khan Yusra Ali Khan Muhammad Shahab Saqib Muhammad Naveed Umar Hilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    .../mL.The result for gram positive antibacterial activity revealed that the O.basilicum leaves extract possesses significant inhibitory activity at highest two concentrations ranging from20.66 ± 0.31 to 31.86...

  4. Evaluation of antileishmanial, antibacterial and brine shrimp cytotoxic potential of crude methanolic extract of Herb Ocimum basilicum (Lamiacea)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Imran; Ahmad, Kafeel; Khalil, Ali Talha; Khan, Jangrez; Khan, Yusra Ali; Saqib, Muhammad Shahab; Umar, Muhamad Naveed; Ahmad, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    .... The result for gram positive antibacterial activity revealed that the O. basilicum leaves extract possesses significant inhibitory activity at highest two concentrations ranging from 20.66 ± 0.31 to 31.86...

  5. Stomatal density and metabolic determinants mediate salt stress adaptation and water use efficiency in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Giancarlo; Vallone, Simona; Orsini, Francesco; Paradiso, Roberta; De Pascale, Stefania; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Maggio, Albino

    2012-11-15

    Increasing salinity tolerance and water-use efficiency in crop plants are two major challenges that agriculture must face in the next decades. Many physiological mechanisms and molecular components mediating crop response to environmental stresses have been identified. However, the functional inter-links between stress adaptation responses have not been completely understood. Using two basil cultivars (Napoletano and Genovese) with contrasting ability to respond to salt stress, here we demonstrate that reduced stomatal density, high ascorbate level and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity coordinately contribute to improve basil adaptation and water use efficiency (WUE) in saline environment. The constitutively reduced stomatal density was associated with a "delayed" accumulation of stress molecules (and growth inhibiting signals) such as abscisic acid (ABA) and proline, in the more tolerant Genovese. Leaf volatile profiling also revealed cultivar-specific patterns, which may suggest a role for the volatile phenylpropanoid eugenol and monoterpenes in conferring stress tolerance via antioxidant and signalling functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS INDUCED BY 4-CHLOROHYDRATE-BROMO-6-METHYL-3-DIMETHYLAMINO-3-CHROMANONE IN OCIMUM BASILICUM L. SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Florina Axente

    2006-08-01

    dimethylamino-3-chromanone. The 1/10000 dilution induces the increase of frequency of mitotic dividing cells. The cells with chromosome aberrations are in greater number in treated variants, comparatively with control. The aberration spectrum is enough large and comprises: ana-telophases with bridges, lagging chromosomes, expelled chromosomes, multipolar ana-telophases, as well as binucleate cells and interphases with micronucleuses.

  7. Effect of cultivar on phenolic levels, anthocyanin composition, and antioxidant properties in purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Patrick M; Niemeyer, Emily D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of cultivar on total and individual anthocyanin concentrations and phenolic acid levels in eight purple basil varieties and examined the relationship between anthocyanin content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant properties. Cultivar had a significant influence on total anthocyanin concentrations as well as individual anthocyanin composition. The four major basil anthocyanins (labelled A-D) were quantified and cultivar had a statistically significant effect on anthocyanins B (p<0.01), C (p<0.01), and D (p<0.01), but not on anthocyanin A (p=0.94). Cultivar did not have a significant effect on total phenolic levels, although it did influence the concentration of some individual phenolic acids, including caftaric (p=0.03) and chicoric (p=0.04) acids. Although total phenolic and anthocyanin levels correlated with measured FRAP antioxidant capacities, for some cultivars the individual phenolic acid and anthocyanin composition was also an important factor affecting the antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antiosteoporotic effect of Petroselinum crispum, Ocimum basilicum and Cichorium intybus L. in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozayen, Walaa G; El-Desouky, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hanan A; Ahmed, Rasha R; Khaliefa, Amal K

    2016-06-02

    Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is one of the serious side effects which have become the most common secondary osteoporosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of parsley, basil and chicory on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rats. Fifty Female rats were divided into five groups and treated for 8 weeks as follow: group 1 served as control; group (2) subcutaneously injected with 0.1 mg/kg b. wt. dexamethasone dissolved in saline; group 3 received similar dose of dexamethasone together with aqueous parsley extract in a dose of 2 g/kg b. wt.; group 4 received similar dose of dexamethasone together with 400 mg/kg b. wt. aqueous basil extract and group 5 received similar dose of dexamethasone together with 100 mg/kg b. wt. aqueous chicory extract. The dexamethasone group showed a significant decrease in serum E2, Ca, P levels and significant decrease in total BMD, BMC and a significant increase in serum PTH, ALP and ACP. Bone TBARs was significantly increased while GSH, antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased. These changes were attenuated by parsley, basil and chicory extracts in the group 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Aqueous extracts of parsley, basil and chicory showed bone protection against glucocorticoid-induced in rats. From our results, we concluded that chicory has a potent protective effect more than parsley and basil due to containing flavonoids and inulin.

  9. Salinity Stress Does Not Affect Root Uptake, Dissemination and Persistence of Salmonella in Sweet-basil (Ocimum basilicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirit Bernstein

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crop produce can be contaminated in the field during cultivation by bacterial human pathogens originating from contaminated soil or irrigation water. The bacterial pathogens interact with the plant, can penetrate the plant via the root system and translocate and survive in above-ground tissues. The present study is first to investigate effects of an abiotic stress, salinity, on the interaction of plants with a bacterial human pathogen. The main sources of human bacterial contamination of plants are manures and marginal irrigation waters such as treated or un-treated wastewater. These are often saline and induce morphological, chemical and physiological changes in plants that might affect the interaction between the pathogens and the plant and thereby the potential for plant contamination. This research studied effects of salinity on the internalization of the bacterial human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Newport via the root system of sweet-basil plants, dissemination of the bacteria in the plant, and kinetics of survival in planta. Irrigation with 30 mM NaCl-salinity induced typical salt-stress effects on the plant: growth was reduced, Na and Cl concentrations increased, K and Ca concentrations reduced, osmotic potential and anti-oxidative activity were increased by 30%, stomatal conductance was reduced, and concentrations of essential-oils in the plants increased by 26%. Despite these physical, chemical and morphological changes in the plants, root internalization of the bacteria and its translocation to the shoot were not affected, and neither was the die-off rate of Salmonella in planta. The results demonstrate that the salinity-induced changes in the sweet-basil plants did not affect the interaction between Salmonella and the plant and thereby the potential for crop contamination.

  10. Effect of Natural Antitranspirant Compounds on Physiological and Biological Properties of Basil (Ocimum basilicum under Water Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ameri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of natural antitranspirant compound and water stress on growth, development and essential oil content of Ocimumbasilicum a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replicates was conducted. 3 levels of water stress (500 as control, 375 and 250 ml/day and 3 antitranspirant compound (chitosan, plantago mucilage and psyllium mucilage in 3 levels of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (m/v and applied during the plant growth. Photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, stomatal chamber CO2, leaf temperature, fresh and dry weight of herb, essential oil percentage and content were measured. The results showed that water stress and antitranspirant application had a significant effect on all measured traits (P≤0.05 and P≤0.01. The highest values of these traits were observed in control for water stress treatment and different levels of antitranspirant compounds. Transpiration levels from leaf were significantly decreased by antitranspirant compounds application. Chitosan (1 and 1.5% decreased transpiration by 200% over control. Photosynthesis was also increased up to 30% by chitosan treatment (0.5 and 1 in comparison to control.Also, antitranspirant compounds increasing dry matter yield in water stress condition but reducing essential oil % and yield in comparison with control. In general, according to the result of this experiment, antitranspirant compounds with natural origin are safe, biodegradable, easy available, low cost and alternatives which can be used in substitution with common chemical types.

  11. Salinity Stress Does Not Affect Root Uptake, Dissemination and Persistence of Salmonella in Sweet-basil (Ocimum basilicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Nirit; Sela (Saldinger), Shlomo; Dudai, Nativ; Gorbatsevich, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Crop produce can be contaminated in the field during cultivation by bacterial human pathogens originating from contaminated soil or irrigation water. The bacterial pathogens interact with the plant, can penetrate the plant via the root system and translocate and survive in above-ground tissues. The present study is first to investigate effects of an abiotic stress, salinity, on the interaction of plants with a bacterial human pathogen. The main sources of human bacterial contamination of plants are manures and marginal irrigation waters such as treated or un-treated wastewater. These are often saline and induce morphological, chemical and physiological changes in plants that might affect the interaction between the pathogens and the plant and thereby the potential for plant contamination. This research studied effects of salinity on the internalization of the bacterial human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Newport via the root system of sweet-basil plants, dissemination of the bacteria in the plant, and kinetics of survival in planta. Irrigation with 30 mM NaCl-salinity induced typical salt-stress effects on the plant: growth was reduced, Na and Cl concentrations increased, K and Ca concentrations reduced, osmotic potential and anti-oxidative activity were increased by 30%, stomatal conductance was reduced, and concentrations of essential-oils in the plants increased by 26%. Despite these physical, chemical and morphological changes in the plants, root internalization of the bacteria and its translocation to the shoot were not affected, and neither was the die-off rate of Salmonella in planta. The results demonstrate that the salinity-induced changes in the sweet-basil plants did not affect the interaction between Salmonella and the plant and thereby the potential for crop contamination. PMID:28512466

  12. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI EKSTRAK DAUN KEMANGI (OCIMUM SANCTUM UNTUK PENGENDALIAN AKAR GADA (PLASMODIOPHORA BRASSICAE PADA TANAMAN CAISIM (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefri Sasongko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available People demand on Caisim (Brassicaejuncea L. is progressively increasing. One of offorts that can be applied for increasing Caisim crop is by fertilization. Clup root disease caused by Plasmodiophorabrassicae fungi is the most important fungal plant disease infecting cabbage crop types. This pathogenic fungal infection causes crop damage until 100% or crop failure. One of the disease integeated controlling components that can be developed is biological control. One of biological pesticides for controlling this fungal plant disease is Basil plant. This research aimed to observe effect of the best basil concentration extract for club root control. It was conducted in Laboratory of UniversitasMuhammadiyahPurwokerto and Dukuwaluh Village, Kembaran Sub-district. The research period was three (3 months : June to September 2016. The researcher used Random Group Design (RAK. The tested factor including only one factor. K0: control, K1: 50 g/l, K2 : 100 g/l, K3 : 150 g/l, K4 : 200 g/l. the effect of Bassil extract on K1 concrentation resulted the disease with the highest score 0.75%, K2 concentration resulted the disease whit the highest disease index 1.17, K4 concentration resulted the tallest plant height 10.1 cm and K3 concentration resulted the heaviest wotwoight 12.2 g.

  13. Toxicidad aguda oral y subcrónica en ratas de un extracto acuoso liofilizado de Ocimum tenuiflorum L

    OpenAIRE

    A Lagarto; J Tillán; V Bueno; I Chávez; I Guerra; Y Vega; O Valdés; T Gabilondo

    2005-01-01

    El potencial tóxico de un extracto acuoso liofilizado fue evaluado mediante el ensayo de toxicidad aguda oral y subcrónica a 90 días en ratas Wistar de ambos sexos. Los métodos empleados fueron los descritos por las normas OECD. En el ensayo agudo se administró por vía oral la dosis de 2000 mg/kg y en el ensayo subcrónico 250, 500 y 1000 mg/kg/día durante 13 semanas. Se evaluaron los signos tóxicos y peso corporal en ambos ensayos. En el estudio subcrónico además se evalu...

  14. Multivariable parameter optimization for the endoglucanase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 from Ocimum gratissimum seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithu Das

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction effects of the physico-chemical parameters on the endoglucanase (CMCase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 on a cellulosic agro-residue by the solid-state fermentation (SSF and to determine their optimum values by the EVOP factorial design technique. The best combination of physical parameters for the maximum production of the endoglucanase (CMCase was 28ºC temperature, 79% relative humidity and 4.8 pH of the medium. The best combination of the chemical parameters was (mg/L nicotinic acid 15, naphthalene acetic acid 7, ferric chloride 5 and Tween-80 6. With the application of this technique, the yield of the CMCase increased by ~ 2.3 fold.

  15. The Effect of Phosphorus and Sulfur Nanofertilizers on the Growth and Nutrition of Ocimum basilicum in Response to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrin Taj Alipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication is one of the most serious ecological threats to aquatic environments. It is defined as the enrichment of water bodies by organic matter or surface runoff containing nitrate and phosphate that directly control the growth of algae and other water plants. The use of nanofertilizers increases nutrient use efficiency and consequently reduces soil toxicity and minimizes the adverse effects of the over application of chemical fertilizers. This study was conducted in factorial form of a completely randomized design with four replications to evaluate the effect of phosphorus nanoparticles on the growth and nutrition of basil under salt stress. The first factor was three levels of salt stress, namely, 1, 3, and 6 dS m−1. The second factor was three levels of phosphorus fertilizer, namely, without phosphorus fertilizer (P1, ammonium phosphate (P2, and phosphorus nanoparticles (P3. Powdered elemental sulfur with a particle diameter of <0.6 mm at two rates, namely, 0% (S0 and 20% (S2, was utilized in the experiment. Physiological traits (i.e., chlorophyll content, P uptake, and proline content of leaves were investigated in this study. Plant growth and P uptake decreased with the increase in salinity (P < 0.05. The application of phosphorus nanoparticles significantly increased P uptake in response to salt stress. Phosphorus nanoparticles significantly increased photosynthetic activity and plant weight in response to salt stress. Leaf proline content increased significantly in response to salt stress.

  16. Evaluation of radiation use efficiency of intercropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and herb sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Alizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study radiation use efficiency and radiation interception in intercropping of herb sweet basil and common bean, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran for the growing season of 2008. Treatments were 1 sole crop of bean , 2 sole crop of sweet basil, 3 strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (four rows bean and two rows sweet basil, 4 strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (two rows sweet basil and four rows bean, 5 row intercropping of bean and sweet basil. Sweet basil was harvested at two times during the course of experiment. For this purpose a complete randomized block design with three replications was used. Results showed that in intercrop the fraction of intercepted radiation (F was higher than the sole crop F. radiation use efficiency (RUE of sweet basil in intercrop treatments was increased compared to sole crop and highest RUE of sweet basil obtained in secondary harvest of row intercropping (3.4g/Mj, and the highest RUE of bean obtained in row intercrop too (2.4g/Mj. Light extinction coefficient of bean was obtained as 0.55 and sweet basil 0.47 respectively. The highest Leaf area index (LAI in bean was obtained in sole crop (4.3 and the highest LAI in sweet basil in first harvest was in strip intercropping with 4 rows sweet basil (3.2 and secondary harvest was in sole crop sweet basil (2.5.

  17. Evaluation of basil (Ocimum basiilicum L. and sesame (sesamum indicum L. yield in different intercropping mixtures via competition indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the possibility of intercropping of basil and sesame, an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2009-2010. Treatments consisted of different planting ratio, P1: sole cropping of basil, P2: 75% basil+ 25% sesame, P3: 50% basil+ 50 % sesame, P4: 25% basil+ 75% sesame and P5: sole cropping of sesame. In this experiment, the 50 % basil+ 50 % sesame and 25% basil+ 75% sesame had the highest intercropping yield (1141.80 and 1098.75 kg.ha-1, respectively and land equivalent ratio (LER=1.29 and 1.33, respectively. Also, 50 % basil+ 50 % sesame mixture was recorded the highest crowding coefficient (Kbasil = 1.49, aggressively value (A basil = -0.19 and nearly 20% yield increases of basil in mix-proportion compared to sole crop. Furthermore, the most of sesame aggressively value (Asesame=0.85 and 97% sesame yield increases were observed in 25% basil+ 75% sesame mixture compared to sole crop. In conclusion, according to high competition efficacy of sesame plant in mix-cropping the 50% basil+ 50 % sesame and 75% basil+ 25% sesame culture ratio produced the highest yield.

  18. Evaluation of basil (Ocimum basiilicum L.) and sesame (sesamum indicum L.) yield in different intercropping mixtures via competition indices

    OpenAIRE

    H Pirdashti; V. Akbarpour; G. Sarajpour; M. Yaghoubi Khanghahi; S. Shariatnejad5

    2016-01-01

    In order to study the possibility of intercropping of basil and sesame, an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2009-2010. Treatments consisted of different planting ratio, P1: sole cropping of basil, P2: 75% basil+ 25% sesame, P3: 50% basil+ 50 % sesame, P4: 25% basil+ 75% sesame and P5: sole cropping of sesame. In this experiment, the 50 % basil+ 50...

  19. Evaluation of radiation use efficiency of intercropping of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and herb sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Y.; A Koocheki; M. Nassiri Mahallati

    2016-01-01

    In order to study radiation use efficiency and radiation interception in intercropping of herb sweet basil and common bean, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran for the growing season of 2008. Treatments were 1) sole crop of bean , 2) sole crop of sweet basil, 3) strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (four rows bean and two rows sweet basil), 4) strip intercropping of bean and sweet basil (two rows sweet basil and four...

  20. The Effect of Phosphorus and Sulfur Nanofertilizers on the Growth and Nutrition of Ocimum basilicum in Response to Salt Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrin Taj Alipour

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication is one of the most serious ecological threats to aquatic environments. It is defined as the enrichment of water bodies by organic matter or surface runoff containing nitrate and phosphate that directly control the growth of algae and other water plants. The use of nanofertilizers increases nutrient use efficiency and consequently reduces soil toxicity and minimizes the adverse effects of the over application of chemical fertilizers. This study was conducted in factorial form of...